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Sample records for mac sedation clinical

  1. Sedation in clinical oncology.

    PubMed

    González Barón, Manuel; Gómez Raposo, César; Pinto Marín, Alvaro

    2005-08-01

    The clinical status of terminal cancer patients is very complex and is affected by several severe symptoms, of extended duration, changing with time and of multifactorial origin. When there are no reasonable cancer treatments specifically able to modify the natural history of the disease, symptom control acquires priority and favours the possible better adaptation to the general inexorable deterioration related to the neoplasic progression. Despite the important advances in Palliative Medicine, symptoms are frequently observed that are intolerable for the patient and which do not respond to usual palliative measures. This situation, characterised by rapid deterioration of the patient, very often heralds, implicitly or explicitly, approaching death. The intolerable nature and being refractory to treatment indicates to the health-care team, on many occasions, the need for sedation of the patient. The requirement for sedation of the cancer patient is a situation that does not allow for an attitude of doubt regarding maintenance of the patient in unnecessary suffering for more than a reasonable time. Given the undoubted clinical difficulty in its indication, it is important to have explored at an earlier stage all usual treatments possible and the grade of response, commensurate with the patient's values and desires. Sedation consists of the deliberate administration of drugs in minimum doses and combinations required not only to reduce the consciousness of the patients but also to achieve adequate alleviation of one or more refractory symptoms, and with the prior consent given by the patient explicitly, or implicitly or delegated. Sedation is accepted as ethically warranted when considering the imperative of palliation and its administration and, whenever contemplated, the arguments that justify them are clear recorded in the clinical history. It is not an easy decision for the physician since, traditionally, the training has been "for the fight to save life

  2. Clinical recovery time from conscious sedation for dental outpatients.

    PubMed Central

    Takarada, Tohru; Kawahara, Michio; Irifune, Masahiro; Endo, Chie; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Maeoka, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Chikako; Katayama, Sotaro

    2002-01-01

    For dental outpatients undergoing conscious sedation, recovery from sedation must be sufficient to allow safe discharge home, and many researchers have defined "recovery time" as the time until the patient was permitted to return home after the end of dental treatment. But it is frequently observed that patients remain in the clinic after receiving permission to go home. The present study investigated "clinical recovery time," which is defined as the time until discharge from the clinic after a dental procedure. We analyzed data from 61 outpatients who had received dental treatment under conscious sedation at the Hiroshima University Dental Hospital between January 1998 and December 2000 (nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation sedation [n = 35], intravenous sedation with midazolam [n = 10], intravenous sedation with propofol [n = 16]). We found that the median clinical recovery time was 40 minutes after nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation, 80 minutes after midazolam sedation, and 52 minutes after propofol sedation. The clinical recovery time was about twice as long as the recovery time described in previous studies. In a comparison of the sedation methods, clinical recovery time differed (P = .0008), being longer in the midazolam sedation group than in the nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation group (P = .018). These results suggest the need for changes in treatment planning for dental outpatients undergoing conscious sedation. PMID:12779113

  3. Terminal sedation and euthanasia: a comparison of clinical practices.

    PubMed

    Rietjens, Judith A C; van Delden, Johannes J M; van der Heide, Agnes; Vrakking, Astrid M; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; van der Maas, Paul J; van der Wal, Gerrit

    2006-04-10

    An important issue in the debate about terminal sedation is the extent to which it differs from euthanasia. We studied clinical differences and similarities between both practices in the Netherlands. Personal interviews were held with a nationwide stratified sample of 410 physicians (response rate, 85%) about the most recent cases in which they used terminal sedation, defined as administering drugs to keep the patient continuously in deep sedation or coma until death without giving artificial nutrition or hydration (n = 211), or performed euthanasia, defined as administering a lethal drug at the request of a patient with the explicit intention to hasten death (n = 123). We compared characteristics of the patients, the decision-making process, and medical care of both practices. Terminal sedation and euthanasia both mostly concerned patients with cancer. Patients receiving terminal sedation were more often anxious (37%) and confused (24%) than patients receiving euthanasia (15% and 2%, respectively). Euthanasia requests were typically related to loss of dignity and a sense of suffering without improving, whereas requesting terminal sedation was more often related to severe pain. Physicians applying terminal sedation estimated that the patient's life had been shortened by more than 1 week in 27% of cases, compared with 73% in euthanasia cases. Terminal sedation and euthanasia both are often applied to address severe suffering in terminally ill patients. However, terminal sedation is typically used to address severe physical and psychological suffering in dying patients, whereas perceived loss of dignity during the last phase of life is a major problem for patients requesting euthanasia.

  4. [Technology of nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation sedation and its clinical application in pediatric dentistry].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tian; Hu, Daoyong

    2014-02-01

    Dental fear is a common problem in pediatric dentistry. Therefore, sedation for pediatric patients is an essential tool for anxiety management. Nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation sedation is a safe, convenient, effective way to calm children. The review is about the technology of nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation sedation and its clinical application in pediatric dentistry.

  5. Intranasal Midazolam Sedation in a Pediatric Emergency Dental Clinic.

    PubMed

    Peerbhay, Fathima; Elsheikhomer, Ahmed Mahgoub

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness and recovery times of 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg intranasal midazolam (INM) administered with a mucosal atomizer device (MAD) in a pediatric emergency dental hospital clinic. One hundred eighteen children aged from 4 to 6 years were randomly administered either 0.3 or 0.5 mg/kg INM via an MAD in a triple-blinded randomized controlled trial. Sedation was achieved to some degree in 100% of the sample. The pulse rate and oxygen saturation were within the normal range in 99% of the patients. A burning sensation was reported in 9% of children. The recovery time of the 0.5 mg/kg group was statistically longer than that of the 0.3 mg/kg group (16.5 vs 18.8 minutes) but the difference was not clinically significant. The findings of this study show that 0.3 or 0.5 mg/kg doses of INM resulted in safe and effective sedation. The 0.5 mg/kg dose was more effective than the 0.3 mg/kg dose in reducing anxiety.

  6. Intranasal Midazolam Sedation in a Pediatric Emergency Dental Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Peerbhay, Fathima; Elsheikhomer, Ahmed Mahgoub

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness and recovery times of 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg intranasal midazolam (INM) administered with a mucosal atomizer device (MAD) in a pediatric emergency dental hospital clinic. One hundred eighteen children aged from 4 to 6 years were randomly administered either 0.3 or 0.5 mg/kg INM via an MAD in a triple-blinded randomized controlled trial. Sedation was achieved to some degree in 100% of the sample. The pulse rate and oxygen saturation were within the normal range in 99% of the patients. A burning sensation was reported in 9% of children. The recovery time of the 0.5 mg/kg group was statistically longer than that of the 0.3 mg/kg group (16.5 vs 18.8 minutes) but the difference was not clinically significant. The findings of this study show that 0.3 or 0.5 mg/kg doses of INM resulted in safe and effective sedation. The 0.5 mg/kg dose was more effective than the 0.3 mg/kg dose in reducing anxiety. PMID:27585415

  7. Challenges in paediatric procedural sedation: political, economic, and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Mason, K P

    2014-12-01

    Paediatric sedation has expanded in volume and demand over the past decade. In parallel with the increasing demand for and delivery of sedation by multi-specialty providers, conflicting political agendas have surfaced. With a limited selection of sedatives and few new sedatives to market over the past decade, some providers utilize agents that formerly were considered exclusive for administration by anaesthesiologists. This review highlights the important contributions to paediatric sedation over the past century. Considerations include the barriers and politics that impede progress and also future advances and contributions that may lie ahead. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Depth-dependent changes of obstruction patterns under increasing sedation during drug-induced sedation endoscopy: results of a German monocentric clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Patrick; Herzog, Beatrice; Plößl, Sebastian; Rohrmeier, Christian; Kühnel, Thomas; Wanzek, Ramona; Plontke, Stefan; Herzog, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Drug-induced sedation endoscopy (DISE) and simulated snoring (SimS) can locate the site of obstruction in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). There is clinical evidence for a change in collapsibility of the upper airway depending on the depth of sedation. So far, a dose-response relationship between sedation and collapsibility has not been demonstrated. DISE and SimS were performed in 60 consecutive patients with SDB under monitoring of depth of sedation by BiSpectral Index® (BIS). Initially, SimS was conducted followed by DISE using bolus application of propofol. Sedation was performed up to a sedation level representing slow wave sleep (BIS = 40). The collapsibility of the upper airway was documented at decreasing sedation levels by an identical pictogram classification. For all levels and patterns of obstruction, a dose-dependent increase in the collapsibility of the upper airway was detected. A maximum collapsibility was achieved at sedation levels representing slow wave sleep. The collapsibility during SimS corresponded to light sleep stages and did not cover slow wave sleep. A dose-dependent change of patterns of obstructions can be observed during DISE under BIS monitoring indicating sedation depth. The obtained patterns of obstruction during DISE and SimS should thus be interpreted with regard to the sedation depth.

  9. A study of dental students' clinical knowledge acquisition and experiences in conscious sedation.

    PubMed

    Scally, K J; Wilson, K E; Girdler, N M

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate final year dental students' knowledge acquisition and experiences during their intravenous sedation (IVS) clinical attachment within the sedation department at Newcastle School of Dental Sciences (NSDS). Students attending IVS clinical attachments in the period September 2012 - April 2013 completed a novel clinical knowledge test at the beginning and end of their one week attachment; a feedback questionnaire was also completed. A total of 70 students attended the attachment. Clinical knowledge tests were completed by 71.4% (n = 50) of students. The average test result improved from 75.1% in the pre-attachment test to 92.1% in the post-attachment test. Feedback questionnaires were returned by 65.7% (n = 46) of students. All students attained clinical experience of administering sedation and treating sedated patients. 'Teaching and Clinical Support' was rated highest, with 97.8% (n = 45) rating it as excellent. Students commented that hands-on clinical experience and clinical teaching were the most valuable parts of the attachment. Patients failing to attend appointments were considered the least useful part of the attachment. This pilot study provides an insight into undergraduate clinical sedation, which is often under reported in the literature. The clinical experience gained at NSDS exceeds GDC recommendations for undergraduate sedation. The clinical knowledge test results suggest that clinical knowledge may be better retained after direct clinical experience.

  10. Efficacy Outcome Measures for Procedural Sedation Clinical Trials in Adults: An ACTTION Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark R; McKeown, Andrew; Dexter, Franklin; Miner, James R; Sessler, Daniel I; Vargo, John; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Successful procedural sedation represents a spectrum of patient- and clinician-related goals. The absence of a gold-standard measure of the efficacy of procedural sedation has led to a variety of outcomes being used in clinical trials, with the consequent lack of consistency among measures, making comparisons among trials and meta-analyses challenging. We evaluated which existing measures have undergone psychometric analysis in a procedural sedation setting and whether the validity of any of these measures support their use across the range of procedures for which sedation is indicated. Numerous measures were found to have been used in clinical research on procedural sedation across a wide range of procedures. However, reliability and validity have been evaluated for only a limited number of sedation scales, observer-rated pain/discomfort scales, and satisfaction measures in only a few categories of procedures. Typically, studies only examined 1 or 2 aspects of scale validity. The results are likely unique to the specific clinical settings they were tested in. Certain scales, for example, those requiring motor stimulation, are unsuitable to evaluate sedation for procedures where movement is prohibited (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging scans). Further work is required to evaluate existing measures for procedures for which they were not developed. Depending on the outcomes of these efforts, it might ultimately be necessary to consider measures of sedation efficacy to be procedure specific.

  11. Impact of Multiple Daily Clinical Pharmacist-Enforced Assessments on Time in Target Sedation Range.

    PubMed

    Lizza, Bryan D; Jagow, Benjamin; Hensler, David; Cooper, Craig J; Short, Elizabeth J; Maas, Matthew B; Naidech, Andrew M; Wunderink, Richard G

    2017-01-01

    Incorporation of a single daily assessment by a clinical pharmacist to improve adherence with a sedation protocol is associated with reduced duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS). We test the feasibility of incorporating a clinical pharmacist into more frequent sedation assessments and observed whether there are any potential differences in the sedatives administered. Prospective, quasi-experimental, pilot study of patients admitted to the medical ICU. Patients were included in the analysis if ≥18 years of age within the first 24 hours of initiation of mechanical ventilation. Our primary intent was to test the clinical feasibility surrounding more frequent sedation assessments by a clinical pharmacist by evaluating potential differences in time in target sedation range and sedative administration. Exploratory efficacy end points included time in target sedation range (0 to -2) using the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) and sedative exposure. Patients were assigned to receive either 3 assessments with a clinical pharmacist per day (intervention) or a single assessment by a clinical pharmacist per day (standard of care). During the assessments, clinical pharmacists participated in the RASS administration and made dosing adjustments according to an established sedation protocol. Seventeen patients were enrolled (n = 6 intervention group, n = 11 standard of care). Duration of mechanical ventilation was similar in the 2 groups (intervention 100.0 hours [52.5-197.5] vs control 76.0 hours [46.0-201.0], P = .95), but patients in the intervention group exhibited a greater percentage time in the target RASS range (intervention 76.0% [53.7-81.5%] vs control 45.2% [35.3-67.0], P = .11) that was not statistically significant. Patients in the intervention group received less fentanyl per day (820.9 µg [227.3-1579.4] vs 1997 µg [1648.2-2477.2], P = .02) than in the control group. Incorporating a clinical pharmacist into

  12. How patient-controlled sedation is adopted in clinical practice of sedation for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography? A prospective study of 1196 cases().

    PubMed

    Jokelainen, Jarno; Udd, Marianne; Kylänpää, Leena; Mustonen, Harri; Halttunen, Jorma; Lindström, Outi; Pöyhiä, Reino

    2017-02-01

    Patient-controlled sedation (PCS) has been shown to be a valid choice for sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in randomized studies. However, large-scale studies are lacking. A single center, prospective observational study to determine how sedation for ERCP is administered in clinical setting. All 956 patients undergoing 1196 ERCPs in the endoscopy unit of Helsinki University Central Hospital 2012-2013, methods of sedation and adverse events associated with different sedations were recorded. PCS was attempted a total of 685 times (57%), successful use of PCS was achieved with 526 patients (77% of attempts). PCS device was operated by the anesthesiologist or anesthesia nurse 268 times (22%). PCS was more likely chosen for younger (80.6% for < =60 years vs. 63.8% for >60 years, p<.001) patients and by trainee anesthetists. Anesthesiologist administered propofol sedation was used 240 times (20%). The risk of failure of PCS was increased, if systolic arterial pressure was <90 mmHg, dosage of PCS >17 ml, duration of procedure exceeded 23 min. The risk of failure was lower in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and if sedation was deeper RASS < =-2. Uneventful PCS was associated with less respiratory and cardiovascular depression than other methods. There were no statistically significant differences in safety profiles with all the methods of sedation. PCS is readily implemented in clinical practice, is suitable for younger and low-risk patients and is associated with less cardiorespiratory adverse effects.

  13. The ethical and clinical importance of measuring consciousness in continuously sedated patients.

    PubMed

    Raus, Kaspar; de Laat, Martine; Mortier, Eric; Sterckx, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    Continuous sedation at the end of life is a practice that has attracted a great deal of attention. An increasing number of guidelines on the proposed correct performance of the practice have been drafted. All of the guidelines stress the importance of using sedation in proportion to the severity of the patient's symptoms, thus to reduce the patient's consciousness no more than is absolutely necessary. As different patients can have different experiences of suffering, the amount of suffering should, ideally, be assessed subjectively; that is, via communication with the patient. Continuously sedated patients are often unable to communicate, however, making subjective methods of pain assessment unusable. For these patients, the degree of consciousness is the sole available measure. It therefore seems important to adequately measure how deeply the patient is sedated, thereby allowing sedation to be increased when it is too light and decreased when it is too heavy. This is in accordance with the idea that reducing consciousness is not an ethically neutral act. Although consciousness measuring techniques are a hot topic in anesthesiology, almost no research exists on the use of such techniques in the context of continuous sedation at the end of life. This article aims to review existing techniques to measure consciousness and to evaluate their applicability, efficiency, and invasiveness for patients who are continuously sedated until death. Techniques commonly used to assess the depth of sedation in continuously sedated patients are basic clinical assessment and sedation scales, as they are often considered reliable and non-invasive. These techniques might not be very reliable, however, since it is known that some patients are nonresponsive and yet aware. Moreover, sedation scales require stimulation of the patient (for example prodding, shaking, or providing painful stimuli), and can thus be considered invasive of one's bodily integrity or dignity. Other techniques

  14. Thermoregulation: Physiological and Clinical Considerations during Sedation and General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Marcos; Becker, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Mild hypothermia is common during deep sedation or general anesthesia and is frequently associated with patient discomfort and shivering. Greater declines in temperature can produce an even greater number of significant detrimental effects. This article reviews principles of thermoregulation and influences of anesthetic agents. An understanding of these will provide a foundation for strategies to reduce heat loss and better manage patient discomfort when it occurs. PMID:20331336

  15. Randomized clinical trial of propofol versus alfentanil for moderate procedural sedation in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Miner, James R; Driver, Brian E; Moore, Johanna C; Faegerstrom, Erik; Klein, Lauren; Prekker, Matthew; Cole, Jon B

    2017-04-21

    To compare the frequency of airway and respiratory adverse events leading to an intervention between moderate sedation using alfentanil or propofol. We performed a randomized clinical trial in which adults undergoing moderate sedation in the ED received either alfentanil or propofol. Our primary outcome was the frequency of airway and respiratory adverse events leading to an intervention. Other outcomes included sedation depth, efficacy, sedation time, patient satisfaction, pain, and satisfaction. 108 subjects completed the trial: 52 receiving alfentanil and 56 receiving propofol. Airway or respiratory adverse events leading to an intervention were similar between the two groups: 23% for alfentanil and 20% for propofol (p=0.657). There were no serious adverse events in any group. Secondary outcomes were notably different in the rate of reported pain (48% for alfentanil, 13% for propofol) and recall (75% for alfentanil, 23% for propofol) and similar in the rate of satisfaction with the procedure (87% for alfentanil, 84% for propofol). We found a similar frequency of airway and respiratory adverse events leading to intervention between alfentanil and propofol used for moderate procedural sedation. Both agents appear safe for moderate procedural sedation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Early sedation and clinical outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients: a prospective multicenter cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sedation overuse is frequent and possibly associated with poor outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, the association of early oversedation with clinical outcomes has not been thoroughly evaluated. The aim of this study was to assess the association of early sedation strategies with outcomes of critically ill adult patients under mechanical ventilation (MV). Methods A secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective cohort conducted in 45 Brazilian ICUs, including adult patients requiring ventilatory support and sedation in the first 48 hours of ICU admissions, was performed. Sedation depth was evaluated after 48 hours of MV. Multivariate analysis was used to identify variables associated with hospital mortality. Results A total of 322 patients were evaluated. Overall, ICU and hospital mortality rates were 30.4% and 38.8%, respectively. Deep sedation was observed in 113 patients (35.1%). Longer duration of ventilatory support was observed (7 (4 to 10) versus 5 (3 to 9) days, P = 0.041) and more tracheostomies were performed in the deep sedation group (38.9% versus 22%, P = 0.001) despite similar PaO2/FiO2 ratios and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) severity. In a multivariate analysis, age (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.02; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00 to 1.03), Charlson Comorbidity Index >2 (OR 2.06; 95% CI, 1.44 to 2.94), Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 (SAPS 3) score (OR 1.02; CI 95%, 1.00 to 1.04), severe ARDS (OR 1.44; CI 95%, 1.09 to 1.91) and deep sedation (OR 2.36; CI 95%, 1.31 to 4.25) were independently associated with increased hospital mortality. Conclusions Early deep sedation is associated with adverse outcomes and constitutes an independent predictor of hospital mortality in mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:25047960

  17. Pediatric sedation.

    PubMed

    Daud, Yasmeen N; Carlson, Douglas W

    2014-08-01

    Pediatric sedation is an evolving field performed by an extensive list of specialties. Well-defined sedation systems within pediatric facilities are paramount to providing consistent, safe sedation. Pediatric sedation providers should be trained in the principles and practice of sedation, which include patient selection, pre-sedation assessment to determine risks during sedation, selection of optimal sedation medication, monitoring requirements, and post-sedation care. Training, credentialing, and continuing sedation education must be incorporated into sedation systems to verify and monitor the practice of safe sedation. Pediatric hospitalists represent a group of providers with extensive pediatric knowledge and skills who can safely provide pediatric sedation.

  18. Evaluation of the capacity of inpatients with chronic schizophrenia to provide informed consent for participation in clinical trials; use of the Hebrew version of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR).

    PubMed

    Linder, Mull; Lev-Ari, Lilac; Kurs, Rena; Melamed, Yuval

    2012-08-01

    Patient protection requires the provision of informed consent for participation in medical research. The MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR) is frequently used for screening the capacity of research subjects to consent to participate in research. To evaluate the utility of the Hebrew translation of the MacCAT-CR for assessing the capacity of patients with chronic schizophrenia to provide informed consent to participate in clinical trials. We evaluated the translated MacCAT-CR by comparingthe capacity of patients with chronic schizophrenia to provide informed consent to participate in clinical trials. The following standardized neurocognitive assessment tools were used: Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), as well as the attending doctor's assessment. Twenty-one patients participated. Mean MacCAT-CR score was 12 +/- 10.57 (range 0-32), mean FAB score 9.9 +/- 4.77 (range 1-18), mean ACE 59.14 +/- 16.6 (range 27-86) and mean doctor's assessment 5.24 +/- 1.18 (range 3-7). The Hebrew version of the MacCAT-CR helped identify patients with the capacity to provide informed consent for participation in research. Patients with FAB scores > or = 12 tended to score higher on the Hebrew version of the MacCAT-CR, thus confirming the utility of the Hebrew version of the MacCAT-CR. During the screening process for clinical trials it may be practical to administer the concise FAB questionnaire, and then administer the MacCAT-CR only to those who scored > or = 12 on the FAB.

  19. Oxygenation and ventilation characteristics in obese sedated dogs before and after weight loss: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mosing, M; German, A J; Holden, S L; MacFarlane, P; Biourge, V; Morris, P J; Iff, I

    2013-11-01

    This prospective clinical study examined the effect of obesity and subsequent weight loss on oxygenation and ventilation during deep sedation in pet dogs. Data from nine dogs completing a formalised weight loss programme were evaluated. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to quantify body fat mass prior to and after weight loss. Dogs were deeply sedated and positioned in dorsal recumbency. Sedation was scored using a semi-objective scheme. As part of the monitoring of sedation, arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) were measured after 10 min in dorsal recumbency. Oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (SpO2) was monitored continuously using pulse oximetry, starting oxygen supplementation where indicated (SpO2<90%) via a face mask. Morphometric measurements were taken from DEXA images and compared before and after weight loss. Several oxygen indices were calculated and correlated with body fat variables evaluated by DEXA. All body fat variables improved significantly after weight loss. PaO2 increased from 27.9±19.2 kPa to 34.8±24.4 kPa, while FiO2 decreased from 0.74±0.31 to 0.66±0.35. Morphometric measurements improved significantly after weight loss. PaO2/FiO2 (inspired oxygen fraction) and Pa/AO2 (ratio of PaO2 to alveolar PO2) also improved significantly, but there was no change in f-shunt and PaCO2 after weight loss. On multiple linear regression analysis, all oxygen indices were negatively associated with thoracic fat percentage. In conclusion, obesity decreases oxygenation in dogs during deep sedation. Oxygenation status improves with successful weight loss, but ventilation is not influenced by obesity.

  20. Rectal Thiopental versus Intramuscular Ketamine in Pediatric Procedural Sedation and Analgesia; a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Azizkhani, Reza; Esmailian, Mehrdad; shojaei, Azadeh; Golshani, Keihan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Physicians frequently deal with procedures which require sedation of pediatric patients. Laceration repair is one of them. No study has been performed regarding the comparison between induction of sedation with sodium thiopental and ketamine in laceration repair. Therefore, the present study was aimed to comparison of induced sedation by rectal sodium thiopental and muscular injection of hydrochloride ketamine in pediatric patients need laceration repair. Methods: The presented study is a single-blinded clinical trial performed through 2013 to 2014 in Ayatollah Kashani and Alzahra Hospitals, Isfahan, Iran. Patients from 3 months to 14 years, needed sedation for laceration repair, were entered. Patients were sequentially evaluated and randomly categorized in two groups of hydrochloride ketamine with dose of 2-4 milligram per kilogram and sodium thiopental with dose of 25 milligram per kilogram. Demographic data and vital signs before drug administration and after induction of sedation, Ramsey score, time to onset of action, and sedation recovery time were evaluated. Chi-squared, Mann-Whitney, and Non-parametric analysis of covariance tests were used. P<0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: In this study 60 pediatric patients were entered. 30 patients with mean age of 42.8±18.82 months were received sodium thiopental and the rest with mean age of 30.08±16.88 months given ketamine. Mann-Whitney test was showed that time to onset of action in sodium thiopental group (28.23±5.18 minutes) was significantly higher than ketamine (7.77±4.13 minutes), (p<0.001). The sedation recovery time in ketamine group (29.83±7.70) was higher than sodium thiopental. Depth of sedation had no significant difference between two groups based on Ramsey score (p=0.87). No significant difference was seen between two groups in the respiratory rate (df=1, 58; F=0.002; P=0.96) and heart rate (df=1, 58; F=0.98; P=0.33). However, arterial oxygen saturation level (df

  1. Clinical testing of propofol geriatic dose for sedation designed via in silico trial.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Hernandez, Ana Gabriela; Hernandez-Perez, Ana Luisa; Ordoñez-Espinosa, German; Sanchez-Lopez, Antonio; Revilla-Monsalve, Cristina; Islas-Andrade, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    The geriatric population shows significant physiological changes due to aging and the multiple co-morbidities that they often present. Conventionally the propofol sedation dose for patients older than 65 years is 80% of the adult dose. We performed an in silico trial for elderly population and the results showed that the necessary simulated dose of propofol was lower than the conventional dose; therefore, a clinical trial was implemented to test three different propofol doses, two of them lower than the conventional dose, during a pacemaker implantation. The clinical trial showed that there was no clinical difference between the effects of the doses. A BIS monitor was used to measure the level of sedation, which proved to be adequate and well maintained by all patients. All the patients maintained an acceptable level of sedation, measured by a BIS monitor. Since propofol has some dose-dependent secondary effects, the use of lower doses, especially the ones designed for this age group, helps to avoid them.

  2. Clinical Decision Support and Closed-Loop Control for Cardiopulmonary Management and Intensive Care Unit Sedation Using Expert Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Behnood; Bailey, James M.; Haddad, Wassim M.; Tannenbaum, Allen R.

    2013-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) who require mechanical ventilation due to acute respiratory failure also frequently require the administration of sedative agents. The need for sedation arises both from patient anxiety due to the loss of personal control and the unfamiliar and intrusive environment of the ICU, and also due to pain or other variants of noxious stimuli. While physicians select the agent(s) used for sedation and cardiovascular function, the actual administration of these agents is the responsibility of the nursing staff. If clinical decision support systems and closed-loop control systems could be developed for critical care monitoring and lifesaving interventions as well as the administration of sedation and cardiopulmonary management, the ICU nurse could be released from the intense monitoring of sedation, allowing her/him to focus on other critical tasks. One particularly attractive strategy is to utilize the knowledge and experience of skilled clinicians, capturing explicitly the rules expert clinicians use to decide on how to titrate drug doses depending on the level of sedation. In this paper, we extend the deterministic rule-based expert system for cardiopulmonary management and ICU sedation framework presented in [1] to a stochastic setting by using probability theory to quantify uncertainty and hence deal with more realistic clinical situations. PMID:23620646

  3. Comparison between intranasal and intravenous midazolam sedation (with or without patient control) in a dental phobia clinic.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, E; Davidson, E; Sheinkman, Z; Magora, F

    1994-08-01

    Two new modes of sedation; patient-controlled sedation (PCS) and intranasal sedation (INS) were compared with the traditional bolus intravenous sedation (BIVS) while delivering dental care to apprehensive patients in a specialized dental fear clinic. Effective sedation was evaluated in a randomized, prospective study in 42 ASA 1 and 2 patients, in a factorial design. Eighteen patients were sedated with .5% midazolam INS. Ten patients received intravenous PCS via a patient-controlled analgesia pump containing midazolam, and 14 patients received intermittent intravenous boluses of 1 mg midazolam given as needed (BIVS). Appropriate local anesthetic nerve blocks with 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, and supplementary inhalation of nitrous oxide and oxygen via a nasal mask, were also given to all patients in the study. The dosage requirement with PCS was higher than that found with INS or BIVS. However, PCS produced some anxiety reduction when compared with INS and BIVS. It also reduced interfering movements during treatment more effectively than the other sedation modes. No complications were detected in any of the patients and they were able to leave the clinic within 1 hour after completion of treatment.

  4. Clinical and ethical challenges of palliative sedation therapy. The need for clear guidance and professional competencies.

    PubMed

    Schildmann, J; Schildmann, E

    2013-11-01

    Palliative sedation therapy (PST) has become a frequent practice in end-of-life care and advocated in the literature as a less problematic alternative to practices of physician-assisted dying, such as ending patients' lives on request or assisted suicide . However, in clinical practice, patients, healthcare professionals and other parties involved in decisions about PST are facing numerous clinical and ethical challenges. This perspective aims to analyse important challenges associated with professional decision-making about PST and to explore the recommendations of guidelines, which have been published in recent years. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. [End-of-life sedation--definition and clinical guidelines needed].

    PubMed

    Fürst, Carl Johan; Hagenfeldt, Kerstin

    2002-09-26

    End-of-life sedation is not well defined in clinical medicine. The Swedish Society of Medicine, Delegation for Medical Ethics, arranged a Nordic expert workshop to discuss issues of terminology, indications, information and consent, follow up and teaching. It was concluded that the following issues must be part of the decision-making process: the diagnosis and prognosis must be correct, all other treatment options including psychological and existential support must have been tried, there must be consensus between the patient, the family and the staff about the situation and the proposed treatment. These discussions will be followed by clinical guidelines issued by the Society.

  6. Efficacy and safety of midazolam for sedation in pediatric dentistry: a controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Isabelita Duarte; Ferreira, Maria Angela Fernandes; da Costa, Anna Paula Serejo; Bosco, Vera Lúcia; Moritz, Rachel Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological management of uncooperative children is becoming increasingly common in the dental setting. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of 3 different doses of midazolam for sedation in 2- to 4- year-old children with multiple dental needs and negative behavior. Ten children participated in this crossover, controlled, double-blinded clinical trial, which evaluated their behavior, appointment length and patient response after administration of 3 different doses of midazolam or placebo. Oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure were monitored in all sessions. Sedated children exhibited a more positive behavior compared to the placebo group, both at the beginning of the appointment (sitting in the chair) and during administration of local anesthesia (P=.008 and P<.03, respectively). The use of midazolam allowed for longer appointments, and doses of at least 0.3 mg/kg produced a higher rate of positive behavior overall. No changes in oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure were observed. Midazolam was effective and safe for pediatric sedation in the dosages studied.

  7. Lidocaine versus mepivacaine in sedated pediatric dental patients: randomized, prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Çalış, Aylin Sipahi; Cagiran, Esra; Efeoglu, Candan; Ak, Aslı Topaloglu; Koca, Huseyın

    2014-01-01

    Dental anxiety is usually seen in the pediatric patients. specially in the case of minor oral surgical procedures and exodontia, cooperation of the patients and their families with the dentist will lead to superior treatment outcomes. Pain control is important in dentistry. The aim of this randomized prospective clinical study is to compare the local anaesthetic and haemodynamic effects of 2% lidocaine (Group 1) and 3% mepivacaine (Group 2) in sedated pediatric patients undergoing primary tooth extraction. 60 pediatric patients undergoing sedation for elective primary tooth extraction was prospectively included in the study in a randomized fashion. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were assigned. Patients were given premedication via oral route. Local anesthesia was achieved before extraction(s). There were no significant differences between the groups in patient demographics, number of teeth extracted, duration of the operation and time from the end of the procedure to discharge (p ≥ 0.05). FLACC pain scale scores were not statistically significant between the groups, except at 20 minutes post-operatively when the score is significantly lower in Group 2 (p=0.029). Prevention of pain during dental procedures can nurture the relationship of the patient and dentist. Tooth extraction under sedation in pediatric patients could be safe with both local anesthetics.

  8. Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for sevoflurane and xenon at normothermia and hypothermia in newborn pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Dingley, J; Elstad, M; Scull-Brown, E; Steen, P A; Thoresen, M

    2013-05-01

    Neuroprotection from therapeutic hypothermia increases when combined with the anaesthetic gas xenon in animal studies. A clinical feasibility study of the combined treatment has been successfully undertaken in asphyxiated human term newborns. It is unknown whether xenon alone would be sufficient for sedation during hypothermia eliminating or reducing the need for other sedative or analgesic infusions in ventilated sick infants. Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of xenon is unknown in any neonatal species. Eight newborn pigs were anaesthetised with sevoflurane alone and then sevoflurane plus xenon at two temperatures. Pigs were randomised to start at either 38.5°C or 33.5°C. MAC for sevoflurane was determined using the claw clamp technique at the preset body temperature. For xenon MAC determination, a background of 0.5 MAC sevoflurane was used, and 60% xenon added to the gas mixture. The relationship between sevoflurane and xenon MAC is assumed to be additive. Xenon concentrations were changed in 5% steps until a positive clamp reaction was noted. Pigs' temperature was changed to the second target, and two MAC determinations for sevoflurane and 0.5 MAC sevoflurane plus xenon were repeated. MAC for sevoflurane was 4.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.65-4.50] at 38.5°C and 3.05% (CI: 2.63-3.48) at 33.5°C, a significant reduction. MAC for xenon was 120% at 38.5°C and 116% at 33.5°C, not different. In newborn swine sevoflurane, MAC was temperature dependent, while xenon MAC was independent of temperature. There was large individual variability in xenon MAC, from 60% to 120%. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  9. Does sevoflurane add to outpatient procedural sedation in children? A randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Hugo Sérgio de Oliveira; Gomes, Heloisa de Sousa; Sado-Filho, Joji; Costa, Luciane Rezende; Costa, Paulo Sucasas

    2017-03-24

    There is little evidence concerning the effect of sevoflurane in outpatient procedural sedation, especially in children. We hypothesised that the addition of sevoflurane to a sedation regimen improves children's behaviour with minimal adverse events. This is a randomised, triple-blind clinical trial conducted on an outpatient basis. Participants were 27 healthy children aged 4 to 6 years, who previously refused dental treatment with non-pharmacologic methods. All participants received oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg, maximum 20 mg) and oral ketamine (3 mg/kg, maximum 50 mg) and, in addition: Group MK - 100% oxygen; Group MKS - inhalational sevoflurane at a sedative dose (final expired concentration between 0.3 and 0.4%). Dental appointments were video recorded for assessment of the children's sleep patterns, crying, movements, and overall behaviour during the procedure with the Houpt scale. Intra- and post-operative adverse events were systematically reported. Data were analysed by bivariate analyses in the IBM SPSS v. 19, at a significance level of 5%. MK (n = 13) and MKS (n = 14) did not differ regarding the Houpt scores (P > 0.05), but 53.8% of children in the MK group showed hysterical and continuous crying at the time of the local anaesthesia injection, compared to 7.1% of children in the MKS group (P = 0.01; phi = 0.5). There was a trend toward less crying and movement over time during the dental appointment in the MKS group (P = 0.48). Minor adverse events were observed in 10 MK children and 4 MKS children (P = 0.01). The addition of sevoflurane to oral midazolam-ketamine improved the children's crying behaviour during local anaesthetic administration, and did not increase the occurrence of adverse events. Clinical Trials NCT02284204 . Registered 5 October 2014.

  10. Isolation and generation of clinical-grade dendritic cells using the CliniMACS system.

    PubMed

    Campbell, John D M; Piechaczek, Christoph; Winkels, Gregor; Schwamborn, Edith; Micheli, Daniela; Hennemann, Sonja; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) can either be generated from progenitors such as stem cells or CD14+ monocytes, or isolated directly from the blood. Blood-derived DC are present as at least two distinct populations-myeloid and plasmacytoid DC. Here we describe methods for the clinical-grade isolation of blood DC and DC precursors using the CliniMACS. We describe the isolation of ultra-pure monocytes in order to generate large numbers of monocyte-derived DC, and also new methods for the direct isolation of blood DC. Isolation of blood DC in large numbers means that natural DC with different properties can be investigated for their clinical function for the first time.

  11. Oral Midazolam-Ketamine versus Midazolam alone for Procedural Sedation of Children Undergoing Computed Tomography; a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Majidinejad, Saeed; Taherian, Keramat; Esmailian, Mehrdad; Khazaei, Mehdi; Samaie, Vajihe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Motion artifacts are a common problem in pediatric radiographic studies and are a common indication for pediatric procedural sedation. This study aimed to compare the combination of oral midazolam and ketamine (OMK) with oral midazolam alone (OM) as procedural sedatives among children undergoing computed tomography (CT) imaging. Methods: The study population was comprised of six-month to six-year old patients with medium-risk minor head trauma, who were scheduled to undergo brain CT imaging. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups: one group received 0.5 mg/kg midazolam (OM group; n = 33) orally and the other one received 0.2 mg/kg midazolam and 5 mg/kg ketamine orally (OMK group; n=33). The vital signs were monitored and recorded at regular intervals. The primary outcome measure was the success rate of each drug in achieving adequate sedation. Secondary outcome measures were the time to achieve adequate sedation, time to discharge from radiology department, and the incidence of adverse events. Results: Adequate sedation was achieved in five patients (15.2%) in OM group and 15 patients (45.5%) in OMK group, which showed a statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.015). No significant difference was noted between OM and OMK groups with respect to the time of achieving adequate sedation (33.80 ± 7.56 and 32.87 ± 10.18 minutes, respectively; p = 0.854) and the time of discharging from radiology department (89.60 ± 30.22 and 105.27 ± 21.98 minutes, respectively; p=0.223). The complications were minor and similar among patients of both groups. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in comparison with OM, OMK was more effective in producing a satisfactory level of sedation in children undergoing CT examinations without additional complications; however, none of these two regimens fulfilled clinical needs for procedural sedation. PMID:26495384

  12. Clinical analysis of moderate-to-deep-sedation by nonmedical sedation practitioners in 597 patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Vaessen, Hermanus; Bruens, Elisabeth; Knape, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether moderate-to-deep sedation with propofol and alfentanil can be administered safely by nonmedical sedation practitioners, and the outcomes of this practice in the Netherlands. We retrospectively analyzed the occurrence of sedation-related complications in patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. Patients and methods: In this study, 597 adult patients consecutively underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. The health status of the patients was screened according to a standardized protocol, and the patients were sedated by trained nonmedical sedation practitioners. Their vital signs were continuously monitored and recorded. All patients received oxygen, and the depth of sedation was continuously assessed and recorded. Mild and severe complications were recorded and analyzed. Results: All patients recovered uneventfully, and no mortality occurred. Overall, of the 597 sedated patients, 85 had mild and 4 had severe complications. Hypoxemia and upper airway obstruction, which were easily managed by trained nonmedical sedation practitioners, were the most common events. Hypotension was rare. No signs or symptoms suggestive of aspiration were reported. Conclusion: Moderate-to-deep sedation has been and continues to be a risky medical procedure. Serious complications of propofol/opioid-based sedation, especially respiratory and cardiovascular adverse events, may occur. These complications need to be recognized rapidly and appropriately managed. Our study shows that well-trained nonmedical sedation practitioners can be entrusted to take responsibility for the safe administration of moderate-to-deep sedation. PMID:27227116

  13. Benzodiazepines: Sedation and Agitation.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Dental anxiety is common and frequently poses a barrier to necessary dental treatment. The increasing availability of conscious sedation in dental practice has made treatment much more accessible for anxious patients. At present, benzodiazepines are the most commonly used drugs in sedation practice and provide a pleasant experience for most, but not all, patients. An understanding of the mechanism of action of benzodiazepines should inform our practice and deepen our understanding of why and how sedation may fail. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: As an increasing number of dentists provide sedation for their patients an update on benzodiazepines is timely.

  14. A Continuous Quality Improvement Approach to Improving Clinical Practice in the Areas of Sedation, Analgesia, and Neuromuscular Blockade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbour, Richard

    2003-01-01

    A continuous improvement approach to upgrading nurses' administration of sedatives and analgesics included (1) data collection from charts, shift reports, rounds, and bedside examinations; (2) identification of clinical issues and needs; and (3) design of interventions using on teaching moments, competency-based modules, and instruction during…

  15. A Continuous Quality Improvement Approach to Improving Clinical Practice in the Areas of Sedation, Analgesia, and Neuromuscular Blockade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbour, Richard

    2003-01-01

    A continuous improvement approach to upgrading nurses' administration of sedatives and analgesics included (1) data collection from charts, shift reports, rounds, and bedside examinations; (2) identification of clinical issues and needs; and (3) design of interventions using on teaching moments, competency-based modules, and instruction during…

  16. The relationship between the Bispectral Index (BIS) and the Observer Alertness of Sedation Scale (OASS) scores during propofol sedation with and without ketamine: a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Gildasio S; Kendall, Mark C; Marcus, R-Jay; McCarthy, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    Prior studies have examined the static effect of intravenous ketamine on the BIS Index for sedation but it remains unknown if the BIS Index is a reliable method to track sedation levels in the presence of ketamine. The major objective of the current investigation was to compare the BIS Vista Index ability to track varying depths of sedation as determined by OASS scores in a standardized anesthetic regimen with and without ketamine. The study was a randomized, double blinded clinical trial. Patients undergoing breast surgery under sedation with propofol were randomized to receive ketamine (1.5 μg kg min(-1)) or saline. Infusion data was used to estimate propofol plasma concentrations (Cp). The main outcome of interest was the correlation between the BIS Vista Index with the OASS score. Twenty subjects were recruited and fifteen completed the study. Four hundred fifty-five paired data points were included in the analysis. Model performance (Nagelkerke R(2)) of the multinomial logistic regression model was 0.57 with the c-statistic of 0.87 (95 % CI 0.82-0.91). Compared to awake the odds ratio for BIS values predicting moderate sedation in the saline/propofol group 1.19 (95 % CI 1.12-1.25) but only 1.06 (95 % CI 1.02-1.1) in the ketamine/propofol group (P = 0.001). There was no difference in the odds for BIS values to predict deep sedation between groups (P = 0.14). The BIS monitor can be used to monitor sedation level even when ketamine is used with propofol as part of the sedation regimen. However, ketamine reduces the value of the BIS in predicting moderate sedation levels.

  17. Protocolized sedation vs usual care in pediatric patients mechanically ventilated for acute respiratory failure: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Curley, Martha A Q; Wypij, David; Watson, R Scott; Grant, Mary Jo C; Asaro, Lisa A; Cheifetz, Ira M; Dodson, Brenda L; Franck, Linda S; Gedeit, Rainer G; Angus, Derek C; Matthay, Michael A

    2015-01-27

    Protocolized sedation improves clinical outcomes in critically ill adults, but its effect in children is unknown. To determine whether critically ill children managed with a nurse-implemented, goal-directed sedation protocol experience fewer days of mechanical ventilation than patients receiving usual care. Cluster randomized trial conducted in 31 US pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). A total of 2449 children (mean age, 4.7 years; range, 2 weeks to 17 years) mechanically ventilated for acute respiratory failure were enrolled in 2009-2013 and followed up until 72 hours after opioids were discontinued, 28 days, or hospital discharge. Intervention PICUs (17 sites; n = 1225 patients) used a protocol that included targeted sedation, arousal assessments, extubation readiness testing, sedation adjustment every 8 hours, and sedation weaning. Control PICUs (14 sites; n = 1224 patients) managed sedation per usual care. The primary outcome was duration of mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes included time to recovery from acute respiratory failure, duration of weaning from mechanical ventilation, neurological testing, PICU and hospital lengths of stay, in-hospital mortality, sedation-related adverse events, measures of sedative exposure (wakefulness, pain, and agitation), and occurrence of iatrogenic withdrawal. Duration of mechanical ventilation was not different between the 2 groups (intervention: median, 6.5 [IQR, 4.1-11.2] days; control: median, 6.5 [IQR, 3.7-12.1] days). Sedation-related adverse events including inadequate pain and sedation management, clinically significant iatrogenic withdrawal, and unplanned endotracheal tube/invasive line removal were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Intervention patients experienced more postextubation stridor (7% vs 4%; P = .03) and fewer stage 2 or worse immobility-related pressure ulcers (<1% vs 2%; P = .001). In exploratory analyses, intervention patients had fewer days of opioid administration

  18. Colonoscopy sedation: clinical trial comparing propofol and fentanyl with or without midazolam.

    PubMed

    das Neves, Jose Francisco Nunes Pereira; das Neves Araújo, Mariana Moraes Pereira; de Paiva Araújo, Fernando; Ferreira, Clarice Martins; Duarte, Fabiana Baeta Neves; Pace, Fabio Heleno; Ornellas, Laura Cotta; Baron, Todd H; Ferreira, Lincoln Eduardo Villela Vieira de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Colonoscopy is one of the most common procedures. Sedation and analgesia decrease anxiety and discomfort and minimize risks. Therefore, patients prefer to be sedated when undergoing examination, although the best combination of drugs has not been determined. The combination of opioids and benzodiazepines is used to relieve the patient's pain and discomfort. More recently, propofol has assumed a prominent position. This randomized prospective study is unique in medical literature that specifically compared the use of propofol and fentanyl with or without midazolam for colonoscopy sedation performed by anesthesiologists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the side effects of sedation, discharge conditions, quality of sedation, and propofol consumption during colonoscopy, with or without midazolam as preanesthetic. The study involved 140 patients who underwent colonoscopy at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I received intravenous midazolam as preanesthetic 5min before sedation, followed by fentanyl and propofol; Group II received intravenous anesthesia with fentanyl and propofol. Patients in Group II had a higher incidence of reaction (motor or verbal) to the colonoscope introduction, bradycardia, hypotension, and increased propofol consumption. Patient satisfaction was higher in Group I. According to the methodology used, the combination of midazolam, fentanyl, and propofol for colonoscopy sedation reduces propofol consumption and provides greater patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. 75 FR 73104 - Clinical Development Programs for Sedation Products; Request for Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... sedation products in adult and pediatric age groups. FDA is inviting any interested party, or parties, to... and managing a coordination of activities that will bring together experts in the field, including from academia, patient organizations, and industry. The first step in this process would be for the...

  20. C-MAC videolaryngoscope compared with direct laryngoscopy for rapid sequence intubation in an emergency department: A randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sulser, Simon; Ubmann, Dirk; Schlaepfer, Martin; Brueesch, Martin; Goliasch, Georg; Seifert, Burkhardt; Spahn, Donat R; Ruetzler, Kurt

    2016-12-01

    Airway management in the emergency room can be challenging when patients suffer from life-threatening conditions. Mental stress, ignorance of the patient's medical history, potential cervical injury or immobilisation and the presence of vomit and/or blood may also contribute to a difficult airway. Videolaryngoscopes have been introduced into clinical practice to visualise the airway and ultimately increase the success rate of airway management. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the C-MAC videolaryngoscope improves first-attempt intubation success rate compared with direct laryngoscopy in patients undergoing emergency rapid sequence intubation in the emergency room setting. A randomised clinical trial. Emergency Department of the University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland. With approval of the local ethics committee, we prospectively enrolled 150 patients between 18 and 99 years of age requiring emergency rapid sequence intubation in the emergency room of the University Hospital Zurich. Patients were randomised (1 : 1) to undergo tracheal intubation using the C-MAC videolaryngoscope or by direct laryngoscopy. Owing to ethical considerations, patients who had sustained maxillo-facial trauma, immobilised cervical spine, known difficult airway or ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation were excluded from our study. All intubations were performed by one of three very experienced anaesthesia consultants. First-attempt success rate served as our primary outcome parameter. Secondary outcome parameters were time to intubation; total number of intubation attempts; Cormack and Lehane score; inadvertent oesophageal intubation; ease of intubation; complications including violations of the teeth, injury/bleeding of the larynx/pharynx and aspiration/regurgitation of gastric contents; necessity of using further alternative airway devices for successful intubation; maximum decrease of oxygen saturation and technical problems with the device. A total of 150

  1. Etomidate plus propofol versus propofol alone for sedation during gastroscopy: a randomized prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Li, Bi-Xi; Chen, Li-Min; Tao, Jun; Zhang, Sui; Ji, Meng; Wu, Ming-Chun; Chen, Min; Zhang, Yan-Hui; Gan, Guo-Shen; Song, Xiao-Yang

    2016-11-01

    Sedation with propofol alone during gastroscopy has many side effects. Etomidate has advantages in terms of circulation and respiration compared to propofol. We hypothesized that etomidate plus propofol during gastroscopy would be more safe and effective than propofol alone. Four hundred (n = 400) patients were randomly divided into a propofol group (P group) and a etomidate plus propofol group (EP group). The P group was given the first dose of 1 % propofol 1 mg/kg before gastroscopy, and the EP group was given 1 % propofol 0.5 mg/kg plus etomidate 0.1 mg/kg. Repeated doses of 10-20 mg propofol or 5-10 mg propofol plus 1-2 mg etomidate were administered to maintain an adequate level of sedation. The sedation depth was maintained by bispectral index value of 40-60. The EP group had a lower incidence of systolic hypotension (13.0 vs. 32.5 %; P < 0.0001), bradycardia (8.5 vs. 16.5 %; P = 0.0226), mild hypoxemia (6.5 vs. 18.0 %; P = 0.0007), and severe hypoxemia (2.5 vs. 10.0 %; P = 0.0031) compared to the P group. Also, the satisfaction of anesthetist and gastroscopist with EP was higher than that of P group (P < 0.0001; P = 0.018, respectively). Etomidate plus propofol had few effects on respiration and circulation in patients undergoing gastroscopy and was more safe and effective than propofol alone.

  2. Clinical predictors of apnoea-hypopnoea during propofol sedation in patients undergoing spinal anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kim, G H; Lee, J J; Choi, S J; Shin, B S; Lee, A R; Lee, S H; Kim, M H

    2012-07-01

    This study assessed the relationship between the occurrence of apnoea-hypopnoea during propofol sedation for spinal anaesthesia and two different predictive tests of sleep apnoea: the STOP-Bang score (snoring while sleeping, daytime tiredness, observed breathing stoppages, high blood pressure-body mass index, age, neck circumference, gender); and the obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) score. Thirty-four middle-aged men not diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnoea received propofol infusions adjusted to produce a bispectral index of 70-75. ApnoeaLink(TM) was used to estimate the incidence of apnoea-hypopnoea. The median (IQR [range]) apnoea-hypopnoea index was 17 (8-24 [0-70]) events.h(-1) and correlated weakly with the STOP-Bang score (p = 0.022, r = 0.423) and moderately with the OSA score (p < 0.001, r = 0.693). Severe apnoea-hypopnoea developed more frequently in patients with a higher OSA score (34.5% vs 0%) or higher STOP-Bang score (27.6% vs 6.9%). Both assessment tools have some predictive value for the occurrence of apnoea-hypopnoea during propofol sedation in patients undergoing spinal anaesthesia.

  3. Clinical study of midazolam sequential with dexmedetomidine for agitated patients undergoing weaning to implement light sedation in intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xing; Li, Jun; Li, Tong; Zhang, Jie; Li, Zhi-Bo; Gao, Xin-Jing; Xu, Lei

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate midazolam sequential with dexmedetomidine for agitated patients undergoing weaning to implement light sedation in ICU. This randomized, prospective study was conducted in Tianjin Third Central Hospital, China. Using a sealed-envelope method, the patients were randomly divided into 2 groups (40 patients per group). Each patient of group A received an initial loading dose of midazolam at 0.3-3mg/kg·h 24 h before extubation, followed by an infusion of dexmedetomidine at a rate of 0.2-1 μg/kg·h until extubation. Each patient of group B received midazolam at a dose of 0.3-3 mg/kg·h until extubation. The dose of sedation was regulated according to RASS sedative scores maintaining in the range of -2-1. All patients were continuously monitored for 60 min after extubation. During the course, heart rate (HR), mean artery pressure (MAP), extubation time, adverse reactions, ICU stay, and hospital stay were observed and recorded continuously at the following time points: 24 h before extubation (T1), 12 h before extubation (T2), extubation (T3), 30 min after extubation (T4), 60 min after extubation (T5). Both groups reached the goal of sedation needed for ICU patients. Dexmedetomidine was associated with a significant increase in extubation quality compared with midazolam, reflected in the prevalence of delirium after extubation (20% (8/40) vs 45% (18/40)), respectively (p= 0.017). There were no clinically significant decreases in HR and MAP after infusing dexmedetomidine or midazolam. In the group A, HR was not significantly increased after extubation; however, in the group B, HR was significantly increased compared with the preextubation values (p < 0.05). HR was significantly higher in the group B compared with the group A at 30 and 60 min after extubation (both, p <0.05). Compared with preextubation values, MAP was significantly increased at extubation in the group B (p < 0.05) and MAP was significantly higher at T3, T4, T5 in the group B than group A (p < 0

  4. The First US Clinical Experience With Computer-Assisted Propofol Sedation: A Retrospective Observational Comparative Study on Efficacy, Safety, Efficiency, and Endoscopist and Patient Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Otto S; Kozarek, Richard A; Tombs, Deborah; La Selva, Danielle; Weigel, Wade; Beecher, Ryan; Jensen, Ana; Gluck, Michael; Ross, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Computer-assisted propofol sedation (CAPS) is now approved for moderate sedation of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I and II patients undergoing routine endoscopy. As the first US medical center to adopt CAPS for routine clinical use, we compared patient and endoscopist satisfaction with CAPS versus midazolam and fentanyl (MF) sedation. Patients who underwent elective outpatient upper endoscopy and colonoscopy with CAPS were compared with concurrent patients sedated with MF. The primary end points were patient satisfaction (measured by the validated Patient Sedation Satisfaction Index [PSSI]), and endoscopist satisfaction (Clinician Sedation Satisfaction Index [CSSI]). Secondary end points included procedural success rates, polyp detection rates, adverse events, and procedure/recovery times. Multivariable regression was used for comparative analysis. CAPS was utilized to sedate 244 patients, of whom 55 underwent upper endoscopy, 173 colonoscopy, and 16 double procedures. During the same period, 75 upper endoscopies, 223 colonoscopies, and 30 doubles were performed with MF on similar patients. For upper endoscopy, the procedural success rate was 98.2% for CAPS versus 98.7% for MF (P = .96), whereas for colonoscopy, the success rate was 98.9% vs 98.8% (P = .59). Colonoscopic polyp detection rate was 54.5% for CAPS and 59.3% for MF (P = .67). Procedure times were similar between CAPS and MF. For CAPS, the mean recovery time was 26.4 vs 39.1 minutes for MF (P < .001). One CAPS patient required mask ventilation, 4 experienced asymptomatic hypotension or desaturation, and 5 experienced marked agitation resulting from undersedation. For MF, 5 patients had hypotension or desaturation, and 8 experienced undersedation. For colonoscopy, the CAPS group had higher PSSI scores for sedation adequacy, the recovery process and global satisfaction, and higher CSSI scores for ease of sedation administration, the recovery process and global satisfaction. For upper

  5. [Sutureless thyroidectomy with local anesthesia plus conscious sedation. Two clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Ortega-León, Luis Humberto; Vargas-Domínguez, Armando; López-López, Jorge; Muñoz-Cuevas, Juan; Ramírez-Tapia, Heberto David; Jalife-Montaño, Abel

    2004-01-01

    We proposed a modification of thyroid surgery and have reported two operations carried out with sutureless surgery and local anesthesia. Our study setting was Unit 305 of the General Hospital of Mexico in Mexico City. With regard to study design, two patients are presented with sutureless thyroid surgery in what we believe is the first publication of its kind in Mexico and probably the first publication in the world that reports the combination of both sutureless technique and local anesthesia. Patient number 1 is 41 years of age with a 10-year history. Fine-needle biopsy denoted nodular goiter but definitive diagnosis was Hashimoto thyroiditis, for which we performed subtotal resection. Patient number 2 is 46 years of age, and has a history of 1 year of thyroid mass; final diagnosis was colloid goiter. Lobectomy and isthmus resection was done. We proceeded under local anesthesia plus sedation with the patient conscious, in combination with no stitches for hemostasia using a tissue-sealing system ligasure. Both patients had good results without postoperative complications. Surgical time was 120 min in first case and 71 min for the second. Patient 1 had transient hoarseness for 3 weeks, and the healing was spontaneous. Outcome was adequate in these two cases with local anesthesia and no stitches.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of clinic-based chloral hydrate sedation versus general anaesthesia for paediatric ophthalmological procedures.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Heather F; Lambley, Rosemary; West, Stephanie K; Ungar, Wendy J; Mireskandari, Kamiar

    2015-11-01

    The inability of some children to tolerate detailed eye examinations often necessitates general anaesthesia (GA). The objective was to assess the incremental cost effectiveness of paediatric eye examinations carried out in an outpatient sedation unit compared with GA. An episode of care cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from a societal perspective. Model inputs were based on a retrospective cross-over cohort of Canadian children aged <7 years who had both an examination under sedation (EUS) and examination under anaesthesia (EUA) within an 8-month period. Costs ($CAN), adverse events and number of successful procedures were modelled in a decision analysis with one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The mean cost per patient was $406 (95% CI $401 to $411) for EUS and $1135 (95% CI $1125 to $1145) for EUA. The mean number of successful procedures per patient was 1.39 (95% CI 1.34 to 1.42) for EUS and 2.06 (95% CI 2.02 to 2.11) for EUA. EUA was $729 more costly on average than EUS (95% CI $719 to $738) but resulted in an additional 0.68 successful procedures per child. The result was robust to varying the cost assumptions. Cross-over designs offer a powerful way to assess costs and effectiveness of two interventions because patients serve as their own control. This study demonstrated significant savings when ophthalmological exams were carried out in a hospital outpatient clinic, although with slightly fewer procedures completed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Towards computerizing intensive care sedation guidelines: design of a rule-based architecture for automated execution of clinical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Computerized ICUs rely on software services to convey the medical condition of their patients as well as assisting the staff in taking treatment decisions. Such services are useful for following clinical guidelines quickly and accurately. However, the development of services is often time-consuming and error-prone. Consequently, many care-related activities are still conducted based on manually constructed guidelines. These are often ambiguous, which leads to unnecessary variations in treatments and costs. The goal of this paper is to present a semi-automatic verification and translation framework capable of turning manually constructed diagrams into ready-to-use programs. This framework combines the strengths of the manual and service-oriented approaches while decreasing their disadvantages. The aim is to close the gap in communication between the IT and the medical domain. This leads to a less time-consuming and error-prone development phase and a shorter clinical evaluation phase. Methods A framework is proposed that semi-automatically translates a clinical guideline, expressed as an XML-based flow chart, into a Drools Rule Flow by employing semantic technologies such as ontologies and SWRL. An overview of the architecture is given and all the technology choices are thoroughly motivated. Finally, it is shown how this framework can be integrated into a service-oriented architecture (SOA). Results The applicability of the Drools Rule language to express clinical guidelines is evaluated by translating an example guideline, namely the sedation protocol used for the anaesthetization of patients, to a Drools Rule Flow and executing and deploying this Rule-based application as a part of a SOA. The results show that the performance of Drools is comparable to other technologies such as Web Services and increases with the number of decision nodes present in the Rule Flow. Most delays are introduced by loading the Rule Flows. Conclusions The framework is an

  8. Towards computerizing intensive care sedation guidelines: design of a rule-based architecture for automated execution of clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ongenae, Femke; De Backere, Femke; Steurbaut, Kristof; Colpaert, Kirsten; Kerckhove, Wannes; Decruyenaere, Johan; De Turck, Filip

    2010-01-18

    Computerized ICUs rely on software services to convey the medical condition of their patients as well as assisting the staff in taking treatment decisions. Such services are useful for following clinical guidelines quickly and accurately. However, the development of services is often time-consuming and error-prone. Consequently, many care-related activities are still conducted based on manually constructed guidelines. These are often ambiguous, which leads to unnecessary variations in treatments and costs.The goal of this paper is to present a semi-automatic verification and translation framework capable of turning manually constructed diagrams into ready-to-use programs. This framework combines the strengths of the manual and service-oriented approaches while decreasing their disadvantages. The aim is to close the gap in communication between the IT and the medical domain. This leads to a less time-consuming and error-prone development phase and a shorter clinical evaluation phase. A framework is proposed that semi-automatically translates a clinical guideline, expressed as an XML-based flow chart, into a Drools Rule Flow by employing semantic technologies such as ontologies and SWRL. An overview of the architecture is given and all the technology choices are thoroughly motivated. Finally, it is shown how this framework can be integrated into a service-oriented architecture (SOA). The applicability of the Drools Rule language to express clinical guidelines is evaluated by translating an example guideline, namely the sedation protocol used for the anaesthetization of patients, to a Drools Rule Flow and executing and deploying this Rule-based application as a part of a SOA. The results show that the performance of Drools is comparable to other technologies such as Web Services and increases with the number of decision nodes present in the Rule Flow. Most delays are introduced by loading the Rule Flows. The framework is an effective solution for computerizing

  9. Clinical value of the Integrated Pulmonary Index(®) during sedation for interventional upper GI-endoscopy: A randomized, prospective tri-center study.

    PubMed

    Riphaus, Andrea; Wehrmann, Till; Kronshage, Tim; Geist, Christoph; Pox, Christian P; Heringlake, Stefan; Schmiegel, Wolff; Beitz, Analena; Meining, Alexander; Müller, Michaela; von Delius, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The Integrated Pulmonary Index(®) (IPI) is a mathematically-determined factor based on parameters of capnography and pulse oximetry, which should enable sensitive detection of impaired respiratory function. Aim was to investigate whether an additional measurement of the IPI during sedation for interventional endoscopy, compared to standard monitoring alone, allows a reduction of sedation-related respiratory depression. 170 patients with standard monitoring randomly underwent either a blinded recording of capnography (control group, n=87) or capnography, including automated IPI calculation (IPI group, n=83), during deep sedation with midazolam and propofol. The primary endpoint was the maximum decrease of oxygen saturation from the baseline level before sedation. Secondary endpoints: incidence of hypoxemia (SaO2<90%), other sedation-related complications (apnea rate, bradycardia, hypotension), patient cooperation and satisfaction (VAS). Mean propofol dose in the IPI group (245±61mg) was comparable to the control group (225±47mg). The average drop of the oxygen saturation in the IPI group (6.5±4.1%) was nearly identical to that of the control group (7.1±4.6%, p=0.44). Apnea episodes >15s was found in 46 patients of the control and 31 of the IPI group (p<0.05). Frequency of occurrence of a drop in pO2-saturation <90%, bradycardia <50/min or a drop of systolic pressure <90mmHg were not significantly different in both groups. Mechanical ventilation was not required in any case. Patient cooperation and satisfaction were assessed similar in both groups. A clinically appealing advantage of IPI-assessment during deep sedation with midazolam and propofol for interventional endoscopy could not be documented. However, IPI registration was more effective in reducing the incidence of apnea episodes. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Is terminal sedation active euthanasia?].

    PubMed

    Materstvedt, L J; Kaasa, S

    2000-06-10

    In order to be able to discuss the issue of whether or not terminal sedation is, or may be conceived of as, a form of help in dying, one needs to be very clear as to the meaning of the terms "help in dying" and "terminal sedation". In this article, we suggest what we take to be detailed and precise definitions of the two forms of voluntary help in dying--euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. Our definitions (interpretations) basically draw on the Dutch experience and understanding. The Dutch approach implies that acts of abstention, i.e., withholding and withdrawing treatment, and pain and symptom treatment with possible life-shortening effect, including terminal sedation, are to be considered "normal medical practice". Furthermore, death is seen by almost all parties as having natural causes in all of these acts. We also suggest that "palliative sedation" should substitute the expression "terminal sedation". Furthermore, we discuss on what grounds this treatment strategy may be induced, including a presentation of criteria and guidelines that must be met; the issue of documentation of the strategy; palliative sedation in the light of the ethical principle of double effect; and in what way euthanasia could be concealed as palliative sedation. In closing, we comment briefly on the phenomenon of large differences between published cohorts with regard to the frequency of use of palliative sedation. This treatment strategy is open to be challenged both clinically and ethically, and all parties would benefit from a continuous debate over the legitimacy of, and the clinical need for, palliative sedation.

  11. Narcotics and Sedative Use in Preterm Neonates.

    PubMed

    Borenstein-Levin, Liron; Synnes, Anne; Grunau, Ruth E; Miller, Steven P; Yoon, Eugene W; Shah, Prakesh S

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate patterns of narcotic and sedative use in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) across Canada using data collected by the Canadian Neonatal Network. We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study of preterm neonates at <33 weeks' gestation and admitted to a participating Canadian Neonatal Network NICU. The proportion of all neonates who received sedative(s), narcotic(s), or either sedative(s), narcotic(s), or both during their NICU stay was calculated for each year. Because opioids are used for premedication before intubation, only continuous infusions of a narcotic drug were included. Variation in narcotics and sedative usage between sites in 2014 was determined using logistic regression analysis, with adjustment for gestational age, surgery, and mechanical ventilation. Of 20 744 neonates, 29% of neonates received a narcotic, a sedative, or both; 23% received a narcotic and 17% a sedative. Although no clinically significant changes in drug exposure were documented during the 5-year period, there were statistically significant differences in narcotic and sedative use between sites, ranging from 3% to 41% for narcotic and 2% to 48% for sedative use (aORs 0.2-5.7 and 0.1-15, respectively, P < .05). Exposure to narcotic or sedative agents is highly variable in preterm neonates across Canada despite concerns of adverse outcomes associated with these drugs. The tremendous variation in practice suggests that further research on their current usage, as well as identifying optimal practice procedures is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sedative and Analgesic Effects of Propofol-Fentanyl Versus Propofol-Ketamine During Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami Gorji, Fakhroddin; Amri, Parviz; Shokri, Javad; Alereza, Hakimeh; Bijani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a painful procedure that requires analgesia and sedation. Objectives In this study, we compared the analgesic and sedative effects of propofol-ketamine versus propofol-fentanyl in patients undergoing ERCP. Methods In this clinical trial, 72 patients, aged 30 - 70 years old, who were candidates for ERCP were randomly divided into two groups. Before the start of ERCP, both groups received midazolam 0.5 - 1 mg. The intervention group (PK) received ketamine 0.5 mg/kg, and the control group (PF) received fentanyl 50 - 100 micrograms. All patients received propofol 0.5 mg/kg in a loading dose followed by 75 mcg/kg/minute in an infusion. The patients, the anesthesiologist, and the endoscopist were unaware of the medication regimen. Sedation and analgesia quality (based on a VAS), blood pressure, respiratory rate, heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation, recovery time (based on Aldrete scores), and endoscopist and patient satisfation were recorded. Results The sedative effects were equal in the two groups (P > 0.05), but the analgesic effects were higher in the PF group than in the PK group (P < 0.05). The PK group had higher blood pressure levels in the eighth minute. Respiratory rate, heart rate, and arterial oxygen saturation showed no significant differences between the groups (P > 0.05). Endoscopist satisfaction, patient satisfaction, and recovery time showed no significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions The results showed that the sedative effect of propofol-ketamine was equal to the propofol-fentanyl combination during ERCP. To prevent respiratory and hemodynamic complications during ERCP, the propofol-ketamine combination should be used in patients with underlying disease. PMID:27853681

  13. Uptake of Web-based clinical resources from the MacArthur Initiative on Depression and Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Han, Changsu; Voils, Corrine I; Williams, John W

    2013-04-01

    This study assessed the usability and desired enhancements for the MacArthur Foundation's Depression and Primary Care (MDPC) Web site to determine if resources for integrated depression care that are disseminated through the Web site are incorporated into routine clinical care. Since its launch in 2003, more than 20,000 users registered as members of the MDPC website to read and download depression care resources. Subjects were randomly selected from MDPC Web site users who had previously downloaded the depression toolkit. Web-based survey, which was administered anonymously, included the following domains: (1) socio-demographic data, (2) confidence in managing depression (3) Web site content and design features, (4) desired enhancements to Web site and content, (5) use of resources downloaded from the Web site, and (6) importance of depression care resources. Of the 3,478 randomly selected participants, 666 (19.1%) responded. Web site content was rated "good" or "excellent" for screening and diagnosis (84.3%), treatment (69.8%), patient education (66.2%), and care management (66.9%). The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was rated "very useful" by 68.3%; 47.1% reported using it in at least 25% of encounters with patients who are depressed. PHQ-9 use was significantly associated with higher self-confidence in managing depression (P = 0.05). Evidence-based resources for depression care can be disseminated effectively through a dedicated Web site and may help clinicians incorporate effective care models into routine practice.

  14. Evaluation of gastric emptying time, gastrointestinal transit time, sedation score, and nausea score associated with intravenous constant rate infusion of lidocaine hydrochloride in clinically normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca A; Kierski, Katharine R; Jones, Brian G

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To quantify nausea and sedation scores, gastric emptying time, and gastrointestinal transit time after IV administration of a lidocaine hydrochloride bolus followed by a constant rate infusion (CRI) in clinically normal dogs. ANIMALS 6 Beagles. PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs were fed thirty 1.5-mm barium-impregnated spheres (BIPS) and received a saline (0.9% NaCl) solution bolus (0.05 mL/kg) IV (time 0) followed by a CRI at 10 mL/h, a lidocaine bolus (1 mg/kg) IV followed by a CRI at 25 μg/kg/min, or a lidocaine bolus (1 mg/kg) IV followed by a CRI at 50 μg/kg/min; CRIs were for 12 hours. Nausea and sedation scores were assessed and abdominal radiographs obtained immediately after feeding of BIPS and every hour for 12 hours and again 16 hours after CRI start. Percentage of BIPSs in the small and large intestines, gastric emptying time, and gastrointestinal transit time were assessed. RESULTS Gastric emptying time did not differ significantly among treatments. Significantly more BIPS were in the large intestine 4 to 7 hours after treatment start for the 50-μg/kg/min treatment than for the other 2 treatments. Six hours after treatment start, significantly more BIPS were in the large intestine for the 25-μg/kg/min treatment than for the saline solution treatment. Higher sedation and nausea scores were associated with the 50-μg/kg/min CRI. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In clinically normal dogs, lidocaine CRI did not significantly affect gastric emptying. However, gastrointestinal transit time was mildly decreased and sedation and nausea scores increased in dogs administered a lidocaine CRI at clinically used doses.

  15. 76 FR 68197 - Clinical Development Programs for Sedation Products; Public Workshop; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 213 (Thursday, November 3, 2011)] [Notices] [Pages 68197-68198] [FR Doc No: 2011-28475] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket... endpoints might be considered clinically meaningful (e.g., subjective and objective assessments of...

  16. Post-sedation events in children sedated for dental care.

    PubMed

    Ritwik, Priyanshi; Cao, Linda T; Curran, Ronald; Musselman, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Moderate oral sedation is used in pediatric dentistry for safe delivery of dental care to children. However, there is a paucity of data on the effects of pediatric dental sedations after discharge of children from the dental office. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the incidence of adverse events occurring with meperidine and hydroxyzine versus midazolam alone 8 and 24 hours after sedation in pediatric dental patients. In this prospective study, a convenience sample of 46 healthy children presenting to a private pediatric dental practice for dental treatment needs was selected. A telephone survey of the parents of children sedated with either meperidine and hydroxyzine or midazolam alone was conducted 8 and 24 hours after the administration of sedation medications. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, frequency and proportion analysis, and Fisher exact test. Forty children were sedated with meperidine and hydroxyzine, and 6 who were sedated with midazolam. In both groups, 50% of the children slept in the car on the way home. Three children in the meperidine and hydroxyzine group vomited in the car. A significantly larger proportion of children in the meperidine and hydroxyzine group experienced prolonged sleep at home (P = .015). More children in the midazolam group exhibited irritability in the first 8 hours (P = .07). There were no statistical differences between the 2 groups with respect to incidence of pain, fever, vomiting, sleeping in the car, snoring, and difficulty in waking up. The lingering effects of orally administered sedation medications can lead to prolonged sleep, irritability, and vomiting in children after they have been discharged from the dental clinic. Most of these events occurred within the first 8 hours, but in some children the effects were seen up to 24 hours later.

  17. Post-sedation Events in Children Sedated for Dental Care

    PubMed Central

    Ritwik, Priyanshi; Cao, Linda T.; Curran, Ronald; Musselman, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Moderate oral sedation is used in pediatric dentistry for safe delivery of dental care to children. However, there is a paucity of data on the effects of pediatric dental sedations after discharge of children from the dental office. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the incidence of adverse events occurring with meperidine and hydroxyzine versus midazolam alone 8 and 24 hours after sedation in pediatric dental patients. In this prospective study, a convenience sample of 46 healthy children presenting to a private pediatric dental practice for dental treatment needs was selected. A telephone survey of the parents of children sedated with either meperidine and hydroxyzine or midazolam alone was conducted 8 and 24 hours after the administration of sedation medications. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, frequency and proportion analysis, and Fisher exact test. Forty children were sedated with meperidine and hydroxyzine, and 6 who were sedated with midazolam. In both groups, 50% of the children slept in the car on the way home. Three children in the meperidine and hydroxyzine group vomited in the car. A significantly larger proportion of children in the meperidine and hydroxyzine group experienced prolonged sleep at home (P = .015). More children in the midazolam group exhibited irritability in the first 8 hours (P = .07). There were no statistical differences between the 2 groups with respect to incidence of pain, fever, vomiting, sleeping in the car, snoring, and difficulty in waking up. The lingering effects of orally administered sedation medications can lead to prolonged sleep, irritability, and vomiting in children after they have been discharged from the dental clinic. Most of these events occurred within the first 8 hours, but in some children the effects were seen up to 24 hours later. PMID:23763560

  18. MAC-awake of sevoflurane in children.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Andrew J; Wong, Aaron; Knottenbelt, Graham; Sheppard, Suzette; Donath, Susan; Frawley, Geoff

    2008-08-01

    Age influences the potency of anesthetic agents, but there is little information on how age influences MAC-awake. MAC-awake may be an important aspect of anesthesia potency for the prevention of awareness during anesthesia. The aim of this study was to measure MAC-awake in a range of ages in children. After institutional ethics approval and informed parental consent 60 children were enrolled; 20 in each of three age groups (2 to <5, 5 to <8 and 8-12 years). Children were excluded if they had opioids, sedative premedication or a procedure likely to cause any residual discomfort. All children had sevoflurane anesthesia. At the end of the procedure the sevoflurane was decreased to the target concentration. Once the target endtidal concentration was achieved it was maintained for 10 min before a standard stimulus was applied and an observer determined if the child was awake. The Dixon up-down method was used to determine progression of subsequent concentrations and MAC-awake (ED50) for the three age groups were obtained using the probit model. This study found evidence for a difference in ED50 between age groups (P = 0.008). The MAC-awake was highest in the youngest group (0.66%) and similar in the older groups (0.45% and 0.43%). Although MAC-awake changes with age, in the ages where awareness has been reported, MAC-awake was found to be relatively low, and therefore it seems unlikely that age-specific changes to MAC-awake are a cause for awareness in children aged 5-12 years.

  19. [Clinical practices of analgesia for invasive procedures in critically ill sedated patients in Ile-de-France: a phone survey].

    PubMed

    Brocas, E; Adam, M; Alonso, A; Perrin-Gachadoat, D; Thierry, S; Tenaillon, A

    2005-06-01

    To assess the practice of analgesia for invasive procedures in critically ill sedated patient in Ile-de-France (French area including Paris). Observational study: phone survey using a standard questionnaire. Only one senior physician in each of 30 intensive care unit (ICU) was questioned. Baseline sedation included systematic analgesia with narcotics in all ICUs. Only 4 physicians declared using a specific pain scale for sedated patients. Only 3 ICUs used written protocols. Procedures, which were thought to be most invasive (catheterization, pleural drainage, fibroscopy) were in most cases preceded by analgesia, but this was seldom the case for less painful events (venous or arterial puncture, tracheal suctioning). Specific pain scales are still underused. In contrast with current guidelines, analgesia for invasive procedures is not systematic but depends on subjective opinions.

  20. Anxiety control of dental patients by clinical combination of acupuncture, Bi-Digital O-Ring Test, and eye movement desensitization with sedation via submucosal route.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dominic P; Lu, Gabriel P; Lu, Winston I

    2007-01-01

    The data presented in this article was collected after reviewing clinical findings gathered from using various anxiety control methods on apprehensive patients. We examined clinical applications of the eye movement (EM) component of Eye Movement Desensitization (EMD) on fearful dental patients who have histories of traumatic dental experiences. We also used Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT) to select the proper dosage of sedative to minimize the adverse side effects. For patients who did not respond well to EM, we used BDORT to select the proper sedative medication and its dosage. In certain difficult cases, we supplemented these techniques with acupuncture to augment the sedative effects. Findings were based on the clinical impressions and assessments of both the patients and the operating team. Results showed that EM, although effective in enabling patients to undergo non-invasive dental procedures such as clinical examination and simple prophylaxis, had only limited beneficial effect with invasive procedures such as extraction, drilling, and injections, etc. We also found that BDORT greatly reduced adverse side effects of sedatives such as hypertension, hypotension, hypoxia, tachycardia, bradycardia, nausea, and vomiting. For most apprehensive patients, we found that EMD and acupuncture combined with BDORT predetermined dosage for the submucosal sedation enabled these patients to undergo the complete dental treatment. The authors try to explain the mechanism of BDORT and EM in terms of visual awareness (or consciousness) and preferred patterns, where neurons in the brain respond to the actions and/or direction of movement. The authors believe that BDORT and EM could have better results if the persons performing BDORT have visual awareness and are focused on the task; whereas in EM, the patient's eye on the therapist's hand movements. A more focused approach via visual pathway will result in more favorable results in EM. Likewise, performing BDORT absentmindedly

  1. Palliative sedation: ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Miccinesi, Guido; Caraceni, Augusto; Maltoni, Marco

    2017-07-12

    Palliative sedation (PS), the medical act of decreasing a patient's awareness to relieve otherwise intractable suffering, is considered by some commentators to be controversial because of its consequences on residual survival and/or quality of life, and to be inappropriate for treating pure existential suffering. We will argue that PS must be always proportional, i.e. controlling refractory symptoms while keeping the loss of personal values (communication, affective relationships, care relationship) as low as possible, and that imminence of death is necessary too, from an ethical point of view, if a deep and continuous sedation (DCS) is proposed. Moreover, in case of pure existential suffering DCS should only be considered after repeated trials of respite sedation. The use of progressive consent and advance care planning to share the decision with the patient and to involve the family in the decision process as much as the patient desires is another ethical aspect to be pursued. Producing, implementing and sustaining guidelines at the higher scientific and professional level promise to help in improving both clinical and ethical aspects of the practice of PS.

  2. A pilot randomized clinical trial utilizing the drug burden index to reduce exposure to anticholinergic and sedative medications in older people.

    PubMed

    Gnjidic, Danijela; Le Couteur, David G; Abernethy, Darrell R; Hilmer, Sarah N

    2010-11-01

    The drug burden index (DBI) is an evidence-based tool that utilizes pharmacologic principles to calculate an individual's total exposure to anticholinergic and sedative medications. Higher DBI has been associated with functional impairment in observational studies of older people. To assess the impact of providing information about DBI to general practitioners (GPs) on prescribing for older people. This was a cluster randomized controlled trial with 3 months of follow-up. Participants were volunteers aged ≥70 years, living in self-care retirement villages in Sydney, Australia. The study intervention involved a letter and phone call to GPs, using DBI to prompt them to consider cessation or dose reduction of anticholinergic and sedative medications. The primary study outcome was to assess the impact of information about DBI on prescribing practices of the GPs. A total of 115 participants were enrolled, 57 in the intervention group (from 6 sites) and 58 in the control group (from 6 sites). At baseline, 19 of 57 participants in the intervention group and 31 of 58 participants in the control group had a DBI >0 (p < 0.05). At follow-up, a DBI change was observed in 16 participants. DBI decreased in 12 participants, 6 (32%) in the intervention group, and 6 (19%) in the control group. GPs identified the following barriers to reducing anticholinergic and sedative drugs: uncomfortable altering prescriptions initiated by specialists; unable to influence patients' attitudes; unaware of patients' medications and strong clinical indication. The intervention targeting GPs' prescribing practices was less effective than anticipated in reducing anticholinergic and sedative drug exposure, and barriers were identified. Future studies should explore multidisciplinary interventions, engaging patients, specialists, GPs, and pharmacists.

  3. Sedation in gastrointestinal endoscopy: Current issues

    PubMed Central

    Triantafillidis, John K; Merikas, Emmanuel; Nikolakis, Dimitrios; Papalois, Apostolos E

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy can successfully be performed by applying moderate (conscious) sedation. Moderate sedation, using midazolam and an opioid, is the standard method of sedation, although propofol is increasingly being used in many countries because the satisfaction of endoscopists with propofol sedation is greater compared with their satisfaction with conventional sedation. Moreover, the use of propofol is currently preferred for the endoscopic sedation of patients with advanced liver disease due to its short biologic half-life and, consequently, its low risk of inducing hepatic encephalopathy. In the future, propofol could become the preferred sedation agent, especially for routine colonoscopy. Midazolam is the benzodiazepine of choice because of its shorter duration of action and better pharmacokinetic profile compared with diazepam. Among opioids, pethidine and fentanyl are the most popular. A number of other substances have been tested in several clinical trials with promising results. Among them, newer opioids, such as remifentanil, enable a faster recovery. The controversy regarding the administration of sedation by an endoscopist or an experienced nurse, as well as the optimal staffing of endoscopy units, continues to be a matter of discussion. Safe sedation in special clinical circumstances, such as in the cases of obese, pregnant, and elderly individuals, as well as patients with chronic lung, renal or liver disease, requires modification of the dose of the drugs used for sedation. In the great majority of patients, sedation under the supervision of a properly trained endoscopist remains the standard practice worldwide. In this review, an overview of the current knowledge concerning sedation during digestive endoscopy will be provided based on the data in the current literature. PMID:23382625

  4. Report of an initial pilot study on the feasibility of using the MacArthur competence assessment tool for clinical research in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Koelch, Michael; Prestel, Anja; Singer, Hanneke; Schulze, Ulrike; Fegert, Joerg M

    2010-02-01

    The MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR) was used in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and co-morbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and in their parents. The aims were to test feasibility and to determine children's understanding of the elements of disclosure for a clinical drug trial and their competence to assent. The contents and language of MacCAT-CR were adapted to be age appropriate for the children. Twelve children (mean age, 9.87 [7.7-12.2]; mean intelligence quotient [IQ], 97 [72-122]) and either the mother or father of each child were interviewed. Psychologists rated the interviews and, in addition to MacCAT-CR, competence was assessed by trained clinicians. The MacCAT-CR was practicable, and the time required was acceptable. Interrater reliability was excellent in children. Children performed less well than parents on this test (children;s vs. parents' scores: Understanding 5.86 vs. 9.08, appreciation 2.64 vs. 4.96, reasoning 3.05 vs. 4.63, respectively). Whereas clinicians assessed all children as competent, lack of competence became apparent in the MacCAT-CR. The practicability and the interrater reliability suggest that the MacCAT-CR is feasible in children, but the question of whether competence is assessed validly remains unsolved in the absence of external validation. The differences between assessment by clinicians and the low scores obtained in the MacCAT-CR suggest that children may give assent even if they do not understand completely. The results of this initial pilot study may help in the planning of further investigations intended to improve information about studies and assessment of assent/consent.

  5. Clinical assessment of epidural analgesia induced by xylazine-lidocaine combination accompanied by xylazine sedation in calves

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether epidural administration of a xylazine-lidocaine combination accompanied by xylazine sedation would provide satisfactory analgesia for some surgical procedures on 10 calves admitted to the Department of Veterinary Surgery, University of Kafkas with perineal urolithiasis (n:2), rectovaginal fistula (n:1), atresia ani (n:2), omphalophlebitis (n:2), omphaloarteritis (n:1) and umbilical hernia (n:2). Following intramuscular injection of xylazine at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg for sedation, xylazine-lidocaine combination (0.2 mg/kg lidocaine + 0.02 mg/kg xylazine + 5 ml 0.9% NaCl) was administrated into the lumbosacral (L6-S1), sacrococcygeal (S5-Co1) or intercoccygeal (Co1-Co2) space. Heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature were recorded prior to and during analgesia at 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 minutes. Furthermore, depth and duration of analgesia were evaluated during surgical intervention. The study revealed that the combination of epidural xylazine-lidocaine with xylazine sedation was highly satisfactory for surgery of the lower urinary tract and the perineal region, but it was less so for surgery of the umbilical area. PMID:21851664

  6. Lack of effect of stimulant combination with second-generation antipsychotics on weight gain, metabolic changes, prolactin levels, and sedation in youth with clinically relevant aggression or oppositionality.

    PubMed

    Penzner, Julie B; Dudas, Melissa; Saito, Ema; Olshanskiy, Vladimir; Parikh, Umesh H; Kapoor, Sandeep; Chekuri, Raja; Gadaleta, Dominick; Avedon, Jennifer; Sheridan, Eva M; Randell, Jane; Malhotra, Anil K; Kane, John M; Correll, Christoph U

    2009-10-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are associated with weight gain, metabolic abnormalities, sedation/sleep disturbance, and prolactin abnormalities, especially in youths. Although stimulants have opposing dopamine receptor and adverse effects, it is unclear whether stimulant co-treatment counteracts the therapeutic or side effects of antipsychotics. This was a naturalistic cohort study including 153 antipsychotic trials in youths aged 4-19 (mean, 11.3 +/- 3.0) years, started on an SGA for clinically significant aggression or oppositionality associated with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, disruptive behavior disorder not otherwise specified (NOS), impulse control disorder NOS, intermittent explosive disorder, Tourette's disorder, autistic disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder NOS. Patients underwent fasting assessments of body composition, lipids, glucose, insulin, prolactin, sedation, and general efficacy at baseline, weeks 4, 8, and 12, comparing patients co-prescribed stimulants (n = 71) with those not co-prescribed stimulants (n = 82). Patients received risperidone (33.3%), aripiprazole (29.4%), quetiapine (18.4%), olanzapine (11.8%), ziprasidone (5.9%), or clozapine (0.7%). With and without adjustment for differences in baseline variables (sex, prior stimulant use, primary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4(th) edition [DSM-IV] disorders, co-morbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], present in 46.3% of youths not receiving stimulants, and some body composition parameters), patients on versus off stimulants did not differ on any of the assessed outcomes (all p values > or = 0.1). In contrast to guidelines, stimulant use did not precede or accompany antipsychotic use during the current episode of aggression/oppositionality in almost half of those youths who had aggressive/oppositional behavior and a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD. At the clinically prescribed doses, stimulant co-treatment of SGAs did

  7. Lack of Effect of Stimulant Combination with Second-Generation Antipsychotics on Weight Gain, Metabolic Changes, Prolactin Levels, and Sedation in Youth with Clinically Relevant Aggression or Oppositionality

    PubMed Central

    Penzner, Julie B.; Dudas, Melissa; Saito, Ema; Olshanskiy, Vladimir; Parikh, Umesh H.; Kapoor, Sandeep; Chekuri, Raja; Gadaleta, Dominick; Avedon, Jennifer; Sheridan, Eva M.; Randell, Jane; Malhotra, Anil K.; Kane, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are associated with weight gain, metabolic abnormalities, sedation/sleep disturbance, and prolactin abnormalities, especially in youths. Although stimulants have opposing dopamine receptor and adverse effects, it is unclear whether stimulant co-treatment counteracts the therapeutic or side effects of antipsychotics. Methods This was a naturalistic cohort study including 153 antipsychotic trials in youths aged 4–19 (mean, 11.3 ± 3.0) years, started on an SGA for clinically significant aggression or oppositionality associated with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, disruptive behavior disorder not otherwise specified (NOS), impulse control disorder NOS, intermittent explosive disorder, Tourette's disorder, autistic disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder NOS. Patients underwent fasting assessments of body composition, lipids, glucose, insulin, prolactin, sedation, and general efficacy at baseline, weeks 4, 8, and 12, comparing patients co-prescribed stimulants (n = 71) with those not co-prescribed stimulants (n = 82). Results Patients received risperidone (33.3%), aripiprazole (29.4%), quetiapine (18.4%), olanzapine (11.8%), ziprasidone (5.9%), or clozapine (0.7%). With and without adjustment for differences in baseline variables (sex, prior stimulant use, primary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition [DSM-IV] disorders, co-morbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], present in 46.3% of youths not receiving stimulants, and some body composition parameters), patients on versus off stimulants did not differ on any of the assessed outcomes (all p values ≥ 0.1). Conclusions In contrast to guidelines, stimulant use did not precede or accompany antipsychotic use during the current episode of aggression/oppositionality in almost half of those youths who had aggressive/oppositional behavior and a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD. At the

  8. [Current situation and clinical characteristics of sedative-related disorder patients in Japan: a comparison with methamphetamine-related disorder patients].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Ozaki, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Ohji; Wada, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the current situation regarding sedative (mainly benzodiazepines)-related disorder in Japan and the clinical characteristics of Japanese patients with this disorder. Subjects were 671 drug-related disorder patients diagnosed according to the ICD-10 classification as "F1: mental and behavioural disorders due to psychoactive substance use," who abused psychoactive substances other than alcohol. Of all the psychiatric hospitals in Japan between September and October 2010, these drug-related disorder patients had consecutively consulted or were admitted to 153 psychiatric hospitals. The present study was conducted by means of a mail survey. Subjects' clinical information, including history of psychoactive substance use, means of access to the primary drug of abuse, other ICD-10 diagnoses including the F1 subcategory and comorbid psychiatric disorders, and recent history of self-destructive behavior, were collected from the attending psychiatrists of each subject. The data thus gathered concerning sedative-related disorder patients were compared with those of patients with methamphetamine-related disorder, which has been the most serious drug-related problem in Japan since the 1950s. Out of the 671 subjects, 119 patients mainly abusing sedatives (SRD group) were identified, while 361 patients were identified as mainly abusing methamphetamine (MRD group). The MRD group was the largest population (53.8% of the total subjects), followed by the SRD group (17.7%), and then the inhalant-related disorder group with 56 patients (8. 3%). Compared with the MRD group, the SRD group was younger, contained more female patients, and had a lower incidence of a history of involvement with anti-social societies and anti-social behavior. Patients in the SRD group were more likely to have started abusing drugs with the intention of reducing the unpleasant symptoms of insomnia (42.9%), anxiety (26.1%), and depression (16.0%), and to acquire

  9. How does the introduction of a pain and sedation management guideline in the paediatric intensive care impact on clinical practice? A comparison of audits pre and post guideline introduction.

    PubMed

    Larson, Grace E; Arnup, Sarah J; Clifford, Michael; Evans, Janine

    2013-08-01

    Despite the use of guidelines to inform practice for pain and sedation management there are few evaluations of the effect of their introduction on clinical practice. Previous evaluations of the protocols and guidelines used to manage pain and sedation in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) report increases in pain and sedation medication administration post guideline introduction. In most reported cases the guideline was accompanied by a treatment algorithm. To our knowledge there is no published data on the effect of introducing a guideline without a treatment algorithm on pain and analgesia administration. To evaluate the impact the introduction of a pain and sedation guideline will have on clinical practice. A 19 bed PICU was audited for one month prior to the introduction of a guideline and one month post. The proportion of patients receiving oral Clonidine increased (p=0.001) and the administration of Ketamine, particularly via bolus (p=0.003), reduced after the introduction of the guideline. The use of a validated pain tool to assess pain increased by 25% and communication of management plans increased by 25%. The documentation of the use of boluses increased by 36%. The introduction of a clinical practice guideline for pain and sedation management in PICU contributes to changes in medication administration, use of validated pain assessments, improved documentation of boluses and communication of management plans. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spectral entropy for assessing the depth of propofol sedation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mi-Young; Lee, Seung-Yun; Kim, Tae-Yop; Kim, Duk Kyung; Lee, Kyoung-Min; Woo, Nam-Sik; Chang, Young-Jae; Lee, Myung Ae

    2012-03-01

    For patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) or under monitored anesthetic care (MAC), the precise monitoring of sedation depth facilitates the optimization of dosage and prevents adverse complications from underor over-sedation. For this purpose, conventional subjective sedation scales, such as the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) or the Ramsay scale, have been widely utilized. Current procedures frequently disturb the patient's comfort and compromise the already well-established sedation. Therefore, reliable objective sedation scales that do not cause disturbances would be beneficial. We aimed to determine whether spectral entropy can be used as a sedation monitor as well as determine its ability to discriminate all levels of propofol-induced sedation during gradual increments of propofol dosage. In 25 healthy volunteers undergoing general anesthesia, the values of response entropy (RE) and state entropy (SE) corresponding to each OAA/S (5 to 1) were determined. The scores were then analyzed during each 0.5 mcg/ml- incremental increase of a propofol dose. We observed a reduction of both RE and SE values that correlated with the OAA/S (correlation coefficient of 0.819 in RE-OAA/S and 0.753 in SE-OAA/S). The RE and SE values corresponding to awake (OAA/S score 5), light sedation (OAA/S 3-4) and deep sedation (OAA/S 1-2) displayed differences (P < 0.05). The results indicate that spectral entropy can be utilized as a reliable objective monitor to determine the depth of propofol-induced sedation.

  11. Analgosedation Practices and the Impact of Sedation Depth on Clinical Outcomes Among Patients Requiring Mechanical Ventilation in the ED: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Robert J; Ablordeppey, Enyo; Drewry, Anne M; Palmer, Christopher; Wessman, Brian T; Mohr, Nicholas M; Roberts, Brian W; Liang, Stephen Y; Kollef, Marin H; Fuller, Brian M

    2017-06-21

    Analgesia and sedation are cornerstone therapies for mechanically ventilated patients. Despite data showing that early deep sedation in the ICU influences outcome, this has not been investigated in the ED. Therefore, ED-based sedation practices, and their influence on outcome, remain incompletely defined. This study's objectives were to describe ED sedation practices in mechanically ventilated patients and to test the hypothesis that ED sedation depth is associated with worse outcomes. This was a cohort study of a prospectively compiled ED registry of adult mechanically ventilated patients at a single academic medical center. Hospital mortality was the primary outcome and hospital-, ICU-, and ventilator-free days were secondary outcomes. A backward stepwise multivariable logistic regression model evaluated the primary outcome as a function of ED sedation depth. Sedation depth was assessed with the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS). Four hundred fourteen patients were studied. In the ED, 354 patients (85.5%) received fentanyl, 254 (61.3%) received midazolam, and 194 (46.9%) received propofol. Deep sedation was observed in 244 patients (64.0%). After adjusting for confounders, a deeper ED RASS was associated with mortality (adjusted OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.63-0.94). Early deep sedation is common in mechanically ventilated ED patients and is associated with worse mortality. These data suggest that ED-based sedation is a modifiable variable that could be targeted to improve outcome. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Procedural sedation analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Sheta, Saad A

    2010-01-01

    The number of noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures performed outside of the operating room has grown exponentially over the last several decades.Sedation, analgesia, or both may be needed for many of these interventional or diagnostic procedures. Individualized care is important when determining if a patient requires procedural sedation analgesia (PSA). The patient might need an anti-anxiety drug, pain medicine, immobilization, simple reassurance, or a combination of these interventions. The goals of PSA in four different multidisciplinary practices namely; emergency, dentistry, radiology and gastrointestinal endoscopy are discussed in this review article. Some procedures are painful, others painless. Therefore, goals of PSA vary widely. Sedation management can range from minimal sedation, to the extent of minimal anesthesia. Procedural sedation in emergency department (ED) usually requires combinations of multiple agents to reach desired effects of analgesia plus anxiolysis. However, in dental practice, moderate sedation analgesia (known to the dentists as conscious sedation) is usually what is required. It is usually most effective with the combined use of local anesthesia. The mainstay of success for painless imaging is absolute immobility. Immobility can be achieved by deep sedation or minimal anesthesia. On the other hand, moderate sedation, deep sedation, minimal anesthesia and conventional general anesthesia can be all utilized for management of gastrointestinal endoscopy. PMID:20668560

  13. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in cattle sedated with xylazine

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Shozo

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of sedation with xylazine on the brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) of cattle to determine whether sedation causes differences in waveform configuration, peak latencies, interpeak latencies, measurement time of the average count (2000 responses), and clinical signs. There were no significant differences between the sedation and no-sedation groups in peak latency of any stimulus intensities. In the sedation group, the baselines of waveforms were comparatively stabilized. Those in the no-sedation group were unstable, however, because the measurement can be influenced by excessive muscle movement. The present findings suggest that clinically, it is useful to use a sedative when measuring BAEP in cattle to control excessive movement of the cattle without influencing the peak latencies. PMID:18505193

  14. Introduction to MAC CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Donald D.

    1987-01-01

    The author introduces the Military Airlift Command (MAC) and its mission. A brief history of Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) as it relates to MAC is given. He also states why MAC is currently interested in CRM.

  15. Bispectral index as a predictor of sedation depth during isoflurane or midazolam sedation in ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Sackey, P V; Radell, P J; Granath, F; Martling, C R

    2007-06-01

    Bispectral index (BIS) is used for monitoring anaesthetic depth with inhaled anaesthetic agents in the operating room but has not been evaluated as a monitor of sedation depth in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting with these agents. If BIS could predict sedation depth in ICU patients, patient disturbances could be reduced and oversedation avoided. Twenty ventilator-dependent ICU patients aged 27 to 80 years were randomised to sedation with isoflurane via the AnaConDa or intravenous midazolam. BIS (A-2000 XP, version 3.12), electromyogram activity (EMG) and Signal Quality Index were measured continuously. Hourly clinical evaluation of sedation depth according to Bloomsbury Sedation Score (Bloomsbury) was performed. The median BIS value during a 10-minute interval prior to the clinical evaluation at the bedside was compared with Bloomsbury. Nurses performing the clinical sedation scoring were blinded to the BIS values. End-tidal isoflurane concentration was measured and compared with Bloomsbury. Correlation was poor between BIS and Bloomsbury in both groups (Spearman's rho 0.012 in the isoflurane group and -0.057 in the midazolam group). Strong correlation was found between BIS and EMG (Spearman's rho 0.74). Significant correlation was found between end-tidal isoflurane concentration and Bloomsbury (Spearman's rho 0.47). In conclusion, BIS XP does not reliably predict sedation depth as measured by clinical evaluation in non-paralysed ICU patients sedated with isoflurane or midazolam. EMG contributes significantly to BIS values in isoflurane or midazolam sedated, non-paralysed ICU patients. End-tidal isoflurane concentration appeared to be a better indicator of clinical sedation depth than BIS.

  16. Estimating the need for dental sedation. 1. The Indicator of Sedation Need (IOSN) - a novel assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, P; Bridgman, C M; Gough, L; Longman, L; Pretty, I A; Jenner, T

    2011-09-09

    While the control of pain and anxiety is fundamental to the practice of dentistry, the use of conscious sedation in dentistry is very variable among dentists. The need for conscious sedation could be considered by assessing and ranking a combination of information on patient anxiety, medical history and the complexity of the anticipated clinical treatment. By undertaking this systemtic assessment an indication of sedation need may be developed which would act as an aide to decision making and, potentially, referral management. Such a tool could also be used by commissioners who need to identify patients who need conscious sedation for dental treatment in order to plan, commission and deliver appropriate sedation services.

  17. Maintaining Interrater Agreement of Core Assessment Instruments in a Multisite Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial: The Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure (RESTORE) Trial.

    PubMed

    Lebet, Ruth; Hayakawa, Jennifer; Chamblee, Tracy B; Tala, Joana A; Singh, Nakul; Wypij, David; Curley, Martha A Q

    RESTORE (Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure) was a cluster randomized clinical trial evaluating a sedation strategy in children 2 weeks to <18 years of age with acute respiratory failure supported on mechanical ventilation. A total of 31 U.S. pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) participated in the trial. Staff nurse rater agreement on measures used to assess a critical component of treatment fidelity was essential throughout the 4-year data collection period. The purpose of the study is to describe the method of establishing and maintaining interrater agreement (IRA) of two core clinical assessment instruments over the course of the clinical trial. IRA cycles were carried out at all control and intervention sites and included a minimum of five measurements of the State Behavioral Scale (SBS) and Withdrawal Assessment Tool-Version 1 (WAT-1). Glasgow Coma Scale scores were also obtained. PICUs demonstrating <80% agreement repeated their IRA cycle. Fleiss's kappa coefficient was used to assess IRA. Repeated IRA cycles were required for 8% of 226 SBS cycles and 2% of 222 WAT-1 cycles. Fleiss's kappa coefficients from more than 1,350 paired assessments were .86 for SBS and .92 for WAT-1, demonstrating strong agreement and similar to .91 for the Glasgow Coma Scale. There was no difference in Fleiss's kappa for any of the instruments based on unit size or timing of assessment (earlier or later in the study). For SBS scores, Fleiss's kappa was significantly different in larger and smaller PICUs (.82 vs. .92, p = .003); however, Fleiss's kappa for both groups indicated excellent agreement. Monitoring measurement reliability is an essential step in ensuring treatment fidelity and, thus, the validity of study results. Standardization on the use of these core assessment instruments among participating sites was achieved and maintained throughout the trial.

  18. Risks of propofol sedation/anesthesia for imaging studies in pediatric research: eight years of experience in a clinical research center.

    PubMed

    Kiringoda, Ruwan; Thurm, Audrey E; Hirschtritt, Matthew E; Koziol, Deloris; Wesley, Robert; Swedo, Susan E; O'Grady, Naomi P; Quezado, Zenaide M N

    2010-06-01

    To quantify the incidence of adverse events associated with anesthesia given for research-driven imaging studies and to identify risk factors for those events in pediatric research subjects. Retrospective cohort study. National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Children and adolescents enrolled in clinical research protocols who required anesthesia for research-related imaging studies from January 2000 to September 2008. Propofol sedation/anesthesia. The occurrence of respiratory, cardiovascular, and all anesthesia-related adverse events that required intervention while receiving anesthetics for research-driven imaging studies and other noninvasive procedures. We identified 607 children who received 1480 propofol anesthetic procedures for imaging studies. Seventy percent of anesthetics were given to subjects with severe diseases and significant disabilities (American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status [ASA] III). Anesthesia had a mean (SD) duration of 115 (55) minutes, and in 12.5% of procedures, an airway device was necessary. There were 98 notable respiratory, cardiovascular, and other events in 79 anesthetic procedures, a rate of 534 per 10 000 anesthetic procedures with 1 or more adverse events. There was no long-lasting morbidity or mortality. The ASA classification (odds ratio [OR], 2.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-6.88), anesthetic effect duration (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.25-1.70), and presence of airway abnormalities (OR, 4.41; 95% CI, 1.60-12.12) were independently associated with adverse events during anesthetic use. In our clinical research sample of high-risk children who received sedation/anesthesia by an anesthesiologist, we observed a low incidence of adverse events and no long-term complications. Risk factors for adverse events included higher ASA classification, increasing anesthetic duration, and presence of airway abnormalities.

  19. Sedation for Pediatric Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It is more difficult to achieve cooperation when conducting endoscopy in pediatric patients than adults. As a result, the sedation for a comfortable procedure is more important in pediatric patients. The sedation, however, often involves risks and side effects, and their prediction and prevention should be sought in advance. Physicians should familiarize themselves to the relevant guidelines in order to make appropriate decisions and actions regarding the preparation of the sedation, patient monitoring during endoscopy, patient recovery, and hospital discharge. Furthermore, they have to understand the characteristics of the pediatric patients and different types of endoscopy. The purpose of this article is to discuss the details of sedation in pediatric endoscopy. PMID:24749082

  20. First clinical evaluation of the C-MAC D-Blade videolaryngoscope during routine and difficult intubation.

    PubMed

    Cavus, Erol; Neumann, Tobias; Doerges, Volker; Moeller, Thora; Scharf, Edwin; Wagner, Klaus; Bein, Berthold; Serocki, Goetz

    2011-02-01

    In the present preliminary study we evaluated the C-MAC® D-Blade (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany), a new videolaryngoscopic C-MAC blade for difficult intubation, during both routine and difficult intubations. First, both the conventional direct laryngoscopy and the D-Blade were used in 15 consecutive patients with normal airways during routine induction of anesthesia. Second, the D-Blade was used as a rescue device in 20 of 300 (6.7%) consecutive patients, when conventional direct laryngoscopy failed. In the 15 patients during routine induction of anesthesia, with direct laryngoscopy, a Cormack-Lehane (C/L) grade 1 and grade 2a view was seen in 7 and 8 patients, respectively. It was possible to insert the D-Blade and to get a video view of the glottis on the first attempt in all patients; with the D-Blade, all 15 patients had a C/L 1 view. The time to successful intubation with the D-Blade was 15 (8-26) seconds (median (range)). In the 20 patients, in whom unexpected difficulty with direct laryngoscopy was observed, C/L grades 3 and 4 were present in 15 and 5 patients, respectively. With the use of the D-Blade, indirect C/L video view improved to C/L class 1 in 15 patients, and to 2a in 5 patients, respectively. The time from touching the laryngoscope to optimal laryngoscopic view was 11 (5-45) seconds and for successful intubation 17 (3-80) seconds. In all 35 patients, with the D-Blade no direct view of the glottis was possible and subsequently a semiflexible tube guide was required.

  1. [Review for sedative and hypnotic mechanism of sedative traditional Chinese medicine and relative active components on neurotransmitters].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei-Yan; Li, Jing-Jing; Zhou, Ying; Xu, Xiao-Yu

    2016-12-01

    The sedative traditional Chinese medicine has a long history of clinical experience in treating insomnia. The main pharmacological effects of sedative agents are sedation, hypnosis, antianxiety and antidepression which might be related to certain neurotransmitters and cytokines and so on. This review summarized the mechanism of sedative traditional Chinese medicine and its active monomers based on neurotransmitters, including GABA, Glu, 5-HT, DA, NE and their metabolites 5-HIAA, HVA, DOPAC. The results showed that the most research about the sedative medicine at present was throught serotonergic and GABA ergic system. Study on Ziziphi Spinosae Semen was the most extensive, including its monomers, extracts and traditional Chinese patent medicines. It involved many sedative traditional Chinese medicine, such as Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, Albiziae Flos, Polygalae Radix, Longan Arillus, Ganoderma, etc. It also systematically summarized the information which was useful for the further applications and research on sedative drugs and their active components. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Development of a Web-Based Nationwide Korean Pediatric Dental Sedation Registry.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Chul; Yang, Yeonmi; Yoo, Seunghoon; Kim, Jiyeon; Jeong, Taesung; Shin, Teo Jeon

    2017-09-22

    Finding a balance between sedation efficacy and safety remains an ongoing challenge. In children, the risk of sedation-related complications is relatively high. It is of utmost importance to determine the factors related to improved overall sedation outcomes. However, most previous reports have been based on small samples at single institutions. The Korean Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (KAPD) developed a Korean Pediatric Dental Sedation Registry using a web-based platform. Specialists in pediatric dental sedation selected the itemized list included within the registry through an extensive literature review. The web-based registry was built into the KAPD homepage to facilitate easy access to the sedation data. All teaching and university hospitals agreed to participate in the Korean Pediatric Dental Sedation Registry. This is the first attempt to collect sedation data on a nationwide scale in the field of pediatric dentistry. The sedation database established with the registry may facilitate standardizing and improving pediatric dental sedation clinical practices.

  3. Intravenous ketamine, propofol and propofol-ketamine combination used for pediatric dental sedation: A randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Canpolat, Dilek Gunay; Yildirim, Mustafa Denizhan; Aksu, Recep; Kutuk, Nukhet; Alkan, Alper; Cantekin, Kenan

    2016-01-01

    Dental treatments cannot bealways performed under local anesthesia inpediatric non-cooperative patients. For this purpose, differentanesthetic techniques have been applied to increase patient comport to dental treatments. Sixty children classified as ASA I-II, between aged 3 to 9, who were scheduled to undergo tooth extraction, were enrolled for this randomized study. Group K received 1 mg/kg ketamine, Group P received 1 mg/kg propofol, and Group KP received 0.5 mg/kg propofol plus 0.5 mg/kg ketamine intravenously for anesthesia induction. Recovery time was significantly lower in Group P than Group KP. No significant differences were found between groups regarding HR, before and after the induction, at tenth minute. Fifth minute's HR was higher in Group K than Group KP. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) values were similar at baseline, before and after the induction, and at tenth minute, whereas significantly lower values were found in Group P and Group KP than in Group K at fifth minute. Although ketamine, propofol and ketamine-propofol combination are effective for sedation in tooth extraction in pediatric patients, propofol may be an excellent alternative, with the shortest recovery, no nausea and vomiting, and reasonable surgical satisfaction.

  4. An evaluation of analgesic efficacy and clinical acceptability of intravenous tramadol as an adjunct to propofol sedation for third molar surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Shipton, E. A.; Roelofse, J. A.; Blignaut, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    This article details a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study evaluating the analgesic efficacy and clinical acceptability of intravenous tramadol in patients undergoing surgical removal of an impacted third molar tooth under local anesthesia and intravenous sedation with propofol. Forty-five ASA status 1 dental outpatients were randomly allocated to 2 groups of 22 (group A) and 23 (group B) patients each (n = 45). Group A (T/P) received intravenous tramadol 1.5 mg/kg injected over 2 minutes, followed by a bolus dose of intravenous propofol 0.4 mg/ kg. Maintenance consisted of a continuous infusion of propofol 3 mg/kg/h, with an additional bolus dose of 0.4 mg/kg intravenously 2-3 minutes prior to the infiltration of the local anesthetic solution. Group B (P/P) patients received no tramadol but instead a saline placebo solution and an identical amount of propofol. Overall, in this study, postoperative pain was much better controlled in the group receiving tramadol 1.5 mg/kg intravenously despite there being no significant difference in the dose of propofol administered in both groups. Intravenous tramadol, when given with propofol, did not affect the cardiovascular, respiratory, and sedative effects of propofol. Following tramadol, despite being an opioid, no nausea and vomiting were reported in the early postoperative period, indicating the value of using tramadol with propofol. Thus, this pilot study demonstrated the potential use of intravenous tramadol with propofol in day-case dento-alveolar surgery. PMID:14558587

  5. Clinical features of morphea patients with the pansclerotic subtype: a cross-sectional study from the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC cohort)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, A; Marinkovich, N; Vasquez, R; Jacobe, HT

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Pansclerotic morphea is a poorly described form of morphea with little information on prevalence, demographics, and clinical features. Classification criteria for this subtype varies and the distinction from other forms of morphea such as extensive generalized morphea and pansclerotic morphea is not always clear. The purpose of this study was to clarify classification criteria for pansclerotic morphea by identifying its prevalence in the morphea in adults and children (MAC) cohort and describing its demographic and clinical features as compared with generalized morphea. Methods Patients who met predefined criteria for generalized and pansclerotic morphea were identified using a modified Laxer and Zulian classification system. Baseline demographic and clinical features of the patients were compiled and then analyzed for traits characteristic of pansclerotic morphea versus those of generalized morphea. 113 met criteria for inclusion – 13 pansclerotic and 100 generalized morphea type. Results Pansclerotic patients were more frequently male (46.2% vs. 6%, p<0.0001); had a shorter time to diagnosis (mean difference of 10.4 months [95% CI: 0.8-19.9 months], p=0.0332); higher rates of functional impairment (61.5% vs. 16%, p=0.0046); higher rates of deep involvement (61.5% vs. 17%, p=0.004); and higher average mRSS (mean difference of 10.8 points [95% CI: 5-16.6], p=0.0018), LoSDI (mean difference 28.3 [95% CI: 9-47.6], p=0.009), and PGA-D scores (mean difference 25.1 [95% CI: 0.3-50], p=0.048). Conclusions Our results suggest demographic and clinical features are sufficient to define the pansclerotic subtype as they represent a distinct clinical phenotype with a more rapidly progressive and severe course commonly accompanied by disability. Presence of features of the pansclerotic phenotype should alert practitioners to the possibility of significant morbidity and the need for early aggressive treatment. PMID:24293577

  6. Comparison of intubation success and glottic visualization using King Vision and C-MAC videolaryngoscopes in patients with cervical spine injuries with cervical immobilization: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Shravanalakshmi, Dhanyasi; Bidkar, Prasanna U; Narmadalakshmi, K; Lata, Suman; Mishra, Sandeep K; Adinarayanan, S

    2017-01-01

    Glottic visualization can be difficult with cervical immobilization in patients with cervical spine injury. Indirect laryngoscopes may provide better glottic visualization in these groups of patients. Hence, we compared King Vision videolaryngoscope, C-MAC videolaryngoscope for endotracheal intubation in patients with proven/suspected cervical spine injury. After standard induction of anesthesia, 135 patients were randomized into three groups: group C (conventional C-MAC videolaryngoscope), group K (King Vision videolaryngoscope), and group D (D blade C-MAC videolaryngoscope). Cervical immobilization was maintained with Manual in line stabilization with anterior part of cervical collar removed. First pass intubation success, time for intubation, and glottic visualization (Cormack - Lehane grade and percentage of glottic opening) were noted. Intubation difficulty score (IDS) was used for grading difficulty of intubation. Five-point Likert scale was used for ease of insertion of laryngoscope. First attempt success rate were 100% (45/45), 93.3% (42/45), and 95.6% (43/45) in patients using conventional C-MAC, King Vision, and D blade C-MAC videolaryngoscopes, respectively. Time for intubation in seconds was significantly faster with conventional C-MAC videolaryngoscope (23.3 ± 4.7) compared to D blade C-MAC videolaryngoscope (26.7 ± 7.1), whereas conventional C-MAC and King Vision were comparable (24.9 ± 7.2). Good grade glottic visualization was obtained with all the three videolaryngoscopes. All the videolaryngoscopes provided good glottic visualization and first attempt success rate. Conventional C-MAC insertion was significantly easier. We conclude that all the three videolaryngoscopes can be used effectively in patients with cervical spine injury.

  7. Comparison of intubation success and glottic visualization using King Vision and C-MAC videolaryngoscopes in patients with cervical spine injuries with cervical immobilization: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Shravanalakshmi, Dhanyasi; Bidkar, Prasanna U.; Narmadalakshmi, K.; Lata, Suman; Mishra, Sandeep K.; Adinarayanan, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Glottic visualization can be difficult with cervical immobilization in patients with cervical spine injury. Indirect laryngoscopes may provide better glottic visualization in these groups of patients. Hence, we compared King Vision videolaryngoscope, C-MAC videolaryngoscope for endotracheal intubation in patients with proven/suspected cervical spine injury. Methods: After standard induction of anesthesia, 135 patients were randomized into three groups: group C (conventional C-MAC videolaryngoscope), group K (King Vision videolaryngoscope), and group D (D blade C-MAC videolaryngoscope). Cervical immobilization was maintained with Manual in line stabilization with anterior part of cervical collar removed. First pass intubation success, time for intubation, and glottic visualization (Cormack – Lehane grade and percentage of glottic opening) were noted. Intubation difficulty score (IDS) was used for grading difficulty of intubation. Five-point Likert scale was used for ease of insertion of laryngoscope. Results: First attempt success rate were 100% (45/45), 93.3% (42/45), and 95.6% (43/45) in patients using conventional C-MAC, King Vision, and D blade C-MAC videolaryngoscopes, respectively. Time for intubation in seconds was significantly faster with conventional C-MAC videolaryngoscope (23.3 ± 4.7) compared to D blade C-MAC videolaryngoscope (26.7 ± 7.1), whereas conventional C-MAC and King Vision were comparable (24.9 ± 7.2). Good grade glottic visualization was obtained with all the three videolaryngoscopes. Conclusion: All the videolaryngoscopes provided good glottic visualization and first attempt success rate. Conventional C-MAC insertion was significantly easier. We conclude that all the three videolaryngoscopes can be used effectively in patients with cervical spine injury. PMID:28217398

  8. Effects of patient-directed music intervention on anxiety and sedative exposure in critically ill patients receiving mechanical-ventilatory support: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Chlan, Linda L.; Weinert, Craig R.; Heiderscheit, Annie; Tracy, Mary Fran; Skaar, Debra J.; Guttormson, Jill L.; Savik, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Context Alternatives to sedative medications are needed to reduce anxiety in mechanically ventilated patients. Music is an integrative therapy without adverse effects that may alleviate the anxiety associated with ventilatory support. Objective To test whether patient-directed, self-initiated music listening can reduce anxiety and sedative exposure during ventilatory support in critically ill patients as compared with 2 control conditions. Design, Setting, and Patients Randomized, controlled trial that enrolled 373 ICU patients from the Minneapolis-St. Paul area receiving acute mechanical-ventilatory support for respiratory failure between September 2006 and March 2011. Patients were Caucasian (86%), female (52%), with mean age 59 (SD 14), APACHE III 63 (SD 21.6), on protocol 5.7 (SD 6.4) days. Intervention Patients (1) self-initiated music listening (patient-directed music; PDM) with preferred selections tailored by a music therapist whenever desired while receiving ventilatory support, (2) self-initiated use of noise-abating headphones (HP), or (3) received usual ICU care (UC). Main Outcome Measures Daily assessments of anxiety (100-mm visual analog scale) and two aggregate measure of sedative exposure (sedation intensity and sedation frequency). Results Mixed-models analysis showed that PDM patients had decreased levels of anxiety compared with the UC group of −19.5 (p=.003). By the fifth study day anxiety was reduced by 36.5% in PDM patients. The interaction between treatment and time showed PDM significantly reduced both measures of sedative exposure. PDM reduced sedation intensity by −.18 (−.36, −.004) points per day and frequency by −.21 (−.37, −.05) points per day compared to UC (p = .05, .01 respectively). PDM reduced sedation frequency by −.18 (−.36, −.004) points per day compared to HP (p = .04). By the fifth study day, PDM patients received two fewer sedative doses (reduction of 38%) and had a reduction of 36% in sedation intensity

  9. Sedation for electrophysiological procedures.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Stuart P; Thakkar, Jay; Kovoor, Pramesh; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Ross, David L

    2014-06-01

    Administration of intravenous sedation (IVS) has become an integral component of procedural cardiac electrophysiology. IVS is employed in diagnostic and ablation procedures for transcutaneous treatment of cardiac arrhythmias, electrical cardioversion of arrhythmias, and the insertion of implantable electronic devices including pacemakers, defibrillators, and loop recorders. Sedation is frequently performed by nursing staff under the supervision of the proceduralist and in the absence of specialist anesthesiologists. The sedation requirements vary depending on the nature of the procedure. A wide range of sedation techniques have been reported with sedation from the near fully conscious to levels approaching that of general anesthesia. This review examines the methods employed and outcomes associated with reported sedation techniques. There is a large experience with the combination of benzodiazepines and narcotics. These drugs have a broad therapeutic range and the advantage of readily available reversal agents. More recently, the use of propofol without serious adverse events has been reported. The results provide a guide regarding the expected outcomes of these approaches. The complication rate and need for emergency assistance is low in reported series where sedation is administered by nonspecialist anesthesiology staff. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Conscious sedation for dentistry: risk management and patient selection.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Douglass L; Johnson, Barton S

    2002-10-01

    There are many safe and effective medications available to the dental practitioner for producing conscious sedation. Given the many sedatives available, all possessing slightly different clinical characteristics and various degrees of risk, careful consideration needs to be given to the objectives of the sedation when deciding which pharmacologic agents to use. Before making plans to sedate dental patients, however, one needs to make sure that several "layers" of risk management are in place to ensure the sedation procedure is as safe as possible. Included in this risk management plan is a complete understanding of the regulations that define conscious sedation and the training that is required to deliver this state of depressed consciousness. Careful attention also needs to be given to selecting appropriate dental patients for sedation. A thorough understanding of the patient's physical and psychologic status is necessary when making decisions about sedation. Because most dental disease is not life threatening, dental treatment needs tend to be primarily elective in nature. Considering the training requirements for delivering inhalational or enteral conscious sedation with a single agent, it is prudent to limit this type of sedation to the patient population that is healthy (e.g., ASA I and II) and psychologically stable as a way of minimizing risk. The amount of additional risk one encounters when sedating more medically compromised patients (ASA III and greater) should suggest that deferring elective dental treatments until the health status improves is prudent. In situations in which an improvement in the patient's health status is not likely, referral to someone with more experience sedating medically compromised patients is strongly recommended. Equally important to the conscious sedation risk management plan is an assurance that the patient understands what is meant by conscious sedation and that their treatment expectations are realistic. Finally, even

  11. Safe Sedation and Hypnosis using Dexmedetomidine for Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery in a Prone Position

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine, an imidazoline compound, is a highly selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist with sympatholytic, sedative, amnestic, and analgesic properties. In order to minimize the patients' pain and anxiety during minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) when compared to conventional surgery under general anesthesia, an adequate conscious sedation (CS) or monitored anesthetic care (MAC) should be provided. Commonly used intravenous sedatives and hypnotics, such as midazolam and propofol, are not suitable for operations in a prone position due to undesired respiratory depression. Dexmedetomidine converges on an endogenous non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep-promoting pathway to exert its sedative effects. The great merit of dexmedetomidine for CS or MAC is the ability of the operator to recognize nerve damage during percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy, a representative MISS. However, there are 2 shortcomings for dexmedetomidine in MISS: hypotension/bradycardia and delayed emergence. Its hypotension/bradycardiac effects can be prevented by ketamine intraoperatively. Using atipamezole (an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist) might allow doctors to control the rate of recovery from procedural sedation in the future. MAC, with other analgesics such as ketorolac and opioids, creates ideal conditions for MISS. In conclusion, dexmedetomidine provides a favorable surgical condition in patients receiving MISS in a prone position due to its unique properties of conscious sedation followed by unconscious hypnosis with analgesia. However, no respiratory depression occurs based on the dexmedetomidine-related endogenous sleep pathways involves the inhibition of the locus coeruleus in the pons, which facilitates VLPO firing in the anterior hypothalamus. PMID:25317279

  12. Reversal of midazolam sedation with anexate.

    PubMed

    Sage, D J; Close, A; Boas, R A

    1987-04-01

    Anexate (Ro 15-1788) a specific benzodiazepine antagonist, was assessed for its action in reversing midazolam-induced sedation. Sixty-five patients undergoing prostatic surgery under subarachnoid anaesthesia received midazolam for intraoperative sedation (mean dose 16 mg) followed by either active drug (anexate) or placebo given as a randomized, double-blind i.v. injection. The anexate dose sufficient to reverse sedation (0.36 +/- 0.09 mg), produced immediate and dramatic improvements in ability to comprehend and obey commands, in orientation in time and space and in degree of anterograde amnesia. These changes remained significantly different from the control group for 60 min after injection. There was no effect on arterial pressure, heart rate or ventilatory rate and no anxiety states were observed. After initial complete awakening, sedation increased gradually in drug-treated patients, while in the control group, sedation scores and cognitive testing scores all diminished over the 4-h study period. Anexate used in doses up to 0.5 mg provided safe and effective antagonism of midazolam-induced sedation in a clinical setting.

  13. Hypnotics and Sedatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabra, Pokar M.; Koo, Howard Y.; Marton, Laurence J.

    In recent years, most large hospitals have observed a marked increase in the admission of patients suffering from drug overdose. Overdose of narcotic drugs, such as the opiates, represent less of a problem on a day-to-day basis than do overdoses of prescribed drugs, such as sedatives and hypnotics. Clinical signs and symptoms for a narcotic drug overdose are very distinct, and in the majority of cases can be easily recognized by the attending physicians without the help of a toxicology laboratory. Loomis (1) reported that the majority of fatal poisonings owed to one, or a combination, of four agents: barbiturates, carbon monoxide, ethyl alcohol, and salicylates. Berry (2) estimated that 5-5'-disubstituted barbiturates were the second commonest cause of fatal poisoning in England, and that the frequency of their use was increasing. Other nonbarbiturate hypnotics involved in coma-producing incidents include glutethimide (Doriden®), methyprylon (Noludar®), and meprobamate (3, 4). In the last five years, diazepam (Valium®) has become one of the leading misused drugs (5).

  14. Clinical evaluation of C-MAC videolaryngoscope with or without use of stylet for endotracheal intubation in patients with cervical spine immobilization.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Rath, Girija Prasad; Prabhakar, Hemanshu

    2013-10-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the relative efficacy of the C-MAC videolaryngoscope as compared to the conventional Macintosh laryngoscope using both styletted and non-styletted endotracheal tube (ETT) in patients undergoing elective cervical spine surgery with head and neck stabilized by manual in-line stabilization. We randomized 120 consenting adults into four groups (30 each) to undergo tracheal intubation using either the Macintosh laryngoscope or C-MAC videolaryngoscope with styletted and non-styletted ETT. There was no significant difference between the C-MAC videolaryngoscope and Macintosh laryngoscope in Intubation Difficulty Scale (IDS) score using either styletted [median (IQR) 2 (1, 3) vs. 3 (2, 4); p = 0.58] or non-styletted ETT [median (IQR) 4 (2, 6) vs. 3 (2, 8); p = 1.00]. Similarly, when using a similar ETT-stylet assembly, the duration of successful intubation attempt, first attempt success rate, complications, use of airway optimization maneuvers, and adjuncts to facilitate intubation were comparable. The Cormack-Lehane view of the glottis was better with the C-MAC videolaryngoscope (p < 0.001). The use of stylet significantly reduced the IDS score [median (IQR) 2 (1, 3) vs. 4 (2, 6); p = 0.02], intubation time [median (IQR) 27 s (23, 31) vs. 52 s (28, 76); p < 0.001], and use of gum elastic bougie (3.3% vs. 43.3%, p < 0.001) with the C-MAC videolaryngoscope whereas no such effect was observed with the Macintosh laryngoscope. Use of the C-MAC videolaryngoscope and Macintosh laryngoscope resulted in similar levels of intubation difficulty during cervical immobilization when used with a similar ETT-stylet assembly. The inclusion of the stylet significantly reduced the intubation difficulty experienced with the C-MAC videolaryngoscope.

  15. Comparison of McGRATH MAC and Macintosh laryngoscopes for double-lumen endotracheal tube intubation by anesthesia residents: a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kido, Haruki; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Matsunami, Sayuri; Kusaka, Yusuke; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the utility of McGRATH MAC (McG) and Macintosh (McL) laryngoscopes for double-lumen endotracheal tube intubation in patients undergoing elective surgery. Randomized clinical trial. Operating room. Fifty adult patients scheduled for elective surgery under 1-lung ventilation with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 to 3. Double-lumen endotracheal tube intubation was performed with the McG (McG group; 25 patients) or conventional McL (McL group; 25 patients) laryngoscope by anesthesia residents. The number of attempts to successful intubation, intubation time, percentage of glottis opening score, and subjective difficulty of laryngoscopy and tube passage through the glottis were assessed. The total numbers of intubation attempts were 1 (McG group, 24 patients; McL group, 16 patients), 2 (McG group, 1 patient; McL group, 8 patients), and 3 (McG group, 0 patient; McL group, 1 patient), with significant differences between the two groups (P = .018). Intubation time was significantly shorter in the McG group compared with the McL group (McG: 17.1 ± 4.6 seconds vs McL: 20.8 ± 5.9 seconds, P = .026). The percentage of glottis opening score was significantly higher in the McG group compared with the McL group (McG: 88.4% ± 13.7% vs McL: 71.4% ± 20.4%, P = .004). The McG demonstrated a better intubation profile compared with the McL, possibly due to its ease of use for double-lumen endotracheal tube intubation. Clinical Trial registry number: UMIN000014636. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Patient-controlled sedation in orthopedic surgery under regional anesthesia: a new approach in procedural sedation.

    PubMed

    Ekin, Abdulselam; Donmez, Ferah; Taspinar, Vildan; Dikmen, Bayazit

    2013-01-01

    Regional anesthesia is a commonly used technique in orthopedic procedures. Sedation should reduce the patient's anxiety and fear while increasing regional anesthesia quality. This study evaluated the hemodynamic changes, level of sedation, both patients' and surgeons' levels of satisfaction and potential side effects in patient-controlled sedation using propofol. This randomized clinical trial studied sixty ASA physical class I-III patients scheduled for total knee replacement surgery under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. Patients in Group P (n = 30) received propofol via a patient-controlled analgesia device with the following settings: intravenous propofol bolus dose 400 μg.kg(-1), 5-minute lockout interval and no basal infusion. In Group S, we infused saline 150 using the same settings. To determine the level of sedation, we used BIS and Observer's Assessment of Alertness/ Sedation Scale. For all patients, we recorded the number of requests. As the fi nal evaluation, we scored surgeons' and patients' satisfaction on 4-point scales. Both BIS values and OAA/S scores were lower in Group P than in Group S. Patients' satisfaction was higher in Group P, although there was no significant difference with respect to surgeons' satisfaction between the groups. The number of requests for sedation was significantly higher in Group S. However, most requests were considered unsuccessful. This study suggests that patient-controlled sedation with propofol can be used efficiently in orthopedic procedures.

  17. Dental treatment of a patient with central sleep apnea and phobic anxiety under sedation: report of a case and clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Kılınç, Yeliz; Işık, Berrin

    2012-11-01

    Central sleep apnea (CSA) results from a reduction in lack of output from the central respiratory generator in the brainstem, manifesting as apneas and hypopneas without discernible efforts. CSA can lead to hypercarbia, arrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension, and heart failure. Indeed, the patient may develop a disturbed breathing during sedation procedures. We report a patient who was diagnosed with CSA and had been on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for 5 years. He was referred for multiple tooth extractions under sedation owing to severe gag reflex and phobic anxiety disorder. The treatment was completed uneventfully under N(2)O and sevoflurane inhalation accompanied by midazolam and ketamine induction. The role of sedative, analgesic, and anesthetic agents as a precipitating factor for CSA is of particular concern. The combined administration of midazolam, ketamine, sevoflurane, and N(2)O/O(2) is a useful and safe option for patients requiring sedation.

  18. Pediatric Sedation: A Global Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Gozal, David; Mason, Keira P.

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric sedation is a challenge which spans all continents and has grown to encompass specialties outside of anesthesia, radiology and emergency medicine. All sedatives are not universally available and local and national regulations often limit the sedation practice to specific agents and those with specific credentials. Some specialties have established certification and credentials for sedation delivery whereas most have not. Some of the relevant sedation guidelines and recommendations of specialty organizations worldwide will be explored. The challenge facing sedation care providers moving forward in the 21st century will be to determine how to apply the local, regional and national guidelines to the individual sedation practices. A greater challenge, perhaps impossible, will be to determine whether the sedation community can come together worldwide to develop standards, guidelines and recommendations for safe sedation practice. PMID:20981309

  19. MAC calorimeters and applications

    SciTech Connect

    MAC Collaboration

    1982-03-01

    The MAC detector at PEP features a large solid-angle electromagnetic/hadronic calorimeter system, augmented by magnetic charged-particle tracking, muon analysis and scintillator triggering. Its implementation in the context of electron-positron annihilation physics is described, with emphasis on the utilization of calorimetry.

  20. Recent results from MAC

    SciTech Connect

    MAC Collaboration

    1982-05-01

    Some preliminary results from the MAC detector at PEP are presented. These include measurements of the angular distribution of ..gamma gamma.., ..mu mu.. and tau tau final states, a determination of the tau lifetime, a measurement of R, and a presentation of the inclusive muon p/sub perpendicular/ distribution for hadronic events.

  1. Conscious Sedation Efficacy of 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg Oral Midazolam for Three to Six Year-Old Uncooperative Children Undergoing Dental Treatment: A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ghajari, Masoud Fallahinejad; Ansari, Ghassem; Hasanbeygi, Leila; Shayeghi, Shahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Midazolam with variable dosages has been used to induce sedation in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two dosages of oral midazolam for conscious sedation of children undergoing dental treatment. Materials and Methods: In this randomized crossover double blind clinical trial, 20 healthy children (ASA I) aged three to six years with definitely negative Frankl behavioral rating scale were evaluated. Half of the children received 0.5mg/kg oral midazolam plus 1mg/kg hydroxyzine (A) orally in the first session and 0.3mg/kg oral midazolam plus 1mg/kg hydroxyzine (B) in the next session. The other half received the drugs on a reverse order. Sedation degree by Houpt sedation rating scale, heart rate and level of SpO2 were assessed at the beginning and after 15 and 30 minutes. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19 and Wilcoxon Signed Rank and McNemar's tests. Results: The results showed that although administration of 0.5mg/kg oral midazolam was slightly superior to 0.3mg/kg oral midazolam in terms of sedation efficacy, the differences were not significant (P>0.05). The difference in treatment success was not significant either (P>0.05). Heart rate, oxygen saturation (SpO2) and respiratory rate were within the normal range and did not show a significant change (P>0.05). Conclusions: The overall success rate of the two drug combinations namely 0.5mg/kg oral midazolam plus hydroxyzine and 0.3mg/kg oral midazolam plus hydroxyzine was not significantly different for management of pediatric patients. PMID:27928238

  2. Sedation protocols versus daily sedation interruption: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nassar Junior, Antonio Paulo; Park, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to systematically review studies that compared a mild target sedation protocol with daily sedation interruption and to perform a meta-analysis with the data presented in these studies. Methods We searched Medline, Scopus and Web of Science databases to identify randomized clinical trials comparing sedation protocols with daily sedation interruption in critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation. The primary outcome was mortality in the intensive care unit. Results Seven studies were included, with a total of 892 patients. Mortality in the intensive care unit did not differ between the sedation protocol and daily sedation interruption groups (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60 - 1.10; I2 = 0%). Hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay did not differ between the groups either. Sedation protocols were associated with an increase in the number of days free of mechanical ventilation (mean difference = 6.70 days; 95%CI 1.09 - 12.31 days; I2 = 87.2%) and a shorter duration of hospital length of stay (mean difference = -5.05 days, 95%CI -9.98 - -0.11 days; I2 = 69%). There were no differences in regard to accidental extubation, extubation failure and the occurrence of delirium. Conclusion Sedation protocols and daily sedation interruption do not appear to differ in regard to the majority of analyzed outcomes. The only differences found were small and had a high degree of heterogeneity. PMID:28099642

  3. A novel system for automated propofol sedation: hybrid sedation system (HSS).

    PubMed

    Zaouter, Cedrick; Taddei, Riccardo; Wehbe, Mohamad; Arbeid, Erik; Cyr, Shantale; Giunta, Francesco; Hemmerling, Thomas M

    2017-04-01

    Closed-loop systems for propofol have been demonstrated to be safe and reliable for general anesthesia. However, no study has been conducted using a closed-loop system specifically designed for sedation in patients under spinal anesthesia. We developed an automatic anesthesia sedation system that allows for closed-loop delivery of propofol for sedation integrating a decision support system, called the hybrid sedation system (HSS). The objective of this study is to compare this system with standard practice. One hundred fifty patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to two groups: HSS-Group (N = 75), in which propofol was administered using a closed-loop system; Control Group (N = 75), in which propofol was delivered manually. The clinical performance of the propofol sedation control is defined as efficacy to maintain bispectral index (BIS) near 65. The clinical control was called 'Excellent', 'Good', 'Poor' and 'Inadequate' with BIS values within 10 %, from 11 to 20 %, 21 to 30 %, or greater than 30 % of the BIS target of 65, respectively. The controller performance was evaluated using Varvel's parameters. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation, groups were compared using t test or Chi square test, P < 0.05. Clinical performance of sedation showed 'Excellent' control in the HSS-group for a significantly longer period of time (49 vs. 26 % in the control group, P < 0.0001). 'Poor' and 'Inadequate' sedation was significantly shorter in the HSS Group compared to the Control Group (11 and 10 % vs. 20 and 18 %, respectively, P < 0.0001). The novel, closed-loop system for propofol sedation showed better maintenance of the target BIS value compared to manual administration.

  4. Retrospective Outcomes Evaluation of 100 Parenteral Moderate and Deep Sedations Conducted in a General Practice Dental Residency

    PubMed Central

    Messieha, Zakaria; Cruz-Gonzalez, Wanda; Hakim, Michel I

    2008-01-01

    An abstract of this study was presented at the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) Dental Anesthesiology Research Group in Honolulu, Hawaii, in March of 2004. This study was conducted to correlate the intraoperative and postoperative morbidity associated with moderate and deep sedation, also known as monitored anesthesia care (MAC), provided in a General Practice Residency (GPR) clinic under the supervision of a dentist anesthesiologist. After internal review board approval was obtained, 100 parenteral moderate and deep sedation cases performed by the same dentist anesthesiologist in collaboration with second year GPR residents were randomly selected and reviewed by 2 independent evaluators. Eleven morbidity criteria were assessed and were correlated with patient age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiology Physical Status Classification (ASAPS), duration of procedure, and anesthetic protocol. A total of 39 males and 61 females were evaluated. Patients' ASAPS were classified as I, II, and III, with the average ASAPS of 1.61 and the standard deviation (STDEV) of 0.584. No ASPS IV or V was noted. Average patient age was 33.8 years (STDEV, 14.57), and the average duration of procedure was 97.5 minutes (STDEV, 42.39). Three incidents of postoperative nausea and vomiting were reported. All 3 incidents involved the ketamine-midazolam-propofol anesthetic combination. All patients were treated and were well controlled with ondansetron. One incident of tongue biting in an autistic child was regarded as an effect of local anesthesia. One patient demonstrated intermittent premature atrial contractions (PACs) intraoperatively but was stable. Moderate and deep sedation, also known as MAC, is safe and beneficial in an outpatient GPR setting with proper personnel and monitoring. This study did not demonstrate a correlation between length of procedure and morbidity. Ketamine was associated with all reported nausea and vomiting incidents because propofol and

  5. Drugs Used for Parenteral Sedation in Dental Practice

    PubMed Central

    Dionne, Raymond A.; Gift, Helen C.

    1988-01-01

    The relative efficacy and safety of drugs and combinations used clinically in dentistry as premedicants to alleviate patient apprehension are largely unsubstantiated. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of agents used for parenteral sedation through controlled clinical trials, it is first necessary to identify which drugs, doses, and routes of administration are actually used in practice. A survey instrument was developed to characterize the drugs used clinically for anesthesia and sedation by dentists with advanced training in pain control. A random sample of 500 dentists who frequently use anesthesia and sedation in practice was selected from the Fellows of the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology. The first mailing was followed by a second mailing to nonrespondents after 30 days. The respondents report a variety of parenteral sedation techniques in combination with local anesthesia (the response categories are not mutually exclusive): nitrous oxide (64%), intravenous conscious sedation (59%), intravenous “deep” sedation (47%), and outpatient general anesthesia (27%). Drugs most commonly reported for intravenous sedation include diazepam, methohexital, midazolam, and combinations of these drugs with narcotics. A total of 82 distinct drugs and combinations was reported for intravenous sedation and anesthesia. Oral premedication and intramuscular sedation are rarely used by this group. Most general anesthesia reported is done on an outpatient basis in private practice. These results indicate that a wide variety of drugs is employed for parenteral sedation in dental practice, but the most common practice among dentists with advanced training in anesthesia is local anesthesia supplemented with intravenous sedation consisting of a benzodiazepine and an opioid or a barbiturate. PMID:3250279

  6. Optimizing sedation in patients with acute brain injury.

    PubMed

    Oddo, Mauro; Crippa, Ilaria Alice; Mehta, Sangeeta; Menon, David; Payen, Jean-Francois; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Citerio, Giuseppe

    2016-05-05

    Daily interruption of sedative therapy and limitation of deep sedation have been shown in several randomized trials to reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay, and to improve the outcome of critically ill patients. However, patients with severe acute brain injury (ABI; including subjects with coma after traumatic brain injury, ischaemic/haemorrhagic stroke, cardiac arrest, status epilepticus) were excluded from these studies. Therefore, whether the new paradigm of minimal sedation can be translated to the neuro-ICU (NICU) is unclear. In patients with ABI, sedation has 'general' indications (control of anxiety, pain, discomfort, agitation, facilitation of mechanical ventilation) and 'neuro-specific' indications (reduction of cerebral metabolic demand, improved brain tolerance to ischaemia). Sedation also is an essential therapeutic component of intracranial pressure therapy, targeted temperature management and seizure control. Given the lack of large trials which have evaluated clinically relevant endpoints, sedative selection depends on the effect of each agent on cerebral and systemic haemodynamics. Titration and withdrawal of sedation in the NICU setting has to be balanced between the risk that interrupting sedation might exacerbate brain injury (e.g. intracranial pressure elevation) and the potential benefits of enhanced neurological function and reduced complications. In this review, we provide a concise summary of cerebral physiologic effects of sedatives and analgesics, the advantages/disadvantages of each agent, the comparative effects of standard sedatives (propofol and midazolam) and the emerging role of alternative drugs (ketamine). We suggest a pragmatic approach for the use of sedation-analgesia in the NICU, focusing on some practical aspects, including optimal titration and management of sedation withdrawal according to ABI severity.

  7. Smart syringe pumps for drug infusion during dental intravenous sedation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-01-01

    Dentists often sedate patients in order to reduce their dental phobia and stress during dental treatment. Sedatives are administered through various routes such as oral, inhalation, and intravenous routes. Intravenous administration has the advantage of rapid onset of action, predictable duration of action, and easy titration. Typically, midazolam, propofol or dexmedetomidine are used as intravenous sedatives. Administration of these sedatives via infusion by using a syringe pump is more effective and successful than infusing them as a bolus. However, during intravenous infusion of sedatives or opioids using a syringe pump, fatal accidents may occur due to the clinician's carelessness. To prevent such risks, smart syringe pumps have been introduced clinically. They allow clinicians to perform effective sedation by using a computer to control the dose of the drug being infused. To ensure patient safety, various alarm features along with a drug library, which provides drug information and prevents excessive infusion by limiting the dose, have been added to smart pumps. In addition, programmed infusion systems and target-controlled infusion systems have also been developed to enable effective administration of sedatives. Patient-controlled infusion, which allows a patient to control his/her level of sedation through self-infusion, has also been developed. Safer and more successful sedation may be achieved by fully utilizing these new features of the smart pump. PMID:28884149

  8. Smart syringe pumps for drug infusion during dental intravenous sedation.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kwang-Suk; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-09-01

    Dentists often sedate patients in order to reduce their dental phobia and stress during dental treatment. Sedatives are administered through various routes such as oral, inhalation, and intravenous routes. Intravenous administration has the advantage of rapid onset of action, predictable duration of action, and easy titration. Typically, midazolam, propofol or dexmedetomidine are used as intravenous sedatives. Administration of these sedatives via infusion by using a syringe pump is more effective and successful than infusing them as a bolus. However, during intravenous infusion of sedatives or opioids using a syringe pump, fatal accidents may occur due to the clinician's carelessness. To prevent such risks, smart syringe pumps have been introduced clinically. They allow clinicians to perform effective sedation by using a computer to control the dose of the drug being infused. To ensure patient safety, various alarm features along with a drug library, which provides drug information and prevents excessive infusion by limiting the dose, have been added to smart pumps. In addition, programmed infusion systems and target-controlled infusion systems have also been developed to enable effective administration of sedatives. Patient-controlled infusion, which allows a patient to control his/her level of sedation through self-infusion, has also been developed. Safer and more successful sedation may be achieved by fully utilizing these new features of the smart pump.

  9. Conscious sedation for surgical procedures

    MedlinePlus

    Anesthesia - conscious sedation ... have, what medicines you are taking, and what anesthesia or sedation you have had before. You may ... M. Intravenous anesthetics. In: Miller RD, ed. Miller's Anesthesia . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  10. Monolithic MACS micro resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann-Horn, J. A.; Jacquinot, J.-F.; Ginefri, J. C.; Bonhomme, C.; Sakellariou, D.

    2016-10-01

    Magic Angle Coil Spinning (MACS) aids improving the intrinsically low NMR sensitivity of heterogeneous microscopic samples. We report on the design and testing of a new type of monolithic 2D MACS resonators to overcome known limitations of conventional micro coils. The resonators' conductors were printed on dielectric substrate and tuned without utilizing lumped element capacitors. Self-resonance conditions have been computed by a hybrid FEM-MoM technique. Preliminary results reported here indicate robust mechanical stability, reduced eddy currents heating and negligible susceptibility effects. The gain in B1 /√{ P } is in agreement with the NMR sensitivity enhancement according to the principle of reciprocity. A sensitivity enhancement larger than 3 has been achieved in a monolithic micro resonator inside a standard 4 mm rotor at 500 MHz. These 2D resonators could offer higher performance micro-detection and ease of use of heterogeneous microscopic substances such as biomedical samples, microscopic specimens and thin film materials.

  11. Results from MAC

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, G.B.

    1983-05-01

    The MAC detector has been exposed at PEP to 40 pb/sup -1/ luminosity of e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions. The detector is described and recent results of a continuing analysis of hadronic cross section, lepton pair charge asymmetry, Bhabha process, two photon final state and radiative ..mu.. pairs are given. New results on flavor tagging of hadronic events with an inclusive ..mu.., and some searches for new particles are presented.

  12. [Echocardiographic reference ranges of sedated cats].

    PubMed

    Dümmel, C; Neu, H; Hüttig, A; Failing, K

    1996-04-01

    The aim of this study was to get echocardiographic values of sedated healthy cats of the race European short hair for further reference. After the preliminary examinations checking on the state of health (anamnesis, general and special clinical examinations, ECG, X-ray of thorax and preparation of selected laboratory parameters), 74 sedated animals and additionally 33 cats without sedation were echocardiographically measured. For sedatives we used ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine in order to minimize defending movements of the animals and to reduce the heart rate, which facilitated the echocardiographical measurements. The covariance analysis of the measured values showed a statistically significant dependence on the weight. This did not hold for the two calculated values of the fractional shortening (FS) and the quotient of left atrium and aorta (LA/Ao), where the weight-dependence of each component was compensated by the calculation of the quotient. All stated weight-dependent reference values refer to an average bodyweight of 4.0 kg. A dependence on the age did not show in the covariance analysis. Due to the sedation, the diameter of the left atrium (LA) and the diameter of the left ventricular lumen in the diastole (LVDd) as well as the fractional shortening decreased significantly.

  13. Oral triazolam pretreatment for intravenous sedation.

    PubMed Central

    Stopperich, P. S.; Moore, P. A.; Finder, R. L.; McGirl, B. E.; Weyant, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    This double-blind, controlled clinical trial assessed the anxiety relief provided by oral triazolam given before intravenous sedation. Twenty-two healthy adults undergoing third-molar surgery with intravenous sedation were enrolled in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 0.25 mg of triazolam p.o. or an identically appearing placebo 45 to 60 min before venipuncture. Immediately before test drug administration, subjects completed the Corah Anxiety Scale, a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) assessing state anxiety, and the Interval Scale of Anxiety Response (ISAR). The VAS and ISAR were repeated immediately before venipuncture. Intravenous sedation medications consisted of fentanyl, midazolam, and methohexital. At 24 hr, assessments of the venipuncture and global experience were obtained. Results indicated that the characteristics of the triazolam and placebo patients were similar at baseline. With triazolam pretreatment, both the VAS and ISAR scores decreased significantly. Dose requirements for conscious sedation medications were decreased in the triazolam group. Patients rated the venipuncture experience significantly less unpleasant when pretreated with triazolam, and global ratings of the overall surgical experience favored triazolam. An oral-intravenous combination sedation technique using 0.25 mg of triazolam may have a significant therapeutic advantage for outpatient oral surgery. PMID:7943920

  14. An Economic Analysis of MAC Versus WALANT: A Trigger Finger Release Surgery Case Study.

    PubMed

    Codding, Jason L; Bhat, Suneel B; Ilyas, Asif M

    2017-07-01

    There has been recent interest in wide awake hand surgery, also referred to as "wide awake local anesthesia with no tourniquet" (WALANT) surgery. Using a model of single trigger finger release (TFR) surgery, a hypothesis was made that WALANT would result in decreased hospital time and cost than patients receiving sedation with monitored anesthetic care (MAC). Consecutive cases of single TFR surgery with MAC were compared with WALANT. All surgeries were performed in the same manner, at the same facility, and by the same surgeon. Total operating room (OR) time, surgical time, recovery time, and anesthesia costs were analyzed. There were 78 patients: 31 MAC and 47 WALANT. The MAC group averaged 27.2 minutes of OR time; the WALANT group averaged 25.2 minutes. The MAC group surgical time was 10.2 minutes versus WALANT of 10.4 minutes. Post-operatively, the MAC group averaged 72.3 minutes in the recovery room compared with WALANT group of 30.2 minutes. Each case performed under MAC had a minimum of excess charges from anesthesia of approximately $105. Patients undergoing single TFR surgery under WALANT trended toward less time in the OR, had similar surgical times, and spent significantly less time in the recovery room, compared with MAC, thereby resulting in less indirect costs. Each MAC case also had minimum direct excess anesthesia charges of $105, which knowingly underestimates overall charges as it excludes material and fixed costs associated with the delivery of anesthesia. Avoiding sedation for high-volume procedures such as TFR may result in significant systemic savings to payers, and in the future with bundling and episode-based payments can become increasingly important to patients, facilities, and surgeons.

  15. Increasing the quantity and quality of searching for current best evidence to answer clinical questions: protocol and intervention design of the MacPLUS FS Factorial Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Agoritsas, Thomas; Iserman, Emma; Hobson, Nicholas; Cohen, Natasha; Cohen, Adam; Roshanov, Pavel S; Perez, Miguel; Cotoi, Chris; Parrish, Rick; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Iorio, Alfonso; Haynes, R Brian

    2014-09-20

    Finding current best evidence for clinical decisions remains challenging. With 3,000 new studies published every day, no single evidence-based resource provides all answers or is sufficiently updated. McMaster Premium LiteratUre Service--Federated Search (MacPLUS FS) addresses this issue by looking in multiple high quality resources simultaneously and displaying results in a one-page pyramid with the most clinically useful at the top. Yet, additional logistical and educational barriers need to be addressed to enhance point-of-care evidence retrieval. This trial seeks to test three innovative interventions, among clinicians registered to MacPLUS FS, to increase the quantity and quality of searching for current best evidence to answer clinical questions. In a user-centered approach, we designed three interventions embedded in MacPLUS FS: (A) a web-based Clinical Question Recorder; (B) an Evidence Retrieval Coach composed of eight short educational videos; (C) an Audit, Feedback and Gamification approach to evidence retrieval, based on the allocation of 'badges' and 'reputation scores.' We will conduct a randomized factorial controlled trial among all the 904 eligible medical doctors currently registered to MacPLUS FS at the hospitals affiliated with McMaster University, Canada. Postgraduate trainees (n=429) and clinical faculty/staff (n=475) will be randomized to each of the three following interventions in a factorial design (AxBxC). Utilization will be continuously recorded through clinicians’ accounts that track logins and usage, down to the level of individual keystrokes. The primary outcome is the rate of searches per month per user during the six months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes, measured through the validated Impact Assessment Method questionnaire, include: utility of answers found (meeting clinicians’ information needs), use (application in practice), and perceived usefulness on patient outcomes. Built on effective models for the point

  16. [New technical developments for inhaled sedation].

    PubMed

    Meiser, A; Bomberg, H; Volk, T; Groesdonk, H V

    2017-01-31

    The circle system has been in use for more than 100 years, whereas the first clinical application of an anaesthetic reflector was reported just 15 years ago. In the circle system, all breathing gas is rebreathed after carbon dioxide absorption. A reflector, on the other hand, with the breathing gas flowing to and fro, specifically retains the anaesthetic during expiration and resupplies it during the next inspiration. A high reflection efficiency (number of molecules resupplied/number of molecules exhaled, RE 80-90%) decreases consumption. In analogy to the fresh gas flow of a circle system, pulmonary clearance ((1-RE) × minute ventilation) defines the opposition between consumption and control of the concentration.It was not until reflection systems became available that volatile anaesthetics were used routinely in some intensive care units. Their advantages, such as easy handling, and better ventilatory capabilities of intensive care versus anaesthesia ventilators, were basic preconditions for this. Apart from AnaConDa™ (Sedana Medical, Uppsala, Sweden), the new MIRUS™ system (Pall Medical, Dreieich, Germany) represents a second, more sophisticated commercially available system.Organ protective effects, excellent control of sedation, and dose-dependent deep sedation while preserving spontaneous breathing with hardly any accumulation or induction of tolerance, make volatile anaesthetics an interesting alternative, especially for patients needing deep sedation or when intravenous drugs are no longer efficacious.But obviously, the outcome is most important. We know that deep intravenous sedation increases mortality, whereas inhalational sedation could prove beneficial. We now need prospective clinical trials examining mortality, but also the psychological outcome of those most critically ill patients sedated by inhalation or intravenously.

  17. Physiology of Arousal in OSA and Potential Impacts for Sedative Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy S; O'Donoghue, Fergal J; Cori, Jennifer M; Trinder, John

    2017-04-11

    Treatment options for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) intolerant of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) are limited. Thus, new therapies are sought. Recently, there has been interest in using sedatives to delay arousal from sleep, allowing upper airway dilator muscle recruitment sufficient to re-open the airway while maintaining sleep. In this review the rationale for sedative use and prior sedative studies in OSA are presented, along with a description of six factors that may determine sedative treatment success. It is proposed that in order for a sedative to treat OSA the patient must have each of the following three traits: 1) a mild to moderately collapsible upper airway, 2) responsive and effective upper airway dilator muscles and 3) a low to moderate arousal threshold. In addition (4), proponents of sedative treatment generally believe that to be effective the sedative must increase the arousal threshold. Finally (5), sedatives may have additional utility in patients with large ventilatory responses to arousal and (6) the metric used to define sedative success needs to be considered. To date, few of these factors have been evaluated in sedative trials. Further, it is likely only a relatively small percentage of patients will have all of the required traits. If sedative treatment is successful in appropriate patients, easily measured surrogate markers for the factors that determine sedative success will be critical for implementation in the clinic. Finally, sedatives may have detrimental outcomes for some patients and prospective identification of such patients will be required.

  18. Palliative sedation in nursing anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Michael T

    2013-04-01

    Palliative sedation is a technique of providing a sedative for end-of-life care to patients with intractable pain. The literature discusses the techniques and use of palliative sedation. Numerous articles have been written regarding the issues surrounding its use, but no literature has discussed the prescription or administration of palliative sedation by a nurse anesthetist. By understanding the concept and ethics involved in its use and providing nursing care that is theory based, the author argues that the involvement of nursing anesthesia is appropriate and within the scope of practice. Few other healthcare disciplines can provide the patient care and empirical knowledge that is imperative in the care of the dying patient. This article discusses the concept and ethics of palliative sedation and presents a case of providing palliative sedation to a terminally ill patient by an experienced nurse anesthetist. Palliative sedation should be understood, embraced, and utilized as an area of expertise suited for nursing anesthesia.

  19. Prescription Sedative Misuse and Abuse.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Michael F

    2015-09-01

    Sedatives are widely prescribed for anxiety or insomnia and include benzodiazepines, selective benzodiazepine receptor subtype agonists (z-drugs), and barbiturates. These sedatives are controlled substances due to their potential for misuse and abuse. Misuse is often self-medication (chemical coping) of psychological symptoms in ways unauthorized by the prescriber, usually as dose escalation leading to requests for early refills. Sedatives are abused for euphoric effects, which may have dangerous consequences. Some sedative overdoses can be treated with flumazenil, a reversal agent, along with supportive care. Sedative withdrawal syndrome is treated by tapering the sedative and may require hospitalization. Long-term treatment of sedative addiction requires counseling, often with the help of an addiction-treatment professional.

  20. Prescription Sedative Misuse and Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Sedatives are widely prescribed for anxiety or insomnia and include benzodiazepines, selective benzodiazepine receptor subtype agonists (z-drugs), and barbiturates. These sedatives are controlled substances due to their potential for misuse and abuse. Misuse is often self-medication (chemical coping) of psychological symptoms in ways unauthorized by the prescriber, usually as dose escalation leading to requests for early refills. Sedatives are abused for euphoric effects, which may have dangerous consequences. Some sedative overdoses can be treated with flumazenil, a reversal agent, along with supportive care. Sedative withdrawal syndrome is treated by tapering the sedative and may require hospitalization. Long-term treatment of sedative addiction requires counseling, often with the help of an addiction-treatment professional. PMID:26339207

  1. Evaluation of BBL CHROMagar O157 versus Sorbitol-MacConkey Medium for Routine Detection of Escherichia coli O157 in a Centralized Regional Clinical Microbiology Laboratory▿

    PubMed Central

    Church, D. L.; Emshey, D.; Semeniuk, H.; Lloyd, T.; Pitout, J. D.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of BBL CHROMagar O157 (CHROM) versus that of sorbitol-MacConkey (SMAC) media for detection of Escherichia coli O157 was determined for a 3-month period. Results for 27/3,116 (0.9%) stool cultures were positive. CHROM had a higher sensitivity (96.30%) and negative predictive value (100%) and a better diagnostic efficiency than SMAC. Labor and material costs decreased when CHROM was used. PMID:17634298

  2. The current practice of sedation and analgesia in intensive care units in Malaysian public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N; Tan, C C; Balan, S

    2007-06-01

    We sought to review the current practice of sedation and analgesia in intensive care units (ICUs) in Malaysian public hospitals. A questionnaire survey was designed and sent by mail to 40 public hospitals with ICU facility in Malaysia. The anaesthesiologists in charge of ICU were asked to complete the questionnaire. Thirty seven questionnaires were returned (92.5% response rate). Only 35% respondents routinely assess the degree of sedation. The Ramsay scale was used prevalently. A written protocol for sedation was available in only 14 centers (38%). Although 36 centers (95%) routinely adjust the degree of sedation according to patient's clinical progress, only 10 centers (14%) interrupt sedation on a daily basis. Most respondents agreed that the selection of agents for sedation depends on familiarity (97%), pharmacology (97%), the expected duration for sedation (92%), patient's clinical diagnosis (89%) and cost (73%). Midazolam (89%) and morphine (86%) were the most commonly used agents for sedation and analgesia, respectively. Only 14% respondents still frequently use neuromuscular blocking agents, mostly in head injury patients. Our survey showed similarity in the choice of sedative and analgesic agents in ICUs in Malaysian public hospitals comparable to international practice. Nevertheless, the standard of practice could still be improved by implementing the practice of sedation score assessment and daily interruption of sedative infusion as well as having a written protocol for sedation and analgesia.

  3. Effects of nurses' practice of a sedation protocol on sedation and consciousness levels of patients on mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Abdar, Mohammad Esmaeili; Rafiei, Hossein; Abbaszade, Abbas; Hosseinrezaei, Hakimeh; Abdar, Zahra Esmaeili; Delaram, Masoumeh; Ahmadinejad, Mehdi

    2013-09-01

    Providing high-quality care in the intensive care units (ICUs) is a major goal of every medical system. Nurses play a crucial role in achieving this goal. One of the most important responsibilities of nurses is sedation and pain control of patients. The present study tried to assess the effect of nurses' practice of a sedation protocol on sedation and consciousness levels and the doses of sedatives and analgesics in the ICU patients. This clinical trial was conducted on 132 ICU patients on mechanical ventilation. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups. While the control group received the ICU's routine care, the intervention group was sedated by ICU nurses based on Jacob's modified sedation protocol. The subjects' sedation and consciousness levels were evaluated by the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), respectively. Doses of administered midazolam and morphine were also recorded. The mean RASS score of the intervention group was closer to the ideal range (-1 to +1), compared to the control group (-0.95 ± 0.3 vs. -1.88 ± 0.4). Consciousness level of the control group was lower than that of the intervention group (8.4 ± 0.4 vs. 8.8 ± 0.4). Finally, higher doses of midazolam and morphine were administered in the control group than in the intervention group. As nurses are in constant contact with the ICU patients, their practice of a sedation protocol can result in better sedation and pain control in the patients and reduce the administered doses of sedatives and analgesics.

  4. Conscious sedation experiences in graduate pediatric dentistry programs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S; Farrell, K; Griffen, A; Coury, D

    2001-01-01

    Conscious sedation is a behavior modification adjunct taught in all postgraduate pediatric dental residency programs. It has been a decade since the last survey was done specifically related to didactic and clinical aspects of conscious sedation in postgraduate pediatric dental programs. The aim of the study was to determine the clinical and didactic experiences associated with conscious sedation in these programs and to compare some of the findings to those collected a decade ago. A 31-item survey similar to that of a decade ago was constructed and sent to all pediatric dentistry program directors of accredited postgraduate and residency programs in the United States. The items covered several didactics including didactic topics, sedative agents, monitoring, and emergency policy among others. A follow-up mailing was done involving those who had not responded 6 weeks following the initial mailing. Fifty-four of 58 (93%) program directors returned the 31-item survey. The following are highlighted findings. Conscious sedation among residency programs was achieved most commonly with a combination of sedative agents used with N2O. Midazolam was more popular than chloral hydrate. The oral route was the predominant route of administration. More lecture hours were spent on conscious sedation than 10 years ago. The pre-cordial stethoscope, pulse oximeter, and blood pressure cuff were the most commonly used monitors. Sedative agent and anticipated depth of sedation were the factors most often considered in choosing monitors used during the sedation of a patient. The capnograph was being used more frequently than it was 10 years ago. Programs did not report an increase in sedation emergencies but practiced emergency drills more often and had increased numbers of individuals certified in Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) or Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS). The percent of the total patient population which required sedation is about 1-20%, with most directors

  5. MAC of xenon and halothane in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Whitehurst, S L; Nemoto, E M; Yao, L; Yonas, H

    1994-10-01

    Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) maps produced by 33% xenon-enhanced computed tomographic scanning (Xe/CT LCBF) are useful in the clinical diagnosis and management of patients with cerebrovascular disorders. However, observations in humans that 25-35% xenon (Xe) inhalation increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) have raised concerns that Xe/CT LCBF measurements may be inaccurate and that Xe inhalation may be hazardous in patients with decreased intracranial compliance. In contrast, 33% Xe does not increase CBF in rhesus monkeys. To determine whether this interspecies difference in the effect of Xe on CBF correlates with an interspecies difference in the anesthetic potency of Xe, we measured the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of Xe preventing movement to a tail-clamp stimulus in rhesus monkeys. Using a standard protocol for the determination of MAC in animals, we first measured the MAC of halothane (n = 5), and then used a combination of halothane and Xe to measure the MAC of Xe (n = 7). The halothane MAC was 0.99 +/- 0.12% (M +/- SD), and the Xe MAC was 98 +/- 15%. These results suggest that the MAC of Xe in rhesus monkeys is higher than the reported human Xe MAC value of 71%. Thus the absence of an effect of 33% Xe on CBF in the rhesus monkey may be related to its lower anesthetic potency.

  6. [Future and Current Status of Monitored Anesthesia Care (MAC) in Japan: Preface and Comments].

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Mikito

    2015-03-01

    American Society of Anesthesiologists defines that monitored anesthesia care (MAC) is a specific anesthesia service for a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure. Indications for monitored anesthesia care include the nature of the procedure, the patient's clinical condition and/or the potential need to convert to a general or regional anesthetic. In the USA, MAC is popular as an anesthesiologist service provided for an individual patient. MAC is also becoming increasingly popular in Japan. However, most Japanese anesthesiologists are not involved in MAC, and instead, physicians belonging to other departments such as internal medicine and pediatrics are in charge for MAC. Several guidelines for MAC during MRI in children and endoscopy in adults have recently been published in Japan. In the featured articles, we are dealing with the future and current status of MAC in Japan. Through the featured articles, I hope readers would know what to do next for us anesthesiologists in order to provide safe and useful MAC in Japan.

  7. Variables Influencing the Depth of Conscious Sedation in Plastic Surgery: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Hyeonjung; Kim, Wonwoo; Park, Hyochun; Kim, Hoonnam

    2017-01-01

    Conscious sedation has been widely utilized in plastic surgery. However, inadequate research has been published evaluating adequate drug dosage and depth of sedation. In clinical practice, sedation is often inadequate or accompanied by complications when sedatives are administered according to body weight alone. The purpose of this study was to identify variables influencing the depth of sedation during conscious sedation for plastic surgery. This prospective study evaluated 97 patients who underwent plastic surgical procedures under conscious sedation. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and glucose levels were measured. Midazolam and ketamine were administered intravenously according to a preset protocol. Bispectral index (BIS) recordings were obtained to evaluate the depth of sedation 4, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after midazolam administration. Associations between variables and the BIS were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Alcohol intake and female sex were positively associated with the mean BIS (P<0.01). Age was negatively associated with the mean BIS (P<0.01). Body mass index (P=0.263), creatinine clearance (P=0.832), smoking history (P=0.398), glucose (P=0.718), AST (P=0.729), and ALT (P=0.423) were not associated with the BIS. Older patients tended to have a greater depth of sedation, whereas females and patients with greater alcohol intake had a shallower depth of sedation. Thus, precise dose adjustments of sedatives, accounting for not only weight but also age, sex, and alcohol consumption, are required to achieve safe, effective, and predictable conscious sedation.

  8. Pain and anxiety management for pediatric dental procedures using various combinations of sedative drugs: A review.

    PubMed

    Gazal, Giath; Fareed, Wamiq Musheer; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Al-Samadani, Khalid H

    2016-07-01

    For fearful and uncooperative children behavioral management techniques are used. In order to control the pain and anxiety in pedodontic patients, pharmacologic sedation, anesthesia and analgesia are commonly used. Midazolam is commonly used as an oral sedation agent in children; it has several features such as safety of use, quick onset and certain degree of amnesia that makes it a desirable sedation agent in children. This review paper discusses various aspects of oral midazolam, ketamine and their combinations in conscious sedation including, advantages of oral route of sedation, pharmacokinetics, range of oral doses, and antagonists for clinical dental treatment procedures.

  9. Outcomes of moderate sedation in paediatric dental patients.

    PubMed

    Özen, B; Malamed, S F; Cetiner, S; Özalp, N; Özer, L; Altun, C

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of moderate sedation with nitrous oxide/oxygen (N(2) O/O(2)) alone or combined with different dosages and administration routes of midazolam in uncooperative paediatric dental patients using the Bispectral Index System (BIS). This one-year clinical study examined first-visit moderate sedation performed in 240 healthy children aged 4-6 years. Subjects were randomly divided into four groups according to drug, route and dosage, as follows: Group 1 - 0.20 mg/kg midazolam (40 mg/ml) delivered intranasally; Group 2 - 0.75 mg/kg midazolam (15 mg/3 ml) delivered orally; Group 3 - 0.50 mg/kg midazolam (15 mg/3 ml) delivered orally. All children in these three groups also received inhalation sedation with 50%-50% N(2) O/O(2), whereas children in Group 4 received inhalation sedation with 50%-50% N(2) O/O(2) only. The outcome of sedation was evaluated as either 'successful', 'failed' or 'not accepted'. The highest success rate was found in Group 1 (0.20 mg/kg intranasally, 87%), followed by Group 2 (0.75 mg/kg orally, 79%). The overall mean success rate for all groups was 73%. Moderate sedation can be successfully used in the clinical management of paediatric dental patients, with both intranasal and oral sedation using midazolam in conjunction with nitrous oxide found to be effective methods. © 2012 Australian Dental Association.

  10. Effects of preoperative oral melatonin medication on postoperative analgesia, sleep quality, and sedation in patients undergoing elective prostatectomy: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Borazan, Hale; Tuncer, Sema; Yalcin, Naime; Erol, Atilla; Otelcioglu, Seref

    2010-04-01

    Our intention was to assess the effectiveness of preoperative oral melatonin medication on sedation, sleep quality, and postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing elective prostatectomy. Fifty-two ASA I-II patients undergoing elective prostatectomy were included in this study, randomly divided into two groups. Patients received an oral placebo (n = 26) or 6 mg melatonin (n = 26) the night before and 1 h before surgery. All patients received a standard anesthetic protocol. At the end of surgery, all patients received tramadol i.v. via a PCA device. Extubation time, intraoperative fentanyl consumption, and recovery time were assessed at the end of the operation. Pain scores, tramadol consumption, and sedation scores were assessed at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h postoperatively, and sleep quality and subjective analgesic efficacy were assessed at 24 h after surgery. There were no significant differences in demographic data between the groups. Extubation time and recovery time from anesthesia were significantly longer in the melatonin group (P < 0.05). Intraoperative fentanyl usage, pain scores, and tramadol consumption were significantly lower in the melatonin group (P < 0.05). The postoperative sleep quality of patients was significantly better in the melatonin group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Postoperative VAS of pain was significantly lower in the melatonin group compared with the control group at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h postoperatively (P < 0.05). Subjective analgesic efficacy of patients was significantly different between groups (P < 0.05). The sedation scores were significantly higher in the melatonin group than in the control group at 1 h and 2 h after surgery (P < 0.05). Preoperative oral melatonin administration decreased pain scores and tramadol consumption and enhanced sleep quality, sedation scores, and subjective analgesic efficacy during the postoperative period.

  11. Use of GABAergic sedatives after subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with worse outcome-preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Hertle, Daniel N; Beynon, Christopher; Neumann, Jan O; Santos, Edgar; Sánchez-Porras, Renan; Unterberg, Andreas W; Sakowitz, Oliver W

    2016-12-01

    Recent experimental evidence identified GABAergic sedation as a possible cause for deprived neuroregeneration and poor outcome after acute brain injury. Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage are often sedated, and GABAergic sedation, such as midazolam and propofol, is commonly used. Retrospective cohort study based on a prospectively established database. Single-center neurointensive care unit. Twenty-nine patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Noninterventional study. The relationship between mean GABAergic sedative dose during the acute phase and outcome after 6 months according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale, and initial Glasgow Coma Scale was investigated. Use of GABAergic sedatives was negatively correlated with Glasgow Outcome Scale (r(2)=0.267; P=.008). Administration of sedatives was independent of the initial Glasgow Coma Scale. GABAergic sedatives flunitrazepam, midazolam, and propofol were used differently during the first 10 days after ictus. Administration of GABAergic sedation was associated with an unfavorable outcome after 6 months. To avoid bias (mainly through the indication to use sedation), additional experimental and comparative clinical investigation of, for example, non-GABAergic sedation, and clinical protocols of no sedation is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CD34 cell selection of peripheral blood progenitor cells using the CliniMACS device for allogeneic transplantation: clinical results in 102 patients.

    PubMed

    Ringhoffer, Mark; Wiesneth, Markus; Harsdorf, Stephanie; Schlenk, Richard F; Schmitt, Anita; Reinhardt, Peter P; Moessner, Margit; Grimminger, Wolfgang; Mertens, Thomas; Reske, Sven N; Döhner, Hartmut; Bunjes, Donald

    2004-08-01

    The present study investigated the effects of CD34(+) cell selection in 102 patients using the CliniMACS device. Patients were at high risk for the development of graft versus host disease (GvHD) because of age, or the use of a haploidentical, mismatched or unrelated donor (UD). The median age of the patients was 44 years. The CliniMACS procedure yielded 8.0 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg and the number of residual T cells was 1.3 x 10(4)/kg (median). The median follow up was 20.6 months. The probability of graft failure was 7%. The rate of acute GvHD was low (compatible family donors 10%, UDs 17%, and haploidentical donors 26%) with no patient enduring more than grade II disease. The cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD at the median follow up after transplant was 15% for the compatible family donor group, 40% for the UD group and 78% in the group transplanted from a haploidentical donor Treatment failure was mainly because of transplant-related mortality, especially aspergillus infection, and not due to relapse. The probability of disease-free survival, stratified for the risk of treatment failure, was 27% for the high risk, 46% for the intermediate risk and 83% for the low risk group.

  13. A comparison of sedation protocols for gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection: moderate sedation with analgesic supplementation vs analgesia targeted light sedation.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Y C; Park, C H; Shin, S; Park, Y; Lee, S K; Min, K T

    2015-07-01

    Moderate to deep sedation has been recommended during endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). However, it is often accompanied by adverse events such as respiratory depression or aspiration pneumonia. This study investigated the respiratory complications and ESD outcomes of two sedation protocols: moderate sedation with analgesic supplementation (MSAS) and analgesia targeted light sedation (ATLS). The clinical data of 293 patients who underwent ESD between May and December 2012 were reviewed. During the first 4 months, 155 patients were managed by moderate sedation [Modified Observer Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (MOAA/S) at 2-3] with the MSAS protocol. During the latter period, 138 patients were managed using the ATLS protocol (MOAA/S at 4-5). For both protocols, propofol and remifentanil were infused for sedation and pain control, respectively. The ATLS protocol required less propofol [22.9 (sd 17.3) vs 88.1 (44.0) µg kg(-1) min(-1), P<0.001] and more remifentanil [6.8 (sd 3.1) vs 4.9 (3.0) µg kg(-1) hr(-1), P<0.001] than the MSAS protocol. The desaturation events during the procedure occurred significantly less often (2.2 vs 12.9%, P=0.001) and recovery was significantly faster [19.7 (sd 4.8) vs 27.9 (16.0) min, P<0.001] with the ATLS protocol than with the MSAS protocol. The incidence of aspiration pneumonia with the ATLS protocol was 1.4% compared with 5.2% with the MSAS protocol (P=0.109). There were no differences in outcomes and complications of ESD. The ATLS protocol reduced the incidence of desaturation events without affecting ESD performance compared with the MSAS protocol. There was also a trend towards a low incidence of aspiration pneumonia with the ATLS protocol. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Intranasal Dexmedetomidine as a Sedative for Pediatric Procedural Sedation

    PubMed Central

    Birisci, Esma; Anderson, Jordan; Schroeder, Sara; Dalabih, Abdallah

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study seeks to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intranasal (IN) dexmedetomidine as a sedative medication for non-invasive procedural sedation. METHODS Subjects 6 months to 18 years of age undergoing non-invasive elective procedures were included. Dexmedetomidine (3 mcg/kg) was administered IN 40 minutes before the scheduled procedure time. The IN dexmedetomidine cohort was matched and compared to a cohort of 690 subjects who underwent sedation for similar procedures without the use of dexmedetomidine to evaluate for observed events/interventions and procedural times. RESULTS One hundred (92%) of the 109 included subjects were successfully sedated with IN dexmedetomidine. There were no significant differences in the rate of observed events/interventions in comparison to the non-dexmedetomidine cohort. However, the IN dexmedetomidine group had a longer postprocedure sleep time when compared to the non-dexmedetomidine cohort (p < 0.001), which had a significant effect on recovery time (p = 0.024). Also, the dexmedetomidine cohort had longer procedure time and total admit time (p < 0.001 and p = 0.037, respectively). CONCLUSIONS IN dexmedetomidine may be used for non-invasive pediatric procedural sedation. Subjects receiving IN dexmedetomidine had a similar rate of observed events/interventions as the subjects receiving non-dexmedetomidine sedation, with the exception of sleeping time. Also, patients sedated with IN dexmedetomidine had longer time to discharge, procedure time, and total admit time in comparison to other forms of sedation. PMID:28337075

  15. EISCAT observations during MAC/SINE and MAC/Epsilon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettger, J.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Hall, C.

    1989-01-01

    The EISCAT incoherent scatter radar facility in Tromsoe, Norway was operated during the MAC/SINE campaign for 78 hours in the period 10 June to 17 July 1987, and during the MAC/Epsilon campaign for 90 hours in the period 15 October to 5 November 1987. The VHF (224 MHz) radar operations during MAC/SINE yielded most interesting observations of strong coherent echoes from the mesopause region. Characteristic data of these polar mesospheric summer echoes are presented. The UHF (933 MHz) radar operations during MAC/Epsilon were done with 18 deg off zenith beam and allows the deduction of meridonal and horizontal wind components as well as radial velocity spectra in addition to the usual electron density profiles in the D and lower E regions. Some results from the VHF and UHF radars indicating the presence of gravity waves are examined.

  16. Pediatric critical care physician-administered procedural sedation using propofol: a report from the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium Database.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Pradip P; McCracken, Courtney E; Gillespie, Scott E; Fortenberry, James D; Stockwell, Jana A; Cravero, Joseph P; Hebbar, Kiran B

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for pediatric procedural sedation has resulted in a marked increase in provision of pediatric procedural sedation by pediatric critical care physicians both inside and outside of the ICU. Reported experience of pediatric critical care physicians-administered pediatric procedural sedation is limited. We used the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium database to evaluate a multicenter experience with propofol by pediatric critical care physicians in all settings. Review of national Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium database to identify pediatric procedural sedation provided by pediatric critical care physicians from 2007 to 2012. Demographic and clinical data were collected to describe pediatric procedural sedation selection, location, and delivery. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with pediatric procedural sedation-related adverse events and complications. A total of 91,189 pediatric procedural sedation performed by pediatric critical care physicians using propofol were included in the database. Median age was 60.0 months (range, 0-264 months; interquartile range, 34.0-132.0); 81.9% of patients were American Society of Anesthesiologists class I or II. Most sedations were performed in dedicated sedation or radiology units (80.9%). Procedures were successfully completed in 99.9% of patients. A propofol bolus alone was used in 52.8%, and 41.7% received bolus plus continuous infusion. Commonly used adjunctive medications were lidocaine (35.3%), opioids (23.3%), and benzodiazepines (16.4%). Overall adverse event incidence was 5.0% (95% CI, 4.9-5.2%), which included airway obstruction (1.6%), desaturation (1.5%), coughing (1.0%), and emergent airway intervention (0.7%). No deaths occurred; a single cardiac arrest was reported in a 13-month-old child receiving propofol and ketamine, with no untoward neurologic sequelae. Risk factors associated with adverse event included: location of

  17. Propofol-ketamine or propofol-remifentanil for deep sedation and analgesia in pediatric patients undergoing burn dressing changes: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Seol, Tai-Kyung; Lim, Jin-Kyu; Yoo, Eun-Kyung; Min, Seong-Won; Kim, Chong-Soo; Hwang, Jin-Young

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we compared the propofol-ketamine and propofol-remifentanil combinations for deep sedation and analgesia during pediatric burn wound dressing changes. Fifty pediatric patients aged 12-36 months, undergoing burn wound dressing changes, were randomly assigned to receive propofol-remifentanil (group PR) or propofol-ketamine (group PK) for deep sedation and analgesia. Patients in the group PR received 2 mg·kg(-1) propofol and 0.1 μg·kg(-1) remifentanil, and 0.05 μg·kg(-1) ·min(-1) remifentanil was infused continuously until the end of the procedure. Patients in the group PK received 2 mg·kg(-1) propofol and 1 mg·kg(-1) ketamine, and the same volume of isotonic saline was infused continuously until the end of the procedure. Additional propofol with remifentanil or ketamine was administered when required. Hemodynamic variables, drug requirements, occurrence of patient movement, surgeon's satisfaction score, recovery time, and the incidence of adverse events were recorded throughout the procedure and recovery. Recovery time was significantly shorter in the group PR compared to that in the group PK (10.3 [9.1-11.5] min vs 22.5 [20.3-25.6] min, median [interquartile range], respectively; P < 0.001). No significant hypotension or bradycardia occurred throughout the procedure. No significant differences were observed in terms of drug requirements, occurrence of patient movement, surgeon's satisfaction, incidence of respiratory depression, hypoxia, or nausea and vomiting The combinations of propofol-ketamine and propofol-remifentanil were effective for sedation and analgesia in pediatric patients undergoing burn dressing changes, but the propofol-remifentanil combination provided faster recovery compared to the propofol-ketamine combination. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Sedation in Japanese dental schools.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Zac; Sano, Kimito; Fujii, Kazuyuki; Kanri, Tomio

    2004-01-01

    There is very little information about the practice of sedation in Japan. Despite the remarkable advances in dentistry, fear and anxiety continue to be significant deterrents for seeking dental services. Most dental procedures can fortunately be undertaken with the aid of sedation. A comprehensive survey of all the dental schools in Japan was carried out to determine what sedation practices were used in Japan. All 29 dental schools in Japan possessed a dedicated department of anesthesiology at the time of this survey. The survey attempted to determine the specific sedation methods (techniques, routes of administration, and agents used in sedation) as well as practices (monitoring, fasting, location, education, and fees involved in sedation). The results indicate that there was a broad range in sedation practices. The Japanese Dental Society of Anesthesiology may wish to examine the findings of this study and may wish to formulate guidelines appropriate for the practice of sedation in Japan. Others may also wish to compare their own practices with those of Japan. PMID:15497299

  19. Assessment of patients' awareness and factors influencing patients' demands for sedation in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Huh, Yoo Kyeom; Montagnese, Thomas A; Harding, Jarrod; Aminoshariae, Anita; Mickel, Andre

    2015-02-01

    Endodontic therapy is perceived by many as a procedure to be feared. Many studies have reported that fear and anxiety are major deterrents to seeking dental care in general, but only a few deal with the use of sedation in endodontic therapies. The purpose of this study was to assess patients' awareness of and factors influencing the potential demand for sedation in endodontics. We hypothesized that there is an association between demographic factors and the demand for sedation in endodontics. A survey consisting of 24 questions was given to patients 18 years and older who presented to the graduate endodontic clinic. Results were collected and statistically analyzed. Thirty-six percent of patients reported that their perception of sedation was being put to sleep, and 27% perceived it as related to or reducing pain. Concerns associated with endodontic therapy were the fear of pain (35%), fear of needles (16%), difficulty getting numb (10%), and anxiety (7%). The 2 major demographic factors that influenced the demand for sedation were cost and the level of anxiety (P < .05). Fifty-one percent showed a positive interest in sedation for endodontic therapy if the option of sedation was available. The demand for sedation in endodontics is high. Patients' understanding of sedation varies. More patients would consider having endodontic procedures if sedation was available. The provision of sedation by endodontists could result in more patients accepting endodontic therapies. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Procedural moderate sedation with ketamine in pediatric critical care unit.

    PubMed

    Hazwani, Tarek R; Al-Alem, Hala

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of moderate sedation in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) settings according to moderate sedation protocol using ketamine and midazolam and to determine areas for the improvement in our clinical practice. A retrospective study was conducted in the PICU. Retrospective chart review was performed for patients who had received moderate sedation between January and the end of December 2011 and who are eligible to inclusion criteria. In this study, 246 moderate sedation sessions were included. 5.3% were in infant age, while 94.7% were children (1-14 years). Their gender distributed as 59.8% males and 40.2% females. The majority of them had hematology-oncology disease nature, i.e., 80.89% (n = 199). Lumbar puncture accounted for 65.3% (n = 160) of the producers; the rests were bone marrow aspiration 32.7%, endoscopy 8.2%, and colonoscopy 2.9%. Two doses of ketamine (1-1.5 mg/kg) to achieve moderate sedation during the procedure were given to 44.1% (n = 108) of the patients. One dose of midazolam was given to 77.2% (n = 190), while 1.22% (n = 3) of sessions of moderate sedation was done without any dose of midazolam. Adverse events including apnea, laryngeal spasm, hypotension, and recovery agitation were observed during moderate sedation sessions, and it has been noticed in four sessions, i.e., 1.6%, which were mild to moderate and managed conservatively. Moderate sedation in the PICU using ketamine and midazolam is generally safe with minimal side effects as moderate sedation sessions were conducted by pediatric intensivist in highly monitored and equipped environment.

  1. Procedural moderate sedation with ketamine in pediatric critical care unit

    PubMed Central

    Hazwani, Tarek R.; Al-Alem, Hala

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of moderate sedation in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) settings according to moderate sedation protocol using ketamine and midazolam and to determine areas for the improvement in our clinical practice. Settings and Design: A retrospective study was conducted in the PICU. Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart review was performed for patients who had received moderate sedation between January and the end of December 2011 and who are eligible to inclusion criteria. Results: In this study, 246 moderate sedation sessions were included. 5.3% were in infant age, while 94.7% were children (1–14 years). Their gender distributed as 59.8% males and 40.2% females. The majority of them had hematology-oncology disease nature, i.e., 80.89% (n = 199). Lumbar puncture accounted for 65.3% (n = 160) of the producers; the rests were bone marrow aspiration 32.7%, endoscopy 8.2%, and colonoscopy 2.9%. Two doses of ketamine (1–1.5 mg/kg) to achieve moderate sedation during the procedure were given to 44.1% (n = 108) of the patients. One dose of midazolam was given to 77.2% (n = 190), while 1.22% (n = 3) of sessions of moderate sedation was done without any dose of midazolam. Adverse events including apnea, laryngeal spasm, hypotension, and recovery agitation were observed during moderate sedation sessions, and it has been noticed in four sessions, i.e., 1.6%, which were mild to moderate and managed conservatively. Conclusion: Moderate sedation in the PICU using ketamine and midazolam is generally safe with minimal side effects as moderate sedation sessions were conducted by pediatric intensivist in highly monitored and equipped environment. PMID:28182021

  2. A prospective evaluation of the incidence of adverse events in nurse-administered moderate sedation guided by sedation scores or Bispectral Index.

    PubMed

    Yang, Katie S; Habib, Ashraf S; Lu, Minyi; Branch, M S; Muir, Holly; Manberg, Paul; Sigl, Jeffrey C; Gan, Tong J

    2014-07-01

    Moderate sedation is routinely performed in patients undergoing minor therapeutic and diagnostic procedures outside the operating room. The level of sedation is often monitored by sedation nurses using clinical criteria, such as sedation scores. The Bispectral Index (BIS) is derived from changes in the electroencephalograph profile that may provide an objective measure of the level of sedation. In this prospective observational study, we investigated whether using BIS values to guide sedative drug administration influences the level of sedation and the incidence of adverse events compared with using Ramsay sedation scale (RSS) only in nurse-administered moderate sedation. We hypothesized that both depth of sedation and the incidence of adverse events related to oversedation would decrease when sedation nurses used BIS values to help guide sedative drug administration. Sedation care was provided by trained sedation nurses under the supervision of a physician performing the procedure. The sedation regimen was initiated with IV midazolam 1 to 2 mg and fentanyl 50 mcg or hydromorphone 0.2 mg. Additional small boluses of midazolam, fentanyl, or hydromorphone were administered to maintain an RSS of 2 to 3 (cooperative, oriented, and responding to verbal command). Propofol was not used. Information including patient demographics, type of procedure, medication administered, RSS, and rates of adverse events was recorded by the sedation nurses for each patient on a computer-readable form. The study was divided into 3 phases. In phase 1 (baseline, 6 months' duration), baseline data on sedation practice were prospectively collected. There was no change from standard of care for all patients except that each patient had a BIS sensor attached, but the monitor was covered and nurses were blinded to the BIS values. In phase 2 (training, 3 months), the sedation nurses received comprehensive education on the use of BIS to guide sedative drug administration, pharmacology of commonly

  3. Video modelling for reducing anxiety related to the use of nasal masks place it for inhalation sedation: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Al-Namankany, A; Petrie, A; Ashley, P

    2015-02-01

    A randomised controlled trial to investigate if video modelling can reduce the level of dental anxiety and increase the patient's acceptance of the nasal mask usage for children receiving dental treatment using inhalation sedation (IS). A sample of 80 (8-16 years) children due to have dental treatments under IS were randomly allocated to either the modelling video or the control video (oral hygiene instruction). The level of anxiety was recorded before and after watching the video on the Abeer Children Dental Anxiety Scale and each child's ability to cope with the subsequent procedure was assessed on the visual analogue scale. A two-group Chi-square test was used as the basis for the sample size calculation; a significance level of 0.025 was chosen rather than the conventional 0.05 to avoid spurious results arising from multiple testing. Children in the test group had significantly less anxiety after watching the video than those in the control group throughout the subsequent dental procedure; particullary, at the time of the nasal mask administration (P<0.001). Video modelling appeared to be effective at reducing dental anxiety and has a significant impact on the acceptance of the nasal mask administration for Inhalation Sedation in children.

  4. Experiences of Family Members of Dying Patients Receiving Palliative Sedation.

    PubMed

    Tursunov, Olga; Cherny, Nathan I; Ganz, Freda DeKeyser

    2016-11-01

    part of the core nursing curriculum. Nursing administrators in areas that use palliative sedation should enforce good nursing clinical practice as recommended by international practice guidelines, such as those of the European Association for Palliative Care.

  5. Fiverr MacGyver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick; Larson, Martha

    2014-05-01

    Crowdsourcing has become popular over the past years, also for scientific endeavors. There are many Citizen Science projects and crowdfunding platforms, such as Kickstarter, that are make helpful contributions to moving environmental science forward. An interesting underused source of useful crowd-derived contributions to research is the website Fiverr.com. On this platform, thousands of people, acting as small-scale freelance contractors, offer their skills in the form of services. The platform offers a chance for people to take a hobby, skill, or pastime and make it something more by reaching out to a wider audience and by receiving a payment in return for services. As is typical of other crowdsourcing platforms, the tasks are small and usually self contained. As the name Fiverr suggests, offers start at US5 to provide a particular service. Services offered range from graphic design, to messages sung or spoken with various styles or accents, to complete apps for Android or iPhone. Skill providers on the platform can accept a range of variation of definition in the tasks, some can be described in general terms, for others it is more appropriate to provide examples. Fiverr provides a central location for those offering skills and those needing services to find each other, it makes it possible to communicate and exchange files, to make payments, and it provides support for resolving disputes. In all cases, it is important to keep expectations aligned with the nature of the platform: quality can and will vary. Ultimately, the critical contribution of Fiverr is not to replace professional services or otherwise save money, but rather to provide access to a large group of people with specialized skills who are able to make a contribution on short notice. In the context of this session, it can be considered a pool of people with MacGyver skills lying in wait of a MacGyyer task to attack. There are many ways in which Fiverr tasks, which are called 'gigs', can be useful in

  6. [Sedation and analgesia practices among Spanish neonatal intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Avila-Alvarez, A; Carbajal, R; Courtois, E; Pertega-Diaz, S; Muñiz-Garcia, J; Anand, K J S

    2015-08-01

    Pain management and sedation is a priority in neonatal intensive care units. A study was designed with the aim of determining current clinical practice as regards sedation and analgesia in neonatal intensive care units in Spain, as well as to identify factors associated with the use of sedative and analgesic drugs. A multicenter, observational, longitudinal and prospective study. Thirty neonatal units participated and included 468 neonates. Of these, 198 (42,3%) received sedatives or analgesics. A total of 19 different drugs were used during the study period, and the most used was fentanyl. Only fentanyl, midazolam, morphine and paracetamol were used in at least 20% of the neonates who received sedatives and/or analgesics. In infusions, 14 different drug prescriptions were used, with the most frequent being fentanyl and the combination of fentanyl and midazolam. The variables associated with receiving sedation and/or analgesia were, to have required invasive ventilation (P<.001; OR=23.79), a CRIB score >3 (P=.023; OR=2.26), the existence of pain evaluation guides in the unit (P<.001; OR=3.82), and a pain leader (P=.034; OR=2.35). Almost half of the neonates admitted to intensive care units receive sedatives or analgesics. There is significant variation between Spanish neonatal units as regards sedation and analgesia prescribing. Our results provide evidence on the "state of the art", and could serve as the basis of preparing clinical practice guidelines at a national level. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Therapeutics and Sedation in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Young, Earle R.

    1988-01-01

    Sedation can help to overcome the fear that prevents many Canadians from accepting dental treatment. This article discusses the indications and contraindications for oral, intramuscular, and inhalation sedation as used by the general dental practitioner for both adult and child patients, with a note on the growing number of specialist dental anesthetists who provide intravenous out-patient sedation. Local anesthesia is discussed with reference to allergic reactions, malignant hyperthermia, and the use of epinephrine as a vasoconstrictor in patients with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21253202

  8. Outpatient sedation for oral surgery: a comparison of butorphanol and fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Day, O L; Nespeca, J A; Ringgold, C; Behr, D A; Evens, R P

    1988-01-01

    Third molar surgery in the oral and maxillofacial surgery office has been a predictable model for evaluating the efficacy of sedatives and analgesics. In this setting, butorphanol plus diazepam and fentanyl plus diazepam were compared for surgical effectiveness and postoperative recovery. The comparison of butorphanol to a known sedative combination was clinically very satisfactory. It appears from this data that butorphanol has a pharmacologic place in outpatient conscious sedation.

  9. Spontaneous hyperactivity in mutant mice lacking the NMDA receptor GluRepsilon1 subunit is aggravated during exposure to 0.1 MAC sevoflurane and is preserved after emergence from sevoflurane anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, A B; Kohno, T; Wu, J; Sakimura, K; Baba, H

    2008-12-01

    Patients who awake from sevoflurane anaesthesia with symptoms of agitation may have some underlying functional substrate that is sensitive to the low concentrations of anaesthetic encountered during emergence. One candidate for such a substrate could be neurocircuitry implied in the pathophysiology of both agitation and movement disorders with hyperactivity. We postulated that hyperactive animals would show a further increase in activity in the presence of low concentrations of volatile anaesthetics, such as sevoflurane. To confirm our hypothesis, we examined the effects of two subanaesthetic concentrations of sevoflurane, isoflurane and halothane (0.1 and 0.2 MAC (minimum alveolar concentration)) on spontaneous activity in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor GluRepsilon1 subunit knockout mice exhibiting locomotor hyperactivity in a novel environment and compared these results with those for wild-type controls. We also compared the effects of anaesthetic concentrations of sevoflurane (1.2 MAC) on mice activity during postanaesthesia recovery. Out of the three anaesthetics used, only sevoflurane administered at 0.1 MAC caused a significantly different response between the two experimental groups. Exposure to this subanaesthetic concentration of sevoflurane reduced the activity of wild-type mice, whereas mutant animals showed a further increase in hyperactivity. The effects of 1.2 MAC sevoflurane anaesthesia on mice activity during postanaesthesia recovery also differed significantly between the two genotypes. Exposure to anaesthetic concentrations of sevoflurane had a sedative effect on wild-type mice, whereas mutant mice preserved their high levels of activity upon emergence from the anaesthesia. The presence of an inherent anomaly in mutant mice that becomes more manifest during exposure to 0.1 MAC sevoflurane and is still present after the emergence from sevoflurane anaesthesia suggests the presence of and necessitates a search for some putative substrate that may, by

  10. Sedation practice for paediatric nuclear medicine procedures in Denmark related to EANM guidelines.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Linda; Andersen, Trine Borup; Petersen, Lars J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine sedation practices for paediatric nuclear medicine examinations. A questionnaire was sent to all nuclear medicine departments in Denmark about sedation practices during 2012. The response rate was 100% (18 departments). Three departments did not examine children at all. The total number of paediatric examinations among the remaining 15 sites varied from 20 to 1,583 (median 191). Sedation practice showed that approximately 50% of the sites regularly (>50% of the patients) used pharmacological sedation for renography in children aged 6-12 months and 1-3 years. A minority of centres (∼15%) regularly used sedation in children aged 0-6 months, and no sites regularly used sedation in children aged and 4-6 years. Similar findings were found for renal scintigraphy. However, one large site used no sedation in children aged 1-3 years for renography but approximately 50% of patients used it in the same age group receiving renal scintigraphy with SPET. There was a trend for reduced use of sedation with increasing total number of paediatric medicine procedures. The most frequently used agents were benzodiazepines and barbiturates. The most common route of administration was rectal, oral, and intravenous. The sedation practices varied considerably among Danish nuclear medicine departments. The sedation of children in clinical practice seemed to be more prevalent than is recommended by guidelines.

  11. Sedation for dental treatment of children in the primary care sector (UK).

    PubMed

    Ashley, P F; Parry, J; Parekh, S; Al-Chihabi, M; Ryan, D

    2010-06-01

    To audit the clinical practice of a dental sedation service in the primary care sector and determine which services dentists use to manage unco-operative children. Retrospective analysis and prospective audit. Sedation clinic in primary care, 2007, England. Children attending for dental treatment under sedation. General dental practitioners (GDPs) in the Brighton and West Sussex regions. Questionnaire. Clinical service audit, patient satisfaction, referrer satisfaction. Four hundred children (age range 5-12 years) had been referred for caries (78%), with the remainder for orthodontic extractions. The most common treatment carried out on primary and permanent teeth was extractions followed by restorations. A combination of intravenous (IV) midazolam/ketamine/fentanyl was used in 40% of cases, and IV midazolam/ketamine was used in 34% of cases. Seventy-four percent of parents responded to the satisfaction questionnaire; of these 97% rated sedation as excellent/good and 80% would choose sedation or recommend sedation for others. Only 45% of questionnaires to referrers were returned. Fifty-six percent of dentists preferred general anaesthesia (GA) and 66% preferred IV sedation. Dental treatment for children was provided under IV sedation with most parents satisfied with the procedure. Little difference was seen between referring dentists' perceptions of IV sedation or GA.

  12. Characteristics of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease in previously treated lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Meier, Erin; Pennington, Kelly; Gallo de Moraes, Alice; Escalante, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is responsible for a large portion of non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections worldwide. Host factors such as active malignancy, immunosuppression, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis increase the risk of MAC infection. However, the relationship between previously treated lung cancer with subsequent development of MAC pulmonary disease and treatment outcomes have not been previously studied. We retrospectively identified all patients with lung cancer and MAC pulmonary disease documented in medical records at Mayo Clinic between January 2005 and October 2016. Patients who were diagnosed with MAC pulmonary disease before or at the time of lung cancer diagnosis were excluded. Patients meeting all inclusion criteria underwent chart review for prior oncologic treatments, clinical characteristics, and MAC treatment response. We identified 13 patients with MAC pulmonary disease and prior lung cancer, including 4 men and 9 women. Eight patients had structural lung disease that can predispose to MAC pulmonary disease, including bronchiectasis (23.0%) and COPD (46.2%). Four (30.8%) had no apparent immunosuppression or other risk factor(s) for MAC pulmonary disease. Primary pulmonary malignancies included pulmonary carcinoid, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Ten (76.9%) patients were started on antimicrobial treatment for MAC, and 8 (61.5%) patients completed MAC treatment with 6 (46.1%) patients achieving symptomatic improvement. MAC pulmonary disease in previously treated lung cancer can occur without apparent risk factors for this NTM infection. Symptomatic improvement with MAC antimicrobial therapy appears to be lower than expected but comorbidities might influence outcomes in this patient population.

  13. What Happens After Referral For Sedation?

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Carole A; Newton, Tim; Heaton, Lisa; Afzali, Sonita; Milgrom, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective To follow up 100 referrals to the sedation clinic examining dental anxiety and background of patients and assess how many patients attended for treatment planning, initial treatment, and completed treatment and describe their characteristics. Among those who attended for initial treatment, which type of sedation they received at initial treatment and what level of clinician they saw. Design Descriptive, cross sectional survey and review of case notes. Subjects and Methods Subjects were 100 consecutive new patients in Sedation and Special Care Guy’s and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust. The notes were analysed by an experienced member of staff (CAB) and data entered into an Excel spreadsheet and an SPSS datafile created. These data were merged with a dataset containing their responses to the intake questionnaire and medical history for analysis. Results Of the 100 patients initially referred, 72 attended the treatment planning session, 66 of the 72 (92%) attended for initial dental treatment, and 33 of 66 (50%) completed treatment. Dental Fear Survey (DFS) scores were related to attendance at the initial treatment visit but not to completion of treatment. Patients with mental health problems encountered more barriers. Only 33 of 100 patients referred completed treatment. Conclusions Attendance for treatment planning and initial treatment was high. Attendance is related to fear and mental health. Overall completion of treatment from referral was 33 percent. PMID:20512107

  14. [Magnetic resonance imaging without sedation in neonates].

    PubMed

    Ureta-Velasco, N; Martínez-de Aragón, A; Moral-Pumarega, M T; Núñez-Enamorado, N; Bergón-Sendín, E; Pallás-Alonso, C R

    2015-05-01

    The ability to perform magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without sedation in the neonatal period increases patient safety, availability and profitability of the diagnostic tool. The aim in this study was to evaluate a new protocol of MRI without sedation during a 20-month period. In the protocol, the patients are prepared in the neonatal unit. Prospective descriptive study, from May 2012 to December 2013. Patients included were neonates requiring MRI, clinically stable and not requiring ventilatory support. The method was based on the application of developmental centered care and the use of a vacuum matress to immobilize the baby. The principal outcome parameter of interest was the percentage of succesfully completed MRIs. The duration of the MRI and the number of interruptions, was also studied from October 2012. A total of 43 MRIs without sedation were carried out on 42 patients: 41 cerebral and 2 spinal. The success rate was 97.7% (42/43). The mean MRI time was 26.3 minutes (95% CI 23.3-29.3 mins; range 16-50 mins). MRIs were completed without interruption in 20 of the 34 cases (58%) in which the duration was recorded. The number of interruptions per procedure varied from 0 to 3, with a mean of 0.6 (95% CI 0.3-0.8) and a median of 0. The protocol had a success rate of over 90%. Thus MRI without sedation seems applicable in Spanish hospitals, with most of the preparation being performed in the neonatal unit, in order to reduce the occupation of the MRI unit, as well as minimizing stress to the baby. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Intranasal sedatives in pediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    AlSarheed, Maha A

    2016-09-01

    To identify the intranasal (IN) sedatives used to achieve conscious sedation during dental procedures amongst children. A literature review was conducted by identifying relevant studies through searches on Medline. Search included IN of midazolam, ketamine, sufentanil, dexmedetomidine, clonidine, haloperidol, and loranzepam. Studies included were conducted amongst individuals below 18 years, published in English, and were not restricted by year. Exclusion criteria were articles that did not focus on pediatric dentistry.  Twenty studies were included. The most commonly used sedatives were midazolam, followed by ketamine and sufentanil. Onset of action for IN midazolam was 5-15 minutes (min), however, IN ketamine was faster (mean 5.74 min), while both IN sufentanil (mean 20 min) and IN dexmedetomidine (mean 25 min) were slow in comparison. Midazolam was effective for modifying behavior in mild to moderately anxious children, however, for more invasive or prolonged procedures, stronger sedatives, such as IN ketamine, IN sufentanil were recommended. In addition, ketamine fared better in overall success rate (89%) when compared with IN midazolam (69%). Intranasal dexmedetomidine was only used as pre-medication amongst children. While its' onset of action is longer when compared with IN midazolam, it produced deeper sedation at the time of separation from the parent and at the time of anesthesia induction. Intranasal midazolam, ketamine, and sufentanil are effective and safe for conscious sedation, while intranasal midazolam, dexmedetomidine, and sufentanil have proven to be effective premedications.

  16. Intranasal sedatives in pediatric dentistry

    PubMed Central

    AlSarheed, Maha A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the intranasal (IN) sedatives used to achieve conscious sedation during dental procedures amongst children. Methods: A literature review was conducted by identifying relevant studies through searches on Medline. Search included IN of midazolam, ketamine, sufentanil, dexmedetomidine, clonidine, haloperidol and loranzepam. Studies included were conducted amongst individuals below 18 years, published in English, and were not restricted by year. Exclusion criteria were articles that did not focus on pediatric dentistry. Results: Twenty studies were included. The most commonly used sedatives were midazolam, followed by ketamine and sufentanil. Onset of action for IN midazolam was 5-15 minutes (min), however, IN ketamine was faster (mean 5.74 min), while both IN sufentanil (mean 20 min) and IN dexmedetomidine (mean 25 min) were slow in comparison. Midazolam was effective for modifying behavior in mild to moderately anxious children, however, for more invasive or prolonged procedures, stronger sedatives, such as IN ketamine, IN sufentanil were recommended. In addition, ketamine fared better in overall success rate (89%) when compared with IN midazolam (69%). Intranasal dexmedetomidine was only used as pre-medication amongst children. While its’ onset of action is longer when compared with IN midazolam, it produced deeper sedation at the time of separation from the parent and at the time of anesthesia induction. Conclusion: Intranasal midazolam, ketamine and sufentanil are effective and safe for conscious sedation, while intranasal midazolam, dexmedetomidine and sufentanil have proven to be effective premedications. PMID:27570849

  17. Intentional sedation to unconsciousness at the end of life: findings from a national physician survey.

    PubMed

    Putman, Michael S; Yoon, John D; Rasinski, Kenneth A; Curlin, Farr A

    2013-09-01

    The terms "palliative sedation" and "terminal sedation" have been used to refer to both proportionate palliative sedation, in which unconsciousness is a foreseen but unintended side effect, and palliative sedation to unconsciousness, in which physicians aim to make their patients unconscious until death. It has not been clear to what extent palliative sedation to unconsciousness is accepted and practiced by U.S. physicians. To investigate U.S. physician acceptance and practice of palliative sedation to unconsciousness and to identify predictors of that practice. In 2010, a survey was mailed to 2016 practicing U.S. physicians. Criterion measures included self-reported practice of palliative sedation to unconsciousness until death and physician endorsement of such sedation for a hypothetical patient with existential suffering at the end of life. Of the 1880 eligible physicians, 1156 responded to the survey (62%). One in ten (141/1156) physicians had sedated a patient in the previous 12 months with the specific intention of making the patient unconscious until death, and two of three physicians opposed sedation to unconsciousness for existential suffering, both in principle (68%, n = 773) and in the case of a hypothetical dying patient (72%, n = 831). Eighty-five percent (n = 973) of physicians agreed that unconsciousness is an acceptable side effect of palliative sedation but should not be directly intended. Although there is widespread support among U.S. physicians for proportionate palliative sedation, intentionally sedating dying patients to unconsciousness until death is neither the norm in clinical practice nor broadly supported for the treatment of primarily existential suffering. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A case of accidental aspiration of an endodontic instrument by a child treated under conscious sedation

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, R; Prasad, Vishnu; Menon, Padma A.

    2013-01-01

    Dental management of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often requires the need for pharmacological behavior management techniques such as the use of sedation. The purpose of this article is to describe a clinical case involving accidental aspiration of an Endodontic instrument during root canal therapy under sedation. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of aspiration of an Endodontic instrument and should serve to heighten the awareness with regard to aspiration during dental procedures under sedation. It also emphasizes the need for proper isolation techniques in patients treated under sedation, thereby preventing such complications. PMID:24883031

  19. Computer-assisted personalized sedation.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Subhas; Desilets, David; Diehl, David L; Farraye, Francis A; Kaul, Vivek; Kethu, Sripathi R; Kwon, Richard S; Mamula, Petar; Pedrosa, Marcos C; Rodriguez, Sarah A; Song, Louis-Michel Wong Kee; Tierney, William M

    2011-03-01

    The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) Technology Committee provides reviews of new or emerging endoscopic technologies that have the potential to have an impact on the practice of GI endoscopy. Evidence-based methodology is used, with a MEDLINE literature search to identify pertinent preclinical and clinical studies on the topic, and a MAUDE (Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience; U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health) database search to identify the reported complications of a given technology. Both are supplemented by accessing the "related articles" feature of PubMed and by scrutinizing pertinent references cited by the identified studies. Controlled clinical trials are emphasized but, in many cases, data from randomized, controlled trials are lacking. In such cases, large case series, preliminary clinical studies, and expert opinions are used. Technical data are gathered from traditional and Web-based publications, proprietary publications, and informal communications with pertinent vendors. For this review, the MEDLINE database was searched through January 2010 using the keywords "computer," "computerized," "computer-assisted," "sedation," "propofol." Reports on Emerging Technology are drafted by 1 or 2 members of the ASGE Technology Committee, reviewed and edited by the committee as a whole, and approved by the Governing Board of the ASGE. These reports are scientific reviews provided solely for educational and informational purposes. Reports on Emerging Technology are not rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment or payment for such treatment.

  20. Variation in diurnal sedation in mechanically ventilated patients who are managed with a sedation protocol alone or a sedation protocol and daily interruption.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sangeeta; Meade, Maureen; Burry, Lisa; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Katsios, Christina; Fergusson, Dean; Dodek, Peter; Burns, Karen; Herridge, Margaret; Devlin, John W; Tanios, Maged; Fowler, Robert; Jacka, Michael; Skrobik, Yoanna; Olafson, Kendiss; Cook, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    Mechanically ventilated patients may receive more sedation during the night than during the day, potentially delaying extubation. We compared nighttime and daytime benzodiazepine and opioid administration in adult patients enrolled in a multicenter sedation trial comparing protocolized sedation alone or protocolized sedation combined with daily sedation interruption; and we evaluated whether nighttime and daytime doses were associated with liberation from mechanical ventilation. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial which was conducted in 16 North American medical-surgical ICUs. In all 423 patients, nurses applied a validated sedation scale hourly to titrate benzodiazepine and opioid infusions to achieve a light level of sedation. Using fentanyl equivalents and midazolam equivalents, we compared dosages administered during night (19:00 to 07:00) and day (07:00 to 19:00) shifts. Using multivariable logistic regression we evaluated the association between nighttime and daytime opioid and sedative doses, and spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) conduct, SBT success, and extubation. Nighttime benzodiazepine and opioid doses were significantly higher than daytime doses (mean difference midazolam equivalents 23.3 mg, 95 % CI 12.9, 33.8, p < 0.0001; mean difference fentanyl equivalents 356 mcg, 95 % CI 130, 582, p = 0.0021). Mean Sedation Agitation Scale score was similar between night and day, and was at target (3.2 vs 3.3, 95 % CI -0.05, 0.02, p = 0.35). Self-reported nurse workload was similar during the night and day. Patients were more often restrained during day shifts (76.3 % vs 73.7 %, p < 0.0001), and there were more unintentional device removals during the day compared with night (15.9 % vs 9.1 %, p < 0.0001). Increases in nighttime drug doses were independently associated with failure to meet SBT screening criteria, SBT failure, and the decision not to extubate the patient despite successful SBT. Patients received higher doses of

  1. Variables Influencing the Depth of Conscious Sedation in Plastic Surgery: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wonwoo; Park, Hyochun; Kim, Hoonnam

    2017-01-01

    Background Conscious sedation has been widely utilized in plastic surgery. However, inadequate research has been published evaluating adequate drug dosage and depth of sedation. In clinical practice, sedation is often inadequate or accompanied by complications when sedatives are administered according to body weight alone. The purpose of this study was to identify variables influencing the depth of sedation during conscious sedation for plastic surgery. Methods This prospective study evaluated 97 patients who underwent plastic surgical procedures under conscious sedation. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and glucose levels were measured. Midazolam and ketamine were administered intravenously according to a preset protocol. Bispectral index (BIS) recordings were obtained to evaluate the depth of sedation 4, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after midazolam administration. Associations between variables and the BIS were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results Alcohol intake and female sex were positively associated with the mean BIS (P<0.01). Age was negatively associated with the mean BIS (P<0.01). Body mass index (P=0.263), creatinine clearance (P=0.832), smoking history (P=0.398), glucose (P=0.718), AST (P=0.729), and ALT (P=0.423) were not associated with the BIS. Conclusions Older patients tended to have a greater depth of sedation, whereas females and patients with greater alcohol intake had a shallower depth of sedation. Thus, precise dose adjustments of sedatives, accounting for not only weight but also age, sex, and alcohol consumption, are required to achieve safe, effective, and predictable conscious sedation. PMID:28194341

  2. Refurbishing MacIntyre's Account of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul

    2011-01-01

    According to Alasdair MacIntyre's influential account of practices, "teaching itself is not a practice, but a set of skills and habits put to the service of a variety of practices" (MacIntyre and Dunne, 2002, p. 5). Various philosophers of education have responded to and critiqued MacIntyre's position, most notably in a Special Issue of the…

  3. Practice guidelines for propofol sedation by non-anesthesiologists: the Korean Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force recommendations on propofol sedation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun; Kim, Duk Kyung; Choi, Yong-Seon; Yoo, Young-Chul; Chung, Hyun Sik

    2016-12-01

    In South Korea, as in many other countries, propofol sedation is performed by practitioners across a broad range of specialties in our country. However, this has led to significant variation in propofol sedation practices, as shown in a series of reports by the Korean Society of Anesthesiologists (KSA). This has led the KSA to develop a set of evidence-based practical guidelines for propofol sedation by non-anesthesiologists. Here, we provide a set of recommendations for propofol sedation, with the aim of ensuring patient safety in a variety of clinical settings. The subjects of the guidelines are patients aged ≥ 18 years who were receiving diagnostic or therapeutic procedures under propofol sedation in a variety of hospital classes. The committee developed the guidelines via a de novo method, using key questions created across 10 sub-themes for data collection as well as evidence from the literature. In addition, meta-analyses were performed for three key questions. Recommendations were made based on the available evidence, and graded according to the modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Draft guidelines were scrutinized and discussed by advisory panels, and agreement was achieved via the Delphi consensus process. The guidelines contain 33 recommendations that have been endorsed by the KSA Executive Committee. These guidelines are not a legal standard of care and are not absolute requirements; rather they are recommendations that may be adopted, modified, or rejected according to clinical considerations.

  4. Propofol for Anesthesia and Postoperative Sedation Resulted in Fewer Inflammatory Responses than Sevoflurane Anesthesia and Midazolam Sedation after Thoracoabdominal Esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Nakanuno, Ryuichi; Yasuda, Toshimichi; Hamada, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Ryuji; Saeki, Noboru; Kawamoto, Masashi

    2015-09-01

    Responses to surgical stress can be modulated by anesthetics. We prospectively compared the effects of two different anesthetic/sedative techniques on the peak postoperative bladder temperature (BT) and the postoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) level. Twenty patients who were scheduled to undergo elective thoracoabdominal esophagectomy were allocated to receive either propofol anesthesia followed by propofol sedation (PP group, n = 10) or sevoflurane anesthesia followed by midazolam sedation (SM group, n = 10). In each case, the patient's peak bladder temperature was measured on the morning after surgery, and their serum CRP levels were assessed on postoperative days (POD) 1, 2, and 3. The patients' postoperative clinical courses were also evaluated. The peak postoperative BT (degrees C) (37.6 ± 0.4 vs. 38.2 ± 0.6, respectively; p < 0.05) and the CRP level on POD 2 (mg/dl) (14.3 ± 3.9 vs. 20.6 ± 3.9, respectively; p < 0.05) were lower in the PP group than in the SM group. The peak postoperative BT was positively correlated with the CRP level on POD 2 (R = 0.533, p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the clinical course-related parameters in both groups. Propofol anesthesia and postoperative propofol sedation resulted in a reduced peak postoperative BT and lower CRP levels on POD 2 after esophagectomy than sevoflurane anesthesia followed by midazolam sedation.

  5. Practice guidelines for propofol sedation by non-anesthesiologists: the Korean Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force recommendations on propofol sedation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In South Korea, as in many other countries, propofol sedation is performed by practitioners across a broad range of specialties in our country. However, this has led to significant variation in propofol sedation practices, as shown in a series of reports by the Korean Society of Anesthesiologists (KSA). This has led the KSA to develop a set of evidence-based practical guidelines for propofol sedation by non-anesthesiologists. Here, we provide a set of recommendations for propofol sedation, with the aim of ensuring patient safety in a variety of clinical settings. The subjects of the guidelines are patients aged ≥ 18 years who were receiving diagnostic or therapeutic procedures under propofol sedation in a variety of hospital classes. The committee developed the guidelines via a de novo method, using key questions created across 10 sub-themes for data collection as well as evidence from the literature. In addition, meta-analyses were performed for three key questions. Recommendations were made based on the available evidence, and graded according to the modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Draft guidelines were scrutinized and discussed by advisory panels, and agreement was achieved via the Delphi consensus process. The guidelines contain 33 recommendations that have been endorsed by the KSA Executive Committee. These guidelines are not a legal standard of care and are not absolute requirements; rather they are recommendations that may be adopted, modified, or rejected according to clinical considerations. PMID:27924193

  6. Remifentanil for Sedation of Children With Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, James L; O'Brien, Nicole; Moore-Clingenpeel, Melissa; Sribnick, Eric A; Sargel, Cheryl; Hall, Mark; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Tobias, Joseph D

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether remifentanil would provide adequate sedation while allowing frequent and reproducible neurologic assessments in children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with traumatic brain injury (TBI) during mechanical ventilation. Retrospective review. Tertiary care PICU. Thirty-eight patients over a 30-month period. Median age was 9 years (interquartile range [IQR] 2.25-12 years). The median Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was 9 (IQR: 8-10). All patients were tracheally intubated and receiving mechanical ventilation. A continuous infusion of remifentanil was started at 0.1 μg/kg/min, and bolus doses of 0.25 to 1 μg/kg were administered every 3 to 5 minutes as needed to reach the desired sedation level. Infusions were stopped at least hourly to perform neurologic examinations. The median remifentanil dose was 0.25 μg/kg/min with an IQR of 0.1 and 0.6 μg/kg/min. The maximum dose for any patient in the cohort was 2 μg/kg/min. Median duration of therapy with remifentanil was 20 hours (IQR: 8-44 hours). Adequate sedation was achieved with sedation scores (State Behavioral Scale) meeting target levels with a median value of 100% of the time (IQR: 79%-100%). Neurologic examinations were able to be performed within a median of 9 minutes (IQR: 5-14 minutes) of pausing the infusion. No serious safety events occurred. In 68% of the patients, neurologic examinations remained reassuring during remifentanil infusion, and patients were extubated. The remaining patients were transitioned to traditional sedative agents for long-term management of their traumatic injuries once the neurologic status was deemed stable. This data suggest that remifentanil is a suitable sedative agent for use in children with TBI. It provides a rapid onset of sedation with recovery that permits reliable and reproducible clinical examination.

  7. Sedation in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Flower, Oliver; Hellings, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Several different classes of sedative agents are used in the management of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). These agents are used at induction of anaesthesia, to maintain sedation, to reduce elevated intracranial pressure, to terminate seizure activity and facilitate ventilation. The intent of their use is to prevent secondary brain injury by facilitating and optimising ventilation, reducing cerebral metabolic rate and reducing intracranial pressure. There is limited evidence available as to the best choice of sedative agents in TBI, with each agent having specific advantages and disadvantages. This review discusses these agents and offers evidence-based guidance as to the appropriate context in which each agent may be used. Propofol, benzodiazepines, narcotics, barbiturates, etomidate, ketamine, and dexmedetomidine are reviewed and compared. PMID:23050154

  8. Noise level measurement, a new method to evaluate effectiveness of sedation in pediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    Sabouri, A Sassan; Firoozabadi, Farshid; Carlin, Drew; Creighton, Paul; Raczka, Michelle; Joshi, Prashant; Heard, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Pediatric dentists perform moderate sedation frequently to facilitate dental treatment in uncooperative children. Assessing the depth and quality of sedation is an important factor in the clinical utilization of moderate sedation. We aimed to determine if the level of noise, created by the children who are undergoing moderate sedation during dental procedures, could be used as a nonsubjective measurement of the depth of sedation and compare it to the Ohio State Behavior Rating Score (OSBRS). Following Institutional Review Board approval and after receiving informed consent, we studied 51 children with a mean age of 4.2 years and average weight of 18.5 kg, who were undergoing restorative or extractive dental procedures, requiring moderate sedation. Sedation efficacy was assessed using OSBRS at several stages of the procedure. The noise level was measured by using a NoisePRO logging device to record the noise level at a rate of every second throughout the procedure. The depth of sedation assessed by OSBRS during the operative procedure was significantly correlated with noise level. The act of administering the local anesthesia and the operative procedure itself were two phases of the encounter that were significantly associated with higher OSBRS as well as noise levels. Measurement of noise level can be used as an effective guide to quantify the depth of sedation at different stages of the dental procedure. It is a nonsubjective and continuous measurement, which could be useful in clinical practice for the administration of moderate sedation during dental procedures. By using noise level analysis we are able to determine successful, poor, and failed sedation outcome. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Computer-Assisted and Patient-Controlled Sedation Platforms.

    PubMed

    Pambianco, Daniel; Niklewski, Paul

    2016-07-01

    As the number and complexity of endoscopic procedures increase, the role of sedation has been integral in patient and physician satisfaction. This article discusses the advances of computer-assisted and patient-controlled platforms. These computer-assisted and patient-controlled platforms use different anesthetics and analgesics, all with the intent of achieving improved consistency in the level of sedation, appropriate to the needs of patients, while also improving patient safety. These systems have been around for decades; however, few are approved for use in the United States, and several still require further study before broad clinical application.

  10. [Passion Flower (Passiflora incarnata L.)--a reliable herbal sedative].

    PubMed

    Krenn, Liselotte

    2002-01-01

    Extracts and fluid extracts from the aerial parts from Passiflora incarnata L. are widely used as components of herbal sedatives. Many pharmacological investigations confirm the sedative effects of Passiflorae herba. From some of the studies also anxiolytic effects can be deduced. As Passionflower is mainly used in combinations, clinical studies of the single drug are not available. Based on pharmacological data, the experiences of traditional use and the use in combinations Passiflora extracts are an important factor in the phytotherapy of tenseness, restlessness and irritability with difficulty in falling asleep.

  11. Mac OS X for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierfederici, F.; Pirzkal, N.; Hook, R. N.

    Mac OS X is the new Unix based version of the Macintosh operating system. It combines a high performance DisplayPDF user interface with a standard BSD UNIX subsystem and provides users with simultaneous access to a broad range of applications which were not previously available on a single system such as Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop, as well as legacy X11-based scientific tools and packages like IRAF, SuperMongo, MIDAS, etc. The combination of a modern GUI layered on top of a familiar UNIX environment paves the way for new, more flexible and powerful astronomical tools to be developed while assuring compatibility with already existing, older programs. In this paper, we outline the strengths of the Mac OS X platform in a scientific environment, astronomy in particular, and point to the numerous astronomical software packages available for this platform; most notably the Scisoft collection which we have compiled.

  12. National survey and point prevalence study of sedation practice in UK critical care.

    PubMed

    Richards-Belle, Alvin; Canter, Ruth R; Power, G Sarah; Robinson, Emily J; Reschreiter, Henrik; Wunsch, Hannah; Harvey, Sheila E

    2016-10-27

    The present study was designed to (1) establish current sedation practice in UK critical care to inform evidence synthesis and potential future primary research and (2) to compare practice reported via a survey with actual practice assessed in a point prevalence study (PPS). UK adult general critical care units were invited to participate in a survey of current sedation practice, and a representative sample of units was invited to participate in a PPS of sedation practice at the patient level. Survey responses were compared with PPS data where both were available. Survey responses were received from 214 (91 %) of 235 eligible critical care units. Of these respondents, 57 % reported having a written sedation protocol, 94 % having a policy of daily sedation holds and 94 % using a sedation scale to assess depth of sedation. In the PPS, across units reporting a policy of daily sedation holds, a median of 50 % (IQR 33-75 %) of sedated patients were considered for a sedation hold. A median of 88 % (IQR 63-100 %) of patients were assessed using the same sedation scale as reported in the survey. Both the survey and the PPS indicated propofol as the preferred sedative and alfentanil, fentanyl and morphine as the preferred analgesics. In most of the PPS units, all patients had received the unit's reported first-choice sedative (median across units 100 %, IQR 64-100 %), and a median of 80 % (IQR 67-100 %) of patients had received the unit's reported first-choice analgesic. Most units (83 %) reported in the survey that sedatives are usually administered in combination with analgesics. Across units that participated in the PPS, 69 % of patients had received a combination of agents - most frequently propofol combined with either alfentanil or fentanyl. Clinical practice reported in the national survey did not accurately reflect actual clinical practice at the patient level observed in the PPS. Employing a mixed methods approach provided a more complete picture of

  13. Multifunction automated crawling system (MACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Backes, Paul G.; Joffe, Benjamin

    1996-11-01

    Nondestructive evaluation instruments and sensors are becoming smaller with enhanced computer controlled capability and increasingly use commercially available hardware and software. Further, robotic instruments are being developed to serve as mobility platforms allowing automation of the inspection process. This combination of miniaturized sensing and robotics technology enables hybrid miniature technology solutions for identified aircraft inspection needs. Integration of inspection and robotics technologies is benefited by the use of a standard computing platform. JPL investigated the application of telerobotic technology to inspection of aircraft structures using capabilities that were developed for use in space exploration. A miniature crawler that can travel on the surface of aircraft using suction cups for adherence was developed and is called multifunction automated crawling systems (MACS). MACS is an operational tool that can perform rapid large area inspection of aircraft, which has a relatively large platform to carry miniature inspection instruments payload. The capability of MACS and the trend towards autonomous inspection crawlers will be reviewed and discussed in this paper.

  14. Comparison of sedation strategies for critically ill patients: a protocol for a systematic review incorporating network meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Brian; Burry, Lisa D; Kanji, Salmaan; Mehta, Sangeeta; Guenette, Melanie; Martin, Claudio M; Fergusson, Dean A; Adhikari, Neill K; Egerod, Ingrid; Williamson, David; Straus, Sharon; Moher, David; Ely, E Wesley; Rose, Louise

    2016-09-20

    Sedatives and analgesics are administered to provide sedation and manage agitation and pain in most critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. Various sedation administration strategies including protocolized sedation and daily sedation interruption are used to mitigate drug pharmacokinetic limitations and minimize oversedation, thereby shortening the duration of mechanical ventilation. At present, it is unclear which strategy is most effective, as few have been directly compared. Our review will use network meta-analysis (NMA) to compare and rank sedation strategies to determine their efficacy and safety for mechanically ventilated patients. We will search the following from 1980 to March 2016: Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. We will also search the Cochrane Library, gray literature, and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We will use a validated randomized control trial search filter to identify studies evaluating any strategy to optimize sedation in mechanically ventilated adult patients. Authors will independently extract data from eligible studies in duplicate and complete the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Our outcomes of interest include duration of mechanical ventilation, time to first extubation, ICU and hospital length of stay, re-intubation, tracheostomy, mortality, total sedative and opioid exposure, health-related quality of life, and adverse events. To inform our NMA, we will first conduct conventional pair-wise meta-analyses using random-effects models. Where appropriate, we will perform Bayesian NMA using WinBUGS software. There are multiple strategies to optimize sedation for mechanically ventilated patients. Current ICU guidelines recommend protocolized sedation or daily sedation interruption. Our systematic review incorporating NMA will provide a unified analysis of all sedation strategies to determine the relative efficacy and safety of interventions that may not have been compared directly. We

  15. Cocktail sedation containing propofol versus conventional sedation for ERCP: a prospective, randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Angsuwatcharakon, Phonthep; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Ridtitid, Wiriyaporn; Kongkam, Pradermchai; Poonyathawon, Sahadol; Ponauthai, Yuwadee; Sumdin, Sakolkan; Kullavanijaya, Pinit

    2012-08-09

    ERCP practically requires moderate to deep sedation controlled by a combination of benzodiazepine and opiod. Propofol as a sole agent may cause oversedation. A combination (cocktail) of infused propofol, meperidine, and midazolam can reduce the dosage of propofol and we hypothesized that it might decrease the risk of oversedation. We prospectively compare the efficacy, recovery time, patient satisfactory, and side effects between cocktail and conventional sedations in patients undergoing ERCP. ERCP patients were randomized into 2 groups; the cocktail group (n = 103) and the controls (n = 102). For induction, a combination of 25 mg of meperidine and 2.5 mg of midazolam were administered in both groups. In the cocktail group, a bolus dose of propofol 1 mg/kg was administered and continuously infused. In the controls, 25 mg of meperidine or 2.5 mg/kg of midazolam were titrated to maintain the level of sedation. In the cocktail group, the average administration rate of propofol was 6.2 mg/kg/hr. In the control group; average weight base dosage of meperidine and midazolam were 1.03 mg/kg and 0.12 mg/kg, respectively. Recovery times and patients' satisfaction scores in the cocktail and control groups were 9.67 minutes and 12.89 minutes (P = 0.045), 93.1and 87.6 (P <0.001), respectively. Desaturation rates in the cocktail and conventional groups were 58.3% and 31.4% (P <0.001), respectively. All desaturations were corrected with temporary oxygen supplementation without the need for scope removal. Cocktail sedation containing propofol provides faster recovery time and better patients' satisfaction for patients undergoing ERCP. However, mild degree of desaturation may still develop. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01540084.

  16. Annexin V-MACS in infertile couples as method for separation of sperm without DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Troya, Jhon; Zorrilla, Ingrid

    2015-05-01

    To determine the effect of using MACS technology on clinical pregnancy, as a method for separation of damaged sperm in infertile patients. 136 infertile men having normal semen parameters in accordance with WHO 2010 criterion, undergoing ICSI cycle were enrolled during the course of the study. The patients were prospectively randomized and enrolled after oocyte retrieval and were assigned to the ICSI group, PICSI group or MACS group. Embryo development and clinical pregnancy were assessed. In 17 randomized MACS patients, sperm DNA fragmentation was tested in the presumptive apoptotic and no apoptotic spermatozoa fractions. Similar results were obtained between groups for the following parameters: fertilization rates of 78.97% (95% confidence interval [CI]:74.37-83.57), 70.15 %(95% CI:63.98-76.33) and 80.28%(95% CI:73.74-86.81) for ICSI, PICSI and MACS group, respectively; Number of Day-3 embryos was 5.04 (95% CI:4.09-5.98), 5.17(95% CI:4.24-6.10) and 5.59(95% CI:4.31-6.87) for ICSI, PICSI and MACS group, respectively; number of freezing embryos in blastocyst stage was 0.78 (95% CI:0.25- 1.31), 0.70(95% CI:0.27-1.14) and 1 (95% CI:0.37-1.6) for ICSI, PICSI and MACS group, respectively. However, clinical pregnancy rates of 58.1% for MACS group versus 40.4% and 27.3% for PICSI and ICSI group, respectively, were showed statistical difference (P=0.019). DNA fragmentation index for the two sperm MACS fraction showed statistical differences (P=0.000), MACS reduced the D.F.I of the sperm sample. The use of MACS technology improves the clinical pregnancy on infertile couples and can be applied as a method for sperm separation, discriminating sperm with high DNA fragmentation.

  17. Open Carpal Tunnel Release Outcomes: Performed Wide Awake versus with Sedation.

    PubMed

    Tulipan, Jacob E; Kim, Nayoung; Abboudi, Jack; Jones, Christopher; Liss, Frederic; Kirkpatrick, William; Rivlin, Michael; Wang, Mark L; Matzon, Jonas; Ilyas, Asif M

    2017-08-01

    Background  Carpal tunnel release (CTR) is the most common surgery of the hand, and interest is growing in performing it under local anesthesia without tourniquet. To better understand differences, we hypothesized that patients undergoing CTR under wide-awake local anesthesia with no tourniquet (WALANT) versus sedation (monitored anesthesia care [MAC]) would not result in a difference in outcome. Methods  Consecutive cases of electrodiagnostically confirmed open CTR across multiple surgeons at a single center were prospectively enrolled. Data included demographic data, visual analog scale, Levine-Katz carpal tunnel syndrome scale, QuickDASH questionnaire, customized Likert questionnaire, and complications. Results  There were 81 patients enrolled in the WALANT group and 149 patients in the MAC group. There were no reoperations in either group or any epinephrine-related complications in the WALANT group. Disability and symptom scores did not differ significantly between WALANT and sedation groups at 2 weeks or 3 months. Average postoperative QuickDASH, Levine-Katz, and VAS pain scales were the same in both groups. Both groups of patients reported high levels of satisfaction at 91 versus 96% for the WALANT versus MAC groups, respectively ( p  > 0.05). Patients in each group were likely to request similar anesthesia if they were to undergo surgery again. Conclusion  Patients undergoing open CTR experienced similar levels of satisfaction and outcomes with either the WALANT or MAC techniques. There was no statistically significant difference between either group relative to the tested outcome measures. These data should facilitate surgeons and patients' choosing freely between WALANT and MAC techniques relative to complications and outcomes.

  18. Gastrointestinal endoscopy sedation and monitoring practices in Spain: a nationwide survey in the year 2014.

    PubMed

    Lucendo, Alfredo J; González-Huix, Ferrán; Tenias, José M; López-Rosés, Leopoldo; Alonso-Aguirre, Pedro; Quintero, Enrique; Muñoz-Navas, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    The introduction of new sedative agents and a desire for improved patient care have encouraged the use of sedation for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy over the last decade. This survey aims to provide, within Spain, national and regional data on gastroenterologists' endoscopic sedation and monitoring practices, and on their attitudes concerning these practices. A 19-item survey covering the current practices of sedation and monitoring in GI endoscopy was electronically mailed to all members of the three nationwide scientific societies. Of 2476 e-mailed questionnaires, a total of 569 (23 %) were returned, proportionally representing the structure of the Spanish health care system. Monitoring and resuscitation resources were universally available, as well as post-endoscopy recovery rooms. Endoscopy teams usually included a registered nurse (98.5 %), an auxiliary nurse (80.5 %), and other physicians (25.7 %), generally anesthesiologists. More than half of esophagogastroduodenoscopies (EGDs) are performed with the patient under sedation; in 25 % of centers, more than 95 % colonoscopies are performed with the patient sedated, but a wide variation was observed. Pre-endoscopic risk is assessed in the vast majority of procedures. Propofol is the most commonly used sedative, either alone (in 70 % of EGDs and 80 % of colonoscopies) or in combination with other drugs. Private funding of a clinic was the only predictor of a significant increase in the use of sedation; 57.7 % of the respondents stated having difficulties in implementing sedation, with the limited availability of anesthesiologists and resuscitation training for the auxiliary staff the most common complaints. The use of sedation during GI endoscopy in Spain varies widely but is on the increase and is more common in private practice. Propofol is the preferred sedative in all procedures. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Comparison of midazolam and propofol for sedation in pediatric diagnostic imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Sebe, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Hayri Levent; Koseoglu, Zikret; Ay, Mehmet Oguzhan; Gulen, Muge

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to compare the efficacy of propofol and midazolam in terms of adverse effect potentials and to determine the appropriate strategy for pediatric procedural sedation. A total of 200 pediatric patients (aged < 14 years) undergoing diagnostic procedures were recruited for this nonrandomized prospective controlled cohort study. The patients were assigned to 2 treatment arms: either propofol (Group 1: IV bolus dose of 2 mg/kg during a 2-minute period, IV maintenance dose of 100 mcg/kg/min) or midazolam (Group 2: IV bolus dose of 0.15 mg/kg during a period of 2 to 3 minutes) to achieve sedation. Demographic data, body weight, and clinical status of the patients were evaluated and recorded. The vital signs and sedation levels (ie, Ramsay sedation scale scores) were evaluated and recorded, as well as the complications detected and medications administered in 10-minute intervals throughout the sedation procedure. Findings between the study arms were compared. Arterial blood pressures decreased significantly in both groups (P = 0.001). The patients in Group 1 experienced a greater difference in diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.001) than those in Group 2. Sedation scores in Group 1 were more favorable (P = 0.014) and reached the appropriate sedation level in a shorter time than those in Group 2 (P = 0.010). Likewise, recovery time of patients was shorter in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P = 0.010). Hypoxia was found to be more common in the propofol group, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.333). Propofol seems to be more effective, achieve the appropriate sedation level more quickly, and provide a faster onset of sedation than midazolam in pediatric procedural sedation and analgesia. Propofol is preferred for imaging studies (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) to reduce the occurrence of undesired motion artefacts. Although both drugs are safe to use for sedation before pediatric imaging procedures, propofol is preferred with appropriate

  20. Intensive care unit-acquired infection as a side effect of sedation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Sedative and analgesic medications are routinely used in mechanically ventilated patients. The aim of this review is to discus epidemiologic data that suggest a relationship between infection and sedation, to review available data for the potential causes and pathophysiology of this relationship, and to identify potential preventive measures. Methods Data for this review were identified through searches of PubMed, and from bibliographies of relevant articles. Results Several epidemiologic studies suggested a link between sedation and ICU-acquired infection. Prolongation of exposure to risk factors for infection, microaspiration, gastrointestinal motility disturbances, microcirculatory effects are main mechanisms by which sedation may favour infection in critically ill patients. Furthermore, experimental evidence coming from studies both in humans and animals suggest that sedatives and analgesics present immunomodulatory properties that might alter the immunologic response to exogenous stimuli. Clinical studies comparing different sedative agents do not provide evidence to recommend the use of a particular agent to reduce ICU-acquired infection rate. However, sedation strategies aiming to reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation, such as daily interruption of sedatives or nursing-implementing sedation protocol, should be promoted. In addition, the use of short acting opioids, propofol, and dexmedetomidine is associated with shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay, and might be helpful in reducing ICU-acquired infection rates. Conclusions Prolongation of exposure to risk factors for infection, microaspiration, gastrointestinal motility disturbances, microcirculatory effects, and immunomodulatory effects are main mechanisms by which sedation may favour infection in critically ill patients. Future studies should compare the effect of different sedative agents, and the impact of progressive opioid discontinuation compared with abrupt

  1. Sedatives for opiate withdrawal in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Osborn, D A; Jeffery, H E; Cole, M J

    2002-01-01

    duration of supportive care required to be given to infants each day was significantly reduced (MD -162.1 minutes/day, 95% CI -249.2, -75.1). Comparing phenobarbital to diazepam, meta-analysis of two studies found that phenobarbital produced a significant reduction in treatment failure (typical RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.24, 0.62). There was no significant difference in duration of treatment or duration of hospital stay. Comparing phenobarbital with chlorpromazine, one study found no significant difference in treatment failure rate. No data for neurodevelopment were available, reported by treatment group as allocated. No trials were eligible that assessed clonidine for NAS. In newborn infants with NAS, there is no evidence that phenobarbital, compared with supportive care alone, reduces treatment failure; however, phenobarbital may reduce the daily duration of supportive care needed. Phenobarbital, compared to diazepam, reduces treatment failure. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of chlorpromazine or clonidine in newborn infants with NAS. Clonidine and chlorpromazine should only be used in the context of a randomised clinical trial. The results of this review, taken in conjunction with the related review, Opiate treatment for opiate withdrawal in newborn infants (Osborn 2002), indicate that treatment with opiates is the preferred initial therapy for NAS. It is hypothesised that this is particularly true for infants whose mothers have used only opiates during pregnancy. If a sedative is used, phenobarbital is preferred to diazepam. The results of an ongoing trial of the addition of phenobarbital to an opiate are awaited.

  2. Endoscopic Sedation: From Training to Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Adequate sedation and analgesia are considered essential requirements to relieve patient discomfort and pain and ultimately to improve the outcomes of modern gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. The willingness of patients to undergo sedation during endoscopy has increased steadily in recent years and standard sedation practices are needed for both patient safety and successful procedural outcomes. Therefore, regular training and education of healthcare providers is warranted. However, training curricula and guidelines for endoscopic sedation may have conflicts according to varying legal frameworks and/or social security systems of each country, and well-recognized endoscopic sedation training systems are not currently available in all endoscopy units. Although European and American curricula for endoscopic sedation have been extensively developed, general curricula and guidelines for each country and institution are also needed. In this review, an overview of recent curricula and guidelines for training and basic performance of endoscopic sedation is presented based on the current literature. PMID:24765596

  3. Sedation scoring and managing abilities of intensive care nurses post educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Ramoo, Vimala; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Tan, Patrick Sk; Wong, Li Ping; Chua, Yan Piaw; Tang, Li Yoong

    2017-05-01

    Inappropriate sedation assessment can jeopardize patient comfort and safety. Therefore, nurses' abilities in assessing and managing sedation are vital for effective care of mechanically ventilated patients. This study assessed nurses' sedation scoring and management abilities as primary outcomes following educational interventions. Nurses' perceived self-confidence and barriers to effective sedation management were assessed as secondary outcomes. A post-test-only quasi-experimental design was used. Data were collected at 3 and 9 months post-intervention. A total of 66 nurses from a 14-bed intensive care unit of a Malaysian teaching hospital participated. The educational interventions included theoretical sessions, hands-on sedation assessment practice using the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale, and a brief sedation assessment tool. Nurses' sedation scoring and management abilities and perceived self-confidence level were assessed at both time points using self-administered questionnaires with case scenarios. Sedation assessment and management barriers were assessed once at 9 months post-intervention. Median scores for overall accurate sedation scoring (9 months: 4·00; 3 months: 2·00, p = 0·0001) and overall sedation management (9 months: 14·0; 3 months: 7·0, p = 0·0001) were significantly higher at 9 months compared to 3 months post-intervention. There were no significant differences in the perceived self-confidence level for rating sedation level. Overall perceived barrier scores were low (M = 27·78, SD = 6·26, possible range = 11·0-55·0). Patient conditions (M = 3·68, SD = 1·13) and nurses' workload (M = 3·54, SD = 0·95) were the greatest barriers to effective sedation assessment and management. Demographic variables did not affect sedation scoring or management abilities. Positive changes in nurses' sedation assessment and management abilities were observed, indicating that adequate hands

  4. Non-Parenteral Medications for Procedural Sedation in Children- A Narrative: Review Article.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Razieh; Ferdosian, Farzad; Shajari, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Procedural sedation may be needed in many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children. To make pediatric procedural sedation as safe as possible, protocols should be developed by institutions. Response to sedation in children is highly variable, while some become deeply sedated after minimal doses, others may need much higher doses. Child developmental status, clinical circumstances and condition of patient should be considered and then pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions for sedation be selected. Drug of choice and administration route depend on the condition of the child, type of procedure, and predicted pain degree. The drugs might be administered parenteral (intravenous or intramuscular) or non parenteral including oral, rectal, sublingual, aerosolized buccal and intranasal. The use of intravenous medication such propofol, ketamine, dexmedetomidine, or etomidate may be restricted in use by pediatric anesthesiologist or pediatric critical care specialists or pediatric emergency medicine specialists. In this review article we discuss on non-parenteral medications that can be used by non- anesthesiologist.

  5. Non-Parenteral Medications for Procedural Sedation in Children- A Narrative: Review Article

    PubMed Central

    FALLAH, Razieh; FERDOSIAN, Farzad; SHAJARI, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Procedural sedation may be needed in many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children. To make pediatric procedural sedation as safe as possible, protocols should be developed by institutions. Response to sedation in children is highly variable, while some become deeply sedated after minimal doses, others may need much higher doses. Child developmental status, clinical circumstances and condition of patient should be considered and then pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions for sedation be selected. Drug of choice and administration route depend on the condition of the child, type of procedure, and predicted pain degree. The drugs might be administered parenteral (intravenous or intramuscular) or non parenteral including oral, rectal, sublingual, aerosolized buccal and intranasal. The use of intravenous medication such propofol, ketamine, dexmedetomidine, or etomidate may be restricted in use by pediatric anesthesiologist or pediatric critical care specialists or pediatric emergency medicine specialists. In this review article we discuss on non-parenteral medications that can be used by non- anesthesiologist. PMID:26401146

  6. Dexmedetomidine versus midazolam for sedation during endoscopy: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, FAN; SUN, HAO-RUI; ZHENG, ZE-BING; LIAO, REN; LIU, JIN

    2016-01-01

    Patients undergoing endoscopy frequently require sedation, which commonly includes the administration of midazolam or dexmedetomidine. Previous meta-analyses have mainly focused on comparing the effects of these two drugs in intensive care unit patients. In the present study, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the sedative and clinical effectiveness of these two drugs in patients undergoing endoscopy were searched in a number of databases. The meta-analysis showed that dexmedetomidine demonstrated a significantly lower rate of respiratory depression and adverse events compared with those presented upon midazolam administration. A significant difference was also observed in the sedation potency of the sedatives. The current controlled data suggest that dexmedetomidine may be an alternative to midazolam in the sedation for endoscopy. However, more high-quality and well-designed studies are required to further evaluate this conclusion. PMID:27284342

  7. Post-Discharge Events Occurring after Dental Treatment under Deep Sedation in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Davidovich, Esti; Meltzer, Liron; Efrat, Jacob; Gozal, David; Ram, Diana

    Deep sedation is often required in dentistry for treating children with uncooperative behavior. We assessed immediate post-sedation events during the first 24 hours after dental treatment under deep sedation in children, and examined correlations to a number of variables. Information was collected from medical files for a convenience sample of children between the ages of 1 and 16, who were treated under deep sedation at one clinic (propofol alone or combined with a sedative agent). Parents were interviewed by telephone regarding the first 24 hours following treatment. Among 32 children under age 6 years, 26 (81.3%) had at least one post sedation complication, compared to 19/22 (86.4%) aged 6 and older, p>0.05. According to parent report, 13 (59.1%) of the older children had pain, compared to 6 (18.8%) of the younger ones, p=0.002. For no patient in the younger group compared to 18.2% in the older group was dizziness reported as a complication, p=0.023. Among those who received a sedative agent, 93.3% had one or more complications; 26.7% had nausea or vomiting. The respective rates were 79.5% and 5.1% among those treated only with propofol. Though safe, deep sedation poses complications and adverse events.

  8. Effects of sedation on echocardiographic variables of left atrial and left ventricular function in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jessica L; Schober, Karsten E; Fuentes, Virginia Luis; Bonagura, John D

    2012-10-01

    Although sedation is frequently used to facilitate patient compliance in feline echocardiography, the effects of sedative drugs on echocardiographic variables have been poorly documented. This study investigated the effects of two sedation protocols on echocardiographic indices in healthy cats, with special emphasis on the assessment of left atrial size and function, as well as left ventricular diastolic performance. Seven cats underwent echocardiography (transthoracic two-dimensional, spectral Doppler, color flow Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging) before and after sedation with both acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg IM) and butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg IM), or acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg IM), butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg IM) and ketamine (1.5 mg/kg IV). Heart rate increased significantly following acepromazine/butorphanol/ketamine (mean±SD of increase, 40±26 beats/min) and non-invasive systolic blood pressure decreased significantly following acepromazine/butorphanol (mean±SD of decrease, 12±19 mmHg). The majority of echocardiographic variables were not significantly different after sedation compared with baseline values. Both sedation protocols resulted in mildly decreased left ventricular end-diastolic dimension and mildly increased left ventricular end-diastolic wall thickness. This study therefore failed to demonstrate clinically meaningful effects of these sedation protocols on echocardiographic measurements, suggesting that sedation with acepromazine, butorphanol and/or ketamine can be used to facilitate echocardiography in healthy cats.

  9. Tramadol does not enhance sedation induced by acepromazine in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Eduardo R.; Lobo, Renan B.; Nunes, Juarez S.; Rangel, Julia P.P.; Bitti, Flavia S.

    2016-01-01

    The sedative effect of acepromazine combined with 2 doses of tramadol [3 and 5 mg/kg body weight (BW)] was compared with the sedative effect of acepromazine alone in dogs and the effects of each sedative protocol on cardiorespiratory variables were examined. This was a prospective, randomized, blinded, crossover study. Each of 6 dogs received 3 treatments at 1-week intervals. During all anesthetic episodes, dogs received 0.05 mg/kg BW acepromazine. Approximately 25 min later, dogs were given physiological saline (control) or tramadol [3 mg/kg BW (TR3) or 5 mg/kg BW (TR5)]. All drugs were administered intravenously. Variables evaluated included heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), systolic, mean, and diastolic blood pressures (SAP, MAP, and DAP), and sedation [by use of a simple descriptive scale (SDS, range: 0 to 3) and a numeric rating scale (NRS, range: 0 to 10)]. Variables were recorded 25 min after acepromazine and for 80 min after saline or tramadol. Acepromazine administration resulted in mild sedation in most dogs and decreased RR, SAP, MAP, and DAP in all treatments. Tramadol administration did not significantly increase SDS or NRS scores compared to acepromazine alone. The only exception to this rule was observed at 20 min after TR3, when NRS was higher in this group than in the control treatment. Administration of tramadol (TR3 and TR5) decreased HR. Under the conditions of this study, sedation induced by acepromazine with tramadol was similar to that of acepromazine alone. The main adverse effects of the combination were a decrease in blood pressure and HR, without clinical significance. PMID:27733788

  10. Tramadol does not enhance sedation induced by acepromazine in dogs.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Eduardo R; Lobo, Renan B; Nunes, Juarez S; Rangel, Julia P P; Bitti, Flavia S

    2016-10-01

    The sedative effect of acepromazine combined with 2 doses of tramadol [3 and 5 mg/kg body weight (BW)] was compared with the sedative effect of acepromazine alone in dogs and the effects of each sedative protocol on cardiorespiratory variables were examined. This was a prospective, randomized, blinded, crossover study. Each of 6 dogs received 3 treatments at 1-week intervals. During all anesthetic episodes, dogs received 0.05 mg/kg BW acepromazine. Approximately 25 min later, dogs were given physiological saline (control) or tramadol [3 mg/kg BW (TR3) or 5 mg/kg BW (TR5)]. All drugs were administered intravenously. Variables evaluated included heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), systolic, mean, and diastolic blood pressures (SAP, MAP, and DAP), and sedation [by use of a simple descriptive scale (SDS, range: 0 to 3) and a numeric rating scale (NRS, range: 0 to 10)]. Variables were recorded 25 min after acepromazine and for 80 min after saline or tramadol. Acepromazine administration resulted in mild sedation in most dogs and decreased RR, SAP, MAP, and DAP in all treatments. Tramadol administration did not significantly increase SDS or NRS scores compared to acepromazine alone. The only exception to this rule was observed at 20 min after TR3, when NRS was higher in this group than in the control treatment. Administration of tramadol (TR3 and TR5) decreased HR. Under the conditions of this study, sedation induced by acepromazine with tramadol was similar to that of acepromazine alone. The main adverse effects of the combination were a decrease in blood pressure and HR, without clinical significance.

  11. Who is Referred for Sedation for Dentistry and Why?

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Carole A; Newton, Tim; Milgrom, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess referrals to sedation examining dental anxiety and background of patients and compare these characteristics to those referred to a restorative dentistry clinic. Design Descriptive, cross sectional survey and chart review. Subjects and Methods Subjects were 100 consecutive new patients in Sedation and Special Care and 50 new patients in Restorative Dentistry at Guy’s and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust. A questionnaire included demographics, self-reported oral health and dental attendance, and dental fear. Information from the patient’s record was taken: ASA Classification, previous sedation or general anaesthesia, and alcohol and tobacco use, and medications. Results The best predictors of referral were dental anxiety level and an irregular attendance. The most important fears were seeing, hearing and feeling the vibrations of the dental drill, and the perception of an accelerated heart rate. Other factors, such as general, mental and dental health, and alcohol use were related to referral but less important. Conclusions Referral is consistent with the goal of the Sedation Clinic to see anxious patients. Referring general practitioners are able to identify these patients. PMID:19329945

  12. Sedation and monitoring for gastrointestinal endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Amornyotin, Somchai

    2013-01-01

    The safe sedation of patients for diagnostic or therapeutic procedures requires a combination of properly trained physicians and suitable facilities. Additionally, appropriate selection and preparation of patients, suitable sedative technique, application of drugs, adequate monitoring, and proper recovery of patients is essential. The goal of procedural sedation is the safe and effective control of pain and anxiety as well as to provide an appropriate degree of memory loss or decreased awareness. Sedation practices for gastrointestinal endoscopy (GIE) vary widely. The majority of GIE patients are ambulatory cases. Most of this procedure requires a short time. So, short acting, rapid onset drugs with little adverse effects and improved safety profiles are commonly used. The present review focuses on commonly used regimens and monitoring practices in GIE sedation. This article is to discuss the decision making process used to determine appropriate pre-sedation assessment, monitoring, drug selection, dose of sedative agents, sedation endpoint and post-sedation care. It also reviews the current status of sedation and monitoring for GIE procedures in Thailand. PMID:23424050

  13. Association Between Deep Sedation from Continuous Intravenous Sedatives and Extubation Failures in Mechanically Ventilated Patients in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Schultheis, Jennifer M; Heath, Travis S; Turner, David A

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether an association exists between deep sedation from continuous infusion sedatives and extubation failures in mechanically ventilated children. Secondary outcomes evaluated risk factors associated with deep sedation. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted between January 1, 2009, and October 31, 2012, in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at Duke Children's Hospital. Patients were included in the study if they had been admitted to the PICU, had been mechanically ventilated for ≥48 hours, and had received at least one continuous infusion benzodiazepine and/or opioid infusion for ≥24 hours. Patients were separated into 2 groups: those deeply sedated and those not deeply sedated. Deep sedation was defined as having at least one documented State Behavioral Scale (SBS) of -3 or -2 within 72 hours prior to planned extubation. A total of 108 patients were included in the analysis. Both groups were well matched with regard to baseline characteristics. For the primary outcome, there was no difference in extubation failures in those who were deeply sedated compared to those not deeply sedated (14 patients [22.6%] versus 7 patients [15.2%], respectively; p = 0.33). After adjusting for potential risk factors, patients with a higher weight percentile for age (odds ratio [OR] 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.03), lower Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) score prior to intubation (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.74-0.97), and larger maximum benzodiazepine dose (OR 1.93; 95% CI 1.01-3.71) were associated with greater odds of deep sedation. A higher GCS prior to intubation was significantly associated with increased odds of extubation failure (OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.02-1.39). While there was no statistically significant difference in extubation failures between the 2 groups included in this study, considering the severe consequences of extubation failure, the numerical difference reported may be clinically important.

  14. Palliative sedation to relieve psycho-existential suffering of terminally ill cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tatsuya

    2004-11-01

    To clarify the prevalence and the characteristics of patients who received palliative sedation therapy for psycho-existential suffering, a questionnaire was sent to 105 responsible physicians at all certified palliative care units in Japan. The participants were requested to report the number of patients who received continuous deep sedation for refractory psycho-existential suffering during the past year, and to provide details of the 2 most recent patients. A total of 81 physicians returned questionnaires (response rate, 80%). Twenty-nine physicians (36%) reported clinical experience in continuous deep sedation for psycho-existential suffering. The overall prevalence of continuous deep sedation was calculated as 1.0% (90 cases/8,661 total patient deaths), and a total of 46 patient histories were collected. Performance status just before sedation was 3 or 4 in 96%, and predicted survival was 3 weeks or less in 94%. The suffering requiring sedation was feeling of meaninglessness/worthlessness (61%), burden on others/dependency/inability to take care of oneself (48%), death anxiety/fear/panic (33%), wish to control the time of death by oneself (24%), and isolation/lack of social support (22%). Before sedation, intermittent sedation and specialized psychiatric, psychological, and/or religious care had been performed in 94% and 59%, respectively; 89% of 26 depressed patients had received antidepressant medications. All competent patients (n=37) expressed explicit requests for sedation, and family consent was obtained in all cases where family members were available (n=45). Palliative sedation for psycho-existential suffering was performed in exceptional cases in specialized palliative care units in Japan. The patient condition was generally very poor, and the suffering was refractory to intermittent sedation and specialized psychiatric, psychological, and/or religious care. Sedation was performed on the basis of patient and family consent. These findings suggest that

  15. [Determining factors in the sedation of geriatric and oncology patients treated at home].

    PubMed

    Zamora-Mur, A; García-Foncillas, R; Zamora-Catevilla, A; Nabal-Vicuña, M; Calderero-Aragón, V; Lostalé-Latorre, F

    2017-04-01

    Sedation, used as a therapeutic measure in the field of Palliative Care, continues to present difficulties for many professionals in its management and indications. Is varied existing literature in this regard, often exclusive cancer patients. Our objective is to analyse the characteristics of patients attended by a Home Care Support Team who required sedation compared to non-sedated patients, for possible determining factors for its use that could help in decision-making. A prospective analytical study conducted in Barbastro (Huesca) from September 2007 to February 2011. The study population are patients referred to the Home Care Support Team of Barbastro. Age, sex, medical history, symptoms, previous and current Barthel, Karnofsky, primary caregiver, previous drugs, drugs after intervention, sedation yes/no. Required sedation 16.6% (n=106) of the cases (N=638). Sedated patients were younger, with no differences in sex, and the large majority (83%) were oncology patients. The presence of metastases showed no differences in need for sedation. Sedated patients have an increased functional impairment, determined by Barthel index decreased and a worse Karnofsky. Sedated patients showed increased frequency of uncontrolled symptoms, except psychomotor agitation, a fact determined by the medications used pre- and post-intervention. The presence of neoplastic disease, marked with existence of functional decline, and uncontrolled clinical need for certain medications to control symptoms may determine the need for sedation at the end of the process, above other factors such as patient comorbidity. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Trace element homeostasis during continuous sedation with propofol containing EDTA versus other sedatives in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Higgins, T L; Murray, M; Kett, D H; Fulda, G; Kramer, K M; Gelmont, D; Dedhia, H V; Levy, H; Teres, D; Zaloga, G P; Ko, H; Thompson, K A

    2000-01-01

    not deteriorate during ICU sedation with either regimen. This study showed that critical illness is associated with increased urinary losses of zinc, copper, and iron. Propofol EDTA-treated patients had greater urinary losses of zinc and iron and lower serum zinc concentrations compared with the non-EDTA sedative group. No adverse events indicative of trace metal deficiency were observed in either group. The clinical significance of trace metal losses during critical illness is unclear and requires further study.

  17. Wound healing in Mac-1 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Nagaraja, Sridevi; Zhou, Jian; Zhao, Yan; Fine, David; Mitrophanov, Alexander Y; Reifman, Jaques; DiPietro, Luisa A

    2017-05-01

    Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) is a macrophage receptor that plays several critical roles in macrophage recruitment and activation. Because macrophages are essential for proper wound healing, the impact of Mac-1 deficiency on wound healing is of significant interest. Prior studies have shown that Mac-1(-/-) mice exhibit deficits in healing, including delayed wound closure in scalp and ear wounds. This study examined whether Mac-1 deficiency influences wound healing in small excisional and incisional skin wounds. Three millimeter diameter full thickness excisional wounds and incisional wounds were prepared on the dorsal skin of Mac-1 deficient (Mac-1(-/-) ) and wild type (WT) mice, and wound healing outcomes were examined. Mac-1 deficient mice exhibited a normal rate of wound closure, generally normal levels of total collagen, and nearly normal synthesis and distribution of collagens I and III. In incisional wounds, wound breaking strength was similar for Mac-1(-/-) and WT mice. Wounds of Mac-1 deficient mice displayed normal total macrophage content, although macrophage phenotype markers were skewed as compared to WT. Interestingly, amounts of TGF-β1 and its downstream signaling molecules, SMAD2 and SMAD3, were significantly decreased in the wounds of Mac-1 deficient mice compared to WT. The results suggest that Mac-1 deficiency has little impact on the healing of small excisional and incisional wounds. Moreover, the findings demonstrate that the effect of single genetic deficiencies on wound healing may markedly differ among wound models. These conclusions have implications for the interpretation of the many prior studies that utilize a single model system to examine wound healing outcomes in genetically deficient mice. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.

  18. [Do we need a more precise definition of what sedation is?].

    PubMed

    Sanz Rubiales, Álvaro; Barón Duarte, Francisco; del Valle Rivero, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Palliative sedation in defined as the deliberate reduction in the level of consciousness of the patient by administering the appropriate drugs in order to avoid intense suffering caused by one or more refractory symptoms; sedation in the patient who is in his last days or hours of life is assumed to be continuous and as deep as needed. Clinical experience shows specific situations where it is likely that there is some confusion of terms. We could erroneously understand as palliative sedation the cases of symptomatic treatment of hyperactive delirium in a patient in its last days (a situation that sometimes is presented as the first cause of palliative sedation) or those in which it is carried out a progressive increase in the palliative treatment that often have a sedative effect, parallel to the increased severity of symptoms because of disease progression in severe ill patients. In both scenarios, sedating drugs are used to relieve end-of-life clinical complications and suffering but the circumstances of the patient, the goal of these treatments, and the way they are used do not match the definition of sedation.

  19. Sedation protocols to reduce duration of mechanical ventilation in the ICU: a Cochrane Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Leanne M; Bucknall, Tracey; Kent, Bridie; Mitchell, Marion; Burmeister, Elizabeth; Keogh, Samantha

    2016-02-01

    Assess the effects of protocol-directed sedation management on the duration of mechanical ventilation and other relevant patient outcomes in mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients. Sedation is a core component of critical care. Sub-optimal sedation management incorporates both under- and over-sedation and has been linked to poorer patient outcomes. Cochrane systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, LILACS, Current Controlled Trials and US National Institutes of Health Clinical Research Studies (1990-November 2013) and reference lists of articles were used. Randomized controlled trials conducted in intensive care units comparing management with and without protocol-directed sedation were included. Two authors screened titles, abstracts and full-text reports. Potential risk of bias was assessed. Clinical, methodological and statistical heterogeneity were examined and the random-effects model used for meta-analysis where appropriate. Mean difference for duration of mechanical ventilation and risk ratio for mortality, with 95% confidence intervals, were calculated. Two eligible studies with 633 participants comparing protocol-directed sedation delivered by nurses vs. usual care were identified. There was no evidence of differences in duration of mechanical ventilation or hospital mortality. There was statistically significant heterogeneity between studies for duration of mechanical ventilation. There is insufficient evidence to evaluate the effectiveness of protocol-directed sedation as results from the two randomized controlled trials were conflicting. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Perspectives on sedation assessment in critical care.

    PubMed

    Olson, Daiwai M; Thoyre, Suzanne M; Auyong, David B

    2007-01-01

    Multiple studies have been undertaken to show that neurofunction monitors can correlate to objective sedation assessments. Showing a correlation between these 2 patient assessments tools may not be the correct approach for validation of neurofunction monitors. Two different methods of assessing 2 different modes of the patient's response to sedation should not be expected to precisely correlate unless the desire is to replace one method with the other. We provide a brief summary of several sedation scales, physiologic measures and neurofunction monitoring tools, and correlations literature for bispectral index monitoring, and the Ramsay Scale and the Sedation Agitation Scale. Neurofunction monitors provide near continuous information about a different domain of the sedation response than intermittent observational assessments. Further research should focus on contributions from this technology to the improvement of patient outcomes when neurofunction monitoring is used as a complement, not a replacement, for observational methods of sedation assessment.

  1. Sedatives for opiate withdrawal in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Osborn, D A; Jeffery, H E; Cole, M J

    2005-07-20

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) due to opiate withdrawal may result in disruption of the mother-infant relationship, sleep-wake abnormalities, feeding difficulties, weight loss and seizures. Treatments used to ameliorate symptoms and reduce morbidity include opiates, sedatives and non-pharmacological treatments. To assess the effectiveness and safety of using a sedative compared to a non-opiate control for NAS due to withdrawal from opiates, and to determine which type of sedative is most effective and safe. The standard search strategy of the Neonatal Review Group was used. This update included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2005), MEDLINE 1966-March 2005 and abstracts of conference proceedings. Trials enrolling infants with NAS born to mothers with an opiate dependence, with > 80% follow up and using random or quasi-random allocation to sedative or control. Control could include another sedative or non-pharmacological treatment. Each author assessed study quality and extracted data independently. Primary outcomes included treatment failure (failure to achieve symptom control or use of additional drug treatment), seizure occurrence, mortality and neurodevelopment. Treatment effect was expressed using (RR), risk difference (RD), mean difference (MD) and weighted mean difference (WMD). Meta-analysis was performed using a fixed effect model. Six studies enrolling a total of 305 patients met inclusion criteria (Coyle 2002; Finnegan 1984; Kahn 1969; Kaltenbach 1986; Khoo 1995; Madden 1977); however, two (Finnegan 1984; Kaltenbach 1986) may be sequential reports that include some identical patients. Methodological concerns included the use of quasi-random allocation methods in four studies, and sizeable, largely unexplained differences in reported numbers allocated to each group in three studies. Phenobarbitone compared to supportive care alone has not been shown to reduce treatment failure or

  2. Sedative-hypnotic Binding to 11β-hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Pejo, Ervin; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Husain, S Shaukat; Raines, Douglas E

    2016-11-01

    Etomidate potently suppresses adrenocortical steroid synthesis with potentially deleterious consequences by binding to 11β-hydroxylase and inhibiting its function. The authors hypothesized that other sedative-hypnotics currently in clinical use or under development (or their metabolites) might bind to the same site at clinically relevant concentrations. The authors tested this hypothesis by defining etomidate's affinity for this site and the potencies with which other sedative-hypnotics (and their metabolites) inhibit etomidate binding. H-etomidate's binding to adrenal membranes from Sprague-Dawley rats was characterized with a filtration assay, and its dissociation constant was defined using saturation and homologous ligand competition approaches. Half-inhibitory concentrations of sedative-hypnotics and metabolites were determined from the reduction in specific H-etomidate binding measured in the presence of ranging sedative-hypnotic and metabolite concentrations. Saturation and homologous competition studies yielded H-etomidate dissociation constants of 40 and 21 nM, respectively. Half-inhibitory concentrations of etomidate and cyclopropyl methoxycarbonyl metomidate (CPMM) differed significantly (26 vs. 143 nM, respectively; P < 0.001), and those of the carboxylic acid (CA) metabolites etomidate-CA and CPMM-CA were greater than or equal to 1,000× higher than their respective parent hypnotics. The half-inhibitory concentration of dexmedetomidine was 2.2 µM, whereas those of carboetomidate, ketamine, and propofol were greater than or equal to 50 µM. Etomidate's in vitro dissociation constant for 11β-hydroxylase closely approximates its in vivo adrenocortical half-inhibitory concentration. CPMM produces less adrenocortical suppression than etomidate not only because it is metabolized faster but also because it binds to 11β-hydroxylase with lower affinity. Other sedative-hypnotics and metabolites bind to 11β-hydroxylase and inhibit etomidate binding only

  3. Temperament as a Predictor of Nitrous Oxide Inhalation Sedation Success.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Travis M; Griffith, Thomas M; Lane, Katherine J; Thikkurissy, Sarat; Scott, JoAnna M

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about implications of temperament for children who receive nitrous oxide inhalation sedation (N2O/O2) for dental care. The aim of this study was to investigate whether child temperament is associated with success in N2O/O2. Child-caregiver dyads were enrolled from patients aged 36-95 months receiving dental care with N2O/O2 at a university-based pediatric dental clinic. To assess child temperament, 48 caregivers completed the Children's Behavior Questionnaire Short Form. Patient behavior was abstracted from Frankl scores recorded in the patient's chart. The overall behavioral failure rate was 15% (n = 7/48). There was no significant difference in sedation outcome associated with sex, health, insurance status, or complexity of treatment provided. Sedation outcome was significantly associated with the broad temperament domain of Effortful Control and its subscales Attentional Focusing and Inhibitory Control. The Negative Affectivity subscales of Frustration, Sadness, and Soothability and the Extraversion/Surgency subscales Activity and Impulsivity were also significantly associated with sedation outcome. The results of this study suggest that Effortful Control is associated with behavior during dental treatment with N2O/O2. The subscales of Attention Focusing, Inhibitory Control, Frustration, Fear, Sadness, Soothability, Activity, and Impulsivity may also be important determinants of child behavior during dental treatment.

  4. MacIntyre, Rival Traditions and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolz, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper critically discusses MacIntyre's thesis that education is essentially a contested concept. In order to contextualise my discussion, I discuss both whether rival educational traditions of education found in MacIntyre's work--which I refer to as instrumental and non-instrumental justifications of education--can be rationally resolved…

  5. MacIntyre, Rival Traditions and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolz, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper critically discusses MacIntyre's thesis that education is essentially a contested concept. In order to contextualise my discussion, I discuss both whether rival educational traditions of education found in MacIntyre's work--which I refer to as instrumental and non-instrumental justifications of education--can be rationally resolved…

  6. George MacDonald's Estimate of Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, John

    2007-01-01

    The nineteenth-century fantasy writer George MacDonald believed that "it is better to be a child in a green field than a knight of many orders." In this paper, I shall explore the bearing of this high estimate of childhood on spiritual education. MacDonald explores the spirituality of the child in his essay "A Sketch of Individual Development" and…

  7. [The effects of long-term sedation on intestinal function].

    PubMed

    Zielmann, S; Grote, R

    1995-12-01

    by enteric tube in 30%, 35%, and 15% of cases, respectively. In group 3 deep sedation was necessary because of elevated intracranial pressure. In groups 4, 5, and 6, piritramide was administered for analgesia, and normal enteric tube feeding was achieved in 70%, 75%, and 90% of cases. The best results were seen in group 6, and these elderly patients needed smaller amounts of piritramide for analgesia. In groups 7, 8, 9, and 10, ketamine was given for analgesia, and complete enteric tube feeding was carried out in 75%, 30%, 45%, and 60% of these patients. The best results in the ketamine groups were found in combination with midazolam as the sedating drug; however, the patients in group 7 did not have elevated intracranial pressure, in contrast to the patients in groups 8, 9, and 10. The last group received the combination of sufentanil, midazolam and methohexitone to achieve a deep sedation. The rate of normal enteric tube feeding in these patients with severe head trauma was 30%. CONCLUSIONS. In patients with severe head trauma who need deep sedation to prevent dangerous high intracranial pressure, gastrointestinal motility disorders are very commonly found. The results obtained suggest that ketamine should be regarded as the analgesic drug of choice, combined with propofol rather than a high-dose barbiturate therapy. The combination of ketamine with midazolam and GABA is an unusual strategy for long-term sedation, which resulted from our own clinical studies directed at an effective and well-tolerated regime for this high-risk patient group. Obviously, high-dose barbiturates and short-acting opioids, especially when combined, make enteric tube feeding more difficult. Therefore, we recommend piritramide or ketamine for analgesia. The basic sedating drug is midazolam, in special cases combined with or replaced by propofol. The position of GABA in long-term sedation is not yet clear, but a lack of side effects on the gastrointestinal tract became evident in this stud

  8. Correlation Between Observational Scales of Sedation and Comfort and Bispectral Index Scores.

    PubMed

    Barbato, Michael; Barclay, Greg; Potter, Jan; Yeo, Wilf; Chung, Joseph

    2017-08-01

    When palliative care patients enter the phase of unconsciousness preceding death, it is standard practice to initiate or continue a subcutaneous infusion of an opioid plus or minus a sedative. The doses are determined somewhat empirically and adjustments are based on clinical assessment and observational measures of sedation and comfort. Following reports that these observational measures could be misleading, this study assesses their validity by comparing them with an objective measure of sedation, the Bispectral Index Score (BIS). The objective of this study was to determine the validity of the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS) and the Patient Comfort Score (PCS) in assessing sedation and comfort in unconscious patients. Forty eligible and consenting patients were monitored from the onset of unconsciousness (unresponsiveness) until death. Measures of sedation (RASS) and comfort (PCS) were made by the attending nurse every four hours. Correlation coefficients examined the relationship between fourth hourly RASS and PCS and time-matched BISs. A significant correlation was found between RASS and BIS and PCS and BIS. Sedation and comfort scores were concentrated at the lower end of the respective scales, whereas time-matched BISs were widely scattered with scores ranging from near full awareness to deep sedation. Compared with BIS, both RASS and PCS appear to be relatively blunt instruments at the lower end of their respective scales. Due caution should be taken interpreting and making clinical decisions based solely on the RASS and PCS and, by extension, other observational measures of patient comfort and sedation. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Staff education, regular sedation and analgesia quality feedback, and a sedation monitoring technology for improving sedation and analgesia quality for critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients: a cluster randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Timothy S; Kydonaki, Kalliopi; Antonelli, Jean; Stephen, Jacqueline; Lee, Robert J; Everingham, Kirsty; Hanley, Janet; Phillips, Emma C; Uutela, Kimmo; Peltola, Petra; Cole, Stephen; Quasim, Tara; Ruddy, James; McDougall, Marcia; Davidson, Alan; Rutherford, John; Richards, Jonathan; Weir, Christopher J

    2016-10-01

    Optimal sedation of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) requires the avoidance of pain, agitation, and unnecessary deep sedation, but these outcomes are challenging to achieve. Excessive sedation can prolong ICU stay, whereas light sedation can increase pain and frightening memories, which are commonly recalled by ICU survivors. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of three interventions to improve sedation and analgesia quality: an online education programme; regular feedback of sedation-analgesia quality data; and use of a novel sedation-monitoring technology (the Responsiveness Index [RI]). We did a cluster randomised trial in eight ICUs, which were randomly allocated to receive education alone (two ICUs), education plus sedation-analgesia quality feedback (two ICUs), education plus RI monitoring technology (two ICUs), or all three interventions (two ICUs). Randomisation was done with computer-generated random permuted blocks, stratified according to recruitment start date. A 45 week baseline period was followed by a 45 week intervention period, separated by an 8 week implementation period in which the interventions were introduced. ICU and research staff were not masked to study group assignment during the intervention period. All mechanically ventilated patients were potentially eligible. We assessed patients' sedation-analgesia quality for each 12 h period of nursing care, and sedation-related adverse events daily. Our primary outcome was the proportion of care periods with optimal sedation-analgesia, defined as being free from excessive sedation, agitation, poor limb relaxation, and poor ventilator synchronisation. Analysis used multilevel generalised linear mixed modelling to explore intervention effects in a single model taking clustering and patient-level factors into account. A concurrent mixed-methods process evaluation was undertaken to help understand the trial findings. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01634451. Between

  10. Spectral entropy as a monitor of depth of propofol induced sedation.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Padraig; Kowalski, Robert G; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Lynch, Elaine M; Boylan, Geraldine B; McNamara, Brian; Shorten, George D

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this prospective, observational study was to evaluate State and Response entropy (Entropy(TM) Monitor, GE Healthcare, Finland), indices as measures of moderate ("conscious") sedation in healthy adult patients receiving a low dose propofol infusion. Sedation was evaluated using: (I) the responsiveness component of the OAA/S scale (Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale) and (II) multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) interpretation by a clinical expert. 12 ASA I patients were recruited. A target-controlled infusion of propofol was administered (using Schnider's pharmacokinetic model) with an initial effect site concentration set to 0.5 microg ml(-1). A 4 minute equilibrium period was allowed. This concentration was increased at 4 minute intervals by 0.5 microg ml(-1) to a maximum of 2.0 microg ml(-1). State (SE) and Response (RE), entropy values were recorded for each 4 minute epoch together with clinical sedation scores (OAA/S) and continuous multi-channel EEG. The multi-channel EEG recorded during the final minute of each 4 minute epoch or "patient/time unit" was presented to a neurophysiologist who assigned a label "sedated/not sedated". SE/RE values were compared in patient/time units with clinical or EEG evidence of sedation versus those without. Mean SE and RE values were less in patient/time units when clinical evidence of sedation was present, [mean = 86.8 (95% CI, 84.0-88.3) and 94.3 (95%CI, 92-96.1)], P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively. In patient/time units assigned the label "sedated" by the clinical neurophysiologist assessing the multi-channel EEG, SE and RE values were less [mean = 87.5 (95% CI, 86.3-88.4) and 95.0 (95% CI, 93.8-96.1)] P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively. A statistically significant decrease in SE and RE values was demonstrated in patient/time units in which clinical or EEG evidence of sedation was present. We conclude that spectral entropy offers potential as a monitor of propofol induced sedation.

  11. Determination of a sedative protocol for use in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with neurologic abnormalities undergoing electroencephalographic examination.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Sophie; Haulena, Martin; Williams, D Colette; Dawson, John; Yandell, Brian S; Gulland, Frances M D

    2008-12-01

    Sedation in sea lions exhibiting abnormal neurologic signs may require modification of established sedatior protocols because of the likely interaction between effects of the sedative and physiologic changes in diseased animals The effects of two sedative combinations, 0.07 mg/kg medetomidine and 0.07 mg/kg medetomidine plus 0.2 mg/kg butorphanol, were compared between California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with signs of neurologic dysfunctior (n=33) and without neurologic signs (n=8). Sedation depth was scored on a scale of 0 (no effect) to 4 (profound sedation) assessed by response to auditory, tactile, and visual stimuli at the time of perceived maximal sedative effect In the medetomidine-alone group, sea lions with neurologic signs attained a median sedation score of 4 compared to a median sedation score of 1 in the clinically normal sea lions. Sea lions with and without neurologic signs giver medetomidine-butorphanol attained a median sedation score of 4. No statistically significant difference in time to induction and respiratory rate was found between the two sedation protocols in all sea lions. In the sea lions with neurologic signs, the recovery time from medetomidine-butorphanol sedation was prolonged (P < 0.01) and minimum recorded heart rates, although remaining within normal physiologic limits, were lower (P = 0.02) when compared to the sea lions administered medetomidine alone. Muscle jerks were observed in many animals given medetomidine-butorphanol and were detrimental to the diagnostic quality of the electroencephalogram (EEG) recording. Medetomidine alone at a dose rate of 0.07 mg/kg thus provides adequate and safe sedation in sea lions with neurologic signs undergoing EEG evaluation.

  12. Intravenous ketamine plus midazolam is superior to intranasal midazolam for emergency paediatric procedural sedation

    PubMed Central

    Acworth, J; Purdie, D; Clark, R

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—This study compared intranasal midazolam (INM) with a combination of intravenous ketamine and intravenous midazolam (IVKM) for sedation of children requiring minor procedures in the emergency department. Method—A single blinded randomised clinical trial was conducted in the emergency department of a major urban paediatric hospital. Subjects requiring sedation for minor procedures were randomised to receive either INM (0.4 mg/kg) or intravenous ketamine (1 mg/kg) plus intravenous midazolam (0.1 mg/kg). Physiological variables and two independent measures of sedation (Sedation Score and Visual Analogue Sedation Scale) were recorded before sedation and at regular intervals during the procedure and recovery period. Times to adequate level of sedation and to discharge were compared. Results—Fifty three patients were enrolled over a 10 month period. Sedation was sufficient to complete the procedures in all children receiving IVKM and in 24 of the 26 receiving INM. Onset of sedation was an average of 5.3 minutes quicker with IVKM than with INM (95%CI 3.2, 7.4 minutes, p<0.001). Children given INM were discharged an average of 19 minutes earlier than those given IVKM (95%CI 4, 33 minutes, p=0.02). Mean Sedation Scores and Visual Analogue Sedation Scale scores for the 30 minutes after drug administration were significantly better in children given IVKM compared with INM (2.4 and 1.8 versus 3.5 and 3.8, respectively). Both doctors and parents were more satisfied with sedation by intravenous ketamine and midazolam. Conclusions—Intravenous ketamine plus midazolam used in an appropriate setting by experienced personnel provides an excellent means of achieving sedation suitable for most non-painful minor procedures for children in the emergency department. This combination is superior to INM in terms of speed of onset and consistency of effect. INM delivered via aerosol spray has a more variable effect but may still be adequate for the completion of many of

  13. Pediatric dental sedation: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Travis M; Xu, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    High levels of dental caries, challenging child behavior, and parent expectations support a need for sedation in pediatric dentistry. This paper reviews modern developments in pediatric sedation with a focus on implementing techniques to enhance success and patient safety. In recent years, sedation for dental procedures has been implicated in a disproportionate number of cases that resulted in death or permanent neurologic damage. The youngest children and those with more complicated medical backgrounds appear to be at greatest risk. To reduce complications, practitioners and regulatory bodies have supported a renewed focus on health care quality and safety. Implementation of high fidelity simulation training and improvements in patient monitoring, including end-tidal carbon dioxide, are becoming recognized as a new standard for sedated patients in dental offices and health care facilities. Safe and appropriate case selection and appropriate dosing for overweight children is also paramount. Oral sedation has been the mainstay of pediatric dental sedation; however, today practitioners are administering modern drugs in new ways with high levels of success. Employing contemporary transmucosal administration devices increases patient acceptance and sedation predictability. While recently there have been many positive developments in sedation technology, it is now thought that medications used in sedation and anesthesia may have adverse effects on the developing brain. The evidence for this is not definitive, but we suggest that practitioners recognize this developing area and counsel patients accordingly. Finally, there is a clear trend of increased use of ambulatory anesthesia services for pediatric dentistry. Today, parents and practitioners have become accustomed to children receiving general anesthesia in the outpatient setting. As a result of these changes, it is possible that dental providers will abandon the practice of personally administering large amounts of

  14. Pediatric dental sedation: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Travis M; Xu, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    High levels of dental caries, challenging child behavior, and parent expectations support a need for sedation in pediatric dentistry. This paper reviews modern developments in pediatric sedation with a focus on implementing techniques to enhance success and patient safety. In recent years, sedation for dental procedures has been implicated in a disproportionate number of cases that resulted in death or permanent neurologic damage. The youngest children and those with more complicated medical backgrounds appear to be at greatest risk. To reduce complications, practitioners and regulatory bodies have supported a renewed focus on health care quality and safety. Implementation of high fidelity simulation training and improvements in patient monitoring, including end-tidal carbon dioxide, are becoming recognized as a new standard for sedated patients in dental offices and health care facilities. Safe and appropriate case selection and appropriate dosing for overweight children is also paramount. Oral sedation has been the mainstay of pediatric dental sedation; however, today practitioners are administering modern drugs in new ways with high levels of success. Employing contemporary transmucosal administration devices increases patient acceptance and sedation predictability. While recently there have been many positive developments in sedation technology, it is now thought that medications used in sedation and anesthesia may have adverse effects on the developing brain. The evidence for this is not definitive, but we suggest that practitioners recognize this developing area and counsel patients accordingly. Finally, there is a clear trend of increased use of ambulatory anesthesia services for pediatric dentistry. Today, parents and practitioners have become accustomed to children receiving general anesthesia in the outpatient setting. As a result of these changes, it is possible that dental providers will abandon the practice of personally administering large amounts of

  15. Should patients undergoing a bronchoscopy be sedated?

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, R; De-La-Rosa-Ramirez, I; Maldonado-Hernandez, A; Dominguez-Cherit, G

    2003-04-01

    The techniques, drugs and depth of sedation for flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy is controversial, and several reports consider that the routine use of sedation is not a prerequisite. We evaluate whether the addition of sedation with propofol improves patient tolerance, compared to local anesthesic of the airway only. Eighteen patients with pneumonia undergoing flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy were included in a randomized, single blind, prospective controlled study. The non-sedation group received airway topical anesthesia, whereas the sedation group received topical anesthesia and intravenous sedation with propofol. The degree of pain, cough, sensation of asphyxiation, degree of amnesia, global tolerance and acceptance of another bronchoscopy in the future were noted. Changes in blood pressure, heart rate and saturation of oxygen by pulse oximetry were also evaluated. The patients in sedation group had less cough (P < 0.05), pain (P < 0.01) and sensation of asphyxiation (P < 0.001). Global tolerance to the procedure was significantly better in the group under sedation (P < 0.01). These patients had total amnesia to the procedure (P < 0.0001), thus is more probable that will accept another bronchoscopy in the future (P < 0.01). There was a significant rise in heart rate and blood pressure in the patients without sedation. There were no differences in oxygen saturation (P = 0.75). Our results show that if we administer propofol for sedation, in addition to local anesthesia of the airway, the tolerance to the procedure is much better. Also it appears that sedation with propofol is safe if we carefully select and monitor the patient.

  16. Graph theoretical analysis of sedation's effect on whole brain functional system in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhen; Alcauter, Sarael; Jin, Ke; Peng, Zi-Wen; Gao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The neurophysiological mechanism underlying sedation, especially in school-aged children, remains largely unknown. The recently emerged resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) technique, capable of delineating brain's functional interaction pattern among distributed brain areas, proves to be a unique and powerful tool to study sedation-induced brain reorganization. Based on a relatively large school-aged children population (n=28, 10.3±2.6 years, range 7-15 years) and leveraging rsfMRI and graph theoretical analysis, this study aims to delineate sedation-induced changes in brain's information transferring property from a whole brain system perspective. Our results show a global deterioration in brain's efficiency properties (p=0.0085 and 0.0018, for global and local efficiency, respectively) with a locally graded distribution featuring significant disruptions of key consciousness-related regions. Moreover, our results also indicate a redistribution of brain's information-processing hubs characterized by a right and posterior shift as consistent with the reduced level of consciousness during sedation. Overall, our findings inform a sedation-induced functional reorganization pattern in school-aged children that greatly improve our understanding of sedation's effect in children and may potentially serve as reference for future sedation-related experimental studies and clinical applications.

  17. The Efficacy of Two Intravenous Sedative Drugs in Management of Uncooperative Children for Dental Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Kaviani, Nasser; Ashrafi, Sanaz; Jabbarifar, Seyed Ebrahim; Ghaffari, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Some children do not show an appropriate cooperation with their dentist. A number of them cannot be managed by local anesthesia and the usual techniques used to control behaviors, so further steps are required to control their pain and anxiety. Pharmaceutical control is recommended through sedation or general anesthesia. Purpose This study was aimed to evaluate two groups of drugs in intravenous sedation method. Materials and Method In this clinical trial intervention study, patients were randomly divided into two groups of 18 and 20 and each group received either intravenous midazolam-ketamine or midazolam-fentanyl. During the procedure, 0.25mg midazolam was administered to both groups if needed. The scores of intraoperative sedation and operation conditions were evaluated and recorded by dental sedation teacher groups (DSTG) system in the 10th, 20th, 30th and 40th minutes of the operation. The results were analyzed by SPSS (version 16) using independent T-test, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and Pearson Chi-Square tests as appropriated. Results There was no significant difference between the two groups in sedation period (p= 0.55), recovery time (p= 0.18), Frankl score (p= 0.83(, score of intraoperative sedation and operating conditions (p> 0.05), and sedation complications (p= 0.612). In addition, no complication occurred in recovery. Conclusion There was no significant difference between the two drug groups; both were appropriate in controlling children’s behavior. PMID:26106632

  18. Midazolam conscious sedation in a large Danish municipal dental service for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Uldum, Birgitte; Hallonsten, Anna-Lena; Poulsen, Sven

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the introduction and the first six years use of midazolam for conscious sedation in a municipal dental service in Denmark. In 1998, all dentists were introduced to midazolam conscious sedation. A sedation chart was filled in for each session, and parents' assessment was obtained. In 2004, all clinical materials were collected. Six hundred and eighty sessions were performed; 63.7% of the children were between 2 and 6 years of age; 88.5% belonged to American Society of Anesthesiologists grade 1; 74.8% of the sedations performed used the oral route of administration. Restorations were performed during 60.3% of the sessions, and extractions during 38.4%. Complications during the sessions were rare, the most frequent being double vision (6.1%), hiccups (2.7%), and paradoxical reaction (2.0%). Using Wilton's sedation scale, 42.9% were calm and 27.7% were agitated during treatment, whereas after treatment 61.7% were calm; 80.4% of the parents were very positive towards this sedation method. Sedation with midazolam for dental treatment of children with dental fear and anxiety is a feasible and an efficient method with a low rate of complications. It can probably reduce the need for dental treatment under general anaesthesia.

  19. A systematic literature review on the ethics of palliative sedation: an update (2016).

    PubMed

    Henry, Blair

    2016-09-01

    Palliative sedation has been the subject of intensive debate since its first appearance in 1990. In a 2010 review of palliative sedation, the following areas were identified as lacking in consensus: inconsistent terminology, its use in nonphysical suffering, the ongoing experience of distress, and concern that the practice of palliative sedation may hasten death. This review looks at the literature over the past 6 years and provides an update on these outstanding concerns. Good clinical guidelines and policies are still required to address issues of emotional distress and waylay concerns that palliative sedation hastens death. The empirical evidence suggests some movement toward consensus on the practice of palliative sedation. However, a continued need exists for evidence-informed practice guidelines, education, and research to support the ethical practice of palliative sedation at the end of life. Until that time, clinicians are advised to adopt a framework or guideline that has been expert driven to ensure consistent and ethical use of palliative sedation at the end of life.

  20. [Terminal sedation: consultation with a second physician as is the case in euthanasia and assisted suicide].

    PubMed

    Ponsioen, B P; Schuurman, W H A Elink; van den Hurk, A J P M; van der Poel, B N M; Runia, E H

    2005-02-26

    In terminally-ill patients in the Netherlands deep sedation by means of a continuous subcutaneous infusion with midazolam occurs more frequently than euthanasia and assisted suicide. Deep terminal sedation is applied to relieve symptoms during the phase of dying, but in contrast to euthanasia and assisted suicide, does not hasten death. In three terminally-ill patients, a 65-year-old man suffering from pulmonary carcinoma, a 94-year-old woman with general malaise, nausea and anorexia, and a 79-year-old woman in the final stage of ovarian carcinoma, a general-practitioner advisor was consulted about an end-of-life decision--deep terminal sedation versus euthanasia or assisted suicide. The first two patients were given deep sedation until death, in both cases a day and a half later. The third patient's request for euthanasia was considered to meet the legal criteria for euthanasia. Compliance with the Dutch statutory criteria for due care in euthanasia and assisted suicide might also be helpful when deciding about terminal deep sedation, but the role and responsibility of the attending physician may differ. However, the radical effects of sedation on the terminally-ill patient and the rapid changes in the clinical situation of the patient when the decision to sedate is taken, both emphasize the need for consultation with another physician.

  1. Pediatric procedural sedation with propofol using a higher initial bolus dose.

    PubMed

    Young, Timothy P; Lim, Jennifer J; Kim, Tommy Y; Thorp, Andrea W; Brown, Lance

    2014-10-01

    We sought to describe the doses of propofol used for sedation in our pediatric emergency department, along with the range of procedures performed under propofol sedation. We also planned to describe clinically important physiologic changes seen and physician satisfaction with propofol at the doses observed. This was a prospective observational case series. Physicians completed a data collection form after the propofol sedation. The physicians were asked to report physiologic changes that occurred during sedation and rate their satisfaction with propofol as a sedation agent on a 100-mm visual analog scale. Eight hundred eighty-six sedation events were reported. The median initial dose of propofol given was 2.0 mg/kg and the median total dose was 3.6 mg/kg. Propofol was used for a wide range of procedures. The most common physiologic change was desaturation/hypoxia (desaturation to <90% in 7.2%). No deaths, unplanned intubations, or surgical airway placements were reported. Treating physicians reported a median satisfaction score of 97 mm. A 2-mg/kg initial bolus dose of propofol for pediatric sedation was well tolerated and useful for a wide range of procedures. Physicians should expect to find a high level of satisfaction with this dose.

  2. Preoperative anxiety and propofol requirement in conscious sedation for ovum retrieval.

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeong-Yeon; Kang, Inn Soo; Koong, Mi Kyoung; Yoon, Hee Jo; Jee, Young Suck; Park, Jeong Wook; Park, Mi Hyun

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the correlation among the trial number of in vitro fertilization (IVF), preoperative anxiety, and propofol requirement for conscious sedation. One hundred and twenty six Korean women undergoing oocyte retrieval were enrolled. The target-controlled infusion by the anesthesiologist was conducted with initial target propofol concentration of 2.5 microg/mL, which was manipulated until the sedation score 3 and desired clinical end point were achieved. A weak correlation was observed between visual analogue scale (VAS) anxiety and the dose of propofol required for the induction of conscious sedation (r=0.22, p=0.0192). A weak correlation was also found between VAS anxiety and the sedation time needed to reach the proper conscious sedation level for the procedure (r=0.181, p=0.0484). Multiple regression analysis showed that VAS anxiety, preoperative baseline prolactin level, and cortisol level had statistically significant effects on the propofol induction dose for target controlled conscious sedation. We concluded that the induction dose and time requirements for propofol in anesthesiologist-controlled conscious sedation be modified based on the preoperative anxiety level and the baseline blood concentration of stress hormone, cortisol and prolactin. PMID:14676445

  3. Preoperative anxiety and propofol requirement in conscious sedation for ovum retrieval.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jeong-Yeon; Kang, Inn Soo; Koong, Mi Kyoung; Yoon, Hee Jo; Jee, Young Suck; Park, Jeong Wook; Park, Mi Hyun

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the correlation among the trial number of in vitro fertilization (IVF), preoperative anxiety, and propofol requirement for conscious sedation. One hundred and twenty six Korean women undergoing oocyte retrieval were enrolled. The target-controlled infusion by the anesthesiologist was conducted with initial target propofol concentration of 2.5 microg/mL, which was manipulated until the sedation score 3 and desired clinical end point were achieved. A weak correlation was observed between visual analogue scale (VAS) anxiety and the dose of propofol required for the induction of conscious sedation (r=0.22, p=0.0192). A weak correlation was also found between VAS anxiety and the sedation time needed to reach the proper conscious sedation level for the procedure (r=0.181, p=0.0484). Multiple regression analysis showed that VAS anxiety, preoperative baseline prolactin level, and cortisol level had statistically significant effects on the propofol induction dose for target controlled conscious sedation. We concluded that the induction dose and time requirements for propofol in anesthesiologist-controlled conscious sedation be modified based on the preoperative anxiety level and the baseline blood concentration of stress hormone, cortisol and prolactin.

  4. Dexmedetomidine sedation for transesophageal echocardiography during percutaneous atrial septal defect closure in adult

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Wook; Cheol Go, Gwang; Jeon, Sang Yoon; Bang, Sira; Lee, Ki Hwa; Kim, Yong Han; Kim, Dong-Kie

    2013-01-01

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) is second common congenital heart disease that often leads to adult period. Intracardiac or transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is essential for percutaneous closure of ASD using Amplatzer septal occluder. Dexmedetomidine (DEX), which is a highly selective α2-agonist, has sedative and analgesic properties without respiratory depression in the clinical dose range. We report percutaneous closure of ASD with TEE under DEX sedation. PMID:24550975

  5. Toward Solving the Sedation-Assessment Conundrum: Neurofunction Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Olson, DaiWai M; Phillips, Kyloni; Graffagnino, Carmelo

    2016-06-01

    The sedation-assessment conundrum is the struggle to balance the need for sedation against the need to awaken the patient and perform a neurologic examination. This article discusses the nuances of the sedation-assessment conundrum as well as approaches to resolve this and reduce the negative impact of abruptly stopping sedative infusions. Both oversedation and undersedation affect critically ill patients. This article discusses methods of assessing sedation and interpreting individualized patient responses to sedation. The use of neurofunction monitors and periods of sedation interruption are discussed within the context of addressing the sedation-assessment conundrum.

  6. Pharmacokinetic Considerations for Moderate and Deep Sedation

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    Moderate and deep sedation can be provided using several routes of drug administration including oral (PO), inhalation, and parental injection. The safety and efficacy of these various techniques is largely dependent on pharmacokinetic principles. This continuing education article will highlight essential principles of absorption, distribution, and elimination of commonly used sedative agents. PMID:22168806

  7. Stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Hendler, Reuben A; Ramchandani, Vijay A; Gilman, Jodi; Hommer, Daniel W

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol produces both stimulant and sedating effects in humans. These two seemingly opposite effects are central to the understanding of much of the literature on alcohol use and misuse. In this chapter we review studies that describe and attempt to measure various aspects of alcohol's subjective, autonomic, motor, cognitive and behavioral effects from the perspective of stimulation and sedation. Although subjective sedative and stimulatory effects can be measured, it is not entirely clear if all motor, cognitive and behavioral effects can be unambiguously assigned to either one or the other category. Increased heart rate and aggression seem strongly associated with stimulation, but motor slowing and cognitive impairment can also show a similar time course to stimulation, making their relation to sedation problematic. There is good agreement that alcohol's ability to induce striatal dopamine release is the mechanism underlying alcohol's stimulatory effects; however, the change in brain function underlying sedation is less well understood. In general, stimulatory effects are thought to be more rewarding than sedative effects, but this may not be true for anxiolytic effects which seem more closely related to sedation than stimulation. The two major theories of how response to alcohol predicts risk for alcoholism both postulate that individuals at high risk for alcohol use disorders have a reduced sedative response to alcohol compared to individuals not at high risk. In addition one theory proposes that alcoholism risk is also associated with a larger stimulatory response to alcohol.

  8. Epileptic fits under intravenous midazolam sedation.

    PubMed

    Robb, N D

    1996-09-07

    A case is presented of a patient who suffered from recurrent epileptic fits while being treated under intravenous sedation with midazolam. Those using sedation are advised to beware of the patient who gives a history of fits being provoked in the dental environment.

  9. Midazolam for sedation before procedures.

    PubMed

    Conway, Aaron; Rolley, John; Sutherland, Joanna R

    2016-05-20

    Midazolam is used for sedation before diagnostic and therapeutic medical procedures. It is an imidazole benzodiazepine that has depressant effects on the central nervous system (CNS) with rapid onset of action and few adverse effects. The drug can be administered by several routes including oral, intravenous, intranasal and intramuscular. To determine the evidence on the effectiveness of midazolam for sedation when administered before a procedure (diagnostic or therapeutic). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL to January 2016), MEDLINE in Ovid (1966 to January 2016) and Ovid EMBASE (1980 to January 2016). We imposed no language restrictions. Randomized controlled trials in which midazolam, administered to participants of any age, by any route, at any dose or any time before any procedure (apart from dental procedures), was compared with placebo or other medications including sedatives and analgesics. Two authors extracted data and assessed risk of bias for each included study. We performed a separate analysis for each different drug comparison. We included 30 trials (2319 participants) of midazolam for gastrointestinal endoscopy (16 trials), bronchoscopy (3), diagnostic imaging (5), cardioversion (1), minor plastic surgery (1), lumbar puncture (1), suturing (2) and Kirschner wire removal (1). Comparisons were: intravenous diazepam (14), placebo (5) etomidate (1) fentanyl (1), flunitrazepam (1) and propofol (1); oral chloral hydrate (4), diazepam (2), diazepam and clonidine (1); ketamine (1) and placebo (3); and intranasal placebo (2). There was a high risk of bias due to inadequate reporting about randomization (75% of trials). Effect estimates were imprecise due to small sample sizes. None of the trials reported on allergic or anaphylactoid reactions. Intravenous midazolam versus diazepam (14 trials; 1069 participants)There was no difference in anxiety (risk ratio (RR) 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39 to 1.62; 175

  10. The safety and efficacy of using a concentrated intranasal midazolam formulation for paediatric dental sedation.

    PubMed

    Wood, Michael

    2011-01-01

    To add to the evidence base for safe and effective paediatric conscious sedation techniques in primary dental care. To consider the safety and effectiveness of an alternative sedation technique for facilitating dental treatment in anxious children, thereby avoiding dental general anaesthetic. Leagrave Dental Sedation Clinic. A primary care-based general and referral clinic for anxious patients, special care dentistry and oral surgery. This is a prospective service evaluation of 114 selected anxious children requiring invasive dental treatment. Each child was administered 0.25 mg/kg intranasal midazolam using a concentrated 40 mg/ml midazolam (INM) in 2% lignocaine solution. Successful completion of intended dental treatment with a child who is co-operative and who meets the UK accepted definition of conscious sedation. 57% of the children found the administration of the new formulation acceptable. Of the 114 patients who received INM, 104 completed the treatment (91%). The 10 children who could not complete the treatment with INM were converted to intravenous sedation and treatment was completed successfully at the same appointment. During treatment there was no desaturation and only one patient desaturated briefly in the recovery area. Parents rated the technique acceptable in 76% of cases and would have the procedure repeated in 83% of cases. Parents rated this technique as having 8.3 out of 10 with only 5 parents awarding a score of less than 7 out of 10. Side effects included blurred vision, sneezing, headaches, restlessness with one patient having post-operative nausea and vomiting. In selected cases intranasal sedation provides a safe and effective alternative for dental GA in short invasive procedures limited to one or two quadrants in children. Other techniques, e.g., oral and intravenous sedation, appear to have a much higher acceptability of administration. This technique may be useful if inhalation sedation, oral sedation or intravenous sedation is

  11. Reasons for continuous sedation until death in cancer patients: a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Robijn, L; Chambaere, K; Raus, K; Rietjens, J; Deliens, L

    2017-01-01

    End-of-life sedation, though increasingly prevalent and widespread, remains a highly debated medical practice in the context of palliative medicine. This qualitative study aims to look more specifically at how health care workers justify their use of continuous sedation until death and which factors they report as playing a part in the decision-making process. In-depth interviews were held with 28 physicians and 22 nurses of 27 cancer patients in Belgium who had received continuous sedation until death in hospitals, palliative care units or at home. Our findings indicate that medical decision-making for continuous sedation is not only based on clinical indications but also related to morally complex issues such as the social context and the personal characteristics and preferences of individual patient and their relatives. The complex role of non-clinical factors in palliative sedation decision-making needs to be further studied to assess which medically or ethically relevant arguments are underlying daily clinical practice. Finally, our findings suggest that in some cases continuous sedation was resorted to as an alternative option at the end of life when euthanasia, a legally regulated option in Belgium, was no longer practically possible.

  12. Entropy correlates with Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ankur; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Trikha, Anjan; Rewari, Vimi; Chandralekha

    2014-04-01

    Sedation is routinely used in intensive care units. However due to absence of objective scoring systems like Bispectral Index and entropy our ability to regulate the degree of sedation is limited. This deficiency is further highlighted by the fact that agitation scores used in intensive care units (ICU) have no role in paralyzed patients. The present study compares entropy as a sedation scoring modality with Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients in an ICU. Twenty-seven, mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients of either sex, 16-65 years of age, were studied over a period of 24 h. They received a standard sedation regimen consisting of a bolus dose of propofol 0.5 mg/kg and fentanyl 1 lg/kg followed by infusions of propofol and fentanyl ranging from 1.5 to 5 mg/kg/h and 0.5 to 2.0 lg/kg/h, respectively. Clinically relevant values of RASS for optimal ICU sedation (between 0 and -3) in non-paralyzed patients were compared to corresponding entropy values, to find if any significant correlation exists between the two. These entropy measurements were obtained using the Datex-Ohmeda-M-EntropyTM module. This module is presently not approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for monitoring sedation in ICU. A total of 527 readings were obtained. There was a statistically significant correlation between the state entropy (SE) and RASS [Spearman's rho/rs = 0.334, p\\0.0001]; response entropy (RE) and RASS [Spearman's rho/rs = 0.341, p\\0.0001]). For adequate sedation as judged by a RASS value of 0 to -3, the mean SE was 57.86 ± 16.50 and RE was 67.75 ± 15.65. The present study illustrates that entropy correlates with RASS (between scores 0 and -3) when assessing the level of sedation in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients.

  13. A Survey of Hospice and Palliative Care Physicians Regarding Palliative Sedation Practices.

    PubMed

    Lux, Michael R; Protus, Bridget McCrate; Kimbrel, Jason; Grauer, Phyllis

    2017-04-01

    Patients nearing the end of life may experience symptoms that are refractory to standard therapeutic options. Physicians may consider palliative sedation to relieve intolerable suffering. There is limited clinical literature regarding preferred medications for palliative sedation. To determine the preferred medications physicians use when implementing palliative sedation. An Internet-based, cross-sectional survey of hospice and palliative care physicians in the United States. A link to the survey was e-mailed to 3130 physician members of the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, of which 381 physicians completed the survey. Physicians were not required to answer all questions. Nearly all (n = 335, 99%) respondents indicated that palliative sedation may be used (acceptable by 73% [n = 248] for refractory symptoms and acceptable by 26% [n = 87] only for imminently dying patients). Seventy-nine percent (n = 252) believed that opioids should not be used to induce palliative sedation but should be continued to provide pain control. Midazolam was the most commonly selected first-line choice for palliative sedation (n = 155, 42%). The most commonly reported second-line agents for the induction of palliative sedation were lorazepam, midazolam (for those who did not select midazolam as first-line agent), and phenobarbital with a reported preference of 20% (n = 49), 19% (n = 46), and 17% (n = 40), respectively. Of the physicians surveyed, 99% (n = 335) felt that palliative sedation is a reasonable treatment modality. Midazolam was considered a drug of choice for inducing and maintaining sedation, and opioids were continued for pain control.

  14. Fast arithmetic in MacLISP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, G. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    MacLISP provides a compiler which produces numerical code competitive in speed with some FORTRAN implementations and yet compatible with the rest of the MacLISP system. All numerical programs can be run under the MacLISP interpreter. Additional declarations to the compiler specify type information which allows the generation of optimized numerical code which generally does not require the garbage collection of temporary numerical results. Array accesses are almost as fast as in FORTRAN, and permit the use of dynamically allocated arrays of varying dimensions. The implementation decisions regarding user interface, data representations, and interfacing conventions are discussed which allow the generation of fast numerical LISP code.

  15. Palliative sedation versus euthanasia: an ethical assessment.

    PubMed

    ten Have, Henk; Welie, Jos V M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article was to review the ethical debate concerning palliative sedation. Although recent guidelines articulate the differences between palliative sedation and euthanasia, the ethical controversies remain. The dominant view is that euthanasia and palliative sedation are morally distinct practices. However, ambiguous moral experiences and considerable practice variation call this view into question. When heterogeneous sedative practices are all labeled as palliative sedation, there is the risk that palliative sedation is expanded to include practices that are actually intended to bring about the patients' death. This troublesome expansion is fostered by an expansive use of the concept of intention such that this decisive ethical concept is no longer restricted to signify the aim in guiding the action. In this article, it is argued that intention should be used in a restricted way. The significance of intention is related to other ethical parameters to demarcate the practice of palliative sedation: terminality, refractory symptoms, proportionality, and separation from other end-of-life decisions. These additional parameters, although not without ethical and practical problems, together formulate a framework to ethically distinguish a more narrowly defined practice of palliative sedation from practices that are tantamount to euthanasia. Finally, the article raises the question as to what impact palliative sedation might have on the practice of palliative care itself. The increasing interest in palliative sedation may reemphasize characteristics of health care that initially encouraged the emergence of palliative care in the first place: the focus on therapy rather than care, the physical dimension rather than the whole person, the individual rather than the community, and the primacy of intervention rather than receptiveness and presence.

  16. Emergency physician-administered propofol sedation: a report on 25,433 sedations from the pediatric sedation research consortium.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Michael D; Baxter, Amy L; Yanosky, Daniel J; Cravero, Joseph P

    2011-05-01

    We describe the adverse events observed in a large sample of children sedated with propofol by emergency physicians and identify patient and procedure characteristics predictive of more serious adverse events. We identified sedations performed by emergency physicians using propofol as the primary sedative, included in the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium database from July 2004 to September 2008. We describe the characteristics of the patients, procedures, location, adjunctive medications, and adverse events. We use a multivariable logistic regression model to identify predictors of more serious adverse events. Of 25,433 propofol sedations performed by emergency physicians, most (76%) were performed in a radiology department. More serious adverse events occurred in 581 sedations (2.28%; 95% confidence interval 2.1% to 2.5%). There were 2 instances of aspiration, 1 unplanned intubation, and 1 cardiac arrest. Significant predictors of serious adverse events were weight less than or equal to 5 kg, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification greater than 2, adjunctive medications (benzodiazepines, ketamine, opioids, or anticholinergics), nonpainful procedures, and primary diagnoses of upper respiratory illness or prematurity. We observed a low adverse event prevalence in this largest series of propofol sedations by emergency physicians. Factors indicating greater risk of more serious adverse events are detailed. Copyright © 2011 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic relatedness of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex isolates from patients with pulmonary MAC disease and their residential soils.

    PubMed

    Fujita, K; Ito, Y; Hirai, T; Maekawa, K; Imai, S; Tatsumi, S; Niimi, A; Iinuma, Y; Ichiyama, S; Mishima, M

    2013-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) strains were recovered from 48.9% of residential soil samples (agricultural farms (n = 7), residential yards (n = 79), and planting pots (n = 49)) of 100 pulmonary MAC patients and 35 non-infected control patients. The frequency of MAC recovery did not differ among soil types or among patients regardless of the presence of pulmonary MAC disease, infecting MAC species or period of soil exposure. Variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis for MAC clinical and soil isolates revealed 78 different patterns in 47 M. avium clinical isolates and 41 soil isolates, and 53 different patterns in 18 M. intracellulare clinical isolates and 37 soil isolates. Six clinical and corresponding soil isolate pairs with an identical VNTR genotype were from case patients with high soil exposure (≥2 h per week, 37.5% (6/16) with high exposure compared with 0.0% (0/19) with low or no exposure, p <0.01), suggesting that residential soils are a likely source of pulmonary MAC infection. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  18. Oral chloral hydrate vs. intranasal midazolam for sedation during computerized tomography.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Razieh; Nakhaei, Mohammad Hosein Ataee; Behdad, Shekofah; Moghaddam, Reza Nafisi; Shamszadeh, Ali

    2013-02-01

    We conducted this single blind randomized clinical trial to compare the efficacy and safety of oral chloral hydrate and intranasal midazolam for induction of sedation for computerized tomography scan of brain in children. Participants aged 1-10 years (n=60) were randomized to receive 100 mg/kg chloral hydrate orally with intra nasal normal saline OR intranasal midazolam 0.2 mg/kg with oral normal saline. Adequate sedation (Ramsay sedation score of four) was obtained and CT scan completed successfully in 76.7% of chloral hydrate group and in 40% of midazolam group (P=0.004). No significant difference was seen for side effects frequency between the two drugs (10% in chloral hydrate, 3.3% in midazolam group; P=0.34). We conclude that oral chloral hydrate can be considered as a safe and effective drug for sedation in children undergoing CT scan of brain.

  19. Clinical trials update: highlights of the scientific sessions of the American Heart Association year 2000: Val HeFT, COPERNICUS, MERIT, CIBIS-II, BEST, AMIOVIRT, V-MAC, BREATHE, HEAT, MIRACL, FLORIDA, VIVA and the first human cardiac skeletal muscle myoblast transfer for heart failure.

    PubMed

    Thackray, S D; Witte, K K; Khand, A; Dunn, A; Clark, A L; Cleland, J G

    2001-01-01

    This article continues a series of reports summarising recent research developments pertinent to the topic of heart failure. This is a summary of presentations made at scientific sessions of the American Heart Association in November 2000. Clinical studies of particular interest to people caring for patients with heart failure include Val-HeFT, AMIOVIRT and V-MAC. New data from beta-blockers trials are reviewed, highlights from some important developments in post-infarction care, including MIRACL and FLORIDA, discussed and results of some early studies of gene therapy reported.

  20. User's manual for MacPASCO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, S. H.; Davis, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    A user's manual is presented for MacPASCO, which is an interactive, graphic, preprocessor for panel design. MacPASCO creates input for PASCO, an existing computer code for structural analysis and sizing of longitudinally stiffened composite panels. MacPASCO provides a graphical user interface which simplifies the specification of panel geometry and reduces user input errors. The user draws the initial structural geometry and reduces user input errors. The user draws the initial structural geometry on the computer screen, then uses a combination of graphic and text inputs to: refine the structural geometry; specify information required for analysis such as panel load and boundary conditions; and define design variables and constraints for minimum mass optimization. Only the use of MacPASCO is described, since the use of PASCO has been documented elsewhere.

  1. MACS as a tool for international inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    The MACS/ACRS (Managed Access by Controlled Sensing/Access by Controlled Remote Sensing) system is a collection of communication devices, video capability, and distance-measuring equipment which can effectively substitute for the physical presence of a challenge inspector within a facility. The MACS design allows growth of the prototype, developed in response to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), into a versatile device for inspection of sensitive nuclear facilities under other international arrangements, for example the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Convention. A MACS/ACRS-type system in a standard, international-recognized configuration could resolve sensitive information and safety concerns through providing a means of achieving the goals of an inspection while excluding the inspector. We believe the technology used to develop MACS for the Defense Nuclear Agency, followed by ACRS for the Department of Energy, is universally adaptable for minimally-intrusive managed-access international inspections of sensitive sites.

  2. Cleanup MAC and MBA code ATP

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-17

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Material Balance (MBA) database system had some minor code cleanup performed to its code. This ATP describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness.

  3. Sedation Management in Children Supported on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Acute Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Schneider, James B; Sweberg, Todd; Asaro, Lisa A; Kirby, Aileen; Wypij, David; Thiagarajan, Ravi R; Curley, Martha A Q

    2017-10-01

    To describe sedation management in children supported on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute respiratory failure. Secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a multicenter randomized trial of sedation (Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure). Twenty-one U.S. PICUs. One thousand two hundred fifty-five children, 2 weeks to 17 years old, with moderate/severe pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. Sedation managed per usual care or Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure protocol. Sixty-one Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure patients (5%) with moderate/severe pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome were supported on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, including 29 managed per Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure protocol. Most extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients received neuromuscular blockade (46%) or were heavily sedated with State Behavioral Scale scores -3/-2 (34%) by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation day 3. Median opioid and benzodiazepine doses on the day of cannulation, 0.15 mg/kg/hr (3.7 mg/kg/d) and 0.11 mg/kg/hr (2.8 mg/kg/d), increased by 36% and 58%, respectively, by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation day 3. In the 41 patients successfully decannulated prior to study discharge, patients were receiving 0.40 mg/kg/hr opioids (9.7 mg/kg/d) and 0.39 mg/kg/hr benzodiazepines (9.4 mg/kg/d) at decannulation, an increase from cannulation of 108% and 192%, respectively (both p < 0.001). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients experienced more clinically significant iatrogenic withdrawal than moderate/severe pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome patients managed without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support (p < 0.001). Compared to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients managed per Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure protocol

  4. The effect of daily sedation interruption protocol on early incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia among patients hospitalized in critical care units receiving mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Mehdi; Yousefi, Hojatollah; Yazdannik, Ahmad Reza; Alikiaii, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common side effect in patients who receive intravenous sedation infusion. In routine care, after starting sedation infusion for patients who receive mechanical ventilation, interruption of sedation starts without protocol. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of daily sedation vacation protocol on the incidence of VAP in mechanically ventilated patients. In this clinical trial study, 80 patients with intravenous sedation infusion were selected and randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. In the intervention group, daily sedation vacation protocol and in the control group, routine sedation vacation was followed. Modified clinical pulmonary infection score questionnaire was completed before intervention and on the third, fourth, and fifth days after intervention. Data were analyzed by using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), Chi-square, and independent t-test. The results of this study showed that the incidence rate of VAP in the intervention and control groups was 0% versus 15% on the third day of intervention, 12.5% versus 50% on the fourth day, and 27.5% versus 55.3% on the fifth day of intervention in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The incidence of VAP in the intervention group was significantly lower than in the control group (P < 0.05). The results of this study showed that in patients with intravenous sedation, infusion of a daily sedation vacation protocol may reduce the incidence of VAP. Therefore, in order to prevent VAP, nurses are recommended to use this daily sedation vacation protocol.

  5. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy with target-controlled infusion using propofol and monitored depth of sedation to determine treatment strategies in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Heiser, Clemens; Fthenakis, Phillippe; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Berger, Sebastian; Hofauer, Benedikt; Hohenhorst, Winfried; Kochs, Eberhard F; Wagner, Klaus J; Edenharter, Guenther M

    2017-03-31

    Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) has become an important diagnostic examination tool in the treatment decision process for surgical therapies in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Currently, there is a variety of regimes for the performance of DISE, which renders comparison and assessment across results difficult. It remains unclear how the different regimes influence the findings of the examination and the resulting conclusions and treatment recommendations. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between increasing levels of sedation (i.e., light, medium, and deep) induced by propofol using a target-controlled infusion (TCI) pump, with the obstruction patterns at the levels of the velum, oropharynx, tongue base, and epiglottis (i.e., VOTE classification). A second goal was the establishment of a sufficient sedation level to enable a reliable decision regarding treatment recommendations. Forty-three patients with OSA underwent a DISE procedure using propofol TCI. Three levels of sedation were defined, depending on entropy levels and assessment of sedation: light sedation, medium sedation, and deep sedation. The evaluation of the upper airway at each level, with increasing sedation, was documented using the VOTE classification. The elapsed time at which each assessment was performed was recorded. Upper airway changes occurred and were measured throughout the DISE procedure. Clinically useful determinations of airway closure occurred at medium sedation; this level of sedation was most probably achieved with a blood propofol concentration of 3.2 μg/ml. In all 43 patients, definite treatment decisions could be made at medium sedation level. Increasing sedation did not result in changes in the treatment decision. Changes in upper airway collapse during DISE with propofol TCI occur at levels of medium sedation. Decisions regarding surgical treatment could be made at this level of sedation. Upper Airway Collapse in Patients with Obstructive

  6. Oral sedation for dental treatment in young children in a hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Lourenço-Matharu, L; Roberts, G J

    2010-10-09

    Conscious sedation for young children is a rapidly developing area of clinical activity. Many studies have shown positive results using oral midazolam on children. These case series investigated oral midazolam conscious sedation as an alternative to general anaesthesia in a clinical service setting. The purpose of this work was to determine the safety and efficacy of oral midazolam for conscious sedation in children undergoing dental treatment. Patients were selected by colleagues for treatment under oral sedation. The main general criteria were weight below 36 kilos and ASA I, II, or III. Midazolam 0.5 mg/kg was administered orally. A pulse oximeter was applied to a finger to monitor vital signs and the Houpt scale was used to assess behaviour. A total of 510 children aged between 13 months and 11 years were included. The behaviour of 379 (74%) was excellent or very good. The pulse rate and peripheral oxygenation were within the normal range for all patients. The main adverse effects were diplopia and post-sedation dysphoria. Oral midazolam is a safe and effective method of sedation although some children were agitated and distressed either during or after treatment. Parents need to be warned about this.

  7. Sedation and memories of patients subjected to mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Costa, Jaquilene Barreto da; Marcon, Sonia Silva; Macedo, Claudia Rejane Lima de; Jorge, Amaury Cesar; Duarte, Péricles Almeida Delfino

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between sedation and the memories reported by patients subjected to mechanical ventilation following discharge from the intensive care unit. This prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted with individuals subjected to mechanical ventilation who remained in the intensive care unit for more than 24 hours. Clinical statistics and sedation records were extracted from the participants' clinical records; the data relative to the participants' memories were collected using a specific validated instrument. Assessment was performed three months after discharge from the intensive care unit. A total of 128 individuals were assessed, most of whom (84.4%) reported recollections from their stay in the intensive care unit as predominantly a combination of real and illusory events. The participants subjected to sedation (67.2%) at deep levels (Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale [RASS] -4 and -5) for more than two days and those with psychomotor agitation (33.6%) exhibited greater susceptibility to occurrence of illusory memories (p>0.001). The probability of the occurrence of illusory memories was greater among the participants who were subjected to deep sedation. Sedation seems to be an additional factor that contributed to the occurrence of illusory memories in severely ill individuals subjected to mechanical ventilation.

  8. [The newer sedative-hypnotics].

    PubMed

    Sukys-Claudino, Lucia; Moraes, Walter André dos Santos; Tufik, Sergio; Poyares, Dalva

    2010-09-01

    There has been a search for more effective and safe hypnotic drugs in the last decades. Zolpidem, zaleplon, zopiclone, eszopiclone (the z-drugs) and indiplon are GABA-A modulators which bind selectively α1 subunits, thus, exhibiting similar mechanisms of action, although recent evidence suggests that eszopiclone is not as selective for α1 subunit as zolpidem is. Ramelteon and tasimelteon are new chrono-hypnotic agents, selective for melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptors. On the other hand, the consumption of sedative antidepressant drugs is significantly increasing for the treatment of insomnia, in the last years. As an experimental drug, eplivanserin is being tested as a potent antagonist of serotonin 2-A receptors (ASTAR) with a potential use in sleep maintenance difficulty. Another recent pharmacological agent for insomnia is almorexant, which new mechanism of action involves antagonism of hypocretinergic system, thus inducing sleep. Finally we also discuss the potential role of other gabaergic drugs for insomnia.

  9. 42 CFR 423.2118 - Obtaining evidence from the MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining evidence from the MAC. 423.2118 Section..., MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2118 Obtaining evidence from the MAC. An enrollee may request... the costs of providing these items. If an enrollee requests evidence from the MAC and an opportunity...

  10. 42 CFR 423.1974 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 423.1974..., MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.1974 Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. An enrollee who is dissatisfied with an ALJ hearing decision may request that the MAC review the ALJ's decision or dismissal as...

  11. 42 CFR 423.2130 - Effect of the MAC's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of the MAC's decision. 423.2130 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2130 Effect of the MAC's decision. The MAC's decision is final and binding...

  12. 42 CFR 423.2120 - Filing briefs with the MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing briefs with the MAC. 423.2120 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2120 Filing briefs with the MAC. Upon request, the MAC will give the...

  13. 42 CFR 405.1130 - Effect of the MAC's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of the MAC's decision. 405.1130 Section 405....1130 Effect of the MAC's decision. The MAC's decision is final and binding on all parties unless a Federal district court issues a decision modifying the MAC's decision or the decision is revised as the...

  14. 42 CFR 405.1120 - Filing briefs with the MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing briefs with the MAC. 405.1120 Section 405....1120 Filing briefs with the MAC. Upon request, the MAC will give the party requesting review, as well... ending with the date the brief is received by the MAC will not be counted toward the adjudication...

  15. 42 CFR 423.2126 - Case remanded by the MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Case remanded by the MAC. 423.2126 Section 423.2126... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2126 Case remanded by the MAC. (a) When the MAC may remand a case to the ALJ...

  16. Safety of midazolam for sedation of HIV-positive patients undergoing colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Triant, Virginia A.; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M.; Lu, Zhigang; Arpino, Paul; Losina, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Summary Concerns regarding possible interactions between midazolam and antiretroviral medicines have caused clinicians to use second-line sedatives, such as diazepam, instead. We demonstrated that patients who received midazolam during colonoscopy had similar clinical outcomes as those who received diazepam. Background Because of concerns regarding interactions between midazolam and antiretroviral therapy (ART), alternative sedatives are sometimes used during procedural sedation. Our objective was to compare outcomes in patients on ART who received intravenous (IV) midazolam versus IV diazepam, a second-line agent, during colonoscopy. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of adult HIV-infected patients who underwent colonoscopy over a 3.5-year period. Primary outcomes were sedation duration, nadir systolic blood pressure, nadir oxygen saturation, abnormal cardiac rhythm, and change in level of consciousness using a standardized scale. We calculated rates of adverse events according to benzodiazepine use and identified risk factors for complications using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results We identified 136 patients for this analysis: 70 received midazolam-based sedation and 66 received a diazepam-based regimen. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to sedation duration (48 versus 45.7 minutes, P = 0.68), nadir systolic blood pressure (97 versus 101.6 mmHg, P = 0.06), nadir oxygen saturation (94.6 versus 94.8%, P = 0.72), or rate of abnormal cardiac rhythm (11.4 versus 19.7%, P = 0.18). More patients in the midazolam group experienced a depressed level of consciousness (91 versus 74%, P = 0.0075), but no patient required reversal of sedation or became unresponsive. Conclusions Although IV midazolam interacts with ART, we did not find evidence that patients who received this agent for procedural sedation had clinical outcomes statistically different from those who received diazepam. These findings should be

  17. AeroMACS system characterization and demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerczewski, R. J.; Apaza, R. D.; Dimond, R. P.

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  18. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  19. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past 3 years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  20. Short-Term Health-Related Quality of Life of Critically Ill Children Following Daily Sedation Interruption.

    PubMed

    Vet, Nienke J; de Wildt, Saskia N; Verlaat, Carin W M; Mooij, Miriam G; Tibboel, Dick; de Hoog, Matthijs; Buysse, Corinne M P

    2016-11-01

    Our earlier pediatric daily sedation interruption trial showed that daily sedation interruption in addition to protocolized sedation in critically ill children does not reduce duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay, or amounts of sedative drugs administered when compared with protocolized sedation only, but undersedation was more frequent in the daily sedation interruption + protocolized sedation group. We now report the preplanned analysis comparing short-term health-related quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms between the two groups. Preplanned prospective part of a randomized controlled trial. Two tertiary medical-surgical PICUs in the Netherlands. Critically ill children requiring mechanical ventilation. None. Eight weeks after a child's discharge from the PICU, health-related quality of life was assessed with the validated Child Health Questionnaire and, only for children above 4 years old, posttraumatic stress was assessed with the Dutch Children's Responses to Trauma Inventory. Additionally, health-related quality of life of all study patients was compared with Dutch normative data. Of the 113 patients from two participating centers in the original study, 96 patients were eligible for follow-up and 64 patients were included (response rate, 67%). No difference was found with respect to health-related quality of life between the two study groups. None of the eight children more than 4 years old showed posttraumatic stress symptoms. Daily sedation interruption in addition to protocolized sedation for critically ill children did not seem to have an effect on short-term health-related quality of life. Also in view of the earlier found absence of effect on clinical outcome, we cannot recommend the use of daily sedation interruption + protocolized sedation.

  1. Efficacy and safety of intravenous thiopental for sedation during magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric patients: A retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Atalay, Yunus O; Leman, Tomak; Tobias, Joseph Drew

    2017-01-01

    Although the administration of rectal thiopental for sedation during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been well described, there are limited data regarding its intravenous (IV) use in this clinical scenario. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of IV thiopental for sedation during MRI in the pediatric population. A retrospective review was conducted over a 12-month period of pediatric patients who received IV thiopental for sedation during MRI. Data collected included the procedure length, the induction dose, the time to sedation, recovery time, total sedation time, and adverse events. The parents were telephoned and questioned regarding any adverse effect after discharge and their satisfaction (yes = satisfied; no = not satisfied) regarding the sedation process. A total of 300 (American Society of Anesthesiology I-II status) pediatric patients received IV thiopental for sedation during MRI. The average age of the patients was 4.7 ± 3 years. Thiopental was administered as an initial IV bolus dose of 3 mg/kg, followed by additional bolus doses of thiopental (1 mg/kg) as needed to achieve a Ramsay sedation score of 4. The average procedure length was 20.7 ± 11.9 min. The average total dose of thiopental during the procedure was 5.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. Patients recovered in an average time of 11 ± 5.6 min after a total sedation time of 31.7 ± 14.2 min. None of the patients had oxygen desaturation, adverse effects before or after discharge, and no patient required unplanned hospital admission. All parents were satisfied with the sedation process. IV thiopental is an effective, safe, and inexpensive medication for the sedation of children undergoing MRI.

  2. Impact of the United States propofol ban on emergency providers’ procedural sedation agent choice and patient length of stay

    PubMed Central

    Pester, Jonathan; Robinson, Joseph; Prestosh, John; Roozendaal, Suzanne; Jeanmonod, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the recent past, propofol was temporarily removed from the emergency department (ED) for use in procedural sedation. We sought to determine which agents replaced it in clinical practice and the impact this change had on turnaround times (TAT) for sedated patients. METHODS: This study is a retrospective chart review at a level one trauma center. Patients receiving sedative agents (propofol, ketamine, midazolam, and etomidate) were identified by pharmacy codes, and their charts were then reviewed for demographics and TAT. Propofol was unavailable in the emergency department (ED) between May 2010 and February 2011. The study period extended from May 2009 until May 2011. Patients receiving sedation by non-emergency medicine physicians and those receiving sedation related to intubation were excluded. RESULTS: In total 2466 charts were reviewed and 209 met inclusion criteria. When propofol was available, the most commonly used sedative agent was etomidate (40%), followed by propofol (28%), ketamine (20%), and midazolam (6%). When propofol was unavailable, etomidate remained the most commonly used agent (43%), followed by ketamine (41%), and midazolam (11%). When propofol was available, the median TAT for sedated patients was 163 minutes compared to 178 minutes when propofol was unavailable (P=0.83). When propofol was the primary sedative agent used, the median TAT was 166 minutes as compared with a median TAT of 172 minutes for all other sedative agents combined (P=0.87). CONCLUSION: When propofol was unavailable, ketamine became a preferred ED sedation agent. Removal of propofol from the sedation armamentarium did not affect ED TAT. PMID:25215059

  3. [Sedation with midazolam for ambulatory pediatric dentistry].

    PubMed

    Shavlokhova, E A; Ostreĭkov, I F; Korolenkova, M V

    2014-01-01

    To improve the quality of dental treatment in children by using combined anaesthesia technique including local anaesthesia and conscious sedation, and to assess the effectiveness of conscious sedation for younger children undergoing dental treatment. The study included 208 children aged 14-88 months who received dental treatment for tooth decay and its complication under combined anaesthesia. Midazolam was used as sedative medication. Sedation level was assessed by visual scale and BIS-monitoring. ANI-monitoring was also used for pain sensitiveness evaluation. Results All 208 children were successfully treated under combined anaesthesia which showed satisfactory sedation rates both by visual scale and and BIS-monitoring values. While mean patient age was 39 months 20.6% were younger than 24 months. These data are extremely valuable as according to literature review conscious sedation in early infancy remains controversial. Our results proved conscious sedation to be effective in younger children undergoing dental treatment thus representing important alternative for general anaesthesia and providing a basis for later behavior management.

  4. [Palliative sedation for psycho-existential suffering].

    PubMed

    Weichselbaumer, Eva; Weixler, Dietmar

    2014-05-01

    Sedation in palliative care is generally considered as an important therapy in terminally ill patients with refractory symptoms. However the sedation of patients with intractable psycho-existential suffering is still under discussion. This paper discusses the case of a 56-year-old patient in the final phase of carcinoma of the ovaries, who required palliative sedation for refractory, mainly psycho-existential suffering. It describes the course on our ward and the difficult process of decision-making. We discuss our approach based on literature.

  5. Conscious Sedation: Emerging Trends in Pediatric Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Attri, Joginder Pal; Sharan, Radhe; Makkar, Vega; Gupta, Kewal Krishan; Khetarpal, Ranjana; Kataria, Amar Parkash

    2017-01-01

    Dental fear and anxiety is a common problem in pediatric patients. There is considerable variation in techniques used to manage them. Various sedation techniques using many different anesthetic agents have gained considerable popularity over the past few years. Children are not little adults; they differ physically, psychologically, and emotionally. The purpose of this review is to survey recent trends and concerning issues in the rapidly changing field of pediatric sedation. We will study the topic from the perspective of an anesthesiologist. It will also provide information to practitioners on the practice of conscious sedation in dentistry and will also outline the route of administration, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of various drugs used.

  6. Conscious Sedation: Emerging Trends in Pediatric Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Attri, Joginder Pal; Sharan, Radhe; Makkar, Vega; Gupta, Kewal Krishan; Khetarpal, Ranjana; Kataria, Amar Parkash

    2017-01-01

    Dental fear and anxiety is a common problem in pediatric patients. There is considerable variation in techniques used to manage them. Various sedation techniques using many different anesthetic agents have gained considerable popularity over the past few years. Children are not little adults; they differ physically, psychologically, and emotionally. The purpose of this review is to survey recent trends and concerning issues in the rapidly changing field of pediatric sedation. We will study the topic from the perspective of an anesthesiologist. It will also provide information to practitioners on the practice of conscious sedation in dentistry and will also outline the route of administration, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of various drugs used. PMID:28663606

  7. Oral Sedation in the Dental Office.

    PubMed

    Sebastiani, Francesco R; Dym, Harry; Wolf, Joshua

    2016-04-01

    This article highlights the commonly used medications used in dentistry and oral surgery. General dentists and specialists must be knowledgeable about the pharmacology of the drugs currently available along with their risks and benefits. Enteral sedation is a useful adjunct for the treatment of anxious adult and pediatric patients. When enteral sedation is used within the standards of care, the interests of the public and the dental profession are served through a cost-effective, effective service that can be widely available. Oral sedation enables dentists to provide dental care to millions of individuals who otherwise would have unmet dental needs.

  8. Zaleplon (Sonata) Oral Sedation for Outpatient Third Molar Extraction Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ganzberg, Steven I; Dietrich, Thomas; Valerin, Manuel; Beck, F. Michael

    2005-01-01

    Zalpelon was compared with triazolam for oral sedation in a third molar surgery model using a double-blind crossover design. Factors such as anxiolysis, amnesia, and quality of sedation were assessed. Of the 14 participants who completed the study, zaleplon sedation was found to be similar to triazolam sedation in all regards except that recovery from zaleplon was more rapid. PMID:16596911

  9. Oral Sedation: A Primer on Anxiolysis for the Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Mark; Gizzarelli, Gino; Chanpong, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The use of sedatives has established efficacy and safety for managing anxiety regarding dental treatment. This article will provide essential information regarding the pharmacology and therapeutic principles that govern the appropriate use of orally administered sedatives to provide mild sedation (anxiolysis). Dosages and protocols are intended for this purpose, not for providing moderate or deeper sedation levels. PMID:17900211

  10. Nitrous Oxide Inhalation Sedation Through a Nasal High-Flow System: The Possibility of a New Technique in Dental Sedation.

    PubMed

    Sanuki, Takuro; Mishima, Gaku; Kiriishi, Kensuke; Kurata, Shinji; Okaysu, Ichiro; Kawai, Mari; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Tachi, Mizuki; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Ayuse, Takao

    2017-01-01

    High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) systems are increasingly used for patients with both acute and chronic respiratory failure because of the clinical effectiveness and patient comfort associated with their use. Recently, HFNC has been used not only as a respiratory support device, but also as a drug delivery system. HFNC is designed to administer heated and humidified inspiratory oxygen flows (100% relative humidity at 37°C). Therefore, HFNC can provide high flows (up to 60 L/min) without discomfort. Moreover, HFNC improves oxygenation by exerting physiologic effects such as (a) dead-space washout and (b) moderate positive airway pressure. These characteristics and physiologic effects of HFNC may permit administration of high-flow nitrous oxide sedation while ensuring patient comfort and adequate sedative effect.

  11. [EEG changes during sedation with gamma-hydroxybutyric acid].

    PubMed

    Entholzner, E; Mielke, L; Pichlmeier, R; Weber, F; Schneck, H

    1995-05-01

    min) had been recorded. Patients receiving long-term sedation were studied daily for an additional 15-min period. Corresponding well to the clinical findings, EEG pattern changed to a slow delta-theta or delta-only rhythm within 10 min of the start of injection. Alpha and beta power decreased, while delta activity exhibited an increase. All changes were most obvious in frontal and central areas of the brain. In about one out of three patients, a burst--suppression pattern developed. Since automatic processing of EEG may fail to detect special patterns like the looked-for 3/s spikes and waves, the raw EEG was analysed visually by an expert neurologist. Both processed and conventionally analysed EEG were free of any seizure-like electrical activity. CONCLUSION. We conclude that animal data may not apply to the use of GHB in humans, provided the dose is limited to the clinical needs. GHB is used in clinical practice in doses twice as high, or even higher, than the one we use for induction, without obvious side effects. However, the suppression of theta rhythm we observed in about half of the patients studied may indicate that even less than 50 mg/kg BW might be sufficient for adequate sedation.

  12. Sedation Monitoring and Management during Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy

    PubMed Central

    Oksar, Menekse; Gumus, Tulin; Kanbak, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic laser discectomy (PELD) is a painful intervention that requires deep sedation and analgesia. However, sedation should be light at some point because cooperation by the patient during the procedure is required for successful surgical treatment. Light sedation poses a problem for endotracheal intubation, while patients placed in the prone position during percutaneous endoscopic discectomy pose a problem for airway management. Therefore, under these conditions, sedation should be not deeper than required. Here we report the sedation management of three cases that underwent PELD, with a focus on deep and safe sedation that was monitored using bispectral index score and observer's assessment of alertness/sedation score. PMID:27298743

  13. Sedation Monitoring and Management during Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy.

    PubMed

    Oksar, Menekse; Gumus, Tulin; Kanbak, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic laser discectomy (PELD) is a painful intervention that requires deep sedation and analgesia. However, sedation should be light at some point because cooperation by the patient during the procedure is required for successful surgical treatment. Light sedation poses a problem for endotracheal intubation, while patients placed in the prone position during percutaneous endoscopic discectomy pose a problem for airway management. Therefore, under these conditions, sedation should be not deeper than required. Here we report the sedation management of three cases that underwent PELD, with a focus on deep and safe sedation that was monitored using bispectral index score and observer's assessment of alertness/sedation score.

  14. [Analgesia, sedation and relaxation in the child with mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Valdivielso-Serna, A

    2008-02-01

    The basic concepts of sedation and analgesia and the tools to asses the level of sedation and analgesia are review. The different methods of sedation and the non pharmacological interventions are described. Sedatives, analgesics and muscle relaxants, their pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics in children, their indications in specific situations (intubation, pain control, sedation and neuromuscular blocking) are reviewed. The etiology of patient-ventilator asynchrony in ventilated children and how to treat it are analyzed, giving guides of how to adapt sedation to the level of mechanical ventilation therapy. Finally, general recommendations are given for the analgesia and sedation in mechanically ventilated children.

  15. Ventilatory responses to acute metabolic acidemia in humans awake, sedated, and anesthetized with halothane.

    PubMed

    Knill, R L; Clement, J L

    1985-06-01

    The authors produced metabolic acidemia acutely in human subjects awake, sedated with halothane (0.1 MAC), and anesthetized with halothane (1.0 MAC) by infusing L-arginine hydrochloride, 5-6 mmol X kg-1, over 3 h. Ventilation was recorded at resting arterial hydrogen ion concentration [( H+]a) and at 2-4 isocapnic increments of [H+]a, in each case, while end-tidal oxygen tension (PETO2) was varied between greater than 300 mmHg and 45 mmHg. Total increments of [H+]a in awake, sedated, and anesthetized subjects were 13 +/- 4, 12 +/- 2, and 12 +/- 3 nmol X 1(-1) (means +/- SD). In the awake state, metabolic acidemia increased ventilation (VI) in proportion to [H+]a. The magnitude of response increased with reduced PETO2, such that the response to acidemia and hypoxemia combined was synergistic. The delta VI/delta [H+]a slopes at PETO2 values of greater than 300, 100-120, and 45 mmHg were 0.47 +/- 0.27, 0.85 +/- 0.24, and 3.01 +/- 1.30 1 X min-1 X nmol-1 X 1, respectively (means +/- SD). Halothane sedation reduced the responses to added [H+]a determined at PETO2 values of 100-120 and 45 mmHg, as well as the response to hypoxemia and to the interaction of acidemia and hypoxemia, each to less than half awake values. Halothane anesthesia further impaired the responses to [H+]a and virtually abolished the response to hypoxemia and to acidemia-hypoxemia interaction. A small residual response to added [H+]a during anesthesia could be accounted for by a slight concurrent increase of PaCO2, leaving no response attributable to metabolic [H+]a itself.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Mother-child interactions and young child behavior during procedural conscious sedation.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Remijo, Daniella; Orsini, Mara Rúbia; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Costa, Luciane Rezende

    2016-12-03

    As many preschoolers are not able to cooperate with health-related invasive procedures, sedation can help with the child's comfort and allow the intervention to be done. It is scarcely known how parents affect children's behavior during dental treatment under conscious sedation. The aim of this exploratory study was to analyze the association between mother-child interactions in day-to-day family life and preschool children's behavior during dental treatment under conscious sedation. This cross-sectional study included 27 children aged 2-6 years and their mothers. The children's behavior during dental treatment under conscious sedation was verified through the analysis of videos and using an observational scale. Social skills of mothers were verified through interviews using the Parental Educative Social Skills Interview Script (RE-HSE-P); the sum of the scores allowed the establishment of the categories "clinical" and "non-clinical". We presented descriptive analyses and bivariate associations. Children's overall behavior during dental sedation was: very poor (n = 2), poor (n = 1), regular (n = 2), good (n = 9), very good (n = 9) and excellent (n = 4). Social skills varied: parental educational social skills (n = 24 clinical vs. n = 3 non-clinical); child social skills (n = 20 vs. n = 7), context variables (n = 15 vs. n = 12), negative educational practices (n = 12 vs. n = 15), child behavior problems (n = 7 vs. n = 20). There was no association between child behavior under sedation and social skills categories (P > 0.05). The majority of interviewed mothers reported issues in parental educational social skills and child social skills, which did not affect the outcomes of the children's behavior during the procedural conscious sedation.

  17. Bispectral index does not correlate with observer assessment of alertness and sedation scores during 0.5% bupivacaine epidural anesthesia with nitrous oxide sedation.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Soo; Hur, Eun Jin; Han, Kyung Woo; Kil, Ho Yeong; Han, Tae Hyung

    2006-08-01

    The bispectral index (BIS) has been used as a measure of the degree of sedation and level of hypnosis for IV hypnotics and sedatives, potent volatile anesthetics. We evaluated the effect of increasing concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O) on BIS and compared it with the Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation (OAA/S) scale in patients undergoing regional anesthesia. We studied 48 unpremedicated, ASA physical status I-II adult patients scheduled for lower extremity surgery under lumbar epidural anesthesia. N2O was given in oxygen to achieve measured end-tidal concentrations of 33%, 50%, and 67% N2O by a tight-fitting facemask, and each N2O concentration was maintained for 20 min. Paired measurements of BIS and OAA/S scores were obtained just before each increase in N2O concentration. Forty of the 48 subjects completed the study. Increasing N(2)O concentrations produced no changes in BIS despite a significant decrease in OAA/S scores at 50% and 67% N2O concentrations. The prediction probability for BIS and OAA/S calculated by Somers' d(x.y) were 0.60 and 0.84, respectively. Anesthesiologists should be aware that the BIS monitor may not be sensitive enough to provide an adequate measure of the depth of sedation and hypnosis when using N2O alone for sedation. It may be better to monitor sedation clinically (e.g., with the OAA/S scale) to determine the dose requirement and the adequacy of depth of sedation and hypnosis.

  18. Provision of deep procedural sedation by a pediatric sedation team at a freestanding imaging center.

    PubMed

    Emrath, Elizabeth T; Stockwell, Jana A; McCracken, Courtney E; Simon, Harold K; Kamat, Pradip P

    2014-08-01

    Freestanding imaging centers are popular options for health care systems to offer services accessible to local communities. The provision of deep sedation at these centers could allow for flexibility in scheduling imaging for pediatric patients. Our Children's Sedation Services group, comprised of pediatric critical care medicine and pediatric emergency medicine physicians, has supplied such a service for 5 years. However, limited description of such off-site services exists. The site has resuscitation equipment and medications, yet limited staffing and no proximity to hospital support. To describe the experience of a cohort of pediatric patients undergoing sedation at a freestanding imaging center. A retrospective chart review of all sedations from January 2012 to December 2012. Study variables include general demographics, length of sedation, type of imaging, medications used, completion of imaging, adverse events based on those defined by the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium database and need for transfer to a hospital for additional care. Six hundred fifty-four consecutive sedations were analyzed. Most patients were low acuity American Society of Anesthesiologists physical class ≤ 2 (91.8%). Mean sedation time was 55 min (SD ± 24). The overwhelming majority of patients (95.7%) were sedated for MRI, 3.8% for CT and <1% (three patients) for both modalities. Propofol was used in 98% of cases. Overall, 267 events requiring intervention occurred in 164 patient encounters (25.1%). However, after adjustment for changes from expected physiological response to the sedative, the rate of events was 10.2%. Seventy-five (11.5%) patients had desaturation requiring supplemental oxygen, nasopharyngeal tube or oral airway placement, continuous positive airway pressure or brief bag valve mask ventilation. Eleven (1.7%) had apnea requiring continuous positive airway pressure or bag valve mask ventilation briefly. One patient had bradycardia that resolved with

  19. A randomised, controlled, crossover trial of oral midazolam and nitrous oxide for paediatric dental sedation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K E; Welbury, R R; Girdler, N M

    2002-09-01

    A randomised, controlled, crossover trial was designed to assess the safety and effectiveness of oral midazolam sedation for orthodontic extractions. Forty-six ASA physical status I children aged 10-16 years were recruited. Each child required two treatment sessions. Sedation with either oral midazolam 0.5 mg.kg-1 or nitrous oxide in oxygen was used at the first visit, the alternative being used at the second visit. Blood pressure, heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation, and sedation and behavioural scores were recorded every 5 min. Anxiety levels and postoperative satisfaction were also recorded. Blood pressure, heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation in both groups were similar and within acceptable clinical limits. The median [range] lowest arterial oxygen saturation levels for subjects in the midazolam and nitrous oxide groups were 95 [90-100]% and 98 [93-100]%, respectively. The median [range] time to the maximum level of sedation in the midazolam group was 20 [5-65] min compared with 5 [5-10] min in the nitrous oxide group (p < 0.001). The median [range] duration of treatment was similar in both groups (midazolam group: 10 [5-30] min, nitrous oxide group: 10 [5-25] min). Seventy-four per cent of subjects were prepared to have oral midazolam sedation again, 54% preferring it. Oral midazolam appears to be a safe and acceptable form of sedation for 10-16-year-old paediatric dental patients.

  20. Do sedation and analgesia contribute to long-term cognitive dysfunction in critical care survivors?

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, S; Turon, M; De Haro, C; López-Aguilar, J; Jodar, M; Blanch, L

    2017-08-26

    Deep sedation during stay in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) may have deleterious effects upon the clinical and cognitive outcomes of critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Over the last decade a vast body of literature has been generated regarding different sedation strategies, with the aim of reducing the levels of sedation in critically ill patients. There has also been a growing interest in acute brain dysfunction, or delirium, in the ICU. However, the effect of sedation during ICU stay upon long-term cognitive deficits in ICU survivors remains unclear. Strategies for reducing sedation levels in the ICU do not seem to be associated with worse cognitive and psychological status among ICU survivors. Sedation strategy and management efforts therefore should seek to secure the best possible state in the mechanically ventilated patient and lower the prevalence of delirium, in order to prevent long-term cognitive alterations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  1. Analgesia and sedation in children: practical approach for the most frequent situations.

    PubMed

    Mencía, Santiago Bartolomé; López-Herce, Jesús Cid; Freddi, Norberto

    2007-05-01

    To review the most frequent recommendations, doses and routes of administration of sedatives, analgesics, and muscle relaxants in children, as well as the methods for monitoring the level of sedation. Review of the literature using the MEDLINE database and review of the experience in pediatric intensive care units. The continuous administration of analgesics and sedatives prevents the development of undersedation and is less demanding in terms of care than intermittent administration. Midazolam is the most commonly used drug for continuous sedation of critically ill children. Opioid derivatives and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most widely used analgesics in critically ill children. Opioids combined with benzodiazepines, given in continuous infusion, are the drugs of choice in mechanically ventilated children, especially morphine and fentanyl. The use of protocols and monitoring through clinical scores and objective methods (e.g. bispectral index) allow adjusting medication more appropriately, preventing oversedation, undersedation, and the withdrawal syndrome. Non-pharmacological interventions, such as music therapy, noise control, adequate use of light, massage, conversation with the patient, are ancillary measures that help children to adapt to the adverse hospital environment. Sedation should be tailored to each child for each specific situation. Protocols that facilitate the correct selection of drugs, their appropriate administration and careful monitoring improve the quality of sedation and analgesia and avoid their adverse effects.

  2. Chem I Supplement: Some Biochemistry of Sedatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Antianxiety agents are discussed in terms of their effects on the brain and central nervous system. Formulas for some substances, commonly prescribed as sedatives, are given. Includes a discussion on the toxicity and side effects of the drugs. (SA)

  3. Trends in Continuous Deep Sedation until Death between 2007 and 2013: A Repeated Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Joachim; Rietjens, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background Continuous deep sedation until death is a highly debated medical practice, particularly regarding its potential to hasten death and its proper use in end-of-life care. A thorough analysis of important trends in this practice is needed to identify potentially problematic developments. This study aims to examine trends in the prevalence and practice characteristics of continuous deep sedation until death in Flanders, Belgium between 2007 and 2013, and to study variation on physicians’ degree of palliative training. Methods Population-based death certificate study in 2007 and 2013 in Flanders, Belgium. Reporting physicians received questionnaires about medical practices preceding the patient’s death. Patient characteristics, clinical characteristics (drugs used, duration, artificial nutrition/hydration, intention and consent), and palliative care training of attending physician were recorded. We posed the following question regarding continuous deep sedation: ‘Was the patient continuously and deeply sedated or kept in a coma until death by the use of one or more drugs’. Results After the initial rise of continuous deep sedation to 14.5% in 2007 (95%CI 13.1%-15.9%), its use decreased to 12.0% in 2013 (95%CI 10.9%-13.2%). Compared with 2007, in 2013 opioids were less often used as sole drug and the decision to use continuous deep sedation was more often preceded by patient request. Compared to non-experts, palliative care experts more often used benzodiazepines and less often opioids, withheld artificial nutrition/hydration more often and performed sedation more often after a request from or with the consent of the patient or family. Conclusion Worldwide, this study is the first to show a decrease in the prevalence of continuous deep sedation. Despite positive changes in performance and decision-making towards more compliance with due care requirements, there is still room for improvement in the use of recommended drugs and in the involvement of

  4. Trends in Continuous Deep Sedation until Death between 2007 and 2013: A Repeated Nationwide Survey.

    PubMed

    Robijn, Lenzo; Cohen, Joachim; Rietjens, Judith; Deliens, Luc; Chambaere, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Continuous deep sedation until death is a highly debated medical practice, particularly regarding its potential to hasten death and its proper use in end-of-life care. A thorough analysis of important trends in this practice is needed to identify potentially problematic developments. This study aims to examine trends in the prevalence and practice characteristics of continuous deep sedation until death in Flanders, Belgium between 2007 and 2013, and to study variation on physicians' degree of palliative training. Population-based death certificate study in 2007 and 2013 in Flanders, Belgium. Reporting physicians received questionnaires about medical practices preceding the patient's death. Patient characteristics, clinical characteristics (drugs used, duration, artificial nutrition/hydration, intention and consent), and palliative care training of attending physician were recorded. We posed the following question regarding continuous deep sedation: 'Was the patient continuously and deeply sedated or kept in a coma until death by the use of one or more drugs'. After the initial rise of continuous deep sedation to 14.5% in 2007 (95%CI 13.1%-15.9%), its use decreased to 12.0% in 2013 (95%CI 10.9%-13.2%). Compared with 2007, in 2013 opioids were less often used as sole drug and the decision to use continuous deep sedation was more often preceded by patient request. Compared to non-experts, palliative care experts more often used benzodiazepines and less often opioids, withheld artificial nutrition/hydration more often and performed sedation more often after a request from or with the consent of the patient or family. Worldwide, this study is the first to show a decrease in the prevalence of continuous deep sedation. Despite positive changes in performance and decision-making towards more compliance with due care requirements, there is still room for improvement in the use of recommended drugs and in the involvement of patients and relatives in the decision

  5. Current methods of sedation in dental patients - a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; Cutando-Soriano, Antonio; López-Jiménez, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Objetive The main objective of this systematic literature review is to identify the safest and most effective sedative drugs so as to ensure successful sedation with as few complications as possible. Study Design A systematic literature review of the PubMed MEDLINE database was carried out using the key words “conscious sedation,” “drugs,” and “dentistry.” A total of 1,827 scientific articles were found, and these were narrowed down to 473 articles after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. These 473 studies were then individually assessed for their suitability for inclusion in this literature review. Results A total of 21 studies were selected due to their rigorous study design and conduciveness to further, more exhaustive analysis. The selected studies included a total of 1,0003 patients classified as ASA I or II. Midazolam was the drug most frequently used for successful sedation in dental surgical procedures. Ketamine also proved very useful when administered intranasally, although some side effects were observed when delivered via other routes of administration. Both propofol and nitrous oxide (N2O) are also effective sedative drugs. Conclusions Midazolam is the drug most commonly used to induce moderate sedation in dental surgical procedures, and it is also very safe. Other sedative drugs like ketamine, dexmedetomidine and propofol have also been proven safe and effective; however, further comparative clinical studies are needed to better demonstrate which of these are the safest and most effective. Key words:Conscious sedation, drugs, dentistry. PMID:27475684

  6. Pediatric oral conscious sedation: changes to come.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F; Reggiardo, P

    1999-11-01

    Recent media attention has focused the public's attention on issues surrounding pediatric oral conscious sedation. Under a law passed in 1998 and taking affect on Jan. 1, 2000, California dentists will be subject to certification and procedural provisions designed to ensure the educational qualification of the provider and the standards under which the procedure is performed. This article discusses the history of concern and regulation regarding sedation of children in the dental office.

  7. Delirium and sedation in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Frontera, Jennifer A

    2011-06-01

    Delirium is defined by a fluctuating level of attentiveness and has been associated with increased ICU mortality and poor cognitive outcomes in both general ICU and neurocritical care populations. Sedation use in the ICU can contribute to delirium. Limiting ICU sedation allows for the diagnosis of underlying acute neurological insults associated with delirium and leads to shorter mechanical ventilation time, shorter length of stay, and improved 1 year mortality rates. Identifying the underlying etiology of delirium is critical to developing treatment paradigms.

  8. Midazolam increases bite force during intravenous sedation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Yu; Matsuura, Nobuyuki; Kaneko, Yuzuru; Ichinohe, Tatsuya

    2012-08-01

    Although there have been many reports on the effects of midazolam on vital function and the recovery profile, little is known about muscle power during sedation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of midazolam on muscle power during moderate sedation. The subjects were 20 male volunteers classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I. Each subject underwent 2 experiments in a randomized crossover manner (midazolam and control groups). After baseline data were obtained, midazolam (0.05 mg/kg) was administered. Thirty minutes after midazolam administration, flumazenil (0.5 mg) was administered to antagonize the sedative effects of midazolam in the midazolam group. Heart rate, noninvasive blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, and the bispectral index value were monitored. The Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale and the correct-answer rate of the Stroop color word test were assessed. To evaluate muscle power, grip strength and bite force were measured. After baseline measurement, all variables were measured 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes after midazolam administration and 5, 10, and 20 minutes after flumazenil administration. For statistical comparisons, repeated measures analysis of variance, the Friedman χ(2) test, and the Student t test for paired samples were used. No significant changes were observed for any variable in the control group. In the midazolam group, the bispectral index value and the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale decreased during midazolam sedation. The correct-answer rate of the Stroop color word test decreased 5 and 10 minutes after midazolam administration. Grip strength decreased during midazolam sedation. Bite force increased immediately after midazolam administration and remained increased even after flumazenil administration. Although the detailed mechanisms are unknown, bite force increases despite the muscle-relaxant action of midazolam

  9. A randomized controlled trial of daily sedation interruption in critically ill children.

    PubMed

    Vet, Nienke J; de Wildt, Saskia N; Verlaat, Carin W M; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; Mooij, Miriam G; van Woensel, Job B M; van Rosmalen, Joost; Tibboel, Dick; de Hoog, Matthijs

    2016-02-01

    sedation interruption in addition to protocolized sedation did not improve clinical outcome and was associated with increased mortality compared with protocolized sedation only.

  10. Cation metabolism during propofol sedation with and without EDTA in patients with impaired renal function.

    PubMed

    Barr, J; Zaloga, G P; Haupt, M T; Weinmann, M; Murray, M J; Bandi, V; Teres, D

    2000-01-01

    To compare the effects of propofol with and without disodium edetate (EDTA) on cation metabolism in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with renal insufficiency who received propofol or propofol plus EDTA (propofol EDTA) for sedation and mechanical ventilation. Double-blind, randomised, multicentre study. Medical and surgical ICUs from 5 hospitals. Thirty-nine ICU patients with acute and chronic renal impairment expected to require at least 24 hours of continuous sedation and respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation. Propofol or propofol EDTA administered for sedation by continuous intravenous infusion. The depth of sedation, as measured by the Modified Ramsay Sedation Scale, was similar in the 2 groups, when adjusted for dosing differences. The amount of propofol required to maintain adequate sedation was decreased in both groups compared to propofol requirements in ICU patients with normal renal function. EDTA levels were elevated at baseline in both groups. In the propofol EDTA group, the EDTA levels increased further by 20 % but decreased to below baseline EDTA levels at 48 hours after sedation. In the propofol group, EDTA levels decreased during sedation and remained below baseline levels at 48 hours after sedation. PATIENTS in both groups were hypocalcaemic and hyperphosphataemic at baseline with low levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Other than a slight difference in ionised serum calcium levels at 4 h after the start of sedation, there were no significant differences observed in serum calcium levels between the two groups. There were no significant differences in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D or PTH levels over time between the two groups. There was no significant effect on renal function in either group. The results of this study suggest that adding EDTA to propofol does not adversely affect cation homeostasis or renal function when used for sedation of ICU patients with renal insufficiency. Although

  11. The feasibility of office-based propofol sedation for dental care in patients with intellectual disability by sedation practitioners.

    PubMed

    Vaessen, Hermanus H B; Schouten, Antonius N J; van der Hoeve, Henriette; Knape, Johannes T A

    2017-03-01

    The quality of oral health care for intellectually disabled patients is a significant challenge due to behavioral issues. Intravenous propofol sedation may be useful to relieve the anxiety and fear, and make dental procedures more acceptable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of propofol sedation, by trained nonmedical sedation practitioners, during dental treatments in an office-based setting. Intellectually disabled patients (124) were subjected to restorative dental procedures and moderately sedated using intravenous propofol. Vital signs, cooperation of the patient, and sedation depth were continuously assessed. Propofol sedation was effective for dental treatment. All procedures resulted in a sufficient level of sedation without moderate or severe complications. Propofol sedation can be safely and effectively performed in an office-based setting by sedation practitioners, who have experience in propofol sedation and are trained in the care of patients with disabilities. © 2016 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Did General Douglas MacArthur have Parkinson disease? A video and archival analysis.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Lauren N; Malaty, Irene A; Rodriguez, Ramon L; Okun, Michael S

    2011-05-10

    Historians have suggested that MacArthur had Parkinson disease (PD), and that this may have influenced his military judgment. There is little evidence to support or to refute this suggestion. We aimed in this article to review multiple cinematic images, as well as the personal writings of Douglas MacArthur to determine the likelihood that he had PD. A complete review of the Western literature on Douglas MacArthur, including YouTube, Google Scholar/Google Images/Google Video, PubMed, and HighWirePress was undertaken. Over 200 minutes of film footage was analyzed, including such factors as MacArthur's facial profiles, facial expression, gait, posture, and movement. Handwriting samples from over 6 decades were compared for evidence of micrographia. Videos and handwriting samples were independently reviewed by 3 fellowship-trained movement disorders neurologists. Examination of video footage showed evidence of progression of head tremors, postural action tremors, and voice tremors. There were no clear indications of a masked face, rigidity, bradykinesia, or a resting tremor on film footage recorded from 1906 to 1964. There was no evidence of micrographia in handwriting samples. Oral testimony and letters written by an attending gastroenterologist present at MacArthur's death in 1964 revealed no evidence of parkinsonian features. We conclude that MacArthur had mild essential tremor that was more evident in his postmilitary career. There was no evidence to suggest that he had a clinical diagnosis of progressive PD.

  13. Respiratory mechanics in sedated and nonsedated adult llamas.

    PubMed

    Lascola, Kara M; Hoffman, Andrew M; Mazan, Melissa R; Bedenice, Daniela

    2007-06-01

    To validate the use of noninvasive pulmonary function testing in sedated and nonsedated llamas and establish reference range parameters of respiratory mechanical function. 10 healthy adult llamas. Pulmonary function testing in llamas included the following: measurement of functional residual capacity (FRC) via helium dilution, respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) to assess breathing pattern and flow limitations, esophageal-balloon pneumotachography, and a monofrequency forced oscillatory technique (FOT; 1 to 7 Hz) before and after IM administration of xylazine (0.2 mg/kg). The following mean +/- SD measurements of respiratory function were obtained in nonsedated llamas: FRC (5.60 +/- 1.24 L), tidal volume (1.03 +/- 0.3 L), dynamic compliance (0.83 +/- 0.4 L/cm H(2)O), pulmonary resistance (R(L); 1.42 +/- 0.54 cm H(2)O/L/s), and respiratory system resistance (2.4 +/- 0.9, 2.3 +/- 0.7, 2.2 +/- 0.6, 2.7 +/- 0.7, and 2.5 +/- 0.5 cm H(2)O/L/s at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 Hz, respectively) by use of FOT. Measurements of flow limitations via RIP were comparable to other species. Sedation with xylazine induced significant increases in R(L) and maximum change in transpulmonary pressure. Following sedation, a mean 127% increase in R(L) and mean 116% increase in respiratory system resistance were observed across 1 to 7 Hz. The magnitude of change in respiratory system resistance increased with decreasing impulse frequency, suggesting bronchoconstriction. Noninvasive pulmonary function testing is well tolerated in untrained unsedated llamas. These techniques have clinical applications in the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory tract disease, although testing should not be performed after sedation with xylazine.

  14. Current evidence for the use of C-MAC videolaryngoscope in adult airway management: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Xue, Fu-Shan; Li, Hui-Xian; Liu, Ya-Yang; Yang, Gui-Zhen

    2017-01-01

    The C-MAC videolaryngoscope is the first Macintosh-typed videolaryngoscope. Since the advent of its original version video Macintosh system in 1999, this device has been modified several times. A unique feature of C-MAC device is its ability to provide the 2 options of direct and video laryngoscopy with the same device. The available evidence shows that in patients with normal airways, C-MAC videolaryngoscope compared with direct laryngoscopy can provide comparable or better laryngeal views and exerts less force on maxillary incisors, but does not offer conclusive benefits with regard to intubation time, intubation success, number of intubation attempts, the use of adjuncts, and hemodynamic responses to intubation. In patients with predicted or known difficult airways, C-MAC videolaryngoscope can achieve a better laryngeal view, a higher intubation success rate and a shorter intubation time than direct laryngoscopy. Furthermore, the option to perform direct and video laryngoscopy with the same device makes C-MAC videolaryngoscope exceptionally useful for emergency intubation. In addition, the C-MAC videolaryngoscope is a very good tool for tracheal intubation teaching. However, tracheal intubation with C-MAC videolaryngoscope may occasionally fail and introduction of C-MAC videolaryngoscope in clinical practice must be accompanied by formal training programs in normal and difficult airway managements.

  15. Serum Mac-2 binding protein levels as a novel diagnostic biomarker for prediction of disease severity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Yoshihiro; Fujii, Hideki; Fujii, Hironobu; Sawai, Yoshiyuki; Doi, Yoshinori; Uozumi, Naofumi; Mizutani, Kayo; Akita, Maaya; Sato, Motoya; Kida, Sachiho; Kinoshita, Noriaki; Maruyama, Nobuhiro; Yakushijin, Takayuki; Miyazaki, Masanori; Ezaki, Hisao; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Yoshida, Yuichi; Kiso, Shinichi; Imai, Yasuharu; Kawada, Norifumi; Takehara, Tetsuo; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2013-10-01

    Mac-2 binding protein (Mac-2 bp) is one of the major fucosylated glycoproteins, which we identified with glycol-proteomic analyses. We previously reported that fucosylated glycoproteins are secreted into bile, but scarcely secreted into sera in normal liver and hypothesized that the fucosylation-based sorting machinery would be disrupted in ballooning hepatocytes due to the loss of cellular polarity. In the present study, we investigated the availability of Mac-2 bp for differential diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as a biomarker. Serum Mac-2 bp levels were determined with our developed ELISA kit. Our cohort of 127 patients with NAFLD had liver biopsy to make a histological diagnosis of NASH and simple fatty liver. Mac-2 bp levels were significantly elevated in NASH patients compared with non-NASH (simple steatosis) patients (2.132 ± 1.237 vs. 1.103 ± 0.500 μg/mL, p < 0.01). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for predicting NASH by Mac-2 bp was 0.816. Moreover, multivariate logistic regression analyses showed Mac-2 bp levels could predict the fibrosis stage and the presence of ballooning hepatocytes in NAFLD patients. These results support the potential usefulness of measuring Mac-2 bp levels in clinical practice as a biomarker for NASH. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Current evidence for the use of C-MAC videolaryngoscope in adult airway management: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Fu-Shan; Li, Hui-Xian; Liu, Ya-Yang; Yang, Gui-Zhen

    2017-01-01

    The C-MAC videolaryngoscope is the first Macintosh-typed videolaryngoscope. Since the advent of its original version video Macintosh system in 1999, this device has been modified several times. A unique feature of C-MAC device is its ability to provide the 2 options of direct and video laryngoscopy with the same device. The available evidence shows that in patients with normal airways, C-MAC videolaryngoscope compared with direct laryngoscopy can provide comparable or better laryngeal views and exerts less force on maxillary incisors, but does not offer conclusive benefits with regard to intubation time, intubation success, number of intubation attempts, the use of adjuncts, and hemodynamic responses to intubation. In patients with predicted or known difficult airways, C-MAC videolaryngoscope can achieve a better laryngeal view, a higher intubation success rate and a shorter intubation time than direct laryngoscopy. Furthermore, the option to perform direct and video laryngoscopy with the same device makes C-MAC videolaryngoscope exceptionally useful for emergency intubation. In addition, the C-MAC videolaryngoscope is a very good tool for tracheal intubation teaching. However, tracheal intubation with C-MAC videolaryngoscope may occasionally fail and introduction of C-MAC videolaryngoscope in clinical practice must be accompanied by formal training programs in normal and difficult airway managements. PMID:28740393

  17. Safety of Conscious Sedation In Interventional Radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Arepally, Aravind; Oechsle, Denise; Kirkwood, Sharon; Savader, Scott J.

    2001-05-15

    Purpose: To identify rates of adverse events associated with the use of conscious sedation in interventional radiology.Methods: In a 5-month period, prospective data were collected on patients undergoing conscious sedation for interventional radiology procedures (n = 594). Adverse events were categorized as respiratory, sedative, or major adverse events. Respiratory adverse events were those that required oral airway placement, ambu bag, or jaw thrust. Sedation adverse events were unresponsiveness, oxygen saturation less than 90%, use of flumazenil/naloxone, or agitation. Major adverse events were hypotension, intubation, CPR, or cardiac arrest. The frequency of adverse events for the five most common radiology procedures were determined.Results: The five most common procedures (total n = 541) were biliary tube placement/exchange (n = 182), tunneled catheter placement (n 135), diagnostic arteriography (n = 125), vascular interventions (n = 52), and other catheter insertions (n = 46). Rates for respiratory, sedation, and major adverse events were 4.7%, 4.2%, and 2.0%, respectively. The most frequent major adverse event was hypotension (2.0%). Biliary procedures had the highest rate of total adverse events (p < .05) and respiratory adverse events (p < .05).Conclusion: The frequency of adverse events is low with the use of conscious sedation during interventional procedures. The highest rates occurred during biliary interventions.

  18. The sedation mindset: philosophy, science, and practice.

    PubMed

    Horeczko, Timothy; Mahmoud, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    Medicine is evolving. An increasing influx of medically complex patients coupled with diminishing resources set the stage for substantial challenges in providing safe, effective sedation and analgesia for children requiring medical procedures. This review will discuss the essential components of a successful sedation plan outside of the traditional operating room setting. As the discipline of sedation has developed, specialty societies have created and updated guidelines, policies, and statements intended to guide their own practice. There is a lack of consensus among them regarding appropriate targeted depths of sedation, monitoring requirements, definitions of adverse events, resuscitation skills required, and appropriate sedatives used. A transparent, collaborative approach is needed to ensure the sharing of expertise and to encourage evidence-based consistency and safety optimization across venues and specialties. To meet this need, a multidisciplinary strategy is essential in training, performance of procedures outside of the operating room, and care coordination. To deliver safe, effective care, the sedationist must: perform a targeted presedation assessment; optimize the patient and family prior to sedation; tailor the induction and maintenance to the specific child's condition, needs, and procedure; safely recover the child; and provide a safe plan for postsedation care.

  19. Monitoring sedation levels by EEG spectral analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, M. J.; Preece, A. W.; Green, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    Real-time electroencephalographic power spectra were obtained for a group of 37 volunteers undergoing sedation with enflurane at different concentrations in air. In part one, 17 subjects were given 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1.0% for 4 min at each level, and recovery after 5 min was assessed by the Trieger method. There was considerable variation in subject response to the different doses, but adequate sedation was indicated by the presence of a strong alpha rhythm (9-11 Hz) and suppression of frequencies below 5 Hz. Overdose was indicated by an initial shift in the alpha frequency to a lower value (6-7 Hz) followed by the appearance of delta waves (0.5-4 Hz) and loss of alpha waves. In part two, 20 volunteers inhaled enflurane at 0.5% for 10 min to allow adequate absorption, followed by a 10-min recovery period. Equal numbers showed sedation or a failure to respond to enflurane at this concentration. In the responders, sedation was accompanied by a marked shift in the ratio of the power in two frequency bands: 1-4 Hz and 8-12 Hz. Progress of the frequency band power ratio followed closely the state of the subject into sedation, overdose, and recovery. This measure was further improved by the use of multivariate analysis, which showed good discrimination of the alert, sedated, and overdosed states of the subject. PMID:1842161

  20. HFGMC Enhancement of MAC/GMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2006-01-01

    Additional information about a mathematical model denoted the high-fidelity generalized method of cells (HFGMC) and implementation of the HFGMC within version 4.0 of the MAC/GMC software has become available. MAC/GMC (Micromechanics Analysis Code With Generalized Method of Cells) was a topic of several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, version 4.0 having been described in "Comprehensive Micromechanics-Analysis Code - Version 4.0" (LEW-17495-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 9 (September 2005), page 54. MAC/GMC predicts elastic and inelastic thermomechanical responses of composite materials. MAC/GMC utilizes the generalized method of cells (GMC) - a model of micromechanics that predicts macroscopic responses of a composite material as functions of the properties, sizes, shapes, and responses of its constituents (e.g., matrix and fibers). The accuracy of the GMC is limited by neglect of coupling between normal and shear stresses. The HFGMC was developed by combining elements of the GMC and a related model, denoted the higher-order theory for functionally graded materials (HOTFGM), that can account for this coupling. Hence, the HFGMC enables simulation of stress and strain with greater accuracy. Some alterations of the MAC/GMC data structure were necessitated by the greater computational complexity of the HFGMC.

  1. Sedation methods for transthoracic echocardiography in children with Trisomy 21-a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeff; Ding, Lili; Spaeth, James; Lam, Jennifer; Paquin, Joanna; Lin, Erica; Divanovic, Allison; Li, Bi Lian; Baskar, Shankar; Loepke, Andreas W

    2017-05-01

    ) was an effective sedative as a single dose for TTEcho in 37 of 41 (90%) cases. Oral pentobarbital 5 mg·kg(-1) as a single dose for young children with Trisomy 21 was effective in 55 of 75 (73%) cases. Intranasal dexmedetomidine sedation was not associated with a significantly higher risk of bradycardia in patients with Trisomy 21, compared with other sedative or anesthetic regimens, when compared to oral pentobarbital for patients under 2 years of age and general anesthesia for children 3 years and older. The two general anesthesia groups showed lowest heart rates of 66.9 ± 15.9 min(-1) for sevoflurane and 69.0 ± 11.5 min(-1) for sevoflurane-propofol. Hypotension was present in all groups ranging between an incidence of 56% in the sevoflurane group to 11% in the oral pentobarbital group. Oxygen saturation and clinically significant desaturation occurred in 14% of the oral pentobarbital group. Intranasal dexmedetomidine sedation was not associated with a significantly higher risk of bradycardia in patients with Trisomy 21, compared with other sedative or anesthetic regimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Nurse decision making regarding the use of analgesics and sedatives in the pediatric cardiac ICU.

    PubMed

    Staveski, Sandra L; Lincoln, Patricia A; Fineman, Lori D; Asaro, Lisa A; Wypij, David; Curley, Martha A Q

    2014-10-01

    To describe nurse decision making and patient responses associated with the administration of analgesics and sedatives in the pediatric cardiac ICU. Prospective nonexperimental mixed methods study of pediatric cardiac ICU nursing practice. Three tertiary academic pediatric heart centers in the United States. Pediatric cardiac ICU nurses caring for 217 patients completed 1,330 surveys. Four-item open-ended nurse survey completed each time an as needed dose of an analgesic or sedative was administered, an analgesic or sedative infusion/dose was titrated, and/or a new analgesic or sedative was administered. Responses to survey questions were entered verbatim and then collapsed using a consensus process. Collapsing of the data continued until there was a working set of "symptoms," "changes," and "clinical situation managed" categories. Nurses identified 28 symptoms managed with analgesia and sedation. The most frequent symptoms included hypertension, tachycardia, crying, pain, and agitation. Nurses identified 20 patient changes that resulted from their interventions. The most prevalent changes included improved hemodynamics, calm state, sleep, comfort, and relaxed state. Nurses identified 22 clinical situations that they were attempting to manage. The most frequent clinical situations included pain, hemodynamics, procedures, hypertension, and agitation. Nurses responded that 22% of their interventions were influenced by others. Pediatric cardiac ICU nurses use many nonspecific indicators to describe patient level of comfort collectively. Decisions for managing patient comfort were influenced by their patients' overall hemodynamic stability.

  3. BFT replication resistant to MAC attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbierski, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decade numerous Byzantine fault-tolerant (BFT) replication protocols have been proposed in the literature. However, the vast majority of these solutions reuse the same authentication scheme, which makes them susceptible to a so called MAC attack. Such vulnerability enables malicious clients to undetectably prevent the replicated service from processing incoming client requests, and consequently making it permanently unavailable. While some BFT protocols attempted to address this issue by using different authentication mechanisms, they at the same time significantly degraded the performance achieved in correct environments. This article presents a novel adaptive authentication mechanism which can be combined with practically any Byzantine fault-tolerant replication protocol. Unlike previous solutions, the proposed scheme dynamically switches between two operation modes to combine high performance in correct environments and liveness during MAC attacks. The experiment results presented in the article demonstrate that the proposed mechanism can sufficiently tolerate MAC attacks without introducing any observable overhead whenever no faults are present.

  4. Proposed Guideline Revisions for Dental Sedation and General Anesthesia: Why Target the Safest Level of Sedation?

    PubMed

    Dionne, Raymond A

    2016-09-01

    Recently proposed revisions to the American Dental Association's Guidelines for the Use of Sedation and General Anesthesia by Dentists, aimed at improving safety in dental offices, differentiate between levels of sedation based on drug-induced changes in physiologic and behavioral states. However, the author of this op-ed is concerned the proposed revisions may have far-reaching and unintended consequences.

  5. Predictors of clinicians' underuse of daily sedation interruption and sedation scales.

    PubMed

    Sneyers, B; Henrard, S; Laterre, P F; Perreault, M M; Beguin, C; Wouters, D; Speybroeck, N; Spinewine, A

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to identify predictors of underuse of sedation scales and daily sedation interruption (DSI). We surveyed all physicians and seven nurses in every Belgian intensive care unit (ICU), addressing practices and perceptions on guideline recommendations. Underuse was defined for sedation scales as use less than 3× per day and for DSI as never using it. Classification trees and logistic regressions identified predictors of underuse. Underuse of sedation scales and DSI was found for 16.6% and 32.5% of clinicians, respectively. Strongest predictors of underuse of sedation scales were agreeing that using them daily takes much time and being a physician (rather than a nurse). Further predictors were confidence in their ability to measure sedation levels without using scales, for physicians, and nurse/ICU bed ratios less than 1.98, for nurses. The strongest predictor of underuse of DSI among physicians was the perception that DSI impairs patients' comfort. Among nurses, lack of familiarity with DSI, region, and agreeing DSI should only be performed upon medical orders best predicted underuse. Workload considerations hamper utilization of sedation scales. Poor familiarity, for nurses, and negative perception of impact on patients' comfort, for physicians, both reduce DSI utilization. Targeting these obstacles is essential while designing quality improvement strategies to minimize sedative use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Patterns of Sedation Weaning in Critically Ill Children Recovering From Acute Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Best, Kaitlin M; Asaro, Lisa A; Franck, Linda S; Wypij, David; Curley, Martha A Q

    2016-01-01

    To characterize sedation weaning patterns in typical practice settings among children recovering from critical illness. A descriptive secondary analysis of data that were prospectively collected during the prerandomization phase (January to July 2009) of a clinical trial of sedation management. Twenty-two PICUs across the United States. The sample included 145 patients, aged 2 weeks to 17 years, mechanically ventilated for acute respiratory failure who received at least five consecutive days of opioid exposure. None. Group comparisons were made between patients with an intermittent weaning pattern, defined as a 20% or greater increase in daily opioid dose after the start of weaning, and the remaining patients defined as having a steady weaning pattern. Demographic and clinical characteristics, tolerance to sedatives, and iatrogenic withdrawal symptoms were evaluated. Sixty-six patients (46%) were intermittently weaned; 79 patients were steadily weaned. Prior to weaning, intermittently weaned patients received higher peak and cumulative doses and longer exposures to opioids and benzodiazepines, demonstrated more sedative tolerance (58% vs 41%), and received more chloral hydrate and barbiturates compared with steadily weaned patients. During weaning, intermittently weaned patients assessed for withdrawal had a higher incidence of Withdrawal Assessment Tool-version 1 scores of greater than or equal to 3 (85% vs 46%) and received more sedative classes compared with steadily weaned patients. This study characterizes sedative administration practices for pediatric patients prior to and during weaning from sedation after critical illness. It provides a novel methodology for describing weaning in an at-risk pediatric population that may be helpful in future research on weaning strategies to prevent iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome.

  7. Laparoscopic Salpingo-oophorectomy in Conscious Sedation

    PubMed Central

    Bramante, Silvia; Conti, Fiorella; Rizzi, Maria; Frattari, Antonella; Spina, Tullio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Conscious sedation has traditionally been used for laparoscopic tubal ligation. General anesthesia with endotracheal intubation may be associated with side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, cough, and dizziness, whereas sedation offers the advantage of having the patient awake and breathing spontaneously. Until now, only diagnostic laparoscopy and minor surgical procedures have been performed in patients under conscious sedation. Case Description: Our report describes 5 cases of laparoscopic salpingo-oophorectomy successfully performed with the aid of conventional-diameter multifunctional instruments in patients under local anesthesia. Totally intravenous sedation was provided by the continuous infusion of propofol and remifentanil, administered through a workstation that uses pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic models to titrate each drug, as well as monitoring tools for levels of conscious sedation and local anesthesia. We have labelled our current procedure with the acronym OLICS (Operative Laparoscopy in Conscious Sedation). Four of the patients had mono- or bilateral ovarian cysts and 1 patient, with the BRCA1 gene mutation and a family history of ovarian cancer, had normal ovaries. Insufflation time ranged from 19 to 25 minutes. All patients maintained spontaneous breathing throughout the surgical procedure, and no episodes of hypotension or bradycardia occurred. Optimal pain control was obtained in all cases. During the hospital stay, the patients did not need further analgesic drugs. All the women reported high or very high satisfaction and were discharged within 18 hours of the procedure. Discussion and Conclusion: Salpingo-oophorectomy in conscious sedation is safe and feasible and avoids the complications of general anesthesia. It can be offered to well-motivated patients without a history of pelvic surgery and low to normal body mass index. PMID:26175550

  8. Interprofessional and interdisciplinary simulation-based training leads to safe sedation procedures in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Thomas C; Hautz, Wolf E; Hostettler, Simone; Brodmann-Maeder, Monika; Martinolli, Luca; Lehmann, Beat; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K; Haider, Dominik G

    2016-08-02

    Sedation is a procedure required for many interventions in the Emergency department (ED) such as reductions, surgical procedures or cardioversions. However, especially under emergency conditions with high risk patients and rapidly changing interdisciplinary and interprofessional teams, the procedure caries important risks. It is thus vital but difficult to implement a standard operating procedure for sedation procedures in any ED. Reports on both, implementation strategies as well as their success are currently lacking. This study describes the development, implementation and clinical evaluation of an interprofessional and interdisciplinary simulation-based sedation training concept. All physicians and nurses with specialised training in emergency medicine at the Berne University Department of Emergency Medicine participated in a mandatory interdisciplinary and interprofessional simulation-based sedation training. The curriculum consisted of an individual self-learning module, an airway skill training course, three simulation-based team training cases, and a final practical learning course in the operating theatre. Before and after each training session, self-efficacy, awareness of emergency procedures, knowledge of sedation medication and crisis resource management were assessed with a questionnaire. Changes in these measures were compared via paired tests, separately for groups formed based on experience and profession. To assess the clinical effect of training, we collected patient and team satisfaction as well as duration and complications for all sedations in the ED within the year after implementation. We further compared time to beginning of procedure, time for duration of procedure and time until discharge after implementation with the one year period before the implementation. Cohen's d was calculated as effect size for all statistically significant tests. Fifty staff members (26 nurses and 24 physicians) participated in the training. In all subgroups

  9. The Utility of the C-MAC as a Direct Laryngoscope for Intubation in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Sakles, John C; Mosier, Jarrod M; Patanwala, Asad E; Arcaris, Brittany; Dicken, John M

    2016-10-01

    Although the C-MAC (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) is a video laryngoscope (VL), it can also be used as a direct laryngoscope (DL). The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of the C-MAC as a DL for intubations in the emergency department (ED). This was an analysis of prospectively collected continuous quality-improvement data during the 6-year period from February 1, 2009 to January 31, 2015, when both the C-MAC and Macintosh DL (Mac DL) were clinically available in our ED. This analysis included adult patients who underwent rapid sequence intubation by an emergency medicine resident in the ED with a C-MAC initially used as a DL or a Mac DL. The primary outcome measure was the first pass success (FPS). When the C-MAC was used as a DL, the initial DL attempt was successful in 199 of 346 (57.6%) cases. When the attempt could not be completed using the C-MAC as a DL, the operator utilized the video monitor and successfully completed the intubation using VL in 104 of 134 (77.6%) cases, thus achieving an overall FPS of 303 of 346 (87.6%). When the Mac DL was used, the FPS was 505 of 671 (75.3%). The C-MAC is a useful device for DL because in the event of a failed DL attempt, operators have the option of switching to the video monitor to successfully complete the intubation using VL without having to make a second attempt. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sedation and Monitoring in the Pediatric Patient during Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyun Kee; Lightdale, Jenifer R

    2016-07-01

    Sedation is a fundamental component of pediatric gastrointestinal procedures. The 2 main types of sedation for pediatric endoscopy remain general anesthesia and procedural sedation. Although anesthesiologist-administered sedation protocols are more common, there is no ideal regimen for endoscopy in children. This article discusses specific levels of sedation for endoscopy as well as various regimens that can be used to achieve each. Risks and considerations that may be specific to performing gastrointestinal procedures in children are reviewed. Finally, potential future directions for sedation and monitoring that may change the practice of pediatric gastroenterology and ultimately patient outcomes are examined.

  11. Dexmedetomidine versus Midazolam in Procedural Sedation. A Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety.

    PubMed

    Barends, Clemens R M; Absalom, Anthony; van Minnen, Baucke; Vissink, Arjan; Visser, Anita

    2017-01-01

    To systematically review the literature comparing the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine and midazolam when used for procedural sedation. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHRANE for clinical trials comparing dexmedetomidine and midazolam for procedural sedation up to June 20, 2016. Inclusion criteria: clinical trial, human subjects, adult subjects (≥18 years), article written in English, German, French or Dutch, use of study medication for conscious sedation and at least one group receiving dexmedetomidine and one group receiving midazolam. Exclusion criteria: patients in intensive care, pediatric subjects and per protocol use of additional sedative medication other than rescue medication. Outcome measures for efficacy comparison were patient and clinician satisfaction scores and pain scores; outcome measures for safety comparison were hypotension, hypoxia, and circulatory and respiratory complications. We identified 89 papers, of which 12 satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria; 883 patients were included in these studies. Dexmedetomidine was associated with higher patient and operator satisfaction than midazolam. Patients receiving dexmedetomidine experienced less pain and had lower analgesic requirements. Respiratory and hemodynamic safety were similar. Dexmedetomidine is a promising alternative to midazolam for use in procedural sedation. Dexmedetomidine provides more comfort during the procedure for the patient and clinician. If carefully titrated, the safety profiles are similar.

  12. Efficacy and safety of chloral hydrate sedation in infants for pulmonary function tests

    PubMed Central

    Wandalsen, Gustavo Falbo; Lanza, Fernanda de Cordoba; Nogueira, Márcia Cristina Pires; Solé, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe the efficacy and safety of chloral hydrate sedation in infants for pulmonary function tests. Methods: All sedation attempts for pulmonary function tests in infants carried out between June 2007 and August 2014 were evaluated. Obstructive sleep apnea and heart disease were contraindications to the exams. Anthropometric data, exam indication, used dose, outcomes of sedation and clinical events were recorded and described. Results: The sedation attempts in 277 infants (165 boys) with a median age of 51.5 weeks of life (14-182 weeks) were evaluated. The main indication for the tests was recurrent wheezing (56%) and the chloral hydrate dose ranged from 50 to 80mg/kg (orally). Eighteen (6.5%) infants had some type of clinical complication, with the most frequent being cough and/or airway secretion (1.8%); respiratory distress (1.4%) and vomiting (1.1%). A preterm infant had bradycardia for approximately 15 minutes, which was responsive to tactile stimulation. All observed adverse effects were transient and there was no need for resuscitation or use of injectable medications. Conclusions: The data demonstrated that chloral hydrate at the employed doses is a safe and effective medicament for sedation during short procedures in infants, such as pulmonary function tests. Because of the possibility of severe adverse events, recommendations on doses and contraindications should be strictly followed and infants should be monitored by trained staff. PMID:27449074

  13. Dexmedetomidine versus Midazolam in Procedural Sedation. A Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Absalom, Anthony; van Minnen, Baucke; Vissink, Arjan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the literature comparing the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine and midazolam when used for procedural sedation. Materials and Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHRANE for clinical trials comparing dexmedetomidine and midazolam for procedural sedation up to June 20, 2016. Inclusion criteria: clinical trial, human subjects, adult subjects (≥18 years), article written in English, German, French or Dutch, use of study medication for conscious sedation and at least one group receiving dexmedetomidine and one group receiving midazolam. Exclusion criteria: patients in intensive care, pediatric subjects and per protocol use of additional sedative medication other than rescue medication. Outcome measures for efficacy comparison were patient and clinician satisfaction scores and pain scores; outcome measures for safety comparison were hypotension, hypoxia, and circulatory and respiratory complications. Results We identified 89 papers, of which 12 satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria; 883 patients were included in these studies. Dexmedetomidine was associated with higher patient and operator satisfaction than midazolam. Patients receiving dexmedetomidine experienced less pain and had lower analgesic requirements. Respiratory and hemodynamic safety were similar. Conclusions Dexmedetomidine is a promising alternative to midazolam for use in procedural sedation. Dexmedetomidine provides more comfort during the procedure for the patient and clinician. If carefully titrated, the safety profiles are similar. PMID:28107373

  14. [The correlation among the Ramsay sedation scale, Richmond agitation sedation scale and Riker sedation agitation scale during midazolam-remifentanil sedation].

    PubMed

    Namigar, Turgut; Serap, Karacalar; Esra, Akdaş Tekin; Özgül, Odacılar; Can, Öztürk Ali; Aysel, Ak; Achmet, Ali

    Sedative and analgesic treatment administered to critically ill patients need to be regularly assessed to ensure that previously stated goals are well achieved as the risk of complications of oversedation is minimized. We revised and prospectively tested the Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS) for interrater reliability and compared it with the Riker Sedation-Agitation Scale (RSAS) and the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) to test construct validity during midazolam-remifentanil sedation. A convenience sample of ICU patients was simultaneously and independently examined by pairs of trained evaluators by using the revised RSAS, RSS, and RASS. Ninety-two ICU patients were examined a total of 276 times by evaluator pairs. The mean patient age was 61.32±18.68years, 45,7% were female (n=42), 54.3% male (n=50). Their APACHE values varied between 3 and 39 with an average of 13.27±7.86 and 75% of the cases were under mechanical ventilation. When classified by using RSS (2.70±1.28), 10.9% were anxious or agitated (RSS1), 68.5% were calm (RSS 2-3), and 20.6% were sedated (RSS 4-6). When classified by using RASS (-0.64±1.58), 20.7% were anxious or agitated (RASS+1 to +4), 63.0% were calm (RASS 0 to -2), and 16.3% were sedated (RASS -3 to -5). When classified by using RSAS (2.63±1.00), 12% were anxious or agitated (RSAS 5-7), 57.6% were calm (RSAS 4), and 30.4% were sedated (RSAS 1-3). RSS was correlated with the RSAS (r=-0.656, p<0.001) and RASS was correlated with the RSAS (r=0.565, p<0.001). RSS was highly correlated with the RASS (r=-0.664, p<0.001). Ramsay is both reliable and valid (high correlation with the RASS and RSAS scales) in assessing agitation and sedation in adult ICU patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Bispectral Index in Evaluating Effects of Sedation Depth on Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yu-Lun; Ni, Yung-Lun; Wang, Tsai-Yu; Lin, Ting-Yu; Li, Hsueh-Yu; White, David P.; Lin, Jr-Rung; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of sedation depth on drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). Methods: Ninety patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 18 snorers underwent polysomnography and DISE under bispectral index (BIS)-guided propofol infusion at two different sedation levels: BIS 65–75 (light sedation) and 50–60 (deep sedation). Results: For the patients with OSA, the percentages of velopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx obstructions under light sedation were 77.8%, 63.3%, 30%, and 33.3%, respectively. Sedation depth was associated with the severity of velopharynx and oropharynx obstruction, oropharynx obstruction pattern, tongue base obstruction, epiglottis anteroposterior prolapse and folding, and arytenoid prolapse. In comparison, OSA severity was associated with the severity of velopharynx obstruction, severity of oropharynx obstruction, and arytenoid prolapse (odds ratio (95% confidence interval); 14.3 (4.7–43.4), 11.7 (4.2–32.9), and 13.2 (2.8–62.3), respectively). A good agreement was noted between similar DISE findings at different times and different observers (kappa value 0.6 to 1, respectively). A high percentage of arytenoid prolapse (46.7% among the patients with OSA under light sedation) was noted. Conclusions: Greater sedative depth increased upper airway collapsibility under DISE assessment. DISE under BIS-guided propofol infusion, and especially a level of 65–75, offers an objective and reproducible method to evaluate upper airway collapsibility. Some findings were induced by drug sedation and need careful interpretation. Specific arytenoid prolapse patterns were noted for which further investigations are warranted. Clinical Trials Registration: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT01100554 Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 965. Citation: Lo YL, Ni YL, Wang TY, Lin TY, Li HY, White DP, Lin JR, Kuo HP. Bispectral index in evaluating effects of sedation depth on drug

  16. Eliminating the Heart from the Curcumin Molecule: Monocarbonyl Curcumin Mimics (MACs)

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Dinesh; Kim, Yong Joon; Shim, Hyunsuk; Snyder, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is a natural product with several thousand years of heritage. Its traditional Asian application to human ailments has been subjected in recent decades to worldwide pharmacological, biochemical and clinical investigations. Curcumin’s Achilles heel lies in its poor aqueous solubility and rapid degradation at pH ~ 7.4. Researchers have sought to unlock curcumin’s assets by chemical manipulation. One class of molecules under scrutiny are the monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin (MACs). A thousand plus such agents have been created and tested primarily against cancer and inflammation. The outcome is clear. In vitro, MACs furnish a 10–20 fold potency gain vs. curcumin for numerous cancer cell lines and cellular proteins. Similarly, MACs have successfully demonstrated better pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in mice and greater tumor regression in cancer xenografts in vivo than curcumin. The compounds reveal limited toxicity as measured by murine weight gain and histopathological assessment. To our knowledge, MAC members have not yet been monitored in larger animals or humans. However, Phase 1 clinical trials are certainly on the horizon. The present review focuses on the large and evolving body of work in cancer and inflammation, but also covers MAC structural diversity and early discovery for treatment of bacteria, tuberculosis, Alzheimer’s disease and malaria. PMID:25547726

  17. Eliminating the heart from the curcumin molecule: monocarbonyl curcumin mimics (MACs).

    PubMed

    Shetty, Dinesh; Kim, Yong Joon; Shim, Hyunsuk; Snyder, James P

    2014-12-24

    Curcumin is a natural product with several thousand years of heritage. Its traditional Asian application to human ailments has been subjected in recent decades to worldwide pharmacological, biochemical and clinical investigations. Curcumin's Achilles heel lies in its poor aqueous solubility and rapid degradation at pH ~ 7.4. Researchers have sought to unlock curcumin's assets by chemical manipulation. One class of molecules under scrutiny are the monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin (MACs). A thousand plus such agents have been created and tested primarily against cancer and inflammation. The outcome is clear. In vitro, MACs furnish a 10-20 fold potency gain vs. curcumin for numerous cancer cell lines and cellular proteins. Similarly, MACs have successfully demonstrated better pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in mice and greater tumor regression in cancer xenografts in vivo than curcumin. The compounds reveal limited toxicity as measured by murine weight gain and histopathological assessment. To our knowledge, MAC members have not yet been monitored in larger animals or humans. However, Phase 1 clinical trials are certainly on the horizon. The present review focuses on the large and evolving body of work in cancer and inflammation, but also covers MAC structural diversity and early discovery for treatment of bacteria, tuberculosis, Alzheimer's disease and malaria.

  18. Ketamine Sedation in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Eskander, Ayman E.; Baroudy, Nevine R. El; Refay, Amira S. El

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Moderate sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy has traditionally been provided by the endoscopist. Controversy has ensued over safe and efficient sedation practice as endoscopy has increased in numbers and complexity. AIM: To evaluate the safety of ketamine sedation given by non-anesthesiologist during gastrointestinal endoscopy in children. METHODS: A prospective study of 100 paediatric patients with gastrointestinal symptoms who were a candidate for upper or lower gastrointestinal endoscopy in paediatric endoscopy unit at Abo El-Reesh Paediatric Hospital, Cairo University. All children were > 2 years old and weighed > 6 kg. The analysis was performed in terms of sedation-related complications. RESULTS: A total 100 paediatric patients including 53 males and 47 females with mean age of 5.04 years were involved in the study. All children were medicated with ketamine with a mean dose of 3.77mg/kg. No complications occurred in 87% of cases. Desaturation occurred in 13% of the cases and was reversible by supplemental nasal oxygen. Desaturation was more frequent during Upper GI Endoscopy and with the intramuscular route (p value=0.049). No apnea, bradycardia, arrest or emergence reactions were recorded. CONCLUSION: Ketamine sedation found to be safe for paediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy in Egyptian children without co-morbidities. Transient Hypoxia (13%) may occur but easily reversed by nasal oxygen therapy. PMID:27703561

  19. Ketamine-propofol sedation in circumcision.

    PubMed

    Gulec, Handan; Sahin, Saziye; Ozayar, Esra; Degerli, Semih; Bercin, Fatma; Ozdemir, Osman

    2015-01-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects of ketamine alone or ketamine plus propofol on analgesia, sedation, recovery time, side effects in premedicated children with midazolam-ketamine-atropin who are prepared circumcision operation. 60 American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I-II children, aged between 3 and 9 years, undergoing circumcision operations under sedation were recruited according to a randomize and double-blind institutional review board-approved protocol. Patients were randomized into two groups via sealed envelope assignment. Both groups were administered a mixture of midazolam 0.05mg/kg+ketamine 3mg/kg+atropine 0.02mg/kg intramuscularly in the presence of parents in the pre-operative holding area. Patients were induced with propofol-ketamine in Group I or ketamine alone in Group II. In the between-group comparisons, age, weight, initial systolic blood pressure, a difference in terms of the initial pulse rate was observed (p>0.050). Initial diastolic blood pressure and subsequent serial measurements of 5, 10, 15, 20thmin, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate in ketamine group were significantly higher (p<0.050). Propofol-ketamine (Ketofol) provided better sedation quality and hemodynamy than ketamine alone in pediatric circumcision operations. We did not observe significant complications during sedation in these two groups. Therefore, ketofol appears to be an effective and safe sedation method for circumcision operation. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. [AWAKE CRANIOTOMY: IN SEARCH FOR OPTIMAL SEDATION].

    PubMed

    Kulikova, A S; Sel'kov, D A; Kobyakov, G L; Shmigel'skiy, A V; Lubnin, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    Awake craniotomy is a "gold standard"for intraoperative brain language mapping. One of the main anesthetic challenge of awake craniotomy is providing of optimal sedation for initial stages of intervention. The goal of this study was comparison of different technics of anesthesia for awake craniotomy. Materials and methods: 162 operations were divided in 4 groups: 76 cases with propofol sedation (2-4mg/kg/h) without airway protection; 11 cases with propofol sedation (4-5 mg/kg/h) with MV via LMA; 36 cases of xenon anesthesia; and 39 cases with dexmedetomidine sedation without airway protection. Results and discussion: brain language mapping was successful in 90% of cases. There was no difference between groups in successfulness of brain mapping. However in the first group respiratory complications were more frequent. Three other technics were more safer Xenon anesthesia was associated with ultrafast awakening for mapping (5±1 min). Dexmedetomidine sedation provided high hemodynamic and respiratory stability during the procedure.

  1. [Non-sedative antihistaminics in the treatment of chronic urticaria].

    PubMed

    Negro, J M; Sarrió, F; Miralles, J C; García Sellés, F J; López Sánchez, J D; Pagán, J a; Hernándéz, J

    1995-01-01

    Antihistamines are the drugs of choice in the symptomatic relief of chronic idiopathic urticaria; however, the usefulness of classic antihistamines has been limited by side effects. In the 1980s a new class of antihistamines has been developed that maintains effectiveness and produces less side effects (eg anticholinergic side effects, daytime sedation, etc). This review analyzes each of the new nonsedating antihistamines commercially available in Spain (astemizole, ebastine, cetirizine, loratadine and terfenadine) and evaluates its clinical efficacy and safety in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria.

  2. Midazolam sedation for the reduction of Colles' fractures.

    PubMed

    Grant, A; Hoddinott, C; Evans, R

    1993-08-01

    The treatment of Colles' fractures in the elderly comprises a heavy workload for both accident and orthopaedic departments. The initial management has important clinical and financial implications for patient and hospital. The demand is variable and the ability to respond must also be flexible. The choice of anaesthetic technique is therefore most important. In our experience, intravenous sedation with midazolam (a water soluble benzodiazepine) has proven to be safe and effective in providing good conditions for anatomical reduction of Colles' fractures on an outpatient basis.

  3. Mission-Adaptable Chemical Sensor (MACS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-27

    Surrogate Software ......................................................................... 75 9 Basic System Integration and Packaging ...78 9.1 Architecture of the Packaging for the MACS Phase 1 Systems (1 and 2...responsible for adapting laboratory scale technologies into a very small package . In general, ST leads the systems engineering and central electronics; OSU

  4. MacIntyre, Managerialism and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolz, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    MacIntyre's earlier work and concern with social science enquiry not only exposes its limits, but also provides an insight into how its knowledge claims have been put to ideological use. He maintains that the institutional embodiment of these ideological ideas is the bureaucratic manager who has had a negative role to play in social structures…

  5. MacIntyre, Managerialism and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolz, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    MacIntyre's earlier work and concern with social science enquiry not only exposes its limits, but also provides an insight into how its knowledge claims have been put to ideological use. He maintains that the institutional embodiment of these ideological ideas is the bureaucratic manager who has had a negative role to play in social structures…

  6. Lifetime tests for MAC vertex chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, H.N.

    1986-07-01

    A vertex chamber for MAC was proposed to increase precision in the measurement of the B hadron and tau lepton lifetimes. Thin-walled aluminized mylar drift tubes were used for detector elements. A study of radiation hardness was conducted under the conditions of the proposed design using different gases and different operating conditions. (LEW)

  7. Managed Access by Controlled Sensing (MACS)

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    During chemical weapons challenge inspections, the CWC treaty allows ``alternate means`` of access to be proposed by the nation challenged. BNL`s Safeguards, Safety and Nonproliferation Division is funded by the Defense Nuclear Agency to develop a system to provide the challenge inspection team with a ``virtual presence`` within the facility while denying personal access. A general purpose configuration of a mobile station manned by site personnel and a base station manned by the challenge inspector, supported by a flexible communication system, will allow facility personnel to tailor the basic model to their site. Design of the MACS system is based on maximum use of commercial equipment that is available on the international market. Design requirements for the MACS system include methods of establishing geographical position, distance measuring equipment for use in verifying dimensions on floor plans, video and two-way audio links between the mobile unit and the base station, and portability and versatility of the equipment. The MACS platform will also support deployment of selected instrumentation which the site may offer to the challenge inspection team. This paper describes the design and construction of the prototype MACS system.

  8. Rationale, design and methodology of a trial evaluating three strategies designed to improve sedation quality in intensive care units (DESIST study)

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Timothy S; Kydonaki, Kalliopi; Antonelli, Jean; Stephen, Jacqueline; Lee, Robert J; Everingham, Kirsty; Hanley, Janet; Uutelo, Kimmo; Peltola, Petra; Weir, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the rationale, design and methodology for a trial of three novel interventions developed to improve sedation-analgesia quality in adult intensive care units (ICUs). Participants and Setting 8 clusters, each a Scottish ICU. All mechanically ventilated sedated patients were potentially eligible for inclusion in data analysis. Design Cluster randomised design in 8 ICUs, with ICUs randomised after 45 weeks baseline data collection to implement one of four intervention combinations: a web-based educational programme (2 ICUs); education plus regular sedation quality feedback using process control charts (2 ICUs); education plus a novel sedation monitoring technology (2 ICUs); or all three interventions. ICUs measured sedation-analgesia quality, relevant drug use and clinical outcomes, during a 45-week preintervention and 45-week postintervention period separated by an 8-week implementation period. The intended sample size was >100 patients per site per study period. Main Outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of 12 h care periods with optimum sedation-analgesia, defined as the absence of agitation, unnecessary deep sedation, poor relaxation and poor ventilator synchronisation. Secondary outcomes were proportions of care periods with each of these four components of optimum sedation and rates of sedation-related adverse events. Sedative and analgesic drug use, and ICU and hospital outcomes were also measured. Analytic approach Multilevel generalised linear regression mixed models will explore the effects of each intervention taking clustering into account, and adjusting for age, gender and APACHE II score. Sedation-analgesia quality outcomes will be explored at ICU level and individual patient level. A process evaluation using mixed methods including quantitative description of intervention implementation, focus groups and direct observation will provide explanatory information regarding any effects observed. Conclusions The

  9. Is testing the voice under sedation reliable in medialization thyroplasty?

    PubMed

    Oishi, Natsuki; Herrero, Ricard; Martin, Ana; Basterra, Jorge; Zapater, Enrique

    2016-12-01

    Medialization thyroplasty is an accepted method for improving non-compensated unilateral vocal cord palsy. Most surgeons decide the depth of penetration of the prosthesis by monitoring the voice changes in the patient during the surgical procedure. General anesthesia with intubation is incompatible with this procedure. Sedation is recommended. In this study we want to objectivize and quantify the influence of sedation and position on voice in order to know if this anesthetic procedure is justified in medialization thyroplasties. A prospective study. This study involved 15 adult patients who underwent sedation. Voice recordings were performed in each patient in three different positions and conditions: the seated position without sedation, the supine position without sedation, and the supine position under the effects of sedation. The sedation drugs used were midazolam, fentanyl, and propofol. The level of sedation was monitored using the observational scale and the bispectral index. The acoustic data obtained from sustained vowel sounds from patient recordings showed that sedation significantly affected the values of pitch. Compared to recordings from patients without sedation, pitch values in patients under sedation were significantly higher for jitter local and shimmer local recordings and significantly lower for pitch and harmonics-to-noise ratio. The supine position was shown not to influence on the voice. Sedation exerts an important influence on voice quality. General anesthesia could be an alternative, focusing our attention on monitoring the glottis with a fibrolaryngoscope during the surgical procedure. No sedation at all can also be an alternative.

  10. Exposure histories of lunar meteorites - ALHA81005, MAC88104, MAC88105, and Y791197

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Klein, J.; Fink, D.; Middleton, R.; Kubik, P. W.; Sharma, P.; Elmore, D.; Reedy, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclides Ca-41, Cl-36, Al-26, and Be-10 in the Allan Hills 81005, MacAlpine Hills 88104, MacAlpine Hills 88105, and Yamato 791197 meteorites were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry. Mn-53 in Allan Hills 81005 and Yamato 791197 was measured by neutron activation. These four lunar meteorites experienced similar histories. They were ejected from near the surface of the moon ranging in depth down to 400 g/sq cm and had very short transition times (less than 0.1 Ma) from the moon to the earth. A comparison of the cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in MacAlpine Hills 88104 and MacAlpine Hills 88105 clearly indicates that they are a pair from the same fall.

  11. Exposure histories of lunar meteorites - ALHA81005, MAC88104, MAC88105, and Y791197

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Klein, J.; Fink, D.; Middleton, R.; Kubik, P. W.; Sharma, P.; Elmore, D.; Reedy, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclides Ca-41, Cl-36, Al-26, and Be-10 in the Allan Hills 81005, MacAlpine Hills 88104, MacAlpine Hills 88105, and Yamato 791197 meteorites were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry. Mn-53 in Allan Hills 81005 and Yamato 791197 was measured by neutron activation. These four lunar meteorites experienced similar histories. They were ejected from near the surface of the moon ranging in depth down to 400 g/sq cm and had very short transition times (less than 0.1 Ma) from the moon to the earth. A comparison of the cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in MacAlpine Hills 88104 and MacAlpine Hills 88105 clearly indicates that they are a pair from the same fall.

  12. MACS as a tool for international inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1995-06-01

    General acceptance of the challenge provision in the Chemical Weapons Convention has the potential for influence in other arms control areas. While most applications of the challenge inspection may be straightforward, there may be instances where access to the site by inspectors may be problematic. The MACS system described in this paper was developed to respond to these situations. Inspection and verification may be difficult when a host is unwilling,for valid reasons, to permit physical access to a site. We proposed a system of remote sensors which may be used to demonstrate compliance with Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) challenge inspections even ff the inspector is physically excluded from a sensitive site. The system is based upon alternative-means-of-access provisions of the CWC. The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) funded design and construction of a system prototype, designated as MACS for Managed Access by Controlled Sensing. Features of the MACS design allow growth of the prototype into a versatile device for international monitoring of production facilities and other sites. MACS consists of instrumentation and communication equipment allowing site personnel to conduct a facility tour and perform acceptable measurements, while physically excluding the inspector from the facility. MACS consists of a base station used by the inspector, and a mobile unit used within the facility and manipulated by the facility staff. The base station and the mobile unit are @ed by a communication system, currently realized as a fiber optic cable. The mobile unit is equipped with television cameras and remote-reading distance-measuring equipment (DME) for use in verifying locations and dimensions. Global Positioning System receivers on the mobile unit provide both precise location and dead reckoning, suitable for tracking the mobile unit`s position while within a building when satellite signals are not available.

  13. The design of a multicentre Canadian surveillance study of sedation safety in the paediatric emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Maala; Roback, Mark G; Joubert, Gary; Farion, Ken J; Ali, Samina; Beno, Suzanne; McTimoney, C Michelle; Dixon, Andrew; Dubrovsky, Alexander Sasha; Barrowman, Nick; Johnson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Procedural sedation and analgesia have become standard practice in paediatric emergency departments worldwide. Although generally regarded as safe, serious adverse events such as bradycardia, asystole, pulmonary aspiration, permanent neurological injury and death have been reported, but their incidence is unknown due to the infrequency of their occurrence and lack of surveillance of sedation safety. To improve our understanding of the safety, comparative effectiveness and variation in care in paediatric procedural sedation, we are establishing a multicentre patient registry with the goal of conducting regular and ongoing surveillance for adverse events in procedural sedation. Methods This multicentre, prospective cohort study is enrolling patients under 18 years of age from six paediatric emergency departments across Canada. Data collection is fully integrated into clinical care and is performed electronically in real time by the healthcare professionals caring for the patient. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients who experience a serious adverse event as a result of their sedation. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients who experience an adverse event that could lead to a serious adverse event, proportion of patients who receive a significant intervention in response to an adverse event, proportion of patients who experience a successful sedation, and proportion of patients who experience a paradoxical reaction to sedation. There is no predetermined end date for data collection. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained from participating sites. Results will be disseminated using a multifaceted knowledge translation strategy by presenting at international conferences, publication in peer-reviewed journals, and through established networks. PMID:26024999

  14. Bispectral EEG index monitoring of high-dose nitrous oxide and low-dose sevoflurane sedation.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, David L.; Weaver, Joel; Ganzberg, Steven; Rashid, Robert; Wilson, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    This single-blind controlled clinical study characterized the effects of 30-70% nitrous oxide (N2O) and 0.2-0.8% sevoflurane conscious sedation on quantitative electroencephalographic (EEG) readings of 22 healthy dental students as measured by the bispectral index (BIS). The study verified the 2 previously published BIS/N2O investigations showing no correlation between N2O dosage up to 70% and BIS. Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation scores (OAA/S), however, correlated well with increasing doses of N2O from approximately 35 to 70%. A near linear dose-response relationship was established between OAA/S and end tidal (ET) sevoflurane concentrations of 0.4-0.7%. Only at the highest level of end tidal sevoflurane recorded, 0.7%, was statistically significant BIS depression seen. Subjects evaluated the acceptability of the sedative effect of the 2 gases, showing a slight preference for N2O. Comparable partial anterograde amnesia and sedation (OAA/S) were produced by both agents in administered concentrations of 40-70% N2O and 0.6-0.8% sevoflurane. Female subjects exhibited better memory and significantly less amnesia than males. No statistically significant changes occurred in any of the monitored vital signs. EMG readings demonstrated a statistically significant difference from control values only at the highest, 0.7%, ET concentration of sevoflurane. BIS does not appear useful for evaluating the level of nitrous oxide sedation in the dental setting but may have some value in assessing depth of sedation at deeper levels of sevoflurane sedation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:15384293

  15. 42 CFR 405.1126 - Case remanded by the MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Case remanded by the MAC. 405.1126 Section 405.1126....1126 Case remanded by the MAC. (a) When the MAC may remand a case. Except as specified in § 405.1122(c), the MAC may remand a case in which additional evidence is needed or additional action by the ALJ is...

  16. Evaluation of ASPAN's preoperative patient teaching videos on general, regional, and minimum alveolar concentration/conscious sedation anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Krenzischek, D A; Wilson, L; Poole, E L

    2001-06-01

    This descriptive study was undertaken as part of a clinical improvement effort by the ASPAN Research and Education Committees to evaluate adult patients' perception of and satisfaction with the ASPAN Preoperative Patient Teaching videotape on general, regional, and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC)/conscious sedation anesthesia. Research findings on the use of videotapes for preoperative education are mixed. Some studies have reported that the use of videotapes increases knowledge and decreases anxiety, whereas other studies have shown a minimal effect on knowledge and anxiety. A convenience sample of 96 adult patients was chosen from those who were scheduled for surgeries with the above anesthesia techniques in 11 US hospitals and/or surgical centers within 4 ASPAN regional boundaries. Patients viewed the videotape the day(s) before surgery and then completed ASPAN's Preoperative Anesthesia Patient Teaching Questionnaire to measure patient perception and satisfaction. Sixty percent of the patients were women, and 50% had a college degree or higher. The average age of the patients was 51 (+/-17.2). Overall satisfaction scores had a potential range of 10 to 40, with higher scores indicating greater satisfaction. The mean satisfaction score for this study was 35 (+/-6.6). No significant relationships were found between satisfaction with the videotape and age, gender, or educational level. Patients were asked to rank each of 4 teaching methods. Among the choices of individualized instruction, written materials, Internet-based instruction, and videotape, the videotape method was ranked as most preferred. The information obtained from this study will be used to modify and improve the content of the patient education videotape produced by ASPAN.

  17. 42 CFR 422.608 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 422.608... and Appeals § 422.608 Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. Any party to the hearing, including the MA organization, who is dissatisfied with the ALJ hearing decision, may request that the MAC review...

  18. 42 CFR 405.1128 - Action of the MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Action of the MAC. 405.1128 Section 405.1128 Public... the MAC. (a) After it has reviewed all the evidence in the administrative record and any additional evidence received, subject to the limitations on MAC consideration of additional evidence in § 405.1122...

  19. 42 CFR 423.2128 - Action of the MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Action of the MAC. 423.2128 Section 423.2128 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2128 Action of the MAC. (a) After it has reviewed all the evidence in the...

  20. 42 CFR 405.1118 - Obtaining evidence from the MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining evidence from the MAC. 405.1118 Section... Council Review § 405.1118 Obtaining evidence from the MAC. A party may request and receive a copy of all... these items. If a party requests evidence from the MAC and an opportunity to comment on that evidence...

  1. Pediatric procedural sedation by a dedicated nonanesthesiology pediatric sedation service using propofol.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kalpesh N; Simon, Harold K; Stockwell, Christina A; Stockwell, Jana A; DeGuzman, Michael A; Roerig, Pei-Ling; Rigby, Mark R

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the success and dosing requirements of propofol in children for prolonged procedural sedation by a nonanesthesiology-based sedation service. The pediatric sedation service at this institution uses propofol as its preferred sedative, and the local guideline suggests using 3 mg/kg for induction and 5 mg kg(-1) h(-1) for maintenance sedation. Doses can be adjusted as needed to individualize successful sedation. A retrospective analysis of patients sedated for 30 minutes or longer was conducted. Patients were stratified into 4 cohorts based on age (<1 year [n = 16], 1-2 years [n = 85], 3-7 years [n = 54], and >7 years [n = 55]) and dosing patterns, success, and adverse effects were investigated. Two hundred forty-nine patients met the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 4.8 years (SD, 4.1). The mean induction dose was 3.2 mg/kg (range, 0.9-9.7), and the mean maintenance infusion was 5.2 mg kg(-1) h(-1) (range, 0.14-21.3). No differences were seen in the induction doses in the different age cohorts, yet the SD was largest in the youngest cohort compared to any other. Although no differences were seen in maintenance rates by age, the greatest SD for dosing was seen in the oldest cohort. For all ages, all sedations were successful (100%) and unanticipated adverse effects rare (<1%). Although it seems that the mean dosing of propofol does not vary significantly with age, there is greater variability in induction dosage for those younger than 1 year and in maintenance dosing for those 7 years or older. The results and general dosing parameters may assist pediatric subspecialists in using propofol for prolonged procedural sedation.

  2. Depth of anaesthesia monitoring during procedural sedation and analgesia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Conway, Aaron; Sutherland, Joanna

    2016-11-01

    Processed electroencephalogram-based depth of anaesthesia monitoring devices provide an additional method to monitor level of consciousness during procedural sedation and analgesia. The objective of this systematic review was to determine whether using a depth of anaesthesia monitoring device improves the safety and efficacy of sedation. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Electronic databases (CENTRAL; Medline; CINAHL) were searched up to May 2015. Randomised controlled trials that compared use of a depth of anaesthesia monitoring device to a control group who received standard monitoring during procedural sedation and analgesia were included. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment (Cochrane risk of bias tool) were performed by two reviewers. Safety outcomes were hypoxaemia, hypotension and adverse events. Efficacy outcomes were amount of sedation used, duration of sedation recovery and rate of incomplete procedures. A total of 16 trials (2138 participants) were included. Evidence ratings were downgraded to either low or moderate quality due to study limitations and imprecision. Meta-analysis of 8 trials (766 participants) found no difference in hypoxaemia (RR 0.87; 95% CI=0.67-1.12). No statistically significant difference in hypotension was observed in meta-analysis of 8 trials (RR 0.96; 95% CI=0.54-1.7; 942 participants). Mean dose of propofol was 51mg lower for participants randomised to depth of anaesthesia monitoring (95% CI=-88.7 to -13.3mg) in meta-analysis of results from four trials conducted with 434 participants who underwent interventional endoscopy procedures with propofol infusions to maintain sedation. The difference in recovery time between depth of anaesthesia and standard monitoring groups was not clinically significant (standardised mean difference -0.41; 95% CI=-0.8 to -0.02; I(2)=86%; 8 trials; 809 participants). Depth of anaesthesia monitoring did impact sedation titration during interventional procedures with propofol

  3. Sedation in Critically Ill Children with Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Vet, Nienke J; Kleiber, Niina; Ista, Erwin; de Hoog, Matthijs; de Wildt, Saskia N

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the rationale of sedation in respiratory failure, sedation goals, how to assess the need for sedation as well as effectiveness of interventions in critically ill children, with validated observational sedation scales. The drugs and non-pharmacological approaches used for optimal sedation in ventilated children are reviewed, and specifically the rationale for drug selection, including short- and long-term efficacy and safety aspects of the selected drugs. The specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of sedative drugs in the critically ill child and consequences for dosing are presented. Furthermore, we discuss different sedation strategies and their adverse events, such as iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome and delirium. These principles can guide clinicians in the choice of sedative drugs in pediatric respiratory failure.

  4. Case of Vasovagal Syncope With Asystole Associated With Propofol Sedation

    PubMed Central

    Fujii-Abe, Keiko; Uriu, Kazutaka; Kawahara, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Few cases of bradycardic complications occurring under intravenous sedation have been reported. Here, we report a case of vasovagal syncope with asystole (7.2 seconds) associated with propofol sedation. PMID:26650494

  5. Sedation of infants and children outside of the operating room.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Joseph D

    2015-08-01

    Although adults may be able to tolerate procedures without sedation, developmental and cognitive issues often mandate the use of sedation in infants and children. There has been a shift in the philosophy regarding sedation with an increasing recognition of the negative psychological and physiological aspects of inadequate sedation. The expansion of our technology continues to result in an increasing number of techniques, which require sedation outside of the operating room environment. These factors have contributed to an ever growing number of pediatric patients presenting themselves for procedural sedation. This chapter will discuss issues regarding the provision of anesthesia outside of the operating room for pediatric patients including current guidelines for patient assessment prior to procedural, monitoring during sedation, and a discussion of some of the more commonly utilized sedative and analgesic agents within the pediatric population.

  6. Sedation in Critically Ill Children with Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Vet, Nienke J.; Kleiber, Niina; Ista, Erwin; de Hoog, Matthijs; de Wildt, Saskia N.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the rationale of sedation in respiratory failure, sedation goals, how to assess the need for sedation as well as effectiveness of interventions in critically ill children, with validated observational sedation scales. The drugs and non-pharmacological approaches used for optimal sedation in ventilated children are reviewed, and specifically the rationale for drug selection, including short- and long-term efficacy and safety aspects of the selected drugs. The specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of sedative drugs in the critically ill child and consequences for dosing are presented. Furthermore, we discuss different sedation strategies and their adverse events, such as iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome and delirium. These principles can guide clinicians in the choice of sedative drugs in pediatric respiratory failure. PMID:27606309

  7. Field Sedation and Anesthesia of Ruminants.

    PubMed

    Seddighi, Reza; Doherty, Thomas J

    2016-11-01

    Many surgical procedures on ruminants can be performed humanely and safely using local or regional anesthesia and physical restraint, but sedation and general anesthesia are necessary in order to perform some procedures. Although anesthesia-associated risks are greater in ruminants than monogastrics, ruminants can be anesthetized relatively safely in a field setting if the risks are understood, and adequate planning and precautions are in place. This article discusses the important features impacting sedation and anesthesia of cattle and small ruminants, and describes some commonly used drug protocols.

  8. [Spanish validation of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment interview to assess patients competence to consent treatment].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Marrodán, Ignacio; Baón Pérez, Beatriz; Navío Acosta, Mercedes; López-Antón, Raul; Lobo Escolar, Elena; Ventura Faci, Tirso

    2014-09-09

    To validate the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T) Spanish version, which assesses the mental capacity of patients to consent treatment, by examining 4 areas (Understanding, Appreciation, Reasoning and Expressing a choice). 160 subjects (80 Internal Medicine inpatients, 40 Psychiatric inpatients and 40 healthy controls). MacCAT-T, Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE). Feasibility study, reliability and validity calculations (against to gold standard of clinical expert). Mean duration of the MacCAT-T interview was 18min. Inter-rater reliability: Intraclass correlation coefficient for Understanding=0.98, Appreciation=0.97, Reasoning=0.98, Expressing a choice=0.91. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha): Understanding=0.87, for Appreciation=0.76, for Reasoning=0.86. Patients considered to be incapable (gold standard) scored lower in all the MacCAT-T areas. Poor performance on the MacCAT-T was related to cognitive impairment assessed by MMSE. Spanish version of the MacCAT-T is feasible, reliable, and valid for assessing the capacity of patients to consent treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. The periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA acts as a switch in stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by MacB transporter.

    PubMed

    Modali, Sita D; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2011-08-01

    Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC is a tripartite macrolide efflux transporter driven by hydrolysis of ATP. In this complex, MacA is the periplasmic membrane fusion protein that stimulates the activity of MacB transporter and establishes the link with the outer membrane channel TolC. The molecular mechanism by which MacA stimulates MacB remains unknown. Here, we report that the periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA plays a critical role in functional MacA-MacB interactions and stimulation of MacB ATPase activity. Binding of MacA to MacB stabilizes the ATP-bound conformation of MacB, whereas interactions with both MacB and TolC affect the conformation of MacA. A single G353A substitution in the C-terminus of MacA inactivates MacAB-TolC function by changing the conformation of the membrane proximal domain of MacA and disrupting the proper assembly of the MacA-MacB complex. We propose that MacA acts in transport by promoting MacB transition into the closed ATP-bound conformation and in this respect, is similar to the periplasmic solute-binding proteins.

  10. Closed-loop control for cardiopulmonary management and intensive care unit sedation using digital imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami, Behnood

    assessed by expert and non-expert human examiners. Next, we consider facial expression recognition using an unsupervised learning framework. We show that different facial expressions reside on distinct subspaces if the manifold is unfolded. In particular, semi-definite embedding is used to reduce the dimensionality and unfold the manifold of facial images. Next, generalized principal component analysis is used to fit a series of subspaces to the data points and associate each data point to a subspace. Data points that belong to the same subspace are shown to belong to the same facial expression. In clinical intensive care unit practice sedative/analgesic agents are titrated to achieve a specific level of sedation. The level of sedation is currently based on clinical scoring systems. Examples include the motor activity assessment scale (MAAS), the Richmond agitation-sedation scale (RASS), and the modified Ramsay sedation scale (MRSS). In general, the goal of the clinician is to find the drug dose that maintains the patient at a sedation score corresponding to a moderately sedated state. In this research, we use pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling to find an optimal drug dosing control policy to drive the patient to a desired MRSS score. Atrial fibrillation, a cardiac arrhythmia characterized by unsynchronized electrical activity in the atrial chambers of the heart, is a rapidly growing problem in modern societies. One treatment, referred to as catheter ablation, targets specific parts of the left atrium for radio frequency ablation using an intracardiac catheter. As a first step towards the general solution to the computer-assisted segmentation of the left atrial wall, we use shape learning and shape-based image segmentation to identify the endocardial wall of the left atrium in the delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance images. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. The reversal of midazolam sedation with the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (Anexate).

    PubMed

    Merry, A F; Clapham, G J; Walker, J S

    1988-09-14

    Flumazenil (Anexate) was used to reverse midazolam sedation in a series of 108 patients undergoing minor diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. At a mode dose of 0.5 mg IV, flumazenil was shown to rapidly and predictably reverse the sedation produced by a mode dose of 5 mg midazolam. Amnesia for the procedure was excellent in all but three cases, and side effects were infrequent and minor. In the endoscopy clinic, the use of flumazenil was perceived by clinicians to significantly improve the speed and quality of recovery.

  12. Safety of deep sedation in the endoscopy suite.

    PubMed

    Allen, Megan L

    2017-08-01

    As the complexity of endoscopic procedures increases, the use of propofol and the desire for deep sedation are becoming more common in the endoscopy suite. This review explores sedation depth, agents used for sedation, recommended monitoring, and adverse event risks that occur during sedation for endoscopy. The sedation provider for endoscopy varies by practice location and with regulatory requirements. As increasingly deep levels of sedation are used in this setting, the need for all providers to have training in the ability to rescue patients from sedation-related side effects is paramount. Propofol has an important role for prolonged and uncomfortable endoscopic interventions and has a strong safety record in the endoscopy suite. Vital signs monitoring is recommended during all endoscopy sedation, and there is emerging interest in advanced monitoring (e.g., capnography, processed electroencephalogram, respiratory monitoring) in this setting. The reported rate of adverse events during endoscopy sedation varies widely; however, advanced age and increasing American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status score are consistently associated with increased risk. Whether anesthesiologist-administered sedation is safer than non-anesthesiologist-administered sedation remains controversial. This review provides some guidance to providers who administer sedation in the endoscopy suite and is intended to improve the safety of patients. The recommendations are based on best available evidence and expert opinion.

  13. Augmenting sedation with hypnosis in drug-dependent patients.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, D. P.; Lu, G. P.; Hersh, E. V.

    1995-01-01

    The successful use of conscious sedation in patients physically dependent on centrally acting drugs is problematic for the dental anesthesiologist because of the concomitant development of tolerance to standard sedative agents. Dosage requirements necessary to adequately sedate these patients are often higher than recommended and carry an increased risk of drug overdose. The following report summarizes our experience with 18 drug-dependent patients in whom hypnosis was employed in conjunction with a standard sedation regimen. Attempts to complete various dental procedures while employing sedation alone on these patients had previously failed. All patients exhibited highly fearful or phobic behavior toward dental treatment as assessed by the Corah Dental Anxiety Scale. If an intravenous sedative regimen (midazolam or diazepam plus methohexital) was employed, hypnotic induction preceded the administration of the sedative drugs. If an intramuscular sedative regimen was employed (meperidine plus promethazine), the hypnotic induction took place after drug administration. With the combined hypno-sedative approach, treatment outcomes were judged to be good or excellent in 11 of 18 patients. Interestingly, in five of seven patients for whom the treatment outcome was rated poor or fair, the possibility of tolerance or cross-tolerance existed between a drug being abused and the sedative regimen. In contrast, this possibility existed in only 1 of 11 patients with good or excellent treatment outcomes. We conclude that hypnosis can augment the effects of sedation in this patient population. However, it is also important to choose a sedative regimen where tolerance is unlikely to exist. PMID:8934982

  14. Anterograde amnesia as a possible postoperative complication of Midazolam as an agent for intravenous conscious sedation.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F; Nikchevich, D; Block, J

    1988-01-01

    Anterograde amnesia is often considered to be a beneficial effect of intravenous conscious sedation. The recently introduced benzodiazepine, midazolam, has associated with its administration a significant anterograde amnesic period. In the case presented here, a healthy young female presented for third molar extraction under midazolam conscious sedation and local anesthesia. After uncomplicated removal of the teeth and clinically adequate recovery from sedation, it was noted that the patient had swallowed the postsurgical gauze packs. Efforts at recovery of the gauze packs were futile. Follow-up discussion with the patient revealed a complete lack of recall of all events occurring for up to an hour or more after the administration of intravenous midazolam. The need for written and oral postoperative instructions to both the patient and his/her escort is emphasized.

  15. Anterograde Amnesia as a Possible Postoperative Complication of Midazolam as an Agent for Intravenous Conscious Sedation

    PubMed Central

    Malamed, Stanley F.; Nikchevich, Donald; Block, James

    1988-01-01

    Anterograde amnesia is often considered to be a beneficial effect of intravenous conscious sedation. The recently introduced benzodiazepine, midazolam, has associated with its administration a significant anterograde amnesic period. In the case presented here, a healthy young female presented for third molar extraction under midazolam conscious sedation and local anesthesia. After uncomplicated removal of the teeth and clinically adequate recovery from sedation, it was noted that the patient had swallowed the postsurgical gauze packs. Efforts at recovery of the gauze packs were futile. Follow-up discussion with the patient revealed a complete lack of recall of all events occurring for up to an hour or more after the administration of intravenous midazolam. The need for written and oral postoperative instructions to both the patient and his/her escort is emphasized. PMID:3166354

  16. Chinese medicines with sedative-hypnotic effects and their active components.

    PubMed

    Shi, Man-Man; Piao, Jin-Hua; Xu, Xi-Lin; Zhu, Liang; Yang, Li; Lin, Fu-Lan; Chen, Jian; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-01

    The main pharmacological effects of sedative agents are sedation, hypnosis, antianxiety, and antidepression. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of clinical experience in treating insomnia. This review focuses mainly on the role of active ingredients from TCM in the treatment of insomnia. Single herbs and their active ingredients from TCM with hypnotic effects are summarized through reviewing the relevant literature published in the past 20 y. The active ingredients are divided into alkaloids, terpenoids, and volatile oils, flavonoids, lignanoids and coumarins, saponins, and others. Current studies on TCM in treating insomnia are described from the aspects of active ingredients, sources, experimental models and methods, results, and mechanisms. In addition, Chinese compound prescriptions developed from a variety of single herbs with sedative-hypnotic effects are introduced. The acting pathways of TCM are covered from the perspectives of regulating central neurotransmitters, influencing sleep-related cytokines, and improving the structure of the central nervous system.

  17. Intravenous Sedation with Low-Dose Dexmedetomidine: Its Potential for Use in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Sachie; Seino, Hiroaki; Ito, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Shinya; Ganzberg, Steven; Kawaai, Hiroyoshi

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the physiologic and sedative parameters associated with a low-dose infusion of dexmedetomidine (Dex). Thirteen healthy volunteers were sedated with Dex at a loading dose of 6 mcg/kg/h for 5 minutes and a continuous infusion dose of 0.2 mcg/kg/h for 25 minutes. The recovery process was observed for 60 minutes post infusion. The tidal volume decreased significantly despite nonsignificant changes in respiratory rate, minute ventilation, oxygen saturation, and end-tidal carbon dioxide. The mean arterial pressure and heart rate also decreased significantly but within clinically acceptable levels. Amnesia to pin prick was present in 69% of subjects. A Trieger dot test plot error ratio did not show a significant change at 30 minutes post infusion despite a continued significant decrease in bispectral index. We conclude that sedation with a low dose of Dex appears to be safe and potentially efficacious for young healthy patients undergoing dental procedures. PMID:18788843

  18. MAC, material accounting database user guide

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-09-22

    The K Basins Material Accounting (MAC) database system user guide describes the user features and functions, and the document is structured like the database menus. This document presents the MAC database system user instructions which explain how to record the movements and configuration of canisters and materials within the K Basins on the computer, the mechanics of handling encapsulation tracking, and administrative functions associated with the system. This document includes the user instructions, which also serve as the software requirements specification for the system implemented on the microcomputer. This includes suggested user keystrokes, examples of screens displayed by the system, and reports generated by the system. It shows how the system is organized, via menus and screens. It does not explain system design nor provide programmer instructions.

  19. Millisecond timing on PCs and Macs.

    PubMed

    MacInnes, W J; Taylor, T L

    2001-05-01

    A real-time, object-oriented solution for displaying stimuli on Windows 95/98, MacOS and Linux platforms is presented. The program, written in C++, utilizes a special-purpose window class (GLWindow), OpenGL, and 32-bit graphics acceleration; it avoids display timing uncertainty by substituting the new window class for the default window code for each system. We report the outcome of tests for real-time capability across PC and Mac platforms running a variety of operating systems. The test program, which can be used as a shell for programming real-time experiments and testing specific processors, is available at http://www.cs.dal.ca/~macinnwj. We propose to provide researchers with a sense of the usefulness of our program, highlight the ability of many multitasking environments to achieve real time, as well as caution users about systems that may not achieve real time, even under optimal conditions.

  20. Airway Assessment for Office Sedation/Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Morton B; Phero, James C

    2015-01-01

    Whenever a patient is about to receive sedation or general anesthesia, no matter what the technique, the preoperative assessment of the airway is one of the most important steps in ensuring patient safety and positive outcomes. This article, Part III in the series on airway management, is directed at the ambulatory office practice and focuses on predicting the success of advanced airway rescue techniques.

  1. Sedation/anaesthesia in paediatric radiology

    PubMed Central

    Arlachov, Y; Ganatra, R H

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In this article we will give a comprehensive literature review on sedation/general anaesthesia (S/GA) and discuss the international variations in practice and options available for S/GA for imaging children. Methods The key articles were obtained primarily from PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, NHS Evidence and The Cochrane Library. Results Recently, paediatric radiology has seen a surge of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, some of which require children to be still and compliant for up to 1 h. It is difficult and sometimes even impossible to obtain quick and high-quality images without employing sedating techniques in certain children. As with any medical procedure, S/GA in radiological practice is not without risks and can have potentially disastrous consequences if mismanaged. In order to reduce any complications and practice safety in radiological units, it is imperative to carry out pre-sedation assessments of children, obtain parental/guardian consent, monitor them closely before, during and after the procedure and have adequate equipment, a safe environment and a well-trained personnel. Conclusion Although the S/GA techniques, sedative drugs and personnel involved vary from country to country, the ultimate goal of S/GA in radiology remains the same; namely, to provide safety and comfort for the patients. Advances in knowledge Imaging children under general anaesthesia is becoming routine and preferred by operators because it ensures patient conformity and provides a more controlled environment. PMID:22898157

  2. Inhaled linalool-induced sedation in mice.

    PubMed

    Linck, Viviane Moura; da Silva, Adriana Lourenço; Figueiró, Micheli; Piato, Angelo Luis; Herrmann, Ana Paula; Dupont Birck, Franciele; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Nunes, Domingos Sávio; Moreno, Paulo Roberto H; Elisabetsky, Elaine

    2009-04-01

    Linalool is a monoterpene often found as a major component of essential oils obtained from aromatic plant species, many of which are used in traditional medical systems as hypno-sedatives. Psychopharmacological evaluations of linalool (i.p. and i.c.v.) revealed marked sedative and anticonvulsant central effects in various mouse models. Considering this profile and alleged effects of inhaled lavender essential oil, the purpose of this study was to examine the sedative effects of inhaled linalool in mice. Mice were placed in an inhalation chamber during 60 min, in an atmosphere saturated with 1% or 3% linalool. Immediately after inhalation, animals were evaluated regarding locomotion, barbiturate-induced sleeping time, body temperature and motor coordination (rota-rod test). The 1% and 3% linalool increased (p<0.01) pentobarbital sleeping time and reduced (p<0.01) body temperature. The 3% linalool decreased (p<0.01) locomotion. Motor coordination was not affected. Hence, linalool inhaled for 1h seems to induce sedation without significant impairment in motor abilities, a side effect shared by most psycholeptic drugs.

  3. [Midazolam sedation in the general dental practice].

    PubMed

    Bertens, J; Abraham-Inpijn, L; Meuwissen, P J

    1994-03-01

    The general dental practitioner is occasionally confronted with patients who, on the basis of psychological--and often somatic--criteria, are difficult to treat. Medicinal sedation in combination with anxiety reduction may be deemed appropriate for such patients. In the Netherlands inhalation sedation by means of a combination of oxygen and nitrous oxide is generally used. The limitations and disadvantages of this method have directed attention towards sedation by means of midazolam, a quick-acting benzodiazepine. In view of the complications which may accompany the administration of midazolam, the general practitioner working alone or in a group practice is advised against using midazolam sedation. Such use should be reserved for a dentist working in a hospital setting, who is able to consult with a physician regarding the advisability of administering midazolam. Even then, the safety of the patient requires that the practitioners have a proper insight into the physical state of the patient, work according to a protocol and in accordance with clearly defined responsibilities, and provide adequate accommodation during and after treatment.

  4. Respiratory Monitoring for Anesthesia and Sedation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jay A.

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the theory and practice of routine respiratory monitoring during anesthesia and sedation. Oxygen monitoring and capnography methods are reviewed. The current ventilation monitoring system of choice is considered a combination of the pulse oximeter and capnography. Guidelines are provided for monitoring standards. PMID:3326430

  5. Alternatives to sedation for painful procedures.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Conscious sedation is used frequently to perform procedures that may be undertaken with or without minimal sedation. Fracture manipulation can be performed with minimal discomfort in the awake patient using various techniques-for example, intravenous regional anesthesia, nerve blocks, and hematoma blocks. These have been used for many years and are very safe. They may require some specific equipment (eg, automatic tourniquet) to perform the anesthesia but patients have the same results and are able to go home much quicker because sedation is not used.Use of topical anesthesia for both intact skin and wounds has been used over many years. Its use now should be standard. Nerve blocks can also be used to anesthetize specific areas which may be difficult to use topical anesthesia (eg, lip, hand, etc) or are painful because of injection directly into the wound. These may include infraorbital nerve blocks for lip lacerations, ulna or median nerve blocks for hand injuries, and so on. Other novel approaches to topical anesthesia have seen the use of iontophoresis (again requires specific expensive equipment), jet injection of lidocaine, or "freeze sprays." Each has its own advantages and disadvantages.Femoral nerve block is a useful intervention for analgesia in patients with femoral fractures and can obviate the need for parenteral analgesia and allows excellent analgesia particularly during x-ray examination.Thus, it is important to remember that there are alternatives to conscious sedation which gives good analgesia during the procedure and allows the patient to be discharged sooner.

  6. Nitrous oxide sedation and sexual phenomena.

    PubMed

    Jastak, J T; Malamed, S F

    1980-07-01

    Nine cases of sexual phenomena that occurred with use of nitrous oxide and oxygen sedation are described. Dentists involved routinely used concentrations of nitrous oxide greater than 50% and did not have assistants in the room during dental procedures. Recommendations on the concentrations of nitrous oxide and the presence of an assistant are made.

  7. Factors Influencing Challenging Colonoscopies During Anesthesiologist-Assisted Deep Sedation

    PubMed Central

    Fabrizio, Cardin; Nadia, Minicuci; Alessandra, Andreotti; Elisa, Granziera; Carmelo, Militello

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Increased demand for colon cancer screening procedures can significantly impact on routine colonoscopy management at dedicated facilities, prompting a review of the factors that can negatively affect workflow. Although potential adverse effects and impact on costs of deep sedation have been documented elsewhere, this study focuses on variables that can influence performance of colonoscopy in deep sedation and interfere with normal procedure scheduling in settings where the presence of an anesthesiologist is mandatory. Patients and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of the activities of a colonoscopy screening unit, applying Bayesian Network (BN) analysis, designed to assess interdependencies among variables that can affect a process in complex, multidimensional systems. The study was performed at a teaching hospital where endoscopists and anesthesiologists of varying work experience operate on a rota basis. During a six-month period, we analyzed 1485 consecutive colonoscopies performed under deep propofol sedation, administered by an anesthesiologist via hand-controlled syringe. The BN was constructed with the variables: Gender, age, ASA status, bowel preparation, baseline blood pressure, endoscopist's experience, anesthesiologist's experience, presence of polypectomy, and the target node, “challenging procedure.” This previously undefined category refers to any events disrupting the scheduled rota. Result and Conclusion: Two distinct networks were identified. One deals mainly with relationships among the variables, patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics (procedures with polypectomy, ASA and baseline blood pressure). The other explains relationships among the variables, “challenging procedure,” bowel preparation, and endoscopist's experience. The factors associated with the anesthesiologist's activity do not influence challenging colonoscopies. PMID:26831609

  8. Effects of music on sedation depth and sedative use during pediatric dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Ozkalayci, Ozlem; Araz, Coskun; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Tirali, Resmiye Ebru; Kayhan, Zeynep

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of listening to music or providing sound isolation on the depth of sedation and need for sedatives in pediatric dental patients. Prospective, randomized, and controlled study. Tertiary, university hospital. In total, 180 pediatric patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II, who were scheduled for dental procedures of tooth extraction, filling, amputation, and root treatment. Patients were categorized into 3 groups: music, isolation, and control. During the procedures, the patients in the music group listened to Vivaldi's The Four Seasons violin concertos by sound-isolating headphones, whereas the patients in the isolation group wore the headphones but did not listen to music. All patients were sedated by 0.1 mg/kg midazolam and 1 mg/kg propofol. During the procedure, an additional 0.5 mg/kg propofol was administered as required. Bispectral index was used for quantifying the depth of sedation, and total dosage of the propofol was used for sedative requirements. The patients' heart rates, oxygen saturations, and Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation Scale and bispectral index scores, which were monitored during the operation, were similar among the groups. In terms of the amount of propofol used, the groups were similar. Prolonged postoperative recovery cases were found to be significantly frequent in the control group, according to the recovery duration measurements (P = .004). Listening to music or providing sound isolation during pediatric dental interventions did not alter the sedation level, amount of medication, and hemodynamic variables significantly. This result might be due to the deep sedation levels reached during the procedures. However, listening to music and providing sound isolation might have contributed in shortening the postoperative recovery duration of the patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed Central

    Neumeister, B; Schöniger, S; Faigle, M; Eichner, M; Dietz, K

    1997-01-01

    serogroup 2, and a fresh clinical isolate of L. pneumophila serogroup 6. Members of the seventh cluster are a strain of agar-adapted L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Bellingham and a strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Bellingham which was passaged fewer than three times on BCYE alpha agar after inoculation and intraperitoneal growth in guinea pigs. In comparison to members of the sixth cluster, both strains showed a slightly enhanced multiplication in Mono Mac 6 cells but a reduced multiplication in amoebae. From our investigations, we could demonstrate a correlation between prevalence of a given Legionella species and their intracellular multiplication in Mono Mac 6 cells. Multiplication of members of the genus Legionella in A. castellanii seems to be dependent on mechanisms different from those in monocytes. PMID:9097418

  10. Visualization of integrin Mac-1 in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kihong; Hyun, Young-Min; Lambert-Emo, Kris; Topham, David J; Kim, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    β2 integrins play critical roles in migration of immune cells and in the interaction with other cells, pathogens, and the extracellular matrix. Among the β2 integrins, Mac-1 (Macrophage antigen-1), composed of CD11b and CD18, is mainly expressed in innate immune cells and plays a major role in cell migration and trafficking. In order to image Mac-1-expressing cells both in live cells and mouse, we generated a knock-in (KI) mouse strain expressing CD11b conjugated with monomeric yellow fluorescent protein (mYFP). Expression of CD11b-mYFP protein was confirmed by Western blot and silver staining of CD11b-immunoprecipitates and total cell lysates from the mouse splenocytes. Mac-1-mediated functions of the KI neutrophils were comparable with those in WT cells. The fluorescence intensity of CD11b-mYFP was sufficient to image CD11b expressing cells in live mice using intravital two-photon microscopy. In vitro, dynamic changes in the intracellular localization of CD11b molecules could be measured by epifluorescent microscopy. Finally, CD11b-expressing immune cells from tissue were easily detected by flow cytometry without anti-CD11b antibody staining. PMID:26342259

  11. Paired lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105: A new FAN of lunar petrology

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, C.R. Univ. of Notre Dame, IN ); Taylor, L.A. ); Lui, Yungang; Schmitt, R.A. )

    1991-11-01

    New lunar meteorite MAC88104/5 represents an exciting new opportunity to study a potentially unsampled region of the Moon. The authors have analyzed six thin sections by electron microprobe and three bulk samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation (INA) in order to determine the chemical characteristics of this new lunar sample. Lunar meteorite MAC88104/5 is dominated by lithologies of the ferroan anorthosite (FAN) suite and contains abundant granulitized highland clasts, devitrified glass beads of impact origin, and two small clasts which appear to be of basaltic origin. One of these basaltic clasts (clast E in MAC88105,84) is probably mesostasis material, whereas the second larger clast (clast G) may be similar to the Very Low-Ti (VLT) or low-Ti/high-alumina mare basalts. Impact melt clasts MAC88105,69 and ,72 have major and trace element compositions similar to the bulk meteorite. There is little evidence of any LKFM (Low-K Fra Mauro or low-K KREEP) contribution to this meteorite, as MAC88104/5 and other brecciated lunar meteorites are Fe-rich and poor in the incompatible elements relative to Apollo 16 regolith and feldspathic breccias. While the exact site of origin for the lunar meteorites cannot be pinpointed, it is evident that they were divided from a relatively KREEP-free ferroan anorthosite terrain.

  12. Safety of propofol sedation for pediatric outpatient procedures.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Reagan; Galloway, David; Wadera, Sheetal; Kjar, Dean; Hardy, David; Mirkes, Curtis; Wick, Lori; Pohl, John F

    2009-10-01

    Propofol sedation is used more frequently in pediatric procedures because of its ability to provide varying sedation levels. The authors evaluated all outpatient pediatric procedures using propofol sedation over a 6-year period. All sedation was provided by pediatric intensivists at a single institution. In all, 4716 procedures were recorded during the study period; 15% of procedures were associated with minor complications, whereas only 0.1% of procedures were associated with major complications. Significantly more major complications associated with propofol occurred during bronchoscopy (P = .001). Propofol administered by a pediatric intensivist is a safe sedation technique in the pediatric outpatient setting.

  13. Laryngospasm With Apparent Aspiration During Sedation With Nitrous Oxide.

    PubMed

    Babl, Franz E; Grindlay, Joanne; Barrett, Michael Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Nitrous oxide and oxygen mixture has become increasingly popular for the procedural sedation and analgesia of children in the emergency department. In general, nitrous oxide is regarded as a very safe agent according to large case series. We report a case of single-agent nitrous oxide sedation of a child, complicated by laryngospasm and radiographically confirmed bilateral upper lobe pulmonary opacities. Although rarely reported with parenteral sedative agents, laryngospasm and apparent aspiration has not been previously reported in isolated nitrous oxide sedation. This case highlights that, similar to other sedative agents, nitrous oxide administration also needs to be conducted by staff and in settings in which airway emergencies can be appropriately managed.

  14. Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Short-Course Deep Sedation Therapy for the Treatment of Intracerebral Hemorrhage After Surgery: A Non-Randomized Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Dapeng; Liu, Beibei; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Qiushi; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background While mild and moderate sedation have been widely used to reduce sudden agitation in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients after surgery, agitation is still a frequent problem, which may cause postoperative blood pressure fluctuation. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of short-course deep sedation for the treatment of ICH after surgery. Material/Methods A total of 41 ICH patients who received surgery, including traditional craniotomy hematoma removal and decompressive craniectomy, were including in this non-randomized control study. Patients in the deep sedation group received continuous postoperative sedation with a target course for ≤12 hours and reached SAS scores of 1~2. Patients in the traditional sedition group received continuous light sedation and reached SAS scores of 3~4. Additional therapeutic interventions included antihypertensive treatment, mechanical ventilation, tracheotomy, and re-operation. Results Patients in the deep sedation group had deeper sedation degree, and lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Residual hematoma after surgery in patients in the deep sedation group were smaller on the second, seventh, and fourteenth day after surgery (p=0.023, 0.003, 0.004, respectively). The 3-month mortality and quality of life of patients in the deep sedation group were lower and better than that of patients in the traditional sedation group, respectively (p=0.044, p<0.01). No significant difference in the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and ICU days were observed between the two groups. Conclusions Short-course deep sedation therapy in ICH patients after surgery is efficient in controlling postoperative blood pressure, reducing re-bleeding, and improving clinical prognosis. PMID:27466863

  15. Procedural sedation in the ICU and emergency department.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Nikhil; Boateng, Adjoa; Deshpande, Ranjit

    2017-08-01

    Procedures are increasingly being performed in the acute care setting, outside of the operating rooms (OR). This article aims to review the current literature on out-of-OR procedural sedation with a focus on the ICU and emergency department, highlighting the following topics: multidisciplinary team approach, choice of pharmacologic agent, sedation scales, current safety guidelines, anticipating complications, appropriate monitoring and necessary resources. Subjective assessment of sedation using sedation scales is controversial. Addition of ketamine and dexmedetomidine to propofol for sedation improves patient and proceduralist satisfaction. The short-acting benzodiazepine remimazolam shows promise in initial phase 2 trials. Use of capnography for monitoring during sedation is being challenged by new literature from the emergency department setting. Hypoxia is the most common adverse event with procedural sedation, and the risk of pulmonary aspiration is low. Multimodal/synergistic sedation under a multidisciplinary team provides the best patient satisfaction. Collection and analysis of physiological data and outcomes of patients undergoing procedural sedation is necessary to maintain compliance with regulatory bodies. There is a paucity of comprehensive guidelines for conducting research in procedural sedation; therefore, it is being currently addressed by the Sedation Consortium.

  16. Use of sevoflurane inhalation sedation for outpatient third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Ganzberg, S; Weaver, J; Beck, F M; McCaffrey, G

    1999-01-01

    This study attempted to determine if sevoflurane in oxygen inhaled via a nasal hood as a sole sedative agent would provide an appropriate level of deep sedation for outpatient third molar surgery. Twenty-four patients scheduled for third molar removal were randomly assigned to receive either nasal hood inhalation sevoflurane or an intravenous deep sedation using midazolam and fentanyl followed by a propofol infusion. In addition to measuring patient, surgeon, and dentist anesthesiologist subjective satisfaction with the technique, physiological parameters, amnesia, and psychomotor recovery were also assessed. No statistically significant difference was found between the sevoflurane and midazolam-fentanyl-propofol sedative groups in physiological parameters, degree of amnesia, reported quality of sedation, or patient willingness to again undergo a similar deep sedation. A trend toward earlier recovery in the sevoflurane group was identified. Sevoflurane can be successfully employed as a deep sedative rather than a general anesthetic for extraction of third molars in healthy subjects.

  17. Use of sevoflurane inhalation sedation for outpatient third molar surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Ganzberg, S.; Weaver, J.; Beck, F. M.; McCaffrey, G.

    1999-01-01

    This study attempted to determine if sevoflurane in oxygen inhaled via a nasal hood as a sole sedative agent would provide an appropriate level of deep sedation for outpatient third molar surgery. Twenty-four patients scheduled for third molar removal were randomly assigned to receive either nasal hood inhalation sevoflurane or an intravenous deep sedation using midazolam and fentanyl followed by a propofol infusion. In addition to measuring patient, surgeon, and dentist anesthesiologist subjective satisfaction with the technique, physiological parameters, amnesia, and psychomotor recovery were also assessed. No statistically significant difference was found between the sevoflurane and midazolam-fentanyl-propofol sedative groups in physiological parameters, degree of amnesia, reported quality of sedation, or patient willingness to again undergo a similar deep sedation. A trend toward earlier recovery in the sevoflurane group was identified. Sevoflurane can be successfully employed as a deep sedative rather than a general anesthetic for extraction of third molars in healthy subjects. PMID:10551056

  18. W-MAC: A Workload-Aware MAC Protocol for Heterogeneous Convergecast in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ming; Dong, Yabo; Lu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    The power consumption and latency of existing MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are high in heterogeneous convergecast, where each sensor node generates different amounts of data in one convergecast operation. To solve this problem, we present W-MAC, a workload-aware MAC protocol for heterogeneous convergecast in WSNs. A subtree-based iterative cascading scheduling mechanism and a workload-aware time slice allocation mechanism are proposed to minimize the power consumption of nodes, while offering a low data latency. In addition, an efficient schedule adjustment mechanism is provided for adapting to data traffic variation and network topology change. Analytical and simulation results show that the proposed protocol provides a significant energy saving and latency reduction in heterogeneous convergecast, and can effectively support data aggregation to further improve the performance. PMID:22163753

  19. Upper airway morphology in Down Syndrome patients under dexmedetomidine sedation.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Rajeev; Fleck, Robert; McAuliffe, John; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Jung, Dorothy; Patino, Mario; Mahmoud, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Children with Down Syndrome are vulnerable to significant upper airway obstruction due to relative macroglossia and dynamic airway collapse. The objective of this study was to compare the upper airway dimensions of children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea with normal airway under dexmedetomidine sedation. IRB approval was obtained. In this retrospective study, clinically indicated dynamic sagittal midline magnetic resonance images of the upper airway were obtained under low (1mcg/kg/h) and high (3mcg/kg/h) dose dexmedetomidine. Airway anteroposterior diameters and sectional areas were measured as minimum and maximum dimensions by two independent observers at soft palate (nasopharyngeal airway) and at base of the tongue (retroglossal airway). Minimum anteroposterior diameter and minimum sectional area at nasopharynx and retroglossal airway were significantly reduced in Down Syndrome compared to normal airway at both low and high dose dexmedetomidine. However, there were no significant differences between low and high dose dexmedetomidine in both Down Syndrome and normal airway. The mean apnea hypopnea index in Down Syndrome was 16±11. Under dexmedetomidine sedation, children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea when compared to normal airway children show significant reductions in airway dimensions most pronounced at the narrowest points in the nasopharyngeal and retroglossal airways. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. [Upper airway morphology in Down Syndrome patients under dexmedetomidine sedation].

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Rajeev; Fleck, Robert; McAuliffe, John; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Jung, Dorothy; Patino, Mario; Mahmoud, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Children with Down Syndrome are vulnerable to significant upper airway obstruction due to relative macroglossia and dynamic airway collapse. The objective of this study was to compare the upper airway dimensions of children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea with normal airway under dexmedetomidine sedation. IRB approval was obtained. In this retrospective study, clinically indicated dynamic sagittal midline magnetic resonance images of the upper airway were obtained under low (1mcg/kg/h) and high (3mcg/kg/h) dose dexmedetomidine. Airway anteroposterior diameters and sectional areas were measured as minimum and maximum dimensions by two independent observers at soft palate (nasopharyngeal airway) and at base of the tongue (retroglossal airway). Minimum anteroposterior diameter and minimum sectional area at nasopharynx and retroglossal airway were significantly reduced in Down Syndrome compared to normal airway at both low and high dose dexmedetomidine. However, there were no significant differences between low and high dose dexmedetomidine in both Down Syndrome and normal airway. The mean apnea hypopnea index in Down Syndrome was 16±11. Under dexmedetomidine sedation, children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea when compared to normal airway children show significant reductions in airway dimensions most pronounced at the narrowest points in the nasopharyngeal and retroglossal airways. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Intranasal ketamine for procedural sedation and analgesia in children: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Ketamine is commonly used for procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) in children. Evidence suggests it can be administered intranasally (IN). We sought to review the evidence for IN ketamine for PSA in children. Methods We performed a systematic review of randomized trials of IN ketamine in PSA that reported any sedation-related outcome in children 0 to 19 years. Trials were identified through electronic searches of MEDLINE (1946–2016), EMBASE (1947–2016), Google Scholar (2016), CINAHL (1981–2016), The Cochrane Library (2016), Web of Science (2016), Scopus (2016), clinical trial registries, and conference proceedings (2000–2016) without language restrictions. The methodological qualities of studies and the overall quality of evidence were evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration’s Risk of Bias tool, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system, respectively. Results The review included 7 studies (n = 264) of children ranging from 0 to 14 years. Heterogeneity in study design precluded meta-analysis. Most studies were associated with a low or unclear risk of bias and outcome-specific ratings for quality of evidence were low or very low. In four of seven studies, IN ketamine provided superior sedation to comparators and resulted in adequate sedation for 148/175 (85%) of participants. Vomiting was the most common adverse effect; reported by 9/91 (10%) of participants. Conclusions IN ketamine administration is well tolerated and without serious adverse effects. Although most participants were deemed adequately sedated with IN ketamine, effectiveness of sedation with respect to superiority over comparators was inconsistent, precluding a recommendation for PSA in children. PMID:28319161

  2. Evaluation of the SEDline to improve the safety and efficiency of conscious sedation

    PubMed Central

    Caputo, Thomas D.; Rossmann, Jeffrey A.; Beach, M. Miles; Griffiths, Garth R.; Meyrat, Benjamin; Barnes, James B.; Kerns, David G.; Crump, Brad; Bookatz, Barnett; Ezzo, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Brain function monitors have improved safety and efficiency in general anesthesia; however, they have not been adequately tested for guiding conscious sedation for periodontal surgical procedures. This study evaluated the patient state index (PSI) obtained from the SEDline monitor (Sedline Inc., San Diego, CA) to determine its capacity to improve the safety and efficiency of intravenous conscious sedation during outpatient periodontal surgery. Twenty-one patients at the periodontics clinic of Baylor College of Dentistry were admitted to the study in 2009 and sedated to a moderate level using midazolam and fentanyl during periodontal surgery. The PSI monitoring was blinded from the clinician, and the following data were collected: vital signs, Ramsay sedation scale (RSS), medications administered, adverse events, PSI, electroencephalography, and the patients' perspective through visual analogue scales. The data were correlated to evaluate the PSI's ability to assess the level of sedation. Results showed that the RSS and PSI did not correlate (r = −0.25) unless high values associated with electromyographical (EMG) activity were corrected (r = −0.47). Oxygen desaturation did not correlate with the PSI (r = −0.08). Satisfaction (r = −0.57) and amnesia (r = −0.55) both increased as the average PSI decreased. In conclusion, within the limits of this study, PSI appears to correlate with amnesia, allowing a practitioner to titrate medications to that effect. It did not provide advance warning of adverse events and had inherent inaccuracies due to EMG activity during oral surgery. The PSI has the potential to increase safety and efficiency in conscious sedation but requires further development to eliminate EMG activity from confounding the score. PMID:21738291

  3. Effect of MRI strength and propofol sedation on pediatric core temperature change.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Diane L; Yanosky, Daniel J; Jones, Richard A; Dennehy, Nancy; Spandorfer, Philip; Baxter, Amy L

    2011-04-01

    To determine core body temperature variations in children undergoing MRI exams on 1.5 Tesla (T) and 3T magnetic field strengths and with and without propofol sedation. Temporal artery temperatures were prospectively collected on 400 consecutive patients undergoing 1.5 Tesla (T) or 3.0T MRI scans. A cumulative logistic regression model was created using age, weight, MRI protocol, sedation status, pre-MRI temperature and MRI strength to assess risk of temperature change. For patients with complete pre- and post-MRI temperature data, mean temperatures did not significantly change (-0.0155°C, 95%CI, -0.035, 0.064; n = 385). Temperature changes differed significantly between propofol-sedated and nonsedated patients (-0.26°C ± .44 versus 0.24°C ± 0.42; P < 0.0001), as did temperature changes for patients on the 3T (0.076°C ± 0.52) versus 1.5T (-0.06°C ± 0.48; P = 0.011). Sedation status, age, MRI strength, and MRI protocol accounted for 44.17% of temperature variance. The temperatures of 15 patients' (3.9%) decreased >1°C; 12 were on the 1.5T. All 7 patients (1.8%) who increased >1°C were non-sedates. Clinically significant core body temperature change is uncommon in children undergoing MRI with different magnetic field strengths, and with and without propofol sedation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis on spinal anesthesia versus local anesthesia plus sedation for loop colostomy closure.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Filinto Aníbal Alagia; Abreu, Rone Antônio Alves; Soárez, Patrícia Coelho de; Speranzini, Manlio Basílio; Fernandes, Luís Cesar; Matos, Delcio

    2010-01-01

    Studies in the area of health economics are still poorly explored and it is known that the cost savings in this area is becoming more necessary, provided that strict criteria. To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of spinal anesthesia versus local anesthesia plus sedation for loop colostomy closure. This was a randomized clinical trial with 50 patients undergoing loop colostomy closure either under spinal anesthesia (n = 25) or under local anesthesia plus sedation (n = 25). The duration of the operation, time spent in the post-anesthesia recovery room, pain, postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, laboratory and imaging examinations and need for rehospitalization and reoperation were analyzed. The direct medical costs were analyzed. A decision tree model was constructed. The outcome measures were mean cost and cost per local and systemic postoperative complications avoided. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were presented. Duration of operation: 146 +/- 111.5 min. vs 105 +/- 23.6 min. (P = 0.012); mean time spent in post-anesthesia recovery room: 145 +/- 110.8 min. vs 36.8 +/- 34.6 min. (P<0.001). Immediate postoperative pain was lower with local anesthesia plus sedation (P<0.05). Local and systemic complications were fewer with local anesthesia plus sedation (P = 0.209). Hospitalization + rehospitalization: 4.5 +/- 4.1 days vs 2.9 +/- 2.2 days (P<0.0001); mean spending per patient: R$ 5,038.05 vs 2,665.57 (P<0.001). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: R$ -474.78, indicating that the strategy with local anesthesia plus sedation is cost saving. In the present investigation, loop colostomy closure under local anesthesia plus sedation was effective and appeared to be a dominant strategy, compared with the same surgical procedure under spinal anesthesia.

  5. Bispectral index score and observer's assessment of awareness/sedation score may manifest divergence during onset of sedation: Study with midazolam and propofol

    PubMed Central

    Bagchi, Dipanjan; Mandal, Mohan Chandra; Das, Sabyasachi; Basu, Sekhar Ranjan; Sarkar, Susanta; Das, Jyotirmoy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Correlation between the clinical and electroencephalogram-based monitoring has been documented sporadically during the onset of sedation. Propofol and midazolam have been studied individually using the observer's assessment of awareness/sedation (OAA/S) score and Bispectral index score (BIS). The present study was designed to compare the time to onset of sedation for propofol and midazolam using both BIS and OAA/S scores, and to find out any correlation. Methods: A total of 46 patients (18-60 years, either sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I/II) posted for infraumbilical surgeries under spinal anaesthesia were randomly allocated to receive either injection propofol 1 mg/kg bolus followed by infusion 3 mg/kg/h (Group P, n=23) or injection midazolam 0.05 mg/kg bolus followed by infusion 0.06 mg/kg/h (Group M, n=23). Spinal anaesthesia was given with 2.5 ml to 3.0 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine heavy. When sensory block reached T6 level, sedation was initiated. The time to reach BIS score 70 and time to achieve OAA/S score 3 from the start of study drug were noted. OAA/S score at BIS score 70 was noted. Data from 43 patients were analyzed using SPSS 12 for Windows. Results: Time to reach BIS score 70 using propofol was significantly lower than using the midazolam (P<0.05). Time to achieve OAA/S score 3 using propofol was comparable with midazolam (P=0.358). Conclusion: A divergence exists between the time to reach BIS score 70 and time to achieve OAA/S score 3 using midazolam, compared with propofol, during the onset of sedation. PMID:24163448

  6. Bispectral index score and observer's assessment of awareness/sedation score may manifest divergence during onset of sedation: Study with midazolam and propofol.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Dipanjan; Mandal, Mohan Chandra; Das, Sabyasachi; Basu, Sekhar Ranjan; Sarkar, Susanta; Das, Jyotirmoy

    2013-07-01

    Correlation between the clinical and electroencephalogram-based monitoring has been documented sporadically during the onset of sedation. Propofol and midazolam have been studied individually using the observer's assessment of awareness/sedation (OAA/S) score and Bispectral index score (BIS). The present study was designed to compare the time to onset of sedation for propofol and midazolam using both BIS and OAA/S scores, and to find out any correlation. A total of 46 patients (18-60 years, either sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I/II) posted for infraumbilical surgeries under spinal anaesthesia were randomly allocated to receive either injection propofol 1 mg/kg bolus followed by infusion 3 mg/kg/h (Group P, n=23) or injection midazolam 0.05 mg/kg bolus followed by infusion 0.06 mg/kg/h (Group M, n=23). Spinal anaesthesia was given with 2.5 ml to 3.0 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine heavy. When sensory block reached T6 level, sedation was initiated. The time to reach BIS score 70 and time to achieve OAA/S score 3 from the start of study drug were noted. OAA/S score at BIS score 70 was noted. Data from 43 patients were analyzed using SPSS 12 for Windows. Time to reach BIS score 70 using propofol was significantly lower than using the midazolam (P<0.05). Time to achieve OAA/S score 3 using propofol was comparable with midazolam (P=0.358). A divergence exists between the time to reach BIS score 70 and time to achieve OAA/S score 3 using midazolam, compared with propofol, during the onset of sedation.

  7. Change of obstruction level during drug-induced sleep endoscopy according to sedation depth in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang Duk; Dhong, Hun-Jong; Kim, Hyo Yeol; Sohn, Jung Hyeob; Jung, Yong Gi; Chung, Seung-Kyu; Park, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jin Kyoung

    2013-11-01

    We evaluated the change in upper airway collapse according to the depth of sedation during drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE), as well as characteristics possibly associated with that change. Prospective, single center, observational study. Twenty-nine patients with upper airway collapse were twice evaluated using DISE according to the depth of sedation, as confirmed by the bispectral index (BIS), which is a measure of the level of consciousness. Changes in the site and degree of obstruction according to the change in sedation depth at the retropalatal and the retroglossal levels were evaluated. The possible contributing factors of this change were explored. As DISE sedation deepened, the upper airway became narrower in 37% of patients at the retropalatal level and in 44.8% of patients at the retroglossal level. No clinical, polysomnographic, or cephalometric variables showed any association with the change in the degree of retroglossal airway narrowing, with the exception of mouth breathing during DISE. The degree of upper airway narrowing can be aggravated according to the sedation depth. The monitoring of sedation depth during DISE is critical, especially in patients with mouth breathing. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Sedation at endoscopic units in Galicia: results of the "Sociedad Gallega de Patología Digestiva" inquiry.

    PubMed

    Cubiella Fernández, J; Lancho Seco, A; Echarri Piudo, A; Ulloa Rocha, J L; Fernández Seara, J

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the human and material resources available for sedation, and the usual manner of handling them at endoscopic units in Galicia. A prospective and descriptive study based on the performance, distribution, and analysis of a clinical practice inquiry. We requested information about endoscopies performed, available means for sedation, sedation monitoring, and level of sedation used in each procedure. Our inquiry was answered by twenty endoscopic units (thirteen were in public hospitals, and eleven performed complex procedures). Of these units, 80% had a pulse oximeter, 42% had continuous electrocardiography, 40% had a defibrillator, and 45% had a recovery area. The drug most commonly used in gastroscopies was midazolam (76%), and the combination midazolam-meperidine was most frequent in both colonoscopies (72%) and ERCPs (60%). An anesthesiologist was usually available for certain procedures in 15% of units, and as an exception in 65%. Of those inquired, 35% wished to have a full-time anesthesiologist in the unit, 25% wished to have an anesthetist only for certain procedures, and 35% on an exceptional basis. Finally, endoscopists considered that 83% of therapeutical gastroscopies, 87% of therapeutical colonoscopies, 98% of ERCPs, 95% of enteroscopies, and 98% of echoendoscopies deserved sedation. Although endoscopists consider that endoscopic procedures should benefit from sedation in a high proportion, the available resources to safely monitor patients are inadequate in some units.

  9. Telephone consultations on palliative sedation therapy and euthanasia in general practice in The Netherlands in 2003: a report from inside.

    PubMed

    van Heest, Florien B; Finlay, I G; Kramer, J J E; Otter, R; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    2009-12-01

    GPs with a special interest and with specific training in palliative medicine (GP advisors) supported professional carers (mostly GPs) through a telephone advisory service. Each telephone call was formally documented on paper and subsequently evaluated. Data from 2003 were analysed independently to reveal how often and in what way palliative sedation and euthanasia were discussed. The telephone documentation forms and corresponding evaluation forms of two GP advisors were systematically analysed for problems relating to the role of sedation and/or euthanasia both quantitatively and qualitatively. In 87 (21%) of 415 analysed consultations, sedation and/or euthanasia were discussed either as the presenting question (sedation 26 times, euthanasia 37 times and both 10 times) or arising during discussion (sedation 11 times and euthanasia three times). Qualitative analysis revealed that GPs telephoned to explore therapeutic options and/or wanted specific information. Pressure on the GP (either internal or external) to relieve suffering (including shortening life by euthanasia) had often precipitated the call. On evaluation, 100% of the GPs reported that the advice received was of value in the patient's care. GPs caring for patients dying at home encountered complex clinical dilemmas in end-of-life care (including palliative sedation therapy and euthanasia). They valued practical advice from, and open discussion with, GP advisors. The advice often helped the GP find solutions to the patient's problems that did not require deliberately foreshortening life.

  10. Pediatric Palliative Sedation Therapy with Propofol: Recommendations Based on Experience in Children with Terminal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Hunter; Faughnan, Lane G.; Johnson, Liza-Marie; Baker, Justin N.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of propofol for palliative sedation of children is not well documented. Objective Here we describe our experience with the use of propofol palliative sedation therapy (PST) to alleviate intractable end-of-life suffering in three pediatric oncology patients, and propose an algorithm for the selection of such candidates for PST. Patients and Methods We identified inpatients who had received propofol PST within 20 days of death at our institution between 2003 and 2010. Their medical records were reviewed for indicators of pain, suffering, and sedation from 48 hours before PST to the time of death. We also tabulated consumption of opioids and other symptom management medications, pain scores, and adverse events of propofol, and reviewed clinical notes for descriptors of suffering and/or palliation. Results Three of 192 (1.6%) inpatients (aged 6–15 years) received propofol PST at the end of life. Consumption of opioids and other supportive medications decreased during PST in two cases. In the third case, pain scores remained high and sedation was the only effective comfort measure. Clinical notes suggested improved comfort and rest in all patients. Propofol infusions were continued until the time of death. Conclusions Our experience demonstrates that propofol PST is a useful palliative option for pediatric patients experiencing intractable suffering at the end of life. We describe an algorithm that can be used to identify such children who are candidates for PST. PMID:22731512

  11. Pediatric palliative sedation therapy with propofol: recommendations based on experience in children with terminal cancer.

    PubMed

    Anghelescu, Doralina L; Hamilton, Hunter; Faughnan, Lane G; Johnson, Liza-Marie; Baker, Justin N

    2012-10-01

    The use of propofol for palliative sedation of children is not well documented. Here we describe our experience with the use of propofol palliative sedation therapy (PST) to alleviate intractable end-of-life suffering in three pediatric oncology patients, and propose an algorithm for the selection of such candidates for PST. We identified inpatients who had received propofol PST within 20 days of death at our institution between 2003 and 2010. Their medical records were reviewed for indicators of pain, suffering, and sedation from 48 hours before PST to the time of death. We also tabulated consumption of opioids and other symptom management medications, pain scores, and adverse events of propofol, and reviewed clinical notes for descriptors of suffering and/or palliation. Three of 192 (1.6%) inpatients (aged 6-15 years) received propofol PST at the end of life. Consumption of opioids and other supportive medications decreased during PST in two cases. In the third case, pain scores remained high and sedation was the only effective comfort measure. Clinical notes suggested improved comfort and rest in all patients. Propofol infusions were continued until the time of death. Our experience demonstrates that propofol PST is a useful palliative option for pediatric patients experiencing intractable suffering at the end of life. We describe an algorithm that can be used to identify such children who are candidates for PST.

  12. Conscious Sedation versus General Anesthesia for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Insights from the NCDR® STS/ACC TVT Registry.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Matthew C; Vemulapalli, Sreekanth; Szeto, Wilson Y; Stebbins, Amanda; Patel, Prakash A; Matsouaka, Roland A; Herrmann, Howard C; Anwaruddin, Saif; Kobayashi, Taisei; Desai, Nimesh D; Vallabhajosyula, Prashanth; McCarthy, Fenton H; Li, Robert; Bavaria, Joseph E; Giri, Jay

    2017-09-01

    Background -Conscious sedation is used during transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with limited evidence as to the safety and efficacy of this practice. Methods -The NCDR STS/ACC TVT Registry was used to characterize the anesthesia choice and clinical outcomes of all U.S. patients undergoing elective percutaneous transfemoral TAVR between April 1, 2014 and June 30, 2015. Raw and inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW) analyses were performed to compare general anesthesia patients with conscious sedation patients on an intention-to-treat basis for the primary outcome of in-hospital mortality, and secondary outcomes including 30-day mortality, in-hospital and 30-day death/stroke, procedural success, ICU and hospital length-of-stay, and rates of discharge to home. Post-hoc falsification endpoint analyses were performed to evaluate for residual confounding. Results -Conscious sedation was used in 1,737/10,997 (15.8%) cases with a significant trend of increasing usage over the time period studied (p for trend <0.001). In raw analyses, intraprocedural success with conscious sedation and general anesthesia was similar (98.2% versus 98.5%, p=.31). The conscious sedation group was less likely to suffer in-hospital (1.6% vs. 2.5%, p=0.03) and 30-day death (2.9% vs. 4.1%, p = 0.03). Conversion from conscious sedation to general anesthesia was noted in 102/1737 (5.9%) of conscious sedation cases. After IPTW adjustment for 51 covariates, conscious sedation was associated with lower procedural success (97.9% vs. 98.6%, p<0.001) and a reduced rate of mortality at the in-hospital (1.5% vs. 2.4%, p<0.001) and 30-day (2.3% vs. 4.0%, p<0.001) timepoints. Conscious sedation was associated with reductions in procedural inotrope requirement, ICU and hospital length of stay (6.0 vs. 6.5 days, p < 0.001), and combined 30-day death/stroke rates (4.8% vs. 6.4%, p <0.001). Falsification endpoint analyses of vascular complications, bleeding, and new pacemaker

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis of patient-controlled sedation versus intravenous sedation for colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi; Hao, Li-Xiao; Chen, Lu; Jin, Zheng; Gong, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patient-controlled sedation (PCS) has been suggested as an alternative method for sedative colonoscopy. However, as any new techniques, PCS introduction as a potential alternative to traditional intravenous sedation (IVS) has brought about challenges. To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages between PCS and IVS more comprehensively, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature. Methods: Several databases were searched from inception to 1 April, 2015, for trials comparing PCS with IVS for colonoscopy. The outcomes of interest included time for cecal intubation, rate of complete colonoscopy, dose of sedative drugs used, pain scores, recovery time, complications. Inconsistency was quantified using I 2 statistics. Results: In all, 12 trials were finally selected (1091 patients, with 545 in the PCS group, and 546 in the IVS group). The total propofol used, time for cecal intubation, rate of complete colonoscopy and pain score had no statistical difference between the two groups. However, PCS showed a reduction in the recovery time, incidence of oxygen desaturation and hypotension. The rates of other complications and patients’ willingness to repeat the same sedation had no statistical difference between the two groups. Conclusion: PCS is as feasible and effective as traditional IVS for colonoscopy, and there is a tendency that PCS shows its superiority in recovery time, incidence for oxygen saturation and hypotension. PMID:26884890

  14. Airway Assessment for Office Sedation/Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Morton B.; Phero, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Whenever a patient is about to receive sedation or general anesthesia, no matter what the technique, the preoperative assessment of the airway is one of the most important steps in ensuring patient safety and positive outcomes. This article, Part III in the series on airway management, is directed at the ambulatory office practice and focuses on predicting the success of advanced airway rescue techniques. PMID:26061578

  15. [Video laryngoscopic tracheal intubation under sedation].

    PubMed

    Masquère, P; Lonjaret, L; Fourcade, O; Minville, V

    2013-05-01

    We report a video laryngoscopic tracheal intubation under sedation in a patient with a hip fracture. Preoperative assessment revealed signs of difficult airway management linked to a cervical spine immobilization. Here we describe an alternative method to awake fiber optic flexible intubation. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacological sedation management in the paediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Baarslag, Manuel A; Allegaert, Karel; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; van Dijk, Monique; Tibboel, Dick

    2017-05-01

    This review addresses sedation management on paediatric intensive care units and possible gaps in the knowledge of optimal sedation strategies. We present an overview of the commonly used sedatives and their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations in children, as well as the ongoing studies in this field. Also, sedation guidelines and current sedation strategies and assessment methods are addressed. This review shows that evidence and pharmacokinetic data are scarce, but fortunately, there is an active research scene with promising new PK and PD data of sedatives in children using new study designs with application of advanced laboratory methods and modelling. The lack of evidence is increasingly being recognized by authorities and legislative offices such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). The population in question is very heterogeneous and this overview can aid clinicians and researchers in moving from practice-based sedation management towards more evidence- or model-based practice. Still, paediatric sedation management can be improved in other ways than pharmacology only, so future research should aim on sedation assessment and implementation strategies of protocolized sedation as well. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. Internists' attitudes towards terminal sedation in end of life care

    PubMed Central

    Kaldjian, L; Jekel, J; Bernene, J; Rosenthal, G; Vaughan-Sarrazin, M; Duffy, T

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the frequency of support for terminal sedation among internists, determine whether support for terminal sedation is accompanied by support for physician assisted suicide (PAS), and explore characteristics of internists who support terminal sedation but not assisted suicide. Design: A statewide, anonymous postal survey. Setting: Connecticut, USA. Participants: 677 Connecticut members of the American College of Physicians. Measurements: Attitudes toward terminal sedation and assisted suicide; experience providing primary care to terminally ill patients; demographic and religious characteristics. Results: 78% of respondents believed that if a terminally ill patient has intractable pain despite aggressive analgesia, it is ethically appropriate to provide terminal sedation (diminish consciousness to halt the experience of pain). Of those who favoured terminal sedation, 38% also agreed that PAS is ethically appropriate in some circumstances. Along a three point spectrum of aggressiveness in end of life care, the plurality of respondents (47%) were in the middle, agreeing with terminal sedation but not with PAS. Compared with respondents who were less aggressive or more aggressive, physicians in this middle group were more likely to report having more experience providing primary care to terminally ill patients (p = 0.02) and attending religious services more frequently (p<0.001). Conclusions: Support for terminal sedation was widespread in this population of physicians, and most who agreed with terminal sedation did not support PAS. Most internists who support aggressive palliation appear likely to draw an ethical line between terminal sedation and assisted suicide. PMID:15467087

  18. MacArthur Foundation Prize Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Four of the 19 persons selected as prize fellows by the John D. and Catherine MacArthur Foundation specialize in the earth, ocean, or space sciences. The four are John P. Holdren, Robert W. Kates, Paul G. Richards, and Joseph H. Taylor.The awards, ranging from $24,000 to $60,000 annually for 5 years, are unrestricted; the recipients may pursue any field of endeavor and are not required to publish a paper or to meet similar requirements. The exact amount of the award is dependent on the recipient's age; older prize fellows receive larger awards than do younger ones.

  19. Intramuscular injection of alfaxalone in combination with butorphanol for sedation in cats.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Julia; Jolliffe, Colette; Archer, Emma; Leece, Elizabeth A

    2017-03-06

    To assess quality of sedation following intramuscular (IM) injection of two doses of alfaxalone in combination with butorphanol in cats. Prospective, randomized, 'blinded' clinical study. A total of 38 cats undergoing diagnostic imaging or noninvasive procedures. Cats were allocated randomly to be administered butorphanol 0.2 mg kg(-1) combined with alfaxalone 2 mg kg(-1) (group AB2) or 5 mg kg(-1) (group AB5) IM. If sedation was inadequate, alfaxalone 2 mg kg(-1) IM was administered and cats were excluded from further analysis. Temperament [1 (friendly) to 5 (aggressive)], response to injection, sedation score at 2, 6, 8, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes, overall sedation quality scored after data collection [1 (excellent) to 4 (inadequate)] and recovery quality were assessed. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR) and arterial haemoglobin saturation (SpO2) were recorded every 5 minutes. Groups were compared using t tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. Sedation was analysed using two-way anova, and additional alfaxalone using Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05). Groups were similar for sex, age, body mass and response to injection. Temperament score was lower in group AB2 [2 (1-3)] compared to AB5 [3 (1-5)] (p = 0.006). Group AB5 had better sedation at 6, 8, 20 and 30 minutes and overall sedation quality was better in AB5 [1 (1-3)], compared to AB2 [3 (1-4)] (p = 0.0001). Additional alfaxalone was required for 11 cats in AB2 and two in AB5 (p = 0.005). Recovery quality, HR, fR and SpO2 were similar. Seven cats required oxygen supplementation. Complete recovery times were shorter in AB2 (81.8 ± 24.3 versus 126.6 ± 33.3 minutes; p = 0.009). Twitching was the most common adverse event. In combination with butorphanol, IM alfaxalone at 5 mg kg(-1) provided better quality sedation than 2 mg kg(-1). Monitoring of SpO2 is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia

  20. An Evaluation of Intranasal Sufentanil and Dexmedetomidine for Pediatric Dental Sedation

    PubMed Central

    Hitt, James M.; Corcoran, Toby; Michienzi, Kelly; Creighton, Paul; Heard, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Conscious or moderate sedation is routinely used to facilitate the dental care of the pre- or un-cooperative child. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) has little respiratory depressant effect, possibly making it a safer option when used as an adjunct to either opioids or benzodiazepines. Unlike intranasal (IN) midazolam, IN application of DEX and sufentanil (SUF) does not appear to cause much discomfort. Further, although DEX lacks respiratory depressive effects, it is an α2-agonist that can cause hypotension and bradycardia when given in high doses or during prolonged periods of administration. The aim of this feasibility study was to prospectively assess IN DEX/SUF as a potential sedation regimen for pediatric dental procedures. After IRB approval and informed consent, children (aged 3–7 years; n = 20) from our dental clinic were recruited. All patients received 2 μg/kg (max 40 μg) of IN DEX 45 min before the procedure, followed 30 min later by 1 μg/kg (max 20 μg) of IN SUF. An independent observer rated the effects of sedation using the Ohio State University Behavior Rating Scale (OSUBRS) and University of Michigan Sedation Scale (UMSS). The dentist and the parent also assessed the efficacy of sedation. Dental procedures were well tolerated and none were aborted. The mean OSUBRS procedure score was 2.1, the UMSS procedure score was 1.6, and all scores returned to baseline after the procedure. The average dentist rated quality of sedation was 7.6 across the 20 subjects. After discharge, parents reported one child with prolonged drowsiness and one child who vomited at home. The use of IN DEX supplemented with IN SUF provided both an effective and tolerable form of moderate sedation. Although onset and recovery are slower than with oral (PO) midazolam and transmucosal fentanyl, the quality of the sedation may be better with less risk of respiratory depression. Results from this preliminary study showed no major complications from IN delivery of these agents. PMID

  1. Additive contribution of nitrous oxide to halothane MAC in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Murray, D J; Mehta, M P; Forbes, R B; Dull, D L

    1990-08-01

    Fifty-one infants and small children (14.7 +/- 7.2 mo) were studied to determine the MAC of halothane in O2 (n = 11) and in the presence of three different nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations (25% [n = 13], 50% [n = 13], and 75% [n = 14]). In the three N2O groups, after randomly assigning patients to an N2O group, anesthesia was induced with halothane and N2O using a pediatric circle system. After endotracheal intubation, halothane and N2O end-expired concentrations were adjusted to predetermined concentrations. The initial halothane concentrations in each group were based on the assumption that each percent N2O reduced halothane concentrations by 0.01 vol % (assumed halothane MAC = 1.0 vol %). Based on the response of the preceding subject in each group, halothane concentrations were increased or decreased depending on whether the response was to move or not to move, respectively, in response to the surgical incision. The mean duration of constant end-tidal concentrations before skin incision was 10 min. End-tidal gases were sampled and measured from a separate distal sampling port of an endotracheal tube during controlled ventilation (Perkin-Elmer Mass Spectrometer). The MAC value for halothane in O2 was 0.94 +/- 0.08 vol % (mean +/- SD). The MAC values of halothane in the presence of 25%, 50%, and 75% N2O were 0.78 +/- 0.12 vol %, 0.44 +/- 0.10 vol %, and 0.29 +/- 0.06 vol %, respectively. All concentrations of N2O significantly reduced the MAC of halothane. A regression analysis through all four data points yielded a linear relationship (r2 = 0.87) with a predicted MAC for N2O of 105 vol %. Unlike halothane and isoflurane, the predicted MAC of N2O in infants and children is similar to that reported by others in adults. Similar to the results of clinical studies in adults, the contribution of N2O to halothane MAC in children is additive.

  2. Introduction to MacDraft. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traxler, Gene

    This training module on MacDraft is part of a computer drafting skills unit on communications technology for grades 9-12. The objective is for each student to complete a drawing on the MacIntosh computer using the MacDraft software program. This drawing is to be dimensioned with a dual system and is to include a border and title block. This module…

  3. Wireless Sensor Networks Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lijuan, Du; Yuanpeng, Wang; WeiPeng, Jing

    This paper presents a new wireless sensor network energy-efficient MAC protocol, ES-MAC protocol, and shows the results of simulation experiments. During the transmission the nodes do not send ACK packages while use a small amount of new information packets, so they can reduce unnecessary energy loss and wasted time. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that ES-MAC protocol reduces energy consumption while reducing network latency and improving network throughput.

  4. A mechanical stimulator for the determination of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of halothane in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Sobair, A T; Cottrell, D F; Camburn, M A

    1993-01-01

    The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of halothane was determined in New Zealand White rabbits. Tracheal anaesthetic concentrations were measured using a Siemens Servo Gas Monitor. A stimulator was used to deliver precisely controlled mechanical stimuli for the determination of MAC. Movement of the rabbit's head was recorded using a force transducer attached to the teeth. Evidence is presented that for the determination of MAC a precise nociceptive threshold is preferable to the so-called supramaximal stimulus used in clinical anaesthesia and in determination of anaesthetic potency. We conclude that techniques for the determination of MAC which disregard either sensitization of sensory mechanisms by producing tissue inflammation or the possibility of nerve compression by severe mechanical stimuli are of questionable value. The use of the mechanical stimulator described, or a similar device, would help in the standardization of the determination of MAC in all species by facilitating the application of a force of controlled amplitude, duration and velocity, thereby removing some of the variables which confound comparative studies of MAC.

  5. Dreaming and recall during sedation for colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Stait, M L; Leslie, K; Bailey, R

    2008-09-01

    Dreaming is reported by one in five patients who are interviewed on emergence from general anaesthesia, but the incidence, predictors and consequences of dreaming during procedural sedation are not known. In this prospective observational study, 200 patients presenting for elective colonoscopy under intravenous sedation were interviewed on emergence to determine the incidences of dreaming and recall. Sedation technique was left to the discretion of the anaesthetist. The incidence of dreaming was 25.5%. Patients reporting dreaming were younger than those who did not report dreaming. Doses of midazolam and fentanyl were similar between dreamers and non-dreamers, however propofol doses were higher in patients who reported dreams than those who did not. Patients reported short, simple dreams about everyday life--no dream suggested near-miss recall of the procedure. Frank recall of the procedure was reported by 4% of the patients, which was consistent with propofol doses commensurate with light general anaesthesia. The only significant predictor of recall was lower propofol dose. Satisfaction with care was generally high, however dreamers were more satisfied with their care than non-dreamers.

  6. Analgesia and sedation after pediatric cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Andrew R; Jackman, Lara

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, the importance of appropriate intra-operative anesthesia and analgesia during cardiac surgery has become recognized as a factor in postoperative recovery. This includes the early perioperative management of the neonate undergoing radical surgery and more recently the care surrounding fast-track and ultra fast-track surgery. However, outside these areas, relatively little attention has focused on postoperative sedation and analgesia within the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). This reflects perceived priorities of the primary disease process over the supporting structure of PICU, with a generic approach to sedation and analgesia that can result in additional morbidities and delayed recovery. Management of the marginal patient requires optimisation of not only cardiac and other attendant pathophysiology, but also every aspect of supportive care. Individualized sedation and analgesia strategies, starting in the operating theater and continuing through to hospital discharge, need to be regarded as an important aspect of perioperative care, to speed the process of recovery. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. New method of sedation in oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Juodzbalys, Gintaras; Giedraitis, Rimvydas; Machiulskiene, Vita; Huys, Luc W J; Kubilius, Ricardas

    2005-01-01

    Local anesthesia, the well-known method of sedation, usually is insufficient for dental implantation and the augmentation of the alveolar ridge, because the operations last for 1 to 2 hours and patients may experience fear and strain. This article examines a new complex sedation method using ketorolac, midazolam, and a local anesthetic 4% solution of articaine hydrochloride and epinephrine (Septanest) in combination with a vasoconstrictor. This method was applied to 67 patients operated on for dental implantation with screw implants or for the alveolar ridge augmentation with biocompatible materials. The control group, which consisted of 20 patients, received local anesthesia with articaine-epinephrine only. Most of the control patients were found to have experienced fear and strain during the aforementioned surgical procedures; their blood pressure and pulse rate increased, and more than half of them experienced pain. No disorders of hemodynamics or the psychoemotional status of the patients were observed during sedation with ketorolac, midazolam, and articaine-epinephrine. Furthermore, anterograde amnesia was determined for the 80% of the patients in the test group.

  8. Midazolam sedation for percutaneous liver biopsy.

    PubMed

    Alexander, J A; Smith, B J

    1993-12-01

    Control of patient respiration is needed to safely perform percutaneous liver biopsy (PLB) and may be adversely affected by sedation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of PLB with intravenous midazolam and to evaluate patient acceptance of PLB with and without sedation. Two hundred seventeen consecutive patients underwent 301 percutaneous liver biopsies. One hundred fifty-one of the biopsies were done after the patients were sedated with intravenous midazolam immediately before the biopsy. The last 61 patients were questioned after the biopsy to evaluate the discomfort of the procedure, their memory of the procedure, and their willingness to undergo another PLB. The major complication rate was similar in the midazolam-treated (0.7%) and untreated (0.7%) groups. The midazolam-treated patients had a numerically lower mean pain score (1.5 +/- 0.4 vs 4.0 +/- 0.7) (mean +/- SEM) (P = 0.07) and significantly lower mean memory score (4.8 +/- 0.7 vs 9.9 +/- 0.1) (P < 0.01) than the untreated patients. The treated and untreated groups had similar mean willingness for repeat PLB scores (9.3 +/- 0.3 vs 9.1 +/- 0.6). We conclude that: (1) there is no increased risk of PLB with midazolam and (2) patients have less memory of the procedure with midazolam.

  9. Medetomidine-midazolam sedation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Raekallio, M; Tulamo, R M; Valtamo, T

    1998-01-01

    Seven sheep were sedated 3 times: with medetomidine (15 micrograms kg-1), with midazolam (0.1 mg kg-1) and with a combination of the drugs. All drugs were administered intravenously. Heart and respiratory rates were measured. Arterial blood samples were collected, and PaO2, PaCO2, pH, haemoglobin concentration and saturation, and base excess were determined. Systolic and mean arterial pressures were recorded before and after the treatment with medetomidine-midazolam. Midazolam increased the time of recumbency induced by medetomidine. After administration of midazolam alone, 4 of the 7 sheep were sedated and the other 3 were excited. Heart rate decreased after both medetomidine and medetomidine-midazolam. One sheep suffered a cardiac arrest after medetomidine-midazolam injection, and it required resuscitation. PaO2 and haemoglobin oxygen saturation decreased after medetomidine, and medetomidine-midazolam caused a marked hypoxaemia. PaCO2 increased after medetomidine, both alone and combined with midazolam, but arterial pH was within the reference values after all drug administrations. Systolic and mean arterial pressures decreased after medetomidine-midazolam. This study indicates that though in sheep midazolam potentiates the sedative effect of medetomidine, the combination of medetomidine and midazolam also reduces the in PaO2 and haemoglobin oxygen saturation more than medetomidine alone. The results indicate that a medetomidine-midazolam combination is unsafe for sheep at the doses studied.

  10. APC-MAC/TA: Adaptive Power Controlled MAC Protocol with Traffic Awareness for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Seok; Kim, Kiseon

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive power controlled MAC protocol with a traffic-aware scheme specifically designed to reduce both energy and latency in wireless sensor networks. Typically, existing MAC protocols for sensor networks sacrifice latency performance for node energy efficiency. However, some sensor applications for emergencies require rather fast transmissions of sensed data, where we need to consider both energy and latency together. The proposed MAC protocol includes two novel ideas: one is a transmission power control scheme for improving latency in high traffic loads, and the other is a traffic-aware scheme to save more energy in low traffic loads. The transmission power control scheme increases channel utilization by mitigating interference between nodes, and the traffic-aware scheme allows nodes to sleep to reduce idle energy consumption when there are no traffic loads in a network. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol significantly reduces the latency as well as the energy consumption compared to the S-MAC protocol specifically for a large transmission power of nodes and low network traffic.

  11. David MacKay's wooden blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skilling, John

    2017-06-01

    This paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor Sir David MacKay FRS. In his inspiring last talk, MacKay discussed the problem of packing his young son's identical wooden blocks, of size 2×1×1. How many ways are there of packing n3/2 such blocks into a cubical box of volume n3? This is the same problem as finding the entropy of cubic packing of dimeric molecules, so the investigation is not merely childish. Here, I use this example as an exemplar of the use of nested sampling in computational inference. In this analogy, the posterior covers the "glassy" arrangements of non-overlapping blocks in the box, whereas the prior represents the wider set of unrestricted model configurations. The required number of possible glass states is the compressive prior-to-posterior fraction of the known number of model configurations. And the compression (as logarithm) is immediately available from the number of equilibrating iterations in nested sampling. The clarity of this example offers useful lessons for computational inference more generally.

  12. MacCready awarded Outstanding Student Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker MacCready was selected by the Ocean Sciences Section to receive their Outstanding Student Paper Award from the 1989 Fall Meeting in San Francisco for his paper entitled “Stratified Spin-up Over a Slope.” Following receipt of his Bachelor's degree in architecture from Yale in 1982, MacCready went to China for 5 months to study the language. On his return to Pasadena he worked for 3 years for Aerovironment, Inc., concentrating on building and flying a human-powered aircraft and a giant wing-flapping replica of a pterosaur. Having become interested in the aerodynamics of flappingwing propulsion, he continued his studies at Caltech, where he received his Master's degree in 1986. His informal thesis project was a human-powered hydrofoil boat with flapping-wing propulsion. He is currently working on his doctorate in physical oceanography at the University of Washington, where he is studying the dynamics of stratified, rotating boundary layers over topography. His switch to oceanography was motivated by his feeling that environmental fluid mechanics would become an increasingly relevant subject in light of increasing world pollution. In the future he hopes to go into environmental politics, perhaps in a scientific advisory role.

  13. TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for real-time high-data-rate sensor networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier sensor network MAC protocols focus on energy conservation in low-duty cycle applications, while some recent applications involve real-time high-data-rate signals. This motivates us to design an innovative localized TDMA MAC protocol to achieve high throughput and low congestion in data collection sensor networks, besides energy conservation. TreeMAC divides a time cycle into frames and each frame into slots. A parent node determines the children's frame assignment based on their relative bandwidth demand, and each node calculates its own slot assignment based on its hop-count to the sink. This innovative 2-dimensional frame-slot assignment algorithm has the following nice theory properties. First, given any node, at any time slot, there is at most one active sender in its neighborhood (including itself). Second, the packet scheduling with TreeMAC is bufferless, which therefore minimizes the probability of network congestion. Third, the data throughput to the gateway is at least 1/3 of the optimum assuming reliable links. Our experiments on a 24-node testbed show that TreeMAC protocol significantly improves network throughput, fairness, and energy efficiency compared to TinyOS's default CSMA MAC protocol and a recent TDMA MAC protocol Funneling-MAC. Partial results of this paper were published in Song, Huang, Shirazi and Lahusen [W.-Z. Song, R. Huang, B. Shirazi, and R. Lahusen, TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for high-throughput and fairness in sensor networks, in: The 7th Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, PerCom, March 2009]. Our new contributions include analyses of the performance of TreeMAC from various aspects. We also present more implementation detail and evaluate TreeMAC from other aspects. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Intention, procedure, outcome and personhood in palliative sedation and euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Materstvedt, Lars Johan

    2012-03-01

    Palliative sedation at the end of life has become an important last-resort treatment strategy for managing refractory symptoms as well as a topic of controversy within palliative care. Furthermore, palliative sedation is prominent in the public debate about the possible legalisation of voluntary assisted dying (physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia). This article attempts to demonstrate that palliative sedation is fundamentally different from euthanasia when it comes to intention, procedure, outcome and the status of the person. Nonetheless, palliative sedation in its most radical form of terminal deep sedation parallels euthanasia in one respect: both end the experience of suffering. However, only the latter intentionally ends life and also has this as its goal. There is the danger that deep sedation could bring death forward in time due to particular side effects of the treatment. Still that would, if it happens, not be intended, and accordingly is defensible in view of the doctrine of double effect.

  15. 42 CFR 423.2122 - What evidence may be submitted to the MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What evidence may be submitted to the MAC. 423.2122..., MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2122 What evidence may be submitted to the MAC. (a) Appeal before the MAC on request for review of ALJ's decision. (1) If the MAC is reviewing an ALJ's decision...

  16. 42 CFR 405.1122 - What evidence may be submitted to the MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What evidence may be submitted to the MAC. 405.1122... Council Review § 405.1122 What evidence may be submitted to the MAC. (a) Appeal before the MAC on request for review of ALJ's decision. (1) If the MAC is reviewing an ALJ's decision, the MAC limits its review...

  17. Monitoring Hospitalized Adult Patients for Opioid-Induced Sedation and Respiratory Depression.

    PubMed

    Jungquist, Carla R; Smith, Kirsten; Nicely, Kelly L Wiltse; Polomano, Rosemary C

    2017-03-01

    : Opioid analgesics are commonly administered to hospitalized patients to treat acute pain, but these drugs put patients at risk for serious adverse events, such as unintended advancing sedation, respiratory depression, and death. Nurses play an important role in keeping patients safe by making clinical decisions about the frequency and intensity with which patients receiving IV and epidural opioids should be monitored. To make sound clinical judgments, nurses must be aware of the factors that place patients at elevated risk for adverse opioid-related effects and know how to screen and assess patients for these risks. The authors review the literature on unintended advancing sedation and respiratory depression associated with opioid administration and present evidence-based recommendations for clinical decision making and patient monitoring, using both nursing assessments and electronic technologies.

  18. The role of sedation tests in identifying sedative drug effects in healthy volunteers and their power to dissociate sedative-related impairments from memory dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Wezenberg, E; Sabbe, B G C; Hulstijn, W; Ruigt, G S F; Verkes, R J

    2007-08-01

    The study investigated whether four specified drugs would show similar patterns on tests considered to measure sedation. In addition, their drug-effect patterns on sedation and memory performance were compared to determine whether the sedative effects could be differentiated from the memory effects. Two double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies, each with 16 healthy volunteers, were performed, one testing lorazepam (2.5 mg) and mirtazapine (15 mg) and the other olanzapine (10 mg) and haloperidol (2.5 mg). Subjective sedation was assessed by means of visual analogue scales (VAS) and objective sedation using a simple-reaction-time (SRT) task and a choice-reaction-time (CRT) task, code substitution (symbol digit substitution test (SDST)) and the peak velocity of saccadic eye movements (SEM). A verbal memory test (VMT) was administered to evaluate memory capacity. Apart from haloperidol, all drugs proved to impair performance on all five sedation indices. Contrary to the VAS, the objective measures yielded different response profiles. Two types of drug-effect patterns emerged: one for greater impairments in response speed (SRT, SEM) and one for greater impairments in information processing (CRT, SDST). Lorazepam and olanzapine impeded memory performance, whereas mirtazapine did not. With the use of standardized scores it proved possible to differentiate between the size of the effects of the drugs on the sedation and memory tests. To accurately assess the level and nature of sedation and to differentiate sedation from memory impairments different types of sedation measures are required. Besides studying the subjective effects, it is recommended to also test psychomotor responses and information processing speed.

  19. Analgesics, sedatives, anticonvulsant drugs, and the cooled brain.

    PubMed

    Wassink, Guido; Lear, Christopher A; Gunn, Katherine C; Dean, Justin M; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J

    2015-04-01

    Multiple randomized controlled trials have shown that prolonged, moderate cerebral hypothermia initiated within a few hours after severe hypoxia-ischemia and continued until resolution of the acute phase of delayed cell death reduces mortality and improves neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants. The challenge is now to find ways to further improve outcomes. In the present review, we critically examine the evidence that conventional analgesic, sedative, or anticonvulsant agents might improve outcomes, in relation to the known window of opportunity for effective protection with hypothermia. This review strongly indicates that there is insufficient evidence to recommend routine use of these agents during therapeutic hypothermia. Further systematic research into the effects of pain and stress on the injured brain, and their treatment during hypothermia, is essential to guide the rational development of clinical treatment protocols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dexmedetomidine Sedation With and Without Midazolam for Third Molar Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Megann K.; Prior, Simon R.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-four patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. Intraoperatively, one group received a continuous intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine alone, whereas the other received a continuous dexmedetomidine infusion plus a small dose of midazolam. Early measurements of patient anxiety and psychomotor performance were lower in patients who had received midazolam. This difference was not seen later in the appointment. An amnesic effect was observed in those patients who received midazolam. This effect, however, did not translate into increased patient satisfaction in the group receiving midazolam. Our findings suggest a prolonged discharge time for patients who had been given midazolam that may be clinically significant. Overall, dexmedetomidine showed an unpredictable sedative response and may be less practical than more common alternatives for oral surgery procedures. PMID:24697819

  1. Moderate sedation in cardiac electrophysiology laboratory: a retrospective safety analysis.

    PubMed

    Sawhney, V; Bacuetes, E; Wray, M; Dhinoja, M; Earley, M J; Schilling, R J; Sporton, S

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac electrophysiology (EP) procedures can be performed under moderate sedation without the direct involvement of an anaesthetist. However, concerns have been raised over the safety of this approach. This study examines the use of a standardised nurse-led physician-directed sedation protocol for EP procedures to determine the safety of moderate sedation administered by non-anaesthesia personnel who have been trained in sedation techniques. Consecutive EP procedures done under moderate sedation over 12 years at our institution were evaluated. Serious adverse events were defined as (i) procedural death related to sedation; (ii) intubation and ventilation; and (iii) hypotension requiring inotropic support. Reversal of sedation constituted a minor adverse event. Up to 7117 procedures were included. These comprised ablations (55%), devices (43%) and other procedures (2%). A majority of patients were men with a mean age of 61±10 years. 99.98% of procedures were completed successfully without sedation-related serious adverse events. Two patients (0.02%) required anaesthetic support for intubation. Sedation was reversed in 1.2% of procedures with less than 1% requiring reversal because of persistent drop in oxygen saturation, hypoventilation or markedly reduced level of consciousness. There was no significant difference in the patient characteristics, mean doses of sedative agents and procedure types in the group requiring reversal of sedation when compared with the whole cohort. Our study demonstrates that nurse-led, physician-directed moderate sedation is safe. Anaesthesia services are not required routinely for invasive cardiac EP procedures and should be available on a need basis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Relieving suffering at the end of life: practitioners' perspectives on palliative sedation from three European countries.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Jane E; Janssens, Rien; Broeckaert, Bert

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports findings from visits to palliative care settings and research units in the UK, Belgium and the Netherlands. The aim was to learn about clinicians' (both nurses and doctors) and academic researchers' understandings and experiences of palliative sedation for managing suffering at the end of life, and their views regarding its clinical, ethical and social implications. The project was linked to two larger studies of technologies used in palliative care. Eleven doctors, 14 nurses and 10 researchers took part in informal interviews. Relevant reports and papers from the academic, clinical and popular press were also collected from the three countries. The study took place in a context in which attention has been drawn towards palliative sedation by the legalisation of euthanasia in the Netherlands and Belgium, and by the re-examination of the legal position on assisted dying in the UK. In this context, palliative sedation has been posited by some as an alternative path of action. We report respondents' views under four headings: understanding and responding to suffering; the relationship between palliative sedation and euthanasia; palliative sedation and artificial hydration; and risks and uncertainties in the clinician-patient/family relationship. We conclude that the three countries can learn from one another about the difficult issues involved in giving compassionate care to those who are suffering immediately before death. Future research should be directed at enabling dialogue between countries: this has already been shown to open the door to the development of improved palliative care and to enhance respect for the different values and histories in each.

  3. A case of Mac Tel 2 with an unusual sub macular vitelliform lesion.

    PubMed

    Lekha, T; Sarwate, Nikit; Sarwate, Renuka

    2015-01-01

    Observational case report describing the clinical, FFA, OCT and mfERG findings in an elderly female patient with atypical features of macular telangiectasia (Mac Tel 2) RESULTS: A 71-year-old lady was detected to have characteristic features of Mac Tel 2 in the left eye (LE) and a yellowish sub macular vitelliform like lesion in the right eye (RE). FFA showed ill defined hyper fluorescence in the RE and telangiectasia and parafoveal leakage typical of Mac Tel 2 in the LE. On OCT RE had hyper reflective clump of echoes subfoveally with an intact RPE and LE had foveal thinning with hypo reflective intraretinal cavities. mfERG responses were normal in the RE and reduced in the LE. During the course of 3 years LE showed natural progression while RE remained unchanged. Structural and functional evaluation of an unusual sub macular vitelliform lesion seen in association with Mac Tel 2 and its course over a period of 3 years is described. The differentiating features of this lesion from adult onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AFMD) are discussed.

  4. Biased agonists of the kappa opioid receptor suppress pain and itch without causing sedation or dysphoria

    PubMed Central

    Brust, Tarsis F.; Morgenweck, Jenny; Kim, Susy A.; Rose, Jamie H.; Locke, Jason L.; Schmid, Cullen L.; Zhou, Lei; Stahl, Edward L.; Cameron, Michael D.; Scarry, Sarah M.; Aubé, Jeffrey; Jones, Sara R.; Martin, Thomas J.; Bohn, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Agonists targeting the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) have been promising therapeutic candidates because of their efficacy for treating intractable itch and relieving pain. Unlike typical opioid narcotics, KOR agonists do not produce euphoria or lead to respiratory suppression or overdose. However, they do produce dysphoria and sedation, side effects that have precluded their clinical development as therapeutics. KOR signaling can be fine-tuned to preferentially activate certain pathways over others, such that agonists can bias signaling so that the receptor signals through G proteins rather than other effectors such as βarrestin2. We evaluated a newly developed G protein signaling–biased KOR agonist in preclinical models of pain, pruritis, sedation, dopamine regulation, and dysphoria. We found that triazole 1.1 retained the antinociceptive and antipruritic efficacies of a conventional KOR agonist, yet it did not induce sedation or reductions in dopamine release in mice, nor did it produce dysphoria as determined by intracranial self-stimulation in rats. These data demonstrated that biased agonists may be used to segregate physiological responses downstream of the receptor. Moreover, the findings suggest that biased KOR agonists may present a means to treat pain and intractable itch without the side effects of dysphoria and sedation and with reduced abuse potential. PMID:27899527

  5. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants with narcotic, sedative and analgesic effects in west of Iran.

    PubMed

    Saki, K; Bahmani, M; Rafieianb-Kopaei, M D; Asadollahi, K; Emaneini, M; Taherikalani, M

    2016-01-01

    The first step for identification of medicinal plants and their therapeutic effects is to determine their use by local people, traditional medicine books and personal experiences. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal plants used as analgesic, sedative or narcotic agents by local residents of Dehloran, Iran. Interviews conducted with 53 informants (38 male and 15 female) revealed that a total of 32 medicinal plants belonging to 22 families are used in Dehloran as narcotic, sedative and analgesic agents. The most utilized plant families were Asteraceae, Rosaceae and Fabaceae. Approximately 74% of the utilized plants was attributed to herbs, followed by trees (13%) and shrubs (13%). Sixty-six percent of the medicinal plants used in the study area were perennial and the rest were annual or biannual. The most widely used plant parts were flowers (34%) followed by leaves (24%) and fruits (14%). Thirty-nine percent of the medicinal plants were used as sedatives, 39% as analgesics, and 24% as narcotics. Recommended plants in this study can be good candidates for further clinical and laboratory trials on diseases that are associated with pain, suffering, stress and depression. They also can be used to develop new sedative, narcotic and analgesic drugs.

  6. How Do Observational Scales Correlate the Ratings of Children's Behavior during Pediatric Procedural Sedation?

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Larissa da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is little information regarding the ability of observational scales to properly assess children's behavior during procedural sedation. Aim. To evaluate the characteristics of the Houpt scales, the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS) and the Venham Behavior Rating Scale when applied to preschool children undergoing conscious dental sedation. Design. This study included 27 children, 4–6 years old with early childhood caries that participated in a clinical trial (NCT02284204) that investigated two sedative regimes using oral midazolam/ketamine. Dental appointments were video-recorded; five calibrated observers assessed 1,209 minutes of video recording to score the children's behavior, following the instructions of the investigated scales. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Spearman correlation tests (P < 0.05). Results. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scale were highly correlated (rho = −0.87; P < 0.001). OSUBRS scores were better correlated with Houpt overall behavior and Venham ratings, when compared to Houpt scores in the categories for movement and crying. Conclusions. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scores are global scales that properly measure children's behavior during dental sedation. Continuous assessment with OSUBRS through videos has a chance to give more precise data, while the Houpt categories can easily demonstrate children's behavior during procedures. PMID:28116299

  7. Efficacy and safety of oral triclofos as sedative for children undergoing sleep electroencephalogram: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Puneet; Sharma, Suvasini; Sharma, Ankita; Goel, Shaiphali; Jose, Anjali; Aneja, Satinder

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Triclofos may be a better sedative in view of better palatability and less gastric irritation as compared to chloral hydrate. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of triclofos (a commonly used sedative in India) as a sedative for sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) study in children. Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care pediatric center. Consecutive children aged 6 months to 5 years referred for sleep EEG evaluation were recruited. Their clinical details were noted in a proforma after an informed consent. After a trial for natural sleep, oral triclofos was administered. Sleep parameters and adverse effects were noted. Results: One-hundred and sixty children were then enrolled. EEG was successfully recorded in 149 (93.1%) children. Median latency of sleep onset was 30 min and median duration of sleep was 90 min. The adverse effects in the following 24 h were mild and included dizziness, irritability, and vomiting. Conclusions: Oral triclofos was found to be an effective sedative for EEG in children with minimal adverse effects. PMID:27606015

  8. Sedative effects of dexmedetomidine, dexmedetomidine-pethidine and dexmedetomidine-butorphanol in cats.

    PubMed

    Nagore, L; Soler, C; Gil, L; Serra, I; Soler, G; Redondo, J I

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical effects of dexmedetomidine, both alone and combined with pethidine or butorphanol, in cats. A prospective randomized blind study was performed. Thirty cats were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 animals: D: dexmedetomidine (20 μg/kg IM); DP: dexmedetomidine (10 μg/kg IM) and pethidine (2.5 mg/kg IM); DB: dexmedetomidine (10 μg/kg IM) and butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg IM). Quality of sedation, analgesia, muscle relaxation and the possibility of performing some clinical procedures were compared using a multifactorial scale. Sedation, analgesia and muscle relaxation increased progressively over time and did not differ in the three protocols. The three protocols facilitated the completion of several clinical procedures. The clinical variables studied showed a similar behaviour in the three protocols and remained close to the baseline, except for a drop in heart rate in protocol D. In conclusion, dexmedetomidine, either alone or combined with pethidine or butorphanol, offers suitable sedation, analgesia and relaxation to perform various clinical procedures in cats.

  9. Fospropofol disodium injection for the sedation of patients undergoing colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Levitzky, Benjamin E; Vargo, John J

    2008-08-01

    Sedation plays a central role in making colonoscopy tolerable for patients and feasible for the endoscopist to perform. The array of agents used for endoscopic sedation continues to evolve. Fospropofol (FP), a prodrug of propofol with a slower pharmacokinetic profile, is currently under evaluation for use during endoscopic procedures. Preliminary data suggests that FP dosed at 6.5 mg/kg is well tolerated by most patients with perineal paresthesias being the most commonly experienced adverse effect. This article will examine the current literature on the use of FP for the sedation of patients undergoing colonoscopy, highlighting the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, risks, and common adverse events associated with the novel sedative/hypnotic.

  10. The use of bispectral analysis to monitor outpatient sedation.

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, N. A.

    2000-01-01

    The bispectral (BIS) index has been used to interpret partial EEG recordings to predict the level of sedation and loss of consciousness in patients undergoing general anesthesia. The author has evaluated BIS technology in determining the level of sedation in patients undergoing outpatient deep sedation. These experiences are outlined in this review article. Initially, the correlation of the BIS index with traditional subjective patient evaluation using the Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation (OAA/S) scale was performed in 25 subjects. In a second study, the recovery profile of 39 patients where the BIS was used to monitor sedation was compared with a control group where the monitor was not used. A strong positive relationship between the BIS and OAA/S readings was found in the initial subjects. From the recovery study, it appears that use of the BIS monitor may help titrate the level of sedation so that less drugs are used to maintain the desired level of sedation. A trend to earlier return of motor function in BIS-monitored patients was also demonstrated. BIS technology offers an objective, ordinal means of assessing the depth of sedation. This can be invaluable in comparing studies of techniques. The BIS index provides additional information to standard monitoring techniques that helps guide the administration of sedative-hypnotic agents. The trend to earlier return of motor function in BIS-monitored patients warrants further investigation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:11432160

  11. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) Immune Reconstitution Syndrome (IRIS) With Reduced Susceptibility to Ethambutol in an HIV-Infected Patient.

    PubMed

    Adams, Immaculata B; Schafer, Jason J; Roberts, Amity L; Short, William R

    2014-09-01

    To describe a case of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lymphadenitis complicated by immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS) and reduced susceptibility to ethambutol. A 24-year-old man was diagnosed in October 2012 with advanced HIV infection upon hospitalization for multiple opportunistic infections (OIs). Within 5 months of starting antiretroviral therapy, the patient developed significant cervical lymphadenopathy concerning for MAC/IRIS. Acid-fast bacilli were detected in the primary lymph node biopsy smear, and culture results confirmed the presence of MAC. Susceptibility testing revealed an organism susceptible to azithromycin, with an elevated minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to ethambutol (8 µg/mL). Currently, there is no interpretation for an ethambutol MIC of 8 µg/mL for MAC. A review of the primary literature revealed the possibility of decreased ethambutol susceptibility when the MIC is above 1 µg/mL, and therefore, therapy was replaced by rifabutin in combination with azithromycin. Current guidelines recommend a 2-drug regimen for the treatment of MAC, specifically a macrolide plus ethambutol. Guidelines also emphasize MAC susceptibility testing for macrolides only. Susceptibility results from this patient's biopsy prompted an evaluation of the effectiveness of his antimycobacterial regimen. Reduced ethambutol susceptibility in this patient triggered a search of the primary literature that resulted in the decision to replace ethambutol with rifabutin. Additional clinical trials are needed to define susceptibility breakpoints for ethambutol and other antimycobacterial agents used for MAC infection treatment and to direct clinical decisions when elevated MICs to primary agents are identified. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Factors Associated with Prescription of Opioids and Co-prescription of Sedating Medications in Individuals with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Merlin, Jessica; Tamhane, Ashutosh; Starrels, Joanna L.; Kertesz, Stefan; Saag, Michael; Cropsey, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Opioids are often prescribed for chronic pain, and opioid risks such as overdose and death are heightened when opioids are co-prescribed with other sedating medications. We investigated factors associated with chronic opioid prescription, alone and in combination with benzodiazepines and muscle relaxants, in a clinical cohort of individuals with HIV. We used multivariable logistic regression models to determine participant clinical and demographic characteristics that are associated with chronic prescription of opioids or chronic co-prescription of opioids with sedating medications. Among 1,474 participants, chronic prescription of opioids occurred in 253 individuals (17.2%), and chronic co-prescription occurred in 90 individuals (6.1%). Age >50, public insurance as compared to private insurance, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were significantly associated with chronic opioid prescription and chronic co-prescription. Our findings raise concern that opioid prescription and co-prescription of sedating medications occurs disproportionately in patients for whom use is riskier. PMID:26487298

  13. The Complex Interplay between Delirium, Sedation, and Early Mobility during Critical Illness: Applications in the Trauma Unit

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Arna; Girard, Timothy D.; Pandharipande, Pratik

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the review Critically ill patients are prescribed sedatives and analgesics to decrease pain and anxiety, improve patient – ventilator dyssynchrony and ensure patient safety. These medications may themselves lead to delirium and ICU-acquired weakness, which are associated with worse clinical outcomes. This review will focus on the epidemiology of these two disease processes and discuss strategies aimed at reducing these devastating complications of critical illness. Recent Findings Delirium and ICU-acquired weakness are associated with longer hospital stay, increased cost and decreased quality of life after discharge from the ICU. Delirium has also shown to be associated with increased mortality. Strategies aimed at reducing sedative exposure through protocols and coordination of daily sedation and ventilator cessation trials, avoiding benzodiazepines in favor of alternative sedative regimens and early mobilization of patients have all shown to significantly improve patient outcomes. Summary Delirium and ICU-acquired weakness are complications of critical illness associated with worse clinical outcomes and functional decline in survivors. An evidence-based approach based on the following tenets; minimization of sedative medication, particularly benzodiazepines, delirium monitoring and management and early mobilization may mitigate these complications. PMID:21386669

  14. UNITED STATES DENTAL PROFESSIONALS’ PERCEPTIONS OF DENTAL ANXIETY AND NEED FOR SEDATION IN PATIENTS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Lisa J.; Hyatt, Halee A.; Huggins, Kimberly Hanson; Milgrom, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Dental fear is a barrier to receiving dental care, particularly for those patients who also suffer from mental illnesses. The current study examined United States dental professionals’ perceptions of dental fear experienced by patients with mental illness, and frequency of sedation of patients with and without mental illness. Dentists and dental staff members (n = 187) completed a survey about their experiences in treating patients with mental illness. More participants agreed (79.8%) than disagreed (20.2%) that patients with mental illness have more anxiety regarding dental treatment (p < .001) than dental patients without mental illness. Further, significantly more participants reported mentally ill patients’ anxiety is “possibly” or “definitely” a barrier to both receiving (96.8%; p < .001) and providing (76.9%; p < .01) dental treatment. Despite reporting more fear in these patients, there were no significant differences in frequency of sedation procedures between those with and without mental illness, regardless of type of sedation (p’s > .05). This lack of difference in sedation for mentally ill patients suggests hesitancy on the part of dental providers to sedate patients with mental illness and highlights a lack of clinical guidelines for this population in the US. Suggestions are given for the assessment and clinical management of patients with mental illness. PMID:24876662

  15. SuperMacLang: Development of an Authoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frommer, Judith; Foelsche, Otmar K. E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development of "SuperMacLang, the 1990s version of the MacLang authoring system. An analysis of various features of the program explains the ways in which certain aspects of collaboration and funding affected developer and programming decisions. (Author/VWL)

  16. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  17. Intel-Based Mac Computers Improve Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Today, Mac computers offer schools an easy and powerful way to engage students in learning, foster 21st century skills and leverage existing software assets. Innovative software and hardware built into the Mac allows students to demonstrate their individual strengths--empowering them to be creators of content, rather than just consumers. Judging…

  18. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  19. SuperMacLang: Development of an Authoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frommer, Judith; Foelsche, Otmar K. E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development of "SuperMacLang, the 1990s version of the MacLang authoring system. An analysis of various features of the program explains the ways in which certain aspects of collaboration and funding affected developer and programming decisions. (Author/VWL)

  20. A Review of Agents for Palliative Sedation/Continuous Deep Sedation: Pharmacology and Practical Applications.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, John

    2017-03-01

    Continuous deep sedation at the end of life is a specific form of palliative sedation requiring a care plan that essentially places and maintains the patient in an unresponsive state because their symptoms are refractory to any other interventions. Because this application is uncommon, many providers may lack practical experience in this specialized area and resources they can access are outdated, nonspecific, and/or not comprehensive. The purpose of this review is to provide an evidence- and experience-based reference that specifically addresses those medications and regimens and their practical applications for this very narrow, but vital, aspect of hospice care. Patient goals in a hospital and hospice environments are different, so the manner in which widely used sedatives are dosed and applied can differ greatly as well. Parameters applied in end-of-life care that are based on experience and a thorough understanding of the pharmacology of those medications will differ from those applied in an intensive care unit or other medical environments. By recognizing these different goals and applying well-founded regimens geared specifically for end-of-life sedation, we can address our patients' symptoms in a more timely and efficacious manner.

  1. Non-Intravenous Sedatives and Analgesics for Procedural Sedation for Imaging Procedures in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Amber; Miller, Jamie L.; Couloures, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe the method of delivery, dosage regimens, and outcomes of sedatives administered by extravascular route for imaging procedures in children. METHODS: Medline, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched using keywords “child”, “midazolam”, “ketamine”, dexmedetomidine”, “fentanyl”, “nitrous oxide”, and “imaging.” Articles evaluating the use of extravascular sedation in children for imaging procedures published in English between 1946 and March 2015 were included. Two authors independently screened each article for inclusion. Reports were excluded if they did not contain sufficient details on dosage regimens and outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty reports representing 1,412 patients ranging in age from 0.33 to 19 years of age were included for analysis. Due to discrepancies in doses and types of analyses, statistical analyses were not performed. Oral midazolam was the most common agent evaluated; other agents included intranasal (IN) ketamine, IN midazolam, IN fentanyl, IN and transmucosal dexmedetomidine, and N2O. Most agents were considered efficacious compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Most agents showed efficacy for sedation during imaging when delivered through an extra-vascular route. Selection of agents should be based on onset time, duration, patient acceptability, recovery time, and adverse events. More robust studies are necessary to determine the optimal agent and route to utilize for imaging procedures when sedation is needed. PMID:26766932

  2. Recall of intensive care unit stay in patients managed with a sedation protocol or a sedation protocol with daily sedative interruption: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ethier, Cheryl; Burry, Lisa; Martinez-Motta, Carlos; Tirgari, Sam; Jiang, Depeng; McDonald, Ellen; Granton, John; Cook, Deborah; Mehta, Sangeeta

    2011-04-01

    Analgesics and sedatives are integral for the relief of pain and anxiety in critically ill patients. However, these agents may contribute to amnesia for intensive care unit (ICU) events; which has been associated with development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Drug administration strategies that minimize sedative use have been associated with less amnesia. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate recall of ICU stay in patients managed with 2 sedation strategies: a sedation protocol or a combination of sedation protocol and daily sedative/analgesic interruption. A questionnaire was administered on day 3 following ICU discharge to evaluate patients' recollections of pain, anxiety, fear, and sleep, as well as memories for specific ICU procedures. Participants were ICU survivors who had been enrolled in SLEAP - a randomized pilot trial comparing two sedation strategies, at 3 university-affiliated medical/surgical ICUs. Twenty-one patients who regained orientation within 72 hours of ICU discharge completed the questionnaire. More than 50% of patients recalled experiencing pain, anxiety, and fear to a moderate or extreme extent; and 57% reported inadequate sleep while in the ICU. Of the 21 patients, 48%, 33%, and 29% had no memories of endotracheal tube suctioning, being on a "breathing machine," and being bathed, respectively. A notable percentage of patients discharged from the ICU report moderate to extreme pain, anxiety, and fear, and inability to sleep during their ICU stay; and 29% to 48% have no recall of specific ICU events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. MacBurn's cylinder test problem

    SciTech Connect

    Shestakov, Aleksei I.

    2016-02-29

    This note describes test problem for MacBurn which illustrates its performance. The source is centered inside a cylinder with axial-extent-to-radius ratio s.t. each end receives 1/4 of the thermal energy. The source (fireball) is modeled as either a point or as disk of finite radius, as described by Marrs et al. For the latter, the disk is divided into 13 equal area segments, each approximated as a point source and models a partially occluded fireball. If the source is modeled as a single point, one obtains very nearly the expected deposition, e.g., 1/4 of the flux on each end and energy is conserved. If the source is modeled as a disk, both conservation and energy fraction degrade. However, errors decrease if the source radius to domain size ratio decreases. Modeling the source as a disk increases run-times.

  4. GENETIC FINGERPRINTING OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM HOSPITAL PATIENTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A particularly pathogenic group of mycobacteria belong to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which includes M. avium and M. intracellulare. MAC organisms cause disease in children, the elderly, and immuno-compromised individuals. A critical step in preventing MAC infections...

  5. GENETIC FINGERPRINTING OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM HOSPITAL PATIENTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A particularly pathogenic group of mycobacteria belong to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which includes M. avium and M. intracellulare. MAC organisms cause disease in children, the elderly, and immuno-compromised individuals. A critical step in preventing MAC infections...

  6. Paired lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105 - A new 'FAN' of lunar petrology. [ferroan anorthosite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Lui, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the chemical characteristics of the MAC88104/5 meteorite six thin sections and three bulk samples were analyzed by electron microprobe and instrumental neutron activation. It is concluded that this meteorite is dominated by lithologies of the ferroan anorthosite suite and contains abundant granulitized highland clasts, devitrified glass beads of impact origin, and two small clasts of basaltic origin. It is suggested that one of these basaltic clasts, clast E, is mesostasis material, and clast G is similar to the very low-Ti or low-Ti/high-alumina mare basalts. Impact melt clasts MAC88105, 69, and 72 have major and trace element compositions similar to the bulk meteorite.

  7. Middle Atmosphere Cooperation/Summer in Northern Europe (MAC/SINE) and MAC/Epsilon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrane, E. V.

    1989-01-01

    Two major international campaigns dedicated to the study of middle atmosphere dynamics in high latitudes were successfully completed in 1987. MAC/SINE (Middle Atmosphere Cooperation/Summer in Northern Europe) was carried out during the period 7 June to 19 July, whereas MAC/Epsilon took place in the period 12 October to 15 November. In both campaigns a large number of ground based and rocket techniques were used in a concerted effort to map the dynamical structure of the middle atmosphere over Northern Europe. Although the analysis of the observations has only just started, it is clear that a large and unique data set was obtained, which is believed will provide new insight into the dynamical processes in this interesting region of the atmosphere. A brief overview of the campaigns, their scientific aims, organization and structure is presented.

  8. A ferroan region of the lunar highlands as recorded in meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105

    SciTech Connect

    Jolliff, B.L.; Korotev, R.L.; Haskin, L.A. )

    1991-11-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 (MAC88104/5) are paired meteorites of noritic anorthosite composition from the lunar highlands. MAC88105 is a breccia composed mainly of melt-breccia clasts in a fine-grained, fragmental, and partly glassy matrix. The most abundant melt lithologies are feldspathic and are similar in composition to the bulk meteorite. Other melt lithologies include feldspathic melt rocks, mafic melt breccias, and a rare melt breccia relatively enriched in incompatible trace elements. Subordinate lithic clasts are granulitic breccias and ferroan (relatively low Mg/(Mg + Fe)) igneous lithologies, including troctolitic anorthosite, anorthositic norite, gabbronorite, and anorthosite. Igneous clasts having mafic mineral compositions more magnesian than Fo{sub 55} and En{sub 60} were not observed. Rare fragments of glass spheres and shards as well as glass clasts indicate that the meteorite was derived from an immature regolith. The bulk composition of MAC88105 is characterized by a molar Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratio of 0.62, at the extreme low end of the range for meteorites from the lunar highlands. Its low concentrations of incompatible trace elements and feldspathic bulk composition (29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), suggests that it, like the other lunar meteorites, formed at a site far removed from the areas sampled by the Apollo missions. Similarities in mineral compositions among the different lithologies of the breccia and the distribution of mineral fragments suggest that most components of the meteorite were derived from a crustal section dominated by material with a noritic anorthosite composition and an affinity of the ferroan suite of plutonic rocks.

  9. Manual Ability Classification System (MACS): reliability between therapists and parents in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Daniela B. R.; Funayama, Carolina A. R.; Pfeifer, Luzia I.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) has been widely used to describe the manual ability of children with cerebral palsy (CP); however its reliability has not been verified in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To establish the inter- and intra-rater reliability of the Portuguese-Brazil version of the MACS by comparing the classifications given by therapists and parents of children with CP. METHOD: Data were obtained from 90 children with CP between the ages of 4 and 18 years, who were treated at the neurology and rehabilitation clinics of a Brazilian hospital. Therapists (an occupational therapist and a student) classified manual ability (MACS) through direct observation and information provided by parents. Therapists and parents used the Portuguese-Brazil version of the MACS. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was obtained using unweighted Kappa coefficient (k) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The Chi-square test was used to identify the predominance of disagreements in the classification of parents and therapists. RESULTS: An almost perfect agreement resulted among therapists [K=0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.97); ICC=0.97 (95%CI 0.96-0.98)], as well as with intra-rater (therapists), with Kappa ranging between 0.83 and 0.95 and ICC between 0.96 and 0.99 for the evaluator with more and less experience in rehabilitation, respectively. The agreement between therapists and parents was fair [K=0.36 (95% CI 0.22-0.50); ICC=0.79 (95% CI 0.70-0.86)]. CONCLUSIONS: The Portuguese version of the MACS is a reliable instrument to be used jointly by parents and therapists. PMID:25651133

  10. Manual Ability Classification System (MACS): reliability between therapists and parents in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Daniela B R; Funayama, Carolina A R; Pfeifer, Luzia I

    2015-01-01

    The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) has been widely used to describe the manual ability of children with cerebral palsy (CP); however its reliability has not been verified in Brazil. To establish the inter- and intra-rater reliability of the Portuguese-Brazil version of the MACS by comparing the classifications given by therapists and parents of children with CP. Data were obtained from 90 children with CP between the ages of 4 and 18 years, who were treated at the neurology and rehabilitation clinics of a Brazilian hospital. Therapists (an occupational therapist and a student) classified manual ability (MACS) through direct observation and information provided by parents. Therapists and parents used the Portuguese-Brazil version of the MACS. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was obtained using unweighted Kappa coefficient (k) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The Chi-square test was used to identify the predominance of disagreements in the classification of parents and therapists. An almost perfect agreement resulted among therapists [K=0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.97); ICC=0.97 (95%CI 0.96-0.98)], as well as with intra-rater (therapists), with Kappa ranging between 0.83 and 0.95 and ICC between 0.96 and 0.99 for the evaluator with more and less experience in rehabilitation, respectively. The agreement between therapists and parents was fair [K=0.36 (95% CI 0.22-0.50); ICC=0.79 (95% CI 0.70-0.86)]. The Portuguese version of the MACS is a reliable instrument to be used jointly by parents and therapists.

  11. Effects of sedation on subjective perception of pain intensity and autonomic nervous responses to pain: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Osaka, Mariko; Mashimo, Takashi; Fujino, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Rather than relying solely on subjective pain evaluation using means such as the visual analogue scale (VAS), in clinical situations it is possible to observe evoked responses of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) as objective indicators. Few studies, however, have reported these relationships under finely controlled sedation. 16 healthy male participants were administrated in intravenous sedation with either propofol or midazolam randomly. We initially determined, using pharmacokinetic simulation, the effect-site concentration (Ce) of anaesthetic at loss of response to verbal command and eyelash reflex (Ce-LOR). Then subsequently adjusted Ce to 75%, 50%, and 25% of Ce-LOR to achieve deep, moderate, and light sedation. At awake control state and each sedation level, a noxious electrical stimulation was applied three times at the right forearm, an average pain intensity of the three stimuli was rated on a VAS (0–10). Changes in the peripheral perfusion index measured by oximetry were used as an indicator of ANS response. We analyzed the influence of sedation level on VAS and ANS responses compared to the awake control state. While ANS responses were similar in all conditions, VAS was statistically significantly lower in moderate (5.6±0.6, p <0.005) or deep (5.3±0.6, p <0.001) sedation than in the awake state (7.2±0.4). This study revealed that even when the ANS responds similarly to the same stimulation, subjective pain perception is attenuated by sedation. A cerebral mechanism other than that of the brainstem might determine subjective pain intensity. PMID:28880899

  12. Non-sedation versus sedation with a daily wake-up trial in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation--effects on physical function: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial: a substudy of the NONSEDA trial.

    PubMed

    Nedergaard, Helene Korvenius; Jensen, Hanne Irene; Lauridsen, Jørgen T; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Toft, Palle

    2015-07-23

    Critically ill patients rapidly loose much of their muscle mass and strength. This can be attributed to prolonged admission, prolonged mechanical ventilation and increased mortality, and it can have a negative impact on the degree of independence and quality of life. In the NONSEDA trial we randomize critically ill patients to non-sedation or sedation with a daily wake-up trial during mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit. It has never been assessed whether non-sedation affects physical function. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of non-sedation versus sedation with a daily wake-up trial on physical function after discharge from intensive care unit. Investigator-initiated, randomized, clinical, parallel-group, superiority trial, including 700 patients in total, with a substudy concerning 200 of these patients. Inclusion criteria will be intubated, mechanically ventilated patients with expected duration of mechanical ventilation >24 h. Exclusion criteria will be patients with severe head trauma, coma at admission or status epilepticus, patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia, patients with PaO2/FiO2<9 where sedation might be necessary to ensure sufficient oxygenation or placing the patient in a prone position. The experimental intervention will be non-sedation supplemented with pain management during mechanical ventilation. The control intervention will be sedation with a daily wake-up trial. The co-primary outcome will be quality of life regarding physical function (SF-36, physical component) and degree of independence in activities of daily living (Barthel Index), and this will be assessed for all 700 patients participating in the NONSEDA trial. The secondary outcomes, which will be assessed for the subpopulation of 200 NONSEDA patients in the trial site, Kolding, will be 6-min walking distance, handgrip strength, muscle size (ultrasonographic measurement of the rectus femoris muscle cross-sectional area) and biomechanical data on

  13. The effect of nitrous oxide on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and MAC derivatives of isoflurane in dogs.

    PubMed

    Voulgaris, Debra A; Egger, Christine M; Seddighi, M Reza; Rohrbach, Barton W; Love, Lydia C; Doherty, Thomas J

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of 70% nitrous oxide (N2O) on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane (ISO) that prevents purposeful movement, the MAC of ISO at which there is no motor movement (MACNM), and the MAC of ISO at which autonomic responses are blocked (MACBAR) in dogs. Six adult, healthy, mixed-breed, intact male dogs were anesthetized with ISO delivered via mask. Baseline MAC, MACNM, and MACBAR of ISO were determined for each dog using a supra-maximal electrical stimulus (50 V, 50 Hz, 10 ms). Nitrous oxide (70%) was then administered and MAC and its derivatives (N2O-MAC, N2O-MACNM, and N2O-MACBAR) were determined using the same methodology. The values for baseline MAC, MACNM, and MACBAR were 1.39 ± 0.14, 1.59 ± 0.10, and 1.72 ± 0.16, respectively. The addition of 70% N2O decreased MAC, MACNM, and MACBAR by 32%, 15%, and 25%, respectively.

  14. TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for real-time high-data-rate sensor networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Shirazi, B.; Husent, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier sensor network MAC protocols focus on energy conservation in low-duty cycle applications, while some recent applications involve real-time high-data-rate signals. This motivates us to design an innovative localized TDMA MAC protocol to achieve high throughput and low congestion in data collection sensor networks, besides energy conservation. TreeMAC divides a time cycle into frames and frame into slots. Parent determines children's frame assigmnent based on their relative bandwidth demand, and each node calculates its own slot assignment based on its hop-count to the sink. This innovative 2-dimensional frame-slot assignment algorithm has the following nice theory properties. Firstly, given any node, at any time slot, there is at most one active sender in its neighborhood (includ ing itself). Secondly, the packet scheduling with TreelMAC is bufferless, which therefore minimizes the probability of network congestion. Thirdly, the data throughput to gateway is at least 1/3 of the optimum assuming reliable links. Our experiments on a 24 node test bed demonstrate that TreeMAC protocol significantly improves network throughput and energy efficiency, by comparing to the TinyOS's default CSMA MAC protocol and a recent TDMA MAC protocol Funneling-MAC[8]. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  15. Intravenous sedation as an adjunct to advanced comprehensive dental implantology: the patient's perspective and operator satisfaction.

    PubMed

    McCrea, S J J

    2015-03-13

    The aim of this three-year study was to evaluate whether elective comprehensive dental implant procedures involving guided bone and soft tissue regeneration carried out under intravenous sedation (midazolam) would be influenced by patient self-reported pre-operative anxiety levels; age and gender; effect the level of sedation with respect to the amount of sedative administered and the time taken in the procedures; effect patient intra-operative cooperation, and post-operative levels of patient satisfaction; influence further acceptance of dental implant surgical procedures; effect intra-operative surgeon satisfaction and consequently his/her post-operative sense of achievement.Design Single centre general dental practice, open study as a clinical audit. One hundred and seventy-three consecutive patients undergoing prolonged surgical procedures involving dental implantology with the adjunctive facility of intravenous sedation were monitored with respect to self-reported levels of anxiety. Vital signs of heart rate, mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure and arterial oxygen saturation were recorded and monitored pre-intra- and post-surgery. A post-operative questionnaire was completed as to the perceptions of the level of sedation. A distinct relationship between self-reported pre-operative anxiety levels, age and gender were recorded - the younger the age, the higher the anxiety, with females dominating. Females required more midazolam than males. However, the analysis of the data as a whole, incorporating both genders, revealed a non-significant correlation result. The correlation between the midazolam dosage and the Corah anxiety score produced a p value result of: r (161) = 0.008, p <0.01. Forty-four percent of the patients described themselves as having 'high anxiety and fear of the dentist', however, 99.4% of the patients answered 'yes' to having sedation again in the future. For the purpose of this study, detailed consideration was given to the gender

  16. Comparison of Oral Midazolam and Promethazine with Oral Midazolam alone for Sedating Children during Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Barzegari, Hassan; Zohrevandi, Behzad; Masoumi, Kambiz; Forouzan, Arash; Darian, Ali Asgari; Khosravi, Shaqayeq

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Both midazolam and promethazine are recommended to be used as sedatives in many studies but each have some side effects that limits their use. Combination therapy as an alternative method, may decreases these limitations. Therefore, this study aimed to compare midazolam with midazolam-promethazine regarding induction, maintenance, and recovery characteristics following pediatric procedural sedation and analgesia. Methods: Children under 7 years old who needed sedation for being CT scanned were included in this double-blind randomized clinical trial. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: one only received midazolam (0.5 mg/kg), while the other group received a combination of midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) and promethazine (1.25 mg/kg). University of Michigan Sedation Scale (UMSS) was used to assess sedation induction. In addition to demographic data, the child’s vital signs were evaluated before prescribing the drugs and after inducing sedation (reaching UMSS level 2). The primary outcomes in the present study were onset of action after administration and duration of the drugs’ effect. Results: 107 patients were included in the study. Mean onset of action was 55.4±20.3 minutes for midazolam and 32.5±11.1 minutes for midazolam-promethazine combination (p<0.001). But duration of effect was not different between the 2 groups (p=0.36). 8 (7.5%) patients were unresponsive to the medication, all 8 of which were in the midazolam treated group (p=0.006). Also in 18 (16.8%) cases a rescue dose was prescribed, 14 (25.9%) were in the midazolam group and 4 (7.5%) were in the midazolam-promethazine group (p=0.02). Comparing systolic (p=0.20) and diastolic (p=0.34) blood pressure, heart rate (p=0.16), respiratory rate (p=0.17) and arterial oxygen saturation level (p=0.91) showed no significant difference between the 2 groups after intervention. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it seems that using a combination of midazolam and promethazine

  17. Intratesticular and incisional line infiltration with ropivacaine for castration in medetomidine-butorphanol-midazolam sedated dogs.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, Yishai; Toledano, Noa; Cohen, Liat; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate whether intratesticular and incisional ropivacaine infiltration produces sufficient intra- and postoperative analgesia for castrating dogs under sedation. Randomized, blinded, controlled clinical study. Twenty-three healthy dogs weighing 5.8-35.6 kg admitted for castration. Dogs were sedated with medetomidine (0.01 mg kg(-1)), butorphanol (0.2 mg kg(-1)) and midazolam (0.2 mg kg(-1)) intramuscularly, and were randomly assigned to group R, 0.2-0.4 mL kg(-1) of ropivacaine 0.5%, or group S, an equivalent volume of saline injected intratesticularly and along the incision line. If persistent motion was observed during surgery, sedation was considered to be insufficient and general anaesthesia was induced. Carprofen 2.2 mg kg(-1) was administered postoperatively. Pain was evaluated in all dogs before sedation and postoperatively following atipamezole administration at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 hours using an interactive visual analogue scale (IVAS; 0-100), the Glasgow composite pain scale-short form (CMPS-SF; 0-24), and a mechanical algometer. Methadone 0.3 mg kg(-1) was administered intravenously to dogs if IVAS >30 or CMPS-SF >4. There was no significant difference between groups for the number of dogs administered general anaesthesia. The time from the beginning of surgery to induction of general anaesthesia was significantly shorter [median (range)] in group S [6 (3-25) minutes] than in group R [56 (36-76) minutes]. At 8 hours IVAS was significantly higher in group S (14 ± 10) than in group R (6 ± 4). Intratesticular and incisional ropivacaine infiltration delayed the time to anaesthesia induction, and provided analgesia after castration performed under deep sedation in dogs. Intratesticular local anaesthesia can be an important part of the anaesthetic plan for castration. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sedation and mechanical hypoalgesia after sublingual administration of detomidine hydrochloride gel to donkeys.

    PubMed

    Lizarraga, Ignacio; Castillo-Alcala, Fernanda; Varner, Kelley M; Robinson, Lauren S

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare sedative and mechanical hypoalgesic effects of sublingual administration of 2 doses of detomidine gel to donkeys. DESIGN Randomized blinded controlled trial. ANIMALS 6 healthy castrated male donkeys. PROCEDURES In a crossover study design, donkeys received each of the following sublingual treatments 1 week apart in a randomly assigned order: 1 mL of molasses (D0) or detomidine hydrochloride gel at 20 μg/kg (9 μg/lb; D20) or 40 μg/kg (18 μg/lb; D40). Sedation score (SS), head height above the ground (HHAG), and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) were assessed before and for 180 minutes after treatment. Areas under the effect change-versus-time curves (AUCs) from 0 to 30, 30 to 60, 60 to 120, and 120 to 180 minutes after administration were computed for SS, HHAG, and MNT and compared among treatments. RESULTS D20 and D40 resulted in greater SS AUCs from 60 to 120 minutes and smaller HHAG AUCs from 30 through 180 minutes than did D0. The D40 resulted in smaller HHAG AUCs from 60 to 120 minutes than did D20. Compared with D0 values, MNT AUCs from 60 to 120 minutes were higher for D20, whereas MNT AUCs from 30 through 180 minutes were higher for D40. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE D20 and D40 induced sedation and mechanical hypoalgesia in donkeys by > 30 minutes after administration, but only sedation was dose dependent. Sublingual administration of detomidine gel at 40 μg/kg may be useful for sedation of standing donkeys prior to potentially painful minor procedures.

  19. Practice and documentation of palliative sedation: a quality improvement initiative.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, M; Azevedo, C; Bush, S H; Lawlor, P; Pereira, J

    2014-04-01

    Palliative sedation (ps), the continuous use of sedating doses of medication to intentionally reduce consciousness and relieve refractory symptoms at end of life, is ethically acceptable if administered according to standards of best practice. Procedural guidelines outlining the appropriate use of ps and the need for rigorous documentation have been developed. As a quality improvement strategy, we audited the practice and documentation of ps on our palliative care unit (pcu). A pharmacy database search of admissions in 2008 identified, for a subsequent chart review, patients who had received either a continuous infusion of midazolam (≥10 mg/24 h), regular parenteral dosing of methotrimeprazine (≥75 mg daily), or regular phenobarbital. Documentation of the decision-making process, consent, and medication use was collected using a data extraction form based on current international ps standards. Interpretation and comparison of data were difficult because of an apparent lack of a consistent operational definition of ps. Patient records had no specific documentation in relation to ps initiation, to clearly identified refractory symptoms, and to informed consent in 60 (64.5%), 43 (46.2%), and 38 (40.9%) charts respectively. Variation in the medications used was marked: 54 patients (58%) were started on a single agent and 39 (42%), on multiple agents. The 40 patients (43%) started on