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Sample records for macaca fascicularis dose

  1. Continental Monophyly and Molecular Divergence of Peninsular Malaysia's Macaca fascicularis fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Faiq, Hamdan; Hairul, Mohd Salleh; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) populations distributed in Peninsular Malaysia in relation to other regions remain unknown. The aim of this study was to reveal the phylogeography and population genetics of Peninsular Malaysia's M. f. fascicularis based on the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. Sixty-five haplotypes were detected in all populations, with only Vietnam and Cambodia sharing four haplotypes. The minimum-spanning network projected a distant relationship between Peninsular Malaysian and insular populations. Genetic differentiation (FST, Nst) results suggested that the gene flow among Peninsular Malaysian and the other populations is very low. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions indicated a monophyletic clade of Malaysia's population with continental populations (NJ = 97%, MP = 76%, and Bayesian = 1.00 posterior probabilities). The results demonstrate that Peninsular Malaysia's M. f. fascicularis belonged to Indochinese populations as opposed to the previously claimed Sundaic populations. M. f. fascicularis groups are estimated to have colonized Peninsular Malaysia ~0.47 million years ago (MYA) directly from Indochina through seaways, by means of natural sea rafting, or through terrestrial radiation during continental shelf emersion. Here, the Isthmus of Kra played a central part as biogeographical barriers that then separated it from the remaining continental populations. PMID:25143948

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are highly conserved in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques

    PubMed Central

    Street, Summer L; Kyes, Randall C; Grant, Richard; Ferguson, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Background Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus or longtail macaques) is the most commonly used non-human primate in biomedical research. Little is known about the genomic variation in cynomolgus macaques or how the sequence variants compare to those of the well-studied related species, Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaque). Previously we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in portions of 94 rhesus macaque genes and reported that Indian and Chinese rhesus had largely different SNPs. Here we identify SNPs from some of the same genomic regions of cynomolgus macaques (from Indochina, Indonesia, Mauritius and the Philippines) and compare them to the SNPs found in rhesus. Results We sequenced a portion of 10 genes in 20 cynomolgus macaques. We identified 69 SNPs in these regions, compared with 71 SNPs found in the same genomic regions of 20 Indian and Chinese rhesus macaques. Thirty six (52%) of the M. fascicularis SNPs were overlapping in both species. The majority (70%) of the SNPs found in both Chinese and Indian rhesus macaque populations were also present in M. fascicularis. Of the SNPs previously found in a single rhesus population, 38% (Indian) and 44% (Chinese) were also identified in cynomolgus macaques. In an alternative approach, we genotyped 100 cynomolgus DNAs using a rhesus macaque SNP array representing 53 genes and found that 51% (29/57) of the rhesus SNPs were present in M. fascicularis. Comparisons of SNP profiles from cynomolgus macaques imported from breeding centers in China (where M. fascicularis are not native) showed they were similar to those from Indochina. Conclusion This study demonstrates a surprisingly high conservation of SNPs between M. fascicularis and M. mulatta, suggesting that the relationship of these two species is closer than that suggested by morphological and mitochondrial DNA analysis alone. These findings indicate that SNP discovery efforts in either species will generate useful resources for both macaque species

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Olive Baboons (Papio anubis), and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatto)

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, Brigitte M.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Grover, GScott; Brown, Scott A.; Boucher, Joseph F.; Yuan, Yang; Civil, Jacqueline R.; Gillhouse, Kimberly A.; Stubbs, Makeida N.; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Halliday, Lisa C.; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-05-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 {+-} 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 {+-} 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 {+-} 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage.

  4. Construction and validation of a systematic ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a free enclosure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Xie, Liang; Li, Xin; Li, Qi; Wang, Tao; Ji, Yongjia; Kong, Fei; Zhan, Qunlin; Cheng, Ke; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations.

  5. Construction and Validation of a Systematic Ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a Free Enclosure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Ji, Yongjia; Kong, Fei; Zhan, Qunlin; Cheng, Ke; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations. PMID:22662158

  6. Neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Akiko; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K.; Okazaki, Takanobu; Kobayashi, Kinji; Nakatsuji, Shunji; Matsumoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    A male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) of 5 years and 11 months of age from the vehicle control group of a 4-week repeated oral dose toxicity study had a spontaneously occurring mass lesion directly attached to the proximal part of the left trigeminal nerve. Histologically, the mass was characterized by a multifocal nodular appearance. Nodular zones showed low to moderate cellularity and were composed of small round cells exhibiting nuclear uniformity. On the other hand, inter-nodular zones were composed of nerve fiber containing septa and closely aggregated highly pleomorphic cells. Immunohistochemically, the small round cells were strongly immunopositive for synaptophysin, neuN, and class III beta-tubulin, while the highly pleomorphic cells were weakly immunopositive for neuN and occasionally immunopositive for class III beta-tubulin and doublecortin, suggesting that the tumor had originated from a neuronal lineage cell. Based on these findings, the mass was diagnosed as a neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve. PMID:27559245

  7. Incidence of ketamine-induced emesis in cynomologus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) used for staphylococcal enterotoxin bioassay.

    PubMed Central

    Adesiyun, A. A.; Tatini, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    Ten (24%) of 41 cynomologus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) showed emetic response to 2.5-20 mg/Kg of ketamine injected i.m. Reduction of the levels of ketamine to one half or less of the emetic level resulted in faster recovery from sedation yet provided adequate time for intubation and subsequent intragastric feeding of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) in only 6 of the 10 monkeys without emesis. The onset of the first emetic episode with ketamine was similar to that induced by staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA). Cynomologus monkeys showing emetic response to ketamine could still be used for SE bioassay if an experimentally determined non-emetic dose for individual monkeys is employed for sedation. PMID:7093145

  8. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Transdermal Fentanyl in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Amy M; Kelly, Richard; Fetterer, David P; Rico, Pedro J; Bailey, Emily J

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is a μ-opioid agonist that often is used as the analgesic component for balanced anesthesia in both human and veterinary patients. Minimal information has been published regarding appropriate dosing, and the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl are unknown in NHP. The pharmacokinetic properties of 2 transdermal fentanyl delivery methods, a solution (2.6 and 1.95 mg/kg) and a patch (25 µg/h), were determined when applied topically to the dorsal scapular area of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Serum fentanyl concentrations were analyzed by using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Compared with the patch, the transdermal fentanyl solution generated higher drug concentrations over longer time. Adverse reactions occurred in the macaques that received the transdermal fentanyl solution at 2.6 mg/kg. Both preparations showed significant interanimal variability in the maximal serum drug levels, time to achieve maximal fentanyl levels, elimination half-life, and AUC values. Both the maximal concentration and the time at which this concentration occurred were increased in macaques compared with most other species after application of the transdermal fentanyl patch and compared with dogs after application of the transdermal fentanyl solution. The pharmacokinetic properties of transdermal fentanyl in macaques are markedly different from those in other veterinary species and preclude its use as a long-acting analgesic drug in NHP. PMID:27423151

  9. Urinary cystic calculi in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis): a case report.

    PubMed

    Stephens, E C; Middleton, C C; Thompson, L J

    1979-12-01

    An adult female Macaca fascicularis monkey became acutely anorexic and depressed and was found dead approximately 24 hours later. Necropsy revealed three hard brownish-yellow stones within the urinary bladder and urethra, a moderately shrunken left kidney, hemorrhage of the medulla of the left adrenal gland and a yellow liver. The stones, one of which was lodged in the urethra, were 1-2.5 cm in diameter, and their surfaces were rough and covered with spines. Chemical analysis of the stones revealed oxalates, phosphates, carbonates, ammonium salts, magnesium and calcium. Microscopic examination revealed chronic interstitial and glomerular nephritis and papillary hyperplasia of the transitional epithelium of the bladder.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Buprenorphine in Macaques (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Halliday, Lisa C; Moody, David E; Fang, Wenfang B; Lindeblad, Matthew; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Buprenorphine is the cornerstone of pain management in nonhuman primates, but the pharmacokinetics of this widely used drug are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of buprenorphine (0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg IM) and sustained-release buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg SC) in 2 macaque species (M. mulatta and M. fascicularis) by using mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetics did not differ significantly between species, and buprenorphine was dose-proportional at the tested doses. The low and high doses of buprenorphine had elimination half-lives of 2.6 ± 0.7 and 5.3 ± 2.0 h, respectively, but the low-dose data were constrained by the sensitivity of the analytical method. Sustained-release buprenorphine had an elimination half-life of 42.6 ± 26.2 h. The AUC0-Tlast of buprenorphine were 9.1 ± 4.3 and 39.0 ± 25.1 ng×h/mL for the low and high doses, respectively, and sustained-release buprenorphine had an AUC0-Tlast of 177 ± 74 ng×h/mL. Assuming a hypothesized therapeutic buprenorphine plasma concentration threshold of 0.1 ng/mL in macaques, these results suggest that buprenorphine doses of 0.01 mg/kg IM should be administered every 6 to 8 h, whereas doses of 0.03 mg/kg IM can be administered every 12 h. These results further demonstrate that a single 0.2-mg/kg SC injection of sustained-release buprenorphine maintains plasma concentrations above 0.1 ng/mL for 5 d in macaques. These findings support a new dosing strategy using sustained-release buprenorphine to improve pain management, decrease animal stress, improve animal welfare, and simplify the postoperative management of nonhuman primates in laboratory animal and zoological settings. PMID:23562033

  11. Effects elicited by toxaphene in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis): a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bryce, F; Iverson, F; Andrews, P; Barker, M; Cherry, W; Mueller, R; Pulido, O; Hayward, S; Fernie, S; Arnold, D L

    2001-12-01

    Toxaphene, which was added to glycerol/corn oil, was administered at a level of 1 mg/kg body weight/day in gelatin capsules to four healthy young adult cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys for 52 weeks. Four control monkeys ingested capsules containing only glycerol/corn oil. Each group had two males and two females. On a daily basis, each monkey's feed and water consumption was determined, its health was monitored and the females were swabbed to evaluate menstrual status. On a weekly basis, each monkey's body weight was determined and a detailed clinical evaluation was performed. At 4-week intervals, blood samples were taken for serum biochemistry, haematology and toxaphene analysis. Also, a local anaesthetic was administered to the nuchal fat pad area of each monkey, and adipose samples were obtained for toxaphene analysis. 1 day prior to the biopsies, a 24-h urine and faecal collection was obtained for toxaphene analysis. After 34 weeks of treatment, the immune system of the monkeys was evaluated. After 52 weeks of dosing, all treated and two control animals were necropsied. Liver samples were obtained and microsomal fractions were prepared immediately. A portion of liver and kidney was taken for toxaphene analysis. All of the major internal organs were weighed and bone marrow evaluations were conducted. Organ and tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin and processed for light microscopy. There was no effect of treatment on body weight gain, feed consumption, water consumption or haematological parameters. Two major clinical findings were inflammation and/or enlargement of the tarsal gland and impacted diverticulae in the upper and lower eye lids. At necropsy, the relative spleen and thymus weights were greater for the treated monkeys than the controls. Toxaphene administration produced an increase in metabolism of aminopyrene, methoxyresorufin and ethoxyresorufin, three substrates that are altered specifically by cytochrome P450-based hepatic

  12. Mitochondrial DNA and two Y-chromosome genes of common long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) throughout Thailand and vicinity.

    PubMed

    Bunlungsup, Srichan; Imai, Hiroo; Hamada, Yuzuru; Matsudaira, Kazunari; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2017-02-01

    Macaca fascicularis fascicularis is distributed over a wide area of Southeast Asia. Thailand is located at the center of their distribution range and is the bridge connecting the two biogeographic regions of Indochina and Sunda. However, only a few genetic studies have explored the macaques in this region. To shed some light on the evolutionary history of M. f. fascicularis, including hybridization with M. mulatta, M. f. fascicularis and M. mulatta samples of known origins throughout Thailand and the vicinity were analyzed by molecular phylogenetics using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), including the hypervariable region 1, and Y-chromosomal DNA, including SRY and TSPY genes. The mtDNA phylogenetic analysis divided M. f. fascicularis into five subclades (Insular Indonesia, Sundaic Thai Gulf, Vietnam, Sundaic Andaman sea coast, and Indochina) and revealed genetic differentiation between the two sides of the Thai peninsula, which had previously been reported as a single group of Malay peninsular macaques. From the estimated divergence time of the Sundaic Andaman sea coast subclade, it is proposed that after M. f. fascicularis dispersed throughout Southeast Asia, some populations on the south-easternmost Indochina (eastern Thailand, southern Cambodia and southern Vietnam at the present time) migrated south-westwards across the land bridge, which was exposed during the glacial period of the late Pleistocene epoch, to the southernmost Thailand/northern peninsular Malaysia. Then, some of them migrated north and south to colonize the Thai Andaman sea coast and northern Sumatra, respectively. The SRY-TSPY phylogenetic analysis suggested that male-mediated gene flow from M. mulatta southward to M. f. fascicularis was restricted south of, but close to, the Isthmus of Kra. There was a strong impact of the geographical factors in Thailand, such as the Isthmus of Kra, Nakhon Si Thammarat, and Phuket ranges and Sundaland, on M. f. fascicularis biogeography and their hybridization

  13. Visible lesion laser thresholds in Cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) retina with a 1064 nm 12-ns pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Stolarski, David J.; Noojin, Gary D.; Hodnett, Harvey M.; Imholte, Michelle L.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Kumru, Semih S.

    2007-02-01

    A series of experiments in a new animal model for retinal damage, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), have been conducted to determine the damage threshold for 12.5-nanosecond laser exposures at 1064 nm. These results provide a direct comparison to threshold values obtained in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), which is the model historically used in establishing retinal maximum permissible exposure (MPE) limits. In this study, the irradiance level of a collimated Gaussian laser beam of 2.5 mm diameter at the cornea was randomly varied to produce a rectangular grid of exposures on the retina. Exposures sites were fundoscopically evaluated at post-irradiance intervals of 1 hour and 24 hours. Probit analysis was performed on dose-response data to obtain probability of response curves. The 50% probability of damage (ED50) values for 1 and 24 hours post-exposure are 28.5(22.7-38.4) μJ and 17.0(12.9-21.8) μJ, respectively. These values compare favorably to data obtained with the rhesus model, 28.7(22.3-39.3) μJ and 19.1(13.6-24.4) μJ, suggesting that the cynomolgus monkey may be a suitable replacement for rhesus monkey in photoacoustic minimum visible lesion threshold studies.

  14. Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma and Juxtacortical Chondrosarcoma in Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Schmelting, Barthel; Zöller, Martina; Kaspareit, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Literature on spontaneous primary bone tumors in nonhuman primates is sparse. This case report describes 2 different neoplastic bone lesions in 2 adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), including macroscopic, radiographic, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings. In one monkey, a firm mass located at the palatogingival junction of the left rostral maxilla was confirmed to be a peripheral ossifying fibroma in light of its histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics. In another monkey, a lobulated tumor at the right distal femur that radiographically showed moderate radiopacity with splotchy areas of mineralization was confirmed to be a juxtacortical chondrosarcoma on histologic examination. The 2 neoplastic bone lesions revealed rare histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics and contribute to the known tumor spectrum of cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:21333171

  15. Bilateral hamartomatous medullary lipoma within the nasal turbinate bones in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    KATSUTA, Osamu; SHIBATA, Toru; KURIKI-YAMAMOTO, Yumi; MOCHIZUKI, Takaharu; YOSHIMI, Miwa; NOTO, Takahisa; MANO, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    A 15-year-old male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) showed large bilateral masses in the maxillary sinus. In histopathological examination, both masses revealed benign medullary lipomas within the turbinate bones. The tumors were composed of well-developed lipocytes, trabecular bones and a few blood vessels. Although we initially diagnosed the tumor as bilateral lipomas in the nasal turbinates, it was not differentiated from lipomatous hamartoma. Findings, such as unique symmetrical proliferation, lack of border from the normal marrow and the intact surrounding tissue, indicated a lipomatous hamartoma/hamartomatous lipoma, thought to be a suitable diagnosis of the lesion. Of most interest was that such a proliferating lesion occurred in the nasal turbinate. PMID:27499062

  16. Light and scanning electron microscopical study of the cavernous sinus of the monkey, Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, K; Ling, E A

    1985-01-01

    The cavernous sinus of Macaca fascicularis is in many respects similar to the human sinus. It consists predominantly of one main venous channel that, together with the internal carotid artery, occupies a meningo-endocranial compartment lateral to the pituitary gland. Trabeculae are few and do not in any way cause the sinus to appear cavernous. They are mostly flattened in the direction of the main venous channel. Cranial nerves three, four, six and the ophthalmic division of five are all located in the lateral wall of the meningo-endocranial compartment with cranial nerve six located most medially adjacent to the internal carotid artery. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:4077687

  17. Antibody responses of Macaca fascicularis against a new inactivated polio vaccine derived from Sabin strains (sIPV) in DTaP-sIPV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Shiosaki, K; Goto, Y; Sonoda, K; Kino, Y

    2013-05-01

    Antibody responses of Macaca fascicularis against a new tetravalent vaccine composed of diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis antigens, and inactivated poliovirus derived from Sabin strains (sIPV) was investigated to predict an optimal dose of sIPV in a new tetravalent vaccine (DTaP-sIPV) prior to conducting a dose-defined clinical study. Monkeys were inoculated with DTaP-sIPVs containing three different antigen units of sIPVs: Vaccine A (types 1:2:3 = 3:100:100 DU), Vaccine B (types 1:2:3 = 1.5:50:50 DU), and Vaccine C (types 1:2:3 = 0.75:25:25 DU). There was no difference in the average titers of neutralizing antibody against the attenuated or virulent polioviruses between Vaccines A and B. The average neutralizing antibody titers of Vaccine C tended to be lower than those of Vaccines A and B. The sIPV antigens did not affect the anti-diphtheria or anti-tetanus antibody titers of DTaP-sIPV. Furthermore, the average neutralizing antibody titers of Vaccine A against the attenuated and virulent polioviruses were comparable between M. fascicularis and humans. These results suggest that M. fascicularis may be a useful animal model for predicting the antibody responses to sIPVs in humans, and that it may be likely to reduce the amount of sIPVs contained in DTaP-sIPVs, even for humans.

  18. Efficacy of the UK Recombinant Plague Vaccine to Protect Against Pneumonic Plague in the Nonhuman Primate, Macaca Fascicularis (PRIVATE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    septicaemic illness. This prese classical bubonic plague [2]. However, man-to-man transmission can occu nuclei spread by the coughing of patients with... bubonic or septicaemic plagu as the USP plague vaccine. A new sub-unit vaccine for plague has been rese developed at DSTL, Porton Down in the UK and...Efficacy of the UK recombinant plague vaccine to protect against pneumonic plague in the nonhuman primate, Macaca fascicularis {PRIVATE

  19. Geographical, genetic and functional diversity of antiretroviral host factor TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Akatsuki; Kono, Ken; Nomaguchi, Masako; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Shioda, Tatsuo; Akari, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    The antiretroviral factor tripartite motif protein 5 (TRIM5) gene-derived isoform (TRIMCyp) has been found in at least three species of Old World monkey: rhesus (Macaca mulatta), pig-tailed (Macaca nemestrina) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques. Although the frequency of TRIMCyp has been well studied in rhesus and pig-tailed macaques, the frequency and prevalence of TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaques remain to be definitively elucidated. Here, the geographical and genetic diversity of TRIM5α/TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaques was studied in comparison with their anti-lentiviral activity. It was found that the frequency of TRIMCyp in a population in the Philippines was significantly higher than those in Indonesian and Malaysian populations. Major and minor haplotypes of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp with single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cyclophilin A domain were also found. The functional significance of the polymorphism in TRIMCyp was examined, and it was demonstrated that the major haplotype of TRIMCyp suppressed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but not HIV-2, whilst the minor haplotype of TRIMCyp suppressed HIV-2 but not HIV-1. The major haplotype of TRIMCyp did not restrict a monkey-tropic HIV-1 clone, NL-DT5R, which contains a capsid with the simian immunodeficiency virus-derived loop between α-helices 4 and 5 and the entire vif gene. These results indicate that polymorphisms of TRIMCyp affect its anti-lentiviral activity. Overall, the results of this study will help our understanding of the genetic background of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp, as well as the host factors composing species barriers of primate lentiviruses. PMID:22113010

  20. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis) using transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Zhang, Rui; Jing, Ying; Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Chang; Wang, Jin; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Junfeng; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chenyu; Li, Donghai

    2014-02-25

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), with an average length between 16 nt and 26 nt, are small non-coding RNAs that can repress gene expression on the post-transcriptional level. Macaca fascicularis (M. fascicularis), one of the most important nonhuman primate animal models, is widely used in basic and applied preclinical research, especially in studies that involve neuroscience and disease. However, due to the lack of a complete genome sequence, the miRNAs in M. fascicularis have not been completely characterized. In this study, 86 putative M. fascicularis miRNAs were identified using a strategy of our design. The expression of some of these miRNAs in the tissue was confirmed by qRT-PCR. The function and pathway of their targeted genes were analyzed to reveal the potential relevance of miRNA regulation on diseases and physiological processes. The current study provides insight into potential miRNAs and forms a useful knowledge base for the future understanding of the function of miRNAs in M. fascicularis.

  1. Attenuation of neurovirulence, biodistribution, and shedding of a poliovirus:rhinovirus chimera after intrathalamic inoculation in Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Dobrikova, Elena Y; Goetz, Christian; Walters, Robert W; Lawson, Sarah K; Peggins, James O; Muszynski, Karen; Ruppel, Sheryl; Poole, Karyol; Giardina, Steven L; Vela, Eric M; Estep, James E; Gromeier, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    A dependence of poliovirus on an unorthodox translation initiation mode can be targeted selectively to drive viral protein synthesis and cytotoxicity in malignant cells. Transformed cells are naturally susceptible to poliovirus, due to widespread ectopic upregulation of the poliovirus receptor, Necl-5, in ectodermal/neuroectodermal cancers. Viral tumor cell killing and the host immunologic response it engenders produce potent, lasting antineoplastic effects in animal tumor models. Clinical application of this principle depends on unequivocal demonstration of safety in primate models for paralytic poliomyelitis. We conducted extensive dose-range-finding, toxicity, biodistribution, shedding, and neutralizing antibody studies of the prototype oncolytic poliovirus recombinant, PVS-RIPO, after intrathalamic inoculation in Macaca fascicularis. These studies suggest that intracerebral PVS-RIPO inoculation does not lead to viral propagation in the central nervous system (CNS), does not cause histopathological CNS lesions or neurological symptoms that can be attributed to the virus, is not associated with extraneural virus dissemination or replication and does not induce shedding of virus with stool. Intrathalamic PVS-RIPO inoculation induced neutralizing antibody responses against poliovirus serotype 1 in all animals studied.

  2. Attenuation of Neurovirulence, Biodistribution, and Shedding of a Poliovirus:Rhinovirus Chimera after Intrathalamic Inoculation in Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Dobrikova, Elena Y.; Goetz, Christian; Walters, Robert W.; Lawson, Sarah K.; Peggins, James O.; Muszynski, Karen; Ruppel, Sheryl; Poole, Karyol; Giardina, Steven L.; Vela, Eric M.; Estep, James E.

    2012-01-01

    A dependence of poliovirus on an unorthodox translation initiation mode can be targeted selectively to drive viral protein synthesis and cytotoxicity in malignant cells. Transformed cells are naturally susceptible to poliovirus, due to widespread ectopic upregulation of the poliovirus receptor, Necl-5, in ectodermal/neuroectodermal cancers. Viral tumor cell killing and the host immunologic response it engenders produce potent, lasting antineoplastic effects in animal tumor models. Clinical application of this principle depends on unequivocal demonstration of safety in primate models for paralytic poliomyelitis. We conducted extensive dose-range-finding, toxicity, biodistribution, shedding, and neutralizing antibody studies of the prototype oncolytic poliovirus recombinant, PVS-RIPO, after intrathalamic inoculation in Macaca fascicularis. These studies suggest that intracerebral PVS-RIPO inoculation does not lead to viral propagation in the central nervous system (CNS), does not cause histopathological CNS lesions or neurological symptoms that can be attributed to the virus, is not associated with extraneural virus dissemination or replication and does not induce shedding of virus with stool. Intrathalamic PVS-RIPO inoculation induced neutralizing antibody responses against poliovirus serotype 1 in all animals studied. PMID:22171271

  3. Analysis of Macular Drusen and Blood Test Results in 945 Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Nishiguchi, Koji M.; Yokoyama, Yu; Fujii, Yusuke; Fujita, Kosuke; Tomiyama, Yusuke; Kawasaki, Ryo; Furukawa, Toshinori; Ono, Fumiko; Shimozawa, Nobuhiro; Togo, Mutsumi; Suzuki, Michihiro; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Age-dependent formation of macular drusen caused by the focal accumulation of extracellular deposits beneath the retinal pigment epithelium precede the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. It is established that inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of drusen and AMD. However, development of a preemptive therapeutic strategy targeting macular drusen and AMD has been impeded by the lack of relevant animal models because most laboratory animals lack macula, an anatomic feature present only in humans and a subset of monkeys. Reportedly, macular drusen and macular degeneration develop in monkeys in an age-dependent manner. In this study, we analyzed blood test results from 945 Macaca fascicularis, 317 with and 628 without drusen. First, a trend test for drusen frequency (the Cochran–Armitage test) was applied to the quartile data for each parameter. We selected variables with an increasing or decreasing trend with higher quartiles at P < 0.05, to which multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied. This revealed a positive association of age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.10 per year, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07–1.12) and white blood cell count (OR: 1.01 per 1 × 103/μl, 95% CI: 1.00–1.01) with drusen. When the monkeys were divided by age, the association between drusen and white blood cell count was only evident in younger monkeys (OR: 1.01 per 1 × 103/μl, 95% CI: 1.00–1.02). In conclusion, age and white blood cell count may be associated with drusen development in M. fascicularis. Systemic inflammation may contribute to drusen formation in monkeys. PMID:27776188

  4. Whole-genome sequencing and analysis of the Malaysian cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) genome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genetic background of the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is made complex by the high genetic diversity, population structure, and gene introgression from the closely related rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Herein we report the whole-genome sequence of a Malaysian cynomolgus macaque male with more than 40-fold coverage, which was determined using a resequencing method based on the Indian rhesus macaque genome. Results We identified approximately 9.7 million single nucleotide variants (SNVs) between the Malaysian cynomolgus and the Indian rhesus macaque genomes. Compared with humans, a smaller nonsynonymous/synonymous SNV ratio in the cynomolgus macaque suggests more effective removal of slightly deleterious mutations. Comparison of two cynomolgus (Malaysian and Vietnamese) and two rhesus (Indian and Chinese) macaque genomes, including previously published macaque genomes, suggests that Indochinese cynomolgus macaques have been more affected by gene introgression from rhesus macaques. We further identified 60 nonsynonymous SNVs that completely differentiated the cynomolgus and rhesus macaque genomes, and that could be important candidate variants for determining species-specific responses to drugs and pathogens. The demographic inference using the genome sequence data revealed that Malaysian cynomolgus macaques have experienced at least three population bottlenecks. Conclusions This list of whole-genome SNVs will be useful for many future applications, such as an array-based genotyping system for macaque individuals. High-quality whole-genome sequencing of the cynomolgus macaque genome may aid studies on finding genetic differences that are responsible for phenotypic diversity in macaques and may help control genetic backgrounds among individuals. PMID:22747675

  5. Allele frequency of antiretroviral host factor TRIMCyp in wild-caught cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Akatsuki; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Higashino, Atsunori; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Ikoma, Tomoko; Suzaki, Yuriko; Ami, Yasushi; Shioda, Tatsuo; Nakayama, Emi E.; Akari, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    A recent study showed that the frequency of an antiretroviral factor TRIM5 gene-derived isoform, TRIMCyp, in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) varies widely according to the particular habitat examined. However, whether the findings actually reflect the prevalence of TRIMCyp in wild cynomolgus macaques is still uncertain because the previous data were obtained with captive monkeys in breeding and rearing facilities. Here, we characterized the TRIM5 gene in cynomolgus macaques captured in the wild, and found that the frequency of the TRIMCyp allele was comparable to those in captive monkeys. This suggests that the previous results with captive monkeys do indeed reflect the natural allele frequency and that breeding and rearing facilities may not affect the frequency of TRIM5 alleles. Interestingly, the prevalence of a minor haplotype of TRIMCyp in wild macaques from the Philippines was significantly lower than in captive ones, suggesting that it is advantageous for wild monkeys to possess the major haplotype of TRIMCyp. Overall, our results add to our understanding of the geographic and genetic prevalence of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp. PMID:22969754

  6. Influence of testosterone and a novel SARM on gene expression in whole blood of Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Riedmaier, Irmgard; Tichopad, Ales; Reiter, Martina; Pfaffl, Michael W; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2009-04-01

    Anabolic hormones, including testosterone, have been suggested as a therapy for aging-related conditions, such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia. These therapies are sometimes associated with severe androgenic side effects. A promising alternative to testosterone replacement therapy are selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). SARMs have the potential to mimic the desirable central and peripheral androgenic anabolic effects of testosterone without having its side effects. In this study we evaluated the effects of LGD2941, in comparison to testosterone, on mRNA expression of selected target genes in whole blood in an non-human model. The regulated genes can act as potential blood biomarker candidates in future studies with AR ligands. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were treated either with testosterone or LGD2941 for 90 days in order to compare their effects on mRNA expression in blood. Blood samples were taken before SARM application, on day 16 and on day 90 of treatment. Gene expression of 37 candidate genes was measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) technology. Our study shows that both testosterone and LGD2941 influence mRNA expression of 6 selected genes out of 37 in whole blood. The apoptosis regulators CD30L, Fas, TNFR1 and TNFR2 and the interleukins IL-12B and IL-15 showed significant changes in gene expression between control and the treatment groups and represent potential biomarkers for androgen receptor ligands in whole blood.

  7. Nutritional Composition of Fruits Selected by Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Kassim, Norazila; Hambali, Kamarul; Amir, Aainaa

    2017-01-01

    Proximate analysis of twelve species of fruits commonly consumed by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), i.e., Arenga pinnata, Areca catechu, Terminalia catappa, Elaeis guineensis, Lagerstroemia tomentosa, Mangifera indica, Cascabela thevetia, Muntingia calabura, Musa sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, Ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa and Ficus microcarpa, was conducted with the specific objective to determine the nutritional composition of the foodstuffs of long-tailed macaques. The results showed the following order of nutrients: fibre, protein, fat and ash. Based on the results of the chemical analysis, the highest percentage of fibre content (52.7%), protein (9.9%), fat (77.2%) and ash (8.5%) were found in A. catechu, T. catappa, E. guineensis and C. thevetia, respectively. The nutrient composition of these twelve fruit species was found to differ (ANOVA test: crude protein, F (11,24) = 87.978, p < 0.05; crude fibre, F (11,24) = 28.886, p < 0.05; crude fat, F (11,24) = 2081.396, p < 0.05 and ash, F (11,24) = 41.011, p < 0.05). Fibre was found in the highest amount among the four types of nutrients studied. Here, A. catechu had the highest relative fibre content of all tested fruits, E. guineensis had the highest fat content, T. catappa had the highest protein content, and the total mineral content was highest in C. thevetia. PMID:28228918

  8. Experimental and postexperimental effects of posteriorly directed extraoral traction in adult Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Brandt, H C; Shapiro, P A; Kokich, V G

    1979-03-01

    The experimental, postexperimental, and postretention effects of continuous high-pull headgear force application to the maxilla were evaluated in four adult, nongrowing Macaca fascicularis monkeys. Force was applied at 450 grams per side to face-bows attached to cast maxillary splints with an implanted occipital plug for anchorage. The active experimental phase lasted from 84 days to 205 days, and its effects were documented histologically, cephalometrically, and with dry skull preparations. Postexperimental, retention, and postretention responses were documented cephalometrically. The findings of the present investigation lead to the following conclusions: 1. The termination active sutural growth is of little significance to the remodeling potential of the sutural articulations and the morphologic adaptability of the facial skeletal complex. 2. The length of time necessary for resorptive remodeling of the sutural bony projections is partially responsible for the slower rate of detectable skeletal movement in adult animals. 3. The sutural ligament in adult animals is initially less responsive to the effects of extraoral force application, possibly because of a diminished level of cellular activity at older ages. 4. Increases in age do not appear to affect the osteogenic potential of the periosteal envelope. 5. Retention aids in establishing a maintainable equilibrium following experimentally induced sutural and skeletal remodeling, but it is of little importance in maintaining the altered position of the denition. 6. The amount of postexperimental skeletal reorientation following force application to the maxilla may be related to the force level and the duration of force.

  9. Nutritional Composition of Fruits Selected by Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Norazila; Hambali, Kamarul; Amir, Aainaa

    2017-01-01

    Proximate analysis of twelve species of fruits commonly consumed by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), i.e., Arenga pinnata, Areca catechu, Terminalia catappa, Elaeis guineensis, Lagerstroemia tomentosa, Mangifera indica, Cascabela thevetia, Muntingia calabura, Musa sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, Ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa and Ficus microcarpa, was conducted with the specific objective to determine the nutritional composition of the foodstuffs of long-tailed macaques. The results showed the following order of nutrients: fibre, protein, fat and ash. Based on the results of the chemical analysis, the highest percentage of fibre content (52.7%), protein (9.9%), fat (77.2%) and ash (8.5%) were found in A. catechu, T. catappa, E. guineensis and C. thevetia, respectively. The nutrient composition of these twelve fruit species was found to differ (ANOVA test: crude protein, F (11,24) = 87.978, p < 0.05; crude fibre, F (11,24) = 28.886, p < 0.05; crude fat, F (11,24) = 2081.396, p < 0.05 and ash, F (11,24) = 41.011, p < 0.05). Fibre was found in the highest amount among the four types of nutrients studied. Here, A. catechu had the highest relative fibre content of all tested fruits, E. guineensis had the highest fat content, T. catappa had the highest protein content, and the total mineral content was highest in C. thevetia.

  10. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

    PubMed

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests.

  11. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch-Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys (MACACA Fascicularis) With or Without a Positive Response Contingency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 37, 461–484. Cawthon-Lang, K. A. (2006). Primate Factsheets: Long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) Taxonomy , Morphology... Ecology . ,http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/ long-tailed_macaque.. Cleland, G. G., & Davey, G. C. L. (1983). Autoshaping in the rat: The...2003). Diet of Macaca fasicicularis in a mangrove forest, Vietnam. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 42, 1–5. Staddon, J. E. R., & Simmelhag, V. L. (1971

  12. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Fui, Vun Vui; Abu, Mohd-Hashim; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Lakim, Maklarin; Roos, Christian; Yaakop, Salmah; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo’s population was distinguished from Peninsula’s population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia’s M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations

  13. A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2014-05-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans

  14. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys ("Macaca Fascicularis") with or without a Positive Response Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Christopher E.; Myers, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naive cynomolgus monkeys ("Macaca fascicularis") under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or…

  15. Jaw-muscle architecture and mandibular morphology influence relative maximum jaw gapes in the sexually dimorphic Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Claire E; Hylander, William L; Vinyard, Christopher J; Taylor, Andrea B

    2015-05-01

    Maximum jaw gape is a performance variable related to feeding and non-feeding oral behaviors, such as canine gape displays, and is influenced by several factors including jaw-muscle fiber architecture, muscle position on the skull, and jaw morphology. Maximum gape, jaw length, and canine height are strongly correlated across catarrhine primates, but relationships between gape and other aspects of masticatory apparatus morphology are less clear. We examine the effects of jaw-adductor fiber architecture, jaw-muscle leverage, and jaw form on gape in an intraspecific sample of sexually dimorphic crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis). As M. fascicularis males have relatively larger maximum gapes than females, we predict that males will have muscle and jaw morphologies that facilitate large gape, but these morphologies may come at some expense to bite force. Male crab-eating macaques have relatively longer jaw-muscle fibers, masseters with decreased leverage, and temporomandibular joint morphologies that facilitate the production of wide gapes. Because relative canine height is correlated with maximum gape in catarrhines, and males have relatively longer canines than females, these results support the hypothesis that male M. fascicularis have experienced selection to increase maximum gape. The sexes do not differ in relative masseter physiologic cross-sectional area (PCSA), but males compensate for a potential trade-off between muscle excursion versus muscle force with increased temporalis weight and PCSA. This musculoskeletal configuration is likely functionally significant for behaviors involving aggressive canine biting and displays in male M. fascicularis and provides additional evidence supporting the multifactorial nature of the catarrhine masticatory apparatus. Our results have implications for the evolution of craniofacial morphology in catarrhine primates and reinforce the importance of evaluating additional factors other than feeding behavior and diet

  16. Studies on the Structure of Low Density Lipoproteins Isolated from Macaca Fascicularis Fed an Atherogenic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Tall, Alan R.; Small, Donald M.; Atkinson, David; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    1978-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys, Macaca fascicularis, fed cholesterol-containing saturated-fat diets develop increased levels of high molecular weight plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL), associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. To study the composition and structure of these abnormal particles, LDL from monkeys, fed atherogenic and control diets, were characterized chemically and examined by differential scanning calorimetry and low-angle X-ray scattering. LDL from animals on the experimental diet showed an increase in molecular weight (4.0 to 7.0 × 106, experimental diet compared with 3.0 to 3.7 × 106, control diet) associated with a large increase in cholesterol ester content and concomitant smaller increases in protein, phospholipid, and free cholesterol. There was a strong positive correlation between molecular weight and the number of saturated and monounsaturated cholesterol esters in the particle. In contrast, particle content of polyunsaturated cholesterol esters remained constant despite large changes in total particle cholesterol esters. When examined by calorimetry and X-ray scattering, LDL from monkeys on both diets diplayed a reversible transition of cholesterol esters from an ordered smeticlike (layered) structure to a more disordered state. For all animals on the experimental diet, the peak temperature of the cholesterol-ester transition (42-48°C) was above body temperature (39°C), but below body temperature on the control diet (34-38.5°C). In the experimental group, the transition temperature was correlated with the LDL molecular weight. However, after thermal disruption of LDL, liquid-crystalline transitions of LDL cholesterol esters were observed in the same temperature range as in the intact lipoprotein, which shows that changes in particle size had little effect on the cholesterol-ester transition temperature. Rather, the transition temperature was determined by the degree of saturation of the LDL cholesterol ester fatty acids and the LDL

  17. Development of real-time PCR assays for the detection of Moraxella macacae associated with bloody nose syndrome in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Chris A.; Chase, Kitty; Embers, Monica E.; Kulesh, David A.; Ladner, Jason T.; Palacios, Gustavo F.; Minogue, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Moraxella macacae is a recently described bacterial pathogen that causes epistaxis or so-called bloody nose syndrome in captive macaques. The aim of this study was to develop specific molecular diagnostic assays for M. macacae and to determine their performance characteristics. Methods We developed six real-time PCR assays on the Roche LightCycler. The accuracy, precision, selectivity, and limit of detection (LOD) were determined for each assay, in addition to further validation by testing nasal swabs from macaques presenting with epistaxis at the Tulane National Primate Research Center. Results All assays exhibited 100% specificity and were highly sensitive with an LOD of 10 fg for chromosomal assays and 1 fg for the plasmid assay. Testing of nasal swabs from 10 symptomatic macaques confirmed the presence of M. macacae in these animals. Conclusions We developed several accurate, sensitive, and species-specific real-time PCR assays for the detection of M. macacae in captive macaques. PMID:26365904

  18. Genomic diversity and interspecies host infection of Macaca fascicularis papillomaviruses (MfPVs) within the alpha papillomavirus α12 species

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zigui; van Doorslaer, Koenraad; DeSalle, Rob; Wood, Charles E.; Kaplan, Jay R.; Wagner, Janice D.; Burk, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Alpha human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are among the most common sexually transmitted agents of which a subset causes cervical neoplasia and cancer in humans. Alpha-PVs have also been identified in non-human primates although few studies have systematically characterized such mucosal PVs. We cloned and characterized 10 distinct types of PVs from exfoliated cervicovaginal cells from different populations of female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) originating from China and Indonesia. These include 5 novel genotypes and 5 previously identified genotypes found in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) (RhPV-1, RhPV-a, RhPV-b and RhPV-d) and cynomolgus macaques (MfPV-a). Type-specific primers were designed to amplify the complete PV genomes using an overlapping PCR method. Four MfPVs were associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The most prevalent virus type was MfPV-3 (formerly RhPV-d), which was identified in 60% of animals with CIN. In addition, the complete genomes of variants of MfPV-3 and RhPV-1 were characterized. These variants are 97.1% and 97.7% similar across the L1 nucleotide sequences with the prototype genomes, respectively. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicate that these novel MfPVs cluster together within the alpha PV α12 species closely related to the α9 (e.g., HPV16) and α11 species (e.g., HPV34), and all share a most recent common ancestor. Our data expand the molecular diversity of non-human primate PVs and suggest the recent expansion of alpha PV species groups. Moreover, identification of an overlapping set of MfPVs in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques indicates that non-human primate alpha PVs might not be strictly species specific and that “subtypes” may represent recent divergence of host species or past interspecies infection. PMID:19716580

  19. Physiological parameters of Macaca fascicularis immunized with anti-rubella vaccine with germanium-based adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Karal-Ogly, D D; Agrba, V Z; Lavrent'eva, I N; Ambrosov, I V; Matelo, S K; Chuguev, Yu P; Gvaramiya, I A; Gvozdik, T E; Mukhametzyanova, E I

    2014-05-01

    Clinical status, hematological and biochemical parameters, and allergenic activity of organogermanium compounds used as adjuvants in complex with preparation from Orlov rubella virus vaccine strain and reference commercial anti-rubella vaccine based on Wistar RA 27/3 strain were studied on Macaca fascilcularis of both genders. Physiological parameters of monkeys immunized with the Russian and foreign rubella virus vaccine strains with and without adjuvants did not differ. The adjuvants were inessential for the safety of vaccines (absence of toxicity, reactogenic activity, or allergenic activity) in preclinical studies on lower primates.

  20. The role of anthropic, ecological, and social factors in sleeping site choice by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Brotcorne, Fany; Maslarov, Cindy; Wandia, I Nengah; Fuentes, Agustin; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline C; Huynen, Marie-Claude

    2014-12-01

    When choosing their sleeping sites, primates make adaptive trade-offs between various biotic and abiotic constraints. In human-modified environments, anthropic factors may play a role. We assessed the influence of ecological (predation), social (intergroup competition), and anthropic (proximity to human settlements) factors in sleeping site choice by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) occupying a habitat at the interface of natural forests and human-modified zones in Bali Barat National Park, Indonesia. Over the course of 56 nights, we collected data relating to physical features of sleeping trees, patterns of the use of sleeping sites within the home range, pre-sleep behavior, diurnal ranging patterns and availability of natural and human food. Overall, the macaques used 17 sleeping sites with 37 sleeping trees. When the monkeys slept in forest zones, they selected sleeping trees that had larger trunks but were not significantly taller than surrounding trees. Though the macaques rarely re-used sleeping sites on consecutive nights, they frequently re-used four sites over the study period. The group favored sleeping within the core area of its home range, despite the occurrence of frequent agonistic intergroup encounters there. Macaques preferentially selected sleeping trees located within or near human-modified zones, especially when human food was abundant and natural food was scarce. These results partially support the hypothesis that long-tailed macaques choose their sleeping sites to avoid predation; proximity to human settlements appears to be the primary factor influencing sleeping site choice in this primate species. Our results reflect the strong influence that anthropic factors have on primates, which subsist in increasingly human-dominated landscapes.

  1. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India

    PubMed Central

    Velankar, Avadhoot D.; Kumara, Honnavalli N.

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal) of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004) after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species. PMID:26886197

  2. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India.

    PubMed

    Velankar, Avadhoot D; Kumara, Honnavalli N; Pal, Arijit; Mishra, Partha Sarathi; Singh, Mewa

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal) of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004) after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species.

  3. Morphometric studies on the structural development of the lung in Macaca fascicularis during fetal and postnatal life.

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, A; Howard, S; Fairweather, D V

    1984-01-01

    The structural development of the normal monkey lung (Macaca fascicularis) from 61 days of gestation to 14 days postnatal age has been described using quantitative morphometric techniques. The lung of the adult monkey has also been studied. The airway and arterial branching pattern has been traced using serial sections. The alveolar number and size have been estimated and the structure of the arteries after postmortem arterial injection has been assessed. Comparison of lung morphology in monkey and man shows that there are similarities in segmental arrangement, structure and branching pattern of airways, in arterial structure and in changes in the arteries after birth. Although there are differences in the number of lobes, the number of generations of different types of airways and the number and size of alveoli, the overall structure in the monkey is more similar to that in man than is the structure of the lung in species such as sheep, pig or rat. During fetal life the monkey lung passes through the same stages of development as the human fetus but at birth the monkey has a full complement of airways and mature alveoli. Postnatal growth of airways and alveoli is due to increase in size rather than to multiplication. In man there is an increase in the number of alveoli and alveolar ducts after birth as well as an increase in size. Despite the differences between the species it seems appropriate to use the monkey in experimental studies on the lung. Images Fig. 1 (cont.) Fig. 1 Fig. 4 (cont.) Fig. 4 PMID:6706842

  4. Glial response and myelin clearance in areas of wallerian degeneration after spinal cord hemisection in the monkey Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fujun; Zhu, Hui; Yang, Senfu; Liu, Yansheng; Feng, Yaping; Shi, Jihong; Xu, Dingze; Wu, Wutian; You, Siwei; Ma, Zhengwen; Zou, Jian; Lu, Peihua; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2009-11-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals not only damages the focal area, but also leads to wallerian degeneration (WD) of axons and myelin distal to the injury. In the present study, we investigated cellular responses within areas of WD of a sensory pathway, the fasciculus gracilis, after a T8-9 lateral spinal hemisection in the adult monkey Macaca fascicularis. Spinal cord segments rostral and caudal to the injury at two clinically-relevant time points, 1 week and 4 weeks post-SCI, representing subacute and chronic stages, respectively, were examined. We observed marked axon degeneration in the areas of WD at the subacute stage, and minimal axonal neurofilament staining at the chronic stage. At the ultrastructural level, however, many degenerating axonal profiles remained at the chronic stage. Myelin breakdown was a much-delayed process. A large number of residual myelin sheaths was observed at the chronic stage. In contrast to rodents, a substantial astrogliotic response was not found in the WD regions up to 4 weeks post-injury. Microglia activation was evident in the WD areas at the subacute stage, and was enhanced at the chronic stage. However, the lack of round reactive microglia/macrophages in these regions suggests that microglial activation was either delayed or incomplete. Thus it appears that many pathological characteristics of WD in monkeys are much delayed compared to those in rodents, but are similar to those in humans. Our results suggest that non-human primate SCI models are useful for evaluating repair strategies before they are translated to clinical trials of human SCI.

  5. Axonal and glial responses to a mid-thoracic spinal cord hemisection in the Macaca fascicularis monkey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjie; Wu, Wei; Zou, Jian; Shi, Fujun; Yang, Senfu; Liu, Yansheng; Lu, Peihua; Ma, Zhengwen; Zhu, Hui; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2013-05-15

    A comprehensive understanding of the pathology of spinal cord injury (SCI) in non-human primates may facilitate greatly the development of new strategies to promote recovery in humans with SCI. Relatively few studies, however, have been conducted to systemically examine pathological changes in the monkey, a non-human primate, after SCI. We report axonal, glial, and fibrotic responses in the spinal cord of monkey Macaca fascicularis after a thoracic (T) 8-9 lateral hemisection. We examined these changes at three regions--i.e., the lesion epicenter, the peri-lesion area, and the lateral white matter of the intact, contralateral hemicord at 7 (subacute) and 30 (early chronic) days post-injury. The lateral hemisection resulted in a marked axon and myelin loss, along with tissue loss, at the lesion epicenter at both time points. Unexpectedly, axonal loss and myelin degeneration, along with reactive gliosis and microglia/macrophages activation, were also observed in the contralateral spared hemicord, indicating a spread of the initial damage to the contralateral side. In addition, activated microglia/macrophages were found both within the injury epicenter and the peri-lesion area, indicating that they participate in injury-induced immune responses that may exacerbate the secondary damage. In contrast to rodents, substantial reactive astrocytic responses at the lesion border were not observed in the monkey. Conversely, a deposit of robust fibrotic scar was observed at the injury epicenter, which filled the space originally created by the hemisection. Thus, understanding the pathology of monkey SCI may provide clinically relevant information in designing repair strategies targeting specific problems associated with human SCIs.

  6. Analysis of sea almond (Terminalia catappa) cracking sites used by wild Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea).

    PubMed

    Falótico, Tiago; Spagnoletti, Noemi; Haslam, Michael; Luncz, Lydia V; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael

    2017-01-05

    Nut-cracking is shared by all non-human primate taxa that are known to habitually use percussive stone tools in the wild: robust capuchins (Sapajus spp.), western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), and Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea). Despite opportunistically processing nuts, Burmese long-tailed macaques predominantly use stone tools to process mollusks in coastal environments. Here, we present the first comprehensive survey of sea almond (Terminalia catappa) nut-cracking sites created by macaques. We mapped T. catappa trees and nut-cracking sites that we encountered along the intertidal zone and forest border on the coasts of Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand. For each nut-cracking site, we measured the physical properties (i.e., size, weight, use-wear) of hammer stones and anvils. We found that T. catappa trees and nut-cracking sites primarily occurred on the western coast facing the open sea, and cracking sites clusters around the trees. We confirmed previous results that nut cracking tools are among the heaviest tools used by long-tailed macaques; however, we found our sample of T. catappa stone tools lighter than a previously collected sea almond sample that, unlike our sample, was collected immediately after use within the intertidal zone. The difference was likely the result of tidal influences on tool-use sites. We also found that tool accumulations above the intertidal region do not resemble those within them, possibly leading to incomplete assessments of macaque stone tools through archaeological techniques that would use these durable sites.

  7. Use of photogrammetry as a means to assess hybrids of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed (M. fascicularis) macaques.

    PubMed

    Jadejaroen, Janya; Hamada, Yuzuru; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed (M. fascicularis) macaques are the most commonly used non-human primate models for biomedical research, but it is difficult to identify these two species in the hybrid zone (15-20°N). In this work, we used morphological values obtained via photogrammetry to assess hybrids of rhesus and long-tailed macaques at Khao Khieow Open Zoo (KKZ; 13°21'N, 101°06'E), eastern Thailand. Long-tailed and rhesus macaques have species-specific tail lengths and contrasts of their yellowish pelages. The accuracy and precision of the relative tail length (%RTL) and the contrast of the yellow hue (Cb*) of the pelage, as obtained from photographs, were compared with the corresponding direct measurements (morphometrics). The photogrammetric and morphometric measurements of %RTL and Cb* were highly significantly correlated (r = 0.989 and 0.980, p < 0.001), and there were no significant differences between the two datasets (t test, p = 0.13 and 0.41; n = 42 and 17 for %RTL and Cb*, respectively). The reproducibilities of the %RTL and Cb* measurements (calculated in the photogrammetric case by taking photographs of the same macaques in two different environments) were significantly correlated between the datasets (r = 0.983 and 0.914, p < 0.001 and 0.005), and there were no significant differences between the datasets (t test, p = 0.539 and 0.344; n = 30 each for %RTL and Cb*, respectively). The %RTL and Cb* data were combined with data on the crown and cheek hair patterns and sex skin reddening of the macaques, and this combined data set was then analyzed by multiple correspondence analysis and agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis, leading to the categorization of the rhesus macaques, long-tailed macaques, and hybrids at KKZ into five groups. Thus, photogrammetry can be utilized to identify macaque species or hybrids when species identification relies mainly on tail length and pelage color.

  8. Increased atherosclerosis and glomerulonephritis in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) given injections of BSA over an extended period of time.

    PubMed Central

    Stills, H. F.; Bullock, B. C.; Clarkson, T. B.

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effects of experimental immune complex disease on the development of glomerulonephritis and aortic and coronary artery atherosclerosis. Fourteen adult male macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were fed a mildly atherogenic diet. Ten of these animals were given repeated intravenous injections of bovine serum albumin (BSA), and the remaining 4 were given similar injections of saline. Three of the monkeys given BSA responded with a high antibody titer, 4 with a moderate titer, and 3 with a low level titer to BSA. In all 4 monkeys with the moderate antibody response glomerulonephritis developed, characterized by increased glomerular cellularity, electron-dense deposits in the glomerular capillary basal lamina, and deposits of IgG, IgM, C3, C4, and BSA. Glomerulonephritis was not seen in the other 6 monkeys given BSA or the 4 control monkeys. Aortic lesions seen at necropsy consisted of a few fatty intimal streaks with no differences between test monkeys (given BSA) and control monkeys (given saline). There was no correlation between total serum cholesterol concentration, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, or BSA antibody levels and the degree of aortic atherosclerosis. Immunochemical stains for immunoglobulins and complement components revealed increased intimal staining when intimal thickness increased. Medial staining for immunoglobulin and complement components appeared to be slightly increased in monkeys with moderately high-level titers of BSA. The extent of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries of monkeys given BSA was greater than in the control animals. Differences in the extent and severity of the atherosclerotic lesions were most pronounced in the proximal portions of the main coronary arteries, suggesting an increased susceptibility of this site to immune-complex-exacerbated atherosclerosis. In addition to the increased lesion severity in monkeys given BSA, there were numerous granulocytes seen within

  9. Pharmacokinetics of 3 Formulations of Meloxicam in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Cassondra; Frost, Patrice; Kirschner, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Meloxicam is a commonly used COX2-preferential NSAID in both human and veterinary patients. Minimal information has been published regarding appropriate dosing in nonhuman primates. Here we investigated the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 formulations of meloxicam in cynomolgus macaques. A single dose of meloxicam SR, an extended-release formulation purported to provide therapeutic levels for as long as 72 h, was compared with the intramuscular and oral formulations dosed for 3 consecutive days and as a single dose. The oral formulation, both over 3 d and as a single dose, yielded lower plasma levels and a shorter duration than did intramuscular and sustained-release subcutaneous formulations. The intramuscular formulation, both over 3 d and as a single dose, provided lower plasma levels and a shorter duration than did a sustained-release subcutaneous formulation. The sustained-release formulations generated the highest plasma concentrations for the longest periods of time. None of the formulations caused significant effects on kidney or liver function. Our results indicate that the sustained-release formulation of meloxicam can achieve an adequate steady-state plasma concentration for 2 to 3 d in nonhuman primates. The standard intramuscular formulation provides adequate plasma concentrations for 12 to 24 h, with waxing and waning levels associated with daily dosing. The oral formulation has limited utility in nonhuman primates because of low circulating levels of drug. PMID:25255073

  10. Spontaneous cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a juvenile cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Rogerson, Petrina; Blanco, Ana L; Naylor, Stuart W; Bradley, Alys

    2012-08-01

    A neoplastic mass compressing the left cerebellar hemisphere and hindbrain was observed at trimming in a 3½-year-old male cynomolgus monkey from a control dose group. Microscopically, the neoplastic mass was nonencapsulated, invasive, and showed two morphological patterns. The predominant area consisted of densely packed undifferentiated, polygonal to spindle cells arranged in vague sheets supported by a scant fibrovascular stroma. The other area was less cellular and composed of round neoplastic cells separated by eosinophilic fibrillar material. Immunohistochemical staining for vimentin, synaptophysin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, neurofilament, and S-100 confirmed the presence of primitive undifferentiated neuroectodermal cells and some cells with neuronal or glial differentiation. On the basis of histopathology and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor with neuronal and glial differentiation was made. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are rare in animals including nonhuman primates; this is the first published report in this species.

  11. Finding the factors of reduced genetic diversity on X chromosomes of Macaca fascicularis: male-driven evolution, demography, and natural selection.

    PubMed

    Osada, Naoki; Nakagome, Shigeki; Mano, Shuhei; Kameoka, Yosuke; Takahashi, Ichiro; Terao, Keiji

    2013-11-01

    The ratio of genetic diversity on X chromosomes relative to autosomes in organisms with XX/XY sex chromosomes could provide fundamental insight into the process of genome evolution. Here we report this ratio for 24 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) originating in Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. The average X/A diversity ratios in these samples was 0.34 and 0.20 in the Indonesian-Malaysian and Philippine populations, respectively, considerably lower than the null expectation of 0.75. A Philippine population supposed to derive from an ancestral population by founding events showed a significantly lower ratio than the parental population, suggesting a demographic effect for the reduction. Taking sex-specific mutation rate bias and demographic effect into account, expected X/A diversity ratios generated by computer simulations roughly agreed with the observed data in the intergenic regions. In contrast, silent sites in genic regions on X chromosomes showed strong reduction in genetic diversity and the observed X/A diversity ratio in the genic regions cannot be explained by mutation rate bias and demography, indicating that natural selection also reduces the level of polymorphism near genes. Whole-genome analysis of a female cynomolgus monkey also supported the notion of stronger reduction of genetic diversity near genes on the X chromosome.

  12. Toward reduction in animal sacrifice for drugs: molecular modeling of Macaca fascicularis P450 2C20 for virtual screening of Homo sapiens P450 2C8 substrates.

    PubMed

    Rua, Francesco; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Macaca fascicularis P450 2C20 shares 92% identity with human cytochrome P450 2C8, which is involved in the metabolism of more than 8% of all prescribed drugs. To date, only paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two substrate markers of the human P450 2C8, have been experimentally confirmed as M. fascicularis P450 2C20 drugs. To bridge the lack of information on the ligands recognized by M. fascicularis P450 2C20, in this study, a three-dimensional homology model of this enzyme was generated on the basis of the available crystal structure of the human homologue P450 2C8 using YASARA. The results indicated that 90.0%, 9.0%, 0.5%, and 0.5% of the residues of the P450 2C20 model were located in the most favorable, allowed, generously allowed, and disallowed regions, respectively. The root-mean-square deviation of the C-alpha superposition of the M. fascicularis P450 2C20 model with the Homo sapiens P450 2C8 was 0.074 Å, indicating a very high similarity of the two structures. Subsequently, the 2C20 model was used for in silico screening of 58 known P450 2C8 substrates and 62 inhibitors. These were also docked in the active site of the crystal structure of the human P450 2C8. The affinity of each compound for the active site of both cytochromes proved to be very similar, meaning that the few key residues that are mutated in the active site of the M. fascicularis P450 do not prevent the P450 2C20 from recognizing the same substrates as the human P450 2C8.

  13. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Six Mauritian Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) Reveals a Genome-Wide Pattern of Polymorphisms under Extreme Population Bottleneck

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Naoki; Hettiarachchi, Nilmini; Adeyemi Babarinde, Isaac; Saitou, Naruya; Blancher, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were introduced to the island of Mauritius by humans around the 16th century. The unique demographic history of the Mauritian cynomolgus macaques provides the opportunity to not only examine the genetic background of well-established nonhuman primates for biomedical research but also understand the effect of an extreme population bottleneck on the pattern of polymorphisms in genomes. We sequenced the whole genomes of six Mauritian cynomolgus macaques and obtained an average of 20-fold coverage of the genome sequences for each individual. The overall level of nucleotide diversity was 23% smaller than that of the Malaysian cynomolgus macaques, and a reduction of low-frequency polymorphisms was observed. In addition, we also confirmed that the Mauritian cynomolgus macaques were genetically closer to a representative of the Malaysian population than to a representative of the Indochinese population. Excess of nonsynonymous polymorphisms in low frequency, which has been observed in many other species, was not very strong in the Mauritian samples, and the proportion of heterozygous nonsynonymous polymorphisms relative to synonymous polymorphisms is higher within individuals in Mauritian than Malaysian cynomolgus macaques. Those patterns indicate that the extreme population bottleneck made purifying selection overwhelmed by the power of genetic drift in the population. Finally, we estimated the number of founding individuals by using the genome-wide site frequency spectrum of the six samples. Assuming a simple demographic scenario with a single bottleneck followed by exponential growth, the estimated number of founders (∼20 individuals) is largely consistent with previous estimates. PMID:25805843

  14. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Zippo, Antonio G; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R; Caramenti, Gian C; Benabid, Alim L; Biella, Gabriele E M

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1-8 V, 1-10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being <1 ms and interblock intervals of 1.5-4 s) have been analyzed. We found 150-250 ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses.

  15. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Zippo, Antonio G.; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R.; Caramenti, Gian C.; Benabid, Alim L.; Biella, Gabriele E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1–8 V, 1–10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being <1 ms and interblock intervals of 1.5–4 s) have been analyzed. We found 150–250 ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses. PMID:26029061

  16. There Is More than One Way to Crack an Oyster: Identifying Variation in Burmese Long-Tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis aurea) Stone-Tool Use

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Amanda; Tan, Say Hoon; Vyas, Dhaval; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    We explored variation in patterns of percussive stone-tool use on coastal foods by Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) from two islands in Laem Son National Park, Ranong, Thailand. We catalogued variation into three hammering classes and 17 action patterns, after examining 638 tool-use bouts across 90 individuals. Hammering class was based on the stone surface used for striking food, being face, point, and edge hammering. Action patterns were discriminated by tool material, hand use, posture, and striking motion. Hammering class was analyzed for associations with material and behavioural elements of tool use. Action patterns were not, owing to insufficient instances of most patterns. We collected 3077 scan samples from 109 macaques on Piak Nam Yai Island’s coasts, to determine the proportion of individuals using each hammering class and action pattern. Point hammering was significantly more associated with sessile foods, smaller tools, faster striking rates, smoother recoil, unimanual use, and more varied striking direction, than were face and edge hammering, while both point and edge hammering were significantly more associated with precision gripping than face hammering. Edge hammering also showed distinct differences depending on whether such hammering was applied to sessile or unattached foods, resembling point hammering for sessile foods and face hammering for unattached foods. Point hammering and sessile edge hammering compared to prior descriptions of axe hammering, while face and unattached edge hammering compared to pound hammering. Analysis of scans showed that 80% of individuals used tools, each employing one to four different action patterns. The most common patterns were unimanual point hammering (58%), symmetrical-bimanual face hammering (47%) and unimanual face hammering (37%). Unimanual edge hammering was relatively frequent (13%), compared to the other thirteen rare action patterns (<5%). We compare our study to other stone

  17. Immunoglobulins A, G, and M in serum and in some secretions of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis syn. irus).

    PubMed Central

    Cole, M F; Bowen, W H

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the distribution and levels of the following immunoglobulins, IgA, IgG, and IgM ,in sera and in some secretions of monkeys (M. fascicularis). IgG, IgA, and IgM were isolated from monkey serum and secretory IgA was separated from monkey milk by combined gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. These pure preparations served as standards to quantitate immunoglobulins in sera and secretions by single radial immunodiffusion. Antisera were raised in the rabbit against the pure immunoglobulins and also against the whole secretions to identify the immunoglobulins in immunoelectrophoresis. In common with humans, the major immunoglobulin in serum and amniotic fluid is IgG and the IgG/IgA ratio is greater than unity. In secretions IgA is the dominant immunoglobulin and the IgG/IgA ratio is less than 1. In general, the levels of immunoglobulins in the sera and secretions of monkeys paralleled the levels found in humans. No age-related increase in immunoglobulin levels was detected in the sera of monkeys. PMID:818024

  18. Characterization, biomarkers, and reversibility of a monoclonal antibody-induced immune complex disease in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Heyen, Jonathan R; Rojko, Jennifer; Evans, Mark; Brown, Tom P; Bobrowski, Walter F; Vitsky, Allison; Dalton, Shana; Tripathi, Niraj; Bollini, Sangeetha Subbarao; Johnson, Theodore; Lin, John C; Khan, Nasir; Han, Bora

    2014-06-01

    Two 6-month repeat-dose toxicity studies in cynomolgus monkeys illustrated immune complex-mediated adverse findings in individual monkeys and identified parameters that potentially signal the onset of immune complex-mediated reactions following administration of RN6G, a monoclonal antibody (mAb). In the first study, 3 monkeys exhibited nondose-dependent severe clinical signs accompanied by decreased erythrocytes with increased reticulocytes, neutrophilia, monocytosis, thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, decreased albumin, azotemia, and increased serum levels of activated complement products, prompting unscheduled euthanasia. Histologically, immunohistochemical localization of RN6G was associated with monkey immunoglobulin and complement components in glomeruli and other tissues, attributable to immune complex disease (ICD). All 3 animals also had anti-RN6G antibodies and decreased plasma levels of RN6G. Subsequently, an investigational study was designed and conducted with regulatory agency input to detect early onset of ICD and assess reversibility to support further clinical development. Dosing of individual animals ceased when biomarkers of ICD indicated adverse findings. Of the 12 monkeys, 1 developed anti-RN6G antibodies and decreased RN6G exposure that preceded elevations in complement products, interleukin-6, and coagulation parameters and decreases in albumin and fibrinogen. All findings in this monkey, except for antidrug antibody (ADA), reversed after cessation of dosing without progressing to adverse sequelae typically associated with ICD.

  19. Effects of MDMA Injections on the Behavior of Socially-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Reymond, Gilles; Pozzobon, Matthieu; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2016-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methyl amphetamine (MDMA) is one of the few known molecules to increase human and rodent prosocial behaviors. However, this effect has never been assessed on the social behavior of non-human primates. In our study, we subcutaneously injected three different doses of MDMA (1.0, 1.5 or 2.0mg/kg) to a group of three, socially housed, young male long-tailed macaques. More than 200 hours of behavioral data were recorded, during 68 behavioral sessions, by an automatic color-based video device that tracked the 3D positions of each animal and of a toy. This data was then categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play). In addition, received and given social grooming was manually scored. Results show several significant dose-dependent behavioral effects. At 1.5mg/kg only, MDMA induces a significant increase in social grooming behavior, thus confirming the prosocial effect of MDMA in macaques. Additionally, at 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection substantially decreases foraging behavior, which is consistent with the known anorexigenic effect of this compound. Furthermore, at 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection induces an increase in locomotor behavior, which is also in accordance with its known stimulant property. Interestingly, MDMA injected at 1.0mg/kg increases the rate of object play, which might be interpreted as a decrease of the inhibition to manipulate a unique object in presence of others, or, as an increase of the intrinsic motivation to manipulate this object. Together, our results support the effectiveness of MDMA to study the complex neurobiology of primates' social behaviors.

  20. Effects of MDMA Injections on the Behavior of Socially-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Reymond, Gilles; Pozzobon, Matthieu; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2016-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methyl amphetamine (MDMA) is one of the few known molecules to increase human and rodent prosocial behaviors. However, this effect has never been assessed on the social behavior of non-human primates. In our study, we subcutaneously injected three different doses of MDMA (1.0, 1.5 or 2.0mg/kg) to a group of three, socially housed, young male long-tailed macaques. More than 200 hours of behavioral data were recorded, during 68 behavioral sessions, by an automatic color-based video device that tracked the 3D positions of each animal and of a toy. This data was then categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play). In addition, received and given social grooming was manually scored. Results show several significant dose-dependent behavioral effects. At 1.5mg/kg only, MDMA induces a significant increase in social grooming behavior, thus confirming the prosocial effect of MDMA in macaques. Additionally, at 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection substantially decreases foraging behavior, which is consistent with the known anorexigenic effect of this compound. Furthermore, at 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection induces an increase in locomotor behavior, which is also in accordance with its known stimulant property. Interestingly, MDMA injected at 1.0mg/kg increases the rate of object play, which might be interpreted as a decrease of the inhibition to manipulate a unique object in presence of others, or, as an increase of the intrinsic motivation to manipulate this object. Together, our results support the effectiveness of MDMA to study the complex neurobiology of primates’ social behaviors. PMID:26840064

  1. Molecular composition of drusen and possible involvement of anti-retinal autoimmunity in two different forms of macular degeneration in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Umeda, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Michihiro T; Okamoto, Haru; Ono, Fumiko; Mizota, Atsushi; Terao, Keiji; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Iwata, Takeshi

    2005-10-01

    We have previously reported a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) pedigree with early onset macular degeneration that develops drusen at 2 yr after birth. In this study, the molecular composition of drusen in monkeys affected with late onset and early onset macular degeneration was both characterized. Involvement of anti-retinalautoimmunity in the deposition of drusen and the pathogenesis of the disease was also evaluated. Funduscopic and histological examinations were performed on 278 adult monkeys (mean age=16.94 yr) for late onset macular degeneration. The molecular composition of drusen was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and/or direct proteome analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Anti-retinal autoantibodies in sera were screened in 20 affected and 10 age-matched control monkeys by Western blot techniques. Immunogenic molecules were identified by 2D electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Relative antibody titer against each antigen was determined by ELISA in sera from 42 affected (late onset) and 41 normal monkeys. Yellowish-white spots in the macular region were observed in 90 (32%) of the late onset monkeys that were examined. Histological examination demonstrated that drusen or degenerative retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were associated with the pigmentary abnormalities. Drusen in both late and early onset monkeys showed immunoreactivities for apolipoprotein E, amyloid P component, complement component C5, the terminal C5b-9 complement complex, vitronectin, and membrane cofactor protein. LC-MS/MS analyses identified 60 proteins as constituents of drusen, including a number of common components in drusen of human age-related macular degeneration (AMD), such as annexins, crystallins, immunoglobulins, and complement components. Half of the affected monkeys had single or multiple autoantibodies against 38, 40, 50, and 60 kDa retinal proteins. The reacting antigens of 38 and 40 kDa were identified as annexin II and mu

  2. Temporal Expression of Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Biomarkers in a Macaca fascicularis Infection Model of Tuberculosis; Comparison with Human Datasets and Analysis with Parametric/Non-parametric Tools for Improved Diagnostic Biomarker Identification

    PubMed Central

    Wareham, Alice; Lewandowski, Kuiama S.; Williams, Ann; Dennis, Michael J.; Sharpe, Sally; Vipond, Richard; Silman, Nigel; Ball, Graham

    2016-01-01

    A temporal study of gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) from a Mycobacterium tuberculosis primary, pulmonary challenge model Macaca fascicularis has been conducted. PBL samples were taken prior to challenge and at one, two, four and six weeks post-challenge and labelled, purified RNAs hybridised to Operon Human Genome AROS V4.0 slides. Data analyses revealed a large number of differentially regulated gene entities, which exhibited temporal profiles of expression across the time course study. Further data refinements identified groups of key markers showing group-specific expression patterns, with a substantial reprogramming event evident at the four to six week interval. Selected statistically-significant gene entities from this study and other immune and apoptotic markers were validated using qPCR, which confirmed many of the results obtained using microarray hybridisation. These showed evidence of a step-change in gene expression from an ‘early’ FOS-associated response, to a ‘late’ predominantly type I interferon-driven response, with coincident reduction of expression of other markers. Loss of T-cell-associate marker expression was observed in responsive animals, with concordant elevation of markers which may be associated with a myeloid suppressor cell phenotype e.g. CD163. The animals in the study were of different lineages and these Chinese and Mauritian cynomolgous macaque lines showed clear evidence of differing susceptibilities to Tuberculosis challenge. We determined a number of key differences in response profiles between the groups, particularly in expression of T-cell and apoptotic makers, amongst others. These have provided interesting insights into innate susceptibility related to different host `phenotypes. Using a combination of parametric and non-parametric artificial neural network analyses we have identified key genes and regulatory pathways which may be important in early and adaptive responses to TB. Using comparisons

  3. Validation of multi-detector computed tomography as a non-invasive method for measuring ovarian volume in macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeryl C; Appt, Susan E; Werre, Stephen R; Tan, Joshua C; Kaplan, Jay R

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate low radiation dose, contrast-enhanced, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) as a non-invasive method for measuring ovarian volume in macaques. Computed tomography scans of four known-volume phantoms and nine mature female cynomolgus macaques were acquired using a previously described, low radiation dose scanning protocol, intravenous contrast enhancement, and a 32-slice MDCT scanner. Immediately following MDCT, ovaries were surgically removed and the ovarian weights were measured. The ovarian volumes were determined using water displacement. A veterinary radiologist who was unaware of actual volumes measured ovarian CT volumes three times, using a laptop computer, pen display tablet, hand-traced regions of interest, and free image analysis software. A statistician selected and performed all tests comparing the actual and CT data. Ovaries were successfully located in all MDCT scans. The iliac arteries and veins, uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix, ureters, urinary bladder, rectum, and colon were also consistently visualized. Large antral follicles were detected in six ovaries. Phantom mean CT volume was 0.702+/-SD 0.504 cc and the mean actual volume was 0.743+/-SD 0.526 cc. Ovary mean CT volume was 0.258+/-SD 0.159 cc and mean water displacement volume was 0.257+/-SD 0.145 cc. For phantoms, the mean coefficient of variation for CT volumes was 2.5%. For ovaries, the least squares mean coefficient of variation for CT volumes was 5.4%. The ovarian CT volume was significantly associated with actual ovarian volume (ICC coefficient 0.79, regression coefficient 0.5, P=0.0006) and the actual ovarian weight (ICC coefficient 0.62, regression coefficient 0.6, P=0.015). There was no association between the CT volume accuracy and mean ovarian CT density (degree of intravenous contrast enhancement), and there was no proportional or fixed bias in the CT volume measurements. Findings from this study indicate that MDCT is a valid non

  4. Reaching and grasping behavior in Macaca fascicularis: a kinematic study.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    The prehensile hand is one of the major traits distinguishing primates from other mammal species. All primates, in fact, are able to grasp an object and hold it in part or entirely using a single hand. Although there is a wealth of behavioral data regarding grasping movements in humans and apes, there is relatively little material on macaques, the animal model often used to investigate neuronal mechanisms responsible for grip control in humans. To date, evidence regarding free-ranging macaques is confined to observational data, while quantitative reports describe studies carried out in laboratory settings or in captivity. The purpose of the present study was to provide the first kinematic descriptions of basic grip behavior with regard to precision and power grips in free-ranging macaque monkeys. Video footage of those animals grasping objects was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The results revealed that the two types of grips considered are each characterized by specific kinematic signatures. It was also found that hand kinematics was scaled depending on the type of grasp needing to be adopted and the intrinsic properties of the object to be grasped. In accordance with data concerning humans, these findings indicate that the intrinsic features of an object affect the planning and control of reach-to-grasp movements even in free-ranging macaques. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative reach-to-grasp kinematics in human and non-human primates another step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment.

  5. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Guzman, Roberto E; Radi, Zaher A

    2007-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis characterized by multifocal follicular lymphoid cell infiltrates with germinal centers, thyroid acinar atrophy and pituitary cell hyperplasia/hypertrophy of the adenohypophysis was detected in a vehicle control, 4-year-old female Cynomolgus macaque in a routine toxicology study. Lymphoid cells of germinal centers were positive for the B-cell marker CD20 by immunohistochemistry (IHC), while remaining lymphocytes were positive for the T-cell marker CD3. Hypertrophied/hyperplastic pituitary cells were positive for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) by IHC, consistent with an adaptive response due to removal of hormonal negative feedback from the diseased thyroid gland. Features of this case are similar to chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in humans, an autoimmune disorder also known as Hashimoto's disease. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis with compensatory pituitary changes may occur spontaneously in young, clinically normal cynomolgus macaques and its presence in drug treated animals should be interpreted with caution.

  6. Dose-response studies on the spermatogonial stem cells of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) after X irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    van Alphen, M.M.; van de Kant, H.J.; Davids, J.A.; Warmer, C.J.; Bootsma, A.L.; de Rooij, D.G. )

    1989-09-01

    Studies of the dose response of the spermatogonial stem cells in the rhesus monkey were performed at intervals of 130 and 160 days after graded doses of X irradiation. The D0 of the spermatogonial stem cells was established using the total numbers of the type A spermatogonia that were present at 130 and 160 days after irradiation and was found to be 1.07 Gy; the 95% confidence interval was 0.90-1.34 Gy.

  7. Determination of the Infectious Dose of Helicobacter pylori during Primary and Secondary Infection in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Solnick, Jay V.; Hansen, Lori M.; Canfield, Don R.; Parsonnet, Julie

    2001-01-01

    We sought to determine the infectious dose of Helicobacter pylori during primary and secondary infection in the rhesus monkey and to determine whether preinoculation acid suppression is necessary to produce colonization. Mixed inoculation with three human-derived strains showed that H. pylori J166 is particularly adapted to colonization of rhesus monkeys, since it outcompeted two other strains. The minimum infectious dose of H. pylori J166 was 104 bacteria in specific-pathogen (H. pylori)-free monkeys. Rechallenge of these monkeys after antibiotic therapy was characterized by a 10- to 100-fold decrease in bacterial load compared to primary infection, but with little change in the infectious dose. Acid suppression prior to inoculation was not necessary for colonization to occur. These results provide a basis for future animal experiments using more ecologically relevant conditions of inoculation and suggest that reduction in bacterial load rather than complete protection may be a more realistic goal for H. pylori vaccination. PMID:11598063

  8. Evaluation of two monkey species (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis) as possible models for human Helicobacter pylori disease.

    PubMed Central

    Euler, A R; Zurenko, G E; Moe, J B; Ulrich, R G; Yagi, Y

    1990-01-01

    Endoscopic, histologic, and microbiologic evaluations of 21 cynomolgus and 34 rhesus monkeys for naturally occurring Helicobacter pylori infection were done. H. pylori was never isolated from any cynomolgus monkey, but was found in 12 rhesus monkeys. A general correlation existed between a positive culture and a gastric inflammatory response. Inoculation challenges were then undertaken. Four cynomolgus and five rhesus monkeys received two different H. pylori strains isolated from humans. Five rhesus monkeys received an isolate obtained from rhesus monkeys. Evaluation of the cynomolgus monkeys 7 and 14 days later revealed no H. pylori. Endoscopies of the rhesus monkeys were done 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days later. One rhesus monkey, which received the isolate from humans, became H. pylori positive at day 21 and remained positive through day 56. Restriction enzyme analysis of genomic DNA at day 56 revealed that the isolate was not identical to the challenge strain isolated from humans. All five rhesus monkeys that received the strain isolated from rhesus monkeys became H. pylori positive by day 14 and remained positive through day 56 Antral inflammation developed in all monkeys. Restriction enzyme analysis of genomic DNA on day 56 confirmed that four of five isolates were identical to the challenge strain isolated from rhesus monkeys. DNA hybridization documented homology between the challenge strains isolated from humans and rhesus monkeys plus those isolated at day 56. In this study, we showed that the rhesus monkey, if given a strain of H. pylori isolated from rhesus monkeys, develops a gastric infection with accompanying histological changes, making this model suitable for further development. Images PMID:2229353

  9. Oocyte glutathione and fertilisation outcome of Macaca nemestrina and Macaca fascicularis in in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes.

    PubMed

    Curnow, E C; Ryan, J P; Saunders, D M; Hayes, E S

    2010-01-01

    Fertilisation and development of IVM non-human primate oocytes is limited compared with that of in vivo-matured (IVO) oocytes. The present study describes the IVM of macaque oocytes with reference to oocyte glutathione (GSH). Timing of maturation, comparison of IVM media and cysteamine (CYS) supplementation as a modulator of GSH were investigated. A significantly greater proportion of oocytes reached MII after 30 h compared with 24 h of IVM. Following insemination, IVM oocytes had a significantly lower incidence of normal fertilisation (i.e. 2PN = two pronuclei and at least one polar body) and a higher rate of abnormal fertilisation (1PN = one pronucleus and at least one polar body) compared with IVO oocytes. Immunofluorescence of 1PN zygotes identified incomplete sperm head decondensation and failure of male pronucleus formation as the principal cause of abnormal fertilisation in IVM oocytes. The IVO oocytes had significantly higher GSH content than IVM oocytes. Cumulus-denuded oocytes had significantly lower GSH following IVM compared with immature oocytes at collection. Cysteamine supplementation of the IVM medium significantly increased the GSH level of cumulus-intact oocytes and reduced the incidence of 1PN formation, but did not improve GSH levels of the denuded oocyte. Suboptimal GSH levels in macaque IVM oocytes may be related to reduced fertilisation outcomes.

  10. Emergence and evolution of inter-specific segregating retrocopies in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Retroposition is an RNA-mediated mechanism to generate gene duplication, and is believed to play an important role in genome evolution and phenotypic adaptation in various species including primates. Previous studies suggested an elevated rate of recent retroposition in the rhesus macaque genome. To better understand the impact of retroposition on macaque species which have undergone an adaptive radiation approximately 3–6 million years ago, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify recently derived retrocopies in cynomolgus monkeys. As a result, we identified seven experimentally validated young retrocopies, all of which are polymorphic in cynomolgus monkeys. Unexpectedly, five of them are also present in rhesus monkeys and are still segregating. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicates that the observed inter-specific polymorphism is attribute to ancestral polymorphism. Further population genetics analysis provided strong evidence of balancing selection on at least one case (Crab-eating monkey retrocopy 6, or CER6) in both species. CER6 is in adjacent with an immunoglobulin related gene and may be involved in host-pathogen interaction, a well-known target of balancing selection. Altogether, our data support that retroposition is an important force to shape genome evolution and species adaptation. PMID:27600022

  11. Factors influencing reproduction in captive-bred cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Naiken, Sandiren; Griffiths, Mary-Ann; Edouard, Lindsay; Padayatchy, Nada

    2015-12-01

    The cynomolgus monkey is widely used in reproductive research. However, the effects on their reproductive parameters of infant and maternal factors such as birth order, sex of infants, twin births, maternal age and lactation status have not been fully examined. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine how such infant and maternal factors impact on infant birth weight, birth viability, neonatal loss and retained placenta in cynomolgus monkeys. The study was based on birth data from a cohort of 789 females over an eight-year period. Consistent with reports made in other macaque species, female offspring had lower birth weight compared with males. Birth weights of firstborn infants were lower compared with birth weights of higher birth order infants. Results from the logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of non-viable births was increased by advancing maternal age and retained placenta. As in other non-human primates, maternal age had predictive value for non-viable births in cynomolgus monkeys. The risk of neonatal loss decreased with advancing maternal age but was not affected by birth order. Firstborn offspring did not have an increased risk for neonatal loss, possibly from the practice of retaining mothers in their natal groups, which improved maternal skills in primiparous females. However, infant low birth weight and non-lactating females increased the risk of neonatal loss, and the delivery of low birth weight infants was associated with retained placenta. The results from this study can be useful for scientists conducting reproductive studies and for colony managers in maximizing fertility and infant survival of cynomolgus monkeys.

  12. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys.

  13. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    CUI, Ding; ZHOU, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status. PMID:26646570

  14. Histopathology of Incidental Findings in Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca Fascicularis) Used in Toxicity Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Junko; Doi, Takuya; Kanno, Takeshi; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru; Narama, Isao

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our publication is to widely communicate pictures of spontaneous findings occurring in cynomolgus monkeys. Focal lymphoplasmacytic infiltration is commonly seen in the general organs. The frequency and severity of these lesions may be influenced by the administration of drugs with an effect on the immune system. Lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the lamina propria of the stomach is also frequently seen in cynomolgus monkeys, and it is caused mainly by a Helicobacter pylori infection. Various degrees of brown pigments are observed in various organs, and it is possible to distinguish the material of the pigments by its morphological features and site. A focal/segmental glomerular lesion is occasionally seen in a section of the kidney, and the minimal lesion has no influence on the urinalysis. We showed the common glomerular lesions in HE-stained sections, as well as in PAM- or PAS-stained sections, for understanding the details. Young and pubertal monkeys are usually used in toxicity studies; therefore, understanding various maturation stages of the genital system is important. In particular, the female genital system needs to be understood in the morphology, because their cyclic changes are different from other laboratory animals. Thus, we present the normal features of the cyclic changes of the female genital organs. Furthermore, we provide more information on spontaneous findings in cynomolgus monkeys for exact diagnoses in toxicity studies. PMID:22481861

  15. Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar infections in captive macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Windell L; Yason, John Anthony D L; Adao, Davin Edric V

    2010-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that infects man and animals. This parasite has a global distribution and the disease it causes is usually characterized by diarrhea. In order to detect the parasite, it is necessary to differentiate it from Entamoeba dispar. E. dispar appears morphologically similar to E. histolytica but does not cause disease and tissue invasion. This study reports on the prevalence of E. histolytica and E. dispar among captive macaques in a primate facility in the Philippines. PCR was used to correctly identify both Entamoeba species. Indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was also performed to determine the seroprevalence of amebiasis in the captive macaques. Based on PCR targeting of the peroxiredoxin gene, of the 96 stool samples collected, 23 (24%) contained E. histolytica while 32 (33%) contained E. dispar. IFAT revealed 26 (27%) serum samples positive for antibodies against E. histolytica. Sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene showed that the 23 E. histolytica isolates were identical to human E. histolytica isolates deposited in the GenBank and not Entamoeba nuttalli as found in macaques in other recent reports. The Philippines is a major exporter of monkeys for biomedical research purposes, so screening animals before transporting them to other locations lessens the risk of spreading zoonoses to a wider area. This is the first report of the molecular detection of E. histolytica and E. dispar among macaques in the Philippines. This study complements the limited information available on the animal hosts of E. histolytica in the Philippines.

  16. Structural and functional definition of the motor cortex in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Sessle, B J; Wiesendanger, M

    1982-02-01

    1. The details of the organization of the motor cortex and its anterior and posterior border were investigated in three monkeys by a combination of techniques including intracortical microstimulation (i.c.m.s.), electrophysiological recording of cutaneous and muscle afferent inputs to single cortical neurones, and electrophysiological and anatomical identification of corticospinal neurones; in addition, data from these methods were related to cortical cytoarchitecture.2. Almost 5000 individual cortical loci were tested with i.c.m.s. in the unanaesthetized monkeys. In this paper, we particularly consider the organization of the forelimb motor representation, and its relation to the representation of other parts of the body. I.c.m.s. thresholds of about 5 muA were common for evoking twitch movements and e.m.g. responses in distal forelimb and face, jaw and tongue muscles, but proximal forelimb, trunk and hind-limb movements also sometimes had such low thresholds.3. The fingers were found to be represented nearest the central sulcus, with horseshoe-shaped bands of cortical tissue representing progressively more proximal muscles situated around this central ;finger core'.4. Cytoarchitectonically, the cortex having these low-threshold motor effects was characteristic of area 4. There was also a close fit between the extent of this ;excitable cortex' and the extent of densely spaced corticospinal neurones identified electro-physiologically or with horseradish peroxidase labelling. In subsequent mapping of forelimb afferents to the cortex when the animal was deeply anaesthetized, low-threshold and short-latency responses to muscle nerve stimulation were rarely found in this ;excitable cortex'.5. The anterior border could be clearly established by i.c.m.s. and by the sharp boundary of corticospinal neurones. It was noted that the motor cortex extends rostrally beyond area 4 and its anterior border appears to reside in the posterior part of area 6aalpha (Vogt & Vogt, 1919) although it is difficult to establish the precise transition from area 4 to area 6.6. Posteriorly, the ;micro-excitable cortex' was found to be limited to regions cytoarchitectonically delineated as area 4 and did not include area 3a. On the other hand, low-threshold forelimb proprioceptive afferent inputs appeared restricted to area 3a neurones in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Corticospinal neurones were very dense in area 4, and there was a clear decrease in their occurrence in more caudal areas. However, scattered nests of corticospinal neurones were noted in areas 3a, 3b, 2, 1 and 5. It remains to be seen whether these scattered nests could be directly involved in motor control or whether they may modulate ascending somatosensory transmission, and whether they rely on sensory feed-back or inputs from other central areas for their spinal effects.

  17. Nonsurgical repair of a pseudoaneurysm in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Daviau, Judith S; Merton, Daniel A

    2010-09-01

    A cynomolgus macaque presented with an ecchymotic and edematous left leg approximately 1 wk after a blood sample had been collected from the left femoral vein. Ecchymosis was noted in the femoral triangle, prepuce, and scrotum. The animal was not febrile or exhibiting signs of pain or distress. Duplex Doppler ultrasound imaging was used to evaluate the area. An arteriovenous fistula between the femoral artery and vein, accompanied by a pseudoaneurysm arising from the femoral artery, was identified. Various invasive and noninvasive treatment options for the pseudoaneurysm, including surgical repair, thrombin injection, stent placement, and ultrasound-guided compression repair (UGCR), were considered. UGCR was chosen as the first option for treatment. After a total of 20 min of UGCR at the neck of the pseudoaneurysm, complete thrombosis was achieved. Subsequent imaging of the lesion revealed resolution of the pseudoaneurysm. Because of the risks involved with invasive management techniques for this vascular lesion, UGCR is a valuable noninvasive treatment option for the repair of pseudoaneurysms.

  18. Effects of Ketamine on Metabolomics of Serum and Urine in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xueying; Zeng, Xiancheng; Hong, Jiehua; Yuan, Congli; Cui, Li; Ma, Jing; Chang, Yan; Hua, Xiuguo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a metabolomics approach based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and pertinent multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the effect of ketamine on metabolic markers in cynomolgus macaques. Principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis showed that ketamine (10 mg/kg) induced metabolic perturbations. Compared with the control group, ketamine-treated macaques had lower serum levels of α-glucose, myoinositol, lactate and succinate and lower urine levels of pyruvate and lactate. In contrast, the levels of leucine in serum and arginine in urine were significantly higher in the ketamine group. Our results also demonstrated that a single injection of ketamine influenced the major energy and amino acid metabolic pathways in cynomolgus macaques. Our study suggests that these influences should be considered in the design of experiments and the interpretation related blood and urine data from ketamine-sedated cynomolgus macaques. PMID:27657710

  19. Nonsurgical Repair of a Pseudoaneurysm in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Daviau, Judith S; Merton, Daniel A

    2010-01-01

    A cynomolgus macaque presented with an ecchymotic and edematous left leg approximately 1 wk after a blood sample had been collected from the left femoral vein. Ecchymosis was noted in the femoral triangle, prepuce, and scrotum. The animal was not febrile or exhibiting signs of pain or distress. Duplex Doppler ultrasound imaging was used to evaluate the area. An arteriovenous fistula between the femoral artery and vein, accompanied by a pseudoaneurysm arising from the femoral artery, was identified. Various invasive and noninvasive treatment options for the pseudoaneurysm, including surgical repair, thrombin injection, stent placement, and ultrasound-guided compression repair (UGCR), were considered. UGCR was chosen as the first option for treatment. After a total of 20 min of UGCR at the neck of the pseudoaneurysm, complete thrombosis was achieved. Subsequent imaging of the lesion revealed resolution of the pseudoaneurysm. Because of the risks involved with invasive management techniques for this vascular lesion, UGCR is a valuable noninvasive treatment option for the repair of pseudoaneurysms. PMID:20858370

  20. Monitoring gene expression in muscle tissue of macaca fascicularis under the influence of testosterone and SARM.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Martina; Tichopad, Ales; Riedmaier, Irmgard; Pfaffl, Michael W; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to evaluate data on the gene expression profiles induced by testosterone and a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM, TAP Pharmaceutical Products Inc., Lake Forest, IL, USA) in androgen sensitive muscle tissue to obtain a better understanding on the molecular mechanisms of action and to identify biomarkers for SARM function in primate organs. A total of 24 male cyomolgus monkeys were divided into four groups: testosterone group, SARM1 group, SARM10 group, and control group, each consisting of six animals. The testosterone group was treated i.m. with 3.0 mg/kg Testostoviron®-depot-250 (Schering, Berlin, Germany) every 2 weeks, the SARM1 and SARM10 groups with 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg SARM LGD2941 daily, and the control group was not treated. Muscle biopsies from musculus quadriceps and musculus triceps were collected at three time points: baseline time point before SARM application (control), on day 16, and on day 90 of treatment. A total of 30 candidate genes were selected according to their functionality by screening the actual literature and were composed to the following functional groups: cell cycle, endocrine factors, energy metabolism, muscle fiber proteins, muscle specific transcription factors, protein metabolism, and satellite cell biology. Biomarkers were identified as genes regulated from baseline in any of the three treatment groups at day 16 or day 90 using analysis of variance with baseline defined as the contrast group. Out of 23 tested candidate genes, 3 were significantly regulated in m. quadriceps after 90 days treatment; in m. triceps no significant differences were identified. Cathepsin L, calpain 3, and insulin like growth factor binding protein 3 could be identified as first biomarkers, and first physiological differences between control and treatment samples were determined. Both testosterone and SARM LGD2941 appear to have similar effects after 90 days treatment, and thus a longer-term therapy with these substances can be recommended.

  1. Survey of prevalence of overweight body condition in laboratory-housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Sharon A; Leslie, Ken E; Pearl, David L; Fournier, Jocelyn; Turner, Patricia V

    2010-07-01

    Excessive weight gain has been reported to occur in captive cynomolgus macaques with little to no change in diet. Overweight body condition can result in development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes and should be avoided. The purpose of this survey was to assess the prevalence of overweight cynomolgus macaques in North American research facilities, including breeding colonies and short-term and long-term facilities, and to describe current methods used to assess body condition. The survey consisted of 51 questions covering animal population demographics, body weight and body condition scoring, feeding, and behavior. Voluntary participants included veterinarians and animal care managers. Respondents from 13 facilities completed the survey, and information was collected on 17,500 cynomolgus macaques. The majority of surveyed facilities housed juvenile and young adult macaques. The reported prevalence of overweight (greater than 10% of ideal body weight) animals ranged between 0% and 20% and reportedly was more frequent in animals younger than 10 y. Most facilities had weight reduction strategies in place. Despite these programs, a significant proportion of animals were reported as being overweight. The results of this survey demonstrate that most North American facilities housing cynomolgus macaques recognize the importance of tracking body condition regularly. However, implementing effective weight reduction programs may be difficult in captive housing environments. Because of the potential for adverse health effects, facilities should have a means of regularly tracking body weight as well as an action plan for managing overweight animals.

  2. Comparison of Methods for Determining ABO Blood Type in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae M; Park, Hyojun; Cho, Kahee; Kim, Jong S; Park, Mi K; Choi, Ju Y; Park, Jae B; Park, Wan J; Kim, Sung J

    2015-05-01

    Thorough examination of ABO blood type in cynomolgus monkeys is an essential experimental step to prevent humoral rejection during transplantation research. In the present study, we evaluated current methods of ABO blood-antigen typing in cynomolgus monkeys by comparing the outcomes obtained by reverse hemagglutination, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, and buccal mucosal immunohistochemistry. Among 21 animals, 5 were type A regardless of the method. However, of 8 serologically type B animals, 3 had a heterozygous type AB SNP profile, among which 2 failed to express A antigen, as shown by immunohistochemical analysis. Among 8 serologically type AB animals, 2 appeared to be type A by SNP analysis and immunohistochemistry. None of the methods identified any type O subjects. We conclude that the expression of ABO blood-group antigens is regulated by an incompletely understood process and that using both SNP and immunohistochemistry might minimize the risk of incorrect results obtained from the conventional hemagglutination assay.

  3. Sexual dimorphism of sulcal length asymmetry in the cerebrum of adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Imai, Noritaka; Sawada, Kazuhiko; Fukunishi, Katsuhiro; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Fukui, Yoshihiro

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to quantitatively clarify the gross anatomical asymmetry and sexual dimorphism of the cerebral hemispheres of cynomolgus monkeys. While the fronto-occipital length of the right and left cerebral hemispheres was not different between sexes, a statistically significant rightward asymmetry was detected in the cerebral width at the perisylvian region in females, but not in males (narrower width of the left side in the females). An asymmetry quotient of the sulcal lengths revealed a rightward asymmetry in the inferior occipital sulcus and a leftward asymmetry in the central and intraparietal sulci in both sexes. However, the laterality of the lengths of other sulci was different for males and females. The arcuate sulcus was directed rightward in males but there was no rightward bias in females. Interestingly, the principle sulcus and lateral fissure were left-lateralized in the males, but right-lateralized in the females. The results suggest that lateralization patterns are regionally and sexually different in the cerebrum of cynomolgus monkeys. The present results provide a reference for quantitatively evaluating the normality of the cerebral cortical morphology in cynomolgus monkeys.

  4. Postnatal change in sulcal length asymmetry in cerebrum of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kazuhito; Sawada, Kazuhiko; Fukunishi, Katsuhiro; Noritaka, Imai; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Yoshihiro, Fukui

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the timing of the onset of adult-type sulcal length asymmetry during postnatal development of the male cynomolgus monkey cerebrum. The monkey brain has already reached adult size by 3 months of age, although the body weight only represents 1/8 of the adult body weight by that time. The fronto-occipital length and the cerebral width also reached adult levels by that postnatal age with no left/right bias. Consistently, lengths of the major primary sulci reached adult levels by 3 months of age, and then decreased slightly in sexually mature monkeys (4-6.5 years of age). Asymmetry quotient analysis showed that sulcal length asymmetry patterns gradually changed during postnatal development. The male adult pattern of sulcal length asymmetry was acquired after 24 months of age. In particular, age-dependent rightward lateralization of the arcuate sulcal length was revealed during cerebral maturation by three-way ANOVA. The results suggest that the regional difference in cerebral maturation from adolescence to young adulthood modifies the sulcal morphology with characteristic asymmetric patterns in male cynomolgus monkeys.

  5. Reference values of clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) used in preclinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Kyu; Cho, Jae-Woo; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Park, Heejin; Han, Ji-Seok; Yang, Mi-Jin; Im, Wan-Jung; Park, Do-Yong; Kim, Woo-Jin; Han, Su-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are increasingly used in biomedical research since they are highly homologous to humans compared to other rodent animals. However, there is limited reliable reference data of the clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys, and in particular, only some coagulation and urinalysis parameters have been reported. Here, we reported the reference data of clinical chemical, hematological, blood coagulation, and urinalysis parameters in cynomolgus monkeys. The role of sex differences was analyzed and several parameters (including hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cell, blood urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine kinase, gamma-glutamyl tranferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) significantly differed between male and female subjects. In addition, compared to previous study results, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase showed significant variation. Interstudy differences could be affected by several factors, including age, sex, geographic origin, presence/absence of anesthetics, fasting state, and the analytical methods used. Therefore, it is important to deliberate with the overall reference indices. In conclusion, the current study provides a comprehensive and updated reference data of the clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys and provides improved assessment criteria for evaluating preclinical studies or biomedical research. PMID:27382375

  6. Reticulospinal neurons in the pontomedullary reticular formation of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Sakai, S T; Davidson, A G; Buford, J A

    2009-11-10

    Recent neurophysiological studies indicate a role for reticulospinal neurons of the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) in motor preparation and goal-directed reaching in the monkey. Although the macaque monkey is an important model for such investigations, little is known regarding the organization of the PMRF in the monkey. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of reticulospinal neurons in the macaque. Bilateral injections of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) were made into the cervical spinal cord. A wide band of retrogradely labeled cells was found in the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi) and labeled cells continued rostrally into the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC) and into the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO). Additional retrograde tracing studies following unilateral cervical spinal cord injections of cholera toxin subunit B revealed that there were more ipsilateral (60%) than contralateral (40%) projecting cells in Gi, while an approximately 50:50 ratio contralateral to ipsilateral split was found in PnC and more contralateral projections arose from PnO. Reticulospinal neurons in PMRF ranged widely in size from over 50 microm to under 25 microm across the major somatic axis. Labeled giant cells (soma diameters greater than 50 microm) comprised a small percentage of the neurons and were found in Gi, PnC and PnO. The present results define the origins of the reticulospinal system in the monkey and provide an important foundation for future investigations of the anatomy and physiology of this system in primates.

  7. An epizootic of lymphoplasmacytic gastritis attributed to Helicobacter pylori infection in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Reindel, J F; Fitzgerald, A L; Breider, M A; Gough, A W; Yan, C; Mysore, J V; Dubois, A

    1999-01-01

    An epizootic of subclinical lymphoplasmacytic gastritis occurred in cynomolgus monkeys maintained at our research facility. Gastric pathology data and histologic sections of 63 adolescent monkeys (2.5-3.5 years old) sacrificed during the epizootic were reviewed. Localized to multifocal reddening of the gastric mucosa was noted grossly in 7 of 44 (16%) monkeys harboring Helicobacter pylori, but not in any of 19 monkeys in which these bacteria were not seen. Gastritis, characterized by accentuation of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in antral and to a lesser degree cardiac mucosa, occurred in 42 of 63 (67%) monkeys evaluated and in 42 of 44 (93%) monkeys in which H. pylori was observed microscopically. Two monkeys with H. pylori infection had infiltrate scores that overlapped with the upper limit of scores of H. pylori-negative animals. Coincident with accentuated infiltrates were gastric gland epithelial hyperplasia, reduction in mucin content of surface and gland epithelia, and comparatively minor infiltrates of neutrophils in superficial lamina propria and gastric glands. Antral mucosa thickness often exceeded 1.5 to 2 times normal. Antral mucosal erosions occurred in 7 of 44 (16%) monkeys with H. pylori. Argyrophilic bacteria morphologically consistent with H. pylori were present in antral and less commonly cardiac mucosal glands. Intensity of bacterial colonization correlated with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates (r = 0.754) and hyperplasia (r = 0.700), although responses were quite variable. These bacteria were not detected in fundic mucosa except in instances where parietal cells were substantially depleted in glands coincident with localized increases in lamina propria inflammatory cell infiltrates. Helicobacter heilmannii-like organisms (HHLOs) were present in fundic glands of all 63 monkeys; colonization was often pronounced. Scores for fundic mucosal inflammation did not correlate with presence or intensity of colonization with HHLOs (r = 0.005). Rather, fundic inflammation scores positively correlated with the antral inflammation scores (r = 0.548). Bacteria morphologically, biochemically, and genetically consistent with H. pylori were cultured from gastric mucosal specimens confirming bacterial identification. These findings demonstrate that adolescent cynomolgus monkeys are susceptible to natural infection with H. pylori and develop many morphologic hallmarks of H. pylori-related gastritis in humans.

  8. Limited susceptibility of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) to leprosy after experimental administration of Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Gerald P; Dela Cruz, Eduardo C; Abalos, Rodolfo M; Tan, Esterlina V; Fajardo, Tranquilino T; Villahermosa, Laarni G; Cellona, Roland V; Balagon, Maria V; White, Valerie A; Saunderson, Paul R; Walsh, Douglas S

    2012-08-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are a useful model for human tuberculosis, but susceptibility to M. leprae is unknown. A cynomolgus model of leprosy could increase understanding of pathogenesis-importantly, neuritis and nerve-damaging reactions. We administered viable Mycobacterium leprae to 24 cynomolgus monkeys by three routes, with a median follow-up period of 6 years (range = 1-19 years) involving biopsies, nasal smears, antiphenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) antibody serology, and lepromin skin testing. Most developed evanescent papules at intradermal M. leprae inoculation sites that, on biopsy, showed a robust cellular immune response akin to a lepromin skin test reaction; many produced PGL-1 antibodies. At necropsy, four monkeys, without cutaneous or gross neurological signs of leprosy but with elevated PGL-1 antibodies, including three with nasal smears (+) for acid fast bacilli (AFB), showed histological features, including AFB, suggestive of leprosy at several sites. Overall, however, cynomolgus monkeys seem minimally susceptible to leprosy after experimental M. leprae administration.

  9. [TRIMCyp frequency of the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in captivity in China].

    PubMed

    Tian, Shuai; Meng, Yu-Huan; Liu, Ming-Yu; Sun, Fei; Chen, Jun-Hui; Du, Hong-Li; Wang, Xiao-Ning

    2013-04-01

    In most Old world monkey species, TRIM5α plays a role in combating retroviruses and restricting HIV-1. Alongside TRIM5α, the TRIMCyp fusion gene formed by the retrotransposition of a CypA pseudogene cDNA to 3' terminal or 3'-UTR of TRIM5 gene in these monkeys has become a key research area in anti HIV-1 factors. The regional differences, gene frequencies, genotypes, and retrovirus restrictive activities of TRIMCyp vary among different primate species. While the frequencies of cynomolgus TRIMCyp have been studied in several areas of Southeast Asia, the frequency and prevalence of cynomolgus TRIMCyp in China remains unclear. In this study, we screened 1, 594 cynomolgus samples from 11 monkey manufacturers located across 5 provinces in China. Our results showed that the frequencies of TRIMCyp range from 7.65% to 19.79%, markedly lower than the frequencies found in monkey species in the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia (ranging from 34.85% to 100%). We speculate that potentially the latter were isolated groups established since 1978. The NE haplotype frequencies of cynomolgus TRIMCyp were 4.93% in China, also significantly lower than those found in species in the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia (from 11.1% to 14.3%). Our research provides interesting findings that contribute towards a more firm basis of further studies of HIV-1 animal models and relevant pathogenesis.

  10. Antibody Responses in the Nonhuman Primate, Macaca Fascicularis, to Protein Toxins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    LITERATURE REVIEW A. General Animal models have been used in the past for investigation and manipulation of disease related parameters which cannot be... IgG4 A. The data reflect an expression of each subclass proportionally related to the total IgG response. to z z w z 01 U’) CD) C) (Ua 0s )S1A aGI 89...0, IgG2 +, IgG3 0, IgG4 A. The data reflect an expression of each subclass proportionally related to the total IgG response. 0O m z z, w U)Iz U) 2

  11. Experimental Infection of Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with Aerosolized Monkeypox Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Aerobiological Sciences for conducting the aerosol sprays of animals, the personnel of the Veterinary Medicine Division for the care and handling of the...disease: the inside story of eradicating a worldwide killer. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. 23. Swearengen JR (2006) Biodefense: research methodology

  12. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan

    2015-11-18

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status.

  13. The cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) is the best animal model for the study of steroid glucuronidation.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Olivier; Bélanger, Alain

    2003-06-01

    Intense research efforts performed during the past decade clearly established the major role of glucuronidation and uridine-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes for steroid metabolism in humans. However, a clear understanding of the physiological importance of this metabolic process requires in vivo studies. Numerous evidences ascertain that simians are the most appropriate animal models for such studies. Indeed human and monkey have a similar pattern of steroidogenesis, unlike common laboratory mammals such as rat or mouse. Furthermore, human and monkey are unique in having high levels of circulating androsterone glucuronide and androstane-3alpha-diol glucuronide (3alpha-Diol-G). In addition, characterization of eight monkey UGT proteins demonstrated the similarity of their conjugation activity toward steroid hormones. Like human ones, monkey enzymes are expressed in steroid target tissues, where they preferentially glucuronidate androgen and estrogen metabolites. In monkey tissues, immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that UGT2B proteins are expressed in a cell-type specific manner in ovary and kidney, where they control androgens and aldosterone inactivation. These results identify the cynomolgus monkey as an appropriate animal model for the determination of cellular localization of UGT enzymes in steroid target tissues and for the identification of endogenous or exogenous stimuli affecting steroid glucuronidation.

  14. Mapping of FGF1 in the Medulla Oblongata of Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Bisem, Naomi J; Takeuchi, Shigeko; Imamura, Toru; Abdelalim, Essam M; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2012-12-26

    FGF1 is highly expressed in neurons and it has been proposed to play a role in the neuroprotection and in regeneration. Low FGF1 expression in neurons has been linked to increased vulnerability in cholinergic neurons. Previous reports have shown that the expression of FGF1 in rat brain is localized to the cholinergic nuclei of the medulla oblongata, with low ratio of neurons positive for FGF1 in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV). The role of FGF1 in the primate brain has yet to be clarified. In this study, we mapped FGF1 immunoreactivity in the medulla oblongata of cynomolgus monkey brainstems. Our results demonstrated that FGF1 immunoreactivity follows the pattern of distribution of cholinergic nuclei in the medulla oblongata; with strong localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus, the facial nucleus and the nucleus ambiguus. In contrast, the DMNV shows markedly lower FGF1 immunoreactivity. Localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons was only observed in the lateral region of the DMNV, with higher immunoreactivity in the rostral ventral-lateral region of the DMNV. These findings are consistent with the distribution of FGF1 immunoreactivity in previous studies of the rat brain.

  15. Effects of Transportation on Antioxidant Status in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xueying; Lu, Liang; Zeng, Xiancheng; Chang, Yan; Hua, Xiuguo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of transportation on oxidative stress in cynomolgus monkeys, we measured serum levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl (PC) and the activities of total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase in cynomolgus macaques before transportation (day 0), on the day of arrival (day 1), and on days 7, 14, and 21 after transportation. Compared with that on day 0, TAOC and catalase activities on days 1, 7, and 14 after transportation were significantly decreased, reached their nadirs on day 7, and increased thereafter to reach their pretransportation levels by day 21 after transportation. Compared with day 0 levels, mean SOD activity and GSH concentration were decreased significantly on day 1; they thereafter increased to reach their pretransportation measures by day 7 after transportation. In contrast, PC and malondialdehyde concentrations in serum and the activity of GSH-Px were increased on day 1 compared with day 0 and thereafter decreased to reach their pretransportation levels by day 14 after transportation. In summary, GSH, TAOC, catalase, and SOD levels decreased and malondialdehyde, PC, and GSH-Px concentrations increased in cynomolgus macaques after transportation. These results suggest that transportation might imbalance oxidant and antioxidant levels to create excess oxidative stress in cynomolgus macaques. Therefore, cynomolgus macaques should have at least 21 d to recover after transportation and regain their healthy status. PMID:27657707

  16. Population and landscape genetics of an introduced species (M. fascicularis) on the island of Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Satkoski Trask, Jessica; George, Debra; Houghton, Paul; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2013-01-01

    The cynomolgus macaque, Macaca fascicularis, was introduced onto the island of Mauritius in the early 17(th) century. The species experienced explosive population growth, and currently exists at high population densities. Anecdotes collected from nonhuman primate trappers on the island of Mauritius allege that animals from the northern portion of the island are larger in body size than and superior in condition to their conspecifics in the south. Although previous genetic studies have reported Mauritian cynomolgus macaques to be panmictic, the individuals included in these studies were either from the southern/central or an unknown portion of the island. In this study, we sampled individuals broadly throughout the entire island of Mauritius and used spatial principle component analysis to measure the fine-scale correlation between geographic and genetic distance in this population. A stronger correlation between geographic and genetic distance was found among animals in the north than in those in the southern and central portions of the island. We found no difference in body weight between the two groups, despite anecdotal evidence to the contrary. We hypothesize that the increased genetic structure among populations in the north is related to a reduction in dispersal distance brought about by human habitation and tourist infrastructure, but too recent to have produced true genetic differentiation.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina based on D-loop region sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Latiff M. A., B.; Ampeng, A.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain B., M.

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysian pig-tailed macaques have never been established even though the data are crucial in aiding conservation plan for the species. The aims of this study is to establish the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca nemestrina in Malaysia. A total of 21 genetic samples of M. nemestrina yielding 458 bp of D-loop sequences were used in phylogenetic analyses, in addition to one sample of M. fascicularis which was used as an outgroup. Sequence character analysis revealed that D-loop locus contains 23% parsimony informative character detected among the ingroups. Further analysis indicated a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula populations are separated from Borneo Insular population; and Perak population formed a distinctive clade within Peninsular Malaysia populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo population was distinguished from Peninsula population (100% bootstrap value in the NJ, MP, 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). Perak's population was separated from other Peninsula populations (100% in NJ, 99% in MP and 1.00 in Bayesian). D-loop region of mtDNA is proven to be a suitable locus in studying the separation of M. nemestrina at population level. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

  18. Use of Operant Performance to Guide and Evaluate Medical Treatment in an Adult Male Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    treatment. The affected monkey received ketoprofen , buprenorphine, or their combination but continued to perform poorly during daily operant behavioral...evening administration of buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg IM) was added to the treatment regimen of ketoprofen (2.0 mg/kg IM) ad- ministration in the...well below the reinforced band. Treatment with ketoprofen or the ketoprofen -buprenorphine combination failed to increase mean response duration

  19. Visible Lesion Laser Thresholds in Cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) Retina with a 1064-nm, 12-ns Pulsed Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    only 20 of the planned 25 exposures. : Visible Lesion from Test Laser 40r, Marker Lesions Figure 3. Cynomolgus retinal image from fundus camera...assure co-alignment of the fundus camera with the higher-energy test beam. An 80/20 beam splitter was placed in the coincidental optical path of a... fundus camera (Topcon Model TRC 50X) with the higher-power reflected beam being directed through the dilated pupil to the retina of the monkey. The low

  20. Effect of sodium phytate on the chemical and microbial composition of dental plaque in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed

    Cole, M F; Bowen, W H

    1975-01-01

    The incorporation of 1 or 3% sodium phytate in confectioners sugar produced minimal changes in the physical,chemical, and microbial composition of dental plaque in tube-fed monkeys during a two-week period. Only a reduction in yeasts and lactobacilli could be ascribed to the presence of phytate. Other changes were attributable to the transition from conventional feeding to tube-feeding, irrespective of the presence of absence of phytate.

  1. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features of compressive cervical myelopathy with traumatic intervertebral disc herniation in cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Hye-Jin; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Jung, Kyeong Cheon; Park, Seong Hoe

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) with nucleus pulposus extrusion, traumatic or not, is a devastating clinical condition accompanied by neurological problems. Here we report a cynomolgus macaque suffering from acute and progressive neurological dysfunction by a blunt trauma due to neck collar, an animal handling device. Tetraplegia, urinary incontinence, decreased proprioception, and imperception of pain were shown on physical and neurological examinations. MRI sagittal T2 weighted sequences revealed an extensive protrusion of disc material between C2 and C3 cervical vertebra, and this protrusion resulted in central stenosis of the spinal cord. Histopathologic findings showed a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated at sites of spinal cord injury (SCI). This case is the first report of compressive cervical SCI caused by IVDH associated with blunt trauma. PMID:28053621

  2. Efficacy of selective PDE4D negative allosteric modulators in the object retrieval task in female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Jane S; Beaumont, Vahri; Watson, James M; Chew, Chang Sing; Beconi, Maria; Hutcheson, Daniel M; Dominguez, Celia; Munoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signalling plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and information processing in the hippocampal and basal ganglia systems. The augmentation of cAMP signalling through the selective inhibition of phosphodiesterases represents a viable strategy to treat disorders associated with dysfunction of these circuits. The phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 4 inhibitor rolipram has shown significant pro-cognitive effects in neurological disease models, both in rodents and primates. However, competitive non-isoform selective PDE4 inhibitors have a low therapeutic index which has stalled their clinical development. Here, we demonstrate the pro-cognitive effects of selective negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of PDE4D, D159687 and D159797 in female Cynomolgous macaques, in the object retrieval detour task. The efficacy displayed by these NAMs in a primate cognitive task which engages the corticostriatal circuitry, together with their suitable pharmacokinetic properties and safety profiles, suggests that clinical development of these allosteric modulators should be considered for the treatment of a variety of brain disorders associated with cognitive decline.

  3. Efficacy of Selective PDE4D Negative Allosteric Modulators in the Object Retrieval Task in Female Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, Jane S.; Beaumont, Vahri; Watson, James M.; Chew, Chang Sing; Beconi, Maria; Hutcheson, Daniel M.; Dominguez, Celia; Munoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signalling plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and information processing in the hippocampal and basal ganglia systems. The augmentation of cAMP signalling through the selective inhibition of phosphodiesterases represents a viable strategy to treat disorders associated with dysfunction of these circuits. The phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 4 inhibitor rolipram has shown significant pro-cognitive effects in neurological disease models, both in rodents and primates. However, competitive non-isoform selective PDE4 inhibitors have a low therapeutic index which has stalled their clinical development. Here, we demonstrate the pro-cognitive effects of selective negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of PDE4D, D159687 and D159797 in female Cynomolgous macaques, in the object retrieval detour task. The efficacy displayed by these NAMs in a primate cognitive task which engages the corticostriatal circuitry, together with their suitable pharmacokinetic properties and safety profiles, suggests that clinical development of these allosteric modulators should be considered for the treatment of a variety of brain disorders associated with cognitive decline. PMID:25050979

  4. Variation in hair δ13C and δ15N values in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Singapore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schillaci, Michael A.; Castellini, J. Margaret; Stricker, Craig A.; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Lee, Benjamin P.Y.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the primatology literature on stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) has focused on African and New World species, with comparatively little research published on Asian primates. Here we present hair δ13C and δ15N isotope values for a sample of 33 long-tailed macaques from Singapore. We evaluate the suggestion by a previous researcher that forest degradation and biodiversity loss in Singapore have led to a decline in macaque trophic level. The results of our analysis indicated significant spatial variability in δ13C but not δ15N. The range of variation in δ13C was consistent with a diet based on C3 resources, with one group exhibiting low values consistent with a closed canopy environment. Relative to other macaque species from Europe and Asia, the macaques from Singapore exhibited a low mean δ13C value but mid-range mean δ15N value. Previous research suggesting a decline in macaque trophic level is not supported by the results of our study.

  5. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features of compressive cervical myelopathy with traumatic intervertebral disc herniation in cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Hye-Jin; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Jung, Kyeong Cheon; Park, Seong Hoe; Lee, Jae-Il

    2016-12-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) with nucleus pulposus extrusion, traumatic or not, is a devastating clinical condition accompanied by neurological problems. Here we report a cynomolgus macaque suffering from acute and progressive neurological dysfunction by a blunt trauma due to neck collar, an animal handling device. Tetraplegia, urinary incontinence, decreased proprioception, and imperception of pain were shown on physical and neurological examinations. MRI sagittal T2 weighted sequences revealed an extensive protrusion of disc material between C2 and C3 cervical vertebra, and this protrusion resulted in central stenosis of the spinal cord. Histopathologic findings showed a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated at sites of spinal cord injury (SCI). This case is the first report of compressive cervical SCI caused by IVDH associated with blunt trauma.

  6. The anthropogenic environment lessens the intensity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Balinese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Lane, Kelly E; Holley, Concerta; Hollocher, Hope; Fuentes, Agustin

    2011-04-01

    The distribution of wildlife parasites in a landscape is intimately tied to the spatial distribution of hosts. In parasite species, including many gastrointestinal parasites, with obligate or common environmental life stages, the dynamics of the parasite can also be strongly affected by geophysical components of the environment. This is especially salient in host species, for example humans and macaques, which thrive across a wide variety of habitat types and quality and so are exposed to a wealth of environmentally resilient parasites. Here, we examine the effect of environmental and anthropogenic components of the landscape on the prevalence, intensity, and species diversity of gastrointestinal parasites across a metapopulation of long-tailed macaques on the island of Bali, Indonesia. Using principal-components analysis, we identified significant interaction effects between specific environmental and anthropogenic components of the landscape, parsing the Balinese landscape into anthropogenic (PC1), mixed environment (PC2), and non-anthropogenic (PC3) components. Further, we determined that the anthropogenic environment can mitigate the prevalence and intensity of specific gut parasites and the intensity of the overall community of gut parasites, but that non-anthropogenically driven landscape components have no significant effect in increasing or reducing the intensity or prevalence of the community of gut parasites in Balinese macaques.

  7. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  8. Activation of innate immunity in healthy Macaca mulatta macaques by a single subcutaneous dose of GMP CpG 7909: safety data and interferon-inducible protein-10 kinetics for humans and macaques.

    PubMed

    Stewart, V Ann; McGrath, Shannon; Krieg, Arthur M; Larson, Noelle S; Angov, Evelina; Smith, Christopher L; Brewer, Thomas G; Heppner, D Gray

    2008-02-01

    Following a demonstration that mouse-optimized cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides stimulated innate immune protection against intracellular pathogens, we tested the ability of CpG 7909, a primate-optimized Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, to stimulate rhesus macaques to produce interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), a biomarker of immune activation. This study was performed prior to a similar trial with humans in order to facilitate the development of CpG 7909 as an immunomodulator for biodefense. A single subcutaneous dose of clinical-grade CpG 7909 was given to four groups of healthy adult rhesus macaques (0-mg dose [n = 5], 0.75-mg dose [n = 9], 1.5-mg dose [n = 9], and 3.0-mg dose [n = 9]). Directed physical examination findings, clinical laboratory values, and serum IP-10 concentrations were collected at scheduled intervals for 28 days. All three dose levels of CpG 7909 were safe and not associated with significant clinical or laboratory abnormality. The time to peak serum IP-10 concentration was 1.0 days at the 0.75-mg dose and 0.5 days at the 1.5- and 3.0-mg doses. A dose-dependent response was observed for the magnitude and duration of IP-10 concentrations, which remained significantly above baseline for 3 days for the 3.0-mg and 1.5-mg dose groups but above baseline for only 2 days for the 0.75-mg dose group. There were no nonresponders to CpG 7909. These rhesus macaque safety and IP-10 response data closely parallel a subsequent phase 1 human study of subcutaneously administered CpG 7909. A single dose of clinical-grade CpG 7909 induced a rapid, sustained IP-10 response, a biomarker for activation of the innate immune system. Given the similar susceptibilities of humans and rhesus macaques to infectious diseases, the rhesus macaque appears to be a suitable model to evaluate the potential of CpG 7909-mediated innate immune activation to protect humans against pathogens.

  9. Tissue enzyme studies in Macaca nemestrina monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, R. W.; Hoffman, R. A.; Jenkins, D.

    1971-01-01

    Total enzyme activities in fresh tissue specimens from major organs of Macaca nemestrina were analyzed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and aldolase. The concentration of these enzymes varied among the different tissue with skeletal muscle, heart, and brain having the highest activities. LDH isozymes determinations for the various tissues were also made. The spectrum of LDH isozyme distribution appears to be quite specific and characteristic for at least some of the tissues analyzed.

  10. Effects of Aroclor 1254 reg sign on hydrocortisone levels in adult Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, J.C.K.; Tryphonas, H.; Jordan, N.; Brien, R.; Karpinski, K.R.; Arnold, D.L. )

    1989-11-01

    Researchers, using female Sprague Dawley rats, reported the effects of chronic (5-7 months) oral dosing with Aroclor 1254{reg sign} (Polychlorinated biphenyls-PCB) on the serum levels of corticosterone, the principle glucocorticoid in rats. Their findings indicated that corticosterone levels were significantly depressed at dose levels of 479 {mu}g/kg bw/day and above. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of PCB on the hydrocortisone levels in Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) serum. In the monkey the controlling hormone is hydrocortisone which is identical to that of humans.

  11. Mechanical properties of the cement of the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Kovalev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis secretes foam-like cement, the amount of which usually exceeds that produced by other barnacles. When Dosima settles on small objects, this adhesive is additionally used as a float which gives buoyancy to the animal. The dual use of the cement by D. fascicularis requires mechanical properties different from those of other barnacle species. In the float, two regions with different morphological structure and mechanical properties can be distinguished. The outer compact zone with small gas-filled bubbles (cells) is harder than the interior one and forms a protective rind presumably against mechanical damage. The inner region with large, gas-filled cells is soft. This study demonstrates that D. fascicularis cement is soft and visco-elastic. We show that the values of the elastic modulus, hardness and tensile stress are considerably lower than in the rigid cement of other barnacles. PMID:25657833

  12. Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943 (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa): redescription and discussion of its phylogenetic position within the genus.

    PubMed

    Miglietta, Maria Pia

    2016-03-31

    Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943 was first described off Alligator Reef, Florida, USA, at a depth of 216 m. Presumably a deep-sea species, its validity has often been questioned due to the scarcity of available records. In this paper, T. fascicularis is re-described from some mature colonies from the upper slope of the Gulf of Mexico. Furthermore, new pictures of the colony, polyps, and medusa buds, are provided. A ~600bp sequence of the large ribosomal subunit of the mitochondrial RNA (lsu-rRNA, 16S), also known as the Hydrozoan barcoding molecule, is used for the first time to confirm the validity of T. fascicularis as a species, and analyze its phylogenetic position within the genus Turritopsis.

  13. Energy metabolism of Macaca mulatta during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Stein, T. P.; Dotsenko, M. A.; Korolkov, V. I.; Fuller, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    The mean daily energy expenditure rates of two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were determined during spaceflight on the joint U.S./Russian Bion 11 mission by the doubly labeled water (DLW, 2H218O) method. Control values were obtained from two studies performed under flight-like conditions (n = 4). The mean inflight energy expenditure for the two Bion 11 monkeys was 81.3 kcal/kg/day, which was higher than that seen previously. The average energy expenditure (77.6 +/- 4.4 kcal/kg/day) for the four ground control monkeys was slightly lower than had been measured previously.

  14. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-06-29

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  15. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA

    PubMed Central

    James, David G.; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation. PMID:27367733

  16. Ash content of bones in the pigtail monkey, Macaca nemestrina.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vose, G. P.; Roach, T. L.

    1972-01-01

    Ash analyses of skeletons of four adult primates, Macaca nemestrina, revealed some similarities and some marked contrasts when compared with published data on human skeletal ash. The skull in both Macaca nemestrina and man has the highest ash content of all bones in the skeleton. While the bones of the arms of humans have an ash content nearly identical to that of the legs (0.3% difference), in Macaca nemestrina the humeri and radii contain 5.4% more ash than the femora and tibiae. Similarly in Macaca nemestrina the bones of the hands contain 3.5% more ash than the bones of the feet, while in humans the same bones agree within 0.3% implying that adaptive use function is a factor in bone ash concentration. The ribs of Macaca nemestrina showed an unexpectedly high ash content in comparison with those of humans. In contrast with the relatively constant ash content throughout the vertebrae in humans, a conspicuous decrease axially was noted in Macaca nemestrina.

  17. Whole-genome sequencing of tibetan macaque (Macaca Thibetana) provides new insight into the macaque evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhenxin; Zhao, Guang; Li, Peng; Osada, Naoki; Xing, Jinchuan; Yi, Yong; Du, Lianming; Silva, Pedro; Wang, Hongxing; Sakate, Ryuichi; Zhang, Xiuyue; Xu, Huailiang; Yue, Bisong; Li, Jing

    2014-06-01

    Macaques are the most widely distributed nonhuman primates and used as animal models in biomedical research. The availability of full-genome sequences from them would be essential to both biomedical and primate evolutionary studies. Previous studies have reported whole-genome sequences from rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus macaque (M. fascicularis, CE), both of which belong to the fascicularis group. Here, we present a 37-fold coverage genome sequence of the Tibetan macaque (M. thibetana; TM). TM is an endemic species to China belonging to the sinica group. On the basis of mapping to the rhesus macaque genome, we identified approximately 11.9 million single-nucleotide variants), of which 3.9 million were TM specific, as assessed by comparison two Chinese rhesus macaques (CR) and two CE genomes. Some genes carried TM-specific homozygous nonsynonymous variants (TSHNVs), which were scored as deleterious in human by both PolyPhen-2 and SIFT (Sorting Tolerant From Intolerant) and were enriched in the eye disease genes. In total, 273 immune response and disease-related genes carried at least one TSHNV. The heterozygosity rates of two CRs (0.002617 and 0.002612) and two CEs (0.003004 and 0.003179) were approximately three times higher than that of TM (0.000898). Polymerase chain reaction resequencing of 18 TM individuals showed that 29 TSHNVs exhibited high allele frequencies, thus confirming their low heterozygosity. Genome-wide genetic divergence analysis demonstrated that TM was more closely related to CR than to CE. We further detected unusual low divergence regions between TM and CR. In addition, after applying statistical criteria to detect putative introgression regions (PIRs) in the TM genome, up to 239,620 kb PIRs (8.84% of the genome) were identified. Given that TM and CR have overlapping geographical distributions, had the same refuge during the Middle Pleistocene, and show similar mating behaviors, it is highly likely that there was an ancient

  18. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  19. The Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Sperm Proteome*

    PubMed Central

    Skerget, Sheri; Rosenow, Matthew; Polpitiya, Ashoka; Petritis, Konstantinos; Dorus, Steve; Karr, Timothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry based proteomics has facilitated sperm composition studies in several mammalian species but no studies have been undertaken in non-human primate species. Here we report the analysis of the 1247 proteins that comprise the Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) sperm proteome (termed the MacSP). Comparative analysis with previously characterized mouse and human sperm proteomes reveals substantial levels of orthology (47% and 40% respectively) and widespread overlap of functional categories based on Gene Ontology analyses. Approximately 10% of macaque sperm genes (113/1247) are significantly under-expressed in the testis as compared with other tissues, which may reflect proteins specifically acquired during epididymal maturation. Phylogenetic and genomic analyses of three MacSP ADAMs (A-Disintegrin and Metalloprotease proteins), ADAM18-, 20- and 21-like, provides empirical support for sperm genes functioning in non-human primate taxa which have been subsequently lost in the lineages leading to humans. The MacSP contains proteasome proteins of the 20S core subunit, the 19S proteasome activator complex and an alternate proteasome activator PA200, raising the possibility that proteasome activity is present in mature sperm. Robust empirical characterization of the Rhesus sperm proteome should greatly expand the possibility for targeted molecular studies of spermatogenesis and fertilization in a commonly used model species for human infertility. PMID:23816990

  20. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with B19V and hepatitis A virus: no evidence of the co-infection as a cause of acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; de Almeida, Adilson José; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; de Castro, Tatiana Xavier; do Nascimento, Jussara Pereira; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group. PMID:27074255

  1. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with B19V and hepatitis A virus: no evidence of the co-infection as a cause of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; Almeida, Adilson José de; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Castro, Tatiana Xavier de; Nascimento, Jussara Pereira do; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group.

  2. Increased sexual behavior in male Macaca arctoides monkeys produced by atipamezole, a selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Linnankoski, I; Grönroos, M; Carlson, S; Pertovaara, A

    1992-05-01

    The effect of a highly selective and potent alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, atipamezole, on sexual behavior was studied in three stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides). Following IM administration of atipamezole or saline control, the behavior of the male monkey with a female monkey was observed for 30 min. Atipamezole dose dependently (0.01-0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg) produced a significant increase in the number of ejaculations in all three monkeys, including an old one with decreased sexual activity in control conditions. Both ejaculations obtained by copulation and masturbation were increased. It is concluded that atipamezole is effective in increasing sexual behavior in male stumptail monkeys.

  3. Thermal regulation in Macaca mulatta during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimovitsky, V. Y.; Alpatov, A. M.; Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Utekhina, E. S.; Fuller, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    The results of studies of body temperature and thermal regulation in Macaca mulatta flown on biosatellites Bion 6-11 are presented. The effect of microgravity on deep body temperature as compared to skin temperature was investigated. In most animals, deep body temperature declined moderately and then tended to return to normal. Brain temperature/ankle temperature correlation changed. The system of thermal regulation was found to function adequately in space.

  4. Dark calcification and the daily rhythm of calcification in the scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Horani, F. A.; Tambutté, É.; Allemand, D.

    2007-09-01

    The rate of calcification in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis was followed during the daytime using 45Ca tracer. The coral began the day with a low calcification rate, which increased over time to a maximum in the afternoon. Since the experiments were carried out under a fixed light intensity, these results suggest that an intrinsic rhythm exists in the coral such that the calcification rate is regulated during the daytime. When corals were incubated for an extended period in the dark, the calcification rate was constant for the first 4 h of incubation and then declined, until after one day of dark incubation, calcification ceased, possibly as a result of the depletion of coral energy reserves. The addition of glucose and Artemia reduced the dark calcification rate for the short duration of the experiment, indicating an expenditure of oxygen in respiration. Artificial hypoxia reduced the rate of dark calcification to about 25% compared to aerated coral samples. It is suggested that G. fascicularis obtains its oxygen needs from the surrounding seawater during the nighttime, whereas during the day time the coral exports oxygen to the seawater.

  5. Isolation and Identification of Cytotoxic Compounds from Aeschynomene fascicularis, a Mayan Medicinal Plant.

    PubMed

    Caamal-Fuentes, Edgar E; Peraza-Sánchez, Sergio R; Torres-Tapia, Luis W; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2015-07-24

    The plant Aeschynomene fascicularis (Fabaceae) has been used in Mayan traditional medicine in the Yucatan peninsula. However, the compounds present in the plant responsible for its curative properties have not yet been investigated. Aeschynomene fascicularis root bark was extracted with 100% methanol to obtain a crude extract. The methanol extract was partitioned successively with solvents with increasing polarity to obtain the corresponding hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM) and ethyl acetate fractions (EtOAc), as well as a residual water-alcoholic fraction. These fractions were tested for their cytotoxic activities using an MTT assay against Hep-2 cancer cell lines. The Hx fraction led to the isolation of spinochalcone C (1), spinochalcone A (2), isocordoin (3) and secundiflorol G (4). Their structures were identified based on spectroscopic evidence and chemical properties. All compounds were subjected to cytotoxicity and antiproliferative assays against a panel of seven cell lines, including one normal-type cell line. Spinochalcone A (2) exhibited cytotoxic activity against DU-145 cell line and antiproliferative activity against the KB cell line. Secundiflorol G (4) showed strong cytotoxic activity towards KB and Hep-2 cell lines. In addition, isocordoin (3) showed moderate activity on KB, Hep-2 and DU-145 cell lines. The active Compounds 2, 3 and 4 are potential therapeutic entities against cancer.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of Ceftiofur Crystalline Free Acid in Male Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) after Subcutaneous Administration

    PubMed Central

    Salyards, Gregory W; Knych, Heather K; Hill, Ashley E; Kelly, Kristi R; Christe, Kari L

    2015-01-01

    Trauma is a common sequela to agonistic social encounters in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and veterinarians often prescribe antibiotics as part of a balanced treatment plan. Long-acting, single-dose, injectable antibiotics for use in rhesus macaques are unavailable currently. Ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) is a long-acting, single-dose, injectable third-generation cephalosporin that provides at least 7 d of ceftiofur therapeutic plasma concentrations in swine (Sus scrofa domesticus). We hypothesized that CCFA would achieve similar therapeutic concentrations (≥0.2 μg/mL) in rhesus macaques. We describe the pharmacokinetic profile of CCFA in healthy, adult male rhesus macaques (n = 6) in this 2-period, 2-treatment crossover study of 5 and 20 mg/kg SC administered once. Plasma ceftiofur metabolite concentrations were determined prior to and for a maximum of 21 d after administration. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. The 5-mg dose achieved a maximal plasma concentration of 2.24 ± 0.525 μg/mL at 2.59 ± 1.63 h, an AUC of 46.9 ± 17.6 h/μg/mL, and a terminal elimination half-life of 56.5 ± 21.7 h; for the 20-mg/kg dose, these parameters were 9.18 ± 4.90 μg/mL at 1.82 ± 1.30 h, 331 ± 84.4 h/μg/mL, and 69.7 ± 8.86 h, respectively. No adverse effects were noted after either dose. Macaques maintained plasma ceftiofur concentrations of 0.2 μg/mL or greater for at least 2 d after 5 mg/kg SC and at least 7 d after 20 mg/kg SC. PMID:26424255

  7. Characterization of cement float buoyancy in the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N; Klepal, Waltraud

    2015-02-06

    Dosima fascicularis is the only barnacle which can drift autonomously at the water surface with a foam-like cement float. The cement secreted by the animal contains numerous gas-filled cells of different size. When several individuals share one float, their size and not their number is crucial for the production of both volume and mass of the float. The gas content within the cells of the foam gives positive static buoyancy to the whole float. The volume of the float, the gas volume and the positive static buoyancy are positively correlated. The density of the cement float without gas is greater than that of seawater. This study shows that the secreted cement consists of more than 90% water and the gas volume is on average 18.5%. Our experiments demonstrate that the intact foam-like cement float is sealed to the surrounding water.

  8. Naturally occurring melioidosis in a colonized rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Fritz, P E; Miller, J G; Slayter, M; Smith, T J

    1986-10-01

    An aged wild-caught male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), maintained in a research facility for 10 years, developed bilateral pelvic limb paralysis without other signs of disease. Unresponsive to therapy, the monkey was killed and necropsied. Chronic inflammation with osteolysis of thoracic vertebrae 10-13 was observed. Pseudomonas pseudomallei was cultured and identified from cerebrospinal fluid obtained at the site of the thoracic lesion. This Gram-negative bacterium can cause infection in animals and man and may remain latent for years before the appearance of clinical signs.

  9. Assessment of obesity in pigtailed monkeys (Macaca nemestrina).

    PubMed

    Walike, B C; Goodner, C J; Koerker, D J; Chideckel, E W; Kalnasy, L W

    1977-01-01

    Obesity was studied in a colony of 873 Macaca nemestrina to establish tools for epidemiologic studies, to examine a genetic form of obesity, to document age/sex relationships to obesity, and to compare metabolic profiles of obese and normal monkeys. Age/weight growth curves were analyzed to select the most obese monkeys and age- and sex-matched normal controls. Degree of adiposity was determined using tritiated water for estimation of lean body mass. Body weight, anterior trunk height, and abdominal and triceps skinfolds were measured. Fasting insulin, fasting free fatty acids, and glucose disappearance rate were determined. The results give evidence of similarities between macaque and human obestiy.

  10. Transcriptome profiling of Galaxea fascicularis and its endosymbiont Symbiodinium reveals chronic eutrophication tolerance pathways and metabolic mutualism between partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhenyue; Chen, Mingliang; Dong, Xu; Zheng, Xinqing; Huang, Haining; Xu, Xun; Chen, Jianming

    2017-02-01

    In the South China Sea, coastal eutrophication in the Beibu Gulf has seriously threatened reef habitats by subjecting corals to chronic physiological stress. To determine how coral holobionts may tolerate such conditions, we examined the transcriptomes of healthy colonies of the galaxy coral Galaxea fascicularis and its endosymbiont Symbiodinium from two reef sites experiencing pristine or eutrophied nutrient regimes. We identified 236 and 205 genes that were differentially expressed in eutrophied hosts and symbionts, respectively. Both gene sets included pathways related to stress responses and metabolic interactions. An analysis of genes originating from each partner revealed striking metabolic integration with respect to vitamins, cofactors, amino acids, fatty acids, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. The expression levels of these genes supported the existence of a continuum of mutualism in this coral-algal symbiosis. Additionally, large sets of transcription factors, cell signal transduction molecules, biomineralization components, and galaxin-related proteins were expanded in G. fascicularis relative to other coral species.

  11. Transcriptome profiling of Galaxea fascicularis and its endosymbiont Symbiodinium reveals chronic eutrophication tolerance pathways and metabolic mutualism between partners

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhenyue; Chen, Mingliang; Dong, Xu; Zheng, Xinqing; Huang, Haining; Xu, Xun; Chen, Jianming

    2017-01-01

    In the South China Sea, coastal eutrophication in the Beibu Gulf has seriously threatened reef habitats by subjecting corals to chronic physiological stress. To determine how coral holobionts may tolerate such conditions, we examined the transcriptomes of healthy colonies of the galaxy coral Galaxea fascicularis and its endosymbiont Symbiodinium from two reef sites experiencing pristine or eutrophied nutrient regimes. We identified 236 and 205 genes that were differentially expressed in eutrophied hosts and symbionts, respectively. Both gene sets included pathways related to stress responses and metabolic interactions. An analysis of genes originating from each partner revealed striking metabolic integration with respect to vitamins, cofactors, amino acids, fatty acids, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. The expression levels of these genes supported the existence of a continuum of mutualism in this coral-algal symbiosis. Additionally, large sets of transcription factors, cell signal transduction molecules, biomineralization components, and galaxin-related proteins were expanded in G. fascicularis relative to other coral species. PMID:28181581

  12. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joy N.; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H. C.; Schmidt, Gertraud M.; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2016-06-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans.

  13. Transcriptome profiling of Galaxea fascicularis and its endosymbiont Symbiodinium reveals chronic eutrophication tolerance pathways and metabolic mutualism between partners.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhenyue; Chen, Mingliang; Dong, Xu; Zheng, Xinqing; Huang, Haining; Xu, Xun; Chen, Jianming

    2017-02-09

    In the South China Sea, coastal eutrophication in the Beibu Gulf has seriously threatened reef habitats by subjecting corals to chronic physiological stress. To determine how coral holobionts may tolerate such conditions, we examined the transcriptomes of healthy colonies of the galaxy coral Galaxea fascicularis and its endosymbiont Symbiodinium from two reef sites experiencing pristine or eutrophied nutrient regimes. We identified 236 and 205 genes that were differentially expressed in eutrophied hosts and symbionts, respectively. Both gene sets included pathways related to stress responses and metabolic interactions. An analysis of genes originating from each partner revealed striking metabolic integration with respect to vitamins, cofactors, amino acids, fatty acids, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. The expression levels of these genes supported the existence of a continuum of mutualism in this coral-algal symbiosis. Additionally, large sets of transcription factors, cell signal transduction molecules, biomineralization components, and galaxin-related proteins were expanded in G. fascicularis relative to other coral species.

  14. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joy N.; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H. C.; Schmidt, Gertraud M.; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans. PMID:27255977

  15. Radiation-induced endometriosis in Macaca mulatta

    SciTech Connect

    Fanton, J.W.; Golden, J.G. )

    1991-05-01

    Female rhesus monkeys received whole-body doses of ionizing radiation in the form of single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, X rays, and electrons. Endometriosis developed in 53% of the monkeys during a 17-year period after exposure. Incidence rates for endometriosis related to radiation type were: single-energy protons, 54%; mixed-energy protons, 73%; X rays, 71%; and electrons, 57%. The incidence of endometriosis in nonirradiated control monkeys was 26%. Monkeys exposed to single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, and X rays developed endometriosis at a significantly higher rate than control monkeys (chi 2, P less than 0.05). Severity of endometriosis was staged as massive, moderate, and minimal. The incidence of these stages were 65, 16, and 19%, respectively. Observations of clinical disease included weight loss in 43% of the monkeys, anorexia in 35%, space-occupying masses detected by abdominal palpation in 55%, abnormal ovarian/uterine anatomy on rectal examination in 89%, and radiographic evidence of abdominal masses in 38%. Pathological lesions were endometrial cyst formation in 69% of the monkeys, adhesions of the colon in 66%, urinary bladder in 50%, ovaries in 86%, and ureters in 44%, focal nodules of endometrial tissue throughout the omentum in 59%, and metastasis in 9%. Clinical management of endometriosis consisted of debulking surgery and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy combined in some cases with total abdominal hysterectomy. Postoperative survival rates at 1 and 5 years for monkeys recovering from surgery were 48 and 36%, respectively.

  16. Clinical care and evolution of paraplegic monkeys (Macaca mulatta) over fourteen months post-lesion.

    PubMed

    Piedras, María José G M; Hernández-Laín, Aurelio; Cavada, Carmen

    2011-02-01

    We have generated a non-human primate model of complete spinal cord injury (SCI) with a protracted survival time. Two adult Macaca mulatta underwent complete spinal cord transection at T8-T9. We report the effective daily care protocol for over one year survival, the health problems we encountered and the treatments applied. The animals' cages were customized to maintain them in the best possible condition when paraplegic. Daily care, adapted from human care protocols, focused mainly on urinary bladder and skin care, and lower limb rehabilitation. The most important health problems we faced were skin lesions, in particular from self-injury to insensitive regions, and urine voiding dysfunction. Skin lesions were chronic and severe in one of the monkeys. Serious voiding dysfunction occurred temporarily in one monkey in parallel with a high dose oxcarbazepine treatment. The main musculoskeletal complications were vertebral column deformities, which appeared in both monkeys. The rich experience gathered over the lengthy survival period of the two adult paraplegic macaques, the longest to date in the literature, should be useful for other scientists willing to study the long term physiopathological changes that follow SCI as well as the effects of diverse therapeutic strategies before they are applied to humans.

  17. Pheochromocytoma in Old World Primates (Macaca mulatta and Chlorocebus aethiops).

    PubMed

    Colgin, L M A; Schwahn, D J; Castillo-Alcala, F; Kiupel, M; Lewis, A D

    2016-11-01

    Pheochromocytoma, a rarely reported adrenal gland neoplasm in Old World primates, was diagnosed in 5 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and 2 African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) from 3 research institutions. Age and sex were available for 6 primates. Two males and 4 females were affected, ranging in age from 9 to 31 years. All neoplasms were unilateral and, in the cases reporting the affected gland, 4 involved the right adrenal gland and 2 involved the left. Diagnosis was established by characteristic histologic features. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells in all cases expressed chromogranin A and met-enkephalin and were negative for melan-A and inhibin. Six of 7 tumors were positive for β-endorphin. Pulmonary metastases were present in 2 rhesus macaques and portal vein invasion in 1 African green monkey. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of malignant pheochromocytoma in Old World primates.

  18. Ordinal judgments of numerical symbols by macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    Two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) learned that the arabic numerals 0 through 9 represented corresponding quantities of food pellets. By manipulating a joystick, the monkeys were able to make a selection of paired numerals presented on a computer screen. Although the monkeys received a corresponding number of pellets even if the lesser of the two numerals was selected, they learned generally to choose the numeral of greatest value even when pellet delivery was made arrhythmic. In subsequent tests, they chose the numerals of greater value when presented in novel combinations or in random arrays of up to five numerals. Thus, the monkeys made ordinal judgments of numerical symbols in accordance with their absolute or relative values.

  19. Telomere length of the colonial coral Galaxea fascicularis at different developmental stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuta, H.; Hidaka, M.

    2013-06-01

    The ability to estimate coral age using soft tissue would be useful for population biology or aging studies on corals. In this study, we investigated whether telomere length can be used to estimate coral age. We applied single telomere length analysis to a colonial coral, Galaxea fascicularis, and estimated telomere lengths of specific coral chromosomes at different developmental stages. If the telomere shortened at each cell division, the telomere length of the coral would be longest in sperm and shortest in adult colonies. However, the mean telomere length of sperm, planula larvae, and polyps was approximately 4 kb, with no significant differences among the developmental stages. The telomerase restriction fragment (TRF) analysis also showed no significant difference in the mean TRF length among the developmental stages. Our results suggested that telomere length is maintained during developmental stages and that estimating the age of colonial coral based on telomere length may not be possible. However, our findings can be used to examine avoidance of aging and rejuvenation during regeneration and asexual reproduction in colonial corals.

  20. Reproductive toxicity of chromium in adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata Geoffrey). Reversible oxidative stress in the semen

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Senthivinayagam . E-mail: subbi100@yahoo.co.uk; Rajendiran, Gopalakrishnan; Sekhar, Pasupathi; Gowri, Chandrahasan; Govindarajulu, Pera; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael

    2006-09-15

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates chromium-induced reproductive toxicity. Monthly semen samples were collected from adult monkeys (Macaca radiata), which were exposed to varying doses (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) of chromium (as potassium dichromate) for 6 months through drinking water. Chromium treatment decreased sperm count, sperm forward motility and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the concentration of reduced glutathione in both seminal plasma and sperm in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the quantum of hydrogen peroxide in the seminal plasma/sperm from monkeys exposed to chromium increased with increasing dose and duration of chromium exposure. All these changes were reversed after 6 months of chromium-free exposure period. Simultaneous supplementation of vitamin C (0.5 g/L; 1.0 g/L; 2.0 g/L) prevented the development of chromium-induced oxidative stress. Data support the hypothesis and show that chronic chromium exposure induces a reversible oxidative stress in the seminal plasma and sperm by creating an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant system, leading to sperm death and reduced motility of live sperm.

  1. Personality of Wild Male Crested Macaques (Macaca nigra)

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Christof; Agil, Muhammad; Widdig, Anja; Engelhardt, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Animal personalities, i.e. consistent differences in behavior across time and/or context, have received increased attention of behavioral biologists over the last years. Recent research shows that personalities represent traits on which natural and sexual selection work and which can have substantial fitness consequences. The aim of this study is to establish the personality structure of crested macaque (Macaca nigra) males as foundation for future studies on its adaptive value. We collected behavioral data through focal animal sampling and additionally conducted two sets of playback experiments. Results of a factor analysis on the behavioral data revealed a four factor structure with components we labeled Anxiety, Sociability, Connectedness and Aggressiveness. Results from the experiments revealed an additional and independent Boldness factor but the absence of Neophilia. Overall, this structure resembles other macaque and animal species with the exception of Connectedness, which might be a consequence of the species' tolerant social style. Our results thus not only form the basis for future studies on the adaptive value of personality in crested macaques but also contribute an important data point for investigating the evolution of personality structure from a comparative perspective by refining, for example, which personality factors characterized the last common ancestor of hominids and macaques. PMID:23940517

  2. Scaffold degradation during bone tissue reconstruction in Macaca nemestrina mandible

    PubMed Central

    Bachtiar, Endang W.; Amir, Lisa Rinanda; Suhardi, Pradono; Abas, Basril

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the degradation of three scaffolds composed of hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) with 70∶30 ratio, HA/TCP with 50∶50 ratio, and HA/TCP/chitosan scaffold as analyzed by the RNA expression of matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP2), interleukin 13 (IL13), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) genes. Methods The three tested scaffolds and dental pulp stromal cells (DPSCs) were transplanted into the mandibular bone defect of six young male Macaca nemestrina. Defect on the left mandible served as the experimental group and the right mandible served as control group (split mouth design). The biopsies were retrieved at 0, 2, and 4 weeks after cell-scaffold transplantation. The expression of MMP2, IL13, and TRAP was analyzed by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Results The inflammatory cells were still detected in areas where active bone and blood vessel formation occurred. The remnants of scaffold biomaterials were rarely seen. The expression of MMP2, IL13, and TRAP was observed in all samples. Their expressions were increased at week 4 and the decrease of TRAP gene expression in the experimental group was found higher than the control group. TRAP gene in the HA/TCP/chitosan group was found to be the highest at week 2 and lowest at week 4. Conclusions Degradation of the scaffold did not induce higher inflammatory response compared to the control yet it induced more osteoclast activity. PMID:28386463

  3. A Macaca mulatta model of fulminant hepatic failure

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ping; Xia, Jie; Guo, Gang; Huang, Zi-Xing; Lu, Qiang; Li, Li; Li, Hong-Xia; Shi, Yu-Jun; Bu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To establish an appropriate primate model of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). METHODS: We have, for the first time, established a large animal model of FHF in Macaca mulatta by intraperitoneal infusion of amatoxin and endotoxin. Clinical features, biochemical indexes, histopathology and iconography were examined to dynamically investigate the progress and outcome of the animal model. RESULTS: Our results showed that the enzymes and serum bilirubin were markedly increased and the enzyme-bilirubin segregation emerged 36 h after toxin administration. Coagulation activity was significantly decreased. Gradually deteriorated parenchymal abnormality was detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography at 48 h. The liver biopsy showed marked hepatocyte steatosis and massive parenchymal necrosis at 36 h and 49 h, respectively. The autopsy showed typical yellow atrophy of the liver. Hepatic encephalopathy of the models was also confirmed by hepatic coma, MRI and pathological changes of cerebral edema. The lethal effects of the extrahepatic organ dysfunction were ruled out by their biochemical indices, imaging and histopathology. CONCLUSION: We have established an appropriate large primate model of FHF, which is closely similar to clinic cases, and can be used for investigation of the mechanism of FHF and for evaluation of potential medical therapies. PMID:22346249

  4. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space.

    PubMed

    Drucker, Caroline B; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2014-07-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance, location, and spacing of the vertical array. We next asked whether monkeys show a spatially-oriented number mapping by testing their responses to the same five-element stimulus array rotated ninety degrees into a horizontal line. In these horizontal probe trials, monkeys preferentially selected the fourth position from the left, but not the fourth position from the right. Our results indicate that rhesus macaques map number onto space, suggesting that the association between number and space in human cognition is not purely a result of cultural experience and instead has deep evolutionary roots.

  5. Do rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceive illusory motion?

    PubMed Central

    Agrillo, Christian; Gori, Simone; Beran, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, visual illusions have been used repeatedly to understand similarities and differences of visual perception of human and non-human animals. However, nearly all studies have focused only on illusions not related to motion perception and, to date, it is unknown whether non-human primates perceive any kind of motion illusion. In the present study we investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceived one of the most popular motion illusions in humans, the Rotating Snake illusion (RSI). To this purpose, we set up four experiments. In Experiment 1 subjects initially were trained to discriminate static vs. dynamic arrays. Once reaching the learning criterion, they underwent probe trials in which we presented the RSI and a control stimulus identical in overall configuration with the exception that the order of the luminance sequence was changed in a way that no apparent motion is perceived by humans. The overall performance of monkeys indicated that they spontaneously classified RSI as a dynamic array. Subsequently, we tested adult humans in the same task with the aim of directly comparing the performance of human and non-human primates (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3 we found that monkeys can be successfully trained to discriminate between the RSI and a control stimulus. Experiment 4 showed that a simple change in luminance sequence in the two arrays could not explain the performance reported in Exp. 3. These results suggest that some rhesus monkeys display a human-like perception of this motion illusion, raising the possibility that the neurocognitive systems underlying motion perception may be similar between human and non-human primates. PMID:25812828

  6. Seed dispersal by rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Asmita; McConkey, Kim R; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2014-12-01

    Frugivorous primates are important seed dispersers and their absence from forest patches is predicted to be detrimental to tropical forest regeneration and recruitment. With the reduction of primate populations globally, ecologically resilient primate species, characterized by dietary flexibility and the ability to thrive in a variety of habitats, assume new importance as seed dispersers. The most widely distributed non-human primate, the rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta has been intensively studied but little is known about its role in maintaining ecosystem structure and functions. Due to their frugivorous diet, large group sizes, large home ranges and tolerance to disturbance, rhesus macaques may be effective seed dispersers. We studied seed dispersal by rhesus macaques at the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India, through a combination of behavioural observations and germination experiments. Rhesus macaques dispersed 84% of the 49 species they fed on either through spitting or defecation. Nearly 96% of the handled seeds were undamaged and 61% of the species for which germination tests were performed had enhanced germination. Almost 50% of the monitored seeds among those deposited in situ germinated and 22% established seedlings, suggesting that rhesus macaques are important seed dispersers in tropical forests. Due to their widespread distribution and large populations, rhesus macaques are perceived as common and are categorized as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List, effectively excluding them from any conservation plans. Based on the results of our study, we argue that rhesus macaques fulfill critical ecological functions in their habitat and that this parameter must be taken into consideration when they are reviewed for conservation priorities.

  7. Characterization of spontaneous malignant lymphomas in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Hirata, A; Hashimoto, K; Katoh, Y; Sakai, H; Bruce, A G; Rose, T M; Kaneko, A; Suzuki, J; Nikami, H; Yanai, T

    2015-05-01

    Lymphomas are common spontaneous tumors in nonhuman primates but remain poorly characterized in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). This study examined 5 cases of spontaneous malignant lymphoma in Japanese macaques, focusing on the immunophenotypes and presence of simian lymphocryptoviruses, which are Epstein-Barr virus-related herpesviruses in nonhuman primates. The macaques with lymphoma were 5 to 28 years old, indicating that lymphomas develop over a wide age range. The common macroscopic findings were splenomegaly and enlargement of lymph nodes. Histologic and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that all cases were non-Hodgkin type and exhibited a T-cell phenotype, positive for CD3 but negative for CD20 and CD79α. The lymphomas exhibited diverse cellular morphologies and were subdivided into 3 types according to the World Health Organization classification. These included 3 cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified; 1 case of T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia; and 1 case of an unclassifiable T-cell lymphoma. Positive signals were detected by in situ hybridization in 2 of the 4 examined cases using probes for the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA (EBER). Furthermore, the presence of M. fuscata lymphocryptovirus 2, a macaque homolog of Epstein-Barr virus, was demonstrated in EBER-positive cases by polymerase chain reaction amplification followed by direct sequencing. Immunohistochemistry using antibody to the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 was negative, even in the EBER-positive cases. The present study suggests that T-cell lymphoma is more common than B-cell lymphoma in Japanese macaques and that M. fuscata lymphocryptovirus 2 is present in some cases.

  8. Essentialism in the Absence of Language? Evidence from Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Webb; Shankar, Maya; Santos, Laurie R.

    2010-01-01

    We explored whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) share one important feature of human essentialist reasoning: the capacity to track category membership across radical featural transformations. Specifically, we examined whether monkeys--like children (Keil, 1989)--expect a transformed object to have the internal properties of its original…

  9. Macaca specific exon creation event generates a novel ZKSCAN5 transcript.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hyun; Choe, Se-Hee; Song, Bong-Seok; Park, Sang-Je; Kim, Myung-Jin; Park, Young-Ho; Yoon, Seung-Bin; Lee, Youngjeon; Jin, Yeung Bae; Sim, Bo-Woong; Kim, Ji-Su; Jeong, Kang-Jin; Kim, Sun-Uk; Lee, Sang-Rae; Park, Young-Il; Huh, Jae-Won; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2016-02-15

    ZKSCAN5 (also known as ZFP95) is a zinc-finger protein belonging to the Krűppel family. ZKSCAN5 contains a SCAN box and a KRAB A domain and is proposed to play a distinct role during spermatogenesis. In humans, alternatively spliced ZKSCAN5 transcripts with different 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs) have been identified. However, investigation of our Macaca UniGene Database revealed novel alternative ZKSCAN5 transcripts that arose due to an exon creation event. Therefore, in this study, we identified the full-length sequences of ZKSCAN5 and its alternative transcripts in Macaca spp. Additionally, we investigated different nonhuman primate sequences to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the exon creation event. We analyzed the evolutionary features of the ZKSCAN5 transcripts by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and genomic PCR, and by sequencing various nonhuman primate DNA and RNA samples. The exon-created transcript was only detected in the Macaca lineage (crab-eating monkey and rhesus monkey). Full-length sequence analysis by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) identified ten full-length transcripts and four functional isoforms of ZKSCAN5. Protein sequence analyses revealed the presence of two groups of isoforms that arose because of differences in start-codon usage. Together, our results demonstrate that there has been specific selection for a discrete set of ZKSCAN5 variants in the Macaca lineage. Furthermore, study of this locus (and perhaps others) in Macaca spp. might facilitate our understanding of the evolutionary pressures that have shaped the mechanism of exon creation in primates.

  10. Pre- and Post-harvest Influences on Seed Dormancy Status of an Australian Goodeniaceae species, Goodenia fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Hoyle, Gemma L.; Steadman, Kathryn J.; Daws, Matthew I.; Adkins, Steve W.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The period during which seeds develop on the parent plant has been found to affect many seed characteristics, including dormancy, through interactions with the environment. Goodenia fascicularis (Goodeniaceae) seeds were used to investigate whether seeds of an Australian native forb, harvested from different environments and produced at different stages of the reproductive period, differ in dormancy status. Methods During the reproductive phase, plants were grown ex situ in warm (39/21 °C) or cool (26/13 °C) conditions, with adequate or limited water availability. The physiological dormancy of resulting seeds was measured in terms of the germination response to warm stratification (34/20 °C, 100 % RH, darkness). Key Results Plants in the cool environment were tall and had high above-ground biomass, yet yielded fewer seeds over a shorter, later harvest period when compared with plants in the warm environment. Seeds from the cool environment also had higher viability and greater mass, despite a significant proportion (7 % from the cool-wet environment) containing no obvious embryo. In the warm environment, the reproductive phase was accelerated and plants produced more seeds despite being shorter and having lower above-ground biomass than those in the cool environment. Ten weeks of warm stratification alleviated physiological dormancy in seeds from all treatments resulting in 80–100 % germination. Seeds that developed at warm temperatures were less dormant (i.e. germination percentages were higher) than seeds from the cool environment. Water availability had less effect on plant and seed traits than air temperature, although plants with reduced soil moisture were shorter, had lower biomass and produced fewer, less dormant seeds than plants watered regularly. Conclusions Goodenia fascicularis seeds are likely to exhibit physiological dormancy regardless of the maternal environment. However, seeds collected from warm, dry environments are

  11. Extended cleavage specificity of the mast cell chymase from the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis): an interesting animal model for the analysis of the function of the human mast cell chymase.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Michael; Yu, Jing; Boinapally, Vamsi; Ahooghalandari, Parvin; Kervinen, Jukka; Garavilla, Lawrence de; Hellman, Lars

    2012-12-01

    Serine proteases are the major protein constituents within mast cell secretory granules. These proteases are subdivided into chymases and tryptases depending on their primary cleavage specificity. Here, we present the extended cleavage specificity of the macaque mast cell chymase and compare the specificity with human chymase (HC) and dog chymase (DC) that were produced in the same insect cell expression host. The macaque chymase (MC) shows almost identical characteristics as the HC, including both primary and extended cleavage specificities as well as sensitivity to protease inhibitors, whereas the DC differs in several of these characteristics. Although previous studies have shown that mouse mast cell protease-4 (mMCP-4) is similar in its hydrolytic specificity to the HC, mouse mast cells contain several related enzymes. Thus mice may not be the most appropriate model organism for studying HC activity and inhibition. Importantly, macaques express only one chymase and, as primates, are closely related to human general physiology. In addition, the human and macaque enzymes both cleave angiotensin I (Ang I) in the same way, generating primarily angiotensin II (Ang II) and they do not further degrade the peptide like most rodent enzymes do. Both enzymes also cleave two additional potential in vivo substrates, fibronectin and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in a similar way. Given the fact that both HC and MC are encoded by a single gene with high sequence homology and that many physiological processes are similar between these species, the macaque may be a very interesting model to study the physiological role of the chymase and to determine the potency and potential side-effects of various chymase inhibitors designed for therapeutic human use.

  12. Effect of chronic administration of 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone on serum testosterone, number of spermatozoa and fertility in adult male bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata).

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, S G; Ramesh, V; Krishnamurthy, H N; Kumar, N; Sundaram, K; Hardy, M P; Rao, A Jagannadha

    2002-08-01

    Hormonal approaches to male contraception that are based on the suppression of LH secretion require androgen replacement treatment to maintain sexual behaviour and secondary sexual characteristics. Androgen supplementation not only involves large and frequent doses of testosterone esters but also results in undesirable effects on the prostate gland. In an attempt to avoid such problems, a synthetic androgen, 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT), which is much more potent than testosterone, has been developed. In the present study, MENT was administered at different doses (25, 50, 100, 300 and 1000 microg day(-1)) either alone or in combination with oestradiol via Silastic implants for a specified period to adult male bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata). Blood and semen samples were collected at specific intervals and analysed for serum testosterone and seminal parameters, respectively. The results of the present study clearly indicate that administration of MENT at all doses tested results in suppression of the nocturnal surge of testosterone (by day 3), as well as a decrease in the number of spermatozoa (by day 45). Co-administration of oestradiol resulted in a reduction in the dose of MENT required to suppress the nocturnal surge. None of the male bonnet monkeys treated with MENT were able to impregnate females, clearly demonstrating the efficacy of MENT in blocking fertility in male bonnet monkeys.

  13. Selection and Pairing of ’Normal’ Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) for Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-08

    os. Black arrows outline gall blciddr.Wiearwndctspiio ofrgtaboia oaiy 10• V.. b:k The absence of reports or mention of spontaneous urolithiasis in the...literature indicates that this entity is rare in rhesus monkeys. A case report of urolithiasis in one Macaca cyclopis monkey and a literature review...intravenous pyelography, cholelithiasis and urolithiasis were deleted as possible causes of the opacities. It is possible that these dense objects

  14. Macaques at the margins: the biogeography and extinction of Macaca sylvanus in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elton, Sarah; O'Regan, Hannah J.

    2014-07-01

    The genus Macaca (Primates: Cercopithecidae) originated in Africa, dispersed into Europe in the Late Miocene and resided there until the Late Pleistocene. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the evolutionary history of Macaca in Europe, putting it into context with the wider late Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene European monkey fossil record (also comprising Mesopithecus, Paradolichopithecus, Dolichopithecus and Theropithecus). The Pliocene and Pleistocene European Macaca fossil material is largely regarded as Macaca sylvanus, the same species as the extant Barbary macaque in North Africa. The M. sylvanus specimens found at West Runton in Norfolk (53°N) during the Middle Pleistocene are among the most northerly euprimates ever discovered. Our simple time-budget model indicates that short winter day lengths would have imposed a significant constraint on activity at such relatively high latitudes, so macaque populations in Britain may have been at the limit of their ecological tolerance. Two basic models using climatic and topographic data for the Last Interglacial and the Last Glacial Maximum alongside Middle and Late Pleistocene fossil distributions indicate that much of Europe may have been suitable habitat for macaques. The models also indicate that areas of southern Europe in the present day have a climate that could support macaque populations. However, M. sylvanus became locally extinct in the Late Pleistocene, possibly at a similar time as the straight-tusked elephant, Palaeoloxodon antiquus, and narrow-nosed rhinoceros, Stephanorhinus hemitoechus. Its extinction may be related to vegetation change or increased predation from Homo, although other factors (such as stochastic factors occurring as a result of small population sizes) cannot be ruled out. Notwithstanding the cause of extinction, the European macaque may thus be a previously overlooked member of the Late Pleistocene faunal turnover.

  15. Infection of Macaca Radiata with Viruses of the Tick-Borne Encephalitis Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    immunoperoxiddase (see Materials and methods) ABC. hematoxylin, ’ 100. Macaca radiata and tick-borne encephalitis viruses 405 II ~~ ; Fig. 6. Ileum, KFD...luminai surface stain positive for KFD viral antigens. lmniunoperoxidase (see Materials and methods). Hematoxylin, ý 50. Viral antigen -positive...stain viral antigen -positive neurons (arrows). Immunoperoxicdase (see Materials and methods). ABC, hematoxyhin, x 50. United Kingdom, Scandinavia and

  16. First joint record of Mesopithecus and cf. Macaca in the Miocene of Europe.

    PubMed

    Alba, David M; Delson, Eric; Carnevale, Giorgio; Colombero, Simone; Delfino, Massimo; Giuntelli, Piero; Pavia, Marco; Pavia, Giulio

    2014-02-01

    Cercopithecid fossil remains from the post-evaporitic Messinian (5.40-5.33 Ma, MN13, latest Turolian, latest Miocene) locality of Moncucco Torinese (Tertiary Piedmont Basin, NW Italy) are described. A talus is assigned to the fossil colobine Mesopithecus pentelicus, while a proximal fragment of ulna and a male lower canine are attributed to cf. Me. pentelicus. An isolated I(2) and M3 are assigned to the papionin cf. Macaca sp., and two cercopithecid phalanges are left unassigned even to the subfamily level. The record of Mesopithecus at Moncucco Torinese agrees well with the previously-known range of this species in Italy and elsewhere in Europe, whereas that of cf. Macaca constitutes only the second occurrence of macaques in the Miocene of Eurasia. Although the co-occurrence of these two genera in a single locality had been previously reported in the Pliocene, this is the first instance in which macaques are associated with the Late Miocene M. pentelicus instead of Mesopithecus monspessulanus. The record of cf. Macaca and Mesopithecus-and especially the latter's talar morphology, similar to that of extant arboreal colobines-fits well with paleoenvironmental reconstructions of Moncucco Torinese based on the associated fauna, which indicate a humid and densely-forested environment, probably with more open and drier habitats nearby. From a paleobiogeographic viewpoint, the record of Macaca at Moncucco Torinese, together with the previously reported occurrence at Almenara-Casablanca M (Spain), supports the contention that macaques dispersed from Africa into Europe during the latest Miocene (ca. 5.9-5.3 Ma) at the same time as the sea level drop associated with the Messinian Salinity Crisis.

  17. Morphology of the cement apparatus and the cement of the buoy barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Thoracica, Lepadidae).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Von Byern, Janek; Kerbl, Alexandra; Leisch, Nikolaus; Staedler, Yannick; Grunwald, Ingo; Power, Anne Marie; Klepal, Waltraud

    2012-10-01

    Barnacles produce a proteinaceous adhesive called cement to attach permanently to rocks or to other hard substrata. The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis is of special interest as it produces a large amount of foam-like cement that can be used as a float. The morphology of the cement apparatus and of the polymerized cement of this species is almost unknown. The current study aims at filling these gaps in our knowledge using light and electron microscopy as well as x-ray microtomography. The shape of the cement gland cells changes from round to ovoid during barnacle development. The cytoplasm of the gland cells, unlike that of some other barnacles, does not have distinct secretory and storage regions. The cement canals, which transport the cement from the gland cells to the base of the stalk, end at different positions in juvenile and mature animals. With increasing size of the cement float, the exit of the cement canals shift from the centrally positioned attachment disk of the vestigial antennules to more lateral positions on the stalk. The bubbles enclosed in the foam-like float are most likely filled with CO(2) that diffuses from the hemolymph into the cement canal system and from there into the cement.

  18. Highly heterogeneous bacterial communities associated with the South China Sea reef corals Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Si; Huang, Hui; Yang, Jian; Tian, Xin-Peng; Long, Li-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Coral harbor diverse and specific bacteria play significant roles in coral holobiont function. Bacteria associated with three of the common and phylogenetically divergent reef-building corals in the South China Sea, Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora, were investigated using 454 barcoded-pyrosequencing. Three colonies of each species were sampled, and 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed individually. Analysis of pyrosequencing libraries showed that bacterial communities associated with the three coral species were more diverse than previous estimates based on corals from the Caribbean Sea, Indo-Pacific reefs and the Red Sea. Three candidate phyla, including BRC1, OD1 and SR1, were found for the first time in corals. Bacterial communities were separated into three groups: P. lutea and G. fascicular, A. millepora and seawater. P. lutea and G. fascicular displayed more similar bacterial communities, and bacterial communities associated with A. millepora differed from the other two coral species. The three coral species shared only 22 OTUs, which were distributed in Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and an unclassified bacterial group. The composition of bacterial communities within each colony of each coral species also showed variation. The relatively small common and large specific bacterial communities in these corals implies that bacterial associations may be structured by multiple factors at different scales and that corals may associate with microbes in terms of similar function, rather than identical species.

  19. Sex-dependent expression of mRNA encoding a major egg protein in the gonochoric coral Galaxea fascicularis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, H.; Nakano, Y.; Andoh, T.; Watanabe, T.

    2005-11-01

    A cDNA encoding a major egg protein was cloned in Galaxea fascicularis, a hermatypic coral with a gonochoric breeding system, and gene expression at the transcriptional level was compared between female and functional male colonies. In an electrophoretic analysis, four soluble proteins were present in high abundance in the female egg, but not in the pseudo-eggs of functional males. Partial amino acid sequences of one of the major proteins named GfEP-1 (88 kDa) were determined, and a cDNA fragment of about 2 kb containing a partial GfEP-1 sequence was isolated. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited sequence similarities to vertebrate and invertebrate vitellogenins. GfEP-1 transcripts were detected in both sexes 0 1 month before spawning. However, the mRNA levels were significantly higher in females than in functional males. The expression of GfEP-1 may be utilized in sexing and also monitoring effects of environmental and anthropogenic factors on vitellogenesis and sex determination.

  20. Drug-Containing Gelatin Treats as an Alternative to Gavage for Long-Term Oral Administration in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Ye, Bin; Zeng, Li; Chen, Younan; He, Sirong; Wang, Chengshi; Li, Xinli; Zhao, Jiuming; Shi, Meimei; Wang, Li; Li, Hongxia; Cheng, Jingqiu; Wang, Wei; Lu, Yanrong

    2012-01-01

    Long-term oral administration of immunosuppressive agents to transplanted rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) is one of the major challenges in such studies. To avoid the drawbacks of gavage, we tested an alternative method for oral dosing of sirolimus in rhesus monkeys by adding sirolimus, a commonly used immunosuppressant, to gelatin to create drug-containing gelatin ‘treats’ that our macaques would accept voluntarily. We evaluated the oral bioequivalence of the oral solution and drug-containing gelatin and assayed the whole-blood levels of sirolimus after long-term drug delivery. We found that time to peak concentration but not peak concentration itself or the area under the time–concentration curve differed between the 2 groups. Although the maximal concentration data did not fit the condition of bioequivalence, those for the time–concentration curves from 0 to 24 h and from 0 h to infinity did; therefore the extent of sirolimus absorption did not differ significantly between the 2 formulations. The sirolimus levels for long-term drug delivery were equivalent at 2.97 ± 1.91 ng/mL in the gelatin group and 3.13 ± 2.03 ng/mL in the solution group. The gelatin dosing technique we describe here is convenient and effective for oral administration of sirolimus in rhesus monkeys and likely can be adapted for other drugs. PMID:23294893

  1. Application of a computer serial probe recognition (SPR) task in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, A.V.; Kahler, D.W.

    1992-11-01

    The Serial Probe Recognition (SPR) task was established to fulfill a requirement for a nonhuman primate behavioral task as a final screening of candidate compound for the pretreatment and treatment (PT) against chemical warfare agents. Initially, equipment on hand was reconfigured to support this requirement. From this prototype, we designed and developed a behavioral testing system to study SPR memory in nonhuman primates. Our system consisted of an operant chamber, a personal computer with a monitor, a touch sensitive screen, a pellet dispenser and an interface system. In this report we describe the development and application of the behavioral testing system in our laboratory. Serial probe recognition, Behavior, Training Rhesus Monkeys, Macaca Mulatta.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R.; Pypendop, Bruno H.; Christe, Kari L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g. dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially-housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration (180 words). PMID:25488714

  3. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Kelly, K R; Pypendop, B H; Christe, K L

    2015-08-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g., dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post-tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration.

  4. Effects of age and sex on the hematology and blood chemistry of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Yi, Yong; Sun, Fei; Zhou, Liang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Hongxing; Zhang, Guodong; Zhang, Yu Alex; Yue, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), also known as Chinese stump-tailed macaques, are a threatened primate species. Although Tibetan macaques are Old World monkeys in the genus of Macaca, limited age- and sex-related physiologic data are available for this particular species. We used 69 apparently healthy Tibetan male and female macaques to explore the effect of age and sex on physiologic parameters. Somatometric measurements, biochemistry, and hematologic parameters were analyzed. Significant age-related differences were found for weight, BMI, RBC count, Hgb, Hct, neutrophils, eosinophil count, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, creatine kinase (muscle and brain subtypes), LDH, α-amylase, creatinine, apolipoprotein A1, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, HDL, and potassium. Significant differences by sex were noted for weight, BMI, ALT, total bilirubin, and indirect bilirubin. An interaction between age and sex accounted for statistically significant differences in the values for weight, BMI, and lymphocyte and eosinophil counts. These physiologic data will provide veterinarians and researchers with important age- and sex-specific reference ranges for evaluating experimental results from Tibetan macaques.

  5. Pulmonary vasomotor nerve responses in isolated perfused lungs of Macaca mulatta and Papio species.

    PubMed Central

    de Burgh Daly, I; Ramsay, D J; Waaler, B A

    1975-01-01

    1. Lung lobes of Macaca mulatta and Papio species were isolated from the body and perfused by a pump delivering a constant volume inflow. The left atrial pressure was kept constant and therefore any recorded change in pulmonary arterial pressure reflected a change in pulmonary vascular resistance. 2. In five Macaca mulatta preparations stimulation of the upper thoracic sympathetic chain, the stellate ganglion, the middle cervical ganglion and the thoracic vagosympathetic nerve caused a small increase in calculated pulmonary vascular resistance usually followed by a larger decrease. Evidence is produced which suggests that the depressor response is mediated by adrenergic beta-receptors. In three preparations no change in pulmonary vascular resistance occurred. 3. In four Papio preparations stimulation of similar nerves invariably caused an increase in calculated pulmonary vascular resistance. In one animal no change in vascular resistance occurred. 4. A regression analysis of the results showed an inverse relationship between the magnitude of the pulmonary vascular response to nerve stimulation and the degree of excitement of the animals during capture, restraint and anaesthesia (P less than 0.01). Images Fig. 2 PMID:809575

  6. Perceived control in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - Enhanced video-task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine whether perceived control effects found in humans extend to rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) tested in a video-task format, using a computer-generated menu program, SELECT. Choosing one of the options in SELECT resulted in presentation of five trials of a corresponding task and subsequent return to the menu. In Experiments 1-3, the animals exhibited stable, meaningful response patterns in this task (i.e., they made choices). In Experiment 4, performance on tasks that were selected by the animals significantly exceeded performance on identical tasks when assigned by the experimenter under comparable conditions (e.g., time of day, order, variety). The reliable and significant advantage for performance on selected tasks, typically found in humans, suggests that rhesus monkeys were able to perceive the availability of choices.

  7. Characterization of Spontaneous Subclavian Steal Phenomenon in a Female Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez-Contreras, Alejandra; Hernández-Godínez, Braulio; Perdigón-Castañeda, Gerardo; Tena-Betancourt, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    In subclavian steal phenomenon (SSP), the subclavian artery develops a stenoocclusive disease proximal to the origin of the vertebral artery, leading to pronounced hemodynamic changes such as arterial flow reversal. Although SSP is a common echographic finding in humans, the phenomenon occurs only rarely in animals; consequently its physiologic features have not been reported previously. Here we describe the clinical and morphologic features of a spontaneous left SSP that was an incidental finding in an 18-y-old female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Our findings were documented through high-quality imaging studies obtained by using a computerized 3D tomography apparatus and clinical assessment of systolic and diastolic blood pressures. PMID:21640038

  8. Effects of feeding selenium deficient diets to rhesus monkeys (Macaca Mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.A.; Whanger, P.D.; Patton, N.M.

    1988-02-01

    Pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were fed either selenium (Se) deficient or Se supplemented diets with adequate vitamin E. Except for some cardiac irregularities in the first babies born to these females, no physiological disorders due to Se deficiency were seen in a subsequent offspring. Plasma and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activities and blood Se levels increased in the Se supplemented monkeys but decreased in the deficient ones. The data indicated that hair Se levels reflect long term exposure to this element. In a very preliminary experiment, evidence was obtained to indicate that dietary protein deficiency along with Se deficiency will generate cardiomyopathic lesions characteristic of Se deficiency. It is hypothesized that, in addition to Se deficiency, another dietary deficiency (or abnormality) is necessary to produce Se deficiency lesions in higher primates. Higher glutathione transferase (or non-Se glutathione peroxidase) activity in tissues of rhesus monkeys may account for this resistance.

  9. Video-task acquisition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, W. D.; Washburn, D. A.; Hyatt, C. W.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This study describes video-task acquisition in two nonhuman primate species. The subjects were seven rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). All subjects were trained to manipulate a joystick which controlled a cursor displayed on a computer monitor. Two criterion levels were used: one based on conceptual knowledge of the task and one based on motor performance. Chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys attained criterion in a comparable number of trials using a conceptually based criterion. However, using a criterion based on motor performance, chimpanzees reached criterion significantly faster than rhesus monkeys. Analysis of error patterns and latency indicated that the rhesus monkeys had a larger asymmetry in response bias and were significantly slower in responding than the chimpanzees. The results are discussed in terms of the relation between object manipulation skills and video-task acquisition.

  10. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, W. H.; Saphire, D. G.; Hackleman, S. M.; Braun, A. M.; Pennington, P.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J. C.; Cox, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure to protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age.

  11. Contrafreeloading and the value of control over visual stimuli in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Ogura, Tadatoshi

    2011-05-01

    Contrafreeloading, which means that animals work for food even though identical food is freely available, has been reported in animals' feeding behavior. This phenomenon has been assumed to be explained by the information primacy model, in which the information about a food resource as well as the food itself is valuable for animals. This study confirmed a contrafreeloading-like phenomenon using movies as rewards rather than food in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and investigated the motivational system that exists behind contrafreeloading. In the experiment, movies that were presented dependently on subjects' responses (earned movies) and movies that were presented automatically (free movies) were supplied simultaneously. The subjects continued to make responses to obtain the presentation of the earned movies although identical movies were available as free movies. These results provide the first evidence of contrafreeloading that occurs with movie rewards. The motivation maintaining the contrafreeloading behavior for movies may be control over the environment according to the competence theory.

  12. Paralysis due to a glomangioma in a Macaca mulatta. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, G.B.; Fanton, J.W.; Harvey, R.C.; Wood, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    Glomangioma have many synonyms including: glomus tumors, tumors of neuromyoarterial glomi, angioneuromas, angioneuromyomas, neuromyoarterial glomi, painful subcutaneous tubercles, Popoff tumors or subcotaneous glomal tumors. They are common in humans, rare in nonhuman primates and to the best of our knowledge, have only been reported in irradiated rhesus. The neoplasms originate in arterial-venous shunts known as neuromyoarterial glomi which are commonly found beneath fingernails and fingertips, but have been reported in many locations both superficial and deep. The neoplasm can be confused with hemangiopericytomas, hemangiomas, paragangliomas, and leiomyomas, and must be definitely diagnosed ultrastructurally. A glomangioma at the 6-7 thoracic intervertebral space caused compression of the spinal cord with posterior paralysis in an irradiated 20-year-old female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

  13. Comparative assessment of psychomotor performance - Target prediction by humans and macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Although nonhuman primates such as rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) have been useful models of many aspects of cognition and performance, it has been argued that, unlike humans, they may lack the capacity to respond as predictor-operators. Data from the present series of experiments undermine this claim, suggesting instead a continuity of predictive competency between humans and nonhuman primates. A prediction coefficient was devised to examine the degree to which each subject's response path approximated the optimal predictive strategy. Whereas human subjects (N= 30) generally predicted more accurately, rhesus monkeys (N= 10) also significantly anticipated the movements of the target in all conditions. It appears that humans and rhesus monkeys both exhibit the capacity to respond to where a stimulus is going.

  14. Radiographic Incidence of Spinal Osteopathologies in Captive Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Godínez, Braulio; Ibáñez-Contreras, Alejandra; Perdigón-Castañeda, Gerardo; Galván-Montaño, Alfonso; de Oca, Guadalupe García-Montes; Zapata-Valdez, Carinthia; Tena-Betancourt, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Degenerative spinal disease is a leading cause of chronic disability both in humans and animals. Although widely seen as a normal occurrence of aging, degenerative spinal disease can be caused by various genetic, iatrogenic, inflammatory, and congenital factors. The objective of this study was to characterize the degenerative spine-related diseases and the age at onset in a random subpopulation of 20 captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; male, 13; female, 7; age: range, 4 to 27 y; median, 18.5 y). Spinal radiographic evaluation (left lateral, right lateral, and ventrodorsal views) of the spinal column (C1 to S1) was performed, and spinal degenerative disease was scored. The incidence of osteopathology was higher in the 14- to 18-y-old group, but incidence did not differ according to sex. In the studied population, degenerative changes were present in monkeys as young as 9 y of age. PMID:21262126

  15. Collective Movement in the Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana): Early Joiners Write the Rule of the Game.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Sun, Lixing; Li, Jinhua; Xia, Dongpo; Sun, Binghua; Zhang, Dao

    2015-01-01

    Collective behavior has recently attracted a great deal of interest in both natural and social sciences. While the role of leadership has been closely scrutinized, the rules used by joiners in collective decision making have received far less attention. Two main hypotheses have been proposed concerning these rules: mimetism and quorum. Mimetism predicts that individuals are increasingly likely to join collective behavior as the number of participants increases. It can be further divided into selective mimetism, where relationships among the participants affect the process, and anonymous mimetism, where no such effect exists. Quorum predicts that a collective behavior occurs when the number of participants reaches a threshold. To probe into which rule is used in collective decision making, we conducted a study on the joining process in a group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) in Huangshan, China using a combination of all-occurrence and focal animal sampling methods. Our results show that the earlier individuals joined movements, the more central a role they occupied among the joining network. We also found that when less than three adults participated in the first five minutes of the joining process, no entire group movement occurred subsequently. When the number of these early joiners ranged from three to six, selective mimetism was used. This means higher rank or closer social affiliation of early joiners could be among the factors of deciding whether to participate in movements by group members. When the number of early joiners reached or exceeded seven, which was the simple majority of the group studied, entire group movement always occurred, meaning that the quorum rule was used. Putting together, Macaca thibetana used a combination of selective mimetism and quorum, and early joiners played a key role in deciding which rule should be used.

  16. Collective Movement in the Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana): Early Joiners Write the Rule of the Game

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhua; Xia, Dongpo; Sun, Binghua; Zhang, Dao

    2015-01-01

    Collective behavior has recently attracted a great deal of interest in both natural and social sciences. While the role of leadership has been closely scrutinized, the rules used by joiners in collective decision making have received far less attention. Two main hypotheses have been proposed concerning these rules: mimetism and quorum. Mimetism predicts that individuals are increasingly likely to join collective behavior as the number of participants increases. It can be further divided into selective mimetism, where relationships among the participants affect the process, and anonymous mimetism, where no such effect exists. Quorum predicts that a collective behavior occurs when the number of participants reaches a threshold. To probe into which rule is used in collective decision making, we conducted a study on the joining process in a group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) in Huangshan, China using a combination of all-occurrence and focal animal sampling methods. Our results show that the earlier individuals joined movements, the more central a role they occupied among the joining network. We also found that when less than three adults participated in the first five minutes of the joining process, no entire group movement occurred subsequently. When the number of these early joiners ranged from three to six, selective mimetism was used. This means higher rank or closer social affiliation of early joiners could be among the factors of deciding whether to participate in movements by group members. When the number of early joiners reached or exceeded seven, which was the simple majority of the group studied, entire group movement always occurred, meaning that the quorum rule was used. Putting together, Macaca thibetana used a combination of selective mimetism and quorum, and early joiners played a key role in deciding which rule should be used. PMID:25992882

  17. Comparison of calcium and phosphorus excretion with bone density changes during restraint in immature Macaca nemestrina primates.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R. A.; Hood, W. N.; Mack, P. B.

    1972-01-01

    Calcium and phosphorus balance data on Macaca nemestrina monkeys during immobilization are presented and correlated with X-ray bone densitometry findings. A positive mineral balance was maintained during the immobilized period. A reduced bone density was observed in most skeletal sites examined with increased density observed in epiphyseal regions. Migration of mineral from one site to another is suggested as a possible explanation for the findings.

  18. Challenges in oral administration of metronidazole dissolved in drinking water to rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Labberton, Linda; Bakker, Jaco; Klomp, Rianne; Langermans, Jan A M; van Geijlswijk, Ingeborg M

    2013-06-01

    Intestinal pathogens such as Entamoeba spp. and Giardia spp. protozoans are not uncommon among rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in research facilities. These infections affect the health of the macaques, potentially causing severe diarrhea, and also pose a risk of zoonotic transmission to human caretakers. Infections must therefore be treated, but no standard treatment for intestinal protozoans in macaques has been developed. Metronidazole is commonly used to treat infections with Giardia spp. and Entamoeba spp. in veterinary medicine, but evidence-based information on effectiveness and dosages for nonhuman primates is lacking, and administration of drugs to nonhuman primates is challenging. The authors designed a study to determine whether oral administration of metronidazole dissolved in drinking water would be successful in rhesus macaques. They monitored daily fluid intake of macaques given water with or without metronidazole and with or without flavored syrup. Metronidazole addition, with or without flavored syrup, resulted in a decrease in fluid intake. Although it was possible to administer metronidazole in drinking water to some macaques, the authors conclude that this strategy is not a practical clinical method because of variation in the amount of water and metronidazole ingested by the macaques.

  19. Visual Nesting of Stimuli Affects Rhesus Monkeys' (Macaca mulatta) Quantity Judgments in a Bisection Task

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Parrish, Audrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman animals are highly proficient at judging relative quantities presented in a variety of formats including visual, auditory, and even cross modal formats. Performance typically is constrained by the ratio between sets, as would be expected under Weber's Law, and as is described in the Approximate Number System (ANS) hypothesis. In most cases, tests are designed to avoid any perceptual confusion for animals regarding the stimulus sets, but despite this, animals show some of the perceptual biases that humans show based on organization of stimuli. Here, we demonstrate an additional perceptual bias that emerges from the illusion of nested sets. When arrays of circles were presented on a computer screen and were to be classified as larger than or as smaller than an established central value, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) underestimated quantities when circles were nested within each other. This matched a previous report with adult humans (Chesney & Gelman, 2012), indicating that macaques, like humans, show the pattern of biased perception predicted by ANS estimation. Although some macaques overcame this perceptual bias demonstrating that they could come to view nested stimuli as individual elements to be included in the estimates of quantity used for classifying arrays, the majority of the monkeys showed the bias of underestimating nested arrays throughout the experiment. PMID:23709063

  20. Noninvasive saliva collection for DNA analyses from free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    PubMed

    Simons, N D; Lorenz, J G; Sheeran, L K; Li, J H; Xia, D P; Wagner, R S

    2012-11-01

    Cryptic and endangered fauna, including many primate taxa, pose challenges for noninvasive collection of biomaterials. As a result, application of noninvasive genotyping to primates has been limited to the use of samples such as feces and hair for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA. We present a method for noninvasive collection of saliva from habituated, free-ranging monkeys. The method utilizes a low-cost apparatus that controls for contamination and is usable with individual, free-ranging primates. Saliva samples were collected from 18 individuals in a population of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) in the Valley of Wild Monkeys in Huangshan, People's Republic of China. DNA was extracted from these samples and PCR-amplified for both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, Cytochrome B and MHC-DR Beta 1, respectively. These results indicate this is an effective technique for the noninvasive collection of saliva across age and sex class, and dominance rank in a free-ranging, terrestrial primate species. This device could have wide application for obtaining high-quality saliva samples from free-ranging primate populations for use in epidemiological studies, hormonal analyses of HPA axis function, pathogen screening, noninvasive genotyping, and behavioral genetics.

  1. Parameter comparison of white matter diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    MO, Yin; CHAO, Fang; SONG, Ming; LIU, Ci-Rong; LIU, Hui-Lang; QIAN, Xi-Ying; ZHAO, Xu-Dong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) results of brain white matter in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with four different parameter settings and found that the sequence A (b=1 000 s/mm2, spatial resolution=1.25 mm×1.25 mm× 1.25 mm, numbers of direction=33, NSA=3) and B (b=800 s/mm2, spatial resolution=1.25 mm×1.25 mm×1.25 mm, numbers of direction=33, NSA=3) could accurately track coarse fibers. The fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from sequence C (b=1 000s/mm2, spatial resolution=0.55 mm×0.55 mm×2.5 mm, direction number=33, NSA=3) was too fuzzy to be used in tracking white matter fibers. By comparison, the high resolution and the FA with high contrast of gray matter and white matter derived from sequence D (b=800 s/mm2, spatial resolution=1.0 mm×1.0 mm ×1.0 mm, numbers of direction=33, NSA=3) qualified in its application in tracking both thick and thin fibers, making it an optimal DTI setting for rhesus macaques. PMID:24866488

  2. Covalent structure of apolipoprotein A-II from Macaca mulatta serum high-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, C; Noyes, C; Keim, P; Heinrikson, R L; Fellows, R E; Scanu, A M

    1976-03-23

    The covalent structure of apolipoprotein A-II, isolated from the serum high-density lipoprotein of a single male Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), was determined. The amino acid sequence of this 77-residue polypeptide is: less than Glu-Ala-Glu-Glu-Pro5-Ser-Val-Glu-Ser-Leu10-Val-Ser-Gln-Tyr-Phe15-Gln-Thr-Val-Thr-Asp20-Tyr-Gly-Lys-Asp-Leu25-Met-Glu-Lys-Val-Lys30-Ser-Pro-Glu-Leu-Gln35-Ala-Gln-Ala-Lys-Ala40-Tyr-Phe-Glu-Lys-Ser45-Lys-Glu-Gln-Leu-Thr50-Pro-Leu-Val-Lys-Lys55-Ala-Gly-Thr-Asp-Leu60-Val-Asn-Phe-Leu-Ser65-Tyr-Phe-Val-Glu-Leu70-Arg-Thr-Gln-Pro-Ala75-Thr-Gln-COOH. A comparison of this structure to that of the monomeric form of human apolipoprotein A-II reveals a high degree of homology except for six conservative amino acid replacements (positions 3, 6, 40, 53, 59, and 71). Of particular structural significance is the replacement of cysteine by serine in position 6. This explaines why Rhesus A-II exists in monomeric form, contrary to the established dimeric nature of the human protein.

  3. Goal attribution to inanimate moving objects by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

    PubMed Central

    Atsumi, Takeshi; Koda, Hiroki; Masataka, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    Humans interpret others’ goals based on motion information, and this capacity contributes to our mental reasoning. The present study sought to determine whether Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) perceive goal-directedness in chasing events depicted by two geometric particles. In Experiment 1, two monkeys and adult humans were trained to discriminate between Chasing and Random sequences. We then introduced probe stimuli with various levels of correlation between the particle trajectories to examine whether participants performed the task using higher correlation. Participants chose stimuli with the highest correlations by chance, suggesting that correlations were not the discriminative cue. Experiment 2 examined whether participants focused on particle proximity. Participants differentiated between Chasing and Control sequences; the distance between two particles was identical in both. Results indicated that, like humans, the Japanese macaques did not use physical cues alone to perform the discrimination task and integrated the cues spontaneously. This suggests that goal attribution resulting from motion information is a widespread cognitive phenotype in primate species. PMID:28053305

  4. Facial width-to-height ratio relates to dominance style in the genus Macaca

    PubMed Central

    Majolo, Bonaventura

    2016-01-01

    Background. Physical, visual, chemical, and auditory cues signalling fighting ability have independently evolved in many animal taxa as a means to resolve conflicts without escalating to physical aggression. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR, i.e., the relative width to height of the face) has been associated with dominance-related phenotypes both in humans and in other primates. In humans, faces with a larger fWHR are perceived as more aggressive. Methods. We examined fWHR variation among 11 species of the genus Macaca. Macaques have been grouped into four distinct categories, from despotic to tolerant, based on their female dominance style. Female dominance style is related to intra- and inter-sexual competition in both males and females and is the result of different evolutionary pressure across species. We used female dominance style as a proxy of intra-/inter-sexual competition to test the occurrence of correlated evolution between competitive regimes and dominance-related phenotypes. fWHR was calculated from 145 2D photographs of male and female adult macaques. Results. We found no phylogenetic signal on the differences in fWHR across species in the two sexes. However, fWHR was greater, in females and males, in species characterised by despotic female dominance style than in tolerant species. Discussion. Our results suggest that dominance-related phenotypes are related to differences in competitive regimes and intensity of inter- and intra-sexual selection across species. PMID:27019780

  5. Coagulation Biomarkers in Healthy Chinese-Origin Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Frydman, Galit H; Bendapudi, Pavan K; Marini, Robert P; Vanderburg, Charles R; Tompkins, Ronald G; Fox, James G

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are a common model for the study of human biology and disease. To manage coagulopathies in these animals and to study their clotting changes, the ability to measure coagulation biomarkers is necessary. Currently, few options for coagulation testing in NHP are commercially available. In this study, assays for 4 coagulation biomarkers—D-dimer, antithrombin III, protein C, and soluble P-selectin—were developed and optimized for rhesus macaques. Whole blood was collected from 28 healthy Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (11 male; 17 female) ranging in age from 5 to 20 y. Coagulation biomarkers were measured by using bead-based sandwich ELISA technology. The ranges (mean ± 90% confidence interval) for these biomarkers were: antithrombin III, 124.2 to 133.4 μg/mL; protein C, 3.2 to 3.6 μg/mL; D-dimer, 110.3 to 161.3 ng/mL; soluble P-selectin, 0.12 to 0.14 ng/106 platelets. These reference values did not differ significantly according to sex or age. These new assays for coagulation biomarkers in rhesus macaques will facilitate the evaluation of in vivo hemostasis. PMID:27177557

  6. Transmission of Chagas Disease via Blood Transfusions in 2 Immunosuppressed Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina)

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Derek L; Torrence, Annie E; Vogel, Keith W; Stockinger, Diane E; Nelson, Veronica; Murnane, Robert D; Baldessari, Audrey; Kuller, LaRene; Agy, Michael; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E

    2014-01-01

    A 2.25-y-old male pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) was experimentally irradiated and received a bone marrow transplant. After transplantation and engraftment, the macaque had unexpected recurring pancytopenia and dependent edema of the prepuce, scrotum, and legs. The diagnostic work-up included a blood smear, which revealed a trypomastigote consistent with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease (CD). We initially hypothesized that the macaque had acquired the infection when it lived in Georgia. However, because the animal had received multiple blood transfusions, all blood donors were screened for CD. One male pigtailed macaque blood donor, which was previously housed in Louisiana, was positive for T. cruzi antibodies via serology. Due to the low prevalence of infection in Georgia, the blood transfusion was hypothesized to be the source of T. cruzi infection. The transfusion was confirmed as the mechanism of transmission when screening of archived serum revealed seroconversion after blood transfusion from the seropositive blood donor. The macaque made a full clinical recovery, and further follow-up including thoracic radiography, echocardiography, and gross necropsy did not show any abnormalities associated with CD. Other animals that received blood transfusions from the positive blood donor were tested, and one additional pigtailed macaque on the same research protocol was positive for T. cruzi. Although CD has been reported to occur in many nonhuman primate species, especially pigtailed macaques, the transmission of CD via blood transfusion in nonhuman primates has not been reported previously. PMID:24512963

  7. Coagulation Biomarkers in Healthy Chinese-Origin Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Frydman, Galit H; Bendapudi, Pavan K; Marini, Robert P; Vanderburg, Charles R; Tompkins, Ronald G; Fox, James G

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are a common model for the study of human biology and disease. To manage coagulopathies in these animals and to study their clotting changes, the ability to measure coagulation biomarkers is necessary. Currently, few options for coagulation testing in NHP are commercially available. In this study, assays for 4 coagulation biomarkers-D-dimer, antithrombin III, protein C, and soluble P-selectin-were developed and optimized for rhesus macaques. Whole blood was collected from 28 healthy Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (11 male; 17 female) ranging in age from 5 to 20 y. Coagulation biomarkers were measured by using bead-based sandwich ELISA technology. The ranges (mean ± 90% confidence interval) for these biomarkers were: antithrombin III, 124.2 to 133.4 μg/mL; protein C, 3.2 to 3.6 μg/mL; D-dimer, 110.3 to 161.3 ng/mL; soluble P-selectin, 0.12 to 0.14 ng/10(6) platelets. These reference values did not differ significantly according to sex or age. These new assays for coagulation biomarkers in rhesus macaques will facilitate the evaluation of in vivo hemostasis.

  8. Role of vocal tract characteristics in individual discrimination by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

    PubMed Central

    Furuyama, Takafumi; Kobayasi, Kohta I.; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) exhibits a species-specific communication sound called the “coo call” to locate group members and maintain within-group contact. Monkeys have been demonstrated to be capable of discriminating between individuals based only on their voices, but there is still debate regarding how the fundamental frequencies (F0) and filter properties of the vocal tract characteristics (VTC) contribute to individual discrimination in nonhuman primates. This study was performed to investigate the acoustic keys used by Japanese macaques in individual discrimination. Two animals were trained with standard Go/NoGo operant conditioning to distinguish the coo calls of two unfamiliar monkeys. The subjects were required to continue depressing a lever until the stimulus changed from one monkey to the other. The test stimuli were synthesized by combining the F0s and VTC from each individual. Both subjects released the lever when the VTC changed, whereas they did not when the F0 changed. The reaction times to the test stimuli were not significantly different from that to the training stimuli that shared the same VTC. Our data suggest that vocal tract characteristics are important for the identification of individuals by Japanese macaques. PMID:27550840

  9. Facial width-to-height ratio relates to dominance style in the genus Macaca.

    PubMed

    Borgi, Marta; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2016-01-01

    Background. Physical, visual, chemical, and auditory cues signalling fighting ability have independently evolved in many animal taxa as a means to resolve conflicts without escalating to physical aggression. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR, i.e., the relative width to height of the face) has been associated with dominance-related phenotypes both in humans and in other primates. In humans, faces with a larger fWHR are perceived as more aggressive. Methods. We examined fWHR variation among 11 species of the genus Macaca. Macaques have been grouped into four distinct categories, from despotic to tolerant, based on their female dominance style. Female dominance style is related to intra- and inter-sexual competition in both males and females and is the result of different evolutionary pressure across species. We used female dominance style as a proxy of intra-/inter-sexual competition to test the occurrence of correlated evolution between competitive regimes and dominance-related phenotypes. fWHR was calculated from 145 2D photographs of male and female adult macaques. Results. We found no phylogenetic signal on the differences in fWHR across species in the two sexes. However, fWHR was greater, in females and males, in species characterised by despotic female dominance style than in tolerant species. Discussion. Our results suggest that dominance-related phenotypes are related to differences in competitive regimes and intensity of inter- and intra-sexual selection across species.

  10. The population genomics of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) based on whole-genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Cheng; Raveendran, Muthuswamy; Harris, R. Alan; Fawcett, Gloria L.; Liu, Xiaoming; White, Simon; Dahdouli, Mahmoud; Rio Deiros, David; Below, Jennifer E.; Salerno, William; Cox, Laura; Fan, Guoping; Ferguson, Betsy; Horvath, Julie; Johnson, Zach; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Kubisch, H. Michael; Liu, Dahai; Platt, Michael; Smith, David G.; Sun, Binghua; Vallender, Eric J.; Wang, Feng; Wiseman, Roger W.; Chen, Rui; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Yu, Fuli; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are the most widely used nonhuman primate in biomedical research, have the largest natural geographic distribution of any nonhuman primate, and have been the focus of much evolutionary and behavioral investigation. Consequently, rhesus macaques are one of the most thoroughly studied nonhuman primate species. However, little is known about genome-wide genetic variation in this species. A detailed understanding of extant genomic variation among rhesus macaques has implications for the use of this species as a model for studies of human health and disease, as well as for evolutionary population genomics. Whole-genome sequencing analysis of 133 rhesus macaques revealed more than 43.7 million single-nucleotide variants, including thousands predicted to alter protein sequences, transcript splicing, and transcription factor binding sites. Rhesus macaques exhibit 2.5-fold higher overall nucleotide diversity and slightly elevated putative functional variation compared with humans. This functional variation in macaques provides opportunities for analyses of coding and noncoding variation, and its cellular consequences. Despite modestly higher levels of nonsynonymous variation in the macaques, the estimated distribution of fitness effects and the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous variants suggest that purifying selection has had stronger effects in rhesus macaques than in humans. Demographic reconstructions indicate this species has experienced a consistently large but fluctuating population size. Overall, the results presented here provide new insights into the population genomics of nonhuman primates and expand genomic information directly relevant to primate models of human disease. PMID:27934697

  11. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  12. Use of an Aquarium as a Novel Enrichment Item for Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Theresa M; Hutchinson, Eric; Krall, Caroline; Watson, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Locomotor stereotypies are behaviors often seen in singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and are considered to represent a maladaptive response to captive environments. Active and passive enrichment items are commonly used to mitigate these and other abnormal behaviors. Active enrichment items allow physical manipulation and may be temporarily successful in reducing stereotypies, but their beneficial effects usually are confined to relatively short periods of active use. Passive enrichment items that do not involve physical manipulation are less well studied, and the results are mixed. This study evaluated an aquarium with live fish for use as a novel passive enrichment item in a common facility setting as a means to decrease locomotor stereotypy. We hypothesized that the introduction of the aquarium would decrease the frequency of locomotor stereotypy in a group of singly housed rhesus macaques (n = 11) with a known history of abnormal behaviors. Unexpectedly, locomotor stereotypy increased with the introduction of the aquarium and then decreased over time. Furthermore, when the aquarium was removed, the frequency of stereotypy decreased to below baseline levels. These unexpected results are best explained by neophobia, a common phenomenon documented in many animal species. The increase in abnormal behavior is likely to result from the addition of a novel object within the environment. This study demonstrates that, in the context of reducing abnormal behavior, presumably innocuous enrichment items may have unexpected effects and should be evaluated critically after their introduction to a captive population. PMID:25255069

  13. Determination of genetic status in a closed colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Andrade, Marcia C Ribeiro; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T; Ward, Thea; Silva, Virgilio F; Bertolini, Luciana R; Roberts, Jeffrey A; Leite, Jose Paulo G; Cabello, Pedro H

    2004-07-01

    The long-term management of breeding colonies requires some measure of genetic diversity in the animal population. For the maintenance of breeding colonies of monkeys used for biomedical research, known pedigrees supply precise data to determine the genetic status of colonies. We present data of genetic analyses in an old closed colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that was established in 1932 with 100 animals. For more than 40 years, the animals were kept on an isolated island and, in 1980, single-male breeding groups were established. A total of 333 DNA samples of these animals were typed to 20 microsatellite markers using multiplex PCR in order to verify inbreeding coefficient (alpha) and level of heterozygosity. We found an average heterozygosity of 64% and obtained alpha=-0.03293 (+/-0.00573). Our results indicate that the reproductive strategy used was effective because consanguineous breeding was avoided. A continuous genetic program must be carried out in order to obtain better quality primates for biomedical research.

  14. Distribution of pacinian corpuscles in the hand of the monkey, Macaca fuscata.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, K; Senuma, H; Ebara, S; Matsuura, T

    1993-08-01

    The size and distribution of pacinian corpuscles were investigated in the palmar aspect of both hands of the monkey, Macaca fuscata. Most pacinian corpuscles were located in the dermis (dermal type) and subcutaneous tissue (subcutaneous type) throughout the hand. On light microscopy there were no differences in the structure of these 2 types, although almost all the subcutaneous type had a greater longitudinal dimension than the dermal type. Corpuscles were oval or elliptical and their longitudinal and transverse dimensions varied from 156 to 2025 microns and 88 to 1240 microns, respectively. Many pacinian corpuscles were in close relation to the small blood vessels, and their diameters were as large as those of capillaries. There were 458 corpuscles (dermal type: subcutaneous type = 140:318) in the right hand and 416 (186:230) in the left hand. About 40% of the corpuscles in each hand were found in the digital region; the remainder were located in the palm. The mean number of corpuscles in each finger was 33 and they were concentrated in the distal and middle phalanges. In the palmar region, most corpuscles were localised in the 2nd and 3rd interdigital eminences and the thenar and hypothenar eminences.

  15. Reference Intervals for Preprandial and Postprandial Serum Bile Acid in Adult Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Lemoy, Marie-Josee MF; Westworth, Diccon R; Ardeshir, Amir; Tarara, Ross P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the 12-h fasting preprandial and 2-h postprandial serum bile acid concentration (SBAC) reference intervals for healthy, adult rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We hypothesized that the mean 2-h postprandial SBAC would be significantly higher than the mean preprandial SBAC. We included 40 (24 male, 16 female) macaques after confirming that their health records, physical examinations, CBC, serum chemistry panels, and urinalyses were all within normal limits. In addition, hepatitis A titers were determined, an ultrasound examination of the liver was performed, and two 16-gauge ultrasound guided percutaneous liver biopsies were collected and submitted for histopathology. Macaques were confirmed healthy according to hepatitis A screens and sonographic and histologic evaluation of hepatic tissue. Within 2 wk of the screening procedures, preprandial and postprandial SBACs were measured. Preprandial SBAC (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.1 ± 1.9 µmol/L and postprandial SBAC was 19.7 ± 8.0 µmol/L, which was significantly higher than the preprandial value. Sex and hepatitis titers did not significantly influence preprandial and postprandial SBAC. The current study indicates that the SBAC reference values for rhesus macaques are higher than those reported for humans and companion animals. PMID:23849441

  16. Effects of Human Management Events on Conspecific Aggression in Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Theil, Jacob H; Beisner, Brianne A; Hill, Ashley E; McCowan, Brenda

    2017-03-01

    Conspecific aggression in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at primate research facilities is a leading source of trauma and can potentially influence animal wellbeing and research quality. Although aggression between macaques is a normal part of daily social interactions, human presence might affect the frequency of various behaviors and instigate increases in conspecific aggression. We sought to determine how and which human management events affect conspecific aggression both immediately after an event and throughout the course of a day. From June 2008 through December 2009, we recorded agonistic encounters among macaques living in 7 social groups in large outdoor field cages. Behavioral data were then synchronized with specific management events (for example, feeding, enclosure cleaning, animal catching) that occurred within or near the enclosure. By using an Information Theoretical approach, 2 generalized linear mixed models were developed to estimate the effects of human management events on 1) aggression after individual management events and 2) daily levels of aggression. Univariate analysis revealed an increase in the rate of aggression after a management event occurred. The best predictor of aggression in a cage was the type of management event that occurred. Various factors including the number of daily management events, the total time of management events, the technicians involved, reproductive season, and their interactions also showed significant associations with daily aggression levels. Our findings demonstrate that human management events are associated with an increase in conspecific aggression between rhesus macaques and thus have implications regarding how humans manage primates in research facilities.

  17. Training pair-housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using a combination of negative and positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Wergård, Eva-Marie; Temrin, Hans; Forkman, Björn; Spångberg, Mats; Fredlund, Hélène; Westlund, Karolina

    2015-04-01

    When training animals, time is sometimes a limiting factor hampering the use of positive reinforcement training (PRT) exclusively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of negative and positive reinforcement training (NPRT). Twenty naïve female Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were trained in 30 sessions with either PRT (n=8) or NPRT (n=12) to respond to a signal, move into a selected cage section and accept confinement. In the NPRT-group a signal preceded the presentation of one or several novel, and thus aversive, stimuli. When the correct behaviour was performed, the novel stimulus was removed and treats were given. As the animal learned to perform the correct behaviour, the use of novel stimuli was decreased and finally phased out completely. None of the PRT-trained animals finished the task. Ten out of 12 monkeys in the NPRT-group succeeded to perform the task within the 30 training sessions, a significant difference from the PRT-group (p=0.0007). A modified approach test showed no significant difference between the groups (p=0.67) in how they reacted to the trainer. The results from this study suggest that carefully conducted NPRT can be an alternative training method to consider, especially when under a time constraint.

  18. The population genomics of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) based on whole-genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Xue, Cheng; Raveendran, Muthuswamy; Harris, R Alan; Fawcett, Gloria L; Liu, Xiaoming; White, Simon; Dahdouli, Mahmoud; Rio Deiros, David; Below, Jennifer E; Salerno, William; Cox, Laura; Fan, Guoping; Ferguson, Betsy; Horvath, Julie; Johnson, Zach; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Kubisch, H Michael; Liu, Dahai; Platt, Michael; Smith, David G; Sun, Binghua; Vallender, Eric J; Wang, Feng; Wiseman, Roger W; Chen, Rui; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Yu, Fuli; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are the most widely used nonhuman primate in biomedical research, have the largest natural geographic distribution of any nonhuman primate, and have been the focus of much evolutionary and behavioral investigation. Consequently, rhesus macaques are one of the most thoroughly studied nonhuman primate species. However, little is known about genome-wide genetic variation in this species. A detailed understanding of extant genomic variation among rhesus macaques has implications for the use of this species as a model for studies of human health and disease, as well as for evolutionary population genomics. Whole-genome sequencing analysis of 133 rhesus macaques revealed more than 43.7 million single-nucleotide variants, including thousands predicted to alter protein sequences, transcript splicing, and transcription factor binding sites. Rhesus macaques exhibit 2.5-fold higher overall nucleotide diversity and slightly elevated putative functional variation compared with humans. This functional variation in macaques provides opportunities for analyses of coding and noncoding variation, and its cellular consequences. Despite modestly higher levels of nonsynonymous variation in the macaques, the estimated distribution of fitness effects and the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous variants suggest that purifying selection has had stronger effects in rhesus macaques than in humans. Demographic reconstructions indicate this species has experienced a consistently large but fluctuating population size. Overall, the results presented here provide new insights into the population genomics of nonhuman primates and expand genomic information directly relevant to primate models of human disease.

  19. Purkinje Cell Axon Collaterals Terminate on Cat-301+ Neurons in Macaca Monkey Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Crook, J.D.; Hendrickson, A.; Erickson, A.; Possin, D.; Robinson, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody Cat-301 identifies perineuronal nets around specific neuronal types, including those in the cerebellum. This report finds in adult Macaca monkey that Basket cells in the deep molecular layer; granule cell layer (GCL) interneurons including Lugaro cells; large neurons in the foliar white matter (WM); and deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) neurons contain subsets of Cat-301+ cells. Most Cat-301+ GCL interneurons are glycine+ and all are densely innervated by a meshwork of calbindin+/GAD+ Purkinje cell collaterals and their synapses. DCN and WM Cat-301+ neurons also receive a similar but less dense innervation. Due to the heavy labeling of adjacent Purkinje cell dendrites, the innervation of Cat-301+ Basket cells was less certain. These findings suggest that several complex feedback circuits from Purkinje cell to cerebellar interneurons exist in primate cerebellum whose function needs to be investigated. Cat-301 labeling begins postnatally in WM and DCN, but remains sparse until at least 3 months of age. Because the appearance of perineuronal nets is associated with maturation of synaptic circuits, this suggests that the Purkinje cell feedback circuits develop for some time after birth. PMID:17936513

  20. The Influence of Kinship on Familiar Natal Migrant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Albers, Monika; Widdig, Anja

    2013-02-01

    In most primate species, females remain in the natal group with kin while males disperse away from kin around the time of puberty. Philopatric females bias their social behavior toward familiar maternal and paternal kin in several species, but little is known about kin bias in the dispersing sex. Male dispersal is likely to be costly because males encounter an increased risk of predation and death, which might be reduced by dispersing together with kin and/or familiar males (individuals that were born and grew up in same natal group) or into a group containing kin and/or familiar males. Here we studied the influence of kinship on familiar natal migrant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, by combining demographic, behavioral, and genetic data. Our data suggest that kinship influences spatial proximity between recent natal immigrants and males familiar to them. Immigrants were significantly nearer to more closely related familiar males than to more distantly related individuals. Within a familiar subgroup, natal migrants were significantly closer to maternal kin, followed by paternal kin, then non-kin, and finally to males related via both the maternal and paternal line. Spatial proximity between natal immigrants and familiar males did not decrease over time in the new group, suggesting that there is no decline in associations between these individuals within the first months of immigration. Overall, our results might indicate that kinship is important for the dispersing sex, at least during natal dispersal when kin are still available.

  1. Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of adult females for thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Masataka; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A majority of huddling among adult females was recorded during winter season (December, January, and February). Females who had young (0- or 1-year-old) offspring huddled less frequently with other adult females compared to females who did not have young offspring in winter. However, including young offspring, the frequency of huddling with any other individuals did not differ by whether females had young offspring. Moreover, the females who did not have young offspring huddled with other adult females more often in cloudy than in sunny weather during winter season. In contrast, females who had young offspring increased huddling with their young offspring in cloudy than in sunny weather, but did not do so with other adult females. This study indicates that Japanese macaque mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of other adult females when there is need for thermoregulation.

  2. Niche separation of sympatric macaques, Macaca assamensis and M. mulatta, in limestone habitats of Nonggang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qihai; Wei, Hua; Tang, Huaxing; Huang, Zhonghao; Krzton, Ali; Huang, Chengming

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of sympatric species are essential in understanding those species' behavioral and ecological adaptations as well as the mechanisms that can reduce resource competition enough to allow coexistence. We collected data on diet, activity budget and habitat use from two sympatric macaque species, the Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis) and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), in a limestone seasonal rainforest of Nonggang Nature Reserve, southwestern Guangxi, China. Our results show that the two sympatric macaques differ in diet, activity budget, and habitat use: (1) out of the 131 plant species that were used by both macaque species as food over the year, only 15 plant species (11 %) were shared. Rhesus macaques used more plant species as major foods, and had higher dietary diversity and evenness indexes than Assamese macaques. (2) Assamese macaques fed predominantly on leaves, whereas rhesus macaques fed more selectively on fruits. The rhesus macaques' diet varied according to season, and was significantly correlated to season fluctuation in fruit availability. (3) Assamese macaques devoted more time to resting, and less time to feeding than rhesus macaques (4) Assamese macaques were present mostly on the cliff, and tended to stay on the ground, whereas rhesus macaques were present mostly on the hillside, and showed preference to lower and middle canopy. The observed differences in diet and habitat use between the two macaque species represent behavioral patterns enabling their coexistence.

  3. Comparison of the two methods of electroejaculation in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, K

    1982-01-01

    Electrical parameters in two methods of stimulation, i. e. the rectal probe method under anesthesia and the penile method in consciousness, were examined in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata). In rectal probe method, ejaculation occurred in almost all animals by the stimulation of intermittent charges of 10-15 volts at a frequency of between 3-5 impulses per second by using a monophasic alternating current of 60 cycles. In penile method, good results were obtained by a DC, square wave stimulus applied with a frequency of 18-20 pulses per second and a duration of 20 milli-seconds per pulse. Animals required some training period for the penile method initially, but they responded well after sufficient practices. Although the semen samples obtained by the penile method showed spontaneous liquefaction partially at all times, samples by the rectal probe method frequently stayed in absolute coagulum. The fluid portion in the specimen by the penile method contained free, motile and rich spermatozoa in contrast with the rectal probe method that included little sperm in it. The details of stimulation and the observation of liquefaction are presented and discussed.

  4. New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus After Transplantation in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fasicularis).

    PubMed

    Matthews, Kristin A; Tonsho, Makoto; Madsen, Joren C

    2015-08-01

    A 5.5-y-old intact male cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fasicularis) presented with inappetence and weight loss 57 d after heterotopic heart and thymus transplantation while receiving an immunosuppressant regimen consisting of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and methylprednisolone to prevent graft rejection. A serum chemistry panel, a glycated hemoglobin test, and urinalysis performed at presentation revealed elevated blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (727 mg/dL and 10.1%, respectively), glucosuria, and ketonuria. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed, and insulin therapy was initiated immediately. The macaque was weaned off the immunosuppressive therapy as his clinical condition improved and stabilized. Approximately 74 d after discontinuation of the immunosuppressants, the blood glucose normalized, and the insulin therapy was stopped. The animal's blood glucose and HbA1c values have remained within normal limits since this time. We suspect that our macaque experienced new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation, a condition that is commonly observed in human transplant patients but not well described in NHP. To our knowledge, this report represents the first documented case of new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation in a cynomolgus macaque.

  5. Efficacy of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kristi R; Kapatkin, Amy R; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Christe, Kari L

    2012-08-01

    Here we describe the successful surgical implementation of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with marked osteomyelitis. The macaque presented to the veterinary clinic with grossly contaminated bite wounds in the left ankle secondary to conspecific trauma. Radiographic findings were highly suggestive of osteomyelitis. Additional differential diagnoses included bony infarct, fracture, and cellulitis. In light of the location of the lesion and extensive tissue trauma, the animal had a poor prognosis. Systemic, broad-spectrum antibiotics were instituted. After 2 wk of care, lesions did not respond to empirical therapies. On consultation, a veterinary orthopedic surgeon at another facility recommended placement of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads at the sites of osteomyelitis. The animal underwent minor surgery in which beads were introduced into the wound. The monkey had a positive response to therapy. The animal regained full function and was returned to outdoor social housing. Veterinarians are encouraged to consider using antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads when treating osteomyelitis in other nonhuman primates and in other traditional laboratory animal species.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of Oxymorphone in Titi Monkeys (Callicebus spp.) and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R; Pypendop, Bruno H; Grayson, J Kevin; Stanley, Scott D; Christe, Kari L; Summers, Laura M; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2011-01-01

    Oxymorphone is a pure μ-opioid receptor agonist that is commonly used in nonhuman primate medicine and surgery to minimize pain ranging in intensity from moderate to severe. We compared pharmacokinetic profiles and physiologic and behavioral responses to oxymorphone between titi monkeys (Callicebus spp.) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Titi monkeys (n = 4) and rhesus macaques (n = 4) were injected intravenously with either a bolus of 0.075 mg/kg oxymorphone or placebo on multiple occasions, with a minimal washout period of 14 d between trials. Blood collection was limited to no more than 3 samples per trial, with samples collected at multiple time points until 10 h after injection. Collection periods, animal order, and testing day were randomized. In addition, macaques underwent a single serial collection at all time points to validate study design. A 2-compartment model best described the disposition of oxymorphone in both species. Clearance was faster in macaques than titi monkeys, in which terminal half-life was longer. Statistically significant physiologic differences were found between species and between treatments within species. Apart from these effects, oxymorphone did not significantly change physiologic parameters over time. After oxymorphone treatment, macaques demonstrated behaviors reflecting pruritis, whereas titi monkeys exhibited sedation. Despite its mild side effects, we recommend the consideration of oxymorphone for pain management protocols in both Old and New World nonhuman primates. PMID:21439215

  7. Buton macaques (Macaca ochreata brunnescens): crops, conflict, and behavior on farms.

    PubMed

    Priston, Nancy E C; Wyper, Rebecca M; Lee, Phyllis C

    2012-01-01

    One consequence of anthropogenic habitat alteration is that many nonhuman primates are forced into conflict interactions with humans and their livelihood activities, especially through crop raiding. These problems are particularly acute for the endemic and threatened Buton Island macaque (Macaca ochreata brunnescens), in southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Our study investigated the crop raiding behavior of this species over time. Foods eaten and the behavioral repertoire exhibited by macaques during crop raiding at and inside farm perimeters were observed over a period of 8 years (2002-2009). Storage organ crops (e.g. sweet potato) were abundant and most frequently raided by macaques. Individual macaques were most commonly observed to raid close (0-10 m) to farm perimeters. Activities such as feeding, resting, moving, and social interaction varied significantly as a function of penetration distance into the farm, but only marginally between age-sex classes. The annual average raid frequency per farm decreased over the latter years of the study period, raising questions about changes in macaque foraging and ranging behavior over time and their response to farm management and mitigation strategies.

  8. Efficacy of Antibiotic-Impregnated Polymethylmethacrylate Beads in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) with Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R; Kapatkin, Amy R; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Christe, Kari L

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe the successful surgical implementation of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with marked osteomyelitis. The macaque presented to the veterinary clinic with grossly contaminated bite wounds in the left ankle secondary to conspecific trauma. Radiographic findings were highly suggestive of osteomyelitis. Additional differential diagnoses included bony infarct, fracture, and cellulitis. In light of the location of the lesion and extensive tissue trauma, the animal had a poor prognosis. Systemic, broad-spectrum antibiotics were instituted. After 2 wk of care, lesions did not respond to empirical therapies. On consultation, a veterinary orthopedic surgeon at another facility recommended placement of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads at the sites of osteomyelitis. The animal underwent minor surgery in which beads were introduced into the wound. The monkey had a positive response to therapy. The animal regained full function and was returned to outdoor social housing. Veterinarians are encouraged to consider using antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads when treating osteomyelitis in other nonhuman primates and in other traditional laboratory animal species. PMID:23043785

  9. Concealing of facial expressions by a wild Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus).

    PubMed

    Thunström, Maria; Kuchenbuch, Paul; Young, Christopher

    2014-07-01

    Behavioural research on non-vocal communication among non-human primates and its possible links to the origin of human language is a long-standing research topic. Because human language is under voluntary control, it is of interest whether this is also true for any communicative signals of other species. It has been argued that the behaviour of hiding a facial expression with one's hand supports the idea that gestures might be under more voluntary control than facial expressions among non-human primates, and it has also been interpreted as a sign of intentionality. So far, the behaviour has only been reported twice, for single gorilla and chimpanzee individuals, both in captivity. Here, we report the first observation of concealing of facial expressions by a monkey, a Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus), living in the wild. On eight separate occasions between 2009 and 2011 an adult male was filmed concealing two different facial expressions associated with play and aggression ("play face" and "scream face"), 22 times in total. The videos were analysed in detail, including gaze direction, hand usage, duration, and individuals present. This male was the only individual in his group to manifest this behaviour, which always occurred in the presence of a dominant male. Several possible interpretations of the function of the behaviour are discussed. The observations in this study indicate that the gestural communication and cognitive abilities of monkeys warrant more research attention.

  10. Effects of seasonal changes in dietary energy on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kouhei; Mitsutsuka, Syuuhei; Yamazaki, Ato; Nagai, Kazumi; Tezuka, Atsuko; Tsuji, Yamato

    2015-01-01

    Food availability varies seasonally for wild animals, and body weight fluctuates accordingly in the wild. In contrast, controlling availability of diet under captive condition is difficult from keepers' standpoint, and monotonous diet often causes health problems in captive animals. We evaluated the effects of a seasonally controlled diet on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in an outside enclosure at Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan. We fed a high-energy diet in spring and fall, and a more restricted diet in summer and winter for 3 years (2011-2013). Seasonal changes in body weight were similar to those that occur in wild macaques: for both sexes, body weight was higher in spring and fall and lower in winter. A decrease in body weight between fall and winter occurred only in adults, which implied that reducing dietary intake in winter had a more severe effect on adults than on juveniles. Different from wild populations, the body weight of captive macaques did not decrease between spring and summer, which we attributed to a lack of movement within the enclosure and to excess energy intake in summer. In addition to controlling dietary composition, providing large enclosure with complex structure and making efforts of giving unpredictability in feeding are necessary to motivate the captive animals to be more active, which would cause the macaques to show seasonal change in body weight, which is found in wild.

  11. Positive reinforcement training as enrichment for singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Baker, K C; Bloomsmith, M A; Neu, K; Griffis, C; Maloney, M

    2010-08-01

    Positive reinforcement training is one component of behavioural management employed to improve psychological well-being. There has been regulatory promotion to compensate for restricted social housing in part by providing human interaction to singly caged primates, implying an efficacy standard for evaluating human interaction. The effect of positive reinforcement training on the behaviour of 61 singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) was evaluated at two large primate facilities. Training involved body part presentation and basic control behaviours. Baseline data were compared to two treatment phases presented in varying order across individuals, six minutes per week of positive reinforcement training and six minutes per week of unstructured human interaction. While a MANOVA involving behavioural categories and study conditions across study subjects was significant, univariate ANOVAs found no effect of phase within any behavioural category. Categorising subjects according to rearing, housing facility, or baseline levels of abnormal behaviour did not reveal changes in behaviour with positive reinforcement training or human interaction. This study failed to detect, to any degree, the types of behavioural changes documented in the scientific literature to result from pairing singly housed monkeys. Implementing short durations of positive reinforcement training across large numbers of singly housed animals may not be the most effective manner for incorporating positive reinforcement training in the behavioural management of laboratory macaques. Rather, directing efforts toward individuals with specific behavioural, management, clinical, research or therapeutic needs may represent a more fruitful approach to improving psychological well-being with this technique.

  12. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, W.H.; Hackleman, S.M.; Braun, A.M.; Pennington, P.; Saphire, D.G.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J.C.; Cox, A.B.

    1994-06-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure of protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age. 48 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Thromboelastography values from pigtail macaques ( Macaca nemestrina): effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Fong, Derek L; Ha, James C; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E

    2012-01-01

    Thromboelastography is a clinical laboratory test used to assess global hemostasis. With technologic advances and the test's reemergence in human medicine, its utility in veterinary medicine is being explored. Because assays for PT, aPTT, and d-dimers require platelet-poor plasma, whereas thromboelastography is performed on whole blood, thromboelastography provides a more accurate representation of coagulation and allows the identification of hypocoagulable, hypercoagulable, and hyperfibrinolytic states. Conflicting information has been reported about the effects of age and sex on thromboelastog- raphy in humans and animals. Human studies have reported significant effects of age and sex on thromboelastography more often than have animal studies, but few publications are available about thromboelastography in the nonhuman primate and laboratory animal literature. We used a sample of 50 pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) to determine whether age or sex influence thromboelastography values. Of 5 measured and 2 calculated variables produced by thromboelastography, sex had a significant effect only on the lysis-30 parameter, which also showed significant interaction between age and sex; values increased with age in male macaques but decreased with age in female macaques. In addition, we used the data to define reference intervals for thromboelastography parameters in pigtail macaques.

  14. Immunohistochemical and morphological features of a small bowel leiomyoma in a black crested macaque (Macaca nigra)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Spontaneous gastrointestinal neoplasms in non-human primates are commonly seen in aged individuals. Due to genetic similarities between human and non-human primates, scientists have shown increasing interest in terms of comparative oncology studies. Case presentation The present study is related to a case of an intestinal leiomyoma in a black crested macaque (Macaca nigra), kept on captivity by Matecaña Zoo, Pereira City, Colombia. The animal had abdominal distension, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea and behavioral changes. Clinical examination showed an increased volume in the upper right abdominal quadrant caused by a neoplastic mass. The patient died during the surgical procedure. Necropsy revealed several small nodules in the peritoneum with adhesion to different portions of the small and large intestines, liver, stomach and diaphragm. Tissue samples were collected, routinely processed and stained by H&E. Microscopic examination revealed a mesenchymal tumor limited to tunica muscularis, resembling normal smooth muscle cells. Neoplastic cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, and negative for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 by immunohistochemistry. Those morphological and immunohistochemical findings allowed to diagnose the intestinal leiomyoma referred above. Conclusion Neoplastic diseases in primates have multifaceted causes. Their manifestations are understudied, leading to a greater difficulty in detection and measurement of the real impact provides by this disease. PMID:22747606

  15. Effects of Human Management Events on Conspecific Aggression in Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Theil, Jacob; Beisner, Brianne; Hill, Ashley; McCowan, Brenda

    2017-03-02

    Conspecific aggression in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at primate research facilities is a leadingsource of trauma and can potentially influence animal wellbeing and research quality. Although aggression between macaquesis a normal part of daily social interactions, human presence might affect the frequency of various behaviors and instigateincreases in conspecific aggression. We sought to determine how and which human management events affect conspecificaggression both immediately after an event and throughout the course of a day. From June 2008 through December 2009, werecorded agonistic encounters among macaques living in 7 social groups in large outdoor field cages. Behavioral data werethen synchronized with specific management events (for example, feeding, enclosure cleaning, animal catching) that occurredwithin or near the enclosure. By using an Information Theoretical approach, 2 generalized linear mixed models were developedto estimate the effects of human management events on 1) aggression after individual management events and 2) dailylevels of aggression. Univariate analysis revealed an increase in the rate of aggression after a management event occurred.The best predictor of aggression in a cage was the type of management event that occurred. Various factors including thenumber of daily management events, the total time of management events, the technicians involved, reproductive season,and their interactions also showed significant associations with daily aggression levels. Our findings demonstrate that humanmanagement events are associated with an increase in conspecific aggression between rhesus macaques and thus haveimplications regarding how humans manage primates in research facilities.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of Hydromorphone after Intravenous and Intramuscular Administration in Male Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R; Pypendop, Bruno H; Christe, Kari L

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone after intravenous and intramuscular administration to rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta ). Hydromorphone (0.075 mg/kg) was administered intravenously as a bolus or intramuscularly on separate occasions to healthy, socially housed, socially reared, adult, intact male rhesus macaques (n = 4). Blood samples were collected prior to and until 10 h after administration. Serum hydromorphone concentrations were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compartment models were fit to time–concentration data. A 3-compartment model with input in and elimination from the central compartment best fit intravenous data, whereas a 1-comparment model best fit intramuscular data. After intravenous administration, the median clearance and terminal half-life were 37.7 (range, 33.7 to 47.1) mL/kg/min and 142 (range, 131 to 218) min, respectively. The median (range) elimination half-life after intramuscular administration was 81.5 (77.2 to 92.5) min. Median intramuscular bioavailability was 92% (range, 75% to 104%). Rhesus macaques maintained concentrations greater than or equal to 4.0 ng/mL for at least 2 h after intravenous and intramuscular administration. The disposition of hydromorphone was characterized by a large volume of distribution and moderate clearance. Intramuscular administration resulted in rapid and almost complete drug absorption. Whole-body pruritus, sedation, and decreased appetite were observed in all macaques after initial drug administration. PMID:25255074

  17. The Influence of Kinship on Familiar Natal Migrant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Monika; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    In most primate species, females remain in the natal group with kin while males disperse away from kin around the time of puberty. Philopatric females bias their social behavior toward familiar maternal and paternal kin in several species, but little is known about kin bias in the dispersing sex. Male dispersal is likely to be costly because males encounter an increased risk of predation and death, which might be reduced by dispersing together with kin and/or familiar males (individuals that were born and grew up in same natal group) or into a group containing kin and/or familiar males. Here we studied the influence of kinship on familiar natal migrant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, by combining demographic, behavioral, and genetic data. Our data suggest that kinship influences spatial proximity between recent natal immigrants and males familiar to them. Immigrants were significantly nearer to more closely related familiar males than to more distantly related individuals. Within a familiar subgroup, natal migrants were significantly closer to maternal kin, followed by paternal kin, then non-kin, and finally to males related via both the maternal and paternal line. Spatial proximity between natal immigrants and familiar males did not decrease over time in the new group, suggesting that there is no decline in associations between these individuals within the first months of immigration. Overall, our results might indicate that kinship is important for the dispersing sex, at least during natal dispersal when kin are still available. PMID:24850977

  18. Influence of heavy snow on the feeding behavior of Japanese macaques (macaca fuscata) in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Enari, Hiroto; Sakamaki-Enari, Haruka

    2013-06-01

    Natural disasters can degrade primate habitat and alter feeding behavior. Here, we examined the influence of unusually heavy snow on diet and feeding-site use by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. To compare the winter-feeding behavior under different snow conditions, we recorded the plant species foraged on by macaques in multiple transects of the Shirakami Mountains from 2008 to 2012 (excluding 2011). We used cluster analysis to describe foraged plant assemblages, and applied multiple dimensional scaling and decision tree modeling to evaluate annual variation in feeding-site use by macaques. Our cluster analysis revealed five types of foraged plant assemblages. The proportion of each type present in transects varied considerably across the years, indicating that the diet of macaques in heavy snow conditions was influenced more by resource accessibility than by preference. Multiple dimensional scaling and decision tree modeling demonstrated that heavy snow conditions restricted feeding-site use. Moreover, the distribution of refuges relative to severe external ambient environments was a stronger limiting factor for feeding-site use than was the availability of food resources. While most primate species facing unexpected starvation employ risk-prone foraging tactics (i.e., choosing the option with higher pay-off by accepting risk), Japanese macaques have a tendency to adopt risk-averse foraging behavior (i.e., minimizing energy loss when searching for preferred diet items under long-lasting heavy snow conditions), because winters with temperatures below freezing have higher thermoregulatory costs.

  19. Development of sensitivity to global form and motion in macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina).

    PubMed

    Kiorpes, Lynne; Price, Tracy; Hall-Haro, Cynthia; Movshon, J Anthony

    2012-06-15

    To explore the relative development of the dorsal and ventral extrastriate processing streams, we studied the development of sensitivity to form and motion in macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina). We used Glass patterns and random dot kinematograms (RDK) to assay ventral and dorsal stream function, respectively. We tested 24 animals, longitudinally or cross-sectionally, between the ages of 5 weeks and 3 years. Each animal was tested with Glass patterns and RDK stimuli with each of two pattern types--circular and linear--at each age using a two alternative forced-choice task. We measured coherence threshold for discrimination of the global form or motion pattern from an incoherent control stimulus. Sensitivity to global motion appeared earlier than to global form and was higher at all ages, but performance approached adult levels at similar ages. Infants were most sensitive to large spatial scale (Δx) and fast speeds; sensitivity to fine scale and slow speeds developed more slowly independently of pattern type. Within the motion domain, pattern type had little effect on overall performance. However, within the form domain, sensitivity for linear Glass patterns was substantially poorer than that for concentric patterns. Our data show comparatively early onset for global motion integration ability, perhaps reflecting early development of the dorsal stream. However, both pathways mature over long time courses reaching adult levels between 2 and 3 years after birth.

  20. Trace elements found to be variable in two coral reef species, Heliofungia actiniformis and Galaxea fascicularis, collected from the Ryukyu Islands.

    PubMed

    Yamada, G; Fujimori, K; Yamada, M; Minami, T; Tohno, S; Tohno, Y

    1998-11-01

    Biominerals and metals of intertidal corals of two species (Heliofungia actiniformis, Quoy and Gaimard; Galaxea fascicularis, Linnaeus), collected from the Iriomote Island of Ryukyu, were examined with an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). Twelve elements were detectable in the coralline skeletons dissected radially along the growth axis. The relative content (RC) of Hg periodically fluctuated and was minimum at the hollow sites of the coralline slab of Heliofungia sp., corresponding to the cyclic growth. There were two types of elements: constant elements and variable elements along the growth axis. RCs of Ca, Mg, Al, Si, and P were nearly constant. RCs of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Ba were variable, but not as regularly changed as Hg. There were positive mass correlations of Hg to Mn, Cu and Zn, but not to Ba and Fe. In contrast, these relationships were not prominent and were likely degraded by aging in the skeleton of Galaxea sp., suggesting a different mode from that of the Heliofungia sp.

  1. The effects of thermal and high-CO2 stresses on the metabolism and surrounding microenvironment of the coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Sylvain; Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Tomihiko; Yuyama, Ikuko; Casareto, Beatriz E; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Nakano, Yoshikatsu

    2013-08-01

    The effects of elevated temperature and high pCO2 on the metabolism of Galaxea fascicularis were studied with oxygen and pH microsensors. Photosynthesis and respiration rates were evaluated from the oxygen fluxes from and to the coral polyps. High-temperature alone lowered both photosynthetic and respiration rates. High pCO2 alone did not significantly affect either photosynthesis or respiration rates. Under a combination of high-temperature and high-CO2, the photosynthetic rate increased to values close to those of the controls. The same pH in the diffusion boundary layer was observed under light in both (400 and 750 ppm) CO2 treatments, but decreased significantly in the dark as a result of increased CO2. The ATP contents decreased with increasing temperature. The effects of temperature on the metabolism of corals were stronger than the effects of increased CO2. The effects of acidification were minimal without combined temperature stress. However, acidification combined with higher temperature may affect coral metabolism due to the amplification of diel variations in the microenvironment surrounding the coral and the decrease in ATP contents.

  2. Innovative coconut-opening in a semi free-ranging rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta): A case report on behavioral propensities

    PubMed Central

    Comins, Jordan A.; Russ, Brian E.; Humbert, Kelley A.; Hauser, Marc D.

    2012-01-01

    The present case report provides a description of the emergence of an innovative, highly beneficial for- aging behavior in a single rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) on the island of Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. Selectively choosing the island’s cement dock and nearby surrounding rocky terrain, our focal subject (ID: 84 J) opens coconuts using two types of underhand tosses: (1) a rolling motion to move it, and (2) a throwing motion up in the air to crack the shell. We discuss this innovative behavior in light of species-specific behavioral propensities. PMID:23280047

  3. Impaired performance from brief social isolation of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A multiple video-task assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    Social isolation has been demonstrated to produce profound and lasting psychological effects in young primates. In the present investigation, two adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were isolated from one another for up to 6 days and tested on 7 video tasks designed to assess psychomotor and cognitive functioning. Both the number and quality (i.e., speed and accuracy) of responses were significantly compromised in the social isolation condition relative to levels in which the animals were tested together. It is argued that adult rhesus are susceptible to performance disruption by even relatively brief social isolation, and that these effects can best be assessed by a battery of complex and sensitive measures.

  4. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  5. Evolutionary relevance and experience contribute to face discrimination in infant macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Paukner, Annika

    2015-01-01

    In human children and adults, familiar face types—typically own-age and own-species faces—are discriminated better than other face types; however, human infants do not appear to exhibit an own-age bias, but instead better discriminate adult faces, which they see more often. There are two possible explanations for this pattern: Perceptual attunement, which predicts advantages in discrimination for the most-experienced face types; additionally or alternatively, there may be an experience-independent bias for infants to discriminate own-species faces, an adaptation for evolutionarily relevant faces. These possibilities have not been disentangled in studies thus far, which did not control infants’ early experiences with faces. In the present study, we tested these predictions in infant macaques (Macaca mulatta) reared under controlled environments, not exposed to adult conspecifics. We measured newborns’ (15–25 days; n = 27) and 6- to 7-month-olds’ (n = 35) discrimination of human and macaque faces of three ages—young infants, old infants, and adults—in a visual paired comparison task. We found that 6- to 7-month-olds were the best at discriminating adult macaque faces; however, in the first few seconds of looking, additionally discriminated familiar face types—same-aged peer and adult human faces—highlighting the importance of experience with certain face categories. The present data suggest that macaque infants possess both experience-independent and experientially tuned face biases. In human infants, early face skills may likewise be driven by both experience and evolutionary relevance; future studies should consider both of these factors. PMID:27212893

  6. Do Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) perceive what conspecifics do and do not see?

    PubMed Central

    Piraux, Emilie; Poulin, Nicolas; Meunier, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the visual perception of others, also named visual perspective taking, is a component of Theory of Mind. Although strong evidence of visual perspective taking has been reported in great apes, the issue is more open to discussion in monkeys. We investigated whether Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) know what conspecifics do and do not see, using a food competition paradigm originally developed in great apes. We tested individuals in pairs, after establishing the dominance relationship within each pair. Twenty-one pairs were tested in four different conditions. In one condition, the subordinate had the choice between two pieces of food, one that was visible only to it and another that was also visible to the dominant. It was predicted that if the subordinate understands that the dominant cannot see both pieces of food because one is hidden from its view, the subordinate should preferentially go for the food visible only to itself. In the three other conditions, we varied the temporal and visual access to food for both individuals, to control for alternative explanations based on dominance. We recorded the first movement direction chosen by subjects, i.e. towards a) visible food b) hidden food or c) elsewhere; and the outcome of the test, i.e. the quantity of food obtained. Results showed that subordinates moved preferentially for the hidden food when released simultaneously with the dominant and also with a head start on the dominant. By contrast, dominants’ choices of the two pieces of food were random. We also describe and discuss some of the strategies used by subordinates in these tests. According to the whole of our results, Tonkean macaques seem capable of visual perspective taking despite the fact that a low-level explanation as behavior reading has not been totally excluded. PMID:26925323

  7. Alu-Derived Alternative Splicing Events Specific to Macaca Lineages in CTSF Gene

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ja-Rang; Park, Sang-Je; Kim, Young-Hyun; Choe, Se-Hee; Cho, Hyeon-Mu; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Sun-Uk; Kim, Ji-Su; Sim, Bo-Woong; Song, Bong-Seok; Jeong, Kang-Jin; Lee, Youngjeon; Jin, Yeung Bae; Kang, Philyong; Huh, Jae-Won; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Cathepsin F, which is encoded by CTSF, is a cysteine proteinase ubiquitously expressed in several tissues. In a previous study, novel transcripts of the CTSF gene were identified in the crab-eating monkey deriving from the integration of an Alu element–AluYRa1. The occurrence of AluYRa1-derived alternative transcripts and the mechanism of exonization events in the CTSF gene of human, rhesus monkey, and crab-eating monkey were investigated using PCR and reverse transcription PCR on the genomic DNA and cDNA isolated from several tissues. Results demonstrated that AluYRa1 was only integrated into the genome of Macaca species and this lineage-specific integration led to exonization events by producing a conserved 3′ splice site. Six transcript variants (V1–V6) were generated by alternative splicing (AS) events, including intron retention and alternative 5′ splice sites in the 5′ and 3′ flanking regions of CTSF_AluYRa1. Among them, V3–V5 transcripts were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues of rhesus monkey and crab-eating monkey, whereas AluYRa1-exonized V1 was dominantly expressed in the testis of the crab-eating monkey, and V2 was only expressed in the testis of the two monkeys. These five transcript variants also had different amino acid sequences in the C-terminal region of CTSF, as compared to reference sequences. Thus, species-specific Alu-derived exonization by lineage-specific integration of Alu elements and AS events seems to have played an important role during primate evolution by producing transcript variants and gene diversification. PMID:28196413

  8. Using biological markets principles to examine patterns of grooming exchange in Macaca thibetana.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, K N; Berman, C M; Ogawa, H; Li, J

    2011-12-01

    Biological markets principles offer testable hypotheses to explain variation in grooming exchange patterns among nonhuman primates. They predict that when within-group contest competition (WGC) is high and dominance hierarchies steep, grooming interchange with other "commodity" behaviors (such as agonistic support) should prevail. In contrast, when WGC is low and gradients shallow, market theory predicts that grooming reciprocity should prevail. We tested these predictions in a wild, provisioned Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) group across six time periods during which the group had been subjected to varying degrees of range restriction. Data on female-female aggression, grooming, and support were collected using all-occurrences and focal animal sampling techniques, and analyzed using ANCOVA methods and correlation analyses. We found that hierarchical steepness varied significantly across periods, but did not correlate with two indirect indicators of WGC (group size and range restriction) in predicted directions. Contrary to expectations, we found a negative correlation between steepness and group size, perhaps because the responses of group members to external risks (i.e. prolonged and unavoidable exposure to humans) may have overshadowed the effects of WGC. As predicted, grooming reciprocity was significant in each period and negatively correlated with steepness, even after we controlled group size, kinship, rank differences, and proximity. In contrast, there was no evidence for grooming interchange with agonistic support or for a positive relationship between interchange and steepness. We hypothesize that stressful conditions and/or the presence of stable hierarchies during each period may have led to a greater market demand for grooming than support. We suggest that future studies testing these predictions consider more direct measures of WGC and commodities in addition to support, such as feeding tolerance and access to infants.

  9. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Port System for the Collection of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    MacAllister, Rhonda Pung; Lester McCully, Cynthia M; Bacher, John; Thomas Iii, Marvin L; Cruz, Rafael; Wangari, Solomon; Warren, Katherine E

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical translational research frequently incorporates collection of CSF from NHP, because CSF drug levels are used as a surrogate for CNS tissue penetration in pharmacokinetic and dynamic studies. Surgical placement of a CNS ventricular catheter reservoir for CSF collection is an intensive model to create and maintain and thus may not be feasible or practical for short-term studies. Furthermore, previous NHP lumbar port models require laminectomy for catheter placement. The new model uses a minimally invasive technique for percutaneous placement of a lumbar catheter to create a closed, subcutaneous system for effective, repeated CSF sample collection. None of the rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 10) implanted with our minimally invasive lumbar port (MILP) system experienced neurologic deficits, postoperative infection of the surgical site, or skin erosion around the port throughout the 21.7-mo study. Functional MILP systems were maintained in 70% of the macaques, with multiple, high-quality, 0.5- to 1.0-mL samples of CSF collected for an average of 3 mo by using aspiration or gravitational flow. Among these macaques, 57% had continuous functionality for a mean of 19.2 mo; 50% of the cohort required surgical repair for port repositioning and replacement during the study. The MILP was unsuccessful in 2 macaques, at an average of 9.5 d after surgery. Nonpatency in these animals was attributed to the position of the lumbar catheter. The MILP system is an appropriate replacement for temporary catheterization and previous models requiring laminectomy and is a short-term alternative for ventricular CSF collection systems in NHP.

  10. Feeding behavior and aggression in wild Siberut macaques (Macaca siberu) living under low predation risk.

    PubMed

    Richter, Christin; Gras, Pierre; Hodges, Keith; Ostner, Julia; Schülke, Oliver

    2015-07-01

    Investigating which factors influence feeding competition is crucial for our understanding of the diversity of social relationships. Socio-ecological models differ in their predictions whether predation risk directly influences feeding competition and which factors exactly predict contest competition. We investigated feeding competition in Siberut macaques (Macaca siberu), a species endemic to Siberut Island (West Sumatra, Indonesia). Siberut macaques experience low predation risk, as major predators (felids, raptors) are absent. They are therefore appropriate subjects to test the prediction that low predation risk reduces feeding competition. To estimate contest potential, we quantified size, spatial distribution and density of food plants, and the availability of alternative resources. We recorded behavior in food patches using a modified focal tree method. Food patches, sorted by decreasing average feeding group size, included large trees (40% of focal plant observations), lianas/strangler (16%), medium trees (9%), small (palm) trees (20%), and rattan (15%). Most food patches were clumped but occurred at low densities relative to the area of average group spread. Thus, availability of alternative food patches was low. Although food patch characteristics indicate high contest potential, the observed aggression rate (0.13 bouts between adults/h) was low relative to other primates. Average feeding group size was small relative to total group size, and feeding group size matched crown volume. Perceived predation risk was low, based on spatial and feeding behavior of juveniles. Together, these results suggest that predation risk may influence feeding competition. Social and temporal factors (patch feeding time), but not ecological factors (fruit abundance in patch and forest, alternative resources) predicted aggression frequency in food patches. Overall, comparative data are still relatively scarce, and researchers should collect more data on group spread, sub

  11. A Behavioral Taxonomy of Loneliness in Humans and Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Capitanio, John P.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Cole, Steven W.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Social relationships endow health and fitness benefits, but considerable variation exists in the extent to which individuals form and maintain salutary social relationships. The mental and physical health effects of social bonds are more strongly related to perceived isolation (loneliness) than to objective social network characteristics. We sought to develop an animal model to facilitate the experimental analysis of the development of, and the behavioral and biological consequences of, loneliness. In Study 1, using a population-based sample of older adults, we examined how loneliness was influenced both by social network size and by the extent to which individuals believed that their daily social interactions reflected their own choice. Results revealed three distinct clusters of individuals: (i) individuals with large networks who believed they had high choice were lowest in loneliness, (ii) individuals with small social networks who believed they had low choice were highest in loneliness, and (iii) the remaining two groups were intermediate and equivalent in loneliness. In Study 2, a similar three-group structure was identified in two separate samples of adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) living in large social groups: (i) those high in sociability who had complex social interaction with a broad range of social partners (putatively low in loneliness), (ii) those low in sociability who showed tentative interactions with certain classes of social partners (putatively high in loneliness), and (iii) those low in sociability who interacted overall at low levels with a broad range of social partners (putatively low or intermediate in loneliness). This taxonomy in monkeys was validated in subsequent experimental social probe studies. These results suggest that, in highly social nonhuman primate species, some animals may show a mismatch between social interest and social attainment that could serve as a useful animal model for experimental and mechanistic

  12. Influence of dominance rank and affiliation relationships on selfdirected behavior in female Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana)

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Qi-Xin; LI, Jin-Hua; XIA, Dong-Po; ZHU, Yong; WANG, Xi; ZHANG, Dao

    2014-01-01

    Self-directed behavior (SDB) is characterized as an indicator of anxiety, frustration and stress in nonhuman primates. In this study, we collected self-directed behavior data from one group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China (September 2012–May 2013) using a combination of behavioral sampling methods including focal animal sampling, behavioral sampling, continuous sampling and instantaneous sampling. Our results showed that females engaged in significantly higher rates of self-directed behavior when they were in proximity to dominant individuals compared to subordinate ones. Conflict losers significantly increased their SDB rates after agonistic episodes, indicating that SDB might also serve as an index of anxiety in M. thibetana. We further found that females significantly increased their SDB rates when focal individual was proximity to weakly affiliation relationship higher rank members than to strongly affiliation relationship higher rank members. If conflicts were not reconciled, the postconflict SDB rates of losers were higher when they stayed with strongly affiliation opponents; if conflicts were reconciled, victims of strongly affiliation relationships opponents engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation, while victims of moderately affiliation relationships opponents did not engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation. We conclude that both of dominance rank and affiliation relationships might both influence the SDB rates of female Tibetan macaques significantly, suggesting that SDB is not only an index of anxiety in Tibetan macaques, but also can provide a new insight into evaluation of social relationships between individuals. PMID:24866492

  13. Sex Differences in the Development of Social Relationships in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Amici, Federica; Langos, Doreen; Widdig, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have documented the importance of social bonding for the enhancement of individual fitness. However, little is known about how social relationships develop through ontogeny, and whether their development follows the same trajectory in males and females. Here we analyzed affiliative interactions (proximity, social grooming, play) combined with demographic and genetic data in semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago over their first 4 yr of life (from birth to sexual maturation) to understand how these interactions change through development in both sexes. Generalized linear mixed models revealed that social behaviors mostly followed different developmental trajectories in males and females and were highly dependent on the social context. In particular, sex differences in social behavior varied through development depending on the partner’s sex and age. Females engaged in more social interactions than males, especially with other females, and were more involved in grooming around the time of maturation. In contrast, males interacted more with males and age peers, especially around maturation. Sex differences in social behavior varied through development, but also depended on rank, partner’s rank, and kin line, although not consistently. High-ranking individuals, especially older females, were generally preferred as social partners. Moreover, both male and female individuals interacted mostly with maternal kin, although males also preferred paternal kin over nonkin. Importantly, most developmental changes in sociality happened when individuals were ca. 2 yr old, suggesting that this might be a milestone in the development of sociality in rhesus macaques. The only notable exception to this pattern was play, which was more pronounced in males from the beginning of their lives. We propose that play might serve as a trigger of sex differences in social behavior, with sex differences emerging early in development and

  14. Postmortem recovery and cryopreservation of spermatozoa from the vas deferens of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Kelly; Liukkonen, John; Kubisch, H. Michael

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether sperm derived form the vas deferens could be retrieved and successfully cryopreserved, testes were collected from 20 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The males ranged in age from 3 to 19 years with an average of 8.5 years. No sperm was obtained from three animals which were younger than 4 years. The remaining 17 samples contained sperm with an average sperm cell number of 421.8 ±88.7 × 106 and an average motility of 72.8 ± 4.4 %. After 24 h of culture in TALP medium at 37° C in 5% CO2 and 95% air, the overall motility decreased significantly in all samples regardless of treatment. Freezing in TEST-yolk buffer containing 6% (vol/vol) glycerol had a significant effect on sperm reducing the immediate post-thaw motility to 42.4 % in non-treated samples. Treatment with db-cAMP and caffeine further reduced sperm motility after 4 hr in fresh sperm (72.8 vs 50.4%), but increased in sperm that had been frozen (14.0 vs 23.2%). The age of the male did not influence sperm concentration or grade, but proved to be a significant factor in determining motility of frozen-thawed treated sperm with lower motility found in samples from older males. Overall the study demonstrates that motile sperm can be obtained from post-mortem males, although subsequent studies will have to determine whether the quality is sufficient to facilitate its use in assisted reproduction. PMID:19646745

  15. A behavioral taxonomy of loneliness in humans and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Capitanio, John P; Hawkley, Louise C; Cole, Steven W; Cacioppo, John T

    2014-01-01

    Social relationships endow health and fitness benefits, but considerable variation exists in the extent to which individuals form and maintain salutary social relationships. The mental and physical health effects of social bonds are more strongly related to perceived isolation (loneliness) than to objective social network characteristics. We sought to develop an animal model to facilitate the experimental analysis of the development of, and the behavioral and biological consequences of, loneliness. In Study 1, using a population-based sample of older adults, we examined how loneliness was influenced both by social network size and by the extent to which individuals believed that their daily social interactions reflected their own choice. Results revealed three distinct clusters of individuals: (i) individuals with large networks who believed they had high choice were lowest in loneliness, (ii) individuals with small social networks who believed they had low choice were highest in loneliness, and (iii) the remaining two groups were intermediate and equivalent in loneliness. In Study 2, a similar three-group structure was identified in two separate samples of adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) living in large social groups: (i) those high in sociability who had complex social interaction with a broad range of social partners (putatively low in loneliness), (ii) those low in sociability who showed tentative interactions with certain classes of social partners (putatively high in loneliness), and (iii) those low in sociability who interacted overall at low levels with a broad range of social partners (putatively low or intermediate in loneliness). This taxonomy in monkeys was validated in subsequent experimental social probe studies. These results suggest that, in highly social nonhuman primate species, some animals may show a mismatch between social interest and social attainment that could serve as a useful animal model for experimental and mechanistic

  16. Disability, compensatory behavior, and innovation in free-ranging adult female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Turner, Sarah E; Fedigan, Linda M; Matthews, H Damon; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2012-09-01

    Little is known about consequences of disability in nonhuman primates, yet individuals with disabilities can reveal much about behavioral flexibility, innovation, and the capabilities of a species. The Macaca fuscata population surrounding the Awajishima Monkey Center has experienced high rates of congenital limb malformation for at least 40 years, creating a unique opportunity to examine consequences of physical impairment in situ, in a relatively large sample of free-ranging adult monkeys. Here we present behavioral data on 11 disabled adult females and 12 nondisabled controls from 279 hours of randomly ordered 30-minute focal animal follows collected during May-August in 2005, 2006, and 2007. We quantified numerous statistically significant disability-related behavioral differences among females. Disabled females spent less time begging for peanuts from tourists, and employed a behavioral variant of such peanut begging; they had a lower frequency of hand use in grooming and compensated with increased direct use of the mouth or a two-arm pinch technique; and they had a higher frequency of self-scratching, and more use of feet in self-scratching. Self-scratching against substrates was almost exclusively a disability associated behavior. Two females used habitual bipedalism. These differences not withstanding, disabled females behaved similarly to controls in many respects: overall reliance on provisioned and wild foods, time spent feeding, and feeding efficiency did not differ among females, and there was no time difference in behavior performed arboreally or terrestrially. Disabled adult females were able to compensate behaviorally to perform social and life-sustaining activities, modifying existing behaviors to suit their individual physical situations and, occasionally, inventing new ways of doing things.

  17. Factors increasing snake detection and perceived threat in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Etting, Stephanie F; Isbell, Lynne A; Grote, Mark N

    2014-02-01

    The primary predators of primates are all ambush hunters, and yet felids, raptors, and snakes differ in aspects of their ecology that affect the evasive strategies of their primate prey. Felids and raptors can traverse long distances quickly, thus the urgency of threat they present increases as they come closer in proximity to primates. In contrast, snakes do not move rapidly over long distances, and so primates may be reasonably safe even at close distances provided snakes can be detected and monitored. We investigated the ability of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to detect snakes at distances ranging from 15 to 1.5 m. We also examined variation in intensity of perceived threat by applying a Hidden Markov Model to infer changes in underlying state from observable behaviors, that is, increased attention and mobbing. We found that the macaques often failed to detect snake models but that closer proximity improved snake detection, which is necessary before threat can be perceived. We also found that having only one individual in fairly close proximity (≤ 7.5 m) was sufficient to alert the rest of the group and so the chances of detection did not increase with increasing group size. Finally, we found that when the snakes were perceived, they did not elicit greater intensity of response with closer proximity. These results provide evidence that the threat from snakes is greatest when they are in proximity to primates but are unseen. When snakes are seen, however, distance appears not to affect primates' perceived risk, in contrast to their perceived risk from raptors and felids.

  18. Population density-dependent hair cortisol concentrations in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Dettmer, A M; Novak, M A; Meyer, J S; Suomi, S J

    2014-04-01

    Population density is known to influence acute measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in a variety of species, including fish, deer, birds, and humans. However, the effects of population density on levels of chronic stress are unknown. Given the fact that exposure to chronically elevated levels of circulating glucocorticoids results in a host of health disparities in animals and humans alike, it is important to understand how population density may impact chronic stress. We assessed hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), which are reliable indicators of chronic HPA axis activity, in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to determine the influence of population density on these values. In Experiment 1, we compared HCCs of monkeys living in high-density (HD; 1 monkey/0.87m(2)) and low-density (LD; 1 monkey/63.37m(2)) environments (N=236 hair samples) and found that HD monkeys exhibited higher hair cortisol across all age categories (infant, juvenile, young adult, adult, and aged) except infancy and aged (F(5)=4.240, p=0.001), for which differences were nearly significant. HD monkeys also received more severe fight wounds than LD monkeys (χ(2)=26.053, p<0.001), though no effects of dominance status emerged. In Experiment 2, we examined how HCCs change with fluctuating population levels across 5 years in the adult LD monkeys (N=155 hair samples) and found that increased population density was significantly positively correlated with HCCs in this semi-naturalistic population (r(s)=0.975, p=0.005). These are the first findings to demonstrate that increased population density is associated with increased chronic, endogenous glucocorticoid exposure in a nonhuman primate species. We discuss the implications of these findings with respect to laboratory research, population ecology, and human epidemiology.

  19. Diversity and Molecular Phylogeny of Mitochondrial DNA of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    HASAN, M. KAMRUL; FEEROZ, M. MOSTAFA; JONES-ENGEL, LISA; ENGEL, GREGORY A.; KANTHASWAMY, SREE; SMITH, DAVID GLENN

    2015-01-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India. PMID:24810278

  20. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Detect Rhythmic Groups in Music, but Not the Beat

    PubMed Central

    Honing, Henkjan; Merchant, Hugo; Háden, Gábor P.; Prado, Luis; Bartolo, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN) to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1). Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2) and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the ‘downbeat’; Experiment 3). In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm), the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm) is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group), but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm). PMID:23251509

  1. Diversity and molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2014-11-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India.

  2. Abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in an adult rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-10-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque.

  3. Hormone profiles and reproductive characteristics in wild female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Fujita, Shiho; Sugiura, Hideki; Mitsunaga, Fusako; Shimizu, Keiko

    2004-12-01

    In this study we investigated the reproductive characteristics of wild female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata fuscata) in 2 nonconsecutive years using noninvasive methods to monitor physiological events. We detected ovulation dates and ascertained conceptions from fecal hormone profiles. First ovulations occurred from middle October to early November in 1997, and from middle to late November in 1999. Most females conceived during their first ovarian cycle. On average, postconception bleeding occurred 18.4 days after ovulation, and menstruation occurred 13.7 days after ovulation. The average gestation length was 176.3 days. The average degree of facial redness and the percentage of females that copulated synchronously changed across the ovarian cycle and peaked in the periovulatory period. Although prolonged periods of postconception copulation have been reported in previous studies, they did not occur in this study, which suggests that such behavior may not be a species-typical characteristic. Female fertility varied between the 2 years. The copulation rates of females with no infant <1 year of age were 100% (14/14) in 1997 and 45.5% (5/11) in 1999. The ovulation rates of the female subjects that we chose for hormonal assays were 100% (9/9) in 1997 and 50.0% (3/6) in 1999. Th conception rates of these selected females were 100% (9/9) in 1997 and 16.7% (1/6) in 1999. The birth rates (the number of females that delivered divided by the total number of adult females in the troop) were 73.3% (11/15) in 1998 and 6.7% (1/15) in 2000. The modified birth rates (the number of females that delivered /the number of adult females with no infant <1 year of age) x 100 were 78.6% (11/14) in 1998 and 9.1% (1/11) in 2000.

  4. Abdominal Lipomatosis with Secondary Self-Strangulation of Masses in an Adult Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque. PMID:25402181

  5. Microvasculature of the Olfactory Organ in the Japanese Monkey (Macaca fuscata fuscata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shigenori; Schraufnagel, Dean E.

    2002-06-01

    Olfaction is an important and primitive sense. As its importance has changed with evolution, anatomic adjustments have occurred in its structure and vasculature. Primates are a family of vertebrates that have had to develop their visual system to adapt to the arboreal environment and have evolved from a macrosmatic to a microsmatic species as the optic system has enlarged. This has resulted in anatomic changes of a small but critical area at the base of the brain. This paper describes the three-dimensional vascular anatomy of the olfactory organ of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata fuscata). This is best understood by dividing the organ into three parts: the olfactory tract, olfactory bulb, and olfactory nerves in the nasal mucosa. The bulb can be partitioned into an outer or cortical part and inner or medullary part. The vasculature and tissue were examined grossly and with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. The olfactory tract and bulb were supplied by an arteriole from the anterior cerebral artery on each side. The tract was supplied by capillaries running spirally with a coarse network. At the olfactory bulb, the arteriole ramified into the intracortical and medullary branches that formed capillary networks. The bulbar intracortical capillaries were divided into two layers with different densities and vascular patterns. The capillaries of the superficial layer had a ladder-like pattern. The branches that ran into the medulla of the olfactory bulb were more widely spaced. Twigs from the posterior ethmoidal artery ran along the nerve fiber and formed intra- and extrafascicular networks. Each region of the olfactory organ had characteristic three-dimensional vascular patterns that were related to their cellular architecture.

  6. Plasmodium coatneyi in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) as a model of malaria in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Davison, B B; Cogswell, F B; Baskin, G B; Falkenstein, K P; Henson, E W; Tarantal, A F; Krogstad, D J

    1998-08-01

    Pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum infection are at increased risk for complications such as anemia and cerebral malaria. In addition, the infants of these women suffer intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), low birth weight (LBW), congenital infection, and high infant mortality. Although much has been learned from studies of malaria during human pregnancy, progress has been limited by the lack of a suitable animal model. Nonhuman primates are of particular interest because, other than the armadillo, they are the only animals with a discoidal, villous, hemochorial placenta like that of humans. We have established a model of malaria during human pregnancy by inoculating pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with Plasmodium coatneyi (a sequestering parasite) during the first trimester. In our initial experiment, four monkeys were inoculated with a fresh inoculum containing 10(8) viable parasites from an infected donor monkey. All four monkeys became parasitemic seven days postinoculation (PI) and three monkeys aborted 7-10 days PI coincident with high peak parasitemias (41,088-374,325 parasites/mm3). Although abortion is one of the outcomes observed in Plasmodium-infected women, the intent of this study was to examine the effects of Plasmodium infection throughout gestation. Since the rapid onset of high parasitemia may have been responsible for the abortions, a decision was made to reduce the size of the effective inoculum. Six additional pregnant monkeys were inoculated with a frozen isolate taken from the same donor containing 10(6) parasites. These six animals became parasitemic by 14 days PI and, along with monkey E412, carried their infants to term. These seven infants weighed significantly less at term than the infants of uninfected mothers (P = 0.0355). Symmetrical IUGR was detected by ultrasound in one fetus with an LBW of 334 g. Another LBW infant (300 g) had asymmetrical growth retardation, which has been associated with uteroplacental

  7. The Effects of Predictability in Daily Husbandry Routines on Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Coleman, Kristine; McCowan, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) housed indoors experience many routine husbandry activities on a daily basis. The anticipation of these events can lead to stress, regardless of whether the events themselves are positive or aversive in nature. The specific goal of this study was to identify whether increasing the predictability of husbandry events could decrease stress and anxiety in captive rhesus macaques. This study was conducted on 39 single-housed subjects in four indoor rooms at the Oregon National Primate Research Center. Temporal and signaled predictability were added to four daily husbandry events: morning and afternoon feeding, enrichment distribution, and room cleaning. Temporally predictable husbandry events occurred reliably at the same time daily, while signaled predictable husbandry events were preceded by a distinct event-specific signal in the form of a doorbell. Informal tests prior to study onset found the doorbells not to be aversive to the subjects. Subjects received each of four treatments: unpredictable events, temporally predictable events, signaled predictable events, and temporally and signaled predictable events. Change in stress was evaluated by monitoring changes in motor stereotypies and displacement behaviors. Our results showed that subjects displayed less stress and anticipatory behaviors related to feeding and enrichment events when the events were temporally predictable (P < 0 .0001). When husbandry events were preceded by a reliable signal, subjects vocalized less prior to the event and were less responsive to activity outside of the room (P < 0 .01). However this may have come at a cost as the animals were extremely reactive to the doorbell signals and showed a heightened stress response during the actual husbandry events (P < 0 .01). Similar to temporal predictability alone, when temporal predictability was combined with signaled predictability subjects displayed less stress and anticipatory behaviors related to feeding and

  8. Behavioral asymmetries of psychomotor performance in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A dissociation between hand preference and skill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Berke, Leslie; Williams, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Hand preferences were recorded for 35 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) as they manipulated a joystick in response to 2 computerized tasks. These preferences were then used to contrast 8 left- and 10 right-handed subjects on performance measures of hand skill. Individual hand preferences were found, but no significant population asymmetry was observed across the sample. However, the performance data reveal substantial benefits of right-handedness for joystick manipulation, as this group of monkeys mastered the 2 psychomotor tasks significantly faster than did their left-handed counterparts. The data support earlier reports of a right-hand advantage for joystick manipulation and also support the importance of distinguishing between hand preference and manual performance in research on functional asymmetries.

  9. Evidence of Placentophagia and Mother-Infant Cannibalism in Free-Ranging Macaca mulatta tcheliensis in Mount Taihangshan, Jiyuan, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jundong; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Yongman; Garber, Paul A; Guo, Weijie; Kuang, San''ao; Lu, Jiqi

    2017-02-25

    Placentophagia or the consumption of the afterbirth is reported in many primate species, whereas cannibalism is a relatively rare event. Based on our field observations over the course of 3 years, we present evidence of placentophagia and mother-infant cannibalism in a free-ranging population of the Taihangshan macaque, Macaca mulatta tcheliensis, in the Mt. Taihangshan area, Jiyuan, Henan, China. We documented 1 case in which a mother consumed the afterbirth of her infant. In a second instance, we observed a fresh placenta discarded on the ground by an unknown individual. We also present a description of the first documented instance of mother-infant cannibalism in the same group of free-ranging rhesus macaques.

  10. Comparison of noncontact infrared thermometry and 3 commercial subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Brunell, Marla K

    2012-07-01

    This study compared a noncontact infrared laser thermometer and 3 different brands of subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in 50 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The data were analyzed by using intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. In addition, the technical capabilities and practicality of the thermometers in the clinical setting were reviewed. None of the alternative techniques investigated was equivalent to rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques. Temperatures obtained by using microchips had higher correlation and agreed more closely with rectal temperatures than did those obtained by the noncontact infrared method. However, transponding microchips did not yield consistent results. Due to difficulty in positioning nonsedated macaques in their homecage, subcutaneous microchips were not practical in the clinical setting. Furthermore, pair-housed macaques may be able to break or remove microchips from their cagemates.

  11. Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of Japanese Macaque Babesia-1 (JM-1) detected from a Japanese Macaque (Macaca fuscata fuscata)

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Haruyuki; Kawai, Satoru; Maeda, Mari; Jinnai, Michio; Fujisawa, Kohei; Katakai, Yuko; Hikosaka, Kenji; Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate here the identification and phylogenetic characterization of Babesia microti (B. microti)-like parasite detected from a splenectomized Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata fuscata) at a facility for laboratory animal science. On Day 133 after splenectomy, intra-erythrocytic parasites were found on light microscopic examination, and the level of parasitemia reached 0.3% on blood smear. Molecular characterization of the parasite using nested-polymerization chain reactions targeting the 18S rRNA, β-tubulin, and subunit 7 (eta) of the chaperonin-containing t-complex polypeptide 1 (CCT7) genes were identified as a B. microti-like parasite, designated the Japanese Macaque Babesia-1 (JM-1). PMID:21976563

  12. Habitual hot-spring bathing by a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in their natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Watanabe, Kunio; Eishi, Tokida

    2007-12-01

    Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in a free-ranging group in Jigokudani valley, Nagano prefecture, are known to bathe in a hot spring. We used scan sampling in a study aimed at elucidating the causal factors and possible social transmission of this behavior. From 1980-2003, 31% of a total 114 females in the group habitually bathed in the hot spring. The habit was more widespread in dominant matrilines than in subordinate matrilines. Infants whose mothers bathed were more likely to bathe than infants of mothers who did not bathe. The number of monkeys bathing was clearly influenced by ambient air temperature. More monkeys bathed in the hot spring in winter than in summer. The results support the thermoregulation hypothesis of hot-spring bathing. Bathing behavior varies among age and sex categories of monkeys, with adult females and juveniles bathing more often than adult males and subadults. We compared hot-spring bathing with other thermoregulatory behaviors in various primate populations.

  13. The sweet taste quality is linked to a cluster of taste fibers in primates: lactisole diminishes preference and responses to sweet in S fibers (sweet best) chorda tympani fibers of M. fascicularis monkey

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiwen; Danilova, Vicktoria; Cragin, Tiffany; Roberts, Thomas W; Koposov, Alexey; Hellekant, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Background Psychophysically, sweet and bitter have long been considered separate taste qualities, evident already to the newborn human. The identification of different receptors for sweet and bitter located on separate cells of the taste buds substantiated this separation. However, this finding leads to the next question: is bitter and sweet also kept separated in the next link from the taste buds, the fibers of the taste nerves? Previous studies in non-human primates, P. troglodytes, C. aethiops, M. mulatta, M. fascicularis and C. jacchus, suggest that the sweet and bitter taste qualities are linked to specific groups of fibers called S and Q fibers. In this study we apply a new sweet taste modifier, lactisole, commercially available as a suppressor of the sweetness of sugars on the human tongue, to test our hypothesis that sweet taste is conveyed in S fibers. Results We first ascertained that lactisole exerted similar suppression of sweetness in M. fascicularis, as reported in humans, by recording their preference of sweeteners and non- sweeteners with and without lactisole in two-bottle tests. The addition of lactisole significantly diminished the preference for all sweeteners but had no effect on the intake of non-sweet compounds or the intake of water. We then recorded the response to the same taste stimuli in 40 single chorda tympani nerve fibers. Comparison between single fiber nerve responses to stimuli with and without lactisole showed that lactisole only suppressed the responses to sweeteners in S fibers. It had no effect on the responses to any other stimuli in all other taste fibers. Conclusion In M. fascicularis, lactisole diminishes the attractiveness of compounds, which taste sweet to humans. This behavior is linked to activity of fibers in the S-cluster. Assuming that lactisole blocks the T1R3 monomer of the sweet taste receptor T1R2/R3, these results present further support for the hypothesis that S fibers convey taste from T1R2/R3 receptors, while

  14. Delayed effects of proton irradiation in Macaca Mulatta (22-year summary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, D. H.; Hardy, K. A.; Cox, A. B.; Salmon, Y. L.; Yochmowitz, M. G.; Cordts, R. E.

    1989-05-01

    Lifetime observations on a group of rhesus monkeys indicate that life expectancy loss from exposure to protons in the energy range encountered in the Van Allen belts and solar proton events can be correlated with the dose and energy of radiation. The primary cause of life shortening is nonleukemic cancers. Radiation also increased the rise of endometriosis (an abnormal proliferation of the lining of the uterus in females). Other effects associated with radiation exposures are lowered glucose tolerance and increased incidence of cataracts. Calculations of the relative risk of fatal cancers in the irradiated subjects reveal that the total body surface dose required to double the risk of death from cancer over a 20-year post exposure period varies with the linear energy transfer (LET) of the radiation. The ability to determine the integrated dose and LET spectrum in space radiation exposures of humans is, therefore, critical to the assessment of lifetime cancer risk.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of (+)-primaquine and (-)-primaquine enantiomers in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Saunders, David; Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Imerbsin, Rawiwan; Khemawoot, Phisit; Siripokasupkul, Raveewan; Tekwani, Babu L; Sampath, Aruna; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Ohrt, Colin; Lanteri, Charlotte; Gettyacamin, Montip; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Walker, Larry

    2014-12-01

    Primaquine (PQ) remains the sole available drug to prevent relapse of Plasmodium vivax malaria more than 60 years after licensure. While this drug was administered as a racemic mixture, prior studies suggested a pharmacodynamic advantage based on differential antirelapse activity and/or toxicities of its enantiomers. Oral primaquine enantiomers prepared using a novel, easily scalable method were given for 7 days to healthy rhesus macaques in a dose-rising fashion to evaluate their effects on the blood, liver, and kidneys. The enantiomers were then administered to Plasmodium cynomolgi-infected rhesus macaques at doses of 1.3 and 0.6 mg/kg of body weight/day in combination with chloroquine. The (-)-PQ enantiomer had higher clearance and apparent volume of distribution than did (+)-PQ and was more extensively converted to the carboxy metabolite. There is evidence for differential oxidative stress with a concentration-dependent rise in methemoglobin (MetHgb) with increasing doses of (+)-PQ greater than that seen for (-)-PQ. There was a marked, reversible hepatotoxicity in 2 of 3 animals dosed with (-)-PQ at 4.5 mg/kg. (-)-PQ in combination with chloroquine was successful in preventing P. cynomolgi disease relapse at doses of 0.6 and 1.3 mg/kg/day, while 1 of 2 animals receiving (+)-PQ at 0.6 mg/kg/day relapsed. While (-)-PQ was also associated with hepatotoxicity at higher doses as seen previously, this has not been identified as a clinical concern in humans during >60 years of use. Limited evidence for increased MetHgb generation with the (+) form in the rhesus macaque model suggests that it may be possible to improve the therapeutic window for hematologic toxicity in the clinic by separating primaquine into its enantiomers.

  16. Laser light-scattering study of the toxic effects of methylmercury on sperm motility

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, M.K.; Lee, W.I.; Mottet, N.K.; Burbacher, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    An in vitro study was designed using the laser light-scattering technique to obtain further information on the dose-effect relationship of methylmercury on sperm motility. The technique provided a quantitative evaluation of sperm swimming speed. Semen samples were collected from normal male Macaca fascicularis monkeys by anal electroejaculation. Methylmercury was added to aliquots of sperm suspensions in BWW medium in doses of 10, 5, 2, and 1 ppm. After 3 hours, the relative speed was 35%, 59%, 69%, and 92% of the corresponding controls at doses of 10, 5, 2, and 1 ppm, respectively. The percentage of motile spermatozoa decreased significantly at 10 ppm. By microscopic observation abnormal motility was detected at 5 and 10 ppm, especially after 20 to 40 minutes. Head movement increased from side to side, and many spermatozoa developed coiled tails. The technique proved useful for defining the dose-effect relationship of methylmercury and sperm swimming speed.

  17. Expression patterns of calretinin, calbindin and parvalbumin and their colocalization in neurons during development of Macaca monkey retina.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, A; Yan, Y-H; Erickson, A; Possin, D; Pow, D

    2007-11-01

    The developmental expression of calbindin (CalB), calretinin (CaR) and parvalbumin (PV) was followed in Macaca monkey retina using single and double immunolabeling to identify which proteins provide distinctive labels for specific cell types and to clarify the role of these proteins during development. Ganglion cells (GC) expressed PV at fetal day (Fd)55 and CaR and CalB by Fd85. CaR was downregulated after birth. Separate subsets of amacrine (AM) cells expressed CaR and CalB at Fd65-70. After Fd115, many CaR+ AM coexpressed CalB. After Fd120 a few AM expressed PV and these added CaR and CalB after birth. A subset of horizontal cells (HZ) expressed CaR and CalB at Fd70. Slightly later all HZ express PV and CaR while the early subset is CalB+/PV+/CaR+. CaR downregulates in all HZ after birth. The DB3 cone bipolar cells (BP) under the HZ label for CalB by Fd90-110 while a probable OFF BP cell body just above the AM layer becomes CaR+ near birth with labeling increasing after birth. All cones outside of the fovea label for CalB by Fd125. Foveal cones, rods, most BP and Müller glia do not label for these proteins at any age. The complex patterns of up- and down-regulation found in Macaca retina are similar to previous reports of expression in human retina, but in many instances are quite different than earlier reports of CaR, CalB and PV expression patterns in monkey central visual centers. This makes it highly likely that each protein plays a specific but undetermined role(s) in each visual center, and that its expression is controlled at a given stage of retinal development by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

  18. [The effect of adrafinil on the nocturnal activity of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)].

    PubMed

    Milhaud, C L; Klein, M J

    1985-01-01

    The nocturnal activity of a primate was used as an evaluation criterium for a stimulating substance: adrafinil (CRL 40028). Ten rhesus monkeys were placed in a controlled environment and their activity was measured, in relative time, using an ultra-sound system. The animals repeatedly received 60, 90 and 120 mg X kg-1 adrafinil per os. Globally, the dose of 60 mg X kg-1 doubled the animals' nocturnal activity whereas 90 and 120 mg X kg-1 increased it fourfold, the activity level becoming practically identical to diurnal activity. The effects of 60 mg X kg-1 were only significant after the second treatment whereas doses of 90 and 120 mg X kg-1 were already significantly efficient after the first administration. A stimulating effect persisted approximately 36 hrs after the second treatment with 90 or 120 mg X kg-1. No sedative effect of recovery was observed during the posttreatment phase.

  19. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) discriminate between knowing and not knowing and collect information as needed before acting.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Robert R; Zivin, Aaron; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2004-10-01

    Humans use memory awareness to determine whether relevant knowledge is available before acting, as when we determine whether we know a phone number before dialing. Such metacognition, or thinking about thinking, can improve selection of appropriate behavior. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys ( Macaca mulatta) are capable of a simple form of metacognitive access to the contents of short-term memory. Monkeys chose among four opaque tubes, one of which concealed food. The tube containing the reward varied randomly from trial to trial. On half the trials the monkeys observed the experimenter baiting the tube, whereas on the remaining trials their view of the baiting was blocked. On each trial, monkeys were allowed a single chance to select the tube containing the reward. During the choice period the monkeys had the opportunity to look down the length of each tube, to determine if it contained food. When they knew the location of the reward, most monkeys chose without looking. In contrast, when ignorant, monkeys often made the effort required to look, thereby learning the location of the reward before choosing. Looking improved accuracy on trials on which monkeys had not observed the baiting. The difference in looking behavior between trials on which the monkeys knew, and trials on which they were ignorant, suggests that rhesus monkeys discriminate between knowing and not knowing. This result extends similar observations made of children and apes to a species of Old World monkey, suggesting that the underlying cognitive capacities may be widely distributed among primates.

  20. Influence of dominance rank and affiliation relationships on self-directed behavior in female Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Xin; Li, Jin-Hua; Xia, Dong-Po; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Dao

    2014-05-01

    Self-directed behavior (SDB) is characterized as an indicator of anxiety, frustration and stress in nonhuman primates. In this study, we collected self-directed behavior data from one group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China (September 2012-May 2013) using a combination of behavioral sampling methods including focal animal sampling, behavioral sampling, continuous sampling and instantaneous sampling. Our results showed that females engaged in significantly higher rates of self-directed behavior when they were in proximity to dominant individuals compared to subordinate ones. Conflict losers significantly increased their SDB rates after agonistic episodes, indicating that SDB might also serve as an index of anxiety in M. thibetana. We further found that females significantly increased their SDB rates when focal individual was proximity to weakly affiliation relationship higher rank members than to strongly affiliation relationship higher rank members. If conflicts were not reconciled, the postconflict SDB rates of losers were higher when they stayed with strongly affiliation opponents; if conflicts were reconciled, victims of strongly affiliation relationships opponents engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation, while victims of moderately affiliation relationships opponents did not engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation. We conclude that both of dominance rank and affiliation relationships might both influence the SDB rates of female Tibetan macaques significantly, suggesting that SDB is not only an index of anxiety in Tibetan macaques, but also can provide a new insight into evaluation of social relationships between individuals.

  1. Arboreal adaptations of body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) and the evolution of adiposity in primates.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J

    2013-11-01

    There is a paucity of information on body composition and fat patterning in wild nonhuman primates. Dissected adipose tissue from wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) (WTM), feeding on a natural diet, accounted for 2.1% of body weight. This was far less than fatness reported for nonhuman primates raised in captivity or for contemporary humans. In WTM, fatness increased with age and diet richness, but did not differ by sex. In WTM (none of which were obese) intra-abdominal fat filled first, and "excess" fat was stored peripherally in a ratio of about 6:1. Intermuscular fat was minimal (0.1%). The superficial paunch held <15% of subcutaneous fat weight in contrast to its much larger proportions in obese humans and captive monkeys where most added fat accumulates subcutaneously. With increasing total adiposity, accumulating fat shifted in its distribution among eight different main internal and peripheral deposit areas-consistent with maintaining body balance and a low center of gravity. The available data suggest that, in arboreal primates, adaptations for agile locomotion and terminal branch feeding set constraints on the quantity and distribution of fat. The absence of a higher percentage of body fat in females and neonates (as are typical of humans) suggests that arboreal adaptations preclude the development of fat-dependent, large-brained infants and the adipose-rich mothers needed to sustain them. The lifestyle and body composition of wild primates represent a more appropriate model for early human foragers than well-fed captive monkeys do.

  2. Analysis of immunoglobulin, complements and CRP levels in serum of captive northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Pang, Wei; Deng, De-Yao; Lv, Long-Bao; Feng, Yue; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2014-05-01

    The northern pig-tailed macaque (NPM,Macaca leonina) has become a widely used animal model in biomedical research. In this study, we measured serum immunoglobulin IgG, IgM, IgA, complement C3, C4 and CRP levels in 3-11 year old captive northern pig-tailed macaques using HITACHI 7600-20 automated chemistry analyzer in order to determine the influences of age and gender on these items. The results showed that serum IgA, IgM, C3 and C4 levels were not correlated with age (P>0.05), while serum IgG levels increased progressively with age (r=0.202;P=0.045). Serum IgG, IgA, IgM and C3 levels were higher in females than in males (P<0.05). Moreover, serum C3 concentration was both positively and strongly correlated with that of C4 (r=0.700; P<0.0001). This study provides basic serum immunoglobulin and complement data of captive northern pig-tailed macaques, which may prove useful for future breeding efforts and biomedical research.

  3. Repeated moderate stress stimulates the production of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and reduces corticosteroid imbalance in old Macaca Mulatta.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, N D; Vengerin, A A; Chigarova, O A

    2012-09-01

    Young (6-8 years) and old (21-30 years) Macaca mulatta females were subjected to gentle immobilization (2 h daily at 15.00) for 10 days. Blood specimens were collected before the exposure and 15, 30, 60, 120, 240 min and 24 h after the beginning of exposure on days 1, 3, and 10. The adrenocortical reaction to stress was maximum on day 1 in all animals. The increase of cortisol (F) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) concentrations in young monkeys decreased on days 3 and 10, DHEAS drop being less pronounced in comparison with F, as a result of which F/DHEAS molar concentration ratio changed negligibly. In old monkeys the basal DHEAS levels were lower, while the F/DHEAS ratio was higher than in young animals. Repeated immobilizations inhibited F elevation on day 3, caused no changes in DHEAS reaction, led to increase of basal DHEAS levels and to a reduction of F/DHEAS ratio on days 2, 3, 4, 10, 11. Hence, chronic moderate stress stimulated the production of DHEAS and reduced the corticosteroid imbalance in old monkeys.

  4. A behavioral analysis of complete unilateral section of the pyramidal tract at the medullary level in Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Schwartzman, R J

    1978-09-01

    Ten Macaca mulatta monkeys were operantly conditioned to perform three motor paradigms designed to evaluate single and combination finger movements. Eight of these monkeys were retested after left medullary pyramidotomy; 2 monkeys underwent left medullary pyramidotomy prior to conditioning. All animals were tested for three years after operation. Monkeys with a completely sectioned medullary pyramid could, with time, perform difficult motor paradigms that required: (1) both individual and combination finger movements; (2) proximal upper extremity motor control; (3) thumb and index finger pincer grasp; and (4) the ability to preprogram and then execute a precision hand movement. The greater the extent of pyramidal tract destruction, the longer the time necessary for recovery of both discrete finger movement and pincer grasp, the greater the effort needed to attain recovery of hand function, and the weaker the affected musculature. The 2 animals in which pyramidotomy of at least 70% of the tract preceded efforts at operant conditioning learned and performed difficult motor paradigms. In all animals, neurological examination revealed that the most enduring and functionally most important deficit that interferes with hand function following pyramidotomy is loss of contactual hand orienting responses and failure of reflex sensorimotor adjustments.

  5. The use of honey as a topical dressing to treat a large, devitalized wound in a stumptail macaque (Macaca arctoides).

    PubMed

    Staunton, Christine J; Halliday, Lisa C; Garcia, Kelly D

    2005-07-01

    There are many reasons wounds are managed as open wounds rather than by primary closure. Indications include gross contamination, infection, and skin loss leading to insufficient adjacent tissue for wound closure. The most common method of managing an open wound is with wet-to-dry dressings. Wet-to-dry dressings provide mechanical debridement and promote the movement of viscous exudates away from the wound. Wet-to-dry bandages ideally are changed every 12 to 24 h. For nonhuman primates, it is desirable to develop wound management techniques that limit animal handling for bandage changes and thus the frequency of sedation. Anecdotal reports on the use of honey to treat wounds date back to 2000 B.C. Recently, scientific inquiries have found merit to these reports. Honey accelerates healing because of its direct effects on tissue and antibacterial properties. In addition, dressings with honey can be changed relatively infrequently. Honey decreases inflammatory edema, hastens sloughing of devitalized tissue, attracts macrophages which cleanse the wound, provides a local cellular energy source, and protectively covers the wound. A high osmolarity, acidity, and hydrogen peroxide content confer honey with antibacterial properties. Here we describe the use of honey to manage a bite wound in a stumptail macaque (Macaca arctoides). The wound healed rapidly: after 2 weeks of treatment, there was markedly less exudate and no necrotic tissue. This report describes how honey may be helpful in the management of open wounds in nonhuman primates by minimizing the need for sedation for bandage changes.

  6. Social rank versus affiliation: Which is more closely related to leadership of group movements in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana)?

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Sun, Lixing; Sheeran, Lori K; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhang, Qi-Xin; Zhang, Dao; Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Research on leadership is a critical step for understanding collective decision making. However, only 4 of the 22 extant macaque species have been examined for the impact of social rank and affiliation on the initiation of collective movement. It is far from clear whether such impact exists and, if so, how it works among other macaques. To answer these questions, we investigated free-ranging, Tibetan macaques' (Macaca thibetana) group departures from a provisioning area and tested two alternative hypotheses: personal versus distributed leadership. Personal leadership predicts that a single, highest ranking individual initiates the most group movements, whereas distributed leadership predicts that different members lead the group on different occasions and affiliative individuals have more initiations. We recorded how often and how successfully adults initiated group movements from a provisioning area into the forest, and related these variables to the duration of interindividual proximity and grooming time in the forest. All adults initiated group movements, but did so variably. Social rank was related neither to the number of successful initiations nor to the success ratio of initiations. By contrast, eigenvector centrality based on proximity relations was positively correlated with the number and ratio of successful initiations. Moreover, successful initiations were positively correlated with social grooming. Overall, Tibetan macaques showed a pattern of distributed leadership. Our study demonstrated the relationship between social affiliation and individual leadership in a macaque society. Am. J. Primatol. 78:816-824, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Natural Infection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in an Imported Pigtail Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Management of the Exposed Colony

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Crystal H; Skinner, Brianna L; Dietz, Sharon M; Blaney, David; Engel, Robyn M; Lathrop, George W; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Gee, Jay E; Elrod, Mindy G; Powell, Nathaniel; Walke, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Identification of the select agent Burkholderia pseudomallei in macaques imported into the United States is rare. A purpose-bred, 4.5-y-old pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina) imported from Southeast Asia was received from a commercial vendor at our facility in March 2012. After the initial acclimation period of 5 to 7 d, physical examination of the macaque revealed a subcutaneous abscess that surrounded the right stifle joint. The wound was treated and resolved over 3 mo. In August 2012, 2 mo after the stifle joint wound resolved, the macaque exhibited neurologic clinical signs. Postmortem microbiologic analysis revealed that the macaque was infected with B. pseudomallei. This case report describes the clinical evaluation of a B. pseudomallei-infected macaque, management and care of the potentially exposed colony of animals, and protocols established for the animal care staff that worked with the infected macaque and potentially exposed colony. This article also provides relevant information on addressing matters related to regulatory issues and risk management of potentially exposed animals and animal care staff. PMID:24326230

  8. MaqFACS (Macaque Facial Action Coding System) can be used to document facial movements in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)

    PubMed Central

    Julle-Danière, Églantine; Whitehouse, Jamie; Joly, Marine; Gass, Carolin; Burrows, Anne M.; Waller, Bridget M.

    2015-01-01

    Human and non-human primates exhibit facial movements or displays to communicate with one another. The evolution of form and function of those displays could be better understood through multispecies comparisons. Anatomically based coding systems (Facial Action Coding Systems: FACS) are developed to enable such comparisons because they are standardized and systematic and aid identification of homologous expressions underpinned by similar muscle contractions. To date, FACS has been developed for humans, and subsequently modified for chimpanzees, rhesus macaques, orangutans, hylobatids, dogs, and cats. Here, we wanted to test whether the MaqFACS system developed in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could be used to code facial movements in Barbary macaques (M. sylvanus), a species phylogenetically close to the rhesus macaques. The findings show that the facial movement capacity of Barbary macaques can be reliably coded using the MaqFACS. We found differences in use and form of some movements, most likely due to specializations in the communicative repertoire of each species, rather than morphological differences. PMID:26401458

  9. Brief communication: Fecal androgen excretion and fetal sex effects during gestation in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis).

    PubMed

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2012-02-01

    In placental mammals, pregnancy usually is associated with an increase in maternal androgens, which may significantly impact fetal growth and differentiation, and affect postnatal development and behavior. Owing to their slow life histories and challenging social conditions, determination of maternal androgens and potential interference effects of fetal androgen production are of particular interest in wild primates. However, androgen production has been rarely investigated in wild female primates, and studies on maternal androgens during gestation in particular often do not span the entire pregnancy. Here, we characterize fecal androgen production throughout gestation in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) using noninvasive hormone analysis and, furthermore, examine fetal sex effects on maternal androgen excretion. A total of 207 fecal samples were analyzed from seven females for concentrations of immunoreactive epiandrosterone (iEA). Fecal iEA concentrations, as predicted based on cercopithecine blood-serum patterns, increased during early gestation and were significantly higher during the first trimester compared with preconception concentrations and those recorded during later stages of gestation. Further, during the third trimester, male-carrying mothers showed significantly higher iEA concentrations compared with female-carrying mothers. This first characterization of fecal androgen excretion during gestation in Assamese macaques indicates both a maternal and fetal effect on androgen production. Although our sample size is small, our results, nevertheless, provide the basis for assessing potential influences of maternal androgens on postnatal offspring development and behavior.

  10. Self-Injurious Behavior Secondary to Cytomegalovirus-Induced Neuropathy in an SIVInfected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Gumber, Sanjeev; Strobert, Elizabeth; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Jean, Sherrie M

    2015-06-01

    A 3.5-y-old, female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) inoculated with SIVmac239 presented 8 mo later for inappetence and facial bruising. Physical examination revealed a superficial skin abrasion below the left eye, bruising below the left brow, and epistaxis of the left nostril. There were no significant findings on CBC, serum chemistry, urinalysis, or radiographs. Differential diagnoses included infectious etiologies, self-injurious behavior, immune-mediated dermatitis, and neoplasia. Lack of response to antibiotic and analgesic therapy and observations of the macaque made it apparent that the skin lesions were self-inflicted. The excoriations rapidly progressed to extend over the nose, and the left palpebrae became edematous. Euthanasia was elected because the macaque appeared to be experiencing continued discomfort despite analgesic therapy. Histopathologic examination revealed systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection involving the facial nerves, periocular nerves, meninges, and perimesenteric lymph nodes. CMV is a common infection in macaques, with adult seroprevalence close to 100% in most colonies. Infection in immunocompetent animals is usually asymptomatic but can cause significant clinical disease in immunodeficient hosts. CMV is associated with a painful peripheral neuropathy in human AIDS patients, and analgesic treatment is often unsatisfactory. Peripheral neuropathy secondary to CMV should be considered as an underlying cause of self-injurious behavior in SIV-infected macaques. Macaques affected by other diseases and disorders may also be at risk for development of painful peripheral neuropathies.

  11. Self-Injurious Behavior Secondary to Cytomegalovirus-Induced Neuropathy in an SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Gumber, Sanjeev; Strobert, Elizabeth; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Jean, Sherrie M

    2015-06-01

    A 3.5-y-old, female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) inoculated with SIVmac239 presented 8 mo later for inappetence and facial bruising. Physical examination revealed a superficial skin abrasion below the left eye, bruising below the left brow, and epistaxis of the left nostril. There were no significant findings on CBC, serum chemistry, urinalysis, or radiographs. Differential diagnoses included infectious etiologies, self-injurious behavior, immune-mediated dermatitis, and neoplasia. Lack of response to antibiotic and analgesic therapy and observations of the macaque made it apparent that the skin lesions were self-inflicted. The excoriations rapidly progressed to extend over the nose, and the left palpebrae became edematous. Euthanasia was elected because the macaque appeared to be experiencing continued discomfort despite analgesic therapy. Histopathologic examination revealed systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection involving the facial nerves, periocular nerves, meninges, and perimesenteric lymph nodes. CMV is a common infection in macaques, with adult seroprevalence close to 100% in most colonies. Infection in immunocompetent animals is usually asymptomatic but can cause significant clinical disease in immunodeficient hosts. CMV is associated with a painful peripheral neuropathy in human AIDS patients, and analgesic treatment is often unsatisfactory. Peripheral neuropathy secondary to CMV should be considered as an underlying cause of self-injurious behavior in SIV-infected macaques. Macaques affected by other diseases and disorders may also be at risk for development of painful peripheral neuropathies.

  12. Postnatal development of the hippocampus in the Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta): a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Hunsaker, Michael R; Scott, Julia A; Bauman, Melissa D; Schumann, Cynthia M; Amaral, David G

    2014-07-01

    Nonhuman primates are widely used models to investigate the neural substrates of human behavior, including the development of higher cognitive and affective function. Due to their neuroanatomical and behavioral homologies with humans, the rhesus macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta) provides an excellent animal model in which to characterize the maturation of brain structures from birth through adulthood and into senescence. To evaluate hippocampal development in rhesus macaques, structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained longitudinally at 9 time points between 1 week and 260 weeks (5 years) of age on 24 rhesus macaque monkeys (12 males, 12 females). In our sample, the hippocampus reaches 50% of its adult volume by 13 weeks of age and reaches an adult volume by 52 weeks in both males and females. The hippocampus appears to be slightly larger at 3 years than at 5 years of age. Male rhesus macaques have larger hippocampi than females from 8 weeks onward by approximately 5%. Interestingly, there was increased variability in hemispheric asymmetry for hippocampus volumes at younger ages than at later ages. These data provide a comprehensive evaluation of the longitudinal development of male and female rhesus macaque hippocampus across development from 1 week to 5 years of age.

  13. Effect of photoperiod on characteristics of semen obtained by electroejaculation in stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides).

    PubMed

    García Granados, Mónica Dafne; Hernández López, Leonor Estela; Córdoba Aguilar, Alejandro; Cerda Molina, Ana Lilia; Pérez-Ramírez, Olivia; Mondragón-Ceballos, Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    Some environmental variables determining seasonal reproduction in mammals are temperature, humidity, food availability, and photoperiod. Among these, photoperiod is considered the main regulator of primates' seasonal reproduction, thus the latitudinal distribution of primate populations is a key factor determining the appearance of seasonal reproduction. The present work presents supporting discrete seasonality in male stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides). We investigated whether semen quality and testosterone covaried with Mexico City's photoperiod and relative humidity by analyzing variations in the portions that form the ejaculate: the seminal liquid, the seminal coagulum, and the copulatory plug. Five male adult stump-tailed macaques were electroejaculated once a month, obtaining three semen samples per male, from August 2011 to July 2012 (except for December 2011) (n = 165). Our results showed that stump-tailed macaque sperm counts were significantly different between the portions of the ejaculate. The seminal coagulum contained the significantly largest number of spermatozoids, followed by the copulatory plug and the seminal fluid. Photoperiod and relative humidity had major influence on the sperm count in the seminal coagulum and the testosterone concentrations. Testosterone reached its highest values around the time when days and nights lasted the same hours, decreasing when days either grew longer or became shorter. Concerning relative humidity, sperm counts in the seminal coagulum were highly variable on dry days, but decreased as the relative humidity increased. We conclude that stump-tailed macaques have a discrete seasonality, occurring in spring and fall when macaques' reproductive condition and readiness for postcopulatory intrasexual competition increase.

  14. Self-Injurious Behavior Secondary to Cytomegalovirus-Induced Neuropathy in an SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Gumber, Sanjeev; Strobert, Elizabeth; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Jean, Sherrie M

    2015-01-01

    A 3.5-y-old, female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) inoculated with SIVmac239 presented 8 mo later for inappetence and facial bruising. Physical examination revealed a superficial skin abrasion below the left eye, bruising below the left brow, and epistaxis of the left nostril. There were no significant findings on CBC, serum chemistry, urinalysis, or radiographs. Differential diagnoses included infectious etiologies, self-injurious behavior, immune-mediated dermatitis, and neoplasia. Lack of response to antibiotic and analgesic therapy and observations of the macaque made it apparent that the skin lesions were self-inflicted. The excoriations rapidly progressed to extend over the nose, and the left palpebrae became edematous. Euthanasia was elected because the macaque appeared to be experiencing continued discomfort despite analgesic therapy. Histopathologic examination revealed systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection involving the facial nerves, periocular nerves, meninges, and perimesenteric lymph nodes. CMV is a common infection in macaques, with adult seroprevalence close to 100% in most colonies. Infection in immunocompetent animals is usually asymptomatic but can cause significant clinical disease in immunodeficient hosts. CMV is associated with a painful peripheral neuropathy in human AIDS patients, and analgesic treatment is often unsatisfactory. Peripheral neuropathy secondary to CMV should be considered as an underlying cause of self-injurious behavior in SIV-infected macaques. Macaques affected by other diseases and disorders may also be at risk for development of painful peripheral neuropathies. PMID:26141451

  15. Early maternal rejection affects the development of monoaminergic systems and adult abusive parenting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Maestripieri, Dario; Higley, J Dee; Lindell, Stephen G; Newman, Timothy K; McCormack, Kai M; Sanchez, Mar M

    2006-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of early exposure to variable parenting style and infant abuse on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of monoamine metabolites and examined the role of monoaminergic function in the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Forty-three infants reared by their biological mothers and 15 infants that were cross-fostered at birth and reared by unrelated mothers were followed longitudinally through their first 3 years of life or longer. Approximately half of the infants were reared by abusive mothers and half by nonabusive controls. Abused infants did not differ from controls in CSF concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylgycol (MHPG). Abused infants, however, were exposed to higher rates of maternal rejection, and highly rejected infants had lower CSF 5-HIAA and HVA than low-rejection infants. The abused females who became abusive mothers in adulthood had lower CSF 5-HIAA than the abused females who did not. A similar trend was also observed among the cross-fostered females, suggesting that low serotonergic function resulting from early exposure to high rates of maternal rejection plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse.

  16. Female Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) copulation calls do not reveal the fertile phase but influence mating outcome

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferle, Dana; Brauch, Katrin; Heistermann, Michael; Hodges, J. Keith; Fischer, Julia

    2007-01-01

    In a number of primate species, females utter loud and distinctive calls during mating. Here we aim to clarify the information content and function of Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) copulation calls by testing (i) whether or not copulation calls advertise the female fertile phase and (ii) whether and how copulation calls influence male ejaculatory behaviour. In order to do this, we combined hormone measurements with acoustic analysis and behavioural observations. In contrast to a previous study implying that the structure of copulation calls indicates the timing of the fertile phase, our results, using objective endocrine criteria for assessing ovulation, provide evidence that the structure of copulation calls of female Barbary macaques does not reveal the timing of the fertile phase. More importantly, females seem to influence the likelihood of ejaculation by calling versus remaining silent and by adjusting the timing of call onset. Females make use of this ability to influence mating outcome to ensure ejaculatory matings with almost all males in the group. In addition, calls given during ejaculatory copulations differ from those during non-ejaculatory copulations, providing information about mating outcome for listeners. We conclude that in this species, copulation calls apparently serve to enhance sperm competition and maximize paternity confusion. PMID:18089536

  17. Expression Analysis of Taste Signal Transduction Molecules in the Fungiform and Circumvallate Papillae of the Rhesus Macaque, Macaca mulatta

    PubMed Central

    Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Abe, Miki; Asakura, Tomiko; Imai, Hiroo; Abe, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of the mammalian gustatory system have been examined in many studies using rodents as model organisms. In this study, we examined the mRNA expression of molecules involved in taste signal transduction in the fungiform papillae (FuP) and circumvallate papillae (CvP) of the rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta, using in situ hybridization. TAS1R1, TAS1R2, TAS2Rs, and PKD1L3 were exclusively expressed in different subsets of taste receptor cells (TRCs) in the FuP and CvP. This finding suggests that TRCs sensing different basic taste modalities are mutually segregated in macaque taste buds. Individual TAS2Rs exhibited a variety of expression patterns in terms of the apparent level of expression and the number of TRCs expressing these genes, as in the case of human TAS2Rs. GNAT3, but not GNA14, was expressed in TRCs of FuP, whereas GNA14 was expressed in a small population of TRCs of CvP, which were distinct from GNAT3- or TAS1R2-positive TRCs. These results demonstrate similarities and differences between primates and rodents in the expression profiles of genes involved in taste signal transduction. PMID:23029001

  18. Cashing out: The decisional flexibility of uncertainty responses in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Perdue, Bonnie M; Beran, Michael J; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2014-10-01

    Researchers are exploring whether animals share with humans something like a metacognitive capacity. Though some results point to human-animal continuities in this domain, they face the dominant criticism that animals' performances might be associative. A persistent problem is that animal-metacognition paradigms present static environments of risk and reward that may foster inflexible and conditioned responding. Those environments do not challenge animals to show the flexibility in their decision strategies that could indicate an antecedent capacity to metacognition. Accordingly, we tested macaques and humans on an uncertainty-monitoring paradigm in which risk changed dynamically. Participants classified stimuli of different difficulties while also choosing when to use a cashout response to collect the accumulated rewards that would be forfeit on a discrimination error. Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans flexibly adjusted their decision criteria to achieve appropriate protection against the cost of error that could differ depending on trial difficulty and the number of rewards at risk. In particular, monkeys widened their cashout-response region as their accumulated rewards increased, providing more protection against a more costly error. These findings demonstrate a new continuity between humans' and animals' uncertainty systems. They reveal a calibration by macaques of present risk to trial difficulty tolerated. They show that animals' uncertainty-monitoring and risk-management systems have substantial trial-by-trial flexibility.

  19. Neonatal imitation predicts infant rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) social and anxiety-related behaviours at one year

    PubMed Central

    Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Paukner, Annika; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of early markers that predict the development of specific social trajectories is critical to understand the developmental and neurobiological underpinnings of healthy social development. We investigated, in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), whether newborns’ capacity to imitate facial gestures is a valid predictive marker for the emergence of social competencies later in development, at one year of age. Here we first assessed whether infant macaques (N = 126) imitate lipsmacking gestures (a macaque affiliative expression) performed by a human experimenter in their first week of life. We then collected data on infants’ social interactions (aggression, grooming, and play) and self-scratching (a proxy indicator of anxiety) at 11–14 months when infants were transferred into a new enclosure with a large social group. Our results show that neonatal imitators exhibit more dominant behaviours, are less anxious, and, for males only, spend more time in play at one year old. These findings suggest that neonatal imitation may be an early predictor of infant sociality and may help identify infants at risk of neurodevelopmental social deficits. PMID:27725768

  20. Development of breeding populations of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that are specific pathogen-free for rhesus cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Barry, Peter A; Strelow, Lisa

    2008-02-01

    Development of breeding colonies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that are specific pathogen-free (SPF) for rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) is relatively straightforward and requires few modifications from current SPF programs. Infants separated from the dam at or within a few days of birth and cohoused with similarly treated animals remain RhCMV seronegative indefinitely, provided they are never directly or indirectly exposed to a RhCMV-infected monkey. By systematically cohousing seronegative animals into larger social cohorts, breeding populations of animals SPF for RhCMV can be established. The additional costs involved in expanding the current definition of SPF status to include RhCMV are incremental compared with the money already being spent on existing SPF efforts. Moreover, the large increase in research opportunities available for RhCMV-free animals arguably would far exceed the development costs. Potential new areas of research and further expansion of existing research efforts involving these newly defined SPF animals would have direct implications for improvements in human health.

  1. Recognition of partially concealed leopards by wild bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). The role of the spotted coat.

    PubMed

    Coss, Richard G; Ramakrishnan, Uma; Schank, Jeffrey

    2005-02-28

    Wild bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) have been shown to recognize models of leopards (Panthera pardus), based on their configuration and spotted yellow coat. This study examined whether bonnet macaques could recognize the spotted and dark melanic morph when partially concealed by vegetation. Seven troops were studied at two sites in southern India, the Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary and the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve. The forequarters and hindquarters of the two leopard morphs were presented from behind thick vegetation to individuals at feeding stations 25 m away. Flight reaction times and frequency of flight were obtained from video for only those individuals who oriented towards the models prior to hearing alarm calls. Bonnet macaques exhibited faster reaction times and greater frequency of flight after looking at the spotted morph's forequarter than after looking at either its spotted hindquarter or the dark morph's forequarter. The hindquarter of the dark morph was ignored completely. Artificial neural network modeling examined the perceptual aspects of leopard face recognition and the role of spots as camouflage. When spots were integrated into the pattern recognition process via network training, these spots contributed to leopard face recognition. When networks were not trained with spots, spots did not act as camouflage by disrupting facial features.

  2. Circulating factors induced by caloric restriction in the nonhuman primate Macaca mulatta activate angiogenic processes in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Csiszar, Anna; Sosnowska, Danuta; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Gautam, Tripti; Toth, Peter; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Colman, Ricki J; Weindruch, Richard; Anderson, Rozalyn M; Sonntag, William E; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2013-03-01

    Moderate caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition increases healthspan in virtually every species studied, including nonhuman primates. In mice, CR exerts significant microvascular protective effects resulting in increased microvascular density in the heart and the brain, which likely contribute to enhanced tolerance to ischemia and improved cardiac performance and cognitive function. Yet, the underlying mechanisms by which CR confer microvascular protection remain elusive. To test the hypothesis that circulating factors triggered by CR regulate endothelial angiogenic capacity, we treated cultured human endothelial cells with sera derived from Macaca mulatta on long-term (over 10 years) CR. Cells treated with sera derived from ad-libitum-fed control monkeys served as controls. We found that factors present in CR sera upregulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling and stimulate angiogenic processes, including endothelial cell proliferation and formation of capillary-like structures. Treatment with CR sera also tended to increase cellular migration (measured by a wound-healing assay using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing [ECIS] technology) and adhesion to collagen. Collectively, we find that circulating factors induced by CR promote endothelial angiogenic processes, suggesting that increased angiogenesis may be a potential mechanism by which CR improves cardiac function and prevents vascular cognitive impairment.

  3. Complete Taiwanese Macaque (Macaca cyclopis) Mitochondrial Genome: Reference-Assisted de novo Assembly with Multiple k-mer Strategy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Feng; Midha, Mohit; Chen, Tzu-Han; Wang, Yu-Tai; Smith, David Glenn; Pei, Kurtis Jai-Chyi; Chiu, Kuo Ping

    2015-01-01

    The Taiwanese (Formosan) macaque (Macaca cyclopis) is the only nonhuman primate endemic to Taiwan. This primate species is valuable for evolutionary studies and as subjects in medical research. However, only partial fragments of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of this primate species have been sequenced, not mentioning its nuclear genome. We employed next-generation sequencing to generate 2 x 90 bp paired-end reads, followed by reference-assisted de novo assembly with multiple k-mer strategy to characterize the M. cyclopis mitogenome. We compared the assembled mitogenome with that of other macaque species for phylogenetic analysis. Our results show that, the M. cyclopis mitogenome consists of 16,563 nucleotides encoding for 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNAs. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that M. cyclopis is most closely related to M. mulatta lasiota (Chinese rhesus macaque), supporting the notion of Asia-continental origin of M. cyclopis proposed in previous studies based on partial mitochondrial sequences. Our work presents a novel approach for assembling a mitogenome that utilizes the capabilities of de novo genome assembly with assistance of a reference genome. The availability of the complete Taiwanese macaque mitogenome will facilitate the study of primate evolution and the characterization of genetic variations for the potential usage of this species as a non-human primate model for medical research.

  4. Outbreak of Tuberculosis in a Colony of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) after Possible Indirect Contact with a Human TB Patient.

    PubMed

    Mätz-Rensing, K; Hartmann, T; Wendel, G M; Frick, J S; Homolka, S; Richter, E; Munk, M H; Kaup, F-J

    2015-01-01

    Simian tuberculosis is one of the most important bacterial diseases of non-human primates. Outbreaks of tuberculosis have been reported in primate colonies almost as long as these animals have been used experimentally or kept in zoological gardens. Significant progress has been made in reducing the incidence of tuberculosis in captive non-human primates, but despite reasonable precautions, outbreaks continue to occur. The most relevant reason is the high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) amongst the human population, in which tuberculosis is regarded as an important re-emerging disease. Furthermore, many non-human primate species originate from countries with a high burden of human TB. Therefore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a significant threat in animals imported from countries with high rates of human infection. We report an outbreak of tuberculosis among a group of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) living in a closed, long-term colony. The outbreak coincided with reactivation of a TB infection in a co-worker who never had direct access to the animal house or laboratories. Eleven of 26 rhesus monkeys developed classical chronic active tuberculosis with typical caseous granulomata of varying size within different organs. The main organ system involved was the lung, suggesting an aerosol route of infection. Such an outbreak has significant economic consequences due to animal loss, disruption of research and costs related to disease control. Precautionary measures must be improved in order to avoid TB in non-human primate colonies.

  5. Acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate.

    PubMed

    Duck, Francis

    2009-10-01

    Acoustic dose is defined as the energy deposited by absorption of an acoustic wave per unit mass of the medium supporting the wave. Expressions for acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate are given for plane-wave conditions, including temporal and frequency dependencies of energy deposition. The relationship between the acoustic dose-rate and the resulting temperature increase is explored, as is the relationship between acoustic dose-rate and radiation force. Energy transfer from the wave to the medium by means of acoustic cavitation is considered, and an approach is proposed in principle that could allow cavitation to be included within the proposed definitions of acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate.

  6. Absorbed Dose and Dose Equivalent Calculations for Modeling Effective Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Andrew; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    While in orbit, Astronauts are exposed to a much higher dose of ionizing radiation than when on the ground. It is important to model how shielding designs on spacecraft reduce radiation effective dose pre-flight, and determine whether or not a danger to humans is presented. However, in order to calculate effective dose, dose equivalent calculations are needed. Dose equivalent takes into account an absorbed dose of radiation and the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. This is important in preventing long-term, stochastic radiation effects in humans spending time in space. Monte carlo simulations run with the particle transport code FLUKA, give absorbed and equivalent dose data for relevant shielding. The shielding geometry used in the dose calculations is a layered slab design, consisting of aluminum, polyethylene, and water. Water is used to simulate the soft tissues that compose the human body. The results obtained will provide information on how the shielding performs with many thicknesses of each material in the slab. This allows them to be directly applicable to modern spacecraft shielding geometries.

  7. Response of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to the Body of a Group Member That Died from a Fatal Attack

    PubMed Central

    Buhl, Jacqueline S.; Aure, Bonn; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Platt, Michael L.; Brent, Lauren J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Among animals that form social bonds, the death of a conspecific may be a significant social event, representing the loss of an ally and resulting in disruptions to the dominance hierarchy. Despite this potential biological importance, we have only limited knowledge of animals' reactions to the death of a group member. This is particularly true of responses to dead adults, as most reports describe the responses of mothers to dead infants. Here, we describe in detail and provide video evidence of the behavioral responses of a group of free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) immediately after the death of a mid-ranking adult male as a result of a fatal attack. High-ranking male members of the group, suspected to have carried out the attack, dragged and bit the dead body, exhibiting a rate of aggression 20 times greater than baseline levels. Lower-ranking individuals approached and inspected the body by looking closely, smelling, and grooming the fur. There was inconclusive evidence that these rhesus macaques found the death of a conspecific stressful: Levels of grooming between group members after the fatal attack were significantly higher than baseline levels, and higher than levels of grooming after nonfatal attacks. However, when grooming levels were adjusted based on the assumption that individuals positioned close to the body, i.e., those visible to researchers, were more likely to be engaged in grooming than those positioned farther away, this difference from baseline was no longer significant. The rate of self-directed behaviors after the fatal attack was also not different from baseline. Many of the behaviors we observed directed toward the body (aggression, inspection) have been previously reported in chimpanzees and geladas, and are similar to reactions sometimes displayed by humans. As such, this report represents a potentially valuable contribution the nascent field of nonhuman primate thanatology. PMID:23459587

  8. Matrilineal Behavioral and Physiological Changes following the Removal of a Non-Alpha Matriarch in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Wooddell, Lauren J.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Rosenberg, Kendra L.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Dettmer, Amanda M.

    2016-01-01

    In many species, the loss of alpha matriarchs is associated with a number of negative outcomes such as troop fission, eviction, wounding, and reduced vitality. However, whether the dramatic consequences of their loss are due to their role as an old experienced figure or to their alpha status remains unclear. In a retrospective study, we tested that in a semi-free ranging colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), the removal of a non-alpha matriarch, who had a large set of kin, led to changes in behavior and physiological stress within her matriline. Following her removal, her matriline increased in aggression, vigilance, and social grooming. Additionally, hierarchical stability, measured by levels of rank changes, decreased within her matriline, and levels of intense aggression by high-ranking animals were more frequent, as well as matrilineal wounding. Although ordinal rank was positively associated with higher chronic hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) in the months before the matriarch’s removal, following her removal, only those who experienced large increases in rank within her matriline displayed higher HCCs. Changes in matrilineal stability, aggression, behavior, and HCCs within the other two matrilines in the troop were not evident, although caution is needed due to the small sample sizes. We conclude that the removal of the non-alpha matriarch led to matrilineal instability, characterized by higher levels of aggression and subsequent vigilance, rank changes, physiological stress, and grooming. We suggest that non-alpha matriarchs with a large number of kin and social support can be integral to the stability of matrilines. PMID:27275743

  9. Facial musculature in the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta): evolutionary and functional contexts with comparisons to chimpanzees and humans

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Parr, Lisa A

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression is a common mode of visual communication in mammals but especially so in primates. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) have a well-documented facial expression repertoire that is controlled by the facial/mimetic musculature as in all mammals. However, little is known about the musculature itself and how it compares with those of other primates. Here we present a detailed description of the facial musculature in rhesus macaques in behavioral, evolutionary and comparative contexts. Formalin-fixed faces from six adult male specimens were dissected using a novel technique. The morphology, attachments, three-dimensional relationships and variability of muscles were noted and compared with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and with humans. The results showed that there was a greater number of facial muscles in rhesus macaques than previously described (24 muscles), including variably present (and previously unmentioned) zygomaticus minor, levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, depressor septi, anterior auricularis, inferior auricularis and depressor supercilii muscles. The facial muscles of the rhesus macaque were very similar to those in chimpanzees and humans but M. mulatta did not possess a risorius muscle. These results support previous studies that describe a highly graded and intricate facial expression repertoire in rhesus macaques. Furthermore, these results indicate that phylogenetic position is not the primary factor governing the structure of primate facial musculature and that other factors such as social behavior are probably more important. The results from the present study may provide valuable input to both biomedical studies that use rhesus macaques as a model for human disease and disorder that includes assessment of facial movement and studies into the evolution of primate societies and communication. PMID:19563473

  10. Mixed Fortunes: Ancient Expansion and Recent Decline in Population Size of a Subtropical Montane Primate, the Arunachal Macaque Macaca munzala

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Debapriyo; Sinha, Anindya; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary glacial oscillations are known to have caused population size fluctuations in many temperate species. Species from subtropical and tropical regions are, however, considerably less studied, despite representing most of the biodiversity hotspots in the world including many highly threatened by anthropogenic activities such as hunting. These regions, consequently, pose a significant knowledge gap in terms of how their fauna have typically responded to past climatic changes. We studied an endangered primate, the Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala, from the subtropical southern edge of the Tibetan plateau, a part of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, also known to be highly threatened due to rampant hunting. We employed a 534 bp-long mitochondrial DNA sequence and 22 autosomal microsatellite loci to investigate the factors that have potentially shaped the demographic history of the species. Analysing the genetic data with traditional statistical methods and advance Bayesian inferential approaches, we demonstrate a limited effect of past glacial fluctuations on the demographic history of the species before the last glacial maximum, approximately 20,000 years ago. This was, however, immediately followed by a significant population expansion possibly due to warmer climatic conditions, approximately 15,000 years ago. These changes may thus represent an apparent balance between that displayed by the relatively climatically stable tropics and those of the more severe, temperate environments of the past. This study also draws attention to the possibility that a cold-tolerant species like the Arunachal macaque, which could withstand historical climate fluctuations and grow once the climate became conducive, may actually be extremely vulnerable to anthropogenic exploitation, as is perhaps indicated by its Holocene ca. 30-fold population decline, approximately 3,500 years ago. Our study thus provides a quantitative appraisal of these demographically important

  11. Fasting induced kisspeptin signaling suppression is regulated by glutamate mediated cues in adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Shamas, Shazia; Khan, Saeed-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Muhammad Yousaf; Shabbir, Nadia; Zubair, Hira; Shafqat, Saira; Wahab, Fazal; Shahab, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Kisspeptin signaling is suppressed by short term fasting. It has been reported that hypothalamic Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA expression decreased after 48h of fasting in male rhesus monkey. But the mechanism involved in the reduction of kisspeptin signaling after 48h of fasting is unknown. Recent studies have suggested the role of afferent excitatory and inhibitory pathways in the regulation of kisspeptin neurons. Therefore, this study was designed to observe the changes in the glutamate and GABA signaling during fed and 48h fasting states by performing immunofluorescence to examine the interaction of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors and by performing SYBR green qRT-PCR to measure and quantify the levels of Kiss1, Kiss1r, NR1 and GAD67 mRNA in the POA and MBH of adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) during 48h of fasting (n=2) and fed ad libitum (n=2). Plasma testosterone (p<0.05) and blood glucose levels were significantly (p<0.001) decreased after short term fasting. Our results clearly showed that expression of hypothalamic Kiss1, Kiss1r and NR1 mRNA was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in adult male rhesus monkeys which were fasted for 48h as compared to those which were fed ad libitum. There was no clear difference in the GAD67 mRNA contents between the two groups. Number of kisspeptin neurons and the interactions of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 were significantly (p<0.05) reduced after 48h fasting. These observations suggest that decreased kisspeptin signaling during fasting may occur due to reduction in glutamatergic inputs to kisspeptin neurons. Our results also suggest that fasting induced suppression of kisspeptin signaling is not mediated through GABAergic neurons.

  12. Is Diet Flexibility an Adaptive Life Trait for Relictual and Peri-Urban Populations of the Endangered Primate Macaca sylvanus?

    PubMed Central

    Maibeche, Yasmina; Moali, Aissa; Yahi, Nassima; Menard, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss, fragmentation and urban expansion may drive some species to marginal habitats while others succeed in exploiting urban areas. Species that show dietary flexibility are more able to take advantage of human activities to supplement their diet with anthropogenically abundant and accessible resources. The Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) is an endangered species due to the loss of its habitat, and human pressure. The population of Gouraya National Park (Algeria) lives in a relictual habitat that constitutes about 0.6% of the species range. In addition, this population is a unique case where urban expansion favours contact zones between Barbary macaque habitats and a big city (Bejaia). We quantified the dietary composition of Gouraya macaques over an annual cycle with the objective to understand how diet flexibility of this species may help it adapt to a relictual habitat or cope with urban expansion. We recorded the phenology of plant species every month. This study shows that Gouraya macaques, compared to those living in other forest types of the distribution area, are under lower seasonal constraints. They consume a greater amount of fruit and seeds that are available throughout much of the year, and a lesser amount of costly to find and extract subterranean foods. Therefore the Gouraya relictual habitat appears as a favourable environment compared to other major habitats of that species. This study also shows that colonizing peri-urban zones increases the availability and species richness of diet resources for Barbary macaques as they consume more human foods and exotic plants than in farther sites. Adult males eat more human foods than adult females and immatures do. The exploitation of high-energy anthropogenic food could favour macaque population growth and expansion towards the city center associated with human/macaque conflicts. We recommend applying management actions to restore macaques back to their natural habitat. PMID:25714476

  13. Serum metabolic variables associated with impaired glucose tolerance induced by high-fat-high-cholesterol diet in Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinli; Chen, Younan; Liu, Jingping; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Jiuming; Liao, Guangneng; Shi, Meimei; Yuan, Yujia; He, Sirong; Lu, Yanrong; Cheng, Jingqiu

    2012-11-01

    Dyslipidemia caused by 'Western-diet pattern' is a strong risk factor for the onset of diabetes. This study aimed to disclose the relationship between the serum metabolite changes induced by habitual intake of high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet and the development of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and insulin resistance through animal models of Macaca mulatta. Sixteen M. mulatta (six months old) were fed a control diet or a HFHC diet for 18 months. The diet effect on serum metabolic profiles was investigated by longitudinal research. Islet function was assessed by intravenous glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp test. Metabonomics were determined by (1)H proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Prolonged diet-dependent hyperlipidemia facilitated visceral fat accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and disorder of glucose homeostasis in juvenile monkeys. Glucose disappearance rate (K(Glu)) and insulin response to the glucose challenge effects in HFHC monkeys were significantly lower than in control monkeys. Otherwise, serum trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), lactate and leucine/isoleucine were significantly higher in HFHC monkeys. Sphingomyelin and choline were the most positively correlated with K(Glu) (R(2) = 0.778), as well as negative correlation (R(2) = 0.64) with total cholesterol. The HFHC diet induced visceral fat, abnormal lipid metabolism and IGT prior to weight gain and body fat content increase in juvenile monkeys. We suggest that increased serum metabolites, such as TMAO, lactate, branched-chain amino acids and decreased sphingomyelin and choline, may serve as possible predictors for the evaluation of IGT and insulin resistance risks in the prediabetic state.

  14. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Tamara A. R.; Bales, Karen L.; Maninger, Nicole; Hostetler, Caroline M.; Capitanio, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta) friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC). Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject), multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain), and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social

  15. Endozoochorous seed dispersal by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): Effects of temporal variation in ranging and seed characteristics on seed shadows.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yamato; Morimoto, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    Variation in seed shadows generated by frugivores is caused by daily, seasonal, and inter-annual variation in ranging, as well as inter-specific variability in gut passage times according to seed characteristics. We studied the extent to which seed weight, specific gravity, and daily (morning, afternoon, and evening) and inter-annual (2004 vs. 2005) variation in ranging affected seed shadows generated by wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. The macaques ingested fleshy fruits of 11 species during the two year study period; Viburnum dilatatum (Caprifoliaceae: heavier seeds with higher specific gravity) and Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae: lighter seeds with lower specific gravity) were eaten frequently in both years. The travel distances of macaques after feeding on V. dilatatum and R. multiflora fruits were estimated by combining feeding locations and ranging patterns measured in the field with gut passage times of model seeds in captive animals. Median travel distances after fruit feeding were 431 (quantile range: 277-654) and 478 m (265-646), respectively, with a maximum of 1,261 m. Neither year nor time of day affected travel distances. The gut passage time of model V. dilatatum seeds was longer than that of model R. multiflora seed, but this did not affect dispersal distances. Seed shadows for both species over 2 years showed unimodal distribution (peak: 101-500 m) and more than 90%, 20%, and 3% of ingested seeds were estimated to be dispersed >100, >500, and >1000 m, respectively, the longest known distances among macaque species. R. multiflora seeds tended to be dispersed further in 2004 than 2005, but V. dilatatum seeds were not, implying that inter-annual variations in ranging pattern due to the distribution and abundance of nut fruiting could affect dispersal distance.

  16. Comparison of Indoor Air Quality between 2 Ventilation Strategies in a Facility Housing Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Monts de Oca, Nicole A; Laughlin, Mitzi; Jenkins, John; Lockworth, Cynthia R; Bolton, Iris D; Brammer, David W

    2015-01-01

    Adequate indoor-air quality (IAQ)—defined by the temperature, relative humidity, and the levels of carbon dioxide, small particles, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)—is crucial in laboratory animal facilities. The ventilation standards for controlling these parameters are not well defined. This study assessed the effect of 2 ventilation strategies on IAQ in 2 rooms housing rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We hypothesized that using a demand-controlled ventilation (DCV) system with a baseline ventilation rate of less than 3 fresh-air changes per hour (ACH) would maintain IAQ comparable to or better than the traditional constant flow rate (CFR) system at 12 fresh ACH. During a 60-d study period, each of the 2 rooms operated 30 d on DCV and 30 d on CFR ventilation. In both rooms, temperatures remained more consistently within the established setpoint during the DCV phase than during the CFR phase. Relative humidity did not differ significantly between rooms or strategies. CO2 was lower during the CFR phase than DCV phase. Small-particle and TVOC levels were lower during CFR in the larger (3060 ft3) room but not the smaller (2340 ft3) room. During the DCV phase, the larger room was at the baseline airflow rate over 99% of the time and the smaller room over 96% of the time. The DCV strategy resulted in a baseline airflow rate of less than 3 ACH, which in turn provided acceptable IAQ over 96% of the time; higher ventilation rates were warranted only during sanitation periods. PMID:26424251

  17. Cloning and high level expression of the biologically active extracellular domain of Macaca mulatta CD40 in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shengyun; Wan, Lin; Yang, Hao; Cheng, Jingqiu; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2016-03-01

    The CD40-mediated immune response contributes to a wide variety of chronic inflammatory diseases. CD40 antagonists have potential as novel therapies for immune disorders. However, the CD40 pathway has not been well characterized in the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta, which is a valuable animal model for human immune disease. An 834 bp transcript was cloned from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of rhesus monkey using specific primers designed according to the predicted sequence of M. mulatta CD40 (mmCD40) in GenBank. Sequence analysis demonstrated that mmCD40 is highly homologous to human CD40 (hCD40), with an amino acid sequence identity of 94%. Genes encoding the extracellular domain of mmCD40 and the Fc fragment of the hIgG1 were inserted into a pPIC9K plasmid to produce mmCD40Ig by Pichia pastoris. Approximately 15-20 mg of the mmCD40Ig protein with ∼90% purity could be recovered from 1 L of culture. The purified mmCD40Ig protein can form dimers and can specifically bind CD40L-positive cells. Additionally, the mmCD40Ig protein can bind hCD40L protein in phosphate buffered saline and form a stable combination in a size-exclusion chromatography assay using a Superdex 200 column. Moreover, mmCD40Ig is as efficient as M. mulatta CTLA4Ig (mmCTLA4Ig) to suppress Con A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Additionally, mmCD40Ig only showed mild immunosuppressive activity in a one-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) system. These results suggest that mmCD40Ig secreted by P. pastoris was productive and functional, and it could be used as a tool for pathogenesis and therapies for chronic inflammatory diseases in a M. mulatta model.

  18. Metabolism of 14C-labeled doxylamine succinate (Bendectin) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Slikker, W; Holder, C L; Lipe, G W; Korfmacher, W A; Thompson, H C; Bailey, J R

    1986-01-01

    The time-course of the metabolic fate of [14C]doxylamine was determined after the p.o. administration of 13 mg/kg doxylamine succinate as Bendectin plus [14C]doxylamine succinate to the rhesus monkey. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chemical derivatization, and mass spectrometry. The cumulative 48-hr urinary metabolic profile contained 81% of the administered radiolabeled dose and consisted of at least six radiolabeled peaks. They were peak 1: unknown polar metabolites (8% of dose); peak 2: 2-[1-phenyl-1-(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy] acetic acid, 1-[1-phenyl-1(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy] methanol, and another minor metabolite(s) (31%); peak 3: doxylamine-N-oxide (1%); peak 4a: N,N-didesmethyldoxylamine (17%); peak 4b: doxylamine (4%); and peak 5: N-desmethyldoxylamine (20%). The plasma metabolic profile was the same as the urinary profile except for the absence of doxylamine-N-oxide. The maximum plasma concentrations and elapsed time to attain these concentrations were as follows. Peak 1: 540 ng/mL, 4 hr; peak 2: 1700 ng/mL, 1 hr; peak 4a: 430 ng/mL, 4 hr; peak 4b: 930 ng/mL, 2 hr; and peak 5: 790 ng/mL, 2 hr. These data suggest that in the monkey, doxylamine metabolism follows at least four pathways: a minor pathway to the N-oxide; a minor pathway to unknown polar metabolites; a major pathway to mono- and didesmethyldoxylamine via successive N-demethylation; and a major pathway to side-chain cleavage products (peak 2) via direct side-chain oxidation and/or deamination.

  19. Metabolism of /sup 14/C-labeled doxylamine succinate (Bendectin) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Slikker, W. Jr.; Holder, C.L.; Lipe, G.W.; Korfmacher, W.A.; Thompson, H.C. Jr.; Bailey, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    The time-course of the metabolic fate of (/sup 14/C)doxylamine was determined after the p.o. administration of 13 mg/kg doxylamine succinate as Bendectin plus (/sup 14/C)doxylamine succinate to the rhesus monkey. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chemical derivatization, and mass spectrometry. The cumulative 48-hr urinary metabolic profile contained 81% of the administered radiolabeled dose and consisted of at least six radiolabeled peaks. They were peak 1: unknown polar metabolites (8% of dose); peak 2: 2-(1-phenyl-1-(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy) acetic acid, 1-(1-phenyl-1(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy) methanol, and another minor metabolite(s) (31%); peak 3: doxylamine-N-oxide (1%); peak 4a: N,N-didesmethyldoxylamine (17%); peak 4b: doxylamine (4%); and peak 5: N-desmethyldoxylamine (20%). The plasma metabolic profile was the same as the urinary profile except for the absence of doxylamine-N-oxide. The maximum plasma concentrations and elapsed time to attain these concentrations were as follows. Peak 1: 540 ng/mL, 4 hr; peak 2: 1700 ng/mL, 1 hr; peak 4a: 430 ng/mL, 4 hr; peak 4b: 930 ng/mL, 2 hr; and peak 5: 790 ng/mL, 2 hr. These data suggest that in the monkey, doxylamine metabolism follows at least four pathways: a minor pathway to the N-oxide; a minor pathway to unknown polar metabolites; a major pathway to mono- and didesmethyldoxylamine via successive N-demethylation; and a major pathway to side-chain cleavage products (peak 2) via direct side-chain oxidation and/or deamination.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a monomeric mutant of Azami-Green (mAG), an Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein-like green-emitting fluorescent protein from the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Ebisawa, Tatsuki; Yamamura, Akihiro; Kameda, Yasuhiro; Hayakawa, Kou; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    Monomeric Azami-Green (mAG) from the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis is the first monomeric green-emitting fluorescent protein that is not a derivative of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP). mAG and avGFP are 27% identical in amino-acid sequence. Diffraction-quality crystals of recombinant mAG were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. The mAG crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.20 Å resolution on beamline AR-NW12A at the Photon Factory (Tsukuba, Japan). The crystal belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.78, b = 51.72, c = 52.89 Å, α = 90.96, β = 103.41, γ = 101.79°. The Matthews coefficient (V M = 2.10 Å3 Da−1) indicated that the crystal contained two mAG molecules per asymmetric unit. PMID:20054132

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a monomeric mutant of Azami-Green (mAG), an Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein-like green-emitting fluorescent protein from the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, Tatsuki; Yamamura, Akihiro; Kameda, Yasuhiro; Hayakawa, Kou; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-12-01

    Monomeric Azami-Green (mAG) from the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis is the first monomeric green-emitting fluorescent protein that is not a derivative of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP). mAG and avGFP are 27% identical in amino-acid sequence. Diffraction-quality crystals of recombinant mAG were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. The mAG crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.20 A resolution on beamline AR-NW12A at the Photon Factory (Tsukuba, Japan). The crystal belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.78, b = 51.72, c = 52.89 A, alpha = 90.96, beta = 103.41, gamma = 101.79 degrees. The Matthews coefficient (V(M) = 2.10 A(3) Da(-1)) indicated that the crystal contained two mAG molecules per asymmetric unit.

  2. Dose optimization tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Ornit; Braunstein, David; Altman, Ami

    2003-05-01

    A dose optimization tool for CT scanners is presented using patient raw data to calculate noise. The tool uses a single patient image which is modified for various lower doses. Dose optimization is carried out without extra measurements by interactively visualizing the dose-induced changes in this image. This tool can be used either off line, on existing image(s) or, as a pre - requisite for dose optimization for the specific patient, during the patient clinical study. The algorithm of low-dose simulation consists of reconstruction of two images from a single measurement and uses those images to create the various lower dose images. This algorithm enables fast simulation of various low dose (mAs) images on a real patient image.

  3. Long-term population survey of the Sulawesi black macaques (Macaca nigra) at Tangkoko Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kyes, Randall C; Iskandar, Entang; Onibala, Jane; Paputungan, Umar; Laatung, Sylvia; Huettmann, Falk

    2013-01-01

    The Sulawesi black macaque (Macaca nigra) population at Tangkoko Nature Reserve in North Sulawesi, Indonesia has been the focus of periodic study for over 30 years. The population has shown considerable decline during much of that time. Here we present the results of a long-term population survey of the Tangkoko M. nigra, conducted over the past decade, to provide updated information and on-going assessment of the population. Line-transect sampling was conducted annually from 1999 to 2002 and 2005 to 2011 along the same transect during a 2- to 3-week survey period. Although further decline in the population was observed at the outset of the survey, over the subsequent 12-year period we have seen stability in the population parameters with evidence of modest increases in both group and population density. During the 1999-2002 survey periods, there was a mean group density of 3.6 groups/km(2) and a mean population density of 39.8 individuals/km(2) . During 2005-2011, mean group density increased to 3.8 groups/km(2) and mean population density was 51.4 individuals/km(2) . The 2011 survey data indicated an estimated group density of 4.3 groups/km(2) and a population density of 61.5 individuals/km(2) . Given that our transect was located in the core of the Tangkoko reserve, our density estimates should be limited to that area of the reserve. One explanation for the apparent stabilization of the population may be tied to the increasing and sustained number of training and research programs being conducted at the reserve. This collective effort by local and international groups may be helping to reduce illegal activity in the reserve (i.e., hunting and habitat destruction) and generate greater awareness of this critically endangered species. Without the continued vigilance afforded by the existing research and training programs and the support and involvement of the local people, the M. nigra at the Tangkoko Nature Reserve will likely face further decline.

  4. Associations between Parity, Hair Hormone Profiles during Pregnancy and Lactation, and Infant Development in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Rosenberg, Kendra L; Suomi, Stephen J; Meyer, Jerrold S; Novak, Melinda A

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining hormones throughout pregnancy and lactation in women have been limited to single, or a few repeated, short-term measures of endocrine activity. Furthermore, potential differences in chronic hormonal changes across pregnancy/lactation between first-time and experienced mothers are not well understood, especially as they relate to infant development. Hormone concentrations in hair provide long-term assessments of hormone production, and studying these measures in non-human primates allows for repeated sampling under controlled conditions that are difficult to achieve in humans. We studied hormonal profiles in the hair of 26 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, n=12 primiparous), to determine the influences of parity on chronic levels of cortisol (hair cortisol concentration, HCC) and progesterone (hair progesterone concentration, HPC) during early- to mid-pregnancy (PREG1), in late pregnancy/early lactation (PREG2/LACT1), and in peak lactation (LACT2). We also assessed infants' neurobehavioral development across the first month of life. After controlling for age and stage of pregnancy at the first hair sampling period, we found that HCCs overall peaked in PREG2/LACT1 (p=0.02), but only in primiparous monkeys (p<0.001). HPCs declined across pregnancy and lactation for all monkeys (p<0.01), and primiparous monkeys had higher HPCs overall than multiparous monkeys (p=0.02). Infants of primiparous mothers had lower sensorimotor reflex scores (p=0.02) and tended to be more irritable (p=0.05) and less consolable (p=0.08) in the first month of life. Moreover, across all subjects, HCCs in PREG2/LACT1 were positively correlated with irritability (r(s)=0.43, p=0.03) and negatively correlated with sensorimotor scores (r(s)=-0.41, p=0.04). Together, the present results indicate that primiparity influences both chronic maternal hormonal profiles and infant development. These effects may, in part, reflect differential reproductive and maternal effort in mothers

  5. The sweetness-inducing effect of miraculin; behavioural and neurophysiological experiments in the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, J N; Glaser, D; Hard Af Segerstad, C; Hellekant, G; Ninomiya, Y; Van der Wel, H

    1983-04-01

    1. The gustatory effects of miraculin, the sweetness-inducing protein from the miracle fruit Synsepalum dulcificum, was studied in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta.2. The intake of five acids was recorded in two-bottle preference tests, one bottle containing acid and the other tap water, before and after miraculin treatment. All the acids tasted more pleasant after miraculin.3. The electrical activity of the chorda tympani nerve to stimulation of the tongue with a variety of sweeteners, acids, sodium chloride and quinine hydrochloride was recorded in anaesthetized animals.4. Pre-treatment of the tongue with 0.3-5 mg miraculin doubled the summated nerve response to the acids and diminished the response to sucrose by about 10%. The enhancement lasted for at least an hour and the diminution up to 20 min.5. After miraculin treatment the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between the order of increased intake of acids and the order of enhancement of the summated nerve response was 0.99.6. A solution of 0.1 mg miraculin per ml. elicited a weak nerve response. No preference over water for this concentration of miraculin was recorded in the two-bottle tests.7. The activity of twenty-nine single taste fibres, selected for their responsiveness to sweetness or acids or both, was recorded after miraculin treatment. Effects were obtained in nine fibres which were similar but more pronounced than those observed in the summated recordings. Before miraculin, these fibres responded better and to a larger variety of sweeteners (81%) than the other fibres (40%). After miraculin, acids elicited on the average 2.3 times more activity than before, while the response to sweeteners was depressed. In twenty fibres no effect of miraculin was observed. These fibres responded to fewer of the sweeteners and were more stimulated by the non-sweet stimuli than the first group.8. The results suggest that miraculin acts on those structures in the taste cell membrane that are involved in

  6. The sweetness-inducing effect of miraculin; behavioural and neurophysiological experiments in the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, J. N.; Glaser, D.; af Segerstad, C. Hard; Hellekant, G.; Ninomiya, Y.; van der Wel, H.

    1983-01-01

    1. The gustatory effects of miraculin, the sweetness-inducing protein from the miracle fruit Synsepalum dulcificum, was studied in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. 2. The intake of five acids was recorded in two-bottle preference tests, one bottle containing acid and the other tap water, before and after miraculin treatment. All the acids tasted more pleasant after miraculin. 3. The electrical activity of the chorda tympani nerve to stimulation of the tongue with a variety of sweeteners, acids, sodium chloride and quinine hydrochloride was recorded in anaesthetized animals. 4. Pre-treatment of the tongue with 0·3-5 mg miraculin doubled the summated nerve response to the acids and diminished the response to sucrose by about 10%. The enhancement lasted for at least an hour and the diminution up to 20 min. 5. After miraculin treatment the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between the order of increased intake of acids and the order of enhancement of the summated nerve response was 0·99. 6. A solution of 0·1 mg miraculin per ml. elicited a weak nerve response. No preference over water for this concentration of miraculin was recorded in the two-bottle tests. 7. The activity of twenty-nine single taste fibres, selected for their responsiveness to sweetness or acids or both, was recorded after miraculin treatment. Effects were obtained in nine fibres which were similar but more pronounced than those observed in the summated recordings. Before miraculin, these fibres responded better and to a larger variety of sweeteners (81%) than the other fibres (40%). After miraculin, acids elicited on the average 2·3 times more activity than before, while the response to sweeteners was depressed. In twenty fibres no effect of miraculin was observed. These fibres responded to fewer of the sweeteners and were more stimulated by the non-sweet stimuli than the first group. 8. The results suggest that miraculin acts on those structures in the taste cell membrane that are

  7. Associations between Parity, Hair Hormone Profiles during Pregnancy and Lactation, and Infant Development in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Rosenberg, Kendra L.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Novak, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining hormones throughout pregnancy and lactation in women have been limited to single, or a few repeated, short-term measures of endocrine activity. Furthermore, potential differences in chronic hormonal changes across pregnancy/lactation between first-time and experienced mothers are not well understood, especially as they relate to infant development. Hormone concentrations in hair provide long-term assessments of hormone production, and studying these measures in non-human primates allows for repeated sampling under controlled conditions that are difficult to achieve in humans. We studied hormonal profiles in the hair of 26 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, n=12 primiparous), to determine the influences of parity on chronic levels of cortisol (hair cortisol concentration, HCC) and progesterone (hair progesterone concentration, HPC) during early- to mid-pregnancy (PREG1), in late pregnancy/early lactation (PREG2/LACT1), and in peak lactation (LACT2). We also assessed infants’ neurobehavioral development across the first month of life. After controlling for age and stage of pregnancy at the first hair sampling period, we found that HCCs overall peaked in PREG2/LACT1 (p=0.02), but only in primiparous monkeys (p<0.001). HPCs declined across pregnancy and lactation for all monkeys (p<0.01), and primiparous monkeys had higher HPCs overall than multiparous monkeys (p=0.02). Infants of primiparous mothers had lower sensorimotor reflex scores (p=0.02) and tended to be more irritable (p=0.05) and less consolable (p=0.08) in the first month of life. Moreover, across all subjects, HCCs in PREG2/LACT1 were positively correlated with irritability (r(s)=0.43, p=0.03) and negatively correlated with sensorimotor scores (r(s)=-0.41, p=0.04). Together, the present results indicate that primiparity influences both chronic maternal hormonal profiles and infant development. These effects may, in part, reflect differential reproductive and maternal effort in

  8. The evolutionary history and palaeo-ecology of primate predation: Macaca sylvanus from Plio-Pleistocene Europe as a case study.

    PubMed

    Meloro, Carlo; Elton, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    In this article we briefly review primate interactions with predators throughout their evolutionary history. Like today, predators of past primates were taxonomically diverse, including crocodilians, aquatic mammals, hyaenids, raptors and other primates. There is strong evidence for felid predation of extinct primates, with most work undertaken on the African Plio-Pleistocene fossil record. Felid predation of Plio-Pleistocene primates from other areas, including Europe, is much less well understood, so we explored co-occurrence and potential interaction between carnivorans (with particular reference to felids) and Macaca sylvanus, which was widespread and present in Europe from the late Miocene to the late Pleistocene. Over its tenure in the fossil record, M. sylvanus co-occurred with a diverse array of carnivorans, including canids and hyaenids, but medium-sized felids probably posed the most significant predation risk. It is likely, however, that human predation was a major factor contributing to macaque extinction in Europe.

  9. Testing for localized stimulus enhancement and object movement reenactment in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and young children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, Marco M; Custance, Deborah M; Previde, Emanuela Prato; Spiezio, Caterina

    2005-08-01

    Four puzzle boxes were used to investigate localized stimulus enhancement and object movement reenactment (OMR) in 13 pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and 30 human infants (Homo sapiens). Participants received contrasting demonstrations on each box. A circular lid was gripped by its rim or handle and swiveled to the left or right. A flap door was pushed or flipped. A sliding lid was pushed to the left or right. A pin bolt was demonstrated being pushed down, or the participants were left to solve the puzzle for themselves. Despite the fact that the monkeys watched the demonstrations about 60% of the time, only a weak OMR effect was found on the sliding lid. In contrast, the children watched significantly more, and there was clear evidence of socially mediated learning on all of the boxes.

  10. Automated recording of individual performance and hand preference during joystick-task acquisition in group-living bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata).

    PubMed

    Andrews, M W; Rosenblum, L A

    1994-12-01

    A microchip that provided a unique identification number was injected into each forearm of all 8 members of a bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata) social group. The group was then given computer-controlled joystick tasks of increasing difficulty. The identification number of the arm used on each trial was input into the computer and used to determine individual performance and hand preference in more than 23,000 trials. Three subjects reversed hand preference as task difficulty was increased over time. All subjects exhibited nearly exclusive use of a single hand on the most difficult task; 6 used the right hand, and 2 used the left. Daily patterns of joystick activity for the group members differed somewhat from that of our individually housed monkeys.

  11. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hua; Casson, William H.; Vasilik, Dennis G.; Kleck, Jeffrey H.; Beverding, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  12. Calculation of effective dose.

    PubMed

    McCollough, C H; Schueler, B A

    2000-05-01

    The concept of "effective dose" was introduced in 1975 to provide a mechanism for assessing the radiation detriment from partial body irradiations in terms of data derived from whole body irradiations. The effective dose is the mean absorbed dose from a uniform whole-body irradiation that results in the same total radiation detriment as from the nonuniform, partial-body irradiation in question. The effective dose is calculated as the weighted average of the mean absorbed dose to the various body organs and tissues, where the weighting factor is the radiation detriment for a given organ (from a whole-body irradiation) as a fraction of the total radiation detriment. In this review, effective dose equivalent and effective dose, as established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in 1977 and 1990, respectively, are defined and various methods of calculating these quantities are presented for radionuclides, radiography, fluoroscopy, computed tomography and mammography. In order to calculate either quantity, it is first necessary to estimate the radiation dose to individual organs. One common method of determining organ doses is through Monte Carlo simulations of photon interactions within a simplified mathematical model of the human body. Several groups have performed these calculations and published their results in the form of data tables of organ dose per unit activity or exposure. These data tables are specified according to particular examination parameters, such as radiopharmaceutical, x-ray projection, x-ray beam energy spectra or patient size. Sources of these organ dose conversion coefficients are presented and differences between them are examined. The estimates of effective dose equivalent or effective dose calculated using these data, although not intended to describe the dose to an individual, can be used as a relative measure of stochastic radiation detriment. The calculated values, in units of sievert (or rem), indicate the amount of

  13. Comparative efficacy of a canine distemper-measles and a standard measles vaccine for immunization of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Christe, Kari L; McChesney, Michael B; Spinner, Abigail; Rosenthal, Ann N; Allen, Philip C; Valverde, Celia R; Roberts, Jeffrey A; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2002-10-01

    Measles virus (MV), a highly infective paramyxovirus, has caused sporadic epizootics characterized by high morbidity and increased mortality in nonhuman primates. Measles vaccines for human use, although effective, are cost prohibitive for use in primate colonies. We compared the efficacy of one or two doses of Vanguard D-M, a canine distemper-measles (CD-M) vaccine, with a single dose of Attenuvax, a human measles vaccine. Compared with 81% of animals inoculated with Attenuvax, all animals inoculated with one or two doses of Vanguard developed detectable MV antibodies. One year after immunization, six juveniles from each vaccine group, along with three unvaccinated controls, were challenged with pathogenic MV and were monitored for clinical signs of disease, viremia, viral shedding, and immune response. All uninoculated controls developed clinical disease and viremia, and shed virus in nasopharangeal secretions. Subclinical viremia without viral shedding was identified in two Attenuvax- and two single-dose Vanguard-inoculated animals. Viremia was not detected in any two-dose Vanguard-inoculated animals. Significantly higher neutralization antibody titers were observed in animals receiving Vanguard. Results of this study indicate that Vanguard is at least as efficacious as Attenuvax for protection of rhesus macaques. The considerably lower cost of Vanguard makes vaccination against measles in large breeding colonies economically feasible.

  14. The Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome in Rhesus Macaques: A Systematic Review of the Lethal Dose Response Relationship.

    PubMed

    MacVittie, Thomas J; Farese, Ann M; Jackson, William

    2015-11-01

    Well characterized animal models that mimic the human response to potentially lethal doses of radiation are required to assess the efficacy of medical countermeasures under the criteria of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration "animal rule." Development of a model requires the determination of the radiation dose response relationship and time course of mortality and morbidity across the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. The nonhuman primate, rhesus macaque, is a relevant animal model that may be used to determine the efficacy of medical countermeasures to mitigate major signs of morbidity and mortality at selected lethal doses of total body irradiation. A systematic review of relevant studies that determined the dose response relationship for the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome in the rhesus macaque relative to radiation quality, dose rate, and exposure uniformity has never been performed. The selection of data cohorts was made from the following sources: Ovid Medline (1957-present), PubMed (1954-present), AGRICOLA (1976-present), Web of Science (1954-present), and U.S. HHS REPORT (2002 to present). The following terms were used: Rhesus, total body-irradiation, total body x irradiation, TBI, irradiation, gamma radiation, hematopoiesis, LD50/60, Macaca mulatta, whole-body irradiation, nonhuman primate, NHP, monkey, primates, hematopoietic radiation syndrome, mortality, and nuclear radiation. The reference lists of all studies, published and unpublished, were reviewed for additional studies. The total number of hits across all search sites was 3,001. There were a number of referenced, unpublished, non-peer reviewed government reports that were unavailable for review. Fifteen studies, 11 primary (n = 863) and four secondary (n = 153) studies [n = 1,016 total nonhuman primates (NHP), rhesus Macaca mulatta] were evaluated to provide an informative and consistent review. The dose response relationships (DRRs) were determined for uniform or non-uniform total

  15. Electron beam dose calculations.

    PubMed

    Hogstrom, K R; Mills, M D; Almond, P R

    1981-05-01

    Electron beam dose distributions in the presence of inhomogeneous tissue are calculated by an algorithm that sums the dose distribution of individual pencil beams. The off-axis dependence of the pencil beam dose distribution is described by the Fermi-Eyges theory of thick-target multiple Coulomb scattering. Measured square-field depth-dose data serve as input for the calculations. Air gap corrections are incorporated and use data from'in-air' measurements in the penumbra of the beam. The effective depth, used to evaluate depth-dose, and the sigma of the off-axis Gaussian spread against depth are calculated by recursion relations from a CT data matrix for the material underlying individual pencil beams. The correlation of CT number with relative linear stopping power and relative linear scattering power for various tissues is shown. The results of calculations are verified by comparison with measurements in a 17 MeV electron beam from the Therac 20 linear accelerator. Calculated isodose lines agree nominally to within 2 mm of measurements in a water phantom. Similar agreement is observed in cork slabs simulating lung. Calculations beneath a bone substitute illustrate a weakness in the calculation. Finally a case of carcinoma in the maxillary antrum is studied. The theory suggests an alternative method for the calculation of depth-dose of rectangular fields.

  16. Utirik Atoll Dose Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T

    1999-10-06

    On March 1, 1954, radioactive fallout from the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code-named BRAVO was deposited on Utirik Atoll which lies about 187 km (300 miles) east of Bikini Atoll. The residents of Utirik were evacuated three days after the fallout started and returned to their atoll in May 1954. In this report we provide a final dose assessment for current conditions at the atoll based on extensive data generated from samples collected in 1993 and 1994. The estimated population average maximum annual effective dose using a diet including imported foods is 0.037 mSv y{sup -1} (3.7 mrem y{sup -1}). The 95% confidence limits are within a factor of three of their population average value. The population average integrated effective dose over 30-, 50-, and 70-y is 0.84 mSv (84, mrem), 1.2 mSv (120 mrem), and 1.4 mSv (140 mrem), respectively. The 95% confidence limits on the population-average value post 1998, i.e., the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral doses, are within a factor of two of the mean value and are independent of time, t, for t > 5 y. Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the radionuclide that contributes most of this dose, mostly through the terrestrial food chain and secondarily from external gamma exposure. The dose from weapons-related radionuclides is very low and of no consequence to the health of the population. The annual background doses in the U. S. and Europe are 3.0 mSv (300 mrem), and 2.4 mSv (240 mrem), respectively. The annual background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 1.4 mSv (140 mrem). The total estimated combined Marshall Islands background dose plus the weapons-related dose is about 1.5 mSv y{sup -1} (150 mrem y{sup -1}) which can be directly compared to the annual background effective dose of 3.0 mSv y{sup -1} (300 mrem y{sup -1}) for the U. S. and 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} (240 mrem y{sup -1}) for Europe. Moreover, the doses listed in this report are based only on the radiological decay of {sup 137}Cs (30.1 y half-life) and other

  17. First Complete Genome Sequence of a Simian Foamy Virus Isolate from a Cynomolgus Macaque

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Koji; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete proviral genome sequence (DDBJ/ENA/GenBank accession no. LC094267) of a simian foamy virus, SFVmfa/Cy5061, isolated from a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis). This proviral genome consists of 12,965 nucleotides and has five open reading frames, gag, pol, env, tas, and bet, as with other foamy viruses. PMID:27908992

  18. "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque" and Bartonella quintana bacteremia in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Ricardo G; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Rohde, Cynthia M; Kelly, Catherine M; Ramaiah, Lila; Leach, Michael W; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2013-05-01

    Here, we report latent infections with Bartonella quintana and a hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. in a research colony of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Sequence alignments, evolutionary analysis, and signature nucleotide sequence motifs of the hemotropic Mycoplasma 16S rRNA and RNase P genes indicate the presence of a novel organism.

  19. Macaque Monkeys Discriminate Pitch Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Bucks, Cornelia; Scheich, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This study demonstrates that non-human primates can categorize the direction of the pitch change of tones in a sequence. Two "Macaca fascicularis" were trained in a positive-reinforcement behavioral paradigm in which they listened to sequences of a variable number of different acoustic items. The training of discriminating pitch direction was…

  20. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  1. Dose Calculation Spreadsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, Ali

    1997-06-10

    VENTSAR XL is an EXCEL Spreadsheet that can be used to calculate downwind doses as a result of a hypothetical atmospheric release. Both building effects and plume rise may be considered. VENTSAR XL will run using any version of Microsoft EXCEL version 4.0 or later. Macros (the programming language of EXCEL) was used to automate the calculations. The user enters a minimal amount of input and the code calculates the resulting concentrations and doses at various downwind distances as specified by the user.

  2. Visual expertise does not predict the composite effect across species: A comparison between spider (Ateles geoffroyi) and rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Taubert, Jessica; Parr, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are subject to the composite illusion: two identical top halves of a face are perceived as “different” when they are presented with different bottom halves. This observation suggests that when building a mental representation of a face, the underlying system perceives the whole face, and has difficulty decomposing facial features. We adapted a behavioural task that measures the composite illusion to examine the perception of faces in two nonhuman species. Specifically we had spider (Ateles geoffroyi) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perform a two-forced choice, match-to-sample task where only the top half of sample was relevant to the task. The results of Experiment 1 show that spider monkeys (N = 2) process the faces of familiar species (conspecifics and humans, but not chimpanzees, sheep, or sticks), holistically. The second experiment tested rhesus monkeys (N = 7) with the faces of humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, sheep and sticks. Contrary to prediction, there was no evidence of a composite effect in the human (or familiar primate) condition. Instead, we present evidence of a composite illusion in the chimpanzee condition (an unfamiliar primate). Together, these experiments show that visual expertise does not predict the composite effect across the primate order. PMID:19815323

  3. Use of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography–Computed Tomography to Aid in Diagnosing Intestinal Adenocarcinoma in 2 Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Caporizzo, Debra J; Kwiatkowski, Anna E; Chen, Ming-Kai; Beck, Amanda P; Booth, Carmen J; Zeiss, Caroline; Smith, Peter C; Scholz, Jodi A Carlson; Wilson, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    Two aged female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) presented with weight loss and intermittent inappetence. The signalment and constellation of clinical signs led clinicians to suspect the presence of intestinal adenocarcinoma. Because of each animal's advanced age and inconclusive radiographic findings, a noninvasive diagnostic tool was preferred over exploratory laparotomy to assist in determining a diagnosis. Consequently, 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography–CT (FDG-PET–CT) was chosen to aid in confirming a suspicion of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma in both animals. FDG is a glucose analogue labeled with fluorine-18 and is taken up by highly metabolically active cells, as observed in many cancers. Tomography revealed an annular constriction of the small intestine with focal FDG uptake in one animal, and an FDG avid transmural mass in the ascending colon of the second animal. Necropsy later confirmed both sites to be adenocarcinomas. This report supports the use of FDG-PET–CT as an adjunct to conventional radiography in the diagnosis of intestinal adenocarcinoma in nonhuman primates. PMID:24956213

  4. Structural architecture of the social network of a non-human primate (Macaca sylvanus): a study of its topology in La Forêt des Singes, Rocamadour.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    For a decade, technological or natural networks have appeared to have a common mathematical architecture. This type of architecture has a node connectivity which follows a power law distribution. This architecture confers to these networks a resistance property to the loss of nodes. Such properties are advantageous for evolutional networks through time. Thus, this architecture can be expected in animal social networks. Another characteristic commonly met concerns the structuration of the network into communities by the mechanism of assortative mixing by vertex degree (i.e. by the number of ties individuals have). Such a structure is a reflection of evolutional mechanisms: the preferential attachment and the triadic closure processes. Using recent analytical techniques on an affiliative social network in a non-human primate species (Macaca sylvanus), we analysed the mathematical architecture and its properties. We demonstrate that in spite of the use of a recent protocol supposed to permit this type of analysis, the type of distribution cannot be clearly determined, encouraging us to carefully interpret the results obtained until then. Nevertheless, we observed interesting properties of the network at an ecological and evolutional level with network resilience that allows a cohesive society to be maintained even when faced with a catastrophe (high predation, epidemic).

  5. Use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography to aid in diagnosing intestinal adenocarcinoma in 2 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Caporizzo, Debra J; Kwiatkowski, Anna E; Chen, Ming-Kai; Beck, Amanda P; Booth, Carmen J; Zeiss, Caroline; Smith, Peter C; Carlson Scholz, Jodi A; Wilson, Steven R

    2014-06-01

    Two aged female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) presented with weight loss and intermittent inappetence. The signalment and constellation of clinical signs led clinicians to suspect the presence of intestinal adenocarcinoma. Because of each animal's advanced age and inconclusive radiographic findings, a noninvasive diagnostic tool was preferred over exploratory laparotomy to assist in determining a diagnosis. Consequently, 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-CT (FDG-PET-CT) was chosen to aid in confirming a suspicion of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma in both animals. FDG is a glucose analogue labeled with fluorine-18 and is taken up by highly metabolically active cells, as observed in many cancers. Tomography revealed an annular constriction of the small intestine with focal FDG uptake in one animal, and an FDG avid transmural mass in the ascending colon of the second animal. Necropsy later confirmed both sites to be adenocarcinomas. This report supports the use of FDG-PET-CT as an adjunct to conventional radiography in the diagnosis of intestinal adenocarcinoma in nonhuman primates.

  6. Validation of a body condition scoring system in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): assessment of body composition by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Summers, Laura; Clingerman, Karen J; Yang, Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is a subjective semiquantitative method of assessing body fat and muscle by palpation of key anatomic features. A previously published BCS system for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) uses a scale comprising both whole and half units, in which the midrange represents optimal body condition (3.0), lower values represent emaciated to lean conditions (1.0 to 2.0), and higher values (4.0 to 5.0) indicate excessive body fat. A valid BCS system is well described, relevant to the species, has agreement within and between raters, and is consistent with objective measures. Here we correlate the subjective BCS assigned during physical exam with percentage body fat as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Adult rhesus monkeys from an indoor-housed breeding colony were evaluated by the veterinary staff and assigned to 1 of 9 BCS score groups to give a minimum of 6 animals in each group. DEXA was used to obtain objective body composition measurements for macaques in each BCS group. Animals in the 'optimal' BCS group (3.0) had 25% body fat on average. Each full unit change in BCS was associated with an approximate 10% change in body fat percentage for macaques in the 2.0-to-5.0 BCS range. Absolute body fat in animals with BCS of 1.0 or 1.5 may be too low for accurate assessment by DEXA.

  7. Personality structure in brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella): comparisons with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Morton, F Blake; Lee, Phyllis C; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Brosnan, Sarah F; Thierry, Bernard; Paukner, Annika; de Waal, Frans B M; Widness, Jane; Essler, Jennifer L; Weiss, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    Species comparisons of personality structure (i.e., how many personality dimensions and the characteristics of those dimensions) can facilitate questions about the adaptive function of personality in nonhuman primates. Here we investigate personality structure in the brown capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella), a New World primate species, and compare this structure to those of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Brown capuchins evolved behavioral and cognitive traits that are qualitatively similar to those of great apes, and individual differences in behavior and cognition often reflect differences in personality. Thus, we hypothesized that brown capuchin personality structure would overlap more with great apes than with rhesus macaques. We obtained personality ratings from seven sites, including 127 brown capuchin monkeys. Principal-components analysis identified five personality dimensions (Assertiveness, Openness, Neuroticism, Sociability, and Attentiveness), which were reliable across raters and, in a subset of subjects, significantly correlated with relevant behaviors up to a year later. Comparisons between species revealed that brown capuchins and great apes overlapped in personality structure, particularly chimpanzees in the case of Neuroticism. However, in some respects (i.e., capuchin Sociability and Openness) the similarities between capuchins and great apes were not significantly greater than those between capuchins and rhesus macaques. We discuss the relevance of our results to brown capuchin behavior and the evolution of personality structure in primates.

  8. Growth pattern of the maxillary sinus in the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata): reflections on the structural role of the paranasal sinuses

    PubMed Central

    KOPPE, THOMAS; NAGAI, HIROSHI

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the claim that the primate paranasal sinuses possess not a functional but a structural role associated with the skull architecture (Blaney, 1990), the relationship between the maxillary sinus and the skull architecture was studied ontogenetically in 30 skulls of male and female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Coronal CT scan series and computerised 3-dimensional images served to evaluate the maxillary sinus. The definitive hemispherical shape of the sinus was already achieved after the completion of the primary dentition. Sinus volume increased with a trend indicating positive allometry. When compared with an ontogenetic data set of orang-utan (Koppe et al. 1995), however, the growth rate of the maxillary sinus of M. fuscata was significantly less. The maxillary sinus both of male and female macaques enlarged according to a common growth pattern. However, no sexual dimorphism could be established for the maxillary sinus size. Although the volume of the right maxillary sinus was normally bigger than that of the left side, the results suggested that asymmetry in maxillary sinus volume is related neither to skull size nor sex. Whereas a correlation analysis showed close relationships between the maxillary sinus volume and external cranial dimensions, the partial correlation coefficients revealed that these relationships were highly influenced by skull size. Although it cannot be ruled out that the paranasal sinuses are to some extent linked to the skull architecture, this study does not support a solely structural role for these air cavities. PMID:9183677

  9. Refining the pole-and-collar method of restraint: emphasizing the use of positive training techniques with rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    McMillan, Jennifer L; Perlman, Jaine E; Galvan, Adriana; Wichmann, Thomas; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2014-01-01

    The pole-and-collar method is one of several techniques that enable the safe transfer of a nonhuman primate from its home environment into a restraint chair without the need for sedation. It has been used within the scientific community for decades. Traditional methods to train animals for pole-and-collar use rely primarily on aspects of negative reinforcement, with very little incorporation of positive-reinforcement techniques. With increasing emphasis on animal training and welfare, research facilities are incorporating positive-reinforcement training into husbandry and experimental procedures. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of training rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 8) to cooperate for pole-and-collar transfer to a primate restraint chair. By using predominantly positive-reinforcement techniques, with supplemental elements of negative reinforcement, macaques were trained in a mean of 85 training sessions (a mean of 1085 min of training time). We also provide tools for investigators using the pole-and-collar method to help them successfully incorporate positive-reinforcement training into their procedures. This refinement has the potential to improve animal welfare and enhance the value of nonhuman primate models in research.

  10. Echography of the cervix and uterus during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle in bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata).

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Uddhav K; Metkari, Siddnath M; Manjaramkar, Dhyananjay D; Sachdeva, Geetanjali; Katkam, Rajendra; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H; Mahajan, Abhishek; Thakur, Meenakshi H; Kholkute, Sanjiv D

    2014-01-01

    We undertook the present study to investigate the echographic characteristics of the uterus and cervix of female bonnet monkeys ( Macaca radiata ) during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle. The cervix was tortuous in shape and measured 2.74 ± 0.30 cm (mean ± SD) in width by 3.10 ± 0.32 cm in length. The cervical lumen contained 2 or 3 colliculi, which projected from the cervical canal. The echogenicity of cervix varied during proliferative and secretory phases. The uterus was pyriform in shape (2.46 ± 0.28 cm × 1.45 ± 0.19 cm) and consisted of serosa, myometrium, and endometrium. The endometrium generated a triple-line pattern; the outer and central lines were hyperechogenic, whereas the inner line was hypoechogenic. The endometrium was significantly thicker during the secretory phase (0.69 ± 0.12 cm) than during the proliferative phase (0.43 ± 0.15 cm). Knowledge of the echogenic changes in the female reproductive organs of bonnet monkeys during a regular menstrual cycle may facilitate understanding of other physiologic and pathophysiologic changes.

  11. When is a dose not a dose

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.

    1991-01-01

    Although an enormous amount of progress has been made in the fields of radiation protection and risk assessment, a number of significant problems remain. The one problem which transcends all the rest, and which has been subject to considerable misunderstanding, involves what has come to be known as the 'linear non-threshold hypothesis', or 'linear hypothesis'. Particularly troublesome has been the interpretation that any amount of radiation can cause an increase in the excess incidence of cancer. The linear hypothesis has dominated radiation protection philosophy for more than three decades, with enormous financial, societal and political impacts and has engendered an almost morbid fear of low-level exposure to ionizing radiation in large segments of the population. This document presents a different interpretation of the linear hypothesis. The basis for this view lies in the evolution of dose-response functions, particularly with respect to their use initially in the context of early acute effects, and then for the late effects, carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. 11 refs., 4 figs. (MHB)

  12. Low-Dose Carcinogenicity Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the major deficiencies of cancer risk assessments is the lack of low-dose carcinogenicity data. Most assessments require extrapolation from high to low doses, which is subject to various uncertainties. Only 4 low-dose carcinogenicity studies and 5 low-dose biomarker/pre-n...

  13. Necrotizing Scleritis, Conjunctivitis, and Other Pathologic Findings in the Left Eye and Brain of an Ebola Virus–Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) With Apparent Recovery and a Delayed Time of Death

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Derron A.; Honko, Anna N.; Kortepeter, Mark G.; Sun, Mei; Johnson, Joshua C.; Lugo-Roman, Luis A.; Hensley, Lisa E.

    2016-01-01

    A 3.5-year-old adult female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) manifested swelling of the left upper eyelid and conjunctiva and a decline in clinical condition 18 days following intramuscular challenge with Ebola virus (EBOV; Kikwit-1995), after apparent clinical recovery. Histologic lesions with strong EBOV antigen staining were noted in the left eye (scleritis, conjunctivitis, and peri-optic neuritis), brain (choriomeningoencephalitis), stomach, proximal duodenum, and pancreas. Spleen, liver, and adrenal glands, common targets for acute infection, appeared histologically normal with no evidence of EBOV immunoreactivity. These findings may provide important insight for understanding sequelae seen in West African survivors of Ebola virus disease. PMID:26153408

  14. Necrotizing Scleritis, Conjunctivitis, and Other Pathologic Findings in the Left Eye and Brain of an Ebola Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) With Apparent Recovery and a Delayed Time of Death.

    PubMed

    Alves, Derron A; Honko, Anna N; Kortepeter, Mark G; Sun, Mei; Johnson, Joshua C; Lugo-Roman, Luis A; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-01-01

    A 3.5-year-old adult female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) manifested swelling of the left upper eyelid and conjunctiva and a decline in clinical condition 18 days following intramuscular challenge with Ebola virus (EBOV; Kikwit-1995), after apparent clinical recovery. Histologic lesions with strong EBOV antigen staining were noted in the left eye (scleritis, conjunctivitis, and peri-optic neuritis), brain (choriomeningoencephalitis), stomach, proximal duodenum, and pancreas. Spleen, liver, and adrenal glands, common targets for acute infection, appeared histologically normal with no evidence of EBOV immunoreactivity. These findings may provide important insight for understanding sequelae seen in West African survivors of Ebola virus disease.

  15. Estimation of the Dose and Dose Rate Effectiveness Factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2013-01-01

    Current models to estimate radiation risk use the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort that received high doses and high dose rates of radiation. Transferring risks from these high dose rates to the low doses and dose rates received by astronauts in space is a source of uncertainty in our risk calculations. The solid cancer models recommended by BEIR VII [1], UNSCEAR [2], and Preston et al [3] is fitted adequately by a linear dose response model, which implies that low doses and dose rates would be estimated the same as high doses and dose rates. However animal and cell experiments imply there should be curvature in the dose response curve for tumor induction. Furthermore animal experiments that directly compare acute to chronic exposures show lower increases in tumor induction than acute exposures. A dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) has been estimated and applied to transfer risks from the high doses and dose rates of the LSS cohort to low doses and dose rates such as from missions in space. The BEIR VII committee [1] combined DDREF estimates using the LSS cohort and animal experiments using Bayesian methods for their recommendation for a DDREF value of 1.5 with uncertainty. We reexamined the animal data considered by BEIR VII and included more animal data and human chromosome aberration data to improve the estimate for DDREF. Several experiments chosen by BEIR VII were deemed inappropriate for application to human risk models of solid cancer risk. Animal tumor experiments performed by Ullrich et al [4], Alpen et al [5], and Grahn et al [6] were analyzed to estimate the DDREF. Human chromosome aberration experiments performed on a sample of astronauts within NASA were also available to estimate the DDREF. The LSS cohort results reported by BEIR VII were combined with the new radiobiology results using Bayesian methods.

  16. Dose esclation in radioimmunotherapy based on projected whole body dose

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, R.L.; Kaminski, M.S.; Regan, D.

    1994-05-01

    A variety of approaches have been utilized in conducting phase I radioimmunotherapy dose-escalation trials. Escalation of dose has been based on graded increases in administered mCi; mCi/kg; or mCi/m2. It is also possible to escalate dose based on tracer-projected marrow, blood or whole body radiation dose. We describe our results in performing a dose-escalation trial in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma based on escalating administered whole-body radiation dose. The mCi dose administered was based on a patient-individualized tracer projected whole-body dose. 25 patients were entered on the study. RIT with 131 I anti-B-1 was administered to 19 patients. The administered dose was prescribed based on the projected whole body dose, determined from patient-individualized tracer studies performed prior to RIT. Whole body dose estimates were based on the assumption that the patient was an ellipsoid, with 131 antibody kinetics determined using a whole-body probe device acquiring daily conjugate views of 1 minute duration/view. Dose escalation levels proceeded with 10 cGy increments from 25 cGy whole-body and continues, now at 75 cGy. The correlation among potential methods of dose escalation and toxicity was assessed. Whole body radiation dose by probe was strongly correlated with the blood radiation dose determined from sequential blood sampling during tracer studies (r=.87). Blood radiation dose was very weakly correlated with mCi dose (r=.4) and mCi/kg (r=.45). Whole body radiation dose appeared less well-correlated with injected dose in mCi (r=.6), or mCi/kg (r=.64). Toxicity has been infrequent in these patients, but appears related to increasing whole body dose. Non-invasive determination of whole-body radiation dose by gamma probe represents a non-invasive method of estimating blood radiation dose, and thus of estimating bone marrow radiation dose.

  17. Repeated Chlamydia trachomatis infection of Macaca nemestrina fallopian tubes produces a Th1-like cytokine response associated with fibrosis and scarring.

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhis, W C; Barrett, L K; Sweeney, Y T; Kuo, C C; Patton, D L

    1997-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis-associated female infertility and ectopic pregnancy are caused by postinflammatory fibrosis and scarring of the upper genital tract. Scarring of the upper genital tract is associated with multiple infectious episodes with C. trachomatis. To study the immune response that occurs with multiple infections of C. trachomatis in the female upper genital tract, a Macaca nemestrina model was used. Subcutaneous pockets containing autologous salpingeal tissue implants were inoculated three times with C. trachomatis. The inflammation after three inoculations was associated with a mononuclear infiltrate dominated by CD8 T-cell lymphocytes. Perforin mRNA was induced in infected pockets, demonstrating that activated cytolytic lymphocytes were present in the lesions. Fibrosis, as evidenced by fibroblast proliferation and connective tissue deposition, was observed by the third infection. Cytokine mRNAs induced by repeated chlamydial infection included gamma interferon, interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, and IL-10 mRNAs, but IL-4 mRNA was not induced. Nearly identical findings were found in macaque fallopian tubes infected in situ repeatedly with C. trachomatis, validating the subcutaneous pocket model of chlamydial salpingitis. However, it was not possible to evaluate if there was an induction of perforin mRNA in infected salpingeal tubes in situ, because there was a high basal level of perforin mRNA in these tissues. These results suggest that repeated chlamydial infection of the female upper genital tract leads to CD8 T-cell predominance, a Th1-like cytokine milieu, and these inflammatory changes are associated with progression to fibrosis associated with female infertility. PMID:9169748

  18. Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba in wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) living in urban and semi-rural North-West India.

    PubMed

    Debenham, John J; Tysnes, Kristoffer; Khunger, Sandhya; Robertson, Lucy J

    2017-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. are intestinal protozoa capable of infecting a range of host species, and are important causes of human morbidity and mortality. Understanding their epidemiology is important, both for public health and for the health of the animals they infect. This study investigated the occurrence of these protozoans in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in India, with the aim of providing preliminary information on the potential for transmission of these pathogens between macaques and humans. Faecal samples (n = 170) were collected from rhesus macaques from four districts of North-West India. Samples were analysed for Giardia/Cryptosporidium using a commercially available direct immunofluorescent antibody test after purification via immunomagnetic separation. Positive samples were characterised by sequencing of PCR products. Occurrence of Entamoeba was investigated first by using a genus-specific PCR, and positive samples further investigated via species-specific PCRs for Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. Giardia cysts were found in 31% of macaque samples, with all isolates belonging to Assemblage B. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 1 sample, however this sample did not result in amplification by PCR. Entamoeba spp. were found in 79% of samples, 49% of which were positive for E. coli. Multiplex PCR for E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, did not result in amplification in any of the samples. Thus in 51% of the samples positive at the genus specific PCR, the Entamoeba species was not identified. This study provides baseline information on the potential for transmission of these zoonotic parasites at the wildlife-human interface.

  19. Longitudinal analysis reveals characteristically high proportions of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Lei, Ai-Hua; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Lyu, Long-Bao; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2015-09-18

    The complex and dynamic vaginal microbial ecosystem is critical to both health and disease of the host. Studies focusing on how vaginal microbiota influences HIV-1 infection may face limitations in selecting proper animal models. Given that northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, they may be an optimal animal model for elucidating the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota contributes to resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. However, little is known about the composition and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota of the northern pig-tailed macaque. Here, we present a comprehensive catalog of the composition and temporal dynamics of vaginal microbiota of two healthy northern pig-tailed macaques over 19 weeks using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. We found remarkably high proportions of a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. Atopobium and Sneathia were dominant genera, and interestingly, we demonstrated the presence of Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota. Moreover, longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota were considerably individualized. Finally, network analysis revealed that vaginal pH may influence the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota, suggesting that inter-subject variability of vaginal bacterial communities could be mirrored in inter-subject variation in correlation profiles of species with each other and with vaginal pH over time. Our results suggest that the northern pig-tailed macaque could be an ideal animal model for prospective investigation of the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota influence susceptibility and resistance to HIV-1 infection in the context of highly polymicrobial and Lactobacillus-dominated states.

  20. Persistent Effects of Peer Rearing on Abnormal and Species-Appropriate Activities but Not Social Behavior in Group-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Sharon A; Baker, Kate C

    2016-01-01

    Nursery rearing of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) alters behaviors but may be necessitated by maternal rejection or death, for research protocols, or for derivation of SPF colonies. The Tulane National Primate Research Center maintains a nursery-reared colony that is free from 9 pathogens as well as a mother-reared colony free from 4 pathogens, thus affording an opportunity to assess the outcomes of differential rearing. Nursery-reared macaques had continuous contact with 2 peers and an artificial surrogate (peer rearing). Focal sampling (432 h) was collected on the behavior of 32 peer-reared and 40 mother-reared subjects (age, 1 to 10 y; immature group, younger than 4 y; adult group 4 y or older). All animals were housed outdoors in like-reared social groups of 3 to 8 macaques. Contrary to expectation, no rearing effects on affiliative or agonistic social behaviors were detected. Compared with mother-reared subjects, peer-reared macaques in both age classes had elevated levels of abnormal appetitive, abnormal self-directed, and eating behaviors and lower levels of locomoting and vigilance (highly alert to activities in surrounding environment); a trend toward reduced foraging was detected. Immature but not adult peer-reared monkeys demonstrated more enrichment-directed behavior and drinking and a trend toward more anxiety-related behavior and inactivity. No new rearing effects were detected in adults that had not been detected in immature subjects. Results suggest that modern peer-rearing practices may not result in inevitable perturbations in aggressive, rank-related, sexual, and emotional behavior. However, abnormal behaviors may be lifelong issues once they appear. PMID:27053567

  1. Identification and characterization of the major histocompatibility complex class II DQB (MhcMath-DQB1) alleles in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    PubMed

    Yao, Y-F; Zhao, J-J; Dai, Q-X; Li, J-Y; Zhou, L; Wang, Y-T; Ni, Q-Y; Zhang, M-w; Xu, H-L

    2013-08-01

    Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana), an endangered primate species endemic to China, have been used as experimental animal model for various human diseases. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play a crucial role in the susceptibility and/or resistance to many human diseases, but little is known about Tibetan macaques. To gain an insight into the MHC background and to facilitate the experimental use of Tibetan macaques, the second exon of Mhc-DQB1 gene was sequenced in a cohort of wild Tibetan macaques living in the Sichuan province of China. A total of 23 MhcMath-DQB1 alleles were identified for the first time, illustrating a marked allelic polymorphism at the DQB1 locus for these macaques. Most of the sequences (74%) observed in this study belong to DQB1*06 (9 alleles) and DQB1*18 (8 alleles) lineages, and the rest (26%) belong to DQB1*15 (3 alleles) and DQB1*17 (3 alleles) lineages. The most frequent alleles detected among these macaques were MhcMath-DQB1*15:02:02 (17.9%), followed by Math-DQB1*06:06, 17:03 and 18:01, which were detected in 9 (16.1%) of the monkeys, respectively. Non-synonymous substitutions occurred at a significantly higher frequency than synonymous substitutions in the peptide-binding region, suggesting balancing selection for maintaining polymorphisms at the MHC class II DQB1 locus. Phylogenetic analyses confirms the trans-species model of evolution of the Mhc-DQB1 genes in non-human primates, and in particular, the extensive allele sharing is observed between Tibetan and other macaque species.

  2. Behavioral Inhibition in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Is Related to the Airways Response, but Not Immune Measures, Commonly Associated with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Katie; Miller, Lisa A.; Schelegle, Edward S.; Hyde, Dallas M.; Capitanio, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition reflects a disposition to react warily to novel situations, and has been associated with atopic diseases such as asthma. Retrospective work established the relationship between behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and airway hyperresponsiveness, but not atopy, and the suggestion was made that behavioral inhibition might index components of asthma that are not immune-related. In the present study, we prospectively examined the relationship between behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and whether hormonal and immune measures often associated with asthma were associated with behavioral inhibition and/or airway hyperresponsiveness. In a sample of 49 yearling rhesus monkeys (mean = 1.25 years, n = 24 behaviorally inhibited animals), we measured in vitro cytokine levels (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ) in response to stimulation, as well as peripheral blood cell percentages, cortisol levels, and percentage of regulatory T-cells (CD3+CD4+CD25+FOXP3+). Airway reactivity was assessed using an inhaled methacholine challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the proportion of immune cells was determined. Behaviorally inhibited monkeys had airway hyperresponsiveness as indicated by the methacholine challenge (p = 0.031), confirming our earlier retrospective result. Airway hyperresponsiveness was also associated with lower lymphocyte percentages in lavage fluid and marginally lower plasma cortisol concentrations. However, none of the tested measures was significantly related to both behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and so could not mediate their relationship. Airway hyperresponsiveness is common to atopic and non-atopic asthma and behavioral inhibition has been related to altered autonomic activity in other studies. Our results suggest that behavioral inhibition might index an autonomically mediated reactive airway phenotype, and that a variety of stimuli (including inflammation

  3. Accuracy of Human and Veterinary Point-of-Care Glucometers for Use in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta), Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Stovall, Melissa I; Owens, Devon C; Scott, Jessica A; Jones-Wilkes, Amelia C; Kempf, Doty J; Ethun, Kelly F

    2016-01-01

    Handheld, point-of-care glucometers are commonly used in NHP for clinical and research purposes, but whether these devices are appropriate for use in NHP is unknown. Other animal studies indicate that glucometers should be species-specific, given differences in glucose distribution between RBC and plasma; in addition, Hct and sampling site (venous compared with capillary) influence glucometer readings. Therefore, we compared the accuracy of 2 human and 2 veterinary glucometers at various Hct ranges in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with that of standard laboratory glucose analysis. Subsequent analyses assessed the effect of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and sampling site on glucometer accuracy. The veterinary glucometers overestimated blood glucose (BG) values in all species by 26 to 75 mg/dL. The mean difference between the human glucometers and the laboratory analyzer was 7 mg/dL or less in all species. The human glucometers overestimated BG in hypoglycemic mangabeys by 4 mg/dL and underestimated BG in hyperglycemic mangabeys by 11 mg/dL; similar patterns occurred in rhesus macaques. Hct did not affect glucometer accuracy, but all samples were within the range at which glucometers generally are accurate in humans. BG values were significantly lower in venous than capillary samples. The current findings show that veterinary glucometers intended for companion-animal species are inappropriate for use in the studied NHP species, whereas the human glucometers showed clinically acceptable accuracy in all 3 species. Finally, potential differences between venous and capillary BG values should be considered when comparing and evaluating results. PMID:27177571

  4. Maintaining social cohesion is a more important determinant of patch residence time than maximizing food intake rate in a group-living primate, Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Kazahari, Nobuko

    2014-04-01

    Animals have been assumed to employ an optimal foraging strategy (e.g., rate-maximizing strategy). In patchy food environments, intake rate within patches is positively correlated with patch quality, and declines as patches are depleted through consumption. This causes patch-leaving and determines patch residence time. In group-foraging situations, patch residence times are also affected by patch sharing. Optimal patch models for groups predict that patch residence times decrease as the number of co-feeding animals increases because of accelerated patch depletion. However, group members often depart patches without patch depletion, and their patch residence time deviates from patch models. It has been pointed out that patch residence time is also influenced by maintaining social proximity with others among group-living animals. In this study, the effects of maintaining social cohesion and that of rate-maximizing strategy on patch residence time were examined in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). I hypothesized that foragers give up patches to remain in the proximity of their troop members. On the other hand, foragers may stay for a relatively long period when they do not have to abandon patches to follow the troop. In this study, intake rate and foraging effort (i.e., movement) did not change during patch residency. Macaques maintained their intake rate with only a little foraging effort. Therefore, the patches were assumed to be undepleted during patch residency. Further, patch residence time was affected by patch-leaving to maintain social proximity, but not by the intake rate. Macaques tended to stay in patches for short periods when they needed to give up patches for social proximity, and remained for long periods when they did not need to leave to keep social proximity. Patch-leaving and patch residence time that prioritize the maintenance of social cohesion may be a behavioral pattern in group-living primates.

  5. Age-related alterations of plasma glutathione and oxidation of redox potentials in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Paredes, Jamespaul; Jones, Dean P; Wilson, Mark E; Herndon, James G

    2014-04-01

    Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens) share physiological and genetic characteristics, but have remarkably different life spans, with chimpanzees living 50-60 % and the rhesus living 35-40 % of maximum human survival. Since oxidative processes are associated with aging and longevity, we might expect to see species differences in age-related oxidative processes. Blood and extracellular fluid contain two major thiol redox nodes, glutathione (GSH)/glutathione-disulfide (GSSG) and cysteine (Cys)/cystine (CySS), which are subject to reversible oxidation-reduction reactions and are maintained in a dynamic non-equilibrium state. Disruption of these thiol redox nodes leads to oxidation of their redox potentials (EhGSSG and EhCySS) which affects cellular physiology and is associated with aging and the development of chronic diseases in humans. The purpose of this study was to measure age-related changes in these redox thiols and their corresponding redox potentials (Eh) in chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys. Our results show similar age-related decreases in the concentration of plasma GSH and Total GSH as well as oxidation of the EhGSSG in male and female chimpanzees. Female chimpanzees and female rhesus monkeys also were similar in several outcome measures. For example, similar age-related decreases in the concentration of plasma GSH and Total GSH, as well as age-related oxidation of the EhGSSG were observed. The data collected from chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys corroborates previous reports on oxidative changes in humans and confirms their value as a comparative reference for primate aging.

  6. The Organization of Collective Group Movements in Wild Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus): Social Structure Drives Processes of Group Coordination in Macaques.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Anne; Majolo, Bonaventura; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Social animals have to coordinate activities and collective movements to benefit from the advantages of group living. Animals in large groups maintain cohesion by self-organization processes whereas in smaller groups consensus decisions can be reached. Where consensus decisions are relevant leadership may emerge. Variation in the organization of collective movements has been linked to variation in female social tolerance among macaque species ranging from despotic to egalitarian. Here we investigated the processes underlying group movements in a wild macaque species characterized by a degree of social tolerance intermediate to previously studied congeneric species. We focused on processes before, during and after the departure of the first individual. To this end, we observed one group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in the Middle Atlas, Morocco using all-occurrence behaviour sampling of 199 collective movements. We found that initiators of a collective movement usually chose the direction in which more individuals displayed pre-departure behavior. Dominant individuals contributed to group movements more than subordinates, especially juveniles, measured as frequencies of successful initiations and pre-departure behaviour. Joining was determined by affiliative relationships and the number of individuals that already joined the movement (mimetism). Thus, in our study group partially shared consensus decisions mediated by selective mimetism seemed to be prevalent, overall supporting the suggestion that a species' social style affects the organization of group movements. As only the most tolerant species show equally shared consensus decisions whereas in others the decision is partially shared with a bias to dominant individuals the type of consensus decisions seems to follow a stepwise relation. Joining order may also follow a stepwise, however opposite, relationship, because dominance only determined joining in highly despotic, but not in intermediate and

  7. The Organization of Collective Group Movements in Wild Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus): Social Structure Drives Processes of Group Coordination in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Seltmann, Anne; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2013-01-01

    Social animals have to coordinate activities and collective movements to benefit from the advantages of group living. Animals in large groups maintain cohesion by self-organization processes whereas in smaller groups consensus decisions can be reached. Where consensus decisions are relevant leadership may emerge. Variation in the organization of collective movements has been linked to variation in female social tolerance among macaque species ranging from despotic to egalitarian. Here we investigated the processes underlying group movements in a wild macaque species characterized by a degree of social tolerance intermediate to previously studied congeneric species. We focused on processes before, during and after the departure of the first individual. To this end, we observed one group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in the Middle Atlas, Morocco using all-occurrence behaviour sampling of 199 collective movements. We found that initiators of a collective movement usually chose the direction in which more individuals displayed pre-departure behavior. Dominant individuals contributed to group movements more than subordinates, especially juveniles, measured as frequencies of successful initiations and pre-departure behaviour. Joining was determined by affiliative relationships and the number of individuals that already joined the movement (mimetism). Thus, in our study group partially shared consensus decisions mediated by selective mimetism seemed to be prevalent, overall supporting the suggestion that a species’ social style affects the organization of group movements. As only the most tolerant species show equally shared consensus decisions whereas in others the decision is partially shared with a bias to dominant individuals the type of consensus decisions seems to follow a stepwise relation. Joining order may also follow a stepwise, however opposite, relationship, because dominance only determined joining in highly despotic, but not in intermediate

  8. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat.

  9. Longitudinal analysis reveals characteristically high proportions of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina)

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, Lin; LEI, Ai-Hua; ZHENG, Hong-Yi; LYU, Long-Bao; ZHANG, Zhi-Gang; ZHENG, Yong-Tang

    2015-01-01

    The complex and dynamic vaginal microbial ecosystem is critical to both health and disease of the host. Studies focusing on how vaginal microbiota influences HIV-1 infection may face limitations in selecting proper animal models. Given that northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, they may be an optimal animal model for elucidating the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota contributes to resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. However, little is known about the composition and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota of the northern pig-tailed macaque. Here, we present a comprehensive catalog of the composition and temporal dynamics of vaginal microbiota of two healthy northern pig-tailed macaques over 19 weeks using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. We found remarkably high proportions of a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. Atopobium and Sneathia were dominant genera, and interestingly, we demonstrated the presence of Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota. Moreover, longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota were considerably individualized. Finally, network analysis revealed that vaginal pH may influence the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota, suggesting that inter-subject variability of vaginal bacterial communities could be mirrored in inter-subject variation in correlation profiles of species with each other and with vaginal pH over time. Our results suggest that the northern pig-tailed macaque could be an ideal animal model for prospective investigation of the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota influence susceptibility and resistance to HIV-1 infection in the context of highly polymicrobial and Lactobacillus-dominated states. PMID:26452693

  10. The Macaque Social Responsiveness Scale (mSRS): A Rapid Screening Tool for Assessing Variability in the Social Responsiveness of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Feczko, Eric J; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Walum, Hasse; Pruett, John R; Parr, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying human neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has been hindered by the lack of a robust, translational animal model. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) display many of the same social behaviors that are affected in ASD, making them an excellent animal species in which to model social impairments. However, the social impairments associated with ASD may reflect extreme ends of a continuous distribution of traits. Thus, to validate the rhesus monkey as an animal model for studying social impairments that has strong translational relevance for ASD, researchers need an easily-implemented measurement tool that can quantify variation in social behavior dimensionally. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a 65-item survey that identifies both typical and atypical social behaviors in humans that covary with ASD symptom severity. A chimpanzee SRS has already been validated and the current study adapted this tool for use in the rhesus monkey (mSRS). Fifteen raters completed the mSRS for 105 rhesus monkeys living at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. The mSRS scores showed a unimodal distribution with a positive skew that identified 6 statistical outliers. Inter-rater reliability was very strong, but only 17 of the 36 questions showed positive intra-item reliability. The results of an exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that explained over 60% of the variance, with 12 items significantly loading onto the primary factor. These items reflected behaviors associated with social avoidance, social anxiety or inflexibility and social confidence. These initial findings are encouraging and suggest that variability in the social responsiveness of rhesus monkeys can be quantified using the mSRS: a tool that has strong translational relevance for human disorders. With further modification, the mSRS may provide an promising new direction for research on the biological mechanisms underlying

  11. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  12. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms; environmental transport environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  13. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption, and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  14. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates):Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  15. Survey of computed tomography scanners in Taiwan: Dose descriptors, dose guidance levels, and effective doses

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H. Y.; Tung, C. J.; Yu, C. C.; Tyan, Y. S.

    2007-04-15

    The IAEA and the ICRP recommended dose guidance levels for the most frequent computed tomography (CT) examinations to promote strategies for the optimization of radiation dose to CT patients. A national survey, including on-site measurements and questionnaires, was conducted in Taiwan in order to establish dose guidance levels and evaluate effective doses for CT. The beam quality and output and the phantom doses were measured for nine representative CT scanners. Questionnaire forms were completed by respondents from facilities of 146 CT scanners out of 285 total scanners. Information on patient, procedure, scanner, and technique for the head and body examinations was provided. The weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub w}), the dose length product (DLP), organ doses and effective dose were calculated using measured data, questionnaire information and Monte Carlo simulation results. A cost-effective analysis was applied to derive the dose guidance levels on CTDI{sub w} and DLP for several CT examinations. The mean effective dose{+-}standard deviation distributes from 1.6{+-}0.9 mSv for the routine head examination to 13{+-}11 mSv for the examination of liver, spleen, and pancreas. The surveyed results and the dose guidance levels were provided to the national authorities to develop quality control standards and protocols for CT examinations.

  16. Preclinical safety evaluation of human mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in cerebrum of nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ming; Li, Yan; Han, Qin; Bao, Xinjie; Yang, Ming; Zhu, Hua; Li, Qin; Wei, Junji; Ma, Wenbin; Gao, Hong; An, Yihua; Zhao, Robert Chunhua; Qin, Chuan; Wang, Renzhi

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of stem cell transplantation for promoting recovery of patients with neurological diseases, such as stroke, has been reported in several studies. However, the safety of the intracerebral transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety of hMSCs transplanted in cerebrum of Macaca fascicularis and to provide evidence for clinical application. A total of 24 M fascicularis were assigned to 3 groups randomly: low dose (3.0 × 10(5) cells/kg), high dose (2.5 × 10(6) cells/kg), and the control (normal saline [NS]). Human mesenchymal stem cells or NS were injected into each monkey for 2 times, with an interval of 3 weeks. The injection point was located outside of the right putamen, according to a stereotactic map and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the monkeys. Animal health, behavior, biophysical and biochemical parameters, and brain neurological function were routinely monitored over a 6-month period posttransplantation, and the histopathologic examinations were also performed. The results showed that local pathologic damage including local tissue necrosis and inflammation was induced after the injection. The damage of low-dose and high-dose groups was greater than that of the control group, yet over time, the damage could be repaired gradually. No major hMSCs-associated changes were induced from other indicators, and the transplantation of hMSCs in monkeys did not affect total immunoglobulin (Ig) M, total IgG, CD3, CD4, or CD8 values. We therefore conclude that transplantation of hMSCs to the cerebrum represents a safe alternative for clinical application of neurological disorders.

  17. Collective dose-practical ways to estimate a dose matrix.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, Jane; Sihra, Kamaljit; Bexon, Antony

    2006-06-01

    It has been suggested that collective doses should be presented in the form of a 'dose matrix' giving information on the breakdown of collective dose in space and time and by population group. This paper is an initial attempt to provide such a breakdown by geographic region and time, and to give an idea of associated individual doses for routine discharges to atmosphere. This is done through the use of representative per-caput individual doses but these need to be supplemented by information on the individual doses received by the critical group for a full radiological impact assessment. The results show that it is important to distinguish between the different population groups for up to a few hundred years following the discharge. However, beyond this time the main contribution is from global circulation and this distinction is less important. The majority of the collective dose was found to be delivered at low levels of individual doses; the estimated per-caput dose rates were significantly less than 10(-5) Sv y(-1), a level of dose felt to give rise to a trivial risk to the exposed individual.

  18. Brain and tissue levels of mercury after chronic methylmercury exposure in the monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Estimated half-lives of mercury following methylmercury exposure in humans are 52-93 d for whole body and 49-164 d for blood. In its most recent 1980 review, the World Health Organization concluded that there was no evidence to suggest that brain half-life differed from whole-body half-life. In the present study, female monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were dosed for at least 1.7 yr with 10, 25, or 50 micrograms/kg.d of mercury as methylmercuric chloride. Dosing was discontinued, and blood half-life was determined to be about 14 d. Approximately 230 d after cessation of dosing, monkeys were sacrificed and organ and regional brain total mercury levels determined. One monkey that died while still being dosed had brain mercury levels three times higher than levels in blood. Theoretical calculations were performed assuming steady-state brain:blood ratios of 3, 5, or 10. Brain mercury levels were at least three orders of magnitude higher than those predicted by assuming the half-life in brain to be the same as that in blood. Estimated half-lives in brain were between 56 (brain:blood ratio of 3) and 38 (brain:blood ratio of 10) d. In addition, there was a dose-dependent difference in half-lives for some brain regions. These data clearly indicate that brain half-life is considerably longer than blood half-life in the monkey under conditions of chronic dosing.

  19. Standardized radiological dose evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, V.L.; Stahlnecker, E.

    1996-05-01

    Following the end of the Cold War, the mission of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site changed from production of nuclear weapons to cleanup. Authorization baseis documents for the facilities, primarily the Final Safety Analysis Reports, are being replaced with new ones in which accident scenarios are sorted into coarse bins of consequence and frequency, similar to the approach of DOE-STD-3011-94. Because this binning does not require high precision, a standardized approach for radiological dose evaluations is taken for all the facilities at the site. This is done through a standard calculation ``template`` for use by all safety analysts preparing the new documents. This report describes this template and its use.

  20. Polymorphisms and interspecies differences of the activating and inhibitory FcγRII of Macaca nemestrina influence the binding of human IgG subclasses.

    PubMed

    Trist, Halina M; Tan, Peck Szee; Wines, Bruce D; Ramsland, Paul A; Orlowski, Eva; Stubbs, Janine; Gardiner, Elizabeth E; Pietersz, Geoffrey A; Kent, Stephen J; Stratov, Ivan; Burton, Dennis R; Hogarth, P Mark

    2014-01-15

    Little is known of the impact of Fc receptor (FcR) polymorphism in macaques on the binding of human (hu)IgG, and nothing is known of this interaction in the pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina), which is used in preclinical evaluation of vaccines and therapeutic Abs. We defined the sequence and huIgG binding characteristics of the M. nemestrina activating FcγRIIa (mnFcγRIIa) and inhibitory FcγRIIb (mnFcγRIIb) and predicted their structures using the huIgGFc/huFcγRIIa crystal structure. Large differences were observed in the binding of huIgG by mnFcγRIIa and mnFcγRIIb compared with their human FcR counterparts. MnFcγRIIa has markedly impaired binding of huIgG1 and huIgG2 immune complexes compared with huFcγRIIa (His(131)). In contrast, mnFcγRIIb has enhanced binding of huIgG1 and broader specificity, as, unlike huFcγRIIb, it avidly binds IgG2. Mutagenesis and molecular modeling of mnFcγRIIa showed that Pro(159) and Tyr(160) impair the critical FG loop interaction with huIgG. The enhanced binding of huIgG1 and huIgG2 by mnFcγRIIb was shown to be dependent on His(131) and Met(132). Significantly, both His(131) and Met(132) are conserved across FcγRIIb of rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. We identified functionally significant polymorphism of mnFcγRIIa wherein proline at position 131, also an important polymorphic site in huFcγRIIa, almost abolished binding of huIgG2 and huIgG1 and reduced binding of huIgG3 compared with mnFcγRIIa His(131). These marked interspecies differences in IgG binding between human and macaque FcRs and polymorphisms within species have implications for preclinical evaluation of Abs and vaccines in macaques.

  1. Dose refinement. ARAC's role

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J. S.; Sullivan, T. J.; Baskett, R. L.

    1998-06-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, since the late 1970's has been involved in assessing consequences from nuclear and other hazardous material releases into the atmosphere. ARAC's primary role has been emergency response. However, after the emergency phase, there is still a significant role for dispersion modeling. This work usually involves refining the source term and, hence, the dose to the populations affected as additional information becomes available in the form of source term estimates release rates, mix of material, and release geometry and any measurements from passage of the plume and deposition on the ground. Many of the ARAC responses have been documented elsewhere. 1 Some of the more notable radiological releases that ARAC has participated in the post-emergency phase have been the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear power plant (NPP) accident outside Harrisburg, PA, the 1986 Chernobyl NPP accident in the Ukraine, and the 1996 Japan Tokai nuclear processing plant explosion. ARAC has also done post-emergency phase analyses for the 1978 Russian satellite COSMOS 954 reentry and subsequent partial burn up of its on board nuclear reactor depositing radioactive materials on the ground in Canada, the 1986 uranium hexafluoride spill in Gore, OK, the 1993 Russian Tomsk-7 nuclear waste tank explosion, and lesser releases of mostly tritium. In addition, ARAC has performed a key role in the contingency planning for possible accidental releases during the launch of spacecraft with radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) on board (i.e. Galileo, Ulysses, Mars-Pathfinder, and Cassini), and routinely exercises with the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) in preparation for offsite consequences of radiological releases from NPPs and nuclear weapon accidents or incidents. Several accident post-emergency phase assessments are discussed in this paper in order to illustrate

  2. In defence of collective dose.

    PubMed

    Fairlie, I; Sumner, D

    2000-03-01

    Recent proposals for a new scheme of radiation protection leave little room for collective dose estimations. This article discusses the history and present use of collective doses for occupational, ALARA, EIS and other purposes with reference to practical industry papers and government reports. The linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis suggests that collective doses which consist of very small doses added together should be used. Moral and ethical questions are discussed, particularly the emphasis on individual doses to the exclusion of societal risks, uncertainty over effects into the distant future and hesitation over calculating collective detriments. It is concluded that for moral, practical and legal reasons, collective dose is a valid parameter which should continue to be used.

  3. Dose from slow negative muons.

    PubMed

    Siiskonen, T

    2008-01-01

    Conversion coefficients from fluence to ambient dose equivalent, from fluence to maximum dose equivalent and quality factors for slow negative muons are examined in detail. Negative muons, when stopped, produce energetic photons, electrons and a variety of high-LET particles. Contribution from each particle type to the dose equivalent is calculated. The results show that for the high-LET particles the details of energy spectra and decay yields are important for accurate dose estimates. For slow negative muons the ambient dose equivalent does not always yield a conservative estimate for the protection quantities. Especially, the skin equivalent dose is strongly underestimated if the radiation-weighting factor of unity for slow muons is used. Comparisons to earlier studies are presented.

  4. Dose to medium versus dose to water as an estimator of dose to sensitive skeletal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, B. R. B.; Kramer, R.; Kawrakow, I.

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether dose to medium, Dm, or dose to water, Dw, provides a better estimate of the dose to the radiosensitive red bone marrow (RBM) and bone surface cells (BSC) in spongiosa, or cancellous bone. This is addressed in the larger context of the ongoing debate over whether Dm or Dw should be specified in Monte Carlo calculated radiotherapy treatment plans. The study uses voxelized, virtual human phantoms, FAX06/MAX06 (female/male), incorporated into an EGSnrc Monte Carlo code to perform Monte Carlo dose calculations during simulated irradiation by a 6 MV photon beam from an Elekta SL25 accelerator. Head and neck, chest and pelvis irradiations are studied. FAX06/MAX06 include precise modelling of spongiosa based on µCT images, allowing dose to RBM and BSC to be resolved from the dose to bone. Modifications to the FAX06/MAX06 user codes are required to score Dw and Dm in spongiosa. Dose uncertainties of ~1% (BSC, RBM) or ~0.5% (Dm, Dw) are obtained after up to 5 days of simulations on 88 CPUs. Clinically significant differences (>5%) between Dm and Dw are found only in cranial spongiosa, where the volume fraction of trabecular bone (TBVF) is high (55%). However, for spongiosa locations where there is any significant difference between Dm and Dw, comparisons of differential dose volume histograms (DVHs) and average doses show that Dw provides a better overall estimate of dose to RBM and BSC. For example, in cranial spongiosa the average Dm underestimates the average dose to sensitive tissue by at least 5%, while average Dw is within ~1% of the average dose to sensitive tissue. Thus, it is better to specify Dw than Dm in Monte Carlo treatment plans, since Dw provides a better estimate of dose to sensitive tissue in bone, the only location where the difference is likely to be clinically significant.

  5. REMEDIATION FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    V. Arakali; E. Faillace

    2004-02-27

    The purpose of this design calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel in the Remediation Facility performing operations to receive, prepare, open, repair, recover, disposition, and correct off-normal and non-standard conditions with casks, canisters, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies, and waste packages (WP). The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the Remediation Facility and provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application.

  6. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories under contract with the Centers for Disease Control. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption, and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  7. Psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inada, Toshiya; Inagaki, Ataru

    2015-08-01

    Psychotropic dose equivalence is an important concept when estimating the approximate psychotropic doses patients receive, and deciding on the approximate titration dose when switching from one psychotropic agent to another. It is also useful from a research viewpoint when defining and extracting specific subgroups of subjects. Unification of various agents into a single standard agent facilitates easier analytical comparisons. On the basis of differences in psychopharmacological prescription features, those of available psychotropic agents and their approved doses, and racial differences between Japan and other countries, psychotropic dose equivalency tables designed specifically for Japanese patients have been widely used in Japan since 1998. Here we introduce dose equivalency tables for: (i) antipsychotics; (ii) antiparkinsonian agents; (iii) antidepressants; and (iv) anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics available in Japan. Equivalent doses for the therapeutic effects of individual psychotropic compounds were determined principally on the basis of randomized controlled trials conducted in Japan and consensus among dose equivalency tables reported previously by psychopharmacological experts. As these tables are intended to merely suggest approximate standard values, physicians should use them with discretion. Updated information of psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan is available at http://www.jsprs.org/en/equivalence.tables/. [Correction added on 8 July 2015, after first online publication: A link to the updated information has been added.].

  8. A dose error evaluation study for 4D dose calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milz, Stefan; Wilkens, Jan J.; Ullrich, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that respiration induced motion is not negligible for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy. The intrafractional breathing induced motion influences the delivered dose distribution on the underlying patient geometry such as the lung or the abdomen. If a static geometry is used, a planning process for these indications does not represent the entire dynamic process. The quality of a full 4D dose calculation approach depends on the dose coordinate transformation process between deformable geometries. This article provides an evaluation study that introduces an advanced method to verify the quality of numerical dose transformation generated by four different algorithms. The used transformation metric value is based on the deviation of the dose mass histogram (DMH) and the mean dose throughout dose transformation. The study compares the results of four algorithms. In general, two elementary approaches are used: dose mapping and energy transformation. Dose interpolation (DIM) and an advanced concept, so called divergent dose mapping model (dDMM), are used for dose mapping. The algorithms are compared to the basic energy transformation model (bETM) and the energy mass congruent mapping (EMCM). For evaluation 900 small sample regions of interest (ROI) are generated inside an exemplary lung geometry (4DCT). A homogeneous fluence distribution is assumed for dose calculation inside the ROIs. The dose transformations are performed with the four different algorithms. The study investigates the DMH-metric and the mean dose metric for different scenarios (voxel sizes: 8 mm, 4 mm, 2 mm, 1 mm 9 different breathing phases). dDMM achieves the best transformation accuracy in all measured test cases with 3-5% lower errors than the other models. The results of dDMM are reasonable and most efficient in this study, although the model is simple and easy to implement. The EMCM model also achieved suitable results, but the approach requires a more complex

  9. Helical tomotherapy superficial dose measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, Chester R.; Seibert, Rebecca M.; Robison, Benjamin; Mitchell, Martha

    2007-08-15

    Helical tomotherapy is a treatment technique that is delivered from a 6 MV fan beam that traces a helical path while the couch moves linearly into the bore. In order to increase the treatment delivery dose rate, helical tomotherapy systems do not have a flattening filter. As such, the dose distributions near the surface of the patient may be considerably different from other forms of intensity-modulated delivery. The purpose of this study was to measure the dose distributions near the surface for helical tomotherapy plans with a varying separation between the target volume and the surface of an anthropomorphic phantom. A hypothetical planning target volume (PTV) was defined on an anthropomorphic head phantom to simulate a 2.0 Gy per fraction IMRT parotid-sparing head and neck treatment of the upper neck nodes. A total of six target volumes were created with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mm of separation between the surface of the phantom and the outer edge of the PTV. Superficial doses were measured for each of the treatment deliveries using film placed in the head phantom and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) placed on the phantom's surface underneath an immobilization mask. In the 0 mm test case where the PTV extends to the phantom surface, the mean TLD dose was 1.73{+-}0.10 Gy (or 86.6{+-}5.1% of the prescribed dose). The measured superficial dose decreases to 1.23{+-}0.10 Gy (61.5{+-}5.1% of the prescribed dose) for a PTV-surface separation of 5 mm. The doses measured by the TLDs indicated that the tomotherapy treatment planning system overestimates superficial doses by 8.9{+-}3.2%. The radiographic film dose for the 0 mm test case was 1.73{+-}0.07 Gy, as compared to the calculated dose of 1.78{+-}0.05 Gy. Given the results of the TLD and film measurements, the superficial calculated doses are overestimated between 3% and 13%. Without the use of bolus, tumor volumes that extend to the surface may be underdosed. As such, it is recommended that bolus be added for these

  10. Single daily dosing of aminoglycosides.

    PubMed

    Preston, S L; Briceland, L L

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the rationale behind dosing aminoglycosides as a single daily dose versus traditional dosing approaches, we conducted a MEDLINE search to identify all pertinent articles, and also reviewed the references of all articles. Single daily dosing of aminoglycosides is not a new concept, having been examined since 1974. The advantages of this regimen include optimum concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, longer dosing intervals due to the postantibiotic effect (PAE), and prevention of bacterial adaptive resistance. Because of longer dosing intervals, toxicity may also be delayed or reduced. Costs may be reduced due to decreased monitoring and administration. Clinically, the regimen has been implemented in various patient populations with reported success. Questions remain, however, about optimum dose, peak and trough serum concentrations, and dose adjustment in patients with renal impairment or neutropenia. More clinical experience with this method in large numbers of patients has to be published. Pharmacists can be instrumental in monitoring patients receiving once-daily therapy and by educating health care professionals as to the rationale behind the therapy.

  11. Bayesian estimation of dose thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groer, P. G.; Carnes, B. A.

    2003-01-01

    An example is described of Bayesian estimation of radiation absorbed dose thresholds (subsequently simply referred to as dose thresholds) using a specific parametric model applied to a data set on mice exposed to 60Co gamma rays and fission neutrons. A Weibull based relative risk model with a dose threshold parameter was used to analyse, as an example, lung cancer mortality and determine the posterior density for the threshold dose after single exposures to 60Co gamma rays or fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The data consisted of survival, censoring times and cause of death information for male B6CF1 unexposed and exposed mice. The 60Co gamma whole-body doses for the two exposed groups were 0.86 and 1.37 Gy. The neutron whole-body doses were 0.19 and 0.38 Gy. Marginal posterior densities for the dose thresholds for neutron and gamma radiation were calculated with numerical integration and found to have quite different shapes. The density of the threshold for 60Co is unimodal with a mode at about 0.50 Gy. The threshold density for fission neutrons declines monotonically from a maximum value at zero with increasing doses. The posterior densities for all other parameters were similar for the two radiation types.

  12. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1990-09-01

    This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP is composed of experts in numerous technical fields related to this project and represents the interests of the public. The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demographics, agriculture, food habits, environmental pathways and dose estimates. 3 figs.

  13. Exercise Dose in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Wasfy, Meagan M; Baggish, Aaron L

    2016-06-07

    There is wide variability in the physical activity patterns of the patients in contemporary clinical cardiovascular practice. This review is designed to address the impact of exercise dose on key cardiovascular risk factors and on mortality. We begin by examining the body of literature that supports a dose-response relationship between exercise and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including plasma lipids, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. We next explore the relationship between exercise dose and mortality by reviewing the relevant epidemiological literature underlying current physical activity guideline recommendations. We then expand this discussion to critically examine recent data pertaining to the impact of exercise dose at the lowest and highest ends of the spectrum. Finally, we provide a framework for how the key concepts of exercise dose can be integrated into clinical practice.

  14. Optimization of dosing regimens and dosing in special populations.

    PubMed

    Sime, F B; Roberts, M S; Roberts, J A

    2015-10-01

    Treatment of infectious diseases is becoming increasingly challenging with the emergence of less-susceptible organisms that are poorly responsive to existing antibiotic therapies, and the unpredictable pharmacokinetic alterations arising from complex pathophysiologic changes in some patient populations. In view of this fact, there has been a progressive work on novel dose optimization strategies to renew the utility of forgotten old antibiotics and to improve the efficacy of those currently in use. This review summarizes the different approaches of optimization of antibiotic dosing regimens and the special patient populations which may benefit most from these approaches. The existing methods are based on monitoring of antibiotic concentrations and/or use of clinical covariates. Measured concentrations can be correlated with predefined pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets to guide clinicians in predicting the necessary dose adjustment. Dosing nomograms are also available to relate observed concentrations or clinical covariates (e.g. creatinine clearance) with optimal dosing. More precise dose prediction based on observed covariates is possible through the application of population pharmacokinetic models. However, the most accurate estimation of individualized dosing requirements is achieved through Bayesian forecasting which utilizes both measured concentration and clinical covariates. Various software programs are emerging to ease clinical application. Whilst more studies are warranted to clarify the clinical outcomes associated with the different dose optimization approaches, severely ill patients in the course of marked infections and/or inflammation including those with sepsis, septic shock, severe trauma, burns injury, major surgery, febrile neutropenia, cystic fibrosis, organ dysfunction and obesity are those groups which may benefit most from individualized dosing.

  15. Radiation dose estimates for radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Stubbs, J.B.; Toohey, R.E.

    1996-04-01

    Tables of radiation dose estimates based on the Cristy-Eckerman adult male phantom are provided for a number of radiopharmaceuticals commonly used in nuclear medicine. Radiation dose estimates are listed for all major source organs, and several other organs of interest. The dose estimates were calculated using the MIRD Technique as implemented in the MIRDOSE3 computer code, developed by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Radiation Internal Dose Information Center. In this code, residence times for source organs are used with decay data from the MIRD Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes to produce estimates of radiation dose to organs of standardized phantoms representing individuals of different ages. The adult male phantom of the Cristy-Eckerman phantom series is different from the MIRD 5, or Reference Man phantom in several aspects, the most important of which is the difference in the masses and absorbed fractions for the active (red) marrow. The absorbed fractions for flow energy photons striking the marrow are also different. Other minor differences exist, but are not likely to significantly affect dose estimates calculated with the two phantoms. Assumptions which support each of the dose estimates appears at the bottom of the table of estimates for a given radiopharmaceutical. In most cases, the model kinetics or organ residence times are explicitly given. The results presented here can easily be extended to include other radiopharmaceuticals or phantoms.

  16. ORGAN DOSES AND EFFECTIVE DOSE FOR FIVE PET RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Martin; Johansson, Lennart; Mattsson, Sören; Minarik, David; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid

    2016-06-01

    Diagnostic investigations with positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals are dominated by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG), but other radiopharmaceuticals are also commercially available or under development. Five of them, which are all clinically important, are (18)F-fluoride, (18)F-fluoroethyltyrosine ((18)F-FET), (18)F-deoxyfluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT), (18)F-fluorocholine ((18)F-choline) and (11)C-raclopride. To estimate the potential risk of stochastic effects (mainly lethal cancer) to a population, organ doses and effective dose values were updated for all five radiopharmaceuticals. Dose calculations were performed using the computer program IDAC2.0, which bases its calculations on the ICRP/ICRU adult reference voxel phantoms and the tissue weighting factors from ICRP publication 103. The biokinetic models were taken from ICRP publication 128. For organ doses, there are substantial changes. The only significant change in effective dose compared with previous estimations was a 46 % reduction for (18)F-fluoride. The estimated effective dose in mSv MBq(-1) was 1.5E-02 for (18)F-FET, 1.5E-02 for (18)F-FLT, 2.0E-02 for (18)F-choline, 9.0E-03 for (18)F-fluoride and 4.4E-03 for (11)C-raclopride.

  17. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, A.H.; Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. Progress is discussed.

  18. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon and Washington, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on human (dose estimates): Source Terms; Environmental Transport; Environmental Monitoring Data; Demographics, Agriculture, Food Habits and; Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  19. Gamma Radiation Doses In Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Almgren, Sara; Isaksson, Mats; Barregaard, Lars

    2008-08-07

    Gamma dose rate measurements were performed in one urban and one rural area using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) worn by 46 participants and placed in their dwellings. The personal effective dose rates were 0.096{+-}0.019(1 SD) and 0.092{+-}0.016(1 SD){mu}Sv/h in the urban and rural area, respectively. The corresponding dose rates in the dwellings were 0.11{+-}0.042(1 SD) and 0.091{+-}0.026(1 SD){mu}Sv/h. However, the differences between the areas were not significant. The values were higher in buildings made of concrete than of wood and higher in apartments than in detached houses. Also, {sup 222}Rn measurements were performed in each dwelling, which showed no correlation with the gamma dose rates in the dwellings.

  20. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  1. Technical basis for dose reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-01-31

    The purpose of this paper is to consider two general topics: technical considerations of why dose-reconstruction studies should or should not be performed and methods of dose reconstruction. The first topic is of general and growing interest as the number of dose-reconstruction studies increases, and one asks the question whether it is necessary to perform a dose reconstruction for virtually every site at which, for example, the Department of Energy (DOE) has operated a nuclear-related facility. And there is the broader question of how one might logically draw the line at performing or not performing dose-reconstruction (radiological and chemical) studies for virtually every industrial complex in the entire country. The second question is also of general interest. There is no single correct way to perform a dose-reconstruction study, and it is important not to follow blindly a single method to the point that cheaper, faster, more accurate, and more transparent methods might not be developed and applied.

  2. BENCHMARK DOSE TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA conducts risk assessments for an array of health effects that may result from exposure to environmental agents, and that require an analysis of the relationship between exposure and health-related outcomes. The dose-response assessment is essentially a two-step process, the first being the definition of a point of departure (POD), and the second extrapolation from the POD to low environmentally-relevant exposure levels. The benchmark dose (BMD) approach provides a more quantitative alternative to the first step in the dose-response assessment than the current NOAEL/LOAEL process for noncancer health effects, and is similar to that for determining the POD proposed for cancer endpoints. As the Agency moves toward harmonization of approaches for human health risk assessment, the dichotomy between cancer and noncancer health effects is being replaced by consideration of mode of action and whether the effects of concern are likely to be linear or nonlinear at low doses. Thus, the purpose of this project is to provide guidance for the Agency and the outside community on the application of the BMD approach in determining the POD for all types of health effects data, whether a linear or nonlinear low dose extrapolation is used. A guidance document is being developed under the auspices of EPA's Risk Assessment Forum. The purpose of this project is to provide guidance for the Agency and the outside community on the application of the benchmark dose (BMD) appr

  3. Peripheral doses from pediatric IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Eric E.; Maserang, Beth; Wood, Roy; Mansur, David

    2006-07-15

    Peripheral dose (PD) data exist for conventional fields ({>=}10 cm) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery to standard adult-sized phantoms. Pediatric peripheral dose reports are limited to conventional therapy and are model based. Our goal was to ascertain whether data acquired from full phantom studies and/or pediatric models, with IMRT treatment times, could predict Organ at Risk (OAR) dose for pediatric IMRT. As monitor units (MUs) are greater for IMRT, it is expected IMRT PD will be higher; potentially compounded by decreased patient size (absorption). Baseline slab phantom peripheral dose measurements were conducted for very small field sizes (from 2 to 10 cm). Data were collected at distances ranging from 5 to 72 cm away from the field edges. Collimation was either with the collimating jaws or the multileaf collimator (MLC) oriented either perpendicular or along the peripheral dose measurement plane. For the clinical tests, five patients with intracranial or base of skull lesions were chosen. IMRT and conventional three-dimensional (3D) plans for the same patient/target/dose (180 cGy), were optimized without limitation to the number of fields or wedge use. Six MV, 120-leaf MLC Varian axial beams were used. A phantom mimicking a 3-year-old was configured per Center for Disease Control data. Micro (0.125 cc) and cylindrical (0.6 cc) ionization chambers were appropriated for the thyroid, breast, ovaries, and testes. The PD was recorded by electrometers set to the 10{sup -10} scale. Each system set was uniquely calibrated. For the slab phantom studies, close peripheral points were found to have a higher dose for low energy and larger field size and when MLC was not deployed. For points more distant from the field edge, the PD was higher for high-energy beams. MLC orientation was found to be inconsequential for the small fields tested. The thyroid dose was lower for IMRT delivery than that predicted for conventional (ratio of IMRT/cnventional ranged

  4. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates). The Source Terms Task develops estimates of radioactive emissions from Hanford facilities since 1944. The Environmental Transport Task reconstructs the movement of radioactive materials from the areas of release to populations. The Environmental Monitoring Data Task assembles, evaluates, and reports historical environmental monitoring data. The Demographics, Agriculture, Food Habits Task develops the data needed to identify the populations that could have been affected by the releases. In addition to population and demographic data, the food and water resources and consumption patterns for populations are estimated because they provide a primary pathway for the intake of radionuclides. The Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates Task use the information produced by the other tasks to estimate the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford radiation. Project progress is documented in this monthly report, which is available to the public. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. AGING FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Thacker

    2005-03-24

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Aging Facility performing operations to transfer aging casks to the aging pads for thermal and logistical management, stage empty aging casks, and retrieve aging casks from the aging pads for further processing in other site facilities. Doses received by workers due to aging cask surveillance and maintenance operations are also included. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation. There are no Category 1 event sequences associated with the Aging Facility (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7.2.1). The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the Aging Facility and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

  6. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S. M.; McMakin, A. H.

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into five technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (i.e., dose estimates). The Source Terms Task develops estimates of radioactive emissions from Hanford facilities since 1944. The Environmental Transport Task reconstructs the movements of radioactive particles from the areas of release to populations. The Environmental Monitoring Data Task assemblies, evaluates and reports historical environmental monitoring data. The Demographics, Agriculture and Food Habits Task develops the data needed to identify the populations that could have been affected by the releases. The Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates Task used the information derived from the other Tasks to estimate the radiation doses individuals could have received from Hanford radiation. This document lists the progress on this project as of September 1991. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Foodborne Transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Non-Human Primates Results in Preclinical Rapid-Onset Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Alexander; Yutzy, Barbara; Kruip, Carina; Ooms, Mark; Schloot, Nanette C.; Roden, Michael; Scott, Fraser W.; Loewer, Johannes; Holznagel, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become one of the largest public health challenges worldwide. Recently, certain bacterial and viral pathogens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data, plasma samples and post-mortem tissue specimens derived from a risk assessment study in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The original study design aimed to determine minimal infectious doses after oral or intracerebral (i.c.) infection of macaques to assess the risk for humans. High-dose exposures resulted in 100% attack rates and a median incubation time of 4.7 years as described previously. Retrospective analyses of clinical data from high-dosed macaques revealed that foodborne BSE transmission caused rapid weight gain within 1.5 years post infection (β = 0.915; P<0.0001) which was not seen in age- and sex-matched control animals or i.c. infected animals. The rapid-onset obesity was not associated with impaired pancreatic islet function or glucose metabolism. In the early preclinical phase of oral transmission associated with body weight gain, prion accumulation was confined to the gastrointestinal tract. Intriguingly, immunohistochemical findings suggest that foodborne BSE transmission has a pathophysiological impact on gut endocrine cells which may explain rapid weight gain. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental model which clearly demonstrates that foodborne pathogens can induce obesity. PMID:25090610

  8. Foodborne transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to non-human primates results in preclinical rapid-onset obesity.

    PubMed

    Strom, Alexander; Yutzy, Barbara; Kruip, Carina; Ooms, Mark; Schloot, Nanette C; Roden, Michael; Scott, Fraser W; Loewer, Johannes; Holznagel, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become one of the largest public health challenges worldwide. Recently, certain bacterial and viral pathogens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data, plasma samples and post-mortem tissue specimens derived from a risk assessment study in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The original study design aimed to determine minimal infectious doses after oral or intracerebral (i.c.) infection of macaques to assess the risk for humans. High-dose exposures resulted in 100% attack rates and a median incubation time of 4.7 years as described previously. Retrospective analyses of clinical data from high-dosed macaques revealed that foodborne BSE transmission caused rapid weight gain within 1.5 years post infection (β = 0.915; P<0.0001) which was not seen in age- and sex-matched control animals or i.c. infected animals. The rapid-onset obesity was not associated with impaired pancreatic islet function or glucose metabolism. In the early preclinical phase of oral transmission associated with body weight gain, prion accumulation was confined to the gastrointestinal tract. Intriguingly, immunohistochemical findings suggest that foodborne BSE transmission has a pathophysiological impact on gut endocrine cells which may explain rapid weight gain. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental model which clearly demonstrates that foodborne pathogens can induce obesity.

  9. Radiation Dose from Reentrant Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G.D.; Cleghorn, T. E.; Watts, J.

    2003-01-01

    In estimating the crew exposures during an EVA, the contribution of reentrant electrons has always been neglected. Although the flux of these electrons is small compared to the flux of trapped electrons, their energy spectrum extends to several GeV compared to about 7 MeV for trapped electrons. This is also true of splash electrons. Using the measured reentrant electron energy spectra, it is shown that the dose contribution of these electrons to the blood forming organs (BFO) is more than 10 times greater than that from the trapped electrons. The calculations also show that the dose-depth response is a very slowly changing function of depth, and thus adding reasonable amounts of additional shielding would not significantly lower the dose to BFO.

  10. Parameterization of solar flare dose

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarche, A.H.; Poston, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    A critical aspect of missions to the moon or Mars will be the safety and health of the crew. Radiation in space is a hazard for astronauts, especially high-energy radiation following certain types of solar flares. A solar flare event can be very dangerous if astronauts are not adequately shielded because flares can deliver a very high dose in a short period of time. The goal of this research was to parameterize solar flare dose as a function of time to see if it was possible to predict solar flare occurrence, thus providing a warning time. This would allow astronauts to take corrective action and avoid receiving a dose greater than the recommended limit set by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP).

  11. Automated Gamma Knife dose planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leichtman, Gregg S.; Aita, Anthony L.; Goldman, H. W.

    1998-06-01

    The Gamma Knife (Elekta Instruments, Inc., Atlanta, GA), a neurosurgical, highly focused radiation delivery device, is used to eradicate deep-seated anomalous tissue within the human brain by delivering a lethal dose of radiation to target tissue. This dose is the accumulated result of delivering sequential `shots' of radiation to the target where each shot is approximately 3D Gaussian in shape. The size and intensity of each shot can be adjusted by varying the time of radiation exposure and by using one of four collimator sizes ranging from 4 - 18 mm. Current dose planning requires that the dose plan be developed manually to cover the target, and only the target, with a desired minimum radiation intensity using a minimum number of shots. This is a laborious and subjective process which typically leads to suboptimal conformal target coverage by the dose. We have used adaptive simulated annealing/quenching followed by Nelder-Mead simplex optimization to automate the selection and placement of Gaussian-based `shots' to form a simulated dose plane. In order to make the computation of the problem tractable, the algorithm, based upon contouring and polygon clipping, takes a 2 1/2-D approach to defining the cost function. Several experiments have been performed where the optimizers have been given the freedom to vary the number of shots and the weight, collimator size, and 3D location of each shot. To data best results have been obtained by forcing the optimizers to use a fixed number of unweighted shots with each optimizer set free to vary the 3D location and collimator size of each shot. Our preliminary results indicate that this technology will radically decrease planning time while significantly increasing accuracy of conformal target coverage and reproducibility over current manual methods.

  12. Effect of kisspeptin challenge on testosterone and inhibin secretion from in vitro testicular tissue of adult male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Tariq, A R; Shabab, M

    2017-02-01

    Kisspeptin expression has been found in gonads but a direct role of kisspeptin in reproduction is not known. The objective of this study was to find a dose and time related effect of kisspeptin on testicular hormones secretion of adult male rhesus monkey (n = 5). Kisspeptin (1, 10, 100, 1000 pm) was incubated to a culture of testes (100 mg fragments) of male rhesus monkey and medium for hormone (testosterone and inhibin) measurement was collected after 30, 60 and 120 min. 10 IU hCG (180 min) and 50 ng FSH (60 and 120 min) were incubated to the culture for checking testicular cells ability to secrete hormones in vitro. Kisspeptin did not significantly (P < 0.05) increase the testosterone and inhibin levels at any dose. However, one way anova at pooled doses showed an increase in testosterone levels and paired t-test at pooled doses showed inhibin decrease after 120 min of incubation suggesting an independent effect of time. hCG and FSH significantly (P < 0.05) increased hormone concentration compared to the basal groups. We concluded that kisspeptin has no role in testicular regulation related to testosterone and inhibin release but kisspeptin may have other roles in testicular regulation.

  13. The Dose Makes the Poison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottoboni, Alice

    1992-01-01

    A Toxicologist discusses common misconception that all chemicals are poisonous to people and the environment and how these misconceptions are perpetuated. Describes what makes a chemical toxic. Defines related concepts including dose, acute and chronic toxicity, and natural verses synthetic chemicals. (MCO)

  14. EXOMARS IRAS (DOSE) radiation measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, C.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Fonte, S.; Pauselli, C.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.

    The characterization and the study of the radiations on their interaction with organic matter is of great interest in view of the human exploration on Mars. The Ionizing RAdiation Sensor (IRAS) selected in the frame of the ExoMars/Pasteur ESA mission is a lightweight particle spectrometer combining various techniques of radiation detection in space. It characterizes the first time the radiation environment on the Mars surface, and provide dose and dose equivalent rates as precursor information absolutely necessary to develop ways to mitigate the radiation risks for future human exploration on Mars. The Martian radiation levels are much higher than those found on Earth and they are relatively low for space. Measurements on the surface will show if they are similar or not to those seen in orbit (modified by the presence of ``albedo'' neutrons produced in the regolith and by the thin Martian atmosphere). IRAS consists of a telescope based on segmented silicon detectors of about 40\\userk\\milli\\metre\\user;k diameter and 300\\user;k\\micro\\metre\\user;k thickness, a segmented organic scintillator, and of a thermoluminescence dosimeter. The telescope will continuously monitor temporal variation of the particle count rate, the dose rate, particle and LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectra. Tissue equivalent BC430 scintillator material will be used to measure the neutron dose. Neutrons are selected by a criteria requiring no signal in the anti-coincidence. Last, the passive thermoluminescence dosimeter, based on LiF:Mg detectors, regardless the on board operation timing, will measure the total dose accumulated during the exposure period and due to beta and gamma radiation, with a responsivity very close to that of a human tissue.

  15. [Absorbed doses in dental radiology].

    PubMed

    Bianchi, S D; Roccuzzo, M; Albrito, F; Ragona, R; Anglesio, S

    1996-01-01

    The growing use of dento-maxillo-facial radiographic examinations has been accompanied by the publication of a large number of studies on dosimetry. A thorough review of the literature is presented in this article. Most studies were carried out on tissue equivalent skull phantoms, while only a few were in vivo. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vivo absorbed doses during Orthopantomography (OPT). Full Mouth Periapical Examination (FMPE) and Intraoral Tube Panoramic Radiography (ITPR). Measurements were made on 30 patients, reproducing clinical conditions, in 46 anatomical sites, with 24 intra- and 22 extra-oral thermoluminiscent dosimeters (TLDS). The highest doses were measured, in orthopantomography, at the right mandibular angle (1899 mu Gy) in FMPE on the right naso-labial fold (5640 mu Gy and in ITPR on the palatal surface of the left second upper molar (1936 mu Gy). Intraoral doses ranged from 21 mu Gy, in orthopantomography, to 4494 mu Gy in FMPE. Standard errors ranged from 142% in ITPR to 5% in orthopantomography. The highest rate of standard errors was found in FMPE and ITPR. The data collected in this trial are in agreement with others in major literature reports. Disagreements are probably due to different exam acquisition and data collections. Such differences, presented comparison in several sites, justify lower doses in FMPE and ITPR. Advantages and disadvantages of in vivo dosimetry of the maxillary region are discussed, the former being a close resemblance to clinical conditions of examination and the latter the impossibility of collecting values in depth of tissues. Finally, both ITPR and FMPE required lower doses than expected, and can be therefore reconsidered relative to their radiation risk.

  16. A MULTIMODEL APPROACH FOR CALCULATING BENCHMARK DOSE

    EPA Science Inventory


    A Multimodel Approach for Calculating Benchmark Dose
    Ramon I. Garcia and R. Woodrow Setzer

    In the assessment of dose response, a number of plausible dose- response models may give fits that are consistent with the data. If no dose response formulation had been speci...

  17. Tank Z-361 dose rate calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, R.F.

    1998-09-30

    Neutron and gamma ray dose rates were calculated above and around the 6-inch riser of tank Z-361 located at the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Dose rates were also determined off of one side of the tank. The largest dose rate 0.029 mrem/h was a gamma ray dose and occurred 76.2 cm (30 in.) directly above the open riser. All other dose rates were negligible. The ANSI/ANS 1991 flux to dose conversion factor for neutrons and photons were used in this analysis. Dose rates are reported in units of mrem/h with the calculated uncertainty shown within the parentheses.

  18. Online measurement of dose and dose distribution at bremsstrahlung facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auslender, V. L.; Bryazgin, A. A.; Bukin, A. D.; Voronin, L. A.; Lukin, A. N.; Sidorov, A. V.

    2004-09-01

    A real-time measurement system of the spatial dose distribution is developed and realized for monitoring the bremsstrahlung flow generated on X-ray target by 5 MeV 50 kW electron accelerator. The sensors of the system consist of semiconductor diodes. The beam target and electron accelerator (ILU-10) are briefly described. The practice of using the system in the experimental and start-up procedure is included.

  19. Prenatal radiation exposure: dose calculation.

    PubMed

    Scharwächter, C; Röser, A; Schwartz, C A; Haage, P

    2015-05-01

    The unborn child requires special protection. In this context, the indication for an X-ray examination is to be checked critically. If thereupon radiation of the lower abdomen including the uterus cannot be avoided, the examination should be postponed until the end of pregnancy or alternative examination techniques should be considered. Under certain circumstances, either accidental or in unavoidable cases after a thorough risk assessment, radiation exposure of the unborn may take place. In some of these cases an expert radiation hygiene consultation may be required. This consultation should comprise the expected risks for the unborn while not perturbing the mother or the involved medical staff. For the risk assessment in case of an in-utero x-ray exposition deterministic damages with a defined threshold dose are distinguished from stochastic damages without a definable threshold dose. The occurrence of deterministic damages depends on the dose and the developmental stage of the unborn at the time of radiation. To calculate the risks of an in-utero radiation exposure a three-stage concept is commonly applied. Depending on the amount of radiation, the radiation dose is either estimated, roughly calculated using standard tables or, in critical cases, accurately calculated based on the individual event. The complexity of the calculation thereby increases from stage to stage. An estimation based on stage one is easily feasible whereas calculations based on stages two and especially three are more complex and often necessitate execution by specialists. This article demonstrates in detail the risks for the unborn child pertaining to its developmental phase and explains the three-stage concept as an evaluation scheme. It should be noted, that all risk estimations are subject to considerable uncertainties. • Radiation exposure of the unborn child can result in both deterministic as well as stochastic damage und hitherto should be avoided or reduced to a minimum

  20. The Influence of Gender, Age, Matriline and Hierarchical Rank on Individual Social Position, Role and Interactional Patterns in Macaca sylvanus at ‘La Forêt des Singes’: A Multilevel Social Network Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    A society is a complex system composed of individuals that can be characterized by their own attributes that influence their behaviors. In this study, a specific analytical protocol based on social network analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of four attributes (gender, age, matriline, and hierarchical rank) on affiliative (allogrooming) and agonistic networks in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus, at the park La Forêt des Singes in France. The results show significant differences with respect to the position (i.e., centric, peripheral) and role (i.e., implication in the network cohesiveness) of an individual within a social network and hence interactional patterns. Females are more central, more active, and have a denser ego network in the affiliative social network tan males; thus, they contribute in a greater way to the cohesive structure of the network. High-ranking individuals are likely to receive fewer agonistic behaviors than low-ranking individuals, and high-ranking females receive more allogrooming. I also observe homophily for affiliative interactions regarding all attributes and homophily for agonistic interactions regarding gender and age. Revealing the positions, the roles, and the interactional behavioral patterns of individuals can help understand the mechanisms that shape the overall structure of a social network. PMID:27148137

  1. Toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, D.W.; Elwell, M.R.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1988-04-01

    The toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF), a ubiquitous and acutely toxic environmental contaminant, was examined in three adult male Rhesus monkeys administered a single iv dose of 34 micrograms (0.1 mumol)/kg. Within 20 min, 4PeCDF was eliminated from the blood and was distributed to the liver, skin, adipose, and muscle tissues. Excretion occurred primarily via the feces with a minimum whole body half-life approximately 38 days. Within 7-14 days after administration, the packed cell volume and serum triglyceride and bile acid concentrations were significantly increased while serum cholesterol, protein, and albumin concentrations were decreased relative to pretreatment levels. Thyroid hormone levels were also altered with an increase in TSH and a decrease in T3 and T4 concentrations. After 28 days, two monkeys began exhibiting alopecia, hyperkeratinization of the toe and finger nails, facial chloracne-like lesions, and loss of body weight. They subsequently died 40 and 48 days after treatment. Similar symptoms of toxicity were observed in the third animal 58 days after 4PeCDF administration, but this animal appeared to fully recover and was administered 4PeCDF orally and (3H)1,2,3,7,8-pentachloro-dibenzofuran (1PeCDF) dermally 238 days after the initial iv dose. In this animal, approximately 2% of an oral dose of (14C)-4PeCDF was absorbed from the stomach and small intestine in 6 hr and was distributed mainly to the muscle and skin and less than 99% of a dermal dose of 1PeCDF remained at the site of application. Pathological findings in the monkeys that died indicated hyperplastic and metaplastic changes in the gastric mucosa, the Meibomian glands of the eyelid, and the ceruminous glands of the ear. Regression of these lesions was present in the surviving animal.

  2. Differences in aerosolization of Rift Valley fever virus resulting from choice of inhalation exposure chamber: implications for animal challenge studies

    PubMed Central

    Bethel, Laura M.; Powell, Diana S.; Caroline, Amy L.; Hartman, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aerosol characteristics of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) were evaluated to achieve reproducible infection of experimental animals with aerosolized RVFV suitable for animal efficacy studies. Spray factor (SF), the ratio between the concentrations of the aerosolized agent to the agent in the aerosol generator, is used to compare performance differences between aerosol exposures. SF indicates the efficiency of the aerosolization process; a higher SF means a lower nebulizer concentration is needed to achieve a desired inhaled dose. Relative humidity levels as well as the duration of the exposure and choice of exposure chamber all impacted RVFV SF. Differences were also noted between actual and predicted minute volumes for different species of nonhuman primates. While NHP from Old World species (Macaca fascicularis, M. mulatta, Chlorocebus aethiops) generally had a lower actual minute volume than predicted, the actual minute volume for marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) was higher than predicted (150% for marmosets compared with an average of 35% for all other species examined). All of these factors (relative humidity, chamber, duration, and minute volume) impact the ability to reliably and reproducibly deliver a specific dose of aerosolized RVFV. The implications of these findings for future pivotal efficacy studies are discussed. PMID:24532259

  3. An observation on the decomposition process of gasoline-ingested monkey carcasses in a secondary forest in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rumiza, A R; Khairul, O; Zuha, R M; Heo, C C

    2010-12-01

    This study was designed to mimic homicide or suicide cases using gasoline. Six adult long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis), weighing between 2.5 to 4.0 kg, were equally divided into control and test groups. The control group was sacrificed by a lethal dose of phenobarbital intracardiac while test group was force fed with two doses of gasoline LD50 (37.7 ml/kg) after sedation with phenobarbital. All carcasses were then placed in a decomposition site to observe the decomposition and invasion process of cadaveric fauna on the carcasses. A total of five decomposition stages were recognized during this study. This study was performed during July 2007. Fresh stage of control and test carcasses occurred between 0 to 15 and 0 to 39 hours of exposure, respectively. The subsequent decomposition stages also exhibited the similar pattern whereby the decomposition process of control carcasses were faster than tested one. The first larvae were found on control carcasses after 9 hours of death while the test group carcasses had only their first blowfly eggs after 15 hours of exposure. Blow flies, Achoetandrus rufifacies and Chrysomya megacephala were the most dominant invader of both carcasses throughout the decaying process. Diptera collected from control carcasses comprised of scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris and flesh fly, sarcophagid. We concluded that the presence of gasoline and its odor on the carcass had delayed the arrival of insect to the carcasses, thereby slowing down the decomposition process in the carcass by 6 hours.

  4. Derivation of Human Lethal Doses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-19

    emergency medicine, pharmacology, forensic medicine, and industrial chemical toxicology, in addition to a poison information center. The authors presented...Meditsinskaya Ekspeertiza. Forensic Medical Examination, 26(2), 48, 1983 (as cited in Sax’s). This reference is not available for review. Rat – LD50...mg/kg No LDLo, MLD, or lethal dose for humans Rat – LD50 (Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 1969) (as cited in Sax’s). This

  5. Radiation Dose from Cigarette Tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papastefanou, C.

    2008-08-01

    The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made produced radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 μSv y-1 (average 79.7 μSv y-1), while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 μSv y-1 (average 67.1 μSv y-1) and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 μSv y-1 (average 104.7 μSv y-1), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 μSv y-1 (average 251.5 μSv y-1). The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv y-1 (average 199.3 nSv y-1).

  6. Radiation dose from cigarette tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Papastefanou, C.

    2008-08-07

    The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb of the uranium series and {sup 228}Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made produced radionuclides, such as {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for {sup 226}Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 79.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), while for {sup 228}Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 67.1 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}) and for {sup 210}Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 104.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 251.5 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}). The annual effective dose from {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv y{sup -1} (average 199.3 nSv y{sup -1})

  7. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  8. Tolerance doses for treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, J.T.

    1985-10-01

    Data for the tolerance of normal tissues or organs to (low-LET) radiation has been compiled from a number of sources which are referenced at the end of this document. This tolerance dose data are ostensibly for uniform irradiation of all or part of an organ, and are for either 5% (TD/sub 5/) or 50% (TD/sub 50/) complication probability. The ''size'' of the irradiated organ is variously stated in terms of the absolute volume or the fraction of the organ volume irradiated, or the area or the length of the treatment field. The accuracy of these data is questionable. Much of the data represents doses that one or several experienced therapists have estimated could be safely given rather than quantitative analyses of clinical observations. Because these data have been obtained from multiple sources with possible different criteria for the definition of a complication, there are sometimes different values for what is apparently the same endpoint. The data from some sources shows a tendancy to be quantized in 5 Gy increments. This reflects the size of possible round off errors. It is believed that all these data have been accumulated without the benefit of 3-D dose distributions and therefore the estimates of the size of the volume and/or the uniformity of the irradiation may be less accurate than is now possible. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Dose rate mapping of VMAT treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podesta, Mark; Antoniu Popescu, I.; Verhaegen, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Human tissues exhibit a varying response to radiation dose depending on the dose rate and fractionation scheme used. Dose rate effects have been reported for different radiations, and tissue types. The literature indicates that there is not a significant difference in response for low-LET radiation when using dose rates between 1 Gy min-1 and 12 Gy min-1 but lower dose rates have an observable sparing effect on tissues and a differential effect between tissues. In intensity-modulated radiotherapy such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) the dose can be delivered with a wide range of dose rates. In this work we developed a method based on time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations to quantify the dose rate frequency distribution for clinical VMAT treatments for three cancer sites, head and neck, lung, and pelvis within both planning target volumes (PTV) and normal tissues. The results show a wide range of dose rates are used to deliver dose in VMAT and up to 75% of the PTV can have its dose delivered with dose rates  <1 Gy min-1. Pelvic plans on average have a lower mean dose rate within the PTV than lung or head and neck plans but a comparable mean dose rate within the organs at risk. Two VMAT plans that fulfil the same dose objectives and constraints may be delivered with different dose rate distributions, particularly when comparing single arcs to multiple arc plans. It is concluded that for dynamic plans, the dose rate range used varies to a larger degree than previously assumed. The effect of the dose rate range in VMAT on clinical outcome is unknown.

  10. Dose rate mapping of VMAT treatments.

    PubMed

    Podesta, Mark; Popescu, I Antoniu; Verhaegen, Frank

    2016-06-07

    Human tissues exhibit a varying response to radiation dose depending on the dose rate and fractionation scheme used. Dose rate effects have been reported for different radiations, and tissue types. The literature indicates that there is not a significant difference in response for low-LET radiation when using dose rates between 1 Gy min(-1) and 12 Gy min(-1) but lower dose rates have an observable sparing effect on tissues and a differential effect between tissues. In intensity-modulated radiotherapy such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) the dose can be delivered with a wide range of dose rates. In this work we developed a method based on time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations to quantify the dose rate frequency distribution for clinical VMAT treatments for three cancer sites, head and neck, lung, and pelvis within both planning target volumes (PTV) and normal tissues. The results show a wide range of dose rates are used to deliver dose in VMAT and up to 75% of the PTV can have its dose delivered with dose rates  <1 Gy min(-1). Pelvic plans on average have a lower mean dose rate within the PTV than lung or head and neck plans but a comparable mean dose rate within the organs at risk. Two VMAT plans that fulfil the same dose objectives and constraints may be delivered with different dose rate distributions, particularly when comparing single arcs to multiple arc plans. It is concluded that for dynamic plans, the dose rate range used varies to a larger degree than previously assumed. The effect of the dose rate range in VMAT on clinical outcome is unknown.

  11. Personalised dosing: Printing a dose of one's own medicine.

    PubMed

    Alomari, Mustafa; Mohamed, Fatima H; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2015-10-30

    Ink-jet printing is a versatile, precise and relatively inexpensive method of depositing small volumes of solutions with remarkable accuracy and repeatability. Although developed primarily as a technology for image reproduction, its areas of application have expanded significantly in recent years. It is particularly suited to the manufacture of low dose medicines or to short production runs and so offers a potential manufacturing solution for the paradigm of personalised medicines. This review discusses the technical and clinical aspects of ink-jet printing that must be considered in order for the technology to become widely adopted in the pharmaceutical arena and considers applications in the literature.

  12. Fewer Doses of HPV Vaccine Result in Immune Response Similar to Three-Dose Regimen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Releases NCI News Note Fewer doses of HPV vaccine result in immune response similar to three-dose ... that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum antibody ...

  13. Dose-structured population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ginn, Timothy R; Loge, Frank J

    2007-07-01

    Applied population dynamics modeling is relied upon with increasing frequency to quantify how human activities affect human and non-human populations. Current techniques include variously the population's spatial transport, age, size, and physiology, but typically not the life-histories of exposure to other important things occurring in the ambient environment, such as chemicals, heat, or radiation. Consequently, the effects of such 'abiotic' aspects of an ecosystem on populations are only currently addressed through individual-based modeling approaches that despite broad utility are limited in their applicability to realistic ecosystems [V. Grimm, Ten years of individual-based modeling in ecology: what have we learned and what could we learn in the future? Ecol. Model. 115 (1999) 129-148][1]. We describe a new category of population dynamics modeling, wherein population dynamical states of the biotic phases are structured on dose, and apply this framework to demonstrate how chemical species or other ambient aspects can be included in population dynamics in three separate examples involving growth suppression in fish, inactivation of microorganisms with ultraviolet irradiation, and metabolic lag in population growth. Dose-structuring is based on a kinematic approach that is a simple generalization of age-structuring, views the ecosystem as a multi-component mixture with reacting biotic/abiotic components. The resulting model framework accommodates (a) different memories of exposure as in recovery from toxic ambient conditions, (b) differentiation between exogenous and endogenous sources of variation in population response, and (c) quantification of acute or sub-acute effects on populations arising from life-history exposures to abiotic species. Classical models do not easily address the very important fact that organisms differ and have different experiences over their life cycle. The dose structuring is one approach to incorporate some of these elements into the

  14. Study of the role of novel RF-amide neuropeptides in affecting growth hormone secretion in a representative non-human primate (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Qaiser, Fatima; Wahab, Fazal; Wiqar, Muhammad Amin; Hashim, Rizwan; Leprince, Jerome; Vaudry, Hubert; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Shahab, Muhammad

    2012-12-01

    RF amide peptide family with distinctive terminal -Arg-Phe-NH(2) signature is evolutionarily conserved from invertebrates to mammals. These neuropeptides have been shown to affect diverse functions in invertebrates and vertebrates including influencing pituitary hormone secretion. More recently, two members of this family 26-amino acid and 43-amino acid RF amide peptide (26RFa and 43RFa, respectively) originally isolated from frog have been cloned in rats and humans. Actions of these peptides on hormone secretion have not been studied in primates. In the present study, effect of iv administration of three different doses of human 26RFa and 43RFa on GH secretion was studied in a representative higher primate, the rhesus monkey. As control against these two peptides, normal saline and a scrambled sequence of 26RFa was administered. A set of four intact adult male monkeys received the administration in a random order. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from the chairrestrained but fully conscious animals for a period of 30 min before and 240 min after the administration at 15-min intervals. For quantitative measurement of GH concentration, a human GH chemiluminescent immunometric assay was used. Peripheral administration of 38 and 76 nmol doses of 26RFa significantly (P < 0.05) stimulated GH AUC during a 0-120 min period after injection of 26RFa. In contrast to 26RFa, administration of 43RFa appeared to suppress GH levels during the later stages of the sampling i.e. from 120 to 240 min period. Mean AUC during the period was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by 76 nmol dose of 43RFa, while 38 nmol dose of 43RFa also had similar effect but lacked full statistical significance (P = 0.058). To our knowledge present study reports for the first time-specific stimulatory effect of 26RFa on the GH secretion and a novel inhibitory and delayed effect of 43RFa on the GH secretion in higher primates. In conclusion, present findings extend evidence for endocrine actions of RF

  15. Antimicrobial Dose in Obese Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kassab, Sawsan; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Abdul Aziz, Noorizan

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a chronic disease that has become one of major public health issue in Malaysia because of its association with other disease states including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Despite continuous efforts to educate the public about the health risks associated with obesity, prevalence of the disease continues to increase. Dosing of many medications are based on weight, limited data are available on how antimicrobial agents should be dosed in obesity. The aim of this case presentation is to discuss dose of antibiotic in obese patient. Case report: Patient: GMN, Malay, Female, 45 year old, 150kg, transferred from medical ward to ICU with problems of fever, orthopnea, sepsis secondary to nosocomial pneumonia. She was admitted to hospital a week ago for SOB on exertion, cyanosis, mildly dyspneic, somasthenia, bilateral ankle swelling. There was no fever, cough, chest pain, clubbing, flapping tremor. Her grand father has pre-morbid history of obesity, HPT, DM and asthma. She was non alcoholic, smoker, and not on diet control. The diagnosis Pickwickian syndrome was made. Patient was treated with IV Dopamine 11mcg/kg/min, IV Morphine 4mg/h. IV GTN 15mcg/min, IV Ca gluconate 10g/24h for 3/7, IV Zantac 50mg tds, IV Augmentin 1.2g tds, IV Lasix 40mg od, IV Plasil 10mg tds, S.c heparin 5000IU bd. patient become stable and moved to medical ward to continue her treatment. Discussion: The altered physiologic function seen in obese patients is a concern in patients receiving antimicrobial agents because therapeutic outcomes depend on achieving a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The therapeutic effect of any drug can be altered when any of the 4 pharmacokinetic processes (absorption, distribution, metabolism, or elimination) are altered. Decreased blood flow rates and increased renal clearance in obese patients can affect drug distribution and elimination. Changes in serum protein levels can change the metabolism and distribution of drugs that are

  16. Exploring the dose response of radiochromic dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skyt, P. S.; Wahlstedt, I.; Yates, E. S.; Muren, L. P.; Petersen, J. B. B.; Balling, P.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the dose response of a newly developed radio-chromic hydrogel dosimeter based on leuco malachite green dye in a gelatine matrix. The original dosimeter composition was first investigated in terms of dose response and dose-rate dependence. In addition, the initiating compounds producing chlorine radicals were substituted with compounds producing fluorine radicals, oxygen-centered radicals, carbon-centered radicals and bromine radicals. Also the surfactant was substituted by other compounds of different molecular size and charge. The original composition gave a dose response of 3.5·10-3 Gy-1cm-1 at 6 Gy/min with a dose rate dependence giving a 27 % increase when decreasing the dose rate to 1 Gy/min. None of the substituted initiating components contributed to an increase in dose response while only one surfactant increased the dose response slightly.

  17. How to Use Metered-Dose Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... inhaler the right way so that the full dose of medication reaches your lungs. You can use ... inhaler.These directions explain how to use metered-dose inhalers. If you are using a different type ...

  18. Measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2&3 and 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D2&3 by Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A Primate Multispecies Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Toni E.; Kapoor, Amita; Hedman, Curtis J.; Binkley, Neil; Kemnitz, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolites are widely studied for their roles in bone health, immune functions and other potential physiologic roles in humans. However, the optimal blood levels of vitamin D metabolites are still unclear. Various methods for measuring vitamin D metabolites have been used and recently liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) has been adopted as the gold standard for vitamin D metabolite measurement. Here we report the use of LC-MS/MS to measure 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D2&3), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D2&3), in three laboratory nonhuman primate species: common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), and cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis), and compare them to humans using the same technique. The nonhuman primates showed blood levels for 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly higher than human values with marmosets having the highest levels. Marmoset samples showed significantly more variability among individuals than those from macaques for both metabolites, but all three nonhuman primate species exhibited large variation within species for both 25(OH)D2&3 and 1,25(OH)2D2&3. Marmoset females had significantly lower values than the males for 25(OH)D3, while rhesus males showed a significant decrease in 25(OH)D3 with age. The most striking finding is the variation within species for vitamin D levels even in laboratory primates that have a controlled diet, UV exposure, and in some cases, genetic constraints. Similar variation in 25(OH)D responses to a fixed dose of oral vitamin D supplementation has been reported in humans. We suggest that these species can provide primate models for examining the factors influencing variation in the levels of vitamin D necessary for human and nonhuman primate health. PMID:25845705

  19. Radiation dose measurements in coronary CT angiography

    PubMed Central

    Sabarudin, Akmal; Sun, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is associated with high radiation dose and this has raised serious concerns in the literature. Awareness of various parameters for dose estimates and measurements of coronary CT angiography plays an important role in increasing our understanding of the radiation exposure to patients, thus, contributing to the implementation of dose-saving strategies. This article provides an overview of the radiation dose quantity and its measurement during coronary CT angiography procedures. PMID:24392190

  20. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  1. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates):Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  2. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, W. Tyler Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  3. Chemical Dosing and First-Order Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hladky, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    College students encounter a variety of first-order phenomena in their mathematics and science courses. Introductory chemistry textbooks that discuss first-order processes, usually in conjunction with chemical kinetics or radioactive decay, stop at single, discrete dose events. Although single-dose situations are important, multiple-dose events,…

  4. A dose monitoring system for dental radiography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chena; Kim, Jo-Eun; Symkhampha, Khanthaly; Lee, Woo-Jin; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Choi, Soon-Chul; Yeom, Heon-Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The current study investigates the feasibility of a platform for a nationwide dose monitoring system for dental radiography. The essential elements for an unerring system are also assessed. Materials and Methods An intraoral radiographic machine with 14 X-ray generators and five sensors, 45 panoramic radiographic machines, and 23 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) models used in Korean dental clinics were surveyed to investigate the type of dose report. A main server for storing the dose data from each radiographic machine was prepared. The dose report transfer pathways from the radiographic machine to the main sever were constructed. An effective dose calculation method was created based on the machine specifications and the exposure parameters of three intraoral radiographic machines, five panoramic radiographic machines, and four CBCTs. A viewing system was developed for both dentists and patients to view the calculated effective dose. Each procedure and the main server were integrated into one system. Results The dose data from each type of radiographic machine was successfully transferred to the main server and converted into an effective dose. The effective dose stored in the main server is automatically connected to a viewing program for dentist and patient access. Conclusion A patient radiation dose monitoring system is feasible for dental clinics. Future research in cooperation with clinicians, industry, and radiologists is needed to ensure format convertibility for an efficient dose monitoring system to monitor unexpected radiation dose. PMID:27358817

  5. Occupational eye dose in interventional cardiology procedures.

    PubMed

    Haga, Yoshihiro; Chida, Koichi; Kaga, Yuji; Sota, Masahiro; Meguro, Taiichiro; Zuguchi, Masayuki

    2017-04-03

    It is important to measure the radiation dose [3-mm dose equivalent, Hp(3)] in the eye. This study was to determine the current occupational radiation eye dose of staff conducting interventional cardiology procedures, using a novel direct eye dosimeter. We measured the occupational eye dose [Hp(3)] in physicians and nurses in a catheterization laboratory for 6-months. The eye doses [Hp(3)] of 12 physicians (9 with Pb glasses, 3 without), and 11 nurses were recorded using a novel direct eye dosimeter, the DOSIRIS(TM). We placed dosimeters above and under the glasses. We also estimated the eye dose [0.07-mm dose equivalent] using a neck personal dosimeter. The eye doses among interventional staff ranked in the following order: physicians without Pb glasses > physicians with Pb glasses > nurses. The shielding effect of the glasses (0.07-mm Pb) in a clinical setting was approximately 60%. In physicians who do not wear Pb glasses, the eye dose may exceed the new regulatory limit for IR staff. We found good correlations between the neck dosimeter dose and eye dosimeter dose (inside or outside glasses, R(2) = 0.93 and R(2) = 0.86, respectively) in physicians. We recommend that interventional physicians use an eye dosimeter for correct evaluation of the lens dose.

  6. Calculation of dose conversion factors for doses in the fingernails to organ doses at external gamma irradiation in air

    PubMed Central

    Khailov, A.M.; Ivannikov, A. I.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Stepanenko, V.F.; Orlenko, S.P.; Flood, A.B.; Williams, B.B.; Swartz, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Absorbed doses to fingernails and organs were calculated for a set of homogenous external gamma-ray irradiation geometries in air. The doses were obtained by stochastic modeling of the ionizing particle transport (Monte Carlo method) for a mathematical human phantom with arms and hands placed loosely along the sides of the body. The resulting dose conversion factors for absorbed doses in fingernails can be used to assess the dose distribution and magnitude in practical dose reconstruction problems. For purposes of estimating dose in a large population exposed to radiation in order to triage people for treatment of acute radiation syndrome, the calculated data for a range of energies having a width of from 0.05 to 3.5 MeV were used to convert absorbed doses in fingernails to corresponding doses in organs and the whole body as well as the effective dose. Doses were assessed based on assumed rates of radioactive fallout at different time periods following a nuclear explosion. PMID:26347593

  7. Isobio software: biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram from physical dose conversion using linear-quadratic-linear model

    PubMed Central

    Jaikuna, Tanwiwat; Khadsiri, Phatchareewan; Chawapun, Nisa; Saekho, Suwit

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL) model. Material and methods The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR), and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2) was calculated using biological effective dose (BED) based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit). Results Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS) in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT) in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT. PMID:28344603

  8. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1990-07-01

    This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demographics, Agriculture, Food Habits, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates. 3 figs.

  9. Dose Rate Effects in Linear Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Allan; Swimm, Randall; Harris, R. D.; Thorbourn, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Dose rate effects are examined in linear bipolar transistors at high and low dose rates. At high dose rates, approximately 50% of the damage anneals at room temperature, even though these devices exhibit enhanced damage at low dose rate. The unexpected recovery of a significant fraction of the damage after tests at high dose rate requires changes in existing test standards. Tests at low temperature with a one-second radiation pulse width show that damage continues to increase for more than 3000 seconds afterward, consistent with predictions of the CTRW model for oxides with a thickness of 700 nm.

  10. Elite Control, Gut CD4 T Cell Sparing, and Enhanced Mucosal T Cell Responses in Macaca nemestrina Infected by a Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Lacking a gp41 Trafficking Motif

    PubMed Central

    Breed, Matthew W.; Elser, Samra E.; Torben, Workineh; Jordan, Andrea P. O.; Aye, Pyone P.; Midkiff, Cecily; Schiro, Faith; Sugimoto, Chie; Alvarez-Hernandez, Xavier; Blair, Robert V.; Somasunderam, Anoma; Utay, Netanya S.; Kuroda, Marcelo J.; Pahar, Bapi; Wiseman, Roger W.; O'Connor, David H.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Montefiori, David C.; Marsh, Mark; Li, Yuan; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Keele, Brandon F.; Fultz, Patricia N.; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Deletion of Gly-720 and Tyr-721 from a highly conserved GYxxØ trafficking signal in the SIVmac239 envelope glycoprotein cytoplasmic domain, producing a virus termed ΔGY, leads to a striking perturbation in pathogenesis in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Infected macaques develop immune activation and progress to AIDS, but with only limited and transient infection of intestinal CD4+ T cells and an absence of microbial translocation. Here we evaluated ΔGY in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina), a species in which SIVmac239 infection typically leads to increased immune activation and more rapid progression to AIDS than in rhesus macaques. In pig-tailed macaques, ΔGY also replicated acutely to high peak plasma RNA levels identical to those for SIVmac239 and caused only transient infection of CD4+ T cells in the gut lamina propria and no microbial translocation. However, in marked contrast to rhesus macaques, 19 of 21 pig-tailed macaques controlled ΔGY replication with plasma viral loads of <15 to 50 RNA copies/ml. CD4+ T cells were preserved in blood and gut for up to 100 weeks with no immune activation or disease progression. Robust antiviral CD4+ T cell responses were seen, particularly in the gut. Anti-CD8 antibody depletion demonstrated CD8+ cellular control of viral replication. Two pig-tailed macaques progressed to disease with persisting viremia and possible compensatory mutations in the cytoplasmic tail. These studies demonstrate a marked perturbation in pathogenesis caused by ΔGY's ablation of the GYxxØ trafficking motif and reveal, paradoxically, that viral control is enhanced in a macaque species typically predisposed to more pathogenic manifestations of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. IMPORTANCE The pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) reflects a balance between viral replication, host innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses, and sustained immune activation

  11. Dose rate assessment in tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, A.; Göksu, H. Y.; Regulla, D. F.; Vogenauer, A.

    A mammoth found in the southern part of Germany was dated by ESR spectroscopy. This dating method is based on the measurement of the accumulated dose in tooth enamel and assessment of the annual dose. The accumulated dose is obtained from the radiation induced ESR signal at g = 2.0018 of the enamel. The annual dose was first determined by measuring the 238U, 232Th and 40K content of the tooth and of the surrounding soil. As a crosscheck, the dose rate from the tooth was measured by inserting TL dosimeters in the dentine and storing them at 'zero' background in a salt mine. The cosmic dose rate and the gamma dose rate from the soil was evaluated from TL dosimeters buried at the excavation site. The results are discussed with respect to the applicability of ESR dating on teeth.

  12. Matching target dose to target organ

    PubMed Central

    Bannon, Desmond I.; Williams, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro assays have become a mainstay of modern approaches to toxicology with the promise of replacing or reducing the number of in vivo tests required to establish benchmark doses, as well as increasing mechanistic understanding. However, matching target dose to target organ is an often overlooked aspect of in vitro assays, and the calibration of in vitro exposure against in vivo benchmark doses is often ignored, inadvertently or otherwise.  An example of this was recently published in Environmental Health Perspectives by Wagner et al., where neural stems cells were used to model the molecular toxicity of lead.  On closer examination of the in vitro work, the doses used in media reflected in vivo lead doses that would be at the highest end of lead toxicity, perhaps even lethal.  Here we discuss the doses used and suggest more realistic doses for future work with stem cells or other neuronal cell lines. PMID:28163899

  13. Dose banding as an alternative to body surface area-based dosing of chemotherapeutic agents

    PubMed Central

    Chatelut, E; White-Koning, M L; Mathijssen, R HJ; Puisset, F; Baker, S D; Sparreboom, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dose banding is a recently suggested dosing method that uses predefined ranges (bands) of body surface area (BSA) to calculate each patient's dose by using a single BSA-value per band. Thus, drugs with sufficient long-term stability can be prepared in advance. The main advantages of dose banding are to reduce patient waiting time and improve pharmacy capacity planning; additional benefits include reduced medication errors, reduced drug wastage, and prospective quality control. This study compares dose banding with individual BSA dosing and fixed dose according to pharmacokinetic criteria. Methods: Three BSA bands were defined: BSA<1.7 m2, 1.7 m2⩽BSA<1.9 m2, BSA⩾1.9 m2 and each patient dose was calculated based on a unique BSA-value per band (1.55, 1.80, and 2.05 m2, respectively). By using individual clearance values of six drugs (cisplatin, docetaxel, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, irinotecan, and topotecan) from 1012 adult cancer patients in total, the AUCs corresponding to three dosing methods (BSA dosing, dose banding, and fixed dose) were compared with a target AUC for each drug. Results: For all six drugs, the per cent variation in individual dose obtained with dose banding compared with BSA dosing ranged between −14% and +22%, and distribution of AUC values was very similar with both dosing methods. In terms of reaching the target AUC, there was no significant difference in precision between dose banding and BSA dosing, except for paclitaxel (32.0% vs 30.7%, respectively; P<0.05). However, precision was significantly better for BSA dosing compared with fixed dose for four out of six drugs. Conclusion: For the studied drugs, implementation of dose banding should be considered as it entails no significant increase in interindividual plasma exposure. PMID:22929884

  14. Isolation and characterization of a new simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 from naturally infected celebes macaques (Macaca tonkeana): complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic relationship with the Australo-Melanesian human T-cell leukemia virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, F; de Thé, G; Gessain, A

    1995-01-01

    A study of simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) infection in a captive colony of 23 Macaca tonkeana macaques indicated that 17 animals had high human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antibody titers. Genealogical analysis suggested mainly a mother-to-offspring transmission of this STLV-1. Three long-term T-cell lines, established from peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures from three STLV-1-seropositive monkeys, produced HTLV-1 Gag and Env antigens and retroviral particles. The first complete nucleotide sequence of an STLV-1 (9,025 bp), obtained for one of these isolates, indicated an overall genetic organization similar to that of HTLV-1 but with a nucleotide variability for the structural genes ranging from 7.8 to 13.1% compared with the HTLV-1 ATK and STLV-1 PTM3 Asian prototypes. The Tax and Rex regulatory proteins were well conserved, while the pX region, known to encode new proteins in HTLV-1 (open reading frames I and II), was more divergent than that in the ATK strain. Furthermore, a fragment of 522 bp of the gp21 env gene from uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNAs from five of the STLV-1-infected monkeys was sequenced. Phylogenetic trees constructed with the long terminal repeat and env (gp46 and gp21) regions demonstrated that this new STLV-1 occupies a unique position within the Asian STLV-1 and HTLV-1 isolates, being, by most analyses, related more to the Australo-Melanesian HTLV-1 topotype than to any other Asian STLV-1. These data raise new hypotheses on the possible interspecies viral transmission between monkeys carrying STLV-1 and early Australoid settlers, ancestors of the present day Australo-Melanesian inhabitants, during their migrations from the Southeast Asian land mass to the greater Australian continent. PMID:7474117

  15. Assessing dose rate distributions in VMAT plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackeprang, P.-H.; Volken, W.; Terribilini, D.; Frauchiger, D.; Zaugg, K.; Aebersold, D. M.; Fix, M. K.; Manser, P.

    2016-04-01

    Dose rate is an essential factor in radiobiology. As modern radiotherapy delivery techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) introduce dynamic modulation of the dose rate, it is important to assess the changes in dose rate. Both the rate of monitor units per minute (MU rate) and collimation are varied over the course of a fraction, leading to different dose rates in every voxel of the calculation volume at any point in time during dose delivery. Given the radiotherapy plan and machine specific limitations, a VMAT treatment plan can be split into arc sectors between Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine control points (CPs) of constant and known MU rate. By calculating dose distributions in each of these arc sectors independently and multiplying them with the MU rate, the dose rate in every single voxel at every time point during the fraction can be calculated. Independently calculated and then summed dose distributions per arc sector were compared to the whole arc dose calculation for validation. Dose measurements and video analysis were performed to validate the calculated datasets. A clinical head and neck, cranial and liver case were analyzed using the tool developed. Measurement validation of synthetic test cases showed linac agreement to precalculated arc sector times within  ±0.4 s and doses  ±0.1 MU (one standard deviation). Two methods for the visualization of dose rate datasets were developed: the first method plots a two-dimensional (2D) histogram of the number of voxels receiving a given dose rate over the course of the arc treatment delivery. In similarity to treatment planning system display of dose, the second method displays the dose rate as color wash on top of the corresponding computed tomography image, allowing the user to scroll through the variation over time. Examining clinical cases showed dose rates spread over a continuous spectrum, with mean dose rates hardly exceeding 100 cGy min-1 for conventional

  16. Immunization with a synthetic robustoxin derivative lacking disulphide bridges protects against a potentially lethal challenge with funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus) venom.

    PubMed

    Comis, Alfio; Tyler, Margaret; Mylecharane, Ewan; Spence, Ian; Howden, Merlin

    2009-03-01

    The venom of male Atrax robustus spiders is potentially lethal to primates. These spiders have been responsible for a number of human deaths. Robustoxin is the lethal toxin in the venom. It is a highly cross-linked polypeptide that has 42 amino acid residues and four disulphide bridges. If these bridges are broken, the resulting polypeptide is non-toxic. Robustoxin was chemically synthesized with all of its eight cysteine residues protected with acetamidomethyl groups in order to avoid formation of disulphide bridges. The resulting derivative was co-polymerized with keyhole limpet haemocyanin. Two Macaca fascicularis monkeys were immunized with this conjugate. The monkeys were challenged,under anaesthesia,with a potentially lethal dose of male A.robustus crude venom. Both monkeys showed some minor symptoms of intoxication but recovered fully with no adverse after-effects. Immunization with the same immunogen, in the absence of keyhole limpet haemocyanin, did not protect a third monkey. The N-terminal 23 amino acid peptide derived from the sequence of robustoxin was synthesized and conjugated with ovalbumin. A fourth monkey was immunized with this conjugate. However,it was not protected against challenge.The implications of these results for the preparation of synthetic peptide vaccines are discussed.

  17. Intravenously injected Newcastle disease virus in non-human primates is safe to use for oncolytic virotherapy.

    PubMed

    Buijs, P R A; van Amerongen, G; van Nieuwkoop, S; Bestebroer, T M; van Run, P R W A; Kuiken, T; Fouchier, R A M; van Eijck, C H J; van den Hoogen, B G

    2014-11-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an avian paramyxovirus with oncolytic potential. Detailed preclinical information regarding the safety of oncolytic NDV is scarce. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity, biodistribution and shedding of intravenously injected oncolytic NDVs in non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis). Two animals were injected with escalating doses of a non-recombinant vaccine strain, a recombinant lentogenic strain or a recombinant mesogenic strain. To study transmission, naive animals were co-housed with the injected animals. Injection with NDV did not lead to severe illness in the animals or abnormalities in hematologic or biochemistry measurements. Injected animals shed low amounts of virus, but this did not lead to seroconversion of the contact animals. Postmortem evaluation demonstrated no pathological changes or evidence of virus replication. This study demonstrates that NDV generated in embryonated chicken eggs is safe for intravenous administration to non-human primates. In addition, our study confirmed results from a previous report that naïve primate and human sera are able to neutralize egg-generated NDV. We discuss the implications of these results for our study and the use of NDV for virotherapy.

  18. Protection of monkeys against the lethal effects of male funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus) venom by immunization with a toxoid.

    PubMed

    Sheumack, D D; Phillips, C A; Mylecharane, E J; Spence, I; Claassens, R; Brown, M R; Comis, A; Howden, M E

    1991-01-01

    A stable toxoid was prepared from robustoxin (the lethal polypeptide neurotoxin in the venom of the male funnel-web spider, Atrax robustus) by polymerization with glutaraldehyde. This material was non-toxic in new-born mice. Administration of the toxoid to three Macaca fascicularis monkeys (50-80 micrograms/kg s.c. at 14-day intervals for 8-12 weeks) produced no toxic effects; anti-robustoxin antibodies were detected in serum samples by immunodiffusion tests within 13-27 days. In vivo evidence of successful protection with the toxoid was obtained by challenging the monkeys with male A. robustus venom (50 micrograms/kg i.v.) under anaesthesia with pentobarbitone (one monkey), or with ketamine, halothane and nitrous oxide, 1-26 weeks after the last injection of the toxoid. Only minor respiratory, cardiovascular and skeletal motor disturbances were produced, and all monkeys recovered fully and uneventfully. Challenge with the same dose of venom in non-immunized or robustoxin N-terminal decapeptide ovalbumin conjugate-treated monkeys resulted in typical lethal neurotoxic effects, culminating in severe hypotension or death from circulatory and respiratory failure within 280 min.

  19. Spontaneous obesity-linked type 2 diabetes in the absence of islet amyloid in a cynomolgus monkey infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Strom, A; Yutzy, B; Kruip, C; Völker, I; Schloot, N C; Roden, M; Scott, F W; Löwer, J; Holznagel, E

    2013-09-01

    A 9-year-old cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) infected orally with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was presented for necropsy following euthanasia 4 years post infection (p.i.). This macaque R984 was exposed to a BSE dose that causes a simian form of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) within 5 years p.i. in other macaques. All orally BSE-infected macaques developed a significant weight gain within the first 2 years p.i. compared with non-BSE-infected age- and sex-matched control animals, suggesting increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In contrast, macaque R984 developed rapid weight loss, hyperglycemia, and glucosuria and had to be euthanatized 4 years p.i. before clinical signs of vCJD. Pancreas histopathological evaluation revealed severe islet degeneration but, remarkably, no islet amyloid deposits were present. Immunostaining of pancreas sections for insulin and glucagon confirmed the loss of endocrine cells. In addition, prions were present in the adenohypophysis but not in other areas of the brain, indicating centripetal prion spread from the gut during the preclinical phase of BSE infection. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations of macaque R984 became abnormal with age and resembled T2D. This unusual case of spontaneous T2D in the absence of islet amyloid deposits could have been due to early prion spread from the periphery to the endocrine system or could have occurred spontaneously.

  20. A Simple Low-dose X-ray CT Simulation from High-dose Scan.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Dong; Huang, Jing; Bian, Zhaoying; Niu, Shanzhou; Zhang, Hua; Feng, Qianjin; Liang, Zhengrong; Ma, Jianhua

    2015-10-01

    Low-dose X-ray computed tomography (CT) simulation from high-dose scan is required in optimizing radiation dose to patients. In this study, we propose a simple low-dose CT simulation strategy in sinogram domain using the raw data from high-dose scan. Specially, a relationship between the incident fluxes of low- and high- dose scans is first determined according to the repeated projection measurements and analysis. Second, the incident flux level of the simulated low-dose scan is generated by properly scaling the incident flux level of high-dose scan via the determined relationship in the first step. Third, the low-dose CT transmission data by energy integrating detection is simulated by adding a statistically independent Poisson noise distribution plus a statistically independent Gaussian noise distribution. Finally, a filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm is implemented to reconstruct the resultant low-dose CT images. The present low-dose simulation strategy is verified on the simulations and real scans by comparing it with the existing low-dose CT simulation tool. Experimental results demonstrated that the present low-dose CT simulation strategy can generate accurate low-dose CT sinogram data from high-dose scan in terms of qualitative and quantitative measurements.

  1. Patient radiation doses for electron beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Castellano, Isabel A.; Dance, David R.; Skinner, Claire L.; Evans, Phil M.

    2005-08-15

    A Monte Carlo based computer model has been developed for electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) to calculate organ and effective doses in a humanoid hermaphrodite phantom. The program has been validated by comparison with experimental measurements of the CT dose index in standard head and body CT dose phantoms; agreement to better than 8% has been found. The robustness of the model has been established by varying the input parameters. The amount of energy deposited at the 12:00 position of the standard body CT dose phantom is most susceptible to rotation angle, whereas that in the central region is strongly influenced by the beam quality. The program has been used to investigate the changes in organ absorbed doses arising from partial and full rotation about supine and prone subjects. Superficial organs experience the largest changes in absorbed dose with a change in subject orientation and for partial rotation. Effective doses for typical clinical scan protocols have been calculated and compared with values obtained using existing dosimetry techniques based on full rotation. Calculations which make use of Monte Carlo conversion factors for the scanner that best matches the EBCT dosimetric characteristics consistently overestimate the effective dose in supine subjects by typically 20%, and underestimate the effective dose in prone subjects by typically 13%. These factors can therefore be used to correct values obtained in this way. Empirical dosimetric techniques based on the dose-length product yield errors as great as 77%. This is due to the sensitivity of the dose length product to individual scan lengths. The magnitude of these errors is reduced if empirical dosimetric techniques based on the average absorbed dose in the irradiated volume (CTDI{sub vol}) are used. Therefore conversion factors specific to EBCT have been calculated to convert the CTDI{sub vol} to an effective dose.

  2. Simulation of dose reduction in tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Svalkvist, Angelica; Baath, Magnus

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: Methods for simulating dose reduction are valuable tools in the work of optimizing radiographic examinations. Using such methods, clinical images can be simulated to have been collected at other, lower, dose levels without the need of additional patient exposure. A recent technology introduced to healthcare that needs optimization is tomosynthesis, where a number of low-dose projection images collected at different angles is used to reconstruct section images of an imaged object. The aim of the present work was to develop a method of simulating dose reduction for digital radiographic systems, suitable for tomosynthesis. Methods: The developed method uses information about the noise power spectrum (NPS) at the original dose level and the simulated dose level to create a noise image that is added to the original image to produce an image that has the same noise properties as an image actually collected at the simulated dose level. As the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of digital detectors operating at the low dose levels used for tomosynthesis may show a strong dependency on the dose level, it is important that a method for simulating dose reduction for tomosynthesis takes this dependency into account. By applying an experimentally determined relationship between pixel mean and pixel variance, variations in both dose and DQE in relevant dose ranges are taken into account. Results: The developed method was tested on a chest tomosynthesis system and was shown to produce NPS of simulated dose-reduced projection images that agreed well with the NPS of images actually collected at the simulated dose level. The simulated dose reduction method was also applied to tomosynthesis examinations of an anthropomorphic chest phantom, and the obtained noise in the reconstructed section images was very similar to that of an examination actually performed at the simulated dose level. Conclusions: In conclusion, the present article describes a method for simulating dose

  3. Extremity model for neutron dose calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Sattelberger, J. A.; Shores, E. F.

    2001-01-01

    In personnel dosimetry for external radiation exposures, health physicists tend to focus on measurement of whole body dose, where 'whole body' is generally regarded as the torso on which the dosimeter is placed.' Although a variety of scenarios exist in which workers must handle radioactive materials, whole body dose estimates may not be appropriate when assessing dose, particularly to the extremities. For example, consider sources used for instrument calibration. If such sources are in a contact geometry (e.g. held by fingers), an extremity dose estimate may be more relevant than a whole body dose. However, because questions arise regarding how that dose should be calculated, a detailed extremity model was constructed with the MCNP-4Ca Monte Carlo code. Although initially intended for use with gamma sources, recent work by Shores2 provided the impetus to test the model with neutrons.

  4. Practical applications of internal dose calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, E.H.

    1994-06-01

    Accurate estimates of intake magnitude and internal dose are the goal for any assessment of an actual intake of radioactivity. When only one datum is available on which to base estimates, the choices for internal dose assessment become straight-forward: apply the appropriate retention or excretion function, calculate the intake, and calculate the dose. The difficulty comes when multiple data and different types of data become available. Then practical decisions must be made on how to interpret conflicting data, or how to adjust the assumptions and techniques underlying internal dose assessments to give results consistent with the data. This article describes nine types of adjustments which can be incorporated into calculations of intake and internal dose, and then offers several practical insights to dealing with some real-world internal dose puzzles.

  5. Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a 'pulsed beam'; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a 'continuous beam.' A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean dose difference

  6. Evaluation of Rectal Dose During High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cervical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sha, Rajib Lochan; Reddy, Palreddy Yadagiri; Rao, Ramakrishna; Muralidhar, Kanaparthy R.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.

    2011-01-01

    High-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) for carcinoma of the uterine cervix often results in high doses being delivered to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) such as the rectum and bladder. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine and closely monitor the dose delivered to these OARs. In this study, we measured the dose delivered to the rectum by intracavitary applications and compared this measured dose to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements rectal reference point dose calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS). To measure the dose, we inserted a miniature (0.1 cm{sup 3}) ionization chamber into the rectum of 86 patients undergoing radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma. The response of the miniature chamber modified by 3 thin lead marker rings for identification purposes during imaging was also characterized. The difference between the TPS-calculated maximum dose and the measured dose was <5% in 52 patients, 5-10% in 26 patients, and 10-14% in 8 patients. The TPS-calculated maximum dose was typically higher than the measured dose. Our study indicates that it is possible to measure the rectal dose for cervical carcinoma patients undergoing HDR-ICBT. We also conclude that the dose delivered to the rectum can be reasonably predicted by the TPS-calculated dose.

  7. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doeses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  8. Dose estimates of alternative plutonium pyrochemical processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, D. E.; Jackson, J. W.; Boerigter, S. T.; Averill, W. A.; Fasel, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    We have coupled our dose calculation tool Pandemonium with a discrete-event, object-oriented, process-modeling system ProMosO to analyze a set of alternatives for plutonium purification operations. The results follow expected trends and indicate, from a dose perspective, that an experimental flowsheet may warrant further research to see if it can be scaled to industrial levels. Flowsheets that include fluoride processes resulted in the largest doses.

  9. There is no safe dose of prions.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Helen R; McLean, Angela R

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the circumstances under which exposure to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) leads to infection is important for managing risks to public health. Based upon ideas in toxicology and radiology, it is plausible that exposure to harmful agents, including TSEs, is completely safe if the dose is low enough. However, the existence of a threshold, below which infection probability is zero has never been demonstrated experimentally. Here we explore this question by combining data and mathematical models that describe scrapie infections in mice following experimental challenge over a broad range of doses. We analyse data from 4338 mice inoculated at doses ranging over ten orders of magnitude. These data are compared to results from a within-host model in which prions accumulate according to a stochastic birth-death process. Crucially, this model assumes no threshold on the dose required for infection. Our data reveal that infection is possible at the very low dose of a 1000 fold dilution of the dose that infects half the challenged animals (ID50). Furthermore, the dose response curve closely matches that predicted by the model. These findings imply that there is no safe dose of prions and that assessments of the risk from low dose exposure are right to assume a linear relationship between dose and probability of infection. We also refine two common perceptions about TSE incubation periods: that their mean values decrease linearly with logarithmic decreases in dose and that they are highly reproducible between hosts. The model and data both show that the linear decrease in incubation period holds only for doses above the ID50. Furthermore, variability in incubation periods is greater than predicted by the model, not smaller. This result poses new questions about the sources of variability in prion incubation periods. It also provides insight into the limitations of the incubation period assay.

  10. Fetal dose estimates for CT pelvimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.M.; Shearer, D.R.

    1989-04-01

    Fetal and maternal dose estimates for computed tomographic pelvimetry have been obtained from phantom measurements. Use of routine abdomen imaging techniques may result in localized fetal doses in excess of 13 mGy (1.3 rad). With the use of a low-exposure (40-mAs) technique, it is possible to obtain images of acceptable quality for the necessary measurements. The resulting dose to the fetus is approximately 2.3 mGy (0.23 rad).

  11. Sodium cromoglycate: spincaps or metered dose aerosol.

    PubMed Central

    Robson, R A; Taylor, B J; Taylor, B

    1981-01-01

    1 Sodium cromoglycate administered as a dry powder inhalation (20 mg/dose) via the Spinhaler was compared with a metered dose aerosol (2 mg/dose) in an eight week double dummy double blind crossover trial in 29 asthmatic children. 2 The powder formulation was associated with significantly less symptoms (night wheeze, night cough, day wheeze, day cough, activity) and bronchodilator intake; and significantly greater weight gain than aerosol therapy. There were no significant differences in morning or evening peak flow measurements on the two treatments. 3 The powder may be more effectively inhaled than the aerosol or the dose of the aerosol may not be large enough. PMID:6789851

  12. Internal dose following a major nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.R.; Shapiro, C.S. )

    1992-01-01

    The PATHWAY model results were used, in conjunction with a hypothetical major nuclear attack on the U.S., to arrive at the ratio of internal to external dose for humans from early (48 h) fallout. Considered were the four nuclides (137Cs, 89Sr, 90Sr, 131I) that account for most of the reconstructed whole-body committed equivalent dose from internal radiation in people who lived downwind of the Nevada Test Site during atmospheric tests. Effects of climate perturbations (the 'nuclear winter' effect) on food crops were considered. These could increase internal dose estimates, depending on the severity of the climate perturbations. Internal and external doses to humans for 10 locations within the U.S. have been calculated, with varying local conditions and varying assumption about their shelters. The estimated 50-y internal dose commitment ranged from 0.0-0.17 Sv, the 48-h external dose from 0.15-4.6 Sv. The resultant ratios of internal to external committed dose received in the first months (until food transport was restored) varied from less than 0.01 to about 0.2. In all cases examined, the total dose from early fallout was found to be dominated by the external dose.

  13. Internal dose following a major nuclear war.

    PubMed

    Peterson, K R; Shapiro, C S

    1992-01-01

    The PATHWAY model results were used, in conjunction with a hypothetical major nuclear attack on the U.S., to arrive at the ratio of internal to external dose for humans from early (48 h) fallout. Considered were the four nuclides (137Cs, 89Sr, 90Sr, 131I) that account for most of the reconstructed whole-body committed equivalent dose from internal radiation in people who lived downwind of the Nevada Test Site during atmospheric tests. Effects of climate perturbations (the "nuclear winter" effect) on food crops were considered. These could increase internal dose estimates, depending on the severity of the climate perturbations. Internal and external doses to humans for 10 locations within the U.S. have been calculated, with varying local conditions and varying assumption about their shelters. The estimated 50-y internal dose commitment ranged from 0.0-0.17 Sv, the 48-h external dose from 0.15-4.6 Sv. The resultant ratios of internal to external committed dose received in the first months (until food transport was restored) varied from less than 0.01 to about 0.2. In all cases examined, the total dose from early fallout was found to be dominated by the external dose.

  14. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from released to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; and, environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  15. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics; agriculture; food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. 3 figs.

  17. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1991-05-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demographics, Agriculture, Food Habits, Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1990-12-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have been have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1991-03-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the technical tasks which correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environment monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Skin dose measurement with MICROSPEC-2{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, H.H.; Chen, J.; Ing, H.; Clifford, E.T.H.; McLean, T.

    1997-10-01

    For many years, the Eberline HP-260{trademark} beta detectors were used for skin dose measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This detector does not measure the beta spectrum and the skin dose can only be determined if the contaminating radioactive isotope is known. A new product MICROSPEC-2{trademark}, has been developed which consists of a small portable computer with a multichannel analyzer and a beta probe consisting of a phoswich detector. The system measures the beta spectrum and automatically folds in the beta fluence-to-dose conversion function to yield the skin dose.

  1. Dose rate in brachytherapy using after-loading machine: pulsed or high-dose rate?

    PubMed

    Hannoun-Lévi, J-M; Peiffert, D

    2014-10-01

    Since February 2014, it is no longer possible to use low-dose rate 192 iridium wires due to the end of industrial production of IRF1 and IRF2 sources. The Brachytherapy Group of the French society of radiation oncology (GC-SFRO) has recommended switching from iridium wires to after-loading machines. Two types of after-loading machines are currently available, based on the dose rate used: pulsed-dose rate or high-dose rate. In this article, we propose a comparative analysis between pulsed-dose rate and high-dose rate brachytherapy, based on biological, technological, organizational and financial considerations.

  2. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Dose code recovery activities, Calculation 004

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows` milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

  3. The Dose Response Relationship for Radiation Carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Eric

    2008-03-01

    Recent surveys show that the collective population radiation dose from medical procedures in the U.S. has increased by 750% in the past two decades. It would be impossible to imagine the practice of medicine today without diagnostic and therapeutic radiology, but nevertheless the widespread and rapidly increasing use of a modality which is a known human carcinogen is a cause for concern. To assess the magnitude of the problem it is necessary to establish the shape of the dose response relationship for radiation carcinogenesis. Information on radiation carcinogenesis comes from the A-bomb survivors, from occupationally exposed individuals and from radiotherapy patients. The A-bomb survivor data indicates a linear relationship between dose and the risk of solid cancers up to a dose of about 2.5 Sv. The lowest dose at which there is a significant excess cancer risk is debatable, but it would appear to be between 40 and 100 mSv. Data from the occupation exposure of nuclear workers shows an excess cancer risk at an average dose of 19.4 mSv. At the other end of the dose scale, data on second cancers in radiotherapy patients indicates that cancer risk does not continue to rise as a linear function of dose, but tends towards a plateau of 40 to 60 Gy, delivered in a fractionated regime. These data can be used to estimate the impact of diagnostic radiology at the low dose end of the dose response relationship, and the impact of new radiotherapy modalities at the high end of the dose response relationship. In the case of diagnostic radiology about 90% of the collective population dose comes from procedures (principally CT scans) which involve doses at which there is credible evidence of an excess cancer incidence. While the risk to the individual is small and justified in a symptomatic patient, the same is not true of some screening procedures is asymptomatic individuals, and in any case the huge number of procedures must add up to a potential public health problem. In the

  4. Case Example of Dose Optimization Using Data From Bortezomib Dose-Finding Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Backenroth, Daniel; Cheung, Ying Kuen Ken; Hershman, Dawn L.; Vulih, Diana; Anderson, Barry; Ivy, Percy; Minasian, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The current dose-finding methodology for estimating the maximum tolerated dose of investigational anticancer agents is based on the cytotoxic chemotherapy paradigm. Molecularly targeted agents (MTAs) have different toxicity profiles, which may lead to more long-lasting mild or moderate toxicities as well as to late-onset and cumulative toxicities. Several approved MTAs have been poorly tolerated during long-term administration, leading to postmarketing dose optimization studies to re-evaluate the optimal treatment dose. Using data from completed bortezomib dose-finding trials, we explore its toxicity profile, optimize its dose, and examine the appropriateness of current designs for identifying an optimal dose. Patients and Methods We classified the toxicities captured from 481 patients in 14 bortezomib dose-finding studies conducted through the National Cancer Institute Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, computed the incidence of late-onset toxicities, and compared the incidence of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) among groups of patients receiving different doses of bortezomib. Results A total of 13,008 toxicities were captured: 46% of patients’ first DLTs and 88% of dose reductions or discontinuations of treatment because of toxicity were observed after the first cycle. Moreover, for the approved dose of 1.3 mg/m2, the estimated cumulative incidence of DLT was > 50%, and the estimated cumulative incidence of dose reduction or treatment discontinuation because of toxicity was nearly 40%. Conclusions When considering the entire course of treatment, the approved bortezomib dose exceeds the conventional ceiling DLT rate of 20% to 33%. Retrospective analysis of trial data provides an opportunity for dose optimization of MTAs. Future dose-finding studies of MTAs should take into account late-onset toxicities to ensure that a tolerable dose is identified for future efficacy and comparative trials. PMID:26926682

  5. DICOM organ dose does not accurately represent calculated dose in mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleiman, Moayyad E.; Brennan, Patrick C.; McEntee, Mark F.

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to analyze the agreement between the mean glandular dose estimated by the mammography unit (organ dose) and mean glandular dose calculated using Dance et al published method (calculated dose). Anonymised digital mammograms from 50 BreastScreen NSW centers were downloaded and exposure information required for the calculation of dose was extracted from the DICOM header along with the organ dose estimated by the system. Data from quality assurance annual tests for the included centers were collected and used to calculate the mean glandular dose for each mammogram. Bland-Altman analysis and a two-tailed paired t-test were used to study the agreement between calculated and organ dose and the significance of any differences. A total of 27,869 dose points from 40 centers were included in the study, mean calculated dose and mean organ dose (+/- standard deviation) were 1.47 (+/-0.66) and 1.38 (+/-0.56) mGy respectively. A statistically significant 0.09 mGy bias (t = 69.25; p<0.0001) with 95% limits of agreement between calculated and organ doses ranging from -0.34 and 0.52 were shown by Bland-Altman analysis, which indicates a small yet highly significant difference between the two means. The use of organ dose for dose audits is done at the risk of over or underestimating the calculated dose, hence, further work is needed to identify the causal agents for differences between organ and calculated doses and to generate a correction factor for organ dose.

  6. Estimating thyroid dose in pediatric CT exams from surface dose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Senan, Rani; Mueller, Deborah L.; Hatab, Mustapha R.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of estimating pediatric thyroid doses from CT using surface neck doses. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters were used to measure the neck surface dose of 25 children ranging in ages between one and three years old. The neck circumference for each child was measured. The relationship between obtained surface doses and thyroid dose was studied using acrylic phantoms of various sizes and with holes of different depths. The ratios of hole-to-surface doses were used to convert patients' surface dose to thyroid dose. ImPACT software was utilized to calculate thyroid dose after applying the appropriate age correction factors. A paired t-test was performed to compare thyroid doses from our approach and ImPACT. The ratio of thyroid to surface dose was found to be 1.1. Thyroid doses ranged from 20 to 80 mGy. Comparison showed no statistical significance (p = 0.18). In addition, the average of surface dose variation along the z-axis in helical scans was studied and found to range between 5% (in 10 cm diameter phantom/24 mm collimation/pitch 1.0) and 8% (in 16 cm diameter phantom/12 mm collimation/pitch 0.7). We conclude that surface dose is an acceptable predictor for pediatric thyroid dose from CT. The uncertainty due to surface dose variability may be reduced if narrower collimation is used with a pitch factor close to 1.0. Also, the results did not show any effect of thyroid depth on the measured dose.

  7. Comparison of TID Effects in Space-Like Variable Dose Rates and Constant Dose Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Richard D.; McClure, Steven S.; Rax, Bernard G.; Evans, Robin W.; Jun, Insoo

    2008-01-01

    The degradation of the LM193 dual voltage comparator has been studied at different TID dose rate profiles, including several different constant dose rates and a variable dose rate that simulates the behavior of a solar flare. A comparison of results following constant dose rate vs. variable dose rates is made to explore how well the constant dose rates used for typical part testing predict the performance during a simulated space-like mission. Testing at a constant dose rate equal to the lowest dose rate seen during the simulated flare provides an extremely conservative estimate of the overall amount of degradation. A constant dose rate equal to the average dose rate is also more conservative than the variable rate. It appears that, for this part, weighting the dose rates by the amount of total dose received at each rate (rather than the amount of time at each dose rate) results in an average rate that produces an amount of degradation that is a reasonable approximation to that received by the variable rate.

  8. Impact of Drug Therapy, Radiation Dose, and Dose Rate on Renal Toxicity Following Bone Marrow Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jonathan C.; Schultheiss, Timothy E. Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate a radiation dose response and to determine the dosimetric and chemotherapeutic factors that influence the incidence of late renal toxicity following total body irradiation (TBI). Methods and Materials: A comprehensive retrospective review was performed of articles reporting late renal toxicity, along with renal dose, fractionation, dose rate, chemotherapy regimens, and potential nephrotoxic agents. In the final analysis, 12 articles (n = 1,108 patients), consisting of 24 distinct TBI/chemotherapy conditioning regimens were included. Regimens were divided into three subgroups: adults (age {>=}18 years), children (age <18 years), and mixed population (both adults and children). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify dosimetric and chemotherapeutic factors significantly associated with late renal complications. Results: Individual analysis was performed on each population subgroup. For the purely adult population, the only significant variable was total dose. For the mixed population, the significant variables included total dose, dose rate, and the use of fludarabine. For the pediatric population, only the use of cyclosporin or teniposide was significant; no dose response was noted. A logistic model was generated with the exclusion of the pediatric population because of its lack of dose response. This model yielded the following significant variables: total dose, dose rate, and number of fractions. Conclusion: A dose response for renal damage after TBI was identified. Fractionation and low dose rates are factors to consider when delivering TBI to patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Drug therapy also has a major impact on kidney function and can modify the dose-response function.

  9. Multicriteria optimization of the spatial dose distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaefer, Alexander; Viulet, Tiberiu; Muacevic, Alexander; Fürweger, Christoph

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Treatment planning for radiation therapy involves trade-offs with respect to different clinical goals. Typically, the dose distribution is evaluated based on few statistics and dose–volume histograms. Particularly for stereotactic treatments, the spatial dose distribution represents further criteria, e.g., when considering the gradient between subregions of volumes of interest. The authors have studied how to consider the spatial dose distribution using a multicriteria optimization approach.Methods: The authors have extended a stepwise multicriteria optimization approach to include criteria with respect to the local dose distribution. Based on a three-dimensional visualization of the dose the authors use a software tool allowing interaction with the dose distribution to map objectives with respect to its shape to a constrained optimization problem. Similarly, conflicting criteria are highlighted and the planner decides if and where to relax the shape of the dose distribution.Results: To demonstrate the potential of spatial multicriteria optimization, the tool was applied to a prostate and meningioma case. For the prostate case, local sparing of the rectal wall and shaping of a boost volume are achieved through local relaxations and while maintaining the remaining dose distribution. For the meningioma, target coverage is improved by compromising low dose conformality toward noncritical structures. A comparison of dose–volume histograms illustrates the importance of spatial information for achieving the trade-offs.Conclusions: The results show that it is possible to consider the location of conflicting criteria during treatment planning. Particularly, it is possible to conserve already achieved goals with respect to the dose distribution, to visualize potential trade-offs, and to relax constraints locally. Hence, the proposed approach facilitates a systematic exploration of the optimal shape of the dose distribution.

  10. Biodosimetry and assessment of radiation dose

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Rafael Herranz; Domene, Mercedes Moreno; Rodríguez, María Jesús Prieto

    2011-01-01

    Aim When investigating radiation accidents, it is very important to determine the exposition dose to the individuals. In the case of exposures over 1 Gy, clinicians may expect deterministic effects arising the following weeks and months, in these cases dose estimation will help physicians in the planning of therapy. Nevertheless, for doses below 1 Gy, biodosimetry data are important due to the risk of developing late stochastic effects. Finally, some accidental overexposures are lack of physical measurements and the only way of quantifying dose is by biological dosimetry. Background The analysis of chromosomal aberrations by different techniques is the most developed method of quantifying dose to individuals exposed to ionising radiations.1,2 Furthermore, the analysis of dicentric chromosomes observed in metaphases from peripheral lymphocytes is the routine technique used in case of acute exposures to assess radiation doses. Materials and methods Solid stain of chromosomes is used to determine dicentric yields for dose estimation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for translocations analysis is used when delayed sampling or suspected chronically irradiation dose assessment. Recommendations in technical considerations are based mainly in the IAEA Technical Report No. 405.2 Results Experience in biological dosimetry at Gregorio Marañón General Hospital is described, including own calibration curves used for dose estimation, background studies and real cases of overexposition. Concl