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Sample records for macaca fascicularis dose

  1. Osseointegration of dental implants in Macaca fascicularis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewi, R. S.; Odang, R. W.; Odelia, L.

    2017-08-01

    Osseointegration is an important factor in determining the success of a dental implant. It can be assessed from the osseointegration that occurs between the implant and the bone. The implant stability is determined by the osseous support at the implant-bone interface, which is commonly evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. This study aimed to evaluate whether the osseointegration level measured by a Low Resonance Frequency Analyzer (LRFA) gave results as good as those obtained by histomorphometric examination. Six male Macaca fascicularis were used in this study. In each animal, two types of loading were performed: immediate and delayed loading. Clinical examination and LRFA measurement were performed to determine osseointegration at the first and second weeks and at the first, second, third, and fourth months. After four months, histomorphometric examination was performed. The relationship between the histomorphometric examination and LRFA measurement was compared using the Pearson correlation coefficient. There was no significant difference in the osseointegration between immediate loading and delayed loading (p > 0.05) The bone-implant contact percentage in the first group did not differ significantly from that in the second group. Statistical analysis showed that there was a strong correlation between LRFA measurement and histomorphometric examination. Osseointegration could be evaluated through LRFA measurement as well as through histomorphometric examination.

  2. The whole mitochondrial genome of the Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Li, Ruilei; Wang, Huawei; Yang, Liqin; Zhang, Baoming; Li, Yijiang; Hu, Jiansheng; Kong, Qingpeng

    2015-04-01

    Macaca fascicularis, known as the long-tailed macaque, is widely distributed in southern of East Asia and Southeast Asia. It was one of the most commonly used non-human primates in biomedical research. Thus, to illustrate the maternal phylogenetic status of M. fascicularis in primates based on the whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome and determine a reference sequence for future population genetic studies by taking mtDNA as molecular marker, in this study, the high quality whole mtDNA genome of M. fascicularis was amplified and sequenced. Our data showed that the whole mtDNA genome of M. fascicularis includes 16,571 base pairs (bps). Further phylogenetic analyses of M. fascicularis were performed by incorporating the 83 available whole mtDNA genomes belonging to 77 primate species with Tupaia belangeri as out-group. Our result supported that M. fascicularis belongs to Macaca. Cercopithecinae. Cercopithecidae. Anthropoidea. Primates, which has the closest genetic affinity with Macaca mulatta. In addition, the ancestral divergence between the tarsier and other primate species was supported with evidence from the whole mtDNA genomes.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA sequence phylogeny of 4 populations of the widely distributed cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Blancher, Antoine; Bonhomme, Maxime; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Terao, Keiji; Kitano, Takashi; Saitou, Naruya

    2008-01-01

    We studied the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism of 304 Macaca fascicularis fascicularis (M. f. fascicularis) individuals, representative of 4 cynomolgus macaque populations (Indochina, Indonesia, Philippines, and Mauritius). By sequencing a 590-bp fragment in the hypervariable II region of the D-loop region, we defined 70 haplotypes. The homologous region was also characterized in 22 Chinese Macaca mulatta and 2 Macaca sylvanus. The phylogenetic analysis confirms the monophyly of M. f. fascicularis and defines 2 haplotype groups inside the M. f. fascicularis clade: one "insular," encompassing 6 Philippines, 2 Mauritius, and 31 Indonesian haplotypes, the other "continental" that contains all Indochinese and 6 Indonesian haplotypes. Continental and insular group divergence time was estimated to be approximately 10(6) years before present (BP). Among Indonesian haplotypes, some have a continental origin. This suggests either direct migration from mainland to Indonesia or that remnant lineages from an ancient population genetically close to the mainland (i.e., in the Sunda Shelf, <550 000 years BP) were subsequently brought southward to Indonesia. The low nucleotide diversity in the Philippines population suggests a bottleneck following colonization by Indonesian individuals, around 110 000 years BP. mtDNA and further observations of nuclear genetic data corroborate the mixed origin (Indonesian/continental) hypothesis of Mauritius individuals and a population bottleneck.

  4. Vaginal Stone in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Colagross-Schouten, Angela M; Canfield, Don R

    2015-12-01

    A 20-y-old female cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) housed in an indoor primate facility presented for poor appetite and acute weakness after several years of no adverse health events. Physical examination revealed a firm, ovoid mass in the caudal abdomen. Further evaluation revealed the mass to be a vaginal calculus composed of calcium carbonate, apatite, and struvite. To our knowledge, this case is the first reported description of a vaginal stone in an NHP.

  5. Vaginal Stone in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Colagross-Schouten, Angela M; Canfield, Don R

    2015-01-01

    A 20-y-old female cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) housed in an indoor primate facility presented for poor appetite and acute weakness after several years of no adverse health events. Physical examination revealed a firm, ovoid mass in the caudal abdomen. Further evaluation revealed the mass to be a vaginal calculus composed of calcium carbonate, apatite, and struvite. To our knowledge, this case is the first reported description of a vaginal stone in an NHP. PMID:26678372

  6. Continental Monophyly and Molecular Divergence of Peninsular Malaysia's Macaca fascicularis fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Faiq, Hamdan; Hairul, Mohd Salleh; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) populations distributed in Peninsular Malaysia in relation to other regions remain unknown. The aim of this study was to reveal the phylogeography and population genetics of Peninsular Malaysia's M. f. fascicularis based on the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. Sixty-five haplotypes were detected in all populations, with only Vietnam and Cambodia sharing four haplotypes. The minimum-spanning network projected a distant relationship between Peninsular Malaysian and insular populations. Genetic differentiation (F ST, Nst) results suggested that the gene flow among Peninsular Malaysian and the other populations is very low. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions indicated a monophyletic clade of Malaysia's population with continental populations (NJ = 97%, MP = 76%, and Bayesian = 1.00 posterior probabilities). The results demonstrate that Peninsular Malaysia's M. f. fascicularis belonged to Indochinese populations as opposed to the previously claimed Sundaic populations. M. f. fascicularis groups are estimated to have colonized Peninsular Malaysia ~0.47 million years ago (MYA) directly from Indochina through seaways, by means of natural sea rafting, or through terrestrial radiation during continental shelf emersion. Here, the Isthmus of Kra played a central part as biogeographical barriers that then separated it from the remaining continental populations. PMID:25143948

  7. Mitogenomic phylogeny of the common long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Liedigk, Rasmus; Kolleck, Jakob; Böker, Kai O; Meijaard, Erik; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir; Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ampeng, Ahmad; Lakim, Maklarin; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Tosi, Anthony J; Brameier, Markus; Zinner, Dietmar; Roos, Christian

    2015-03-21

    Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are an important model species in biomedical research and reliable knowledge about their evolutionary history is essential for biomedical inferences. Ten subspecies have been recognized, of which most are restricted to small islands of Southeast Asia. In contrast, the common long-tailed macaque (M. f. fascicularis) is distributed over large parts of the Southeast Asian mainland and the Sundaland region. To shed more light on the phylogeny of M. f. fascicularis, we sequenced complete mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes of 40 individuals from all over the taxon's range, either by classical PCR-amplification and Sanger sequencing or by DNA-capture and high-throughput sequencing. Both laboratory approaches yielded complete mtDNA genomes from M. f. fascicularis with high accuracy and/or coverage. According to our phylogenetic reconstructions, M. f. fascicularis initially diverged into two clades 1.70 million years ago (Ma), with one including haplotypes from mainland Southeast Asia, the Malay Peninsula and North Sumatra (Clade A) and the other, haplotypes from the islands of Bangka, Java, Borneo, Timor, and the Philippines (Clade B). The three geographical populations of Clade A appear as paraphyletic groups, while local populations of Clade B form monophyletic clades with the exception of a Philippine individual which is nested within the Borneo clade. Further, in Clade B the branching pattern among main clades/lineages remains largely unresolved, most likely due to their relatively rapid diversification 0.93-0.84 Ma. Both laboratory methods have proven to be powerful to generate complete mtDNA genome data with similarly high accuracy, with the DNA-capture and high-throughput sequencing approach as the most promising and only practical option to obtain such data from highly degraded DNA, in time and with relatively low costs. The application of complete mtDNA genomes yields new insights into the evolutionary history of M. f

  8. Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    IWAMA, Ryosuke; SATO, Tsubasa; SAKURAI, Ken; TAKASUNA, Kiyoshi; ICHIJO, Toshihiro; FURUHAMA, Kazuhisa; SATOH, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), a three-blood-sample method using iodixanol was assessed in comparison with the conventional multisample strategy using inulin. Iodixanol and inulin were coadministered intravenously 40 mg I/kg and 50 mg/kg, respectively, to male monkeys, followed by blood collection 60, 90 and 120 min later. A close correlation (r=0.96) was noted between the GFR values estimated by both methods. In clinically healthy monkeys, the basal values were determined to be 3.06 ± 0.50 ml/min/kg. This is the first report, suggesting that serum clearance of iodixanol is a ready-to-use tool for a screening the GFR in monkeys, although it is necessary to perform a more longitudinal study using animals with reduced renal function. PMID:24998395

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are highly conserved in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques

    PubMed Central

    Street, Summer L; Kyes, Randall C; Grant, Richard; Ferguson, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Background Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus or longtail macaques) is the most commonly used non-human primate in biomedical research. Little is known about the genomic variation in cynomolgus macaques or how the sequence variants compare to those of the well-studied related species, Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaque). Previously we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in portions of 94 rhesus macaque genes and reported that Indian and Chinese rhesus had largely different SNPs. Here we identify SNPs from some of the same genomic regions of cynomolgus macaques (from Indochina, Indonesia, Mauritius and the Philippines) and compare them to the SNPs found in rhesus. Results We sequenced a portion of 10 genes in 20 cynomolgus macaques. We identified 69 SNPs in these regions, compared with 71 SNPs found in the same genomic regions of 20 Indian and Chinese rhesus macaques. Thirty six (52%) of the M. fascicularis SNPs were overlapping in both species. The majority (70%) of the SNPs found in both Chinese and Indian rhesus macaque populations were also present in M. fascicularis. Of the SNPs previously found in a single rhesus population, 38% (Indian) and 44% (Chinese) were also identified in cynomolgus macaques. In an alternative approach, we genotyped 100 cynomolgus DNAs using a rhesus macaque SNP array representing 53 genes and found that 51% (29/57) of the rhesus SNPs were present in M. fascicularis. Comparisons of SNP profiles from cynomolgus macaques imported from breeding centers in China (where M. fascicularis are not native) showed they were similar to those from Indochina. Conclusion This study demonstrates a surprisingly high conservation of SNPs between M. fascicularis and M. mulatta, suggesting that the relationship of these two species is closer than that suggested by morphological and mitochondrial DNA analysis alone. These findings indicate that SNP discovery efforts in either species will generate useful resources for both macaque species

  10. Pharmacokinetics of cefovecin in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Raabe, Brigitte M; Lovaglio, Jamie; Grover, G Scott; Brown, Scott A; Boucher, Joseph F; Yuan, Yang; Civil, Jacqueline R; Gillhouse, Kimberly A; Stubbs, Makeida N; Hoggatt, Amber F; Halliday, Lisa C; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2011-05-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 ± 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 ± 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 ± 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Olive Baboons (Papio anubis), and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Raabe, Brigitte M.; Lovaglio, Jamie.; Grover, G Scott.; Brown, Scott A.; Boucher, Joseph F.; Yuan, Yang.; Civil, Jacqueline R.; Gillhouse, Kimberly A.; Stubbs, Makeida N.; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Halliday, Lisa C.; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 ± 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 ± 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 ± 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage. PMID:21640036

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Olive Baboons (Papio anubis), and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatto)

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, Brigitte M.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Grover, GScott; Brown, Scott A.; Boucher, Joseph F.; Yuan, Yang; Civil, Jacqueline R.; Gillhouse, Kimberly A.; Stubbs, Makeida N.; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Halliday, Lisa C.; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-05-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 {+-} 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 {+-} 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 {+-} 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage.

  13. Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Cassondra; Dunn, Betty G; Brothman, Arthur R; Jr, Edward J Dick; Christensen, Chris; Voges, Andra; Moore, Charleen M

    2012-01-01

    A 2.3-y-old female cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) presented with a broken right tibia and fibula. Radiographs showed multiple cyst-like defects in all long bones. We suspected that both fractures were pathologic because they occurred through these defects. Ultrasonography, MRI, and dual X-ray absorptiometry revealed that the defects were filled with soft tissue. Grossly, the bones were abnormal in shape, and a gelatinous material filled the defects and the surrounding marrow cavity. Histologically, the gelatinous material was composed of fibrin and cartilage; few normal bone cells were seen. Genetic testing revealed extra material on the short arm of chromosome 8 in all tissues examined, but no copy number alterations of likely clinical significance were observed, and no abnormalities were found that were unique to the lesions. In light of the clinical signs and radiographic and pathologic findings, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia was diagnosed. This report represents the first documented case of fibrous dysplasia in a cynomolgus macaque. PMID:22546922

  14. Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) immunoglobulin heavy chain locus description.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guo-Yun; Mate, Suzanne; Garcia, Karla; Ward, Michael D; Brueggemann, Ernst; Hall, Matthew; Kenny, Tara; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have become an important animal model for biomedical research. In particular, it is the animal model of choice for the development of vaccine candidates associated with emerging dangerous pathogens. Despite their increasing importance as animal models, the cynomolgus macaque genome is not fully characterized, hindering molecular studies for this model. More importantly, the lack of knowledge about the immunoglobulin (IG) locus organization directly impacts the analysis of the humoral response in cynomolgus macaques. Recent advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to analyze IG repertoires open the opportunity to deeply characterize the humoral immune response. However, the IG locus organization for the animal is required to completely dissect IG repertoires. Here, we describe the localization and organization of the rearranging IG heavy (IGH) genes on chromosome 7 of the cynomolgus macaque draft genome. Our annotation comprises 108 functional genes which include 63 variable (IGHV), 38 diversity (IGHD), and 7 joining (IGHJ) genes. For validation, we provide RNA transcript data for most of the IGHV genes and all of the annotated IGHJ genes, as well as proteomic data to validate IGH constant genes. The description and annotation of the rearranging IGH genes for the cynomolgus macaques will significantly facilitate scientific research. This is particularly relevant to dissect the immune response during vaccination or infection with dangerous pathogens such as Ebola, Marburg and other emerging pathogens where non-human primate models play a significant role for countermeasure development.

  15. Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia in a cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Cassondra; Dunn, Betty G; Brothman, Arthur R; Dick, Edward J; Christensen, Chris; Voges, Andra; Moore, Charleen M

    2012-04-01

    A 2.3-y-old female cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) presented with a broken right tibia and fibula. Radiographs showed multiple cyst-like defects in all long bones. We suspected that both fractures were pathologic because they occurred through these defects. Ultrasonography, MRI, and dual X-ray absorptiometry revealed that the defects were filled with soft tissue. Grossly, the bones were abnormal in shape, and a gelatinous material filled the defects and the surrounding marrow cavity. Histologically, the gelatinous material was composed of fibrin and cartilage; few normal bone cells were seen. Genetic testing revealed extra material on the short arm of chromosome 8 in all tissues examined, but no copy number alterations of likely clinical significance were observed, and no abnormalities were found that were unique to the lesions. In light of the clinical signs and radiographic and pathologic findings, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia was diagnosed. This report represents the first documented case of fibrous dysplasia in a cynomolgus macaque.

  16. Evaluation of Infrared Thermometry in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Laffins, Michael M; Mellal, Nacera; Almlie, Cynthia L; Regalia, Douglas E

    2017-01-01

    Recording an accurate body temperature is important to assess an animal's health status. We compared temperature data from sedated cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to evaluate differences between rectal, infrared (inguinal and chest), and implanted telemetry techniques with the objective of demonstrating the diagnostic equivalence of the infrared device with other approaches. Infrared thermometer readings are instantaneous and require no contact with the animal. Body temperature data were obtained from 205 (137 male, 68 female) cynomolgus macaques under ketamine (10 mg/kg IM) sedation over a 3-mo period during scheduled physical examinations. Infrared measurements were taken 5 cm from the chest and inguinal areas. We evaluated 10 (9 functional devices) sedated cynomolgus macaques (5 male, 5 female) implanted with telemetry units in a muscular pouch between the internal and external abdominal oblique muscles. We determined that the mean body temperature acquired by using telemetry did not differ from either the mean of inguinal and chest infrared measurements but did differ from the mean of temperature obtained rectally. In addition, the mean rectal temperature differed from the mean of the inguinal reading but not the mean of the chest temperature. The results confirm our hypothesis that the infrared thermometer can be used to replace standard rectal thermometry. PMID:28905720

  17. Construction and validation of a systematic ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a free enclosure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Xie, Liang; Li, Xin; Li, Qi; Wang, Tao; Ji, Yongjia; Kong, Fei; Zhan, Qunlin; Cheng, Ke; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations.

  18. Construction and Validation of a Systematic Ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a Free Enclosure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Ji, Yongjia; Kong, Fei; Zhan, Qunlin; Cheng, Ke; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations. PMID:22662158

  19. Incidence of ketamine-induced emesis in cynomologus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) used for staphylococcal enterotoxin bioassay.

    PubMed Central

    Adesiyun, A. A.; Tatini, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    Ten (24%) of 41 cynomologus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) showed emetic response to 2.5-20 mg/Kg of ketamine injected i.m. Reduction of the levels of ketamine to one half or less of the emetic level resulted in faster recovery from sedation yet provided adequate time for intubation and subsequent intragastric feeding of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) in only 6 of the 10 monkeys without emesis. The onset of the first emetic episode with ketamine was similar to that induced by staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA). Cynomologus monkeys showing emetic response to ketamine could still be used for SE bioassay if an experimentally determined non-emetic dose for individual monkeys is employed for sedation. PMID:7093145

  20. Neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Akiko; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K.; Okazaki, Takanobu; Kobayashi, Kinji; Nakatsuji, Shunji; Matsumoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    A male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) of 5 years and 11 months of age from the vehicle control group of a 4-week repeated oral dose toxicity study had a spontaneously occurring mass lesion directly attached to the proximal part of the left trigeminal nerve. Histologically, the mass was characterized by a multifocal nodular appearance. Nodular zones showed low to moderate cellularity and were composed of small round cells exhibiting nuclear uniformity. On the other hand, inter-nodular zones were composed of nerve fiber containing septa and closely aggregated highly pleomorphic cells. Immunohistochemically, the small round cells were strongly immunopositive for synaptophysin, neuN, and class III beta-tubulin, while the highly pleomorphic cells were weakly immunopositive for neuN and occasionally immunopositive for class III beta-tubulin and doublecortin, suggesting that the tumor had originated from a neuronal lineage cell. Based on these findings, the mass was diagnosed as a neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve. PMID:27559245

  1. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Transdermal Fentanyl in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Amy M; Kelly, Richard; Fetterer, David P; Rico, Pedro J; Bailey, Emily J

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is a μ-opioid agonist that often is used as the analgesic component for balanced anesthesia in both human and veterinary patients. Minimal information has been published regarding appropriate dosing, and the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl are unknown in NHP. The pharmacokinetic properties of 2 transdermal fentanyl delivery methods, a solution (2.6 and 1.95 mg/kg) and a patch (25 µg/h), were determined when applied topically to the dorsal scapular area of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Serum fentanyl concentrations were analyzed by using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Compared with the patch, the transdermal fentanyl solution generated higher drug concentrations over longer time. Adverse reactions occurred in the macaques that received the transdermal fentanyl solution at 2.6 mg/kg. Both preparations showed significant interanimal variability in the maximal serum drug levels, time to achieve maximal fentanyl levels, elimination half-life, and AUC values. Both the maximal concentration and the time at which this concentration occurred were increased in macaques compared with most other species after application of the transdermal fentanyl patch and compared with dogs after application of the transdermal fentanyl solution. The pharmacokinetic properties of transdermal fentanyl in macaques are markedly different from those in other veterinary species and preclude its use as a long-acting analgesic drug in NHP. PMID:27423151

  2. Urinary cystic calculi in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis): a case report.

    PubMed

    Stephens, E C; Middleton, C C; Thompson, L J

    1979-12-01

    An adult female Macaca fascicularis monkey became acutely anorexic and depressed and was found dead approximately 24 hours later. Necropsy revealed three hard brownish-yellow stones within the urinary bladder and urethra, a moderately shrunken left kidney, hemorrhage of the medulla of the left adrenal gland and a yellow liver. The stones, one of which was lodged in the urethra, were 1-2.5 cm in diameter, and their surfaces were rough and covered with spines. Chemical analysis of the stones revealed oxalates, phosphates, carbonates, ammonium salts, magnesium and calcium. Microscopic examination revealed chronic interstitial and glomerular nephritis and papillary hyperplasia of the transitional epithelium of the bladder.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Buprenorphine in Macaques (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Halliday, Lisa C; Moody, David E; Fang, Wenfang B; Lindeblad, Matthew; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Buprenorphine is the cornerstone of pain management in nonhuman primates, but the pharmacokinetics of this widely used drug are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of buprenorphine (0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg IM) and sustained-release buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg SC) in 2 macaque species (M. mulatta and M. fascicularis) by using mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetics did not differ significantly between species, and buprenorphine was dose-proportional at the tested doses. The low and high doses of buprenorphine had elimination half-lives of 2.6 ± 0.7 and 5.3 ± 2.0 h, respectively, but the low-dose data were constrained by the sensitivity of the analytical method. Sustained-release buprenorphine had an elimination half-life of 42.6 ± 26.2 h. The AUC0-Tlast of buprenorphine were 9.1 ± 4.3 and 39.0 ± 25.1 ng×h/mL for the low and high doses, respectively, and sustained-release buprenorphine had an AUC0-Tlast of 177 ± 74 ng×h/mL. Assuming a hypothesized therapeutic buprenorphine plasma concentration threshold of 0.1 ng/mL in macaques, these results suggest that buprenorphine doses of 0.01 mg/kg IM should be administered every 6 to 8 h, whereas doses of 0.03 mg/kg IM can be administered every 12 h. These results further demonstrate that a single 0.2-mg/kg SC injection of sustained-release buprenorphine maintains plasma concentrations above 0.1 ng/mL for 5 d in macaques. These findings support a new dosing strategy using sustained-release buprenorphine to improve pain management, decrease animal stress, improve animal welfare, and simplify the postoperative management of nonhuman primates in laboratory animal and zoological settings. PMID:23562033

  4. Effects elicited by toxaphene in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis): a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bryce, F; Iverson, F; Andrews, P; Barker, M; Cherry, W; Mueller, R; Pulido, O; Hayward, S; Fernie, S; Arnold, D L

    2001-12-01

    Toxaphene, which was added to glycerol/corn oil, was administered at a level of 1 mg/kg body weight/day in gelatin capsules to four healthy young adult cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys for 52 weeks. Four control monkeys ingested capsules containing only glycerol/corn oil. Each group had two males and two females. On a daily basis, each monkey's feed and water consumption was determined, its health was monitored and the females were swabbed to evaluate menstrual status. On a weekly basis, each monkey's body weight was determined and a detailed clinical evaluation was performed. At 4-week intervals, blood samples were taken for serum biochemistry, haematology and toxaphene analysis. Also, a local anaesthetic was administered to the nuchal fat pad area of each monkey, and adipose samples were obtained for toxaphene analysis. 1 day prior to the biopsies, a 24-h urine and faecal collection was obtained for toxaphene analysis. After 34 weeks of treatment, the immune system of the monkeys was evaluated. After 52 weeks of dosing, all treated and two control animals were necropsied. Liver samples were obtained and microsomal fractions were prepared immediately. A portion of liver and kidney was taken for toxaphene analysis. All of the major internal organs were weighed and bone marrow evaluations were conducted. Organ and tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin and processed for light microscopy. There was no effect of treatment on body weight gain, feed consumption, water consumption or haematological parameters. Two major clinical findings were inflammation and/or enlargement of the tarsal gland and impacted diverticulae in the upper and lower eye lids. At necropsy, the relative spleen and thymus weights were greater for the treated monkeys than the controls. Toxaphene administration produced an increase in metabolism of aminopyrene, methoxyresorufin and ethoxyresorufin, three substrates that are altered specifically by cytochrome P450-based hepatic

  5. Mitochondrial DNA and two Y-chromosome genes of common long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) throughout Thailand and vicinity.

    PubMed

    Bunlungsup, Srichan; Imai, Hiroo; Hamada, Yuzuru; Matsudaira, Kazunari; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2017-02-01

    Macaca fascicularis fascicularis is distributed over a wide area of Southeast Asia. Thailand is located at the center of their distribution range and is the bridge connecting the two biogeographic regions of Indochina and Sunda. However, only a few genetic studies have explored the macaques in this region. To shed some light on the evolutionary history of M. f. fascicularis, including hybridization with M. mulatta, M. f. fascicularis and M. mulatta samples of known origins throughout Thailand and the vicinity were analyzed by molecular phylogenetics using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), including the hypervariable region 1, and Y-chromosomal DNA, including SRY and TSPY genes. The mtDNA phylogenetic analysis divided M. f. fascicularis into five subclades (Insular Indonesia, Sundaic Thai Gulf, Vietnam, Sundaic Andaman sea coast, and Indochina) and revealed genetic differentiation between the two sides of the Thai peninsula, which had previously been reported as a single group of Malay peninsular macaques. From the estimated divergence time of the Sundaic Andaman sea coast subclade, it is proposed that after M. f. fascicularis dispersed throughout Southeast Asia, some populations on the south-easternmost Indochina (eastern Thailand, southern Cambodia and southern Vietnam at the present time) migrated south-westwards across the land bridge, which was exposed during the glacial period of the late Pleistocene epoch, to the southernmost Thailand/northern peninsular Malaysia. Then, some of them migrated north and south to colonize the Thai Andaman sea coast and northern Sumatra, respectively. The SRY-TSPY phylogenetic analysis suggested that male-mediated gene flow from M. mulatta southward to M. f. fascicularis was restricted south of, but close to, the Isthmus of Kra. There was a strong impact of the geographical factors in Thailand, such as the Isthmus of Kra, Nakhon Si Thammarat, and Phuket ranges and Sundaland, on M. f. fascicularis biogeography and their hybridization

  6. Visible lesion laser thresholds in Cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) retina with a 1064 nm 12-ns pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Stolarski, David J.; Noojin, Gary D.; Hodnett, Harvey M.; Imholte, Michelle L.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Kumru, Semih S.

    2007-02-01

    A series of experiments in a new animal model for retinal damage, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), have been conducted to determine the damage threshold for 12.5-nanosecond laser exposures at 1064 nm. These results provide a direct comparison to threshold values obtained in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), which is the model historically used in establishing retinal maximum permissible exposure (MPE) limits. In this study, the irradiance level of a collimated Gaussian laser beam of 2.5 mm diameter at the cornea was randomly varied to produce a rectangular grid of exposures on the retina. Exposures sites were fundoscopically evaluated at post-irradiance intervals of 1 hour and 24 hours. Probit analysis was performed on dose-response data to obtain probability of response curves. The 50% probability of damage (ED50) values for 1 and 24 hours post-exposure are 28.5(22.7-38.4) μJ and 17.0(12.9-21.8) μJ, respectively. These values compare favorably to data obtained with the rhesus model, 28.7(22.3-39.3) μJ and 19.1(13.6-24.4) μJ, suggesting that the cynomolgus monkey may be a suitable replacement for rhesus monkey in photoacoustic minimum visible lesion threshold studies.

  7. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor and Bleeding in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Marnie G; El-Amin, Colette Kirk; Shively, Carol A

    2014-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are associated with an increased bleeding risk in humans. This report describes a bleeding event in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) treated with the SSRI sertraline HCl (Zoloft). During the treatment course, the subject presented with a maculopapular rash, cutaneous bleeding, epistaxis, bleeding from the eye, melena, and a severe thrombocytopenia. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of an SSRI-related adverse event in a nonhuman primate. This report demonstrates that the clinical presentation of SSRI-associated bleeding in cynomolgus macaques is consistent with that reported in humans and that complications from SSRI treatment should be considered as a differential diagnosis for maculopapular dermatitis or spontaneous bleeding in this species. PMID:24956214

  8. Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in Macaca fascicularis Using Archived Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jeff T.; Mubiru, James N.; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E.; Rubicz, Rohina C.; VandeBerg, John L.; Dick, Edward J.; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods developed to detect and quantify Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks archived for periods of up to 6 years. The highest concentration of T. cruzi DNA was found in the myocardium, urinary bladder, stomach, lymph node, adrenal gland, and colon. The concentration of T. cruzi DNA detected in cardiac tissues was 10–100-fold greater than found elsewhere; the mean concentrations of T. cruzi DNA in non-cardiac tissues were otherwise comparable. Trypanosoma cruzi DNA was amplified from cerebrum but not cerebellum or kidney. Successful use of DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks is important because most pathology laboratories routinely archive wax blocks. This archived resource can be used for further studies on the prevalence of this disease. PMID:19635875

  9. Light and scanning electron microscopical study of the cavernous sinus of the monkey, Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, K; Ling, E A

    1985-01-01

    The cavernous sinus of Macaca fascicularis is in many respects similar to the human sinus. It consists predominantly of one main venous channel that, together with the internal carotid artery, occupies a meningo-endocranial compartment lateral to the pituitary gland. Trabeculae are few and do not in any way cause the sinus to appear cavernous. They are mostly flattened in the direction of the main venous channel. Cranial nerves three, four, six and the ophthalmic division of five are all located in the lateral wall of the meningo-endocranial compartment with cranial nerve six located most medially adjacent to the internal carotid artery. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:4077687

  10. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and bleeding in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Marnie G; El-Amin, Colette Kirk; Shively, Carol A

    2014-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are associated with an increased bleeding risk in humans. This report describes a bleeding event in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) treated with the SSRI sertraline HCl (Zoloft). During the treatment course, the subject presented with a maculopapular rash, cutaneous bleeding, epistaxis, bleeding from the eye, melena, and a severe thrombocytopenia. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of an SSRI-related adverse event in a nonhuman primate. This report demonstrates that the clinical presentation of SSRI-associated bleeding in cynomolgus macaques is consistent with that reported in humans and that complications from SSRI treatment should be considered as a differential diagnosis for maculopapular dermatitis or spontaneous bleeding in this species.

  11. Bilateral hamartomatous medullary lipoma within the nasal turbinate bones in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    KATSUTA, Osamu; SHIBATA, Toru; KURIKI-YAMAMOTO, Yumi; MOCHIZUKI, Takaharu; YOSHIMI, Miwa; NOTO, Takahisa; MANO, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    A 15-year-old male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) showed large bilateral masses in the maxillary sinus. In histopathological examination, both masses revealed benign medullary lipomas within the turbinate bones. The tumors were composed of well-developed lipocytes, trabecular bones and a few blood vessels. Although we initially diagnosed the tumor as bilateral lipomas in the nasal turbinates, it was not differentiated from lipomatous hamartoma. Findings, such as unique symmetrical proliferation, lack of border from the normal marrow and the intact surrounding tissue, indicated a lipomatous hamartoma/hamartomatous lipoma, thought to be a suitable diagnosis of the lesion. Of most interest was that such a proliferating lesion occurred in the nasal turbinate. PMID:27499062

  12. Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma and Juxtacortical Chondrosarcoma in Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Schmelting, Barthel; Zöller, Martina; Kaspareit, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Literature on spontaneous primary bone tumors in nonhuman primates is sparse. This case report describes 2 different neoplastic bone lesions in 2 adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), including macroscopic, radiographic, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings. In one monkey, a firm mass located at the palatogingival junction of the left rostral maxilla was confirmed to be a peripheral ossifying fibroma in light of its histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics. In another monkey, a lobulated tumor at the right distal femur that radiographically showed moderate radiopacity with splotchy areas of mineralization was confirmed to be a juxtacortical chondrosarcoma on histologic examination. The 2 neoplastic bone lesions revealed rare histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics and contribute to the known tumor spectrum of cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:21333171

  13. Infection by Brazilian and Dutch swine hepatitis E virus strains induces haematological changes in Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described as an emerging pathogen in Brazil and seems to be widely disseminated among swine herds. An autochthonous human case of acute hepatitis E was recently reported. To obtain a better understanding of the phenotypic profiles of both human and swine HEV strains, a experimental study was conducted using the animal model, Macaca fascicularis. Methods Six cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were inoculated intravenously with swine HEV genotype 3 that was isolated from naturally and experimentally infected pigs in Brazil and the Netherlands. Two other monkeys were inoculated with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from Brazilian and Argentinean patients with locally acquired acute and fulminant hepatitis E. The haematological, biochemical, and virological parameters of all animals were monitored for 67 days. Results Subclinical hepatitis was observed in all monkeys after inoculation with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from the infected swine and human patients. HEV RNA was detected in the serum and/or faeces of 6 out of the 8 cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 53 days after inoculation. The mild inflammation of liver tissues and elevations of discrete liver enzymes were observed. Seroconversions to anti-HEV IgM and/or IgG were detected in 7 animals. Reactivities to anti-HEV IgA were also detected in the salivary samples of 3 animals. Interestingly, all of the infected monkeys showed severe lymphopenia and a trend toward monocytosis, which coincided with elevations in alanine aminotransferase and antibody titres. Conclusions The ability of HEV to cross the species barrier was confirmed for both the swine (Brazilian and Dutch) and human (Argentinean) strains, thus reinforcing the zoonotic risk of hepatitis E in South America. Cynomolgus monkeys that were infected with HEV genotype 3 developed subclinical hepatitis that was associated with haematological changes. Haematological approaches should be considered in

  14. Estrogen/isoflavone interactions in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Cline, J Mark; Wood, Charles E

    2009-09-01

    Soy isoflavones are phytoestrogenic components of dietary soy, which are widely consumed for their potential health benefits. Soy isoflavones appear to decrease breast and endometrial cancer risk in human observational studies, but paradoxically stimulate growth of breast cancer cells in culture and uterine enlargement in rodents. We have shown that these compounds are not estrogenic in cynomolgus monkeys even at relatively high doses, but that they reduce estrogen-induced proliferative responses of the breast and endometrium. This effect may be mediated through estrogen receptor interactions and/or modulation of endogenous estrogen metabolism. Interindividual variation in isoflavone absorption and metabolism contributes to the degree of estrogen antagonistic effect. Our recent studies have also shown that individual isoflavone metabolites such as glyceollins may have unique selective estrogen receptor modulator-like activity, acting as tissue-specific antagonists without agonist activity. Rodent studies and human epidemiologic data suggest that timing of exposure and dose relative to endogenous estrogen concentrations are important determinants of effect, and studies of dietary soy on breast development and pubertal maturation are under way. Because soy isoflavones are both abundant in standard monkey chow diets and widely available as dietary supplements for human beings, these findings have broad relevance to the health of human and nonhuman primates.

  15. Whole-genome sequencing and analysis of the Malaysian cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) genome.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Atsunori; Sakate, Ryuichi; Kameoka, Yosuke; Takahashi, Ichiro; Hirata, Makoto; Tanuma, Reiko; Masui, Tohru; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Osada, Naoki

    2012-07-02

    The genetic background of the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is made complex by the high genetic diversity, population structure, and gene introgression from the closely related rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Herein we report the whole-genome sequence of a Malaysian cynomolgus macaque male with more than 40-fold coverage, which was determined using a resequencing method based on the Indian rhesus macaque genome. We identified approximately 9.7 million single nucleotide variants (SNVs) between the Malaysian cynomolgus and the Indian rhesus macaque genomes. Compared with humans, a smaller nonsynonymous/synonymous SNV ratio in the cynomolgus macaque suggests more effective removal of slightly deleterious mutations. Comparison of two cynomolgus (Malaysian and Vietnamese) and two rhesus (Indian and Chinese) macaque genomes, including previously published macaque genomes, suggests that Indochinese cynomolgus macaques have been more affected by gene introgression from rhesus macaques. We further identified 60 nonsynonymous SNVs that completely differentiated the cynomolgus and rhesus macaque genomes, and that could be important candidate variants for determining species-specific responses to drugs and pathogens. The demographic inference using the genome sequence data revealed that Malaysian cynomolgus macaques have experienced at least three population bottlenecks. This list of whole-genome SNVs will be useful for many future applications, such as an array-based genotyping system for macaque individuals. High-quality whole-genome sequencing of the cynomolgus macaque genome may aid studies on finding genetic differences that are responsible for phenotypic diversity in macaques and may help control genetic backgrounds among individuals.

  16. Antibody responses of Macaca fascicularis against a new inactivated polio vaccine derived from Sabin strains (sIPV) in DTaP-sIPV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Shiosaki, K; Goto, Y; Sonoda, K; Kino, Y

    2013-05-01

    Antibody responses of Macaca fascicularis against a new tetravalent vaccine composed of diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis antigens, and inactivated poliovirus derived from Sabin strains (sIPV) was investigated to predict an optimal dose of sIPV in a new tetravalent vaccine (DTaP-sIPV) prior to conducting a dose-defined clinical study. Monkeys were inoculated with DTaP-sIPVs containing three different antigen units of sIPVs: Vaccine A (types 1:2:3 = 3:100:100 DU), Vaccine B (types 1:2:3 = 1.5:50:50 DU), and Vaccine C (types 1:2:3 = 0.75:25:25 DU). There was no difference in the average titers of neutralizing antibody against the attenuated or virulent polioviruses between Vaccines A and B. The average neutralizing antibody titers of Vaccine C tended to be lower than those of Vaccines A and B. The sIPV antigens did not affect the anti-diphtheria or anti-tetanus antibody titers of DTaP-sIPV. Furthermore, the average neutralizing antibody titers of Vaccine A against the attenuated and virulent polioviruses were comparable between M. fascicularis and humans. These results suggest that M. fascicularis may be a useful animal model for predicting the antibody responses to sIPVs in humans, and that it may be likely to reduce the amount of sIPVs contained in DTaP-sIPVs, even for humans.

  17. Geographical, genetic and functional diversity of antiretroviral host factor TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Saito, Akatsuki; Kono, Ken; Nomaguchi, Masako; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Adachi, Akio; Shioda, Tatsuo; Akari, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Emi E

    2012-03-01

    The antiretroviral factor tripartite motif protein 5 (TRIM5) gene-derived isoform (TRIMCyp) has been found in at least three species of Old World monkey: rhesus (Macaca mulatta), pig-tailed (Macaca nemestrina) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques. Although the frequency of TRIMCyp has been well studied in rhesus and pig-tailed macaques, the frequency and prevalence of TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaques remain to be definitively elucidated. Here, the geographical and genetic diversity of TRIM5α/TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaques was studied in comparison with their anti-lentiviral activity. It was found that the frequency of TRIMCyp in a population in the Philippines was significantly higher than those in Indonesian and Malaysian populations. Major and minor haplotypes of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp with single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cyclophilin A domain were also found. The functional significance of the polymorphism in TRIMCyp was examined, and it was demonstrated that the major haplotype of TRIMCyp suppressed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but not HIV-2, whilst the minor haplotype of TRIMCyp suppressed HIV-2 but not HIV-1. The major haplotype of TRIMCyp did not restrict a monkey-tropic HIV-1 clone, NL-DT5R, which contains a capsid with the simian immunodeficiency virus-derived loop between α-helices 4 and 5 and the entire vif gene. These results indicate that polymorphisms of TRIMCyp affect its anti-lentiviral activity. Overall, the results of this study will help our understanding of the genetic background of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp, as well as the host factors composing species barriers of primate lentiviruses.

  18. Geographical, genetic and functional diversity of antiretroviral host factor TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Akatsuki; Kono, Ken; Nomaguchi, Masako; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Shioda, Tatsuo; Akari, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    The antiretroviral factor tripartite motif protein 5 (TRIM5) gene-derived isoform (TRIMCyp) has been found in at least three species of Old World monkey: rhesus (Macaca mulatta), pig-tailed (Macaca nemestrina) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques. Although the frequency of TRIMCyp has been well studied in rhesus and pig-tailed macaques, the frequency and prevalence of TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaques remain to be definitively elucidated. Here, the geographical and genetic diversity of TRIM5α/TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaques was studied in comparison with their anti-lentiviral activity. It was found that the frequency of TRIMCyp in a population in the Philippines was significantly higher than those in Indonesian and Malaysian populations. Major and minor haplotypes of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp with single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cyclophilin A domain were also found. The functional significance of the polymorphism in TRIMCyp was examined, and it was demonstrated that the major haplotype of TRIMCyp suppressed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but not HIV-2, whilst the minor haplotype of TRIMCyp suppressed HIV-2 but not HIV-1. The major haplotype of TRIMCyp did not restrict a monkey-tropic HIV-1 clone, NL-DT5R, which contains a capsid with the simian immunodeficiency virus-derived loop between α-helices 4 and 5 and the entire vif gene. These results indicate that polymorphisms of TRIMCyp affect its anti-lentiviral activity. Overall, the results of this study will help our understanding of the genetic background of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp, as well as the host factors composing species barriers of primate lentiviruses. PMID:22113010

  19. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis) using transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Zhang, Rui; Jing, Ying; Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Chang; Wang, Jin; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Junfeng; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chenyu; Li, Donghai

    2014-02-25

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), with an average length between 16 nt and 26 nt, are small non-coding RNAs that can repress gene expression on the post-transcriptional level. Macaca fascicularis (M. fascicularis), one of the most important nonhuman primate animal models, is widely used in basic and applied preclinical research, especially in studies that involve neuroscience and disease. However, due to the lack of a complete genome sequence, the miRNAs in M. fascicularis have not been completely characterized. In this study, 86 putative M. fascicularis miRNAs were identified using a strategy of our design. The expression of some of these miRNAs in the tissue was confirmed by qRT-PCR. The function and pathway of their targeted genes were analyzed to reveal the potential relevance of miRNA regulation on diseases and physiological processes. The current study provides insight into potential miRNAs and forms a useful knowledge base for the future understanding of the function of miRNAs in M. fascicularis.

  20. Attenuation of neurovirulence, biodistribution, and shedding of a poliovirus:rhinovirus chimera after intrathalamic inoculation in Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Dobrikova, Elena Y; Goetz, Christian; Walters, Robert W; Lawson, Sarah K; Peggins, James O; Muszynski, Karen; Ruppel, Sheryl; Poole, Karyol; Giardina, Steven L; Vela, Eric M; Estep, James E; Gromeier, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    A dependence of poliovirus on an unorthodox translation initiation mode can be targeted selectively to drive viral protein synthesis and cytotoxicity in malignant cells. Transformed cells are naturally susceptible to poliovirus, due to widespread ectopic upregulation of the poliovirus receptor, Necl-5, in ectodermal/neuroectodermal cancers. Viral tumor cell killing and the host immunologic response it engenders produce potent, lasting antineoplastic effects in animal tumor models. Clinical application of this principle depends on unequivocal demonstration of safety in primate models for paralytic poliomyelitis. We conducted extensive dose-range-finding, toxicity, biodistribution, shedding, and neutralizing antibody studies of the prototype oncolytic poliovirus recombinant, PVS-RIPO, after intrathalamic inoculation in Macaca fascicularis. These studies suggest that intracerebral PVS-RIPO inoculation does not lead to viral propagation in the central nervous system (CNS), does not cause histopathological CNS lesions or neurological symptoms that can be attributed to the virus, is not associated with extraneural virus dissemination or replication and does not induce shedding of virus with stool. Intrathalamic PVS-RIPO inoculation induced neutralizing antibody responses against poliovirus serotype 1 in all animals studied.

  1. Attenuation of Neurovirulence, Biodistribution, and Shedding of a Poliovirus:Rhinovirus Chimera after Intrathalamic Inoculation in Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Dobrikova, Elena Y.; Goetz, Christian; Walters, Robert W.; Lawson, Sarah K.; Peggins, James O.; Muszynski, Karen; Ruppel, Sheryl; Poole, Karyol; Giardina, Steven L.; Vela, Eric M.; Estep, James E.

    2012-01-01

    A dependence of poliovirus on an unorthodox translation initiation mode can be targeted selectively to drive viral protein synthesis and cytotoxicity in malignant cells. Transformed cells are naturally susceptible to poliovirus, due to widespread ectopic upregulation of the poliovirus receptor, Necl-5, in ectodermal/neuroectodermal cancers. Viral tumor cell killing and the host immunologic response it engenders produce potent, lasting antineoplastic effects in animal tumor models. Clinical application of this principle depends on unequivocal demonstration of safety in primate models for paralytic poliomyelitis. We conducted extensive dose-range-finding, toxicity, biodistribution, shedding, and neutralizing antibody studies of the prototype oncolytic poliovirus recombinant, PVS-RIPO, after intrathalamic inoculation in Macaca fascicularis. These studies suggest that intracerebral PVS-RIPO inoculation does not lead to viral propagation in the central nervous system (CNS), does not cause histopathological CNS lesions or neurological symptoms that can be attributed to the virus, is not associated with extraneural virus dissemination or replication and does not induce shedding of virus with stool. Intrathalamic PVS-RIPO inoculation induced neutralizing antibody responses against poliovirus serotype 1 in all animals studied. PMID:22171271

  2. Analysis of Macular Drusen and Blood Test Results in 945 Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Nishiguchi, Koji M.; Yokoyama, Yu; Fujii, Yusuke; Fujita, Kosuke; Tomiyama, Yusuke; Kawasaki, Ryo; Furukawa, Toshinori; Ono, Fumiko; Shimozawa, Nobuhiro; Togo, Mutsumi; Suzuki, Michihiro; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Age-dependent formation of macular drusen caused by the focal accumulation of extracellular deposits beneath the retinal pigment epithelium precede the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. It is established that inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of drusen and AMD. However, development of a preemptive therapeutic strategy targeting macular drusen and AMD has been impeded by the lack of relevant animal models because most laboratory animals lack macula, an anatomic feature present only in humans and a subset of monkeys. Reportedly, macular drusen and macular degeneration develop in monkeys in an age-dependent manner. In this study, we analyzed blood test results from 945 Macaca fascicularis, 317 with and 628 without drusen. First, a trend test for drusen frequency (the Cochran–Armitage test) was applied to the quartile data for each parameter. We selected variables with an increasing or decreasing trend with higher quartiles at P < 0.05, to which multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied. This revealed a positive association of age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.10 per year, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07–1.12) and white blood cell count (OR: 1.01 per 1 × 103/μl, 95% CI: 1.00–1.01) with drusen. When the monkeys were divided by age, the association between drusen and white blood cell count was only evident in younger monkeys (OR: 1.01 per 1 × 103/μl, 95% CI: 1.00–1.02). In conclusion, age and white blood cell count may be associated with drusen development in M. fascicularis. Systemic inflammation may contribute to drusen formation in monkeys. PMID:27776188

  3. Whole-genome sequencing and analysis of the Malaysian cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) genome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genetic background of the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is made complex by the high genetic diversity, population structure, and gene introgression from the closely related rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Herein we report the whole-genome sequence of a Malaysian cynomolgus macaque male with more than 40-fold coverage, which was determined using a resequencing method based on the Indian rhesus macaque genome. Results We identified approximately 9.7 million single nucleotide variants (SNVs) between the Malaysian cynomolgus and the Indian rhesus macaque genomes. Compared with humans, a smaller nonsynonymous/synonymous SNV ratio in the cynomolgus macaque suggests more effective removal of slightly deleterious mutations. Comparison of two cynomolgus (Malaysian and Vietnamese) and two rhesus (Indian and Chinese) macaque genomes, including previously published macaque genomes, suggests that Indochinese cynomolgus macaques have been more affected by gene introgression from rhesus macaques. We further identified 60 nonsynonymous SNVs that completely differentiated the cynomolgus and rhesus macaque genomes, and that could be important candidate variants for determining species-specific responses to drugs and pathogens. The demographic inference using the genome sequence data revealed that Malaysian cynomolgus macaques have experienced at least three population bottlenecks. Conclusions This list of whole-genome SNVs will be useful for many future applications, such as an array-based genotyping system for macaque individuals. High-quality whole-genome sequencing of the cynomolgus macaque genome may aid studies on finding genetic differences that are responsible for phenotypic diversity in macaques and may help control genetic backgrounds among individuals. PMID:22747675

  4. Nutritional Composition of Fruits Selected by Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Norazila; Hambali, Kamarul; Amir, Aainaa

    2017-01-01

    Proximate analysis of twelve species of fruits commonly consumed by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), i.e., Arenga pinnata, Areca catechu, Terminalia catappa, Elaeis guineensis, Lagerstroemia tomentosa, Mangifera indica, Cascabela thevetia, Muntingia calabura, Musa sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, Ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa and Ficus microcarpa, was conducted with the specific objective to determine the nutritional composition of the foodstuffs of long-tailed macaques. The results showed the following order of nutrients: fibre, protein, fat and ash. Based on the results of the chemical analysis, the highest percentage of fibre content (52.7%), protein (9.9%), fat (77.2%) and ash (8.5%) were found in A. catechu, T. catappa, E. guineensis and C. thevetia, respectively. The nutrient composition of these twelve fruit species was found to differ (ANOVA test: crude protein, F (11,24) = 87.978, p < 0.05; crude fibre, F (11,24) = 28.886, p < 0.05; crude fat, F (11,24) = 2081.396, p < 0.05 and ash, F (11,24) = 41.011, p < 0.05). Fibre was found in the highest amount among the four types of nutrients studied. Here, A. catechu had the highest relative fibre content of all tested fruits, E. guineensis had the highest fat content, T. catappa had the highest protein content, and the total mineral content was highest in C. thevetia.

  5. Genetic diversity and population structure of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) populations in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nikzad, Sonia; Tan, Soon Guan; Yong Seok Yien, Christina; Ng, Jillian; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Khan, Razib; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine J; Valdiani, Alireza; Khajeaian, Parastoo; Kanthaswamy, Sree

    2014-12-01

    The genetic diversity and structure of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Peninsular Malaysia, a widely used non-human primate species in biomedical research, have not been thoroughly characterized. Thirteen sites of wild populations of long-tailed macaques representing six states were sampled and analyzed with 18 STR markers. The Sunggala and Penang Island populations showed the highest genetic diversity estimates, while the Jerejak Island population was the most genetically discrete due to isolation from the mainland shelf. Concordant with pairwise F(st) estimates, STRUCTURE analyses of the seven PCA-correlated clusters revealed low to moderate differentiation among the sampling sites. No association between geographic and genetic distances exists, suggesting that the study sites, including island study sites, are genetically if not geographically contiguous. The status of the genetic structure and composition of long-tailed macaque populations require further scrutiny to develop this species as an important animal model in biomedical research. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Nutritional Composition of Fruits Selected by Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Kassim, Norazila; Hambali, Kamarul; Amir, Aainaa

    2017-01-01

    Proximate analysis of twelve species of fruits commonly consumed by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), i.e., Arenga pinnata, Areca catechu, Terminalia catappa, Elaeis guineensis, Lagerstroemia tomentosa, Mangifera indica, Cascabela thevetia, Muntingia calabura, Musa sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, Ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa and Ficus microcarpa, was conducted with the specific objective to determine the nutritional composition of the foodstuffs of long-tailed macaques. The results showed the following order of nutrients: fibre, protein, fat and ash. Based on the results of the chemical analysis, the highest percentage of fibre content (52.7%), protein (9.9%), fat (77.2%) and ash (8.5%) were found in A. catechu, T. catappa, E. guineensis and C. thevetia, respectively. The nutrient composition of these twelve fruit species was found to differ (ANOVA test: crude protein, F (11,24) = 87.978, p < 0.05; crude fibre, F (11,24) = 28.886, p < 0.05; crude fat, F (11,24) = 2081.396, p < 0.05 and ash, F (11,24) = 41.011, p < 0.05). Fibre was found in the highest amount among the four types of nutrients studied. Here, A. catechu had the highest relative fibre content of all tested fruits, E. guineensis had the highest fat content, T. catappa had the highest protein content, and the total mineral content was highest in C. thevetia. PMID:28228918

  7. Infinium Monkeys: Infinium 450K Array for the Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mei-Lyn; Tan, Peck Yean; MacIsaac, Julia L; Mah, Sarah M; Buschdorf, Jan Paul; Cheong, Clara Y; Stunkel, Walter; Chan, Louiza; Gluckman, Peter D.; Chng, Keefe; Kobor, Michael S.; Meaney, Michael J; Holbrook, Joanna D

    2014-01-01

    The Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip Array (Infinium 450K) is a robust and cost-efficient survey of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns. Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque) is an important disease model; however, its genome sequence is only recently published, and few tools exist to interrogate the molecular state of Cynomolgus macaque tissues. Although the Infinium 450K is a hybridization array designed to the human genome, the relative conservation between the macaque and human genomes makes its use in macaques feasible. Here, we used the Infinium 450K array to assay DNA methylation in 11 macaque muscle biopsies. We showed that probe hybridization efficiency was related to the degree of sequence identity between the human probes and the macaque genome sequence. Approximately 61% of the Human Infinium 450K probes could be reliably mapped to the Cynomolgus macaque genome and contain a CpG site of interest. We also compared the Infinium 450K data to reduced representation bisulfite sequencing data generated on the same samples and found a high level of concordance between the two independent methodologies, which can be further improved by filtering for probe sequence identity and mismatch location. We conclude that the Infinium 450K array can be used to measure the DNA methylome of Cynomolgus macaque tissues using the provided filters. We also provide a pipeline for validation of the array in other species using a simple BLAST-based sequence identify filter. PMID:24815017

  8. Status of urban populations of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ilham, Kurnia; Rizaldi; Nurdin, Jabang; Tsuji, Yamato

    2017-04-01

    We studied long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) populations in Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia, focusing on the effect of human provisioning on their demography and dietary composition. We conducted a field survey at three sites in the city: Gunung Meru, Gunung Padang, and Gunung Panggilun. Mean troop size (range 28-68) and infant ratio (range 0.38-1.00) were greater in Gunung Meru, where the macaques have been highly provisioned, than at the other two study sites (troop size 10-15; infant ratio 0.00-0.33). The macaques at all sites consumed both natural and human foods, but dependence on the latter differed among sites: three-quarters of the diet of macaques in Gunung Meru consisted of human foods, while human foods comprised less than 5% of the macaque diet at the other sites. The ability of macaques to modify the proportion of human food is a behavioral flexibility that facilitates the survival of the long-tailed macaque in urban habitats. Without restrictions on provisioning, the degree of dependence of macaques on human foods and population size could increase, especially in Gunung Meru, and human-macaque conflict could escalate. In order to create an effective management policy for urbanized monkeys, long-term quantitative data on macaque behavior and monitoring of population parameters are required.

  9. Infinium monkeys: Infinium 450K array for the Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Ong, Mei-Lyn; Tan, Peck Yean; MacIsaac, Julia L; Mah, Sarah M; Buschdorf, Jan Paul; Cheong, Clara Y; Stunkel, Walter; Chan, Louiza; Gluckman, Peter D; Chng, Keefe; Kobor, Michael S; Meaney, Michael J; Holbrook, Joanna D

    2014-05-08

    The Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip Array (Infinium 450K) is a robust and cost-efficient survey of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns. Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque) is an important disease model; however, its genome sequence is only recently published, and few tools exist to interrogate the molecular state of Cynomolgus macaque tissues. Although the Infinium 450K is a hybridization array designed to the human genome, the relative conservation between the macaque and human genomes makes its use in macaques feasible. Here, we used the Infinium 450K array to assay DNA methylation in 11 macaque muscle biopsies. We showed that probe hybridization efficiency was related to the degree of sequence identity between the human probes and the macaque genome sequence. Approximately 61% of the Human Infinium 450K probes could be reliably mapped to the Cynomolgus macaque genome and contain a CpG site of interest. We also compared the Infinium 450K data to reduced representation bisulfite sequencing data generated on the same samples and found a high level of concordance between the two independent methodologies, which can be further improved by filtering for probe sequence identity and mismatch location. We conclude that the Infinium 450K array can be used to measure the DNA methylome of Cynomolgus macaque tissues using the provided filters. We also provide a pipeline for validation of the array in other species using a simple BLAST-based sequence identify filter. Copyright © 2014 Ong et al.

  10. Compete to Play: Trade-Off with Social Contact in Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Reymond, Gilles; Pozzobon, Mathieu; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2014-01-01

    Many animal species engage in various forms of solitary object play, but this activity seems to be of particular importance in primates. If playing objects constitute a valuable resource, and access to such objects is limited, a competitive context may arise. We inserted a unique toy within a mini-colony of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) and compared their behaviors to sessions without playing object. An automatic color-based 3D video device was used to track the positions of each animal and the toy, and this data was categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play). As expected, the delay to first access to the object reflected the hierarchy of the colony, indicating that a competition took place to own this unique resource of entertainment. In addition, we found that the amount of object play was not correlated with social or foraging behavior, suggesting independent motivational mechanisms. Conversely, object playing time was negatively correlated with idling time, thus indicating its relation to pastime activities. Interestingly, the amount of social contacts in the group was significantly reduced by the heightened competitive context, suggesting that competitors are more likely to be perceived as potential threat requiring caution, as shown in humans. Experimental manipulation of competitive contexts in primates reveals common mental processes involved in social judgment, and shows that access to valuable resources can be a sufficient cause for variations in group cohesion. PMID:25551755

  11. Gene expression profiling in the Cynomolgus macaque Macaca fascicularis shows variation within the normal birth range.

    PubMed

    Emerald, Bright Starling; Chng, Keefe; Masuda, Shinya; Sloboda, Deborah M; Vickers, Mark H; Kambadur, Ravi; Gluckman, Peter D

    2011-10-16

    Although an adverse early-life environment has been linked to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, the molecular mechanisms underlying altered disease susceptibility as well as their relevance to humans are largely unknown. Importantly, emerging evidence suggests that these effects operate within the normal range of birth weights and involve mechanisms of developmental palsticity rather than pathology. To explore this further, we utilised a non-human primate model Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque) which shares with humans the same progressive history of the metabolic syndrome. Using microarray we compared tissues from neonates in the average birth weight (50-75th centile) to those of lower birth weight (5-25th centile) and studied the effect of different growth trajectories within the normal range on gene expression levels in the umbilical cord, neonatal liver and skeletal muscle. We identified 1973 genes which were differentially expressed in the three tissue types between average and low birth weight animals (P < 0.05). Gene ontology analysis identified that these genes were involved in metabolic processes including cellular lipid metabolism, cellular biosynthesis, cellular macromolecule synthesis, cellular nitrogen metabolism, cellular carbohydrate metabolism, cellular catabolism, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism, regulation of molecular functions, biological adhesion and development. These differences in gene expression levels between animals in the upper and lower percentiles of the normal birth weight range may point towards early life metabolic adaptations that in later life result in differences in disease risk.

  12. Gene expression profiling in the Cynomolgus macaque Macaca fascicularis shows variation within the normal birth range

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although an adverse early-life environment has been linked to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, the molecular mechanisms underlying altered disease susceptibility as well as their relevance to humans are largely unknown. Importantly, emerging evidence suggests that these effects operate within the normal range of birth weights and involve mechanisms of developmental palsticity rather than pathology. Method To explore this further, we utilised a non-human primate model Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque) which shares with humans the same progressive history of the metabolic syndrome. Using microarray we compared tissues from neonates in the average birth weight (50-75th centile) to those of lower birth weight (5-25th centile) and studied the effect of different growth trajectories within the normal range on gene expression levels in the umbilical cord, neonatal liver and skeletal muscle. Results We identified 1973 genes which were differentially expressed in the three tissue types between average and low birth weight animals (P < 0.05). Gene ontology analysis identified that these genes were involved in metabolic processes including cellular lipid metabolism, cellular biosynthesis, cellular macromolecule synthesis, cellular nitrogen metabolism, cellular carbohydrate metabolism, cellular catabolism, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism, regulation of molecular functions, biological adhesion and development. Conclusion These differences in gene expression levels between animals in the upper and lower percentiles of the normal birth weight range may point towards early life metabolic adaptations that in later life result in differences in disease risk. PMID:21999700

  13. Experimental and postexperimental effects of posteriorly directed extraoral traction in adult Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Brandt, H C; Shapiro, P A; Kokich, V G

    1979-03-01

    The experimental, postexperimental, and postretention effects of continuous high-pull headgear force application to the maxilla were evaluated in four adult, nongrowing Macaca fascicularis monkeys. Force was applied at 450 grams per side to face-bows attached to cast maxillary splints with an implanted occipital plug for anchorage. The active experimental phase lasted from 84 days to 205 days, and its effects were documented histologically, cephalometrically, and with dry skull preparations. Postexperimental, retention, and postretention responses were documented cephalometrically. The findings of the present investigation lead to the following conclusions: 1. The termination active sutural growth is of little significance to the remodeling potential of the sutural articulations and the morphologic adaptability of the facial skeletal complex. 2. The length of time necessary for resorptive remodeling of the sutural bony projections is partially responsible for the slower rate of detectable skeletal movement in adult animals. 3. The sutural ligament in adult animals is initially less responsive to the effects of extraoral force application, possibly because of a diminished level of cellular activity at older ages. 4. Increases in age do not appear to affect the osteogenic potential of the periosteal envelope. 5. Retention aids in establishing a maintainable equilibrium following experimentally induced sutural and skeletal remodeling, but it is of little importance in maintaining the altered position of the denition. 6. The amount of postexperimental skeletal reorientation following force application to the maxilla may be related to the force level and the duration of force.

  14. Effect of soy isoflavones on thyroid hormones in intact and ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Marnie G; Kaplan, Jay R; Appt, Susan E; Register, Thomas C; Shively, Carol A

    2014-10-01

    Soy isoflavones are commonly used to alleviate menopause-related symptoms. Postmenopausal women are at increased risk for hypothyroidism, and there are concerns that isoflavones may be detrimental to thyroid health. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of soy protein and isoflavones on thyroid function and the relationship between thyroid function and ovarian function. Adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were randomized to consume two diets differing only in protein source: casein-lactalbumin (n = 44) or soy protein with isoflavones (n = 41). After 34 months, all animals were ovariectomized via laparotomy. Half of the monkeys from each diet treatment group continued to consume their preovariectomy treatment phase diet (either isolated soy protein [n = 19] or casein-lactalbumin [n = 21]) for an additional 34 months. The remaining animals did not continue their diets and thus were not considered further. Circulating progesterone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone were measured at baseline. Thyroid hormones were remeasured during each treatment phase. Dietary soy increased triiodothyronine in preovariectomized monkeys and prevented a decline in thyroxine after surgical menopause (both P's < 0.05). Mean progesterone concentrations were positively correlated with triiodothyronine at baseline in preovariectomized monkeys (P < 0.01). Progesterone levels and triiodothyronine are positively correlated in macaques. Dietary soy increases triiodothyronine in preovariectomized monkeys and prevents a decline in thyroxine after surgical menopause. The outcomes observed in this study suggest that soy protein and isoflavone consumption does not adversely affect-and may even preserve-thyroid function in postmenopausal women.

  15. Pulmonary Embolization of Fat and Bone Marrow in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Derek L.; Murnane, Robert D.; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E.; Green, Damian J.; Hukkanen, Renee R.

    2011-01-01

    Fat embolization (FE), the introduction of bone marrow elements into circulation, is a known complication of bone fractures. Although FE has been described in other animal models, this study represents the first reported cases of FE and bone marrow embolism in nonhuman primates. Histopathologic findings from cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) indicated that in all 5 cases, fat and bone marrow embolization occurred subsequent to multiple bone marrow biopsies. In the most severe case, extensive embolization was associated pulmonary damage consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is an infrequent clinical outcome of FE and is triggered by systemic biochemical and mechanical responses to fat in circulation. Although clinical criteria diagnostic of FES were not investigated at the time of death, this severe case may represent the fulminant form of FES, which occurs within 12 h after trauma. Bone marrow biopsy as an etiology of FES has been reported only once in humans. In addition, the association of embolization with bone marrow biopsies suggests that nonhuman primates may be a useful animal model of FE. FE and FES represent important research confounders and FES should be considered as a differential diagnosis for clinical complications subsequent to skeletal trauma. PMID:21819686

  16. No costly prosociality among related long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Sterck, Elisabeth H M; Olesen, Caroline U; Massen, Jorg J M

    2015-08-01

    Altruism, benefiting another at a cost to the donor, may be achieved through prosocial behavior. Studies of nonhuman animals typically investigate prosocial behavior with paradigms in which the donor can choose to give a recipient a food item, and the choice does not affect the donor's reward (which is either present or absent). In such tasks, long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) show prosocial behavior, especially toward kin. Here, we tested captive long-tailed macaques with related recipients in an alternative task, in which the donor had to give up a preferred reward to benefit the recipient; that is, they had to choose a lower valued reward for themselves to provide food to their kin. Overall, the macaques did not provide their kin with food. The task forced the donor to balance its prosocial behavior with its selfish choice for a higher value reward, a balance that turned out to favor selfish motives. Consequently, our study shows that a prosocial tendency is not sufficient to elicit costly prosocial behavior in long-tailed macaques. Subsequently, we feel that tasks in which the donor must choose a lower value reward to benefit another individual may allow the titration of the strength of prosocial behavior, and thus provides interesting possibilities for future comparative studies. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Influence of testosterone and a novel SARM on gene expression in whole blood of Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Riedmaier, Irmgard; Tichopad, Ales; Reiter, Martina; Pfaffl, Michael W; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2009-04-01

    Anabolic hormones, including testosterone, have been suggested as a therapy for aging-related conditions, such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia. These therapies are sometimes associated with severe androgenic side effects. A promising alternative to testosterone replacement therapy are selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). SARMs have the potential to mimic the desirable central and peripheral androgenic anabolic effects of testosterone without having its side effects. In this study we evaluated the effects of LGD2941, in comparison to testosterone, on mRNA expression of selected target genes in whole blood in an non-human model. The regulated genes can act as potential blood biomarker candidates in future studies with AR ligands. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were treated either with testosterone or LGD2941 for 90 days in order to compare their effects on mRNA expression in blood. Blood samples were taken before SARM application, on day 16 and on day 90 of treatment. Gene expression of 37 candidate genes was measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) technology. Our study shows that both testosterone and LGD2941 influence mRNA expression of 6 selected genes out of 37 in whole blood. The apoptosis regulators CD30L, Fas, TNFR1 and TNFR2 and the interleukins IL-12B and IL-15 showed significant changes in gene expression between control and the treatment groups and represent potential biomarkers for androgen receptor ligands in whole blood.

  18. Allele frequency of antiretroviral host factor TRIMCyp in wild-caught cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Akatsuki; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Higashino, Atsunori; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Ikoma, Tomoko; Suzaki, Yuriko; Ami, Yasushi; Shioda, Tatsuo; Nakayama, Emi E.; Akari, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    A recent study showed that the frequency of an antiretroviral factor TRIM5 gene-derived isoform, TRIMCyp, in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) varies widely according to the particular habitat examined. However, whether the findings actually reflect the prevalence of TRIMCyp in wild cynomolgus macaques is still uncertain because the previous data were obtained with captive monkeys in breeding and rearing facilities. Here, we characterized the TRIM5 gene in cynomolgus macaques captured in the wild, and found that the frequency of the TRIMCyp allele was comparable to those in captive monkeys. This suggests that the previous results with captive monkeys do indeed reflect the natural allele frequency and that breeding and rearing facilities may not affect the frequency of TRIM5 alleles. Interestingly, the prevalence of a minor haplotype of TRIMCyp in wild macaques from the Philippines was significantly lower than in captive ones, suggesting that it is advantageous for wild monkeys to possess the major haplotype of TRIMCyp. Overall, our results add to our understanding of the geographic and genetic prevalence of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp. PMID:22969754

  19. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch-Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys (MACACA Fascicularis) With or Without a Positive Response Contingency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 37, 461–484. Cawthon-Lang, K. A. (2006). Primate Factsheets: Long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) Taxonomy , Morphology... Ecology . ,http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/ long-tailed_macaque.. Cleland, G. G., & Davey, G. C. L. (1983). Autoshaping in the rat: The...2003). Diet of Macaca fasicicularis in a mangrove forest, Vietnam. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 42, 1–5. Staddon, J. E. R., & Simmelhag, V. L. (1971

  20. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

    PubMed

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Fui, Vun Vui; Abu, Mohd-Hashim; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Lakim, Maklarin; Roos, Christian; Yaakop, Salmah; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo’s population was distinguished from Peninsula’s population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia’s M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations

  2. Diurnal pituitary-adrenal activity during schedule-induced polydipsia of water and ethanol in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Christa M.; Gonzales, Steven W.; Green, Heather L.; Szeliga, Kendall T.; Rogers, Laura S.M.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Intermittent delivery of an important commodity (e.g., food pellets) generates excessive behaviors as an adjunct to the schedule of reinforcement (adjunctive behaviors) that are hypothesized to be due to conflict between engaging and escaping a situation where reinforcement is delivered, but at sub-optimal rates. Objectives This study characterized the endocrine correlates during schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) of water and ethanol using a longitudinal approach in non-human primates. Methods Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol were measured in samples from awake cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, 11 adult males) obtained at the onset, midday and offset of their 12-h light cycle. The monkeys were induced to drink water and ethanol (4% w/v, in water) using a fixed time (FT) 300-s interval schedule of pellet delivery. The induction fluid changed every 30 sessions in the following order: water, 0.5 g/kg ethanol, 1.0 g/kg ethanol, and 1.5 g/kg ethanol. Following induction, ethanol and water were concurrently available for 22 h/d. Results The FT300-s schedule gradually increased ACTH, but not cortisol, during water induction to a plateau sustained throughout ethanol induction in every monkey. Upon termination of the schedule, ACTH decreased to baseline and cortisol below baseline. Diurnal ACTH and cortisol were unrelated to the dose of ethanol, but ACTH rhythm flattened at 0.5 g/kg/d and remained flattened. Conclusions The coincidence of elevated ACTH with the initial experience of drinking to intoxication may have altered the mechanisms involved in the transition to heavy drinking. PMID:23508555

  3. Experimental Infection of Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with Human Varicella-Zoster Virus

    PubMed Central

    Willer, David O.; Ambagala, Aruna P. N.; Pilon, Richard; Chan, Jacqueline K.; Fournier, Jocelyn; Brooks, James; Sandstrom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a member of the alphaherpesvirus family and the causative agent of chickenpox and shingles. To determine the utility of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) as a nonhuman primate model to evaluate VZV-based simian immunodeficiency virus/human immunodeficiency virus (SIV/HIV) vaccines, we experimentally inoculated 10 animals with the parental Oka (Oka-P) strain of VZV derived from MeWo or Telo-RF cells. VZV DNA could be detected in the lungs as late as 4 days postinfection, with replicating virus detected by shell vial culture assay in one case. Infection did not result in any overt clinical symptoms but was characterized by humoral and cell-mediated immunity in a time frame and at a magnitude similar to those observed following VZV vaccination in humans. The cell line source of VZV inoculum influenced both the magnitude and polyfunctionality of cell-mediated immunity. Animals mounted a vigorous anamnestic antibody response following a second inoculation 12 weeks later. Inoculations resulted in transient increases in CD4+ T-cell activation and proliferation, as well as a sustained increase in CD4+ T cells coexpressing CCR5 and α4β7 integrin. In contrast to previous failed attempts to successfully utilize attenuated VZV-Oka as an SIV vaccine vector in rhesus macaques due to suboptimal infectivity and cellular immunogenicity, the ability to infect cynomolgus macaques with Oka-P VZV should provide a valuable tool for evaluating VZV-vectored SIV/HIV vaccines. PMID:22258257

  4. Two types of periglomerular cells in the olfactory bulb of the macaque monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Liberia, Teresa; Blasco-Ibáñez, José Miguel; Nácher, Juan; Varea, Emilio; Lanciego, José Luis; Crespo, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) of mammals is the brain region that receives the sensory information coming from the olfactory epithelium. The entrance of the olfactory information occurs in spherical structures of neuropil named olfactory glomeruli and is modulated by a population of interneurons known as periglomerular cells (PG). It has been demonstrated that there are two types of PG in the OB of some macrosmatic mammals, including rats and mice. Type 1 PG (PG-1) receive synapses from the olfactory nerve, whereas type 2 PG (PG-2) do not receive synapses from the olfactory axons. To date, the presence of the two types of PG has not been investigated in microsmatic mammals. In this context, we analyze the presence of PG-1 and PG-2 in the OB of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis). For that, we used the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase, the neuronal isoform of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase and the calcium-binding proteins calbindin D-28k and calretinin as neurochemical markers. Our results demonstrate that the OB of the macaque contains PG-1 and PG-2. A subpopulation of PG-1 expresses tyrosine hydroxylase and another expresses the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase. In addition, a subpopulation of PG-2 expresses calbindin D-28k and another expresses calretinin. Double immunofluorescence demonstrates that there is no colocalization of two markers in the same PG. These results mimic those found in macrosmatic animals. The presence of two types of PG in the glomerular circuits seems to be a key principle for the organization of the OB of mammals.

  5. A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2014-05-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans

  6. Effect of Soy Isoflavones on Thyroid Hormones in Intact and Ovariectomized Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Marnie G.; Kaplan, Jay R.; Appt, Susan E.; Register, Thomas C.; Shively, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Soy isoflavones are commonly used to alleviate menopause-related symptoms. Menopausal women are at an increased risk for hypothyroidism and there are concerns that isoflavones may be detrimental to thyroid health. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of soy protein and isoflavones on thyroid function and the relationship between thyroid and ovarian function. Methods Adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were randomized to consume two diets differing only in protein source: casein-lactalbumin (n = 44) or soy protein with isoflavones (n = 41). After 34 months all animals were ovariectomized via laparotomy. Half of the monkeys from each diet treatment group continued to consume their Pre-Ovariectomy treatment phase diet (either SOY [n = 19] or CL [n = 21]) for an additional 34 months. The remaining animals did not continue their diets, and thus were not considered further. Circulating progesterone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyroid stimulating hormone were measured at baseline. Thyroid hormones were remeasured during each treatment phase. Results Dietary soy increased triiodothyronine in pre-ovariectomized monkeys and prevented a decline in thyroxine following surgical menopause (both p’s < 0.05). Mean progesterone concentrations were positively correlated with triiodothyronine at baseline in pre-ovariectomized monkeys (p < 0.01). Conclusions Progesterone levels and triiodothyronine are positively correlated in macaques. Dietary soy increases triiodothyronine in pre-ovariectomized monkeys and prevents a decline in thyroxine following surgical menopause. The outcomes observed in this study suggest soy protein and isoflavone consumption does not adversely affect and may even preserve thyroid function in postmenopausal women. PMID:24618766

  7. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study

    PubMed Central

    Fitton, L C; Shi, J F; Fagan, M J; O’Higgins, P

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical analyses are commonly conducted to investigate how craniofacial form relates to function, particularly in relation to dietary adaptations. However, in the absence of corresponding muscle activation patterns, incomplete muscle data recorded experimentally for different individuals during different feeding tasks are frequently substituted. This study uses finite element analysis (FEA) to examine the sensitivity of the mechanical response of a Macaca fascicularis cranium to varying muscle activation patterns predicted via multibody dynamic analysis. Relative to the effects of varying bite location, the consequences of simulated variations in muscle activation patterns and of the inclusion/exclusion of whole muscle groups were investigated. The resulting cranial deformations were compared using two approaches; strain maps and geometric morphometric analyses. The results indicate that, with bite force magnitude controlled, the variations among the mechanical responses of the cranium to bite location far outweigh those observed as a consequence of varying muscle activations. However, zygomatic deformation was an exception, with the activation levels of superficial masseter being most influential in this regard. The anterior portion of temporalis deforms the cranial vault, but the remaining muscles have less profound effects. This study for the first time systematically quantifies the sensitivity of an FEA model of a primate skull to widely varying masticatory muscle activations and finds that, with the exception of the zygomatic arch, reasonable variants of muscle loading for a second molar bite have considerably less effect on cranial deformation and the resulting strain map than does varying molar bite point. The implication is that FEA models of biting crania will generally produce acceptable estimates of deformation under load as long as muscle activations and forces are reasonably approximated. In any one FEA study, the biological significance of the

  8. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and eradication regimens.

    PubMed

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Aoki, Wataru; Mizuno, Takashi; Wakazono, Kuniko; Ohno, Junki; Nakai, Tsunehiro; Nomiya, Takao; Fujii, Miki; Fusegawa, Keiichi; Kinoshita, Kazuya; Hamada, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter spp. are zoonotic pathogens, however, knowledge about their presence and antimicrobial resistance in nonhuman primates is limited. Our animal facility purchased cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from various Asian countries: China, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Colonization by Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 238 of the monkeys from 2009 to 2012 and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out for these isolates. Furthermore, we eradicated these pathogens from these monkeys. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 47 monkeys from three specific countries: China, Cambodia, and Indonesia, with respective isolation rates of 15%, 36%, and 67%. Two monkeys, which were each infected with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, showed clinical symptoms of diarrhea and bloody feces. In total, 41 isolates of C. coli and 17 isolates of C. jejuni were detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility varied: in the monkeys from China, erythromycin (ERY)-, tetracycline (TET)-, and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli, in the monkeys from Cambodia, amoxicillin-intermediate, TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and amoxicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni, and in the monkeys from Indonesia, ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni were common (>75%). Multiresistant isolates of C. coli were found in monkeys from all countries and multiresistant isolates of C. jejuni were found in monkeys from Indonesia. The eradication rate with azithromycin was comparable to that with gentamicin (GEN) by oral administration, and was higher than those with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) and chloramphenicol (CHL). From the perspective of zoonosis, we should acknowledge multiresistant Campylobacter spp. isolated from the monkeys as a serious warning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys ("Macaca Fascicularis") with or without a Positive Response Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Christopher E.; Myers, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naive cynomolgus monkeys ("Macaca fascicularis") under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or…

  10. Jaw-muscle architecture and mandibular morphology influence relative maximum jaw gapes in the sexually dimorphic Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Claire E; Hylander, William L; Vinyard, Christopher J; Taylor, Andrea B

    2015-05-01

    Maximum jaw gape is a performance variable related to feeding and non-feeding oral behaviors, such as canine gape displays, and is influenced by several factors including jaw-muscle fiber architecture, muscle position on the skull, and jaw morphology. Maximum gape, jaw length, and canine height are strongly correlated across catarrhine primates, but relationships between gape and other aspects of masticatory apparatus morphology are less clear. We examine the effects of jaw-adductor fiber architecture, jaw-muscle leverage, and jaw form on gape in an intraspecific sample of sexually dimorphic crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis). As M. fascicularis males have relatively larger maximum gapes than females, we predict that males will have muscle and jaw morphologies that facilitate large gape, but these morphologies may come at some expense to bite force. Male crab-eating macaques have relatively longer jaw-muscle fibers, masseters with decreased leverage, and temporomandibular joint morphologies that facilitate the production of wide gapes. Because relative canine height is correlated with maximum gape in catarrhines, and males have relatively longer canines than females, these results support the hypothesis that male M. fascicularis have experienced selection to increase maximum gape. The sexes do not differ in relative masseter physiologic cross-sectional area (PCSA), but males compensate for a potential trade-off between muscle excursion versus muscle force with increased temporalis weight and PCSA. This musculoskeletal configuration is likely functionally significant for behaviors involving aggressive canine biting and displays in male M. fascicularis and provides additional evidence supporting the multifactorial nature of the catarrhine masticatory apparatus. Our results have implications for the evolution of craniofacial morphology in catarrhine primates and reinforce the importance of evaluating additional factors other than feeding behavior and diet

  11. Studies on the Structure of Low Density Lipoproteins Isolated from Macaca Fascicularis Fed an Atherogenic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Tall, Alan R.; Small, Donald M.; Atkinson, David; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    1978-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys, Macaca fascicularis, fed cholesterol-containing saturated-fat diets develop increased levels of high molecular weight plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL), associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. To study the composition and structure of these abnormal particles, LDL from monkeys, fed atherogenic and control diets, were characterized chemically and examined by differential scanning calorimetry and low-angle X-ray scattering. LDL from animals on the experimental diet showed an increase in molecular weight (4.0 to 7.0 × 106, experimental diet compared with 3.0 to 3.7 × 106, control diet) associated with a large increase in cholesterol ester content and concomitant smaller increases in protein, phospholipid, and free cholesterol. There was a strong positive correlation between molecular weight and the number of saturated and monounsaturated cholesterol esters in the particle. In contrast, particle content of polyunsaturated cholesterol esters remained constant despite large changes in total particle cholesterol esters. When examined by calorimetry and X-ray scattering, LDL from monkeys on both diets diplayed a reversible transition of cholesterol esters from an ordered smeticlike (layered) structure to a more disordered state. For all animals on the experimental diet, the peak temperature of the cholesterol-ester transition (42-48°C) was above body temperature (39°C), but below body temperature on the control diet (34-38.5°C). In the experimental group, the transition temperature was correlated with the LDL molecular weight. However, after thermal disruption of LDL, liquid-crystalline transitions of LDL cholesterol esters were observed in the same temperature range as in the intact lipoprotein, which shows that changes in particle size had little effect on the cholesterol-ester transition temperature. Rather, the transition temperature was determined by the degree of saturation of the LDL cholesterol ester fatty acids and the LDL

  12. Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods for the Determination of Salivary Cortisol Levels in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta), Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), and African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    PubMed

    Rapp-Santos, Kamala J; Altamura, Louis A; Norris, Sarah L; Lugo-Roman, Luis A; Rico, Pedro J; Hofer, Christian C

    2017-03-01

    The ability to quickly and accurately determine cortisol as a biomarker for stress is a valuable tool in assessing the wellbeing of NHP. In this study, 2 methods of collecting saliva (a commercial collection device and passive drool) and the resulting free salivary cortisol levels were compared with total serum cortisol concentration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) at 2 collection time points. Serum and salivary cortisol levels were determined using a competitive quantitative ELISA. In addition, both saliva collection methods were evaluated for volume collected and ease of use. Compared with passive drool, the experimental collection device was more reliable in collecting sufficient volumes of saliva, and the resulting salivary cortisol values demonstrated stronger correlation with serum cortisol concentration in all species and collection days except cynomolgus macaques on day 1. This saliva collection device allows quick and reliable sample collection for the determination of salivary cortisol levels. In addition, the results might provide a useful tool for evaluating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity or the physiologic stress reaction in NHP as well as a biomarker of psychologic stress states in a variety of situations.

  13. Large-scale transcriptome sequencing and gene analyses in the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis) for biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As a human replacement, the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is an invaluable non-human primate model for biomedical research, but the lack of genetic information on this primate has represented a significant obstacle for its broader use. Results Here, we sequenced the transcriptome of 16 tissues originated from two individuals of crab-eating macaque (male and female), and identified genes to resolve the main obstacles for understanding the biological response of the crab-eating macaque. From 4 million reads with 1.4 billion base sequences, 31,786 isotigs containing genes similar to those of humans, 12,672 novel isotigs, and 348,160 singletons were identified using the GS FLX sequencing method. Approximately 86% of human genes were represented among the genes sequenced in this study. Additionally, 175 tissue-specific transcripts were identified, 81 of which were experimentally validated. In total, 4,314 alternative splicing (AS) events were identified and analyzed. Intriguingly, 10.4% of AS events were associated with transposable element (TE) insertions. Finally, investigation of TE exonization events and evolutionary analysis were conducted, revealing interesting phenomena of human-specific amplified trends in TE exonization events. Conclusions This report represents the first large-scale transcriptome sequencing and genetic analyses of M. fascicularis and could contribute to its utility for biomedical research and basic biology. PMID:22554259

  14. Development of real-time PCR assays for the detection of Moraxella macacae associated with bloody nose syndrome in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Chris A.; Chase, Kitty; Embers, Monica E.; Kulesh, David A.; Ladner, Jason T.; Palacios, Gustavo F.; Minogue, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Moraxella macacae is a recently described bacterial pathogen that causes epistaxis or so-called bloody nose syndrome in captive macaques. The aim of this study was to develop specific molecular diagnostic assays for M. macacae and to determine their performance characteristics. Methods We developed six real-time PCR assays on the Roche LightCycler. The accuracy, precision, selectivity, and limit of detection (LOD) were determined for each assay, in addition to further validation by testing nasal swabs from macaques presenting with epistaxis at the Tulane National Primate Research Center. Results All assays exhibited 100% specificity and were highly sensitive with an LOD of 10 fg for chromosomal assays and 1 fg for the plasmid assay. Testing of nasal swabs from 10 symptomatic macaques confirmed the presence of M. macacae in these animals. Conclusions We developed several accurate, sensitive, and species-specific real-time PCR assays for the detection of M. macacae in captive macaques. PMID:26365904

  15. Assessing natural introgression in 2 biomedical model species, the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, Maxime; Cuartero, Sergi; Blancher, Antoine; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) are the 2 most commonly used primate model species in biomedical sciences. Although morphological studies have revealed a weak hybridization at the interspecific contact zone, in the north of Indochina, a molecular study has suggested an ancient introgression from rhesus to long-tailed macaque into the Indo-Chinese peninsula. However, the gene flow between these 2 taxa has never been quantified using genetic data and theoretical models. In this study, we have examined genetic variation within and between the parapatric Chinese rhesus macaque and Indo-Chinese long-tailed macaque populations, using 13 autosomal, 5 sex-linked microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA sequence data. From these data, we assessed genetic structure and estimated gene flow using a Bayesian clustering approach and the "Isolation with Migration" model. Our results reveal a weak interspecific genetic differentiation at both autosomal and sex-linked loci, suggesting large population sizes and/or gene flow between populations. According to the Bayesian clustering, Chinese rhesus macaque is a highly homogeneous gene pool that contributes strongly to the current Indo-Chinese long-tailed macaque genetic makeup, whether or not current admixture is assumed. Coalescent simulations, which integrated the characteristics of the loci, pointed out 1) a higher effective population size in rhesus macaque, 2) no mitochondrial gene flow, and 3) unilateral and male-mediated nuclear gene flow of approximately 10 migrants per generation from rhesus to long-tailed macaque. These patterns of genetic structure and gene flow suggest extensive ancient introgression from Chinese rhesus macaque into the Indo-Chinese long-tailed macaque population.

  16. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of lymph node, spleen, and thymus transcriptome from wild Peninsular Malaysian cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Ee Uli, Joey; Yong, Christina Seok Yien; Yeap, Swee Keong; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine J.; Mat Isa, Nurulfiza; Tan, Soon Guan

    2017-01-01

    The cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is an extensively utilised nonhuman primate model for biomedical research due to its biological, behavioural, and genetic similarities to humans. Genomic information of cynomolgus macaque is vital for research in various fields; however, there is presently a shortage of genomic information on the Malaysian cynomolgus macaque. This study aimed to sequence, assemble, annotate, and profile the Peninsular Malaysian cynomolgus macaque transcriptome derived from three tissues (lymph node, spleen, and thymus) using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. A total of 174,208,078 paired end 70 base pair sequencing reads were obtained from the Illumina Hi-Seq 2500 sequencer. The overall mapping percentage of the sequencing reads to the M. fascicularis reference genome ranged from 53–63%. Categorisation of expressed genes to Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway categories revealed that GO terms with the highest number of associated expressed genes include Cellular process, Catalytic activity, and Cell part, while for pathway categorisation, the majority of expressed genes in lymph node, spleen, and thymus fall under the Global overview and maps pathway category, while 266, 221, and 138 genes from lymph node, spleen, and thymus were respectively enriched in the Immune system category. Enriched Immune system pathways include Platelet activation pathway, Antigen processing and presentation, B cell receptor signalling pathway, and Intestinal immune network for IgA production. Differential gene expression analysis among the three tissues revealed 574 differentially expressed genes (DEG) between lymph and spleen, 5402 DEGs between lymph and thymus, and 7008 DEGs between spleen and thymus. Venn diagram analysis of expressed genes revealed a total of 2,630, 253, and 279 tissue-specific genes respectively for lymph node, spleen, and thymus tissues. This is the first time the lymph node, spleen, and thymus transcriptome of the Peninsular

  17. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of lymph node, spleen, and thymus transcriptome from wild Peninsular Malaysian cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Ee Uli, Joey; Yong, Christina Seok Yien; Yeap, Swee Keong; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine J; Mat Isa, Nurulfiza; Tan, Soon Guan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2017-01-01

    The cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is an extensively utilised nonhuman primate model for biomedical research due to its biological, behavioural, and genetic similarities to humans. Genomic information of cynomolgus macaque is vital for research in various fields; however, there is presently a shortage of genomic information on the Malaysian cynomolgus macaque. This study aimed to sequence, assemble, annotate, and profile the Peninsular Malaysian cynomolgus macaque transcriptome derived from three tissues (lymph node, spleen, and thymus) using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. A total of 174,208,078 paired end 70 base pair sequencing reads were obtained from the Illumina Hi-Seq 2500 sequencer. The overall mapping percentage of the sequencing reads to the M. fascicularis reference genome ranged from 53-63%. Categorisation of expressed genes to Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway categories revealed that GO terms with the highest number of associated expressed genes include Cellular process, Catalytic activity, and Cell part, while for pathway categorisation, the majority of expressed genes in lymph node, spleen, and thymus fall under the Global overview and maps pathway category, while 266, 221, and 138 genes from lymph node, spleen, and thymus were respectively enriched in the Immune system category. Enriched Immune system pathways include Platelet activation pathway, Antigen processing and presentation, B cell receptor signalling pathway, and Intestinal immune network for IgA production. Differential gene expression analysis among the three tissues revealed 574 differentially expressed genes (DEG) between lymph and spleen, 5402 DEGs between lymph and thymus, and 7008 DEGs between spleen and thymus. Venn diagram analysis of expressed genes revealed a total of 2,630, 253, and 279 tissue-specific genes respectively for lymph node, spleen, and thymus tissues. This is the first time the lymph node, spleen, and thymus transcriptome of the Peninsular

  18. Genomic diversity and interspecies host infection of Macaca fascicularis papillomaviruses (MfPVs) within the alpha papillomavirus α12 species

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zigui; van Doorslaer, Koenraad; DeSalle, Rob; Wood, Charles E.; Kaplan, Jay R.; Wagner, Janice D.; Burk, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Alpha human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are among the most common sexually transmitted agents of which a subset causes cervical neoplasia and cancer in humans. Alpha-PVs have also been identified in non-human primates although few studies have systematically characterized such mucosal PVs. We cloned and characterized 10 distinct types of PVs from exfoliated cervicovaginal cells from different populations of female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) originating from China and Indonesia. These include 5 novel genotypes and 5 previously identified genotypes found in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) (RhPV-1, RhPV-a, RhPV-b and RhPV-d) and cynomolgus macaques (MfPV-a). Type-specific primers were designed to amplify the complete PV genomes using an overlapping PCR method. Four MfPVs were associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The most prevalent virus type was MfPV-3 (formerly RhPV-d), which was identified in 60% of animals with CIN. In addition, the complete genomes of variants of MfPV-3 and RhPV-1 were characterized. These variants are 97.1% and 97.7% similar across the L1 nucleotide sequences with the prototype genomes, respectively. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicate that these novel MfPVs cluster together within the alpha PV α12 species closely related to the α9 (e.g., HPV16) and α11 species (e.g., HPV34), and all share a most recent common ancestor. Our data expand the molecular diversity of non-human primate PVs and suggest the recent expansion of alpha PV species groups. Moreover, identification of an overlapping set of MfPVs in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques indicates that non-human primate alpha PVs might not be strictly species specific and that “subtypes” may represent recent divergence of host species or past interspecies infection. PMID:19716580

  19. Use of Contrast-Enhanced Sonography to Investigate Intraneural Vascularity in a Cohort of Macaca fascicularis With Suspected Median Mononeuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Kevin D.; Volz, Kevin R.; Pargeon, Rachel L.; Fout, Larry T.; Buford, John; Roll, Shawn C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to provide clinical evidence of the use of contrast-enhanced sonography in detecting and quantifying changes in intraneural vascularity due to median mononeuropathy. Methods Five Macaca fascicularis monkeys were exposed to 20 weeks of repetitive work to increase their risk of developing median mononeuropathy. Contrast-enhanced sonograms were obtained in 30-second increments for 7 minutes while a contrast agent was being delivered. Data were collected immediately at the conclusion of the 20-week work exposure and then again during a recovery phase approximately 3 months after the completion of work. Quantitative analysis and trend graphs were used to analyze median nerve perfusion intensity. This study also compared the use of both manual counting of pixels and semiautomatic measurement using specialized software. Results Based on the average data, maximum intensity values were identified as the best indicators of nerve hyperemia. Paired t tests demonstrated significantly higher maximum intensities in the working stage for 4 of the 5 subjects (P < .01). Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence that (1) in a controlled exposure model, a change in intraneural vascularity of the median nerve between working and recovery can be observed; (2) this vascular change can be measured using an objective technique that quantifies the intensity of vascularity; and (3) contrast-enhanced sonography may improve the ability to reliably capture and measure low-flow microvascularity. PMID:24371104

  20. Ancestry, Plasmodium cynomolgi prevalence and rhesus macaque admixture in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) bred for export in Chinese breeding farms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinjun; Meng, Yuhuan; Houghton, Paul; Liu, Mingyu; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Oldt, Robert; Ng, Jillian; Trask, Jessica Satkoski; Huang, Ren; Singh, Balbir; Du, Hongli; Smith, David Glenn

    2017-04-01

    Most cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) used in the United States as animal models are imported from Chinese breeding farms without documented ancestry. Cynomolgus macaques with varying rhesus macaque ancestry proportions may exhibit differences, such as susceptibility to malaria, that affect their suitability as a research model. DNA of 400 cynomolgus macaques from 10 Chinese breeding farms was genotyped to characterize their regional origin and rhesus ancestry proportion. A nested PCR assay was used to detect Plasmodium cynomolgi infection in sampled individuals. All populations exhibited high levels of genetic heterogeneity and low levels of inbreeding and genetic subdivision. Almost all individuals exhibited an Indochinese origin and a rhesus ancestry proportion of 5%-48%. The incidence of P. cynomolgi infection in cynomolgus macaques is strongly associated with proportion of rhesus ancestry. The varying amount of rhesus ancestry in cynomolgus macaques underscores the importance of monitoring their genetic similarity in malaria research. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Investigating biogeographic boundaries of the Sunda shelf: A phylogenetic analysis of two island populations of Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Klegarth, A R; Sanders, S A; Gloss, A D; Lane-deGraaf, K E; Jones-Engel, L; Fuentes, A; Hollocher, H

    2017-08-01

    Cyclical submergence and re-emergence of the Sunda Shelf throughout the Pleistocene served as a dynamic biogeographic landscape, across which long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have migrated and evolved. Here, we tested the integrity of the previously reported continental-insular haplotype divide reported among Y and mitochondrial DNA lineages across multiple studies. The continental-insular haplotype divide was tested by heavily sampling wild macaques from two important biogeographic regions within Sundaland: (1) Singapore, the southernmost tip of continental Asia and (2) Bali, Indonesia, the southeastern edge of the Indonesian archipelago, immediately west of Wallace's line. Y DNA was haplotyped for samples from Bali, deep within the Indonesian archipelago. Mitochondrial D-loop from both islands was analyzed against existing data using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian approaches. We uncovered both "continental" and "insular" Y DNA haplotypes in Bali. Between Singapore and Bali we found 52 unique mitochondrial haplotypes, none of which had been previously described. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed a major haplogroup division within Singapore and identified five new Singapore subclades and two primary subclades in Bali. While we confirmed the continental-insular divide among mtDNA haplotypes, maintenance of both Y DNA haplotypes on Bali, deep within the Indonesian archipelago calls into question the mechanism by which Y DNA diversity has been maintained. It also suggests the continental-insular designation is less appropriate for Y DNA, leading us to propose geographically neutral Y haplotype designations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi in non-human primates with a history of stillbirths: a retrospective study (Papio hamadryas spp.) and case report (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Grieves, Jessica L.; Hubbard, Gene B.; Williams, Jeff T.; VandeBerg, John L.; Dick, Edward J.; López-Alvarenga, Juan C.; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi has been described in humans and experimental work has been conducted with mice, but not with non-human primates (NHPs). Methods We conducted a retrospective study of female baboons (Papio hamadryas spp.) naturally seropositive or seronegative for T. cruzi with history of fetal loss, and we report a stillbirth in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) with placental T. cruzi amastigotes. Results There were no differences in menstrual cycle parameters and the number of fetal losses between seropositive and seronegative baboons with history of fetal loss. The amount of parasite DNA detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) in M. fascicularis placenta was within the range detected in infected baboon tissues. Conclusions There is no evidence that chronic maternal T. cruzi infection causes fetal loss in baboons. Q-PCR is a useful diagnostic tool to study archived NHP placentas. PMID:18671769

  3. Physiological parameters of Macaca fascicularis immunized with anti-rubella vaccine with germanium-based adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Karal-Ogly, D D; Agrba, V Z; Lavrent'eva, I N; Ambrosov, I V; Matelo, S K; Chuguev, Yu P; Gvaramiya, I A; Gvozdik, T E; Mukhametzyanova, E I

    2014-05-01

    Clinical status, hematological and biochemical parameters, and allergenic activity of organogermanium compounds used as adjuvants in complex with preparation from Orlov rubella virus vaccine strain and reference commercial anti-rubella vaccine based on Wistar RA 27/3 strain were studied on Macaca fascilcularis of both genders. Physiological parameters of monkeys immunized with the Russian and foreign rubella virus vaccine strains with and without adjuvants did not differ. The adjuvants were inessential for the safety of vaccines (absence of toxicity, reactogenic activity, or allergenic activity) in preclinical studies on lower primates.

  4. The role of anthropic, ecological, and social factors in sleeping site choice by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Brotcorne, Fany; Maslarov, Cindy; Wandia, I Nengah; Fuentes, Agustin; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline C; Huynen, Marie-Claude

    2014-12-01

    When choosing their sleeping sites, primates make adaptive trade-offs between various biotic and abiotic constraints. In human-modified environments, anthropic factors may play a role. We assessed the influence of ecological (predation), social (intergroup competition), and anthropic (proximity to human settlements) factors in sleeping site choice by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) occupying a habitat at the interface of natural forests and human-modified zones in Bali Barat National Park, Indonesia. Over the course of 56 nights, we collected data relating to physical features of sleeping trees, patterns of the use of sleeping sites within the home range, pre-sleep behavior, diurnal ranging patterns and availability of natural and human food. Overall, the macaques used 17 sleeping sites with 37 sleeping trees. When the monkeys slept in forest zones, they selected sleeping trees that had larger trunks but were not significantly taller than surrounding trees. Though the macaques rarely re-used sleeping sites on consecutive nights, they frequently re-used four sites over the study period. The group favored sleeping within the core area of its home range, despite the occurrence of frequent agonistic intergroup encounters there. Macaques preferentially selected sleeping trees located within or near human-modified zones, especially when human food was abundant and natural food was scarce. These results partially support the hypothesis that long-tailed macaques choose their sleeping sites to avoid predation; proximity to human settlements appears to be the primary factor influencing sleeping site choice in this primate species. Our results reflect the strong influence that anthropic factors have on primates, which subsist in increasingly human-dominated landscapes.

  5. Morphometric studies on the structural development of the lung in Macaca fascicularis during fetal and postnatal life.

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, A; Howard, S; Fairweather, D V

    1984-01-01

    The structural development of the normal monkey lung (Macaca fascicularis) from 61 days of gestation to 14 days postnatal age has been described using quantitative morphometric techniques. The lung of the adult monkey has also been studied. The airway and arterial branching pattern has been traced using serial sections. The alveolar number and size have been estimated and the structure of the arteries after postmortem arterial injection has been assessed. Comparison of lung morphology in monkey and man shows that there are similarities in segmental arrangement, structure and branching pattern of airways, in arterial structure and in changes in the arteries after birth. Although there are differences in the number of lobes, the number of generations of different types of airways and the number and size of alveoli, the overall structure in the monkey is more similar to that in man than is the structure of the lung in species such as sheep, pig or rat. During fetal life the monkey lung passes through the same stages of development as the human fetus but at birth the monkey has a full complement of airways and mature alveoli. Postnatal growth of airways and alveoli is due to increase in size rather than to multiplication. In man there is an increase in the number of alveoli and alveolar ducts after birth as well as an increase in size. Despite the differences between the species it seems appropriate to use the monkey in experimental studies on the lung. Images Fig. 1 (cont.) Fig. 1 Fig. 4 (cont.) Fig. 4 PMID:6706842

  6. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India

    PubMed Central

    Velankar, Avadhoot D.; Kumara, Honnavalli N.

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal) of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004) after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species. PMID:26886197

  7. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India.

    PubMed

    Velankar, Avadhoot D; Kumara, Honnavalli N; Pal, Arijit; Mishra, Partha Sarathi; Singh, Mewa

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal) of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004) after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species.

  8. Improvement of Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Liver Transduction Efficacy by Regional Administration in Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Zabaleta, Nerea; Salas, David; Paramo, Maria; Hommel, Mirja; Sier-Ferreira, Valerie; Hernandez-Alcoceba, Ruben; Prieto, Jesus; Bilbao, Jose I; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria

    2017-06-01

    The liver is a central organ in metabolism and can be affected by numerous inherited metabolic disorders. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based gene therapy represents a promising therapeutic approach for such diseases. AAVs have been demonstrated to be safe, and resulted in high and long-term expression in preclinical and clinical studies. However, there are still some concerns regarding the expression levels that can be achieved and the percentage of hepatocytes that can be transduced. Because of the cell-autonomous nature of most metabolic liver disorders, a high percentage of hepatocytes needs to be corrected in order to achieve a therapeutic effect. The goal of our work was to improve transduction efficacy of the liver by conveying the vector directly to hepatic tissue. Interventional radiology procedures were used to administer an AAV5 vector expressing a secreted form of human embryonic alkaline phosphatase (hSEAP) under the control of a liver-specific promoter to a clinically relevant animal model, Macaca fascicularis. Balloon occlusion of the regional hepatic venous flow was performed while injecting the vector either into the hepatic artery (HA) or, against flow, via the suprahepatic vein (SHV). In both cases the vector was injected into the right hepatic lobules, and the two routes were compared with conventional intravenous administration. Higher hSEAP levels were obtained when the vector was administered via SHV or HA than after intravenous injection. Furthermore, higher expression levels correlated with a higher number of vector genomes in the injected lobules. In conclusion, direct administration of AAV vectors via the hepatic blood flow with simultaneous balloon occlusion of the hepatic outflow increases liver transduction efficacy in comparison with systemic delivery and can be further improved in bigger animals or humans, where it would be technically feasible to inject the vector into the hepatic vasculature in the generality of lobules.

  9. Glial response and myelin clearance in areas of wallerian degeneration after spinal cord hemisection in the monkey Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fujun; Zhu, Hui; Yang, Senfu; Liu, Yansheng; Feng, Yaping; Shi, Jihong; Xu, Dingze; Wu, Wutian; You, Siwei; Ma, Zhengwen; Zou, Jian; Lu, Peihua; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2009-11-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals not only damages the focal area, but also leads to wallerian degeneration (WD) of axons and myelin distal to the injury. In the present study, we investigated cellular responses within areas of WD of a sensory pathway, the fasciculus gracilis, after a T8-9 lateral spinal hemisection in the adult monkey Macaca fascicularis. Spinal cord segments rostral and caudal to the injury at two clinically-relevant time points, 1 week and 4 weeks post-SCI, representing subacute and chronic stages, respectively, were examined. We observed marked axon degeneration in the areas of WD at the subacute stage, and minimal axonal neurofilament staining at the chronic stage. At the ultrastructural level, however, many degenerating axonal profiles remained at the chronic stage. Myelin breakdown was a much-delayed process. A large number of residual myelin sheaths was observed at the chronic stage. In contrast to rodents, a substantial astrogliotic response was not found in the WD regions up to 4 weeks post-injury. Microglia activation was evident in the WD areas at the subacute stage, and was enhanced at the chronic stage. However, the lack of round reactive microglia/macrophages in these regions suggests that microglial activation was either delayed or incomplete. Thus it appears that many pathological characteristics of WD in monkeys are much delayed compared to those in rodents, but are similar to those in humans. Our results suggest that non-human primate SCI models are useful for evaluating repair strategies before they are translated to clinical trials of human SCI.

  10. Axonal and glial responses to a mid-thoracic spinal cord hemisection in the Macaca fascicularis monkey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjie; Wu, Wei; Zou, Jian; Shi, Fujun; Yang, Senfu; Liu, Yansheng; Lu, Peihua; Ma, Zhengwen; Zhu, Hui; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2013-05-15

    A comprehensive understanding of the pathology of spinal cord injury (SCI) in non-human primates may facilitate greatly the development of new strategies to promote recovery in humans with SCI. Relatively few studies, however, have been conducted to systemically examine pathological changes in the monkey, a non-human primate, after SCI. We report axonal, glial, and fibrotic responses in the spinal cord of monkey Macaca fascicularis after a thoracic (T) 8-9 lateral hemisection. We examined these changes at three regions--i.e., the lesion epicenter, the peri-lesion area, and the lateral white matter of the intact, contralateral hemicord at 7 (subacute) and 30 (early chronic) days post-injury. The lateral hemisection resulted in a marked axon and myelin loss, along with tissue loss, at the lesion epicenter at both time points. Unexpectedly, axonal loss and myelin degeneration, along with reactive gliosis and microglia/macrophages activation, were also observed in the contralateral spared hemicord, indicating a spread of the initial damage to the contralateral side. In addition, activated microglia/macrophages were found both within the injury epicenter and the peri-lesion area, indicating that they participate in injury-induced immune responses that may exacerbate the secondary damage. In contrast to rodents, substantial reactive astrocytic responses at the lesion border were not observed in the monkey. Conversely, a deposit of robust fibrotic scar was observed at the injury epicenter, which filled the space originally created by the hemisection. Thus, understanding the pathology of monkey SCI may provide clinically relevant information in designing repair strategies targeting specific problems associated with human SCIs.

  11. Experimental hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis): evidence of active extrahepatic site of HAV replication

    PubMed Central

    Amado, Luciane A; Marchevsky, Renato S; de Paula, Vanessa S; Hooper, Cleber; Freire, Marcos da S; Gaspar, Ana Maria C; Pinto, Marcelo A

    2010-01-01

    This work studied the replication sites of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) after intravenous inoculation. The cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with the Brazilian hepatitis A virus strain (HAF-203). Monkeys were euthanized on days 15, 30, 45 and 60 postinoculation (pi). Liver samples, submandibular salivary gland, mesenteric lymph node and tonsils were removed for virological and pathological evaluation. Immunofluorescence analyses on liver and salivary gland sections using confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed the presence of HAV antigen (HAV Ag). The presence of HAV genome was monitored by real-time PCR. The HAV RNA was detected at 7 days postinoculation (dpi), concomitantly in serum, saliva and faeces. The highest HAV viral load was observed in faeces at 15 dpi (105 copies/ml), followed by serum viral load of 104 copies/ml at 20 dpi and saliva viral load of 103copies/ml at 7 dpi. The animals showed first histological and biochemical signs of hepatitis at 15 dpi. The HAV antigen (Ag) was present from day 7 until day 60 pi in the liver and salivary glands. The HAV replicative intermediate was also detected in the liver (4.5 × 104 copies/mg), salivary glands (1.9 × 103 copies/mg), tonsils (4.2 × 101 copies/mg) and lymph nodes (3.4 × 101 copies/mg). Our data demonstrated that the salivary gland as an extrahepatic site of early HAV replication could create a potential risk of saliva transmitted infection. In addition, the cynomolgus monkey was confirmed as a suitable model to study the pathogenesis of HAV human infection. PMID:20096073

  12. Analysis of sea almond (Terminalia catappa) cracking sites used by wild Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea).

    PubMed

    Falótico, Tiago; Spagnoletti, Noemi; Haslam, Michael; Luncz, Lydia V; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael

    2017-01-05

    Nut-cracking is shared by all non-human primate taxa that are known to habitually use percussive stone tools in the wild: robust capuchins (Sapajus spp.), western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), and Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea). Despite opportunistically processing nuts, Burmese long-tailed macaques predominantly use stone tools to process mollusks in coastal environments. Here, we present the first comprehensive survey of sea almond (Terminalia catappa) nut-cracking sites created by macaques. We mapped T. catappa trees and nut-cracking sites that we encountered along the intertidal zone and forest border on the coasts of Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand. For each nut-cracking site, we measured the physical properties (i.e., size, weight, use-wear) of hammer stones and anvils. We found that T. catappa trees and nut-cracking sites primarily occurred on the western coast facing the open sea, and cracking sites clusters around the trees. We confirmed previous results that nut cracking tools are among the heaviest tools used by long-tailed macaques; however, we found our sample of T. catappa stone tools lighter than a previously collected sea almond sample that, unlike our sample, was collected immediately after use within the intertidal zone. The difference was likely the result of tidal influences on tool-use sites. We also found that tool accumulations above the intertidal region do not resemble those within them, possibly leading to incomplete assessments of macaque stone tools through archaeological techniques that would use these durable sites.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Papp, Robert; Popovic, Aleksandar; Kelly, Nancy; Tschirret-Guth, Richard

    2010-11-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a third-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic licensed for the treatment of skin infections in cats and dogs. The objective of our study was to assess whether its pharmacokinetic profile in squirrel monkey, rhesus macaques, and cynomolgus macaques was similar to that of dogs. Plasma levels were determined by using protein precipitation followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After subcutaneous dosing at 8 mg/kg, the plasma terminal half-life of cefovecin was substantially shorter in the nonhuman primates (2.6 to 8.0 h) than in dogs (102 h). The total plasma exposure (AUC(0-96h)) was 10- to 40-fold lower in nonhuman primate species. In cynomolgus macaques, cefovecin showed a similar subcutaneous bioavailability (82% compared with 100%) and volume of distribution (0.16 compared with 0.12 L/kg) as compared to dogs; however, the plasma clearance of cefovecin was 20-fold higher. Cefovecin susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentrations were not established for clinical isolates in nonhuman primates. However, if the minimum inhibitory concentrations of cefovecin for various nonhuman primates pathogens are in the same range as those observed for canine pathogens, our results suggest that cefovecin used at the same dosing regimen and frequency prescribed for the dogs will be ineffective and that increases in dose or frequency (or both) may be required.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus), Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta), and Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Robert; Popovic, Aleksandar; Kelly, Nancy; Tschirret-Guth, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a third-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic licensed for the treatment of skin infections in cats and dogs. The objective of our study was to assess whether its pharmacokinetic profile in squirrel monkey, rhesus macaques, and cynomolgus macaques was similar to that of dogs. Plasma levels were determined by using protein precipitation followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After subcutaneous dosing at 8 mg/kg, the plasma terminal half-life of cefovecin was substantially shorter in the nonhuman primates (2.6 to 8.0 h) than in dogs (102 h). The total plasma exposure (AUC0-96h) was 10- to 40-fold lower in nonhuman primate species. In cynomolgus macaques, cefovecin showed a similar subcutaneous bioavailability (82% compared with 100%) and volume of distribution (0.16 compared with 0.12 L/kg) as compared to dogs; however, the plasma clearance of cefovecin was 20-fold higher. Cefovecin susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentrations were not established for clinical isolates in nonhuman primates. However, if the minimum inhibitory concentrations of cefovecin for various nonhuman primates pathogens are in the same range as those observed for canine pathogens, our results suggest that cefovecin used at the same dosing regimen and frequency prescribed for the dogs will be ineffective and that increases in dose or frequency (or both) may be required. PMID:21205444

  15. Urban primate ranging patterns: GPS-collar deployments for Macaca fascicularis and M. sylvanus.

    PubMed

    Klegarth, Amy R; Hollocher, Hope; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Shaw, Eric; Lee, Benjamin P Y-H; Feeney, Tessa; Holmes, Damian; Laguea, Dale; Fuentes, Agustín

    2017-05-01

    The global increase in urbanization is leading to heavier interface between humans and wildlife. Within these anthropogenic landscapes, little is known about ranging patterns, particularly with regard to urban primates. Here we present the results of the first long-term deployment of multiple GPS collars on two species of macaques to investigate the impacts of urbanization on urban primate ranging patterns in Singapore and Gibraltar. Collars data acquisition were excellent with respect to the amount, quality, and accuracy of data collected; however, remote connectivity and drop-off functionality was poor across all deployments. Analyses highlighted high variability in ranging patterns between individuals within each species that aligned with access to human food resources and patterns of tourism. Individuals from troops with less access to human food had much larger home, core, and day ranges relative to those with regular provisioning or raiding opportunities. Almost no temporal range overlap was observed between any focal individuals at either site and spatial overlap was low for all but two troops at each site. We found no relationship between anthropogenic schedules and changes in ranging patterns. Significant seasonal variation existed for daily path length and day range size for both the Singapore long-tailed and the Gibraltar Barbary macaques, with long-tailed macaques increasing their range during the equatorial monsoon season and Barbary macaques increasing their range during drier, summer months. This study highlights how the behavioral plasticity found within the genus Macaca is reflected in ranging pattern variability within urban environments. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Increased atherosclerosis and glomerulonephritis in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) given injections of BSA over an extended period of time.

    PubMed Central

    Stills, H. F.; Bullock, B. C.; Clarkson, T. B.

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effects of experimental immune complex disease on the development of glomerulonephritis and aortic and coronary artery atherosclerosis. Fourteen adult male macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were fed a mildly atherogenic diet. Ten of these animals were given repeated intravenous injections of bovine serum albumin (BSA), and the remaining 4 were given similar injections of saline. Three of the monkeys given BSA responded with a high antibody titer, 4 with a moderate titer, and 3 with a low level titer to BSA. In all 4 monkeys with the moderate antibody response glomerulonephritis developed, characterized by increased glomerular cellularity, electron-dense deposits in the glomerular capillary basal lamina, and deposits of IgG, IgM, C3, C4, and BSA. Glomerulonephritis was not seen in the other 6 monkeys given BSA or the 4 control monkeys. Aortic lesions seen at necropsy consisted of a few fatty intimal streaks with no differences between test monkeys (given BSA) and control monkeys (given saline). There was no correlation between total serum cholesterol concentration, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, or BSA antibody levels and the degree of aortic atherosclerosis. Immunochemical stains for immunoglobulins and complement components revealed increased intimal staining when intimal thickness increased. Medial staining for immunoglobulin and complement components appeared to be slightly increased in monkeys with moderately high-level titers of BSA. The extent of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries of monkeys given BSA was greater than in the control animals. Differences in the extent and severity of the atherosclerotic lesions were most pronounced in the proximal portions of the main coronary arteries, suggesting an increased susceptibility of this site to immune-complex-exacerbated atherosclerosis. In addition to the increased lesion severity in monkeys given BSA, there were numerous granulocytes seen within

  17. Use of photogrammetry as a means to assess hybrids of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed (M. fascicularis) macaques.

    PubMed

    Jadejaroen, Janya; Hamada, Yuzuru; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed (M. fascicularis) macaques are the most commonly used non-human primate models for biomedical research, but it is difficult to identify these two species in the hybrid zone (15-20°N). In this work, we used morphological values obtained via photogrammetry to assess hybrids of rhesus and long-tailed macaques at Khao Khieow Open Zoo (KKZ; 13°21'N, 101°06'E), eastern Thailand. Long-tailed and rhesus macaques have species-specific tail lengths and contrasts of their yellowish pelages. The accuracy and precision of the relative tail length (%RTL) and the contrast of the yellow hue (Cb*) of the pelage, as obtained from photographs, were compared with the corresponding direct measurements (morphometrics). The photogrammetric and morphometric measurements of %RTL and Cb* were highly significantly correlated (r = 0.989 and 0.980, p < 0.001), and there were no significant differences between the two datasets (t test, p = 0.13 and 0.41; n = 42 and 17 for %RTL and Cb*, respectively). The reproducibilities of the %RTL and Cb* measurements (calculated in the photogrammetric case by taking photographs of the same macaques in two different environments) were significantly correlated between the datasets (r = 0.983 and 0.914, p < 0.001 and 0.005), and there were no significant differences between the datasets (t test, p = 0.539 and 0.344; n = 30 each for %RTL and Cb*, respectively). The %RTL and Cb* data were combined with data on the crown and cheek hair patterns and sex skin reddening of the macaques, and this combined data set was then analyzed by multiple correspondence analysis and agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis, leading to the categorization of the rhesus macaques, long-tailed macaques, and hybrids at KKZ into five groups. Thus, photogrammetry can be utilized to identify macaque species or hybrids when species identification relies mainly on tail length and pelage color.

  18. Muscle force recruitment and biomechanical modeling: an analysis of masseter muscle function during mastication in Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Hylander, W L; Johnson, K R; Crompton, A W

    1992-07-01

    The main purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that as subjects chew with increasing levels of force, the ratio of the working- to balancing-side jaw-muscle force (W/B) decreases and begins to approach 1.0. We did this by analyzing relative masseter force in Macaca fascicularis using both strain gage and surface electromyographic (EMG) techniques. In addition, we also analyzed: 1) the relationship between jaw position using cineradiographic techniques and relative masseter force, 2) the timing differences between relative masseter force from the working and balancing sides, and 3) the loading and unloading characteristics of the masseter muscle. Our findings indicate that when macaques increase the amount of overall masticatory force during chewing, the W/B ratio for masseter force frequently (but not always) decreases and begins to approach 1.0. Therefore, our working hypothesis is not completely supported because the W/B ratio does not decrease with increasing levels of force in all subjects. The data also demonstrate timing differences in masseter force. During apple-skin mastication, the average peak masseter force on the working side occurs immediately at or slightly after the initial occurrence of maximum intercuspation, whereas the average peak masseter force on the balancing side occurs well before maximum intercuspation. On average, we found that peak force from the balancing-side masseter precedes the working-side masseter by about 26 msec. The greater the asynchrony between working- and balancing-side masseter force, the greater the difference in the relative magnitude of these forces. For example, in the subject with the greatest asynchrony, the balancing-side masseter had already fallen to about one-half of peak force when the working-side masseter reached peak force. Our data also indicate that the loading and unloading characteristics of the masseter differ between the working and balancing sides. Loading (from 50 to 100% of peak force) and

  19. Pharmacokinetics of 3 Formulations of Meloxicam in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Cassondra; Frost, Patrice; Kirschner, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Meloxicam is a commonly used COX2-preferential NSAID in both human and veterinary patients. Minimal information has been published regarding appropriate dosing in nonhuman primates. Here we investigated the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 formulations of meloxicam in cynomolgus macaques. A single dose of meloxicam SR, an extended-release formulation purported to provide therapeutic levels for as long as 72 h, was compared with the intramuscular and oral formulations dosed for 3 consecutive days and as a single dose. The oral formulation, both over 3 d and as a single dose, yielded lower plasma levels and a shorter duration than did intramuscular and sustained-release subcutaneous formulations. The intramuscular formulation, both over 3 d and as a single dose, provided lower plasma levels and a shorter duration than did a sustained-release subcutaneous formulation. The sustained-release formulations generated the highest plasma concentrations for the longest periods of time. None of the formulations caused significant effects on kidney or liver function. Our results indicate that the sustained-release formulation of meloxicam can achieve an adequate steady-state plasma concentration for 2 to 3 d in nonhuman primates. The standard intramuscular formulation provides adequate plasma concentrations for 12 to 24 h, with waxing and waning levels associated with daily dosing. The oral formulation has limited utility in nonhuman primates because of low circulating levels of drug. PMID:25255073

  20. Spontaneous cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a juvenile cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Rogerson, Petrina; Blanco, Ana L; Naylor, Stuart W; Bradley, Alys

    2012-08-01

    A neoplastic mass compressing the left cerebellar hemisphere and hindbrain was observed at trimming in a 3½-year-old male cynomolgus monkey from a control dose group. Microscopically, the neoplastic mass was nonencapsulated, invasive, and showed two morphological patterns. The predominant area consisted of densely packed undifferentiated, polygonal to spindle cells arranged in vague sheets supported by a scant fibrovascular stroma. The other area was less cellular and composed of round neoplastic cells separated by eosinophilic fibrillar material. Immunohistochemical staining for vimentin, synaptophysin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, neurofilament, and S-100 confirmed the presence of primitive undifferentiated neuroectodermal cells and some cells with neuronal or glial differentiation. On the basis of histopathology and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor with neuronal and glial differentiation was made. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are rare in animals including nonhuman primates; this is the first published report in this species.

  1. Effects of Implantation and Reimplantation of Cochlear Implant Electrodes in an In Vivo Animal Experimental Model (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    de Abajo, Jorge; Manrique-Huarte, Raquel; Sanhueza, Ignacio; Alvarez-Gómez, Laura; Zulueta-Santos, Cristina; Calavia, Diego; Ramírez, Fernando; Manrique, Manuel

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of reimplanting a cochlear implant electrode in animal normal-hearing cochlea to propose measures that may prevent cochlear injury and, given its close phylogenetic proximity to humans, to evaluate the macaque as a model for electroacoustic stimulation. Simultaneous, bilateral surgical procedures in a group of 5 normal-hearing specimens (Macaca fascicularis) took place in a total of 10 ears. Periodic bilateral auditory testing (distortion product otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem evoked responses [ABR]) took place during a 6-month follow-up period. Subsequently, unilateral explantation and reimplantation was performed. Auditory follow-up continued up to 12 months, after which animals were sacrificed and both temporal bones extracted for histological analysis. Implantation and reimplantation surgeries were performed without complications in 9 of 10 cases. Full insertion depth was achieved at reimplantation in four of five ears. Auditory evaluation: Statistically significant differences between implanted and reimplanted were observed for the frequencies 2000 and 11,000 Hz, the remaining frequencies showed no differences for distortion product otoacoustic emission. Before the procedure, average thresholds with click-stimuli ABR of the five animals were 40 dB SPL (implanted group) and 40 dB SPL (reimplanted group). One week after first implantation, average thresholds were 55 dB SPL and 60 dB, respectively. After 12 months of follow-up, the average thresholds were 72.5 dB SPL (implanted group) and 65 dB SPL (reimplanted group). Hearing loss appeared during the first weeks after the first implantation and no deterioration was observed thereafter. Differences for ABR under click stimulus were not significant between the two ear groups. Similar results were observed with tone-burst ABR. A 15 dB shift was observed for the implanted group preoperatively versus 1-week post surgery and an additional 17.5 d

  2. Antagonism of TCDD-induced ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation activity by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in primary cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Peters, A K; Sanderson, J T; Bergman, A; van den Berg, M

    2006-07-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widespread environmental pollutants, and the levels of certain congeners have been increasing in biota and abiota in recent decades. Some PBDEs are lipophilic and persistent, resulting in bioaccumulation in the environment. Their structural similarity to other polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has raised concerns that PBDEs might act as agonists for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Recent studies in our laboratory with human and rat cell lines indicated no AhR mediated CYP1A1 induction for PBDEs. However, an earlier in vitro study by Van der Burght et al. (1999) [Van der Burght, A.S., Clijsters, P.J., Horbach, G.J., Andersson, P.L., Tysklind, M., van den Berg, M., 1999. Structure-dependent induction of CYP1A by polychlorinated biphenyls in hepatocytes of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 155, 13-23] indicated that in cynomolgus monkey (M. fascicularis) hepatocytes PCBs with a non-planar configuration could induce CYP1A. As PBDEs show a structural similarity with non-planar (ortho substituted) PCBs, our present study focused on the possible CYP1A induction by PBDEs (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, and -77) in individual preparations (n=4) of primary hepatocytes of cynomolgus monkeys (M. fascicularis). 7-Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) was used as a marker for CYP1A-mediated catalytic activity. Cells were exposed for 48 h to various PBDE concentrations (0.01-10 microM), positive controls 2,3,7,8-TCDD (0.001-2.5 nM) and PCB-126 (0.01-10nM), and negative control (DMSO vehicle alone). No statistically significant induction of CYP1A was observed in the hepatocytes after 48 h of exposure to all environmentally relevant PBDEs. After exposing hepatocytes to PBDEs in combination with TCDD, a concentration-dependent decrease in TCDD-induced EROD activity was observed. All PBDEs tested showed a similar reduction in each of four

  3. The Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T-cell repertoire in Macaca fascicularis: functional responses to phosphoantigen stimulation by the Vgamma2/Jgamma1.2 subset.

    PubMed

    Cairo, Cristiana; Propp, Nadia; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Colizzi, Vittorio; Pauza, C David

    2005-06-01

    Circulating Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T cells in human and non-human primates respond to small molecular weight non-peptidic phosphoantigens in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted manner. These responses are encoded by the Vgamma2/Jgamma1.2 chain of the T-cell receptor and are positively selected during early development to create a biased repertoire in adults. We characterized the Vgamma2 chain in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to develop a non-human primate model for studying the effects of infection and therapy on the circulating Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T-cell subset. The cynomolgus macaque Vgamma2 chain was highly homologous to the Vgamma2 chain from human beings and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), though we noted conserved substitutions in critical residues within the CDR3 for both macaque species. Despite these substitutions, Vgamma2/Vdelta2+ T cells from cynomolgus monkeys exhibited polyclonal responses to two different phosphoantigens. Proliferative responses were observed with both isopentenylpyrophosphate and alendronate, but stronger interferon-gamma secretory responses were observed with isopentenylpyrophosphate. In vitro stimulation and expansion led to selective outgrowth of the Vgamma2/Jgamma1.2 subset, with a marked shift in the Vgamma2 spectratype. As a result of the less biased starting repertoire for Vgamma2, the cynomolgus macaque constitutes a sensitive model for examining the effects of in vitro or in vivo treatments on the Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T-cell population. Our studies establish the value of cynomolgus macaques as a model for Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T-cell responses to non-peptidic antigens, and further evidence the remarkable evolutionary conservation of this unusual, phosphoantigen-responsive T-cell subset that is found only in primate species.

  4. The Vγ2/Vδ2 T-cell repertoire in Macaca fascicularis: functional responses to phosphoantigen stimulation by the Vγ2/Jγ1.2 subset

    PubMed Central

    Cairo, Cristiana; Propp, Nadia; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Colizzi, Vittorio; Pauza, C David

    2005-01-01

    Circulating Vγ2/Vδ2 T cells in human and non-human primates respond to small molecular weight non-peptidic phosphoantigens in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted manner. These responses are encoded by the Vγ2/Jγ1.2 chain of the T-cell receptor and are positively selected during early development to create a biased repertoire in adults. We characterized the Vγ2 chain in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to develop a non-human primate model for studying the effects of infection and therapy on the circulating Vγ2/Vδ2 T-cell subset. The cynomolgus macaque Vγ2 chain was highly homologous to the Vγ2 chain from human beings and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), though we noted conserved substitutions in critical residues within the CDR3 for both macaque species. Despite these substitutions, Vγ2/Vδ2+ T cells from cynomolgus monkeys exhibited polyclonal responses to two different phosphoantigens. Proliferative responses were observed with both isopentenylpyrophosphate and alendronate, but stronger interferon-γ secretory responses were observed with isopentenylpyrophosphate. In vitro stimulation and expansion led to selective outgrowth of the Vγ2/Jγ1.2 subset, with a marked shift in the Vγ2 spectratype. As a result of the less biased starting repertoire for Vγ2, the cynomolgus macaque constitutes a sensitive model for examining the effects of in vitro or in vivo treatments on the Vγ2/Vδ2 T-cell population. Our studies establish the value of cynomolgus macaques as a model for Vγ2/Vδ2 T-cell responses to non-peptidic antigens, and further evidence the remarkable evolutionary conservation of this unusual, phosphoantigen-responsive T-cell subset that is found only in primate species. PMID:15885125

  5. STIMULUS–FOOD PAIRINGS PRODUCE STIMULUS-DIRECTED TOUCH-SCREEN RESPONDING IN CYNOMOLGUS MONKEYS (MACACA FASCICULARIS) WITH OR WITHOUT A POSITIVE RESPONSE CONTINGENCY

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Christopher E; Myers, Todd M

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naïve cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or moving under automaintenance (i.e., banana pellet delivery followed an 8-s stimulus presentation or immediately upon a stimulus touch). For all subjects stimulus touching occurred within the first session and increased to at least 50% of trials by the end of four sessions (320 trials). In the subsequent condition, stimulus touching further increased under a similar procedure in which pellets were only delivered if a stimulus touch occurred (fixed ratio 1 with 8-s limited hold). In Experiment 2, 6 naive subjects were initially exposed to a classical conditioning procedure (8-s stimulus preceded pellet delivery). Despite the absence of a programmed response contingency, all subjects touched the stimulus within the first session and responded on about 50% or more of trials by the second session. Responding was also sensitive to negative, neutral, and positive response contingencies introduced in subsequent conditions. Similar to other species, monkeys engaged in stimulus-directed behavior when stimulus presentations were paired with food delivery. However, stimulus-directed behavior quickly conformed to response contingencies upon subsequent introduction. Video recordings of sessions showed topographies of stimulus-directed behavior that resembled food acquisition and consumption. PMID:20119521

  6. Colour cues for leaf food selection by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with a new suggestion for the evolution of trichromatic colour vision.

    PubMed

    Lucas, P W; Darvell, B W; Lee, P K; Yuen, T D; Choong, M F

    1998-01-01

    Leaf colour, size and toughness were investigated in five plant species important in the diet of Macaca fascicularis in Singapore. Leaf colour and size were examined as potential visual cues for food selection, whereas toughness mirrored fibre content, the inverse of food quality. As leaves matured, they changed colour and toughened. Leaf lightness and yellowness were strongly negatively correlated with toughness, but variation in both the red-green axis of the CIE Lab colour space and leaf size were not. Leaves selected as food by the macaques were distinguished by being very light, yellow to slightly green. Some leaves were dappled with red. The literature suggests that these leaves are relatively rich in protein without being tough and therefore would be sought after by primates. We argue that leaf colour is an important indicator of the nutritive value of leaves. Trichromatic vision is an important advantage in finding those palatable leaves that are dappled red. These would appear dark to dichromatic primates and be deceptive by making leaves look older (lower in quality) than they actually are. This would decrease the perceived window of feeding opportunity for such primates who would be at a disadvantage in trying to find these leaves. It is possible that trichromatic vision in catarrhine primates may have originally evolved for the detection of red coloration in the leaves of shade-tolerant tropical plants, enabling the better exploitation of a food resource.

  7. Finding the factors of reduced genetic diversity on X chromosomes of Macaca fascicularis: male-driven evolution, demography, and natural selection.

    PubMed

    Osada, Naoki; Nakagome, Shigeki; Mano, Shuhei; Kameoka, Yosuke; Takahashi, Ichiro; Terao, Keiji

    2013-11-01

    The ratio of genetic diversity on X chromosomes relative to autosomes in organisms with XX/XY sex chromosomes could provide fundamental insight into the process of genome evolution. Here we report this ratio for 24 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) originating in Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. The average X/A diversity ratios in these samples was 0.34 and 0.20 in the Indonesian-Malaysian and Philippine populations, respectively, considerably lower than the null expectation of 0.75. A Philippine population supposed to derive from an ancestral population by founding events showed a significantly lower ratio than the parental population, suggesting a demographic effect for the reduction. Taking sex-specific mutation rate bias and demographic effect into account, expected X/A diversity ratios generated by computer simulations roughly agreed with the observed data in the intergenic regions. In contrast, silent sites in genic regions on X chromosomes showed strong reduction in genetic diversity and the observed X/A diversity ratio in the genic regions cannot be explained by mutation rate bias and demography, indicating that natural selection also reduces the level of polymorphism near genes. Whole-genome analysis of a female cynomolgus monkey also supported the notion of stronger reduction of genetic diversity near genes on the X chromosome.

  8. Autoradiography in brain of Macaca fascicularis monkeys after injection of acetyl-DL-leucine [2-14C] (Tanganil).

    PubMed

    Benard, P; Cousse, H; Bengone, T; Germain, C

    2001-01-01

    Acetyl-DL-leucine [2-14C]: Tanganil a antivertigal drug has been injected intravenously in two macaca monkeys which have been sacrificed 2 and 5 minutes later. Radioactivity distribution has been studied by autoradiography in the brain. An important uptake of radioactivity is localized in the cortical structures and in several tisses such as nuclei of the vestibular system, including the inner ear.

  9. Toward reduction in animal sacrifice for drugs: molecular modeling of Macaca fascicularis P450 2C20 for virtual screening of Homo sapiens P450 2C8 substrates.

    PubMed

    Rua, Francesco; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Macaca fascicularis P450 2C20 shares 92% identity with human cytochrome P450 2C8, which is involved in the metabolism of more than 8% of all prescribed drugs. To date, only paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two substrate markers of the human P450 2C8, have been experimentally confirmed as M. fascicularis P450 2C20 drugs. To bridge the lack of information on the ligands recognized by M. fascicularis P450 2C20, in this study, a three-dimensional homology model of this enzyme was generated on the basis of the available crystal structure of the human homologue P450 2C8 using YASARA. The results indicated that 90.0%, 9.0%, 0.5%, and 0.5% of the residues of the P450 2C20 model were located in the most favorable, allowed, generously allowed, and disallowed regions, respectively. The root-mean-square deviation of the C-alpha superposition of the M. fascicularis P450 2C20 model with the Homo sapiens P450 2C8 was 0.074 Å, indicating a very high similarity of the two structures. Subsequently, the 2C20 model was used for in silico screening of 58 known P450 2C8 substrates and 62 inhibitors. These were also docked in the active site of the crystal structure of the human P450 2C8. The affinity of each compound for the active site of both cytochromes proved to be very similar, meaning that the few key residues that are mutated in the active site of the M. fascicularis P450 do not prevent the P450 2C20 from recognizing the same substrates as the human P450 2C8.

  10. There Is More than One Way to Crack an Oyster: Identifying Variation in Burmese Long-Tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis aurea) Stone-Tool Use.

    PubMed

    Tan, Amanda; Tan, Say Hoon; Vyas, Dhaval; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    We explored variation in patterns of percussive stone-tool use on coastal foods by Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) from two islands in Laem Son National Park, Ranong, Thailand. We catalogued variation into three hammering classes and 17 action patterns, after examining 638 tool-use bouts across 90 individuals. Hammering class was based on the stone surface used for striking food, being face, point, and edge hammering. Action patterns were discriminated by tool material, hand use, posture, and striking motion. Hammering class was analyzed for associations with material and behavioural elements of tool use. Action patterns were not, owing to insufficient instances of most patterns. We collected 3077 scan samples from 109 macaques on Piak Nam Yai Island's coasts, to determine the proportion of individuals using each hammering class and action pattern. Point hammering was significantly more associated with sessile foods, smaller tools, faster striking rates, smoother recoil, unimanual use, and more varied striking direction, than were face and edge hammering, while both point and edge hammering were significantly more associated with precision gripping than face hammering. Edge hammering also showed distinct differences depending on whether such hammering was applied to sessile or unattached foods, resembling point hammering for sessile foods and face hammering for unattached foods. Point hammering and sessile edge hammering compared to prior descriptions of axe hammering, while face and unattached edge hammering compared to pound hammering. Analysis of scans showed that 80% of individuals used tools, each employing one to four different action patterns. The most common patterns were unimanual point hammering (58%), symmetrical-bimanual face hammering (47%) and unimanual face hammering (37%). Unimanual edge hammering was relatively frequent (13%), compared to the other thirteen rare action patterns (<5%). We compare our study to other stone

  11. There Is More than One Way to Crack an Oyster: Identifying Variation in Burmese Long-Tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis aurea) Stone-Tool Use

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Amanda; Tan, Say Hoon; Vyas, Dhaval; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    We explored variation in patterns of percussive stone-tool use on coastal foods by Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) from two islands in Laem Son National Park, Ranong, Thailand. We catalogued variation into three hammering classes and 17 action patterns, after examining 638 tool-use bouts across 90 individuals. Hammering class was based on the stone surface used for striking food, being face, point, and edge hammering. Action patterns were discriminated by tool material, hand use, posture, and striking motion. Hammering class was analyzed for associations with material and behavioural elements of tool use. Action patterns were not, owing to insufficient instances of most patterns. We collected 3077 scan samples from 109 macaques on Piak Nam Yai Island’s coasts, to determine the proportion of individuals using each hammering class and action pattern. Point hammering was significantly more associated with sessile foods, smaller tools, faster striking rates, smoother recoil, unimanual use, and more varied striking direction, than were face and edge hammering, while both point and edge hammering were significantly more associated with precision gripping than face hammering. Edge hammering also showed distinct differences depending on whether such hammering was applied to sessile or unattached foods, resembling point hammering for sessile foods and face hammering for unattached foods. Point hammering and sessile edge hammering compared to prior descriptions of axe hammering, while face and unattached edge hammering compared to pound hammering. Analysis of scans showed that 80% of individuals used tools, each employing one to four different action patterns. The most common patterns were unimanual point hammering (58%), symmetrical-bimanual face hammering (47%) and unimanual face hammering (37%). Unimanual edge hammering was relatively frequent (13%), compared to the other thirteen rare action patterns (<5%). We compare our study to other stone

  12. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Six Mauritian Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) Reveals a Genome-Wide Pattern of Polymorphisms under Extreme Population Bottleneck

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Naoki; Hettiarachchi, Nilmini; Adeyemi Babarinde, Isaac; Saitou, Naruya; Blancher, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were introduced to the island of Mauritius by humans around the 16th century. The unique demographic history of the Mauritian cynomolgus macaques provides the opportunity to not only examine the genetic background of well-established nonhuman primates for biomedical research but also understand the effect of an extreme population bottleneck on the pattern of polymorphisms in genomes. We sequenced the whole genomes of six Mauritian cynomolgus macaques and obtained an average of 20-fold coverage of the genome sequences for each individual. The overall level of nucleotide diversity was 23% smaller than that of the Malaysian cynomolgus macaques, and a reduction of low-frequency polymorphisms was observed. In addition, we also confirmed that the Mauritian cynomolgus macaques were genetically closer to a representative of the Malaysian population than to a representative of the Indochinese population. Excess of nonsynonymous polymorphisms in low frequency, which has been observed in many other species, was not very strong in the Mauritian samples, and the proportion of heterozygous nonsynonymous polymorphisms relative to synonymous polymorphisms is higher within individuals in Mauritian than Malaysian cynomolgus macaques. Those patterns indicate that the extreme population bottleneck made purifying selection overwhelmed by the power of genetic drift in the population. Finally, we estimated the number of founding individuals by using the genome-wide site frequency spectrum of the six samples. Assuming a simple demographic scenario with a single bottleneck followed by exponential growth, the estimated number of founders (∼20 individuals) is largely consistent with previous estimates. PMID:25805843

  13. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Zippo, Antonio G.; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R.; Caramenti, Gian C.; Benabid, Alim L.; Biella, Gabriele E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1–8 V, 1–10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being <1 ms and interblock intervals of 1.5–4 s) have been analyzed. We found 150–250 ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses. PMID:26029061

  14. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Zippo, Antonio G; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R; Caramenti, Gian C; Benabid, Alim L; Biella, Gabriele E M

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1-8 V, 1-10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being <1 ms and interblock intervals of 1.5-4 s) have been analyzed. We found 150-250 ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses.

  15. Immunoglobulins A, G, and M in serum and in some secretions of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis syn. irus).

    PubMed Central

    Cole, M F; Bowen, W H

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the distribution and levels of the following immunoglobulins, IgA, IgG, and IgM ,in sera and in some secretions of monkeys (M. fascicularis). IgG, IgA, and IgM were isolated from monkey serum and secretory IgA was separated from monkey milk by combined gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. These pure preparations served as standards to quantitate immunoglobulins in sera and secretions by single radial immunodiffusion. Antisera were raised in the rabbit against the pure immunoglobulins and also against the whole secretions to identify the immunoglobulins in immunoelectrophoresis. In common with humans, the major immunoglobulin in serum and amniotic fluid is IgG and the IgG/IgA ratio is greater than unity. In secretions IgA is the dominant immunoglobulin and the IgG/IgA ratio is less than 1. In general, the levels of immunoglobulins in the sera and secretions of monkeys paralleled the levels found in humans. No age-related increase in immunoglobulin levels was detected in the sera of monkeys. PMID:818024

  16. Identification of microRNAs in Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus Monkey) by Homology Search and Experimental Validation by Small RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR Using Kidney Cortex Tissues.

    PubMed

    Veeranagouda, Yaligara; Rival, Pierrick; Prades, Catherine; Mariet, Claire; Léonard, Jean-François; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Zhou, Xiaobing; Wang, Jufeng; Li, Bo; Ozoux, Marie-Laure; Boitier, Eric

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) present in tissues and biofluids are emerging as sensitive and specific safety biomarkers. MiRNAs have not been thoroughly described in M. fascicularis, an animal model used in pharmaceutical industry especially in drug safety evaluation. Here we investigated the miRNAs in M. fascicularis. For Macaca mulatta, a closely related species of M. fascicularis, 619 stem-loop precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) and 914 mature miRNAs are available in miRBase version 21. Using M. mulatta miRNAs as a reference list and homology search tools, we identified 604 pre-miRNAs and 913 mature miRNAs in the genome of M. fascicularis. In order to validate the miRNAs identified by homology search we attempted to sequence miRNAs expressed in kidney cortex from M. fascicularis. MiRNAs expressed in kidney cortex may indeed be released in urine upon kidney cortex damage and be potentially used to monitor drug induced kidney injury. Hence small RNA sequencing libraries were prepared using kidney cortex tissues obtained from three naive M. fascicularis and sequenced. Analysis of sequencing data indicated that 432 out of 913 mature miRNAs were expressed in kidney cortex tissues. Assigning these 432 miRNAs to pre-miRNAs revealed that 273 were expressed from both the -5p and -3p arms of 150 pre-miRNAs and 159 miRNAs expressed from either the -5p or -3p arm of 176 pre-miRNAs. Mapping sequencing reads to pre-miRNAs also facilitated the detection of twenty-two new miRNAs. To substantiate miRNAs identified by small RNA sequencing, 313 miRNAs were examined by RT-qPCR. Expression of 262 miRNAs in kidney cortex tissues ware confirmed by TaqMan microRNA RT-qPCR assays. Analysis of kidney cortex miRNA targeted genes suggested that they play important role in kidney development and function. Data presented in this study may serve as a valuable resource to assess the renal safety biomarker potential of miRNAs in Cynomolgus monkeys.

  17. Identification of microRNAs in Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus Monkey) by Homology Search and Experimental Validation by Small RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR Using Kidney Cortex Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Veeranagouda, Yaligara; Rival, Pierrick; Prades, Catherine; Mariet, Claire; Léonard, Jean-François; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Zhou, Xiaobing; Wang, Jufeng; Li, Bo; Ozoux, Marie-Laure; Boitier, Eric

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) present in tissues and biofluids are emerging as sensitive and specific safety biomarkers. MiRNAs have not been thoroughly described in M. fascicularis, an animal model used in pharmaceutical industry especially in drug safety evaluation. Here we investigated the miRNAs in M. fascicularis. For Macaca mulatta, a closely related species of M. fascicularis, 619 stem-loop precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) and 914 mature miRNAs are available in miRBase version 21. Using M. mulatta miRNAs as a reference list and homology search tools, we identified 604 pre-miRNAs and 913 mature miRNAs in the genome of M. fascicularis. In order to validate the miRNAs identified by homology search we attempted to sequence miRNAs expressed in kidney cortex from M. fascicularis. MiRNAs expressed in kidney cortex may indeed be released in urine upon kidney cortex damage and be potentially used to monitor drug induced kidney injury. Hence small RNA sequencing libraries were prepared using kidney cortex tissues obtained from three naive M. fascicularis and sequenced. Analysis of sequencing data indicated that 432 out of 913 mature miRNAs were expressed in kidney cortex tissues. Assigning these 432 miRNAs to pre-miRNAs revealed that 273 were expressed from both the -5p and -3p arms of 150 pre-miRNAs and 159 miRNAs expressed from either the -5p or -3p arm of 176 pre-miRNAs. Mapping sequencing reads to pre-miRNAs also facilitated the detection of twenty-two new miRNAs. To substantiate miRNAs identified by small RNA sequencing, 313 miRNAs were examined by RT-qPCR. Expression of 262 miRNAs in kidney cortex tissues ware confirmed by TaqMan microRNA RT-qPCR assays. Analysis of kidney cortex miRNA targeted genes suggested that they play important role in kidney development and function. Data presented in this study may serve as a valuable resource to assess the renal safety biomarker potential of miRNAs in Cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:26562842

  18. Evaluation of the bioeffects of prenatal ultrasound exposure in the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis): II. Growth and behavior during the first year.

    PubMed

    Tarantal, A F; Hendrickx, A G

    1989-02-01

    The extensive use of ultrasonography for the prenatal assessment of growth and development continues to present questions regarding biological effects. We are currently evaluating a nonhuman primate model (Macaca fascicularis) exposed to ultrasound from gestational day (GD) 21 to 152 +/- 2. Exposures were performed with a commercial real-time sector scanner (ATL, MK 600); animals were scanned five times weekly on GD 21-35 +/- 2, three times weekly on GD 36-60 +/- 2, and once weekly on GD 61-150 +/- 2. The length of exposure was approximately the same as human exposure (GD 21-60 +/- 2 = 10 min/exam and GD 61-150 +/- 2 = 20 min/exam) although the frequency of the examinations was considerably greater. Initial reports indicated differences between control and treated animals including lower birth weight, higher simian Apgar scores, and changes in select hematologic parameters. Follow-up evaluations of growth during the first year included measurements of body weight, hand and foot lengths, humerus and femur lengths, biparietal and occipitofrontal diameters, head circumference, arm circumference, chest circumference, skinfold thickness, and crown-rump length. Results indicated a significant reduction in body weight in treated animals during the first three months, with nonsignificant differences during the following nine months. Hematologic analysis including complete blood counts (CBC) and clinical biochemistry at 6, 9, and 12 months of age were not significantly different. A series of behavioral evaluations including a neurobehavioral test battery (NBT) and tests assessing motor and cognitive skills were included. The NBT revealed increased muscle tone in treated animals at one, two, and four days. In an observation cage (week 1-14) more quiet activities were displayed by treated animals. Group differences in performance of motor and cognitive tasks were observed and may be attributable to agitation and difficulties in adjusting to test environments. There were no

  19. Developmental toxicity assessment of tanezumab, an anti-nerve growth factor monoclonal antibody, in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Bowman, Christopher J; Evans, Mark; Cummings, Thomas; Oneda, Satoru; Butt, Mark; Hurst, Susan; Gremminger, Jessica-Lyn; Shelton, David; Kamperschroer, Cris; Zorbas, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Two intravenous studies with tanezumab, an anti-nerve growth factor monoclonal antibody, were conducted in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys to assess potential effects on pregnancy and pre- and postnatal development. Study 1 evaluated infants up to 12 months of age following weekly maternal dosing (0, 0.5, 4 or 30 mg/kg; 18 per group) from gestation day (GD) 20 through parturition. Study 2 evaluated infants 2 months postnatally following weekly maternal dosing (0, 0.5 or 30 mg/kg; 20-21 per group) from GD 20 through 48. In the absence of maternal toxicity, tanezumab increased stillbirth and post-birth infant mortality/morbidity, decreased infant growth and resulted in microscopic changes in the peripheral sympathetic and sensory nervous system of the infants at all doses. Decreased primary antibody responses and increased incidences in skin changes in infants were also observed. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level for maternal toxicity was 30 mg/kg and <0.5 mg/kg for developmental toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization, biomarkers, and reversibility of a monoclonal antibody-induced immune complex disease in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Heyen, Jonathan R; Rojko, Jennifer; Evans, Mark; Brown, Tom P; Bobrowski, Walter F; Vitsky, Allison; Dalton, Shana; Tripathi, Niraj; Bollini, Sangeetha Subbarao; Johnson, Theodore; Lin, John C; Khan, Nasir; Han, Bora

    2014-06-01

    Two 6-month repeat-dose toxicity studies in cynomolgus monkeys illustrated immune complex-mediated adverse findings in individual monkeys and identified parameters that potentially signal the onset of immune complex-mediated reactions following administration of RN6G, a monoclonal antibody (mAb). In the first study, 3 monkeys exhibited nondose-dependent severe clinical signs accompanied by decreased erythrocytes with increased reticulocytes, neutrophilia, monocytosis, thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, decreased albumin, azotemia, and increased serum levels of activated complement products, prompting unscheduled euthanasia. Histologically, immunohistochemical localization of RN6G was associated with monkey immunoglobulin and complement components in glomeruli and other tissues, attributable to immune complex disease (ICD). All 3 animals also had anti-RN6G antibodies and decreased plasma levels of RN6G. Subsequently, an investigational study was designed and conducted with regulatory agency input to detect early onset of ICD and assess reversibility to support further clinical development. Dosing of individual animals ceased when biomarkers of ICD indicated adverse findings. Of the 12 monkeys, 1 developed anti-RN6G antibodies and decreased RN6G exposure that preceded elevations in complement products, interleukin-6, and coagulation parameters and decreases in albumin and fibrinogen. All findings in this monkey, except for antidrug antibody (ADA), reversed after cessation of dosing without progressing to adverse sequelae typically associated with ICD.

  1. Effects of MDMA Injections on the Behavior of Socially-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Reymond, Gilles; Pozzobon, Matthieu; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2016-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methyl amphetamine (MDMA) is one of the few known molecules to increase human and rodent prosocial behaviors. However, this effect has never been assessed on the social behavior of non-human primates. In our study, we subcutaneously injected three different doses of MDMA (1.0, 1.5 or 2.0mg/kg) to a group of three, socially housed, young male long-tailed macaques. More than 200 hours of behavioral data were recorded, during 68 behavioral sessions, by an automatic color-based video device that tracked the 3D positions of each animal and of a toy. This data was then categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play). In addition, received and given social grooming was manually scored. Results show several significant dose-dependent behavioral effects. At 1.5mg/kg only, MDMA induces a significant increase in social grooming behavior, thus confirming the prosocial effect of MDMA in macaques. Additionally, at 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection substantially decreases foraging behavior, which is consistent with the known anorexigenic effect of this compound. Furthermore, at 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection induces an increase in locomotor behavior, which is also in accordance with its known stimulant property. Interestingly, MDMA injected at 1.0mg/kg increases the rate of object play, which might be interpreted as a decrease of the inhibition to manipulate a unique object in presence of others, or, as an increase of the intrinsic motivation to manipulate this object. Together, our results support the effectiveness of MDMA to study the complex neurobiology of primates' social behaviors.

  2. Effects of MDMA Injections on the Behavior of Socially-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Reymond, Gilles; Pozzobon, Matthieu; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2016-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methyl amphetamine (MDMA) is one of the few known molecules to increase human and rodent prosocial behaviors. However, this effect has never been assessed on the social behavior of non-human primates. In our study, we subcutaneously injected three different doses of MDMA (1.0, 1.5 or 2.0mg/kg) to a group of three, socially housed, young male long-tailed macaques. More than 200 hours of behavioral data were recorded, during 68 behavioral sessions, by an automatic color-based video device that tracked the 3D positions of each animal and of a toy. This data was then categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play). In addition, received and given social grooming was manually scored. Results show several significant dose-dependent behavioral effects. At 1.5mg/kg only, MDMA induces a significant increase in social grooming behavior, thus confirming the prosocial effect of MDMA in macaques. Additionally, at 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection substantially decreases foraging behavior, which is consistent with the known anorexigenic effect of this compound. Furthermore, at 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection induces an increase in locomotor behavior, which is also in accordance with its known stimulant property. Interestingly, MDMA injected at 1.0mg/kg increases the rate of object play, which might be interpreted as a decrease of the inhibition to manipulate a unique object in presence of others, or, as an increase of the intrinsic motivation to manipulate this object. Together, our results support the effectiveness of MDMA to study the complex neurobiology of primates’ social behaviors. PMID:26840064

  3. Molecular composition of drusen and possible involvement of anti-retinal autoimmunity in two different forms of macular degeneration in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Umeda, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Michihiro T; Okamoto, Haru; Ono, Fumiko; Mizota, Atsushi; Terao, Keiji; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Iwata, Takeshi

    2005-10-01

    We have previously reported a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) pedigree with early onset macular degeneration that develops drusen at 2 yr after birth. In this study, the molecular composition of drusen in monkeys affected with late onset and early onset macular degeneration was both characterized. Involvement of anti-retinalautoimmunity in the deposition of drusen and the pathogenesis of the disease was also evaluated. Funduscopic and histological examinations were performed on 278 adult monkeys (mean age=16.94 yr) for late onset macular degeneration. The molecular composition of drusen was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and/or direct proteome analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Anti-retinal autoantibodies in sera were screened in 20 affected and 10 age-matched control monkeys by Western blot techniques. Immunogenic molecules were identified by 2D electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Relative antibody titer against each antigen was determined by ELISA in sera from 42 affected (late onset) and 41 normal monkeys. Yellowish-white spots in the macular region were observed in 90 (32%) of the late onset monkeys that were examined. Histological examination demonstrated that drusen or degenerative retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were associated with the pigmentary abnormalities. Drusen in both late and early onset monkeys showed immunoreactivities for apolipoprotein E, amyloid P component, complement component C5, the terminal C5b-9 complement complex, vitronectin, and membrane cofactor protein. LC-MS/MS analyses identified 60 proteins as constituents of drusen, including a number of common components in drusen of human age-related macular degeneration (AMD), such as annexins, crystallins, immunoglobulins, and complement components. Half of the affected monkeys had single or multiple autoantibodies against 38, 40, 50, and 60 kDa retinal proteins. The reacting antigens of 38 and 40 kDa were identified as annexin II and mu

  4. Past Oral Contraceptive Use and Current Dietary Soy Isoflavones Influence Estrogen Metabolism in Postmenopausal Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Latanya M.; Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Tooze, Janet A.; Wood, Charles E.; Register, Thomas C.; Kock, Nancy D.; Cline, J. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Estrogen metabolism may play an important role in mammary carcinogenesis in postmenopausal women. We evaluated the effects of prior oral contraceptive (OC) treatment and current soy isoflavone consumption on endogenous estrogen metabolite concentration and biomarkers of tissue estrogen exposure in a monkey model. One hundred eighty-one female cynomolgus macaques were randomized to receive OC or placebo for 26 months premenopausally, then ovariectomized and randomized to one of three diets for 36 months: an isoflavone-depleted soy protein isolate (Soy−) diet, a diet containing soy protein isolate with a human equivalent of 129 mg isoflavone/d (Soy+), or a Soy− diet supplemented with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE+) at a human equivalent dose of 0.625 mg/d. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography directly coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of estrogen species in urine samples. Generally, prior OC treatment was associated with significantly reduced urinary estrogen metabolites (25–55% reduction; P < 0.05 for each versus OC−). Animals that consumed isoflavones postmenopausally had increased urinary 2-hydroxyestrone and 16α-hydroxyestrone (50% and 56% increases, respectively), but reduced levels of 2-hydroxyestradiol, 2-methoxyestradiol, and 17-epiestriol (92%, 63%, and 66%, respectively), compared with animals fed a Soy− diet. Isoflavones did not have widespread effects on uterine or mammary proliferation biomarkers, whereas prior OC significantly reduced two of three proliferation end points in the endometrium. Premenopausal OCs may have long-term systemic effects on response to estrogen and its metabolism whereas postmenopausal dietary isoflavones may alter endogenous estrogen metabolism in a modest but selective manner. PMID:18843000

  5. Temporal Expression of Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Biomarkers in a Macaca fascicularis Infection Model of Tuberculosis; Comparison with Human Datasets and Analysis with Parametric/Non-parametric Tools for Improved Diagnostic Biomarker Identification

    PubMed Central

    Wareham, Alice; Lewandowski, Kuiama S.; Williams, Ann; Dennis, Michael J.; Sharpe, Sally; Vipond, Richard; Silman, Nigel; Ball, Graham

    2016-01-01

    A temporal study of gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) from a Mycobacterium tuberculosis primary, pulmonary challenge model Macaca fascicularis has been conducted. PBL samples were taken prior to challenge and at one, two, four and six weeks post-challenge and labelled, purified RNAs hybridised to Operon Human Genome AROS V4.0 slides. Data analyses revealed a large number of differentially regulated gene entities, which exhibited temporal profiles of expression across the time course study. Further data refinements identified groups of key markers showing group-specific expression patterns, with a substantial reprogramming event evident at the four to six week interval. Selected statistically-significant gene entities from this study and other immune and apoptotic markers were validated using qPCR, which confirmed many of the results obtained using microarray hybridisation. These showed evidence of a step-change in gene expression from an ‘early’ FOS-associated response, to a ‘late’ predominantly type I interferon-driven response, with coincident reduction of expression of other markers. Loss of T-cell-associate marker expression was observed in responsive animals, with concordant elevation of markers which may be associated with a myeloid suppressor cell phenotype e.g. CD163. The animals in the study were of different lineages and these Chinese and Mauritian cynomolgous macaque lines showed clear evidence of differing susceptibilities to Tuberculosis challenge. We determined a number of key differences in response profiles between the groups, particularly in expression of T-cell and apoptotic makers, amongst others. These have provided interesting insights into innate susceptibility related to different host `phenotypes. Using a combination of parametric and non-parametric artificial neural network analyses we have identified key genes and regulatory pathways which may be important in early and adaptive responses to TB. Using comparisons

  6. Validation of Multi-Detector Computed Tomography as a Non-Invasive Method for Measuring Ovarian Volume in Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jeryl C.; Appt, Susan E.; Werre, Stephen R.; Tan, Joshua C.; Kaplan, Jay R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate low radiation dose, contrast-enhanced, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) as a non-invasive method for measuring ovarian volume in macaques. Computed tomography scans of four known-volume phantoms and nine mature female cynomolgus macaques were acquired using a previously described, low radiation dose scanning protocol, intravenous contrast enhancement, and a 32-slice MDCT scanner. Immediately following MDCT, ovaries were surgically removed and the ovarian weights were measured. The ovarian volumes were determined using water displacement. A veterinary radiologist who was unaware of actual volumes measured ovarian CT volumes three times, using a laptop computer, pen display tablet, hand-traced regions of interest, and free image analysis software. A statistician selected and performed all tests comparing the actual and CT data. Ovaries were successfully located in all MDCT scans. The iliac arteries and veins, uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix, ureters, urinary bladder, rectum, and colon were also consistently visualized. Large antral follicles were detected in six ovaries. Phantom mean CT volume was 0.702±SD 0.504 cc and the mean actual volume was 0.743±SD 0.526 cc. Ovary mean CT volume was 0.258±SD 0.159 cc and mean water displacement volume was 0.257±SD 0.145 cc. For phantoms, the mean coefficient of variation for CT volumes was 2.5%. For ovaries, the least squares mean coefficient of variation for CT volumes was 5.4%. The ovarian CT volume was significantly associated with actual ovarian volume (ICC coefficient 0.79, regression coefficient 0.5, P = 0.0006) and the actual ovarian weight (ICC coefficient 0.62, regression coefficient 0.6, P = 0.015). There was no association between the CT volume accuracy and mean ovarian CT density (degree of intravenous contrast enhancement), and there was no proportional or fixed bias in the CT volume measurements. Findings from this study indicate that MDCT is a valid non

  7. Validation of multi-detector computed tomography as a non-invasive method for measuring ovarian volume in macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeryl C; Appt, Susan E; Werre, Stephen R; Tan, Joshua C; Kaplan, Jay R

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate low radiation dose, contrast-enhanced, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) as a non-invasive method for measuring ovarian volume in macaques. Computed tomography scans of four known-volume phantoms and nine mature female cynomolgus macaques were acquired using a previously described, low radiation dose scanning protocol, intravenous contrast enhancement, and a 32-slice MDCT scanner. Immediately following MDCT, ovaries were surgically removed and the ovarian weights were measured. The ovarian volumes were determined using water displacement. A veterinary radiologist who was unaware of actual volumes measured ovarian CT volumes three times, using a laptop computer, pen display tablet, hand-traced regions of interest, and free image analysis software. A statistician selected and performed all tests comparing the actual and CT data. Ovaries were successfully located in all MDCT scans. The iliac arteries and veins, uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix, ureters, urinary bladder, rectum, and colon were also consistently visualized. Large antral follicles were detected in six ovaries. Phantom mean CT volume was 0.702+/-SD 0.504 cc and the mean actual volume was 0.743+/-SD 0.526 cc. Ovary mean CT volume was 0.258+/-SD 0.159 cc and mean water displacement volume was 0.257+/-SD 0.145 cc. For phantoms, the mean coefficient of variation for CT volumes was 2.5%. For ovaries, the least squares mean coefficient of variation for CT volumes was 5.4%. The ovarian CT volume was significantly associated with actual ovarian volume (ICC coefficient 0.79, regression coefficient 0.5, P=0.0006) and the actual ovarian weight (ICC coefficient 0.62, regression coefficient 0.6, P=0.015). There was no association between the CT volume accuracy and mean ovarian CT density (degree of intravenous contrast enhancement), and there was no proportional or fixed bias in the CT volume measurements. Findings from this study indicate that MDCT is a valid non

  8. Morphologic, stereologic, and morphometric evaluation of the nervous system in young cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) following maternal administration of tanezumab, a monoclonal antibody to nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Butt, Mark; Evans, Mark; Bowman, Christopher J; Cummings, Thomas; Oneda, Satoru; Shelton, David; Zorbas, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Tanezumab, an antibody to nerve growth factor, was administered to pregnant cynomolgus monkeys at 0, 0.5, 4, and 30 mg/kg weekly, beginning gestation day (GD) 20 through parturition (∼GD165). Maternal tanezumab administration appeared to increase stillbirths and infant mortality, but no consistent pattern of gross and/or microscopic change was detected to explain the mortality. Offspring exposed in utero were evaluated at 12 months of age using light microscopy (all tissues), stereology (basal forebrain cholinergic and dorsal root ganglia neurons), and morphometry (sural nerve). Light microscopy revealed decreased number of neurons in sympathetic ganglia (superior mesenteric, cervicothoracic, and ganglia in the thoracic sympathetic trunk). Stereologic assessment indicated an overall decrease in dorsal root ganglion (thoracic) volume and number of neurons in animals exposed to tanezumab 4 mg/kg (n = 9) and 30 mg/kg (n = 1). At all tanezumab doses, the sural nerve was small due to decreases in myelinated and unmyelinated axons. Existing axons/myelin sheaths appeared normal when viewed with light and transmission electron microscopy. There was no indication of tanezumab-related, active neuron/nerve fiber degeneration/necrosis in any tissue, indicating decreased sensory/sympathetic neurons and axonal changes were due to hypoplasia or atrophy. These changes in the sensory and sympathetic portions of the peripheral nervous system suggest some degree of developmental neurotoxicity, although what effect, if any, the changes had on normal function and survival was not apparent. Overall, these changes were consistent with published data from rodent studies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels reflect endogenous LH production and response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) challenge in the older female macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Francisco M.; Chen, Jiangang; Gee, Nancy A.; Lohstroh, Pete; Lasley, Bill L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypothesis We propose that the adrenal gland of an older higher primate female animal model will respond to a human chorionic gonadotropic (hCG) hormone challenge by secreting additional dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Such a response in surgically and chemically-castrated animals will provide proof-of-concept and a validated animal model for future studies to explore the rise of DHEAS during the menopausal transition of women. Methods Twenty four 18–26 y/o female cynomolgus monkeys were screened for ovarian function then either ovariectomized (n=4) or treated with a gonadotropic releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) (n=20) to block ovarian steroid production. Following a recovery period from surgery or down-regulation, a single dose challenge (1,000 IU; IM) of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was then administered in order to determine if LH/CG could accelerate circulating DHEAS production. Serum DHEAS, bioactive LH and urinary metabolites of ovarian sex steroids were monitored before, during and following these treatments. Results Circulating LH bioactivity and immunoreactive DHEAS concentrations were suppressed in all animals 14 days post administration of GnRHa. Urinary metabolites of estradiol and progesterone remained low following surgery or the flare reaction to GnRHa. Circulating DHEAS levels were increased following hCG administration and the increase in individual animals was proportional to the pre-treatment DHEAS baseline. Circulating DHEAS concentrations were positively correlated to endogenous LH bioactive concentrations prior to, and were increased by hCG challenge while no concomitant change was observed in ovarian steroid hormone excretion. Conclusion These data demonstrate a positive adrenal androgen response to LH/CG in older female higher primates and suggests a mechanism for the rise in adrenal androgen production during the menopausal transition in women. These results also illustrate that the nonhuman primate animal model can be

  10. Single subcutaneous dosing of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Bakker, J; Thuesen, L R; Braskamp, G; Skaanild, M T; Ouwerling, B; Langermans, J A M; Bertelsen, M F

    2011-10-01

    Cefovecin is a third-generation cephalosporin approved for antibacterial treatment with a 14-day dosing interval in dogs and cats. This antibiotic may also be useful for zoo and wildlife veterinary medicine, because of its broad spectrum and long duration of activity. The aim of the study was to determine whether cefovecin is a suitable antibiotic to prevent skin wound infection in rhesus monkeys. Therefore, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of cefovecin after a single subcutaneous injection at 8 mg/kg bodyweight in four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and sensitivity of bacterial isolates from fresh skin wounds were determined. After administration, blood, urine, and feces were collected, and concentrations of cefovecin were determined. Further, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for bacteria isolated from fresh skin wounds of monkeys during a health control program were determined. The mean maximum plasma concentration (C(max) ) of cefovecin was 78 μg/mL and was achieved after 57 min. The mean apparent long elimination half-life (t½) was 6.6 h and excretion occurred mainly via urine. The MIC for the majority of the bacteria examined was >100 μg/mL. The PK of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys is substantially different than for dogs and cats. Cefovecin rapidly reached C(max) which however was lower than most of the MIC levels and with a very short t½. Therefore, cefovecin is not recommended for treating skin wounds in rhesus monkeys. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Reaching and grasping behavior in Macaca fascicularis: a kinematic study.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    The prehensile hand is one of the major traits distinguishing primates from other mammal species. All primates, in fact, are able to grasp an object and hold it in part or entirely using a single hand. Although there is a wealth of behavioral data regarding grasping movements in humans and apes, there is relatively little material on macaques, the animal model often used to investigate neuronal mechanisms responsible for grip control in humans. To date, evidence regarding free-ranging macaques is confined to observational data, while quantitative reports describe studies carried out in laboratory settings or in captivity. The purpose of the present study was to provide the first kinematic descriptions of basic grip behavior with regard to precision and power grips in free-ranging macaque monkeys. Video footage of those animals grasping objects was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The results revealed that the two types of grips considered are each characterized by specific kinematic signatures. It was also found that hand kinematics was scaled depending on the type of grasp needing to be adopted and the intrinsic properties of the object to be grasped. In accordance with data concerning humans, these findings indicate that the intrinsic features of an object affect the planning and control of reach-to-grasp movements even in free-ranging macaques. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative reach-to-grasp kinematics in human and non-human primates another step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment.

  12. Bilateral dystrophic calcinosis circumscripta in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher A; Sato, Kenichi

    2010-06-01

    The authors describe a case in which well-circumscribed, expansile, and nonencapsulated nodular masses with missing digits were detected on the right and left feet in a 6-year-old female cynomolgus macaque from a routine toxicology study. Grossly, these masses were composed of variably sized and firm nodules containing white, chalklike material in the subcutaneous tissue on cross section. Microscopically, the nodules were composed of irregular lobules containing amorphous to granular, light to dark basophilic material that was surrounded by macrophages and multinucleated giant cells and separated by fibrous connective tissue. The nodule's contents were von Kossa and Alizarin red S positive. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels of this monkey were within normal ranges. Based on the gross pathology, histopathology, serum chemistry, and histochemistry, a diagnosis of dystrophic calcinosis circumscripta was made. Dystrophic calcinosis circumscripta is an uncommon syndrome of mineralization that occurs following tissue damage, without abnormalities in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, and it is characterized by deposition of calcium salts in soft tissues. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of dystrophic calcinosis circumscripta in a cynomolgus macaque.

  13. Retained fetal adrenal cortex in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher; Evans, Mark

    2014-10-01

    An incidental, bilateral, retained fetal adrenal cortex was detected in a male cynomolgus macaque (age, approximately 2.4 y) used in a 4-week toxicology study. Microscopic examination of the adrenal gland cortex zone revealed the presence of additional solid sheets and columns of cells supported by vascular capillary bed and composed of large polyhedral cells with abundant eosinophilic, slightly finely vacuolated cytoplasm that surrounded the entire circumference of the medulla. Nuclei were vesicular, round to oval with prominent small nucleoli. There was no evidence for inflammation or cellular degeneration. Based on the microscopic examination, a diagnosis of retained fetal cortex of the adrenal gland was made. This morphologic change resembles fetal cortex in human infants. To our knowledge, this case description is the first report of a cynomolgus macaque with the rare entity of retained fetal cortex, which should not be misinterpreted as a test article-related change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Cerebral Baylisascaris larva migrans in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Shoieb, Ahmed; Radi, Zaher A

    2014-08-01

    An incidental, asymptomatic, focal inflammatory lesion was detected in brain cerebrum of an approximately 6-year-old, female cynomolgus macaque from a chronic toxicology study. No gross lesions were noted at necropsy. Microscopically, the lesion contained a cross-section of larvae approximately 70-80 μm in diameter, a centrally located intestine flanked on either side by large triangular excretory columns, and prominent single lateral cuticular alae. Mixed inflammatory cells of eosinophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes admixed with abundant connective tissue stroma and necrosis surrounded the larvae. Histochemical stains for trichrome revealed significant amount of fibrous connective tissue. The morphology of the larvae was compatible with Baylisascaris spp. Based on the microscopic and histochemical examination, a diagnosis of neural Baylisascaris spp. larva migrans was made. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Guzman, Roberto E; Radi, Zaher A

    2007-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis characterized by multifocal follicular lymphoid cell infiltrates with germinal centers, thyroid acinar atrophy and pituitary cell hyperplasia/hypertrophy of the adenohypophysis was detected in a vehicle control, 4-year-old female Cynomolgus macaque in a routine toxicology study. Lymphoid cells of germinal centers were positive for the B-cell marker CD20 by immunohistochemistry (IHC), while remaining lymphocytes were positive for the T-cell marker CD3. Hypertrophied/hyperplastic pituitary cells were positive for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) by IHC, consistent with an adaptive response due to removal of hormonal negative feedback from the diseased thyroid gland. Features of this case are similar to chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in humans, an autoimmune disorder also known as Hashimoto's disease. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis with compensatory pituitary changes may occur spontaneously in young, clinically normal cynomolgus macaques and its presence in drug treated animals should be interpreted with caution.

  16. Phylogeny of the macaques (Cercopithecidae: Macaca) based on Alu elements

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Han, Kyudong; Xing, Jinchuan; Kim, Heui-Soo; Rogers, Jeffrey; Ryder, Oliver A.; Disotell, Todd; Yue, Bisong; Batzer, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Genus Macaca (Cercopithecidae: Papionini) is one of the most successful primate radiations. Despite previous studies on morphology and mitochondrial DNA analysis, a number of issues regarding the details of macaque evolution remain unsolved. Alu elements are a class of non-autonomous retroposons belonging to short interspersed elements that are specific to the primate lineage. Because retroposon insertions show very little homoplasy, and because the ancestral state (absence of the SINE) is known, Alu elements are useful genetic markers and have been utilized for analyzing primate phylogenentic relationships and human population genetic relationships. Using PCR display methodology, 298 new Alu insertions have been identified from ten species of macaques. Together with 60 loci reported previously, a total of 358 loci are used to infer the phylogenetic relationships of genus Macaca. With regard to earlier unresolved issues on the macaque evolution, the topology of our tree suggests that: 1) genus Macaca contains four monophyletic species groups; 2) within the Asian macaques, the silenus group diverged first, and members of the sinica and fascicularis groups share a common ancestor; 3) Macaca arctoides are classified in the sinica group. Our results provide a robust molecular phylogeny for genus Macaca with stronger statistical support than previous studies. The present study also illustrates that SINE-based approaches are a powerful tool in primate phylogenetic studies and can be used to successfully resolve evolutionary relationships between taxa at scales from the ordinal level to closely related species within one genus. PMID:19497354

  17. Dose-response studies on the spermatogonial stem cells of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) after X irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    van Alphen, M.M.; van de Kant, H.J.; Davids, J.A.; Warmer, C.J.; Bootsma, A.L.; de Rooij, D.G. )

    1989-09-01

    Studies of the dose response of the spermatogonial stem cells in the rhesus monkey were performed at intervals of 130 and 160 days after graded doses of X irradiation. The D0 of the spermatogonial stem cells was established using the total numbers of the type A spermatogonia that were present at 130 and 160 days after irradiation and was found to be 1.07 Gy; the 95% confidence interval was 0.90-1.34 Gy.

  18. Determination of the Infectious Dose of Helicobacter pylori during Primary and Secondary Infection in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Solnick, Jay V.; Hansen, Lori M.; Canfield, Don R.; Parsonnet, Julie

    2001-01-01

    We sought to determine the infectious dose of Helicobacter pylori during primary and secondary infection in the rhesus monkey and to determine whether preinoculation acid suppression is necessary to produce colonization. Mixed inoculation with three human-derived strains showed that H. pylori J166 is particularly adapted to colonization of rhesus monkeys, since it outcompeted two other strains. The minimum infectious dose of H. pylori J166 was 104 bacteria in specific-pathogen (H. pylori)-free monkeys. Rechallenge of these monkeys after antibiotic therapy was characterized by a 10- to 100-fold decrease in bacterial load compared to primary infection, but with little change in the infectious dose. Acid suppression prior to inoculation was not necessary for colonization to occur. These results provide a basis for future animal experiments using more ecologically relevant conditions of inoculation and suggest that reduction in bacterial load rather than complete protection may be a more realistic goal for H. pylori vaccination. PMID:11598063

  19. Oocyte glutathione and fertilisation outcome of Macaca nemestrina and Macaca fascicularis in in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes.

    PubMed

    Curnow, E C; Ryan, J P; Saunders, D M; Hayes, E S

    2010-01-01

    Fertilisation and development of IVM non-human primate oocytes is limited compared with that of in vivo-matured (IVO) oocytes. The present study describes the IVM of macaque oocytes with reference to oocyte glutathione (GSH). Timing of maturation, comparison of IVM media and cysteamine (CYS) supplementation as a modulator of GSH were investigated. A significantly greater proportion of oocytes reached MII after 30 h compared with 24 h of IVM. Following insemination, IVM oocytes had a significantly lower incidence of normal fertilisation (i.e. 2PN = two pronuclei and at least one polar body) and a higher rate of abnormal fertilisation (1PN = one pronucleus and at least one polar body) compared with IVO oocytes. Immunofluorescence of 1PN zygotes identified incomplete sperm head decondensation and failure of male pronucleus formation as the principal cause of abnormal fertilisation in IVM oocytes. The IVO oocytes had significantly higher GSH content than IVM oocytes. Cumulus-denuded oocytes had significantly lower GSH following IVM compared with immature oocytes at collection. Cysteamine supplementation of the IVM medium significantly increased the GSH level of cumulus-intact oocytes and reduced the incidence of 1PN formation, but did not improve GSH levels of the denuded oocyte. Suboptimal GSH levels in macaque IVM oocytes may be related to reduced fertilisation outcomes.

  20. Oocyte glutathione and fertilisation outcome of Macaca nemestrina and Macaca fascicularis in in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Curnow, E. C.; Ryan, J. P.; Saunders, D. M.; Hayes, E. S.

    2010-01-01

    Fertilisation and development of IVM non-human primate oocytes is limited compared with that of in vivo-matured (IVO) oocytes. The present study describes the IVM of macaque oocytes with reference to oocyte glutathione (GSH). Timing of maturation, comparison of IVM media and cysteamine (CYS) supplementation as a modulator of GSH were investigated. A significantly greater proportion of oocytes reached MII after 30 h compared with 24 h of IVM. Following insemination, IVM oocytes had a significantly lower incidence of normal fertilisation (i.e. 2PN = two pronuclei and at least one polar body) and a higher rate of abnormal fertilisation (1PN = one pronucleus and at least one polar body) compared with IVO oocytes. Immunofluorescence of 1PN zygotes identified incomplete sperm head decondensation and failure of male pronucleus formation as the principal cause of abnormal fertilisation in IVM oocytes. The IVO oocytes had significantly higher GSH content than IVM oocytes. Cumulus-denuded oocytes had significantly lower GSH following IVM compared with immature oocytes at collection. Cysteamine supplementation of the IVM medium significantly increased the GSH level of cumulus-intact oocytes and reduced the incidence of 1PN formation, but did not improve GSH levels of the denuded oocyte. Suboptimal GSH levels in macaque IVM oocytes may be related to reduced fertilisation outcomes. PMID:20591337

  1. Emergence and evolution of inter-specific segregating retrocopies in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Retroposition is an RNA-mediated mechanism to generate gene duplication, and is believed to play an important role in genome evolution and phenotypic adaptation in various species including primates. Previous studies suggested an elevated rate of recent retroposition in the rhesus macaque genome. To better understand the impact of retroposition on macaque species which have undergone an adaptive radiation approximately 3–6 million years ago, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify recently derived retrocopies in cynomolgus monkeys. As a result, we identified seven experimentally validated young retrocopies, all of which are polymorphic in cynomolgus monkeys. Unexpectedly, five of them are also present in rhesus monkeys and are still segregating. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicates that the observed inter-specific polymorphism is attribute to ancestral polymorphism. Further population genetics analysis provided strong evidence of balancing selection on at least one case (Crab-eating monkey retrocopy 6, or CER6) in both species. CER6 is in adjacent with an immunoglobulin related gene and may be involved in host-pathogen interaction, a well-known target of balancing selection. Altogether, our data support that retroposition is an important force to shape genome evolution and species adaptation. PMID:27600022

  2. Comparison of Methods for Determining ABO Blood Type in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae M; Park, Hyojun; Cho, Kahee; Kim, Jong S; Park, Mi K; Choi, Ju Y; Park, Jae B; Park, Wan J; Kim, Sung J

    2015-05-01

    Thorough examination of ABO blood type in cynomolgus monkeys is an essential experimental step to prevent humoral rejection during transplantation research. In the present study, we evaluated current methods of ABO blood-antigen typing in cynomolgus monkeys by comparing the outcomes obtained by reverse hemagglutination, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, and buccal mucosal immunohistochemistry. Among 21 animals, 5 were type A regardless of the method. However, of 8 serologically type B animals, 3 had a heterozygous type AB SNP profile, among which 2 failed to express A antigen, as shown by immunohistochemical analysis. Among 8 serologically type AB animals, 2 appeared to be type A by SNP analysis and immunohistochemistry. None of the methods identified any type O subjects. We conclude that the expression of ABO blood-group antigens is regulated by an incompletely understood process and that using both SNP and immunohistochemistry might minimize the risk of incorrect results obtained from the conventional hemagglutination assay.

  3. Characterization of PrPc-immunoreactive cells in monkey (Macaca fascicularis) gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Z; Bodegas, M E; Sesma, M P; Guembe, L

    2005-04-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is one of the most likely entry sites for the pathological isoform of prions (PrP(sc)). To understand how PrP(sc) crosses the digestive mucosa, it is crucial to characterize the cells expressing normal prion protein (PrP(c)). By means of double immunofluorescence applied to sections of the monkey GIT, we demonstrated that, in the stomach, PrP(c) immunostaining occurs in subsets of histamine, somatostatin (Som), ghrelin (Ghr), gastrin (G), and serotonin (5HT) cells. In the small and large bowels, PrP(c) cells were found in subpopulations of cells immunolabeled for 5HT, Som, G, and peptide YY (PYY).

  4. Antibody Responses in the Nonhuman Primate, Macaca Fascicularis, to Protein Toxins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    LITERATURE REVIEW A. General Animal models have been used in the past for investigation and manipulation of disease related parameters which cannot be... IgG4 A. The data reflect an expression of each subclass proportionally related to the total IgG response. to z z w z 01 U’) CD) C) (Ua 0s )S1A aGI 89...0, IgG2 +, IgG3 0, IgG4 A. The data reflect an expression of each subclass proportionally related to the total IgG response. 0O m z z, w U)Iz U) 2

  5. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan

    2015-11-18

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status.

  6. Effects of Transportation on Antioxidant Status in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Pan, Xueying; Lu, Liang; Zeng, Xiancheng; Chang, Yan; Hua, Xiuguo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of transportation on oxidative stress in cynomolgus monkeys, we measured serum levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl (PC) and the activities of total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase in cynomolgus macaques before transportation (day 0), on the day of arrival (day 1), and on days 7, 14, and 21 after transportation. Compared with that on day 0, TAOC and catalase activities on days 1, 7, and 14 after transportation were significantly decreased, reached their nadirs on day 7, and increased thereafter to reach their pretransportation levels by day 21 after transportation. Compared with day 0 levels, mean SOD activity and GSH concentration were decreased significantly on day 1; they thereafter increased to reach their pretransportation measures by day 7 after transportation. In contrast, PC and malondialdehyde concentrations in serum and the activity of GSH-Px were increased on day 1 compared with day 0 and thereafter decreased to reach their pretransportation levels by day 14 after transportation. In summary, GSH, TAOC, catalase, and SOD levels decreased and malondialdehyde, PC, and GSH-Px concentrations increased in cynomolgus macaques after transportation. These results suggest that transportation might imbalance oxidant and antioxidant levels to create excess oxidative stress in cynomolgus macaques. Therefore, cynomolgus macaques should have at least 21 d to recover after transportation and regain their healthy status.

  7. Postnatal change in sulcal length asymmetry in cerebrum of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kazuhito; Sawada, Kazuhiko; Fukunishi, Katsuhiro; Noritaka, Imai; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Yoshihiro, Fukui

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the timing of the onset of adult-type sulcal length asymmetry during postnatal development of the male cynomolgus monkey cerebrum. The monkey brain has already reached adult size by 3 months of age, although the body weight only represents 1/8 of the adult body weight by that time. The fronto-occipital length and the cerebral width also reached adult levels by that postnatal age with no left/right bias. Consistently, lengths of the major primary sulci reached adult levels by 3 months of age, and then decreased slightly in sexually mature monkeys (4-6.5 years of age). Asymmetry quotient analysis showed that sulcal length asymmetry patterns gradually changed during postnatal development. The male adult pattern of sulcal length asymmetry was acquired after 24 months of age. In particular, age-dependent rightward lateralization of the arcuate sulcal length was revealed during cerebral maturation by three-way ANOVA. The results suggest that the regional difference in cerebral maturation from adolescence to young adulthood modifies the sulcal morphology with characteristic asymmetric patterns in male cynomolgus monkeys.

  8. The cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) is the best animal model for the study of steroid glucuronidation.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Olivier; Bélanger, Alain

    2003-06-01

    Intense research efforts performed during the past decade clearly established the major role of glucuronidation and uridine-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes for steroid metabolism in humans. However, a clear understanding of the physiological importance of this metabolic process requires in vivo studies. Numerous evidences ascertain that simians are the most appropriate animal models for such studies. Indeed human and monkey have a similar pattern of steroidogenesis, unlike common laboratory mammals such as rat or mouse. Furthermore, human and monkey are unique in having high levels of circulating androsterone glucuronide and androstane-3alpha-diol glucuronide (3alpha-Diol-G). In addition, characterization of eight monkey UGT proteins demonstrated the similarity of their conjugation activity toward steroid hormones. Like human ones, monkey enzymes are expressed in steroid target tissues, where they preferentially glucuronidate androgen and estrogen metabolites. In monkey tissues, immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that UGT2B proteins are expressed in a cell-type specific manner in ovary and kidney, where they control androgens and aldosterone inactivation. These results identify the cynomolgus monkey as an appropriate animal model for the determination of cellular localization of UGT enzymes in steroid target tissues and for the identification of endogenous or exogenous stimuli affecting steroid glucuronidation.

  9. The genetic composition of populations of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) used in biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Kanthaswamy, Sree; Ng, Jillian; Trask, Jessica Satkoski; George, Debra A.; Kou, Alexander J.; Hoffman, Lindsay N.; Doherty, Theodore B.; Houghton, Paul; Smith, David Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Background The genetic composition of cynomolgus macaques used in biomedical research is not as well-characterized as that of rhesus macaques. Methods Populations of cynomolgus macaques from Sumatra, Corregidor, Mauritius, Singapore, Cambodia and Zamboanga were analyzed using 24 STRs. Results The Sumatran and Cambodian populations exhibited the highest allelic diversity while the Mauritian population exhibited the lowest. Sumatran cynomolgus macaques were the most genetically similar to all others, consistent with an Indonesian origin of the species. The high diversity among Cambodian animals may result from interbreeding with rhesus macaques. The Philippine and Mauritian samples were the most divergent from other populations, the former due to separation from the Sunda Shelf by deep water and the latter due to anthropogenic translocation and extreme founder effects. Conclusions Investigators should verify their research subjects’ origin, ancestry and pedigree to minimize risks to biomedical experimentation from genetic variance stemming from close kinship and mixed ancestry as these can obscure treatment effects. PMID:23480663

  10. Reach-to-grasp movements in Macaca fascicularis monkeys: the Isochrony Principle at work

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Humans show a spontaneous tendency to increase the velocity of their movements depending on the linear extent of their trajectory in order to keep execution time approximately constant. Termed the isochrony principle, this compensatory mechanism refers to the observation that the velocity of voluntary movements increases proportionally with their linear extension. Although there is a wealth of psychophysical data regarding isochrony in humans, there is none regarding non-human primates. The present study attempts to fill that gap by investigating reach-to-grasp movement kinematics in free-ranging macaques. Video footage of monkeys grasping objects located at different distances was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The amplitude of arm peak velocity was found to be correlated with the distance to be covered, and total movement duration remained invariant although target distances varied. Like in humans, the “isochrony principle” seems to be operative as there is a gearing down/up of movement velocity that is proportional to the distance to be covered in order to allow for a relatively constant movement duration. Based on a centrally generated temporal template, this mode of motor programming could be functional in macaques given the high speed and great instability of posture and joint kinematics characterizing their actions. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative motor control a step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment. PMID:23658547

  11. Severe Acquired Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia in a Female Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Parrula, Cecilia M; Mysore, Jagannatha; Burr, Holly; Freebern, Wendy; Neef, Natasha

    2015-06-01

    A 4-y-old female cynomolgus macaque presented for veterinary evaluation prior to placement in a preclinical study showed markedly low platelet counts that continued to decrease over time. Physical examination over the next several days showed areas of pale red discoloration in forelimbs, anterior thorax, and inguinal area and multifocal pinpoint areas of erythema or scabs. An area of dark red discoloration approximately 2 cm in diameter on the dorsal surface of the tongue was discovered on day 9. The macaque was euthanized, and histopathologic evaluation showed multifocal, ulcerative or erosive, hemorrhagic, lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic glossitis and tonsillitis. The lesions on the tongue were associated with opportunistic fungi consistent with Candida albicans. The bone marrow showed megakaryocytic hyperplasia. There was no evidence of increased consumption of platelets, sequestration of platelets, or bone marrow suppression. The monkey was serologically negative for simian retrovirus, SIV, and simian T-lymphotropic virus. In light of cases reported in humans, immune-mediated destruction of platelets due to autoantibodies secondary to Candida albicans infection was considered. However, we were unable to detect antiplatelet antibodies on the platelet surface or in serum to support this etiology; therefore idiopathic thrombocytopenia was diagnosed. To our knowledge, this case represents the second reported observation of acquired thrombocytopenia in a nonhuman primate and the first reported observation in a cynomolgus macaque.

  12. Definition of Mafa-A and -B haplotypes in pedigreed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Otting, Nel; Doxiadis, Gaby G M; Bontrop, Ronald E

    2009-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I B gene/allelic repertoire was investigated in a pedigreed population of cynomolgus macaques of mixed Indonesian/Malaysian origin. The Mafa-B alleles detected in this cohort are mostly specific for a given geographic area, and only a small number of alleles appears to be shared with other populations. This suggests the fast evolution of Mafa-B alleles due to adaptation to new environments. In contrast to humans, the B locus in Old World monkeys displays extensive copy number variation. The Mafa-B and previously defined -A gene combinations segregate in families and thus allowed the definition of extended haplotypes. In many cases it was possible to assign a particular Mafa-I allele to one of these Mafa-A/B haplotypes as well. The presence of a large number of stable haplotypes in this cohort of animals, which was pedigreed for up to eight generations, looks promising for developing discriminative MHC typing tools that are less cumbersome. Furthermore, the discovery of 53 unreported Mafa-B sequences expands the lexicon of alleles significantly, and may help in understanding the complex organisation of the macaque B region.

  13. [TRIMCyp frequency of the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in captivity in China].

    PubMed

    Tian, Shuai; Meng, Yu-Huan; Liu, Ming-Yu; Sun, Fei; Chen, Jun-Hui; Du, Hong-Li; Wang, Xiao-Ning

    2013-04-01

    In most Old world monkey species, TRIM5α plays a role in combating retroviruses and restricting HIV-1. Alongside TRIM5α, the TRIMCyp fusion gene formed by the retrotransposition of a CypA pseudogene cDNA to 3' terminal or 3'-UTR of TRIM5 gene in these monkeys has become a key research area in anti HIV-1 factors. The regional differences, gene frequencies, genotypes, and retrovirus restrictive activities of TRIMCyp vary among different primate species. While the frequencies of cynomolgus TRIMCyp have been studied in several areas of Southeast Asia, the frequency and prevalence of cynomolgus TRIMCyp in China remains unclear. In this study, we screened 1, 594 cynomolgus samples from 11 monkey manufacturers located across 5 provinces in China. Our results showed that the frequencies of TRIMCyp range from 7.65% to 19.79%, markedly lower than the frequencies found in monkey species in the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia (ranging from 34.85% to 100%). We speculate that potentially the latter were isolated groups established since 1978. The NE haplotype frequencies of cynomolgus TRIMCyp were 4.93% in China, also significantly lower than those found in species in the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia (from 11.1% to 14.3%). Our research provides interesting findings that contribute towards a more firm basis of further studies of HIV-1 animal models and relevant pathogenesis.

  14. Reticulospinal neurons in the pontomedullary reticular formation of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Sakai, S T; Davidson, A G; Buford, J A

    2009-11-10

    Recent neurophysiological studies indicate a role for reticulospinal neurons of the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) in motor preparation and goal-directed reaching in the monkey. Although the macaque monkey is an important model for such investigations, little is known regarding the organization of the PMRF in the monkey. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of reticulospinal neurons in the macaque. Bilateral injections of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) were made into the cervical spinal cord. A wide band of retrogradely labeled cells was found in the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi) and labeled cells continued rostrally into the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC) and into the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO). Additional retrograde tracing studies following unilateral cervical spinal cord injections of cholera toxin subunit B revealed that there were more ipsilateral (60%) than contralateral (40%) projecting cells in Gi, while an approximately 50:50 ratio contralateral to ipsilateral split was found in PnC and more contralateral projections arose from PnO. Reticulospinal neurons in PMRF ranged widely in size from over 50 microm to under 25 microm across the major somatic axis. Labeled giant cells (soma diameters greater than 50 microm) comprised a small percentage of the neurons and were found in Gi, PnC and PnO. The present results define the origins of the reticulospinal system in the monkey and provide an important foundation for future investigations of the anatomy and physiology of this system in primates.

  15. Limited susceptibility of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) to leprosy after experimental administration of Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Gerald P; Dela Cruz, Eduardo C; Abalos, Rodolfo M; Tan, Esterlina V; Fajardo, Tranquilino T; Villahermosa, Laarni G; Cellona, Roland V; Balagon, Maria V; White, Valerie A; Saunderson, Paul R; Walsh, Douglas S

    2012-08-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are a useful model for human tuberculosis, but susceptibility to M. leprae is unknown. A cynomolgus model of leprosy could increase understanding of pathogenesis-importantly, neuritis and nerve-damaging reactions. We administered viable Mycobacterium leprae to 24 cynomolgus monkeys by three routes, with a median follow-up period of 6 years (range = 1-19 years) involving biopsies, nasal smears, antiphenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) antibody serology, and lepromin skin testing. Most developed evanescent papules at intradermal M. leprae inoculation sites that, on biopsy, showed a robust cellular immune response akin to a lepromin skin test reaction; many produced PGL-1 antibodies. At necropsy, four monkeys, without cutaneous or gross neurological signs of leprosy but with elevated PGL-1 antibodies, including three with nasal smears (+) for acid fast bacilli (AFB), showed histological features, including AFB, suggestive of leprosy at several sites. Overall, however, cynomolgus monkeys seem minimally susceptible to leprosy after experimental M. leprae administration.

  16. Reference values of clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) used in preclinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Kyu; Cho, Jae-Woo; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Park, Heejin; Han, Ji-Seok; Yang, Mi-Jin; Im, Wan-Jung; Park, Do-Yong; Kim, Woo-Jin; Han, Su-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are increasingly used in biomedical research since they are highly homologous to humans compared to other rodent animals. However, there is limited reliable reference data of the clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys, and in particular, only some coagulation and urinalysis parameters have been reported. Here, we reported the reference data of clinical chemical, hematological, blood coagulation, and urinalysis parameters in cynomolgus monkeys. The role of sex differences was analyzed and several parameters (including hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cell, blood urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine kinase, gamma-glutamyl tranferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) significantly differed between male and female subjects. In addition, compared to previous study results, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase showed significant variation. Interstudy differences could be affected by several factors, including age, sex, geographic origin, presence/absence of anesthetics, fasting state, and the analytical methods used. Therefore, it is important to deliberate with the overall reference indices. In conclusion, the current study provides a comprehensive and updated reference data of the clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys and provides improved assessment criteria for evaluating preclinical studies or biomedical research. PMID:27382375

  17. Nonsurgical repair of a pseudoaneurysm in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Daviau, Judith S; Merton, Daniel A

    2010-09-01

    A cynomolgus macaque presented with an ecchymotic and edematous left leg approximately 1 wk after a blood sample had been collected from the left femoral vein. Ecchymosis was noted in the femoral triangle, prepuce, and scrotum. The animal was not febrile or exhibiting signs of pain or distress. Duplex Doppler ultrasound imaging was used to evaluate the area. An arteriovenous fistula between the femoral artery and vein, accompanied by a pseudoaneurysm arising from the femoral artery, was identified. Various invasive and noninvasive treatment options for the pseudoaneurysm, including surgical repair, thrombin injection, stent placement, and ultrasound-guided compression repair (UGCR), were considered. UGCR was chosen as the first option for treatment. After a total of 20 min of UGCR at the neck of the pseudoaneurysm, complete thrombosis was achieved. Subsequent imaging of the lesion revealed resolution of the pseudoaneurysm. Because of the risks involved with invasive management techniques for this vascular lesion, UGCR is a valuable noninvasive treatment option for the repair of pseudoaneurysms.

  18. Factors influencing reproduction in captive-bred cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Naiken, Sandiren; Griffiths, Mary-Ann; Edouard, Lindsay; Padayatchy, Nada

    2015-12-01

    The cynomolgus monkey is widely used in reproductive research. However, the effects on their reproductive parameters of infant and maternal factors such as birth order, sex of infants, twin births, maternal age and lactation status have not been fully examined. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine how such infant and maternal factors impact on infant birth weight, birth viability, neonatal loss and retained placenta in cynomolgus monkeys. The study was based on birth data from a cohort of 789 females over an eight-year period. Consistent with reports made in other macaque species, female offspring had lower birth weight compared with males. Birth weights of firstborn infants were lower compared with birth weights of higher birth order infants. Results from the logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of non-viable births was increased by advancing maternal age and retained placenta. As in other non-human primates, maternal age had predictive value for non-viable births in cynomolgus monkeys. The risk of neonatal loss decreased with advancing maternal age but was not affected by birth order. Firstborn offspring did not have an increased risk for neonatal loss, possibly from the practice of retaining mothers in their natal groups, which improved maternal skills in primiparous females. However, infant low birth weight and non-lactating females increased the risk of neonatal loss, and the delivery of low birth weight infants was associated with retained placenta. The results from this study can be useful for scientists conducting reproductive studies and for colony managers in maximizing fertility and infant survival of cynomolgus monkeys.

  19. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys.

  20. Experimental Infection of Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with Aerosolized Monkeypox Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    not ethical or feasible, showing efficacy in an animal model that emulates human disease is required by the ‘‘Animal Rule’’ of the US Food and Drug and...was isolated from 200 ml of tissue suspension, 100 ml of blood, or 100 ml of throat swab media with a BioRobot M48 (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) according to...gradually decreased thereafter. There were no group-wise differences between blood or throat swab viral load on days 1–10, but the viral levels in whole

  1. An epizootic of lymphoplasmacytic gastritis attributed to Helicobacter pylori infection in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Reindel, J F; Fitzgerald, A L; Breider, M A; Gough, A W; Yan, C; Mysore, J V; Dubois, A

    1999-01-01

    An epizootic of subclinical lymphoplasmacytic gastritis occurred in cynomolgus monkeys maintained at our research facility. Gastric pathology data and histologic sections of 63 adolescent monkeys (2.5-3.5 years old) sacrificed during the epizootic were reviewed. Localized to multifocal reddening of the gastric mucosa was noted grossly in 7 of 44 (16%) monkeys harboring Helicobacter pylori, but not in any of 19 monkeys in which these bacteria were not seen. Gastritis, characterized by accentuation of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in antral and to a lesser degree cardiac mucosa, occurred in 42 of 63 (67%) monkeys evaluated and in 42 of 44 (93%) monkeys in which H. pylori was observed microscopically. Two monkeys with H. pylori infection had infiltrate scores that overlapped with the upper limit of scores of H. pylori-negative animals. Coincident with accentuated infiltrates were gastric gland epithelial hyperplasia, reduction in mucin content of surface and gland epithelia, and comparatively minor infiltrates of neutrophils in superficial lamina propria and gastric glands. Antral mucosa thickness often exceeded 1.5 to 2 times normal. Antral mucosal erosions occurred in 7 of 44 (16%) monkeys with H. pylori. Argyrophilic bacteria morphologically consistent with H. pylori were present in antral and less commonly cardiac mucosal glands. Intensity of bacterial colonization correlated with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates (r = 0.754) and hyperplasia (r = 0.700), although responses were quite variable. These bacteria were not detected in fundic mucosa except in instances where parietal cells were substantially depleted in glands coincident with localized increases in lamina propria inflammatory cell infiltrates. Helicobacter heilmannii-like organisms (HHLOs) were present in fundic glands of all 63 monkeys; colonization was often pronounced. Scores for fundic mucosal inflammation did not correlate with presence or intensity of colonization with HHLOs (r = 0.005). Rather, fundic inflammation scores positively correlated with the antral inflammation scores (r = 0.548). Bacteria morphologically, biochemically, and genetically consistent with H. pylori were cultured from gastric mucosal specimens confirming bacterial identification. These findings demonstrate that adolescent cynomolgus monkeys are susceptible to natural infection with H. pylori and develop many morphologic hallmarks of H. pylori-related gastritis in humans.

  2. Limited Susceptibility of Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) to Leprosy after Experimental Administration of Mycobacterium leprae

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Gerald P.; Dela Cruz, Eduardo C.; Abalos, Rodolfo M.; Tan, Esterlina V.; Fajardo, Tranquilino T.; Villahermosa, Laarni G.; Cellona, Roland V.; Balagon, Maria V.; White, Valerie A.; Saunderson, Paul R.; Walsh, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are a useful model for human tuberculosis, but susceptibility to M. leprae is unknown. A cynomolgus model of leprosy could increase understanding of pathogenesis—importantly, neuritis and nerve-damaging reactions. We administered viable Mycobacterium leprae to 24 cynomolgus monkeys by three routes, with a median follow-up period of 6 years (range = 1–19 years) involving biopsies, nasal smears, antiphenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) antibody serology, and lepromin skin testing. Most developed evanescent papules at intradermal M. leprae inoculation sites that, on biopsy, showed a robust cellular immune response akin to a lepromin skin test reaction; many produced PGL-1 antibodies. At necropsy, four monkeys, without cutaneous or gross neurological signs of leprosy but with elevated PGL-1 antibodies, including three with nasal smears (+) for acid fast bacilli (AFB), showed histological features, including AFB, suggestive of leprosy at several sites. Overall, however, cynomolgus monkeys seem minimally susceptible to leprosy after experimental M. leprae administration. PMID:22855766

  3. Nonsurgical Repair of a Pseudoaneurysm in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Daviau, Judith S; Merton, Daniel A

    2010-01-01

    A cynomolgus macaque presented with an ecchymotic and edematous left leg approximately 1 wk after a blood sample had been collected from the left femoral vein. Ecchymosis was noted in the femoral triangle, prepuce, and scrotum. The animal was not febrile or exhibiting signs of pain or distress. Duplex Doppler ultrasound imaging was used to evaluate the area. An arteriovenous fistula between the femoral artery and vein, accompanied by a pseudoaneurysm arising from the femoral artery, was identified. Various invasive and noninvasive treatment options for the pseudoaneurysm, including surgical repair, thrombin injection, stent placement, and ultrasound-guided compression repair (UGCR), were considered. UGCR was chosen as the first option for treatment. After a total of 20 min of UGCR at the neck of the pseudoaneurysm, complete thrombosis was achieved. Subsequent imaging of the lesion revealed resolution of the pseudoaneurysm. Because of the risks involved with invasive management techniques for this vascular lesion, UGCR is a valuable noninvasive treatment option for the repair of pseudoaneurysms. PMID:20858370

  4. Effects of Ketamine on Metabolomics of Serum and Urine in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xueying; Zeng, Xiancheng; Hong, Jiehua; Yuan, Congli; Cui, Li; Ma, Jing; Chang, Yan; Hua, Xiuguo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a metabolomics approach based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and pertinent multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the effect of ketamine on metabolic markers in cynomolgus macaques. Principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis showed that ketamine (10 mg/kg) induced metabolic perturbations. Compared with the control group, ketamine-treated macaques had lower serum levels of α-glucose, myoinositol, lactate and succinate and lower urine levels of pyruvate and lactate. In contrast, the levels of leucine in serum and arginine in urine were significantly higher in the ketamine group. Our results also demonstrated that a single injection of ketamine influenced the major energy and amino acid metabolic pathways in cynomolgus macaques. Our study suggests that these influences should be considered in the design of experiments and the interpretation related blood and urine data from ketamine-sedated cynomolgus macaques. PMID:27657710

  5. Lip salivary-gland hamartoma in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher A; Morton, Daniel G

    2014-02-01

    An incidental, asymptomatic, well-circumscribed, solitary, submucosal nodular mass was detected on the mucosal surface of the inner lower lip in a female cynomolgus macaque (age, approximately 2.4 y) during a juvenile chronic toxicology study. Grossly, the nodule was soft with brown to tan discoloration and measured approximately 4 mm in diameter. Microscopically, the nodule was covered by normal stratified squamous epithelium and composed of well-circumscribed irregular lobules containing hyperplastic and normal-appearing mucinous salivary gland acini and ducts, which were separated by thick connective tissue septae. In light of the gross pathology and results of microscopic examination, salivary gland hamartoma was diagnosed. This lesion resembles adenomatoid hyperplasia of mucous salivary glands in humans, which is a rare nonneoplastic swelling. To our knowledge, this case description is the first report of a cynomolgus macaque with the rare entity of lip salivary gland hamartoma, which likely represents adenomatous hyperplasia in humans.

  6. Stone-tool usage by Thai long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Lekprayoon, Chariya; Tandavanittj, Nontivich; Panha, Somsak; Cheewatham, Cheewapap; Hamada, Yuzuru

    2007-02-01

    In January and March of 2005, we conducted surveys of long-tailed macaques at Piak Nam Yai Island, Laem Son National Park (9 degrees N 34-35', 98 degrees E 28'), Ranong Province, situated in southern Thailand. Two of the three troops of long-tailed macaques found on the island were observed using axe-shaped stones to crack rock oysters, detached gastropods (Thais tissoti, Petit, 1852), bivalves (Gafrarium divaricatum, Gmelin, 1791), and swimming crabs (Thalamita danae, Stimpson, 1858). They smashed the shells with stones that were held in either the left or right hand, while using the opposite hand to gather the oyster meat. Some monkeys used both hands to handle the stones. According to Matsuzawa's 1996 hierarchical classification of tool usage (levels 0-3), the tool usage by Thai long-tailed macaques could be characterized as either level 1 (cracking rock oysters with stones) or level 2 (cracking drifting mollusks and crabs with stones by placing them on a rock). Our discovery of stone-tool usage by Thai long-tailed macaques provides a new point of reference for discussions regarding the evolution of tool usage and the material culture of primates.

  7. Acute traumatic spinal cord injury induces glial activation in the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Miller, A D; Westmoreland, S V; Evangelous, N R; Graham, A; Sledge, J; Nesathurai, S

    2012-06-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury leads to direct myelin and axonal damage and leads to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to site of injury. Although rodent models have provided the greatest insight into the genesis of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), recent studies have attempted to develop an appropriate non-human primate model. We explored TSCI in a cynomolgus macaque model using a balloon catheter to mimic external trauma to further evaluate the underlying mechanisms of acute TSCI. Following 1hour of spinal cord trauma, there were focal areas of hemorrhage and necrosis at the site of trauma. Additionally, there was a marked increased expression of macrophage-related protein 8, MMP9, IBA-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages and microglia at the site of injury. This data indicate that acute TSCI in the cynomolgus macaque is an appropriate model and that the earliest immunohistochemical changes noted are within macrophage and microglia populations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    CUI, Ding; ZHOU, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status. PMID:26646570

  9. Histopathology of Incidental Findings in Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca Fascicularis) Used in Toxicity Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Junko; Doi, Takuya; Kanno, Takeshi; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru; Narama, Isao

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our publication is to widely communicate pictures of spontaneous findings occurring in cynomolgus monkeys. Focal lymphoplasmacytic infiltration is commonly seen in the general organs. The frequency and severity of these lesions may be influenced by the administration of drugs with an effect on the immune system. Lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the lamina propria of the stomach is also frequently seen in cynomolgus monkeys, and it is caused mainly by a Helicobacter pylori infection. Various degrees of brown pigments are observed in various organs, and it is possible to distinguish the material of the pigments by its morphological features and site. A focal/segmental glomerular lesion is occasionally seen in a section of the kidney, and the minimal lesion has no influence on the urinalysis. We showed the common glomerular lesions in HE-stained sections, as well as in PAM- or PAS-stained sections, for understanding the details. Young and pubertal monkeys are usually used in toxicity studies; therefore, understanding various maturation stages of the genital system is important. In particular, the female genital system needs to be understood in the morphology, because their cyclic changes are different from other laboratory animals. Thus, we present the normal features of the cyclic changes of the female genital organs. Furthermore, we provide more information on spontaneous findings in cynomolgus monkeys for exact diagnoses in toxicity studies. PMID:22481861

  10. Structural and functional definition of the motor cortex in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Sessle, B J; Wiesendanger, M

    1982-02-01

    1. The details of the organization of the motor cortex and its anterior and posterior border were investigated in three monkeys by a combination of techniques including intracortical microstimulation (i.c.m.s.), electrophysiological recording of cutaneous and muscle afferent inputs to single cortical neurones, and electrophysiological and anatomical identification of corticospinal neurones; in addition, data from these methods were related to cortical cytoarchitecture.2. Almost 5000 individual cortical loci were tested with i.c.m.s. in the unanaesthetized monkeys. In this paper, we particularly consider the organization of the forelimb motor representation, and its relation to the representation of other parts of the body. I.c.m.s. thresholds of about 5 muA were common for evoking twitch movements and e.m.g. responses in distal forelimb and face, jaw and tongue muscles, but proximal forelimb, trunk and hind-limb movements also sometimes had such low thresholds.3. The fingers were found to be represented nearest the central sulcus, with horseshoe-shaped bands of cortical tissue representing progressively more proximal muscles situated around this central ;finger core'.4. Cytoarchitectonically, the cortex having these low-threshold motor effects was characteristic of area 4. There was also a close fit between the extent of this ;excitable cortex' and the extent of densely spaced corticospinal neurones identified electro-physiologically or with horseradish peroxidase labelling. In subsequent mapping of forelimb afferents to the cortex when the animal was deeply anaesthetized, low-threshold and short-latency responses to muscle nerve stimulation were rarely found in this ;excitable cortex'.5. The anterior border could be clearly established by i.c.m.s. and by the sharp boundary of corticospinal neurones. It was noted that the motor cortex extends rostrally beyond area 4 and its anterior border appears to reside in the posterior part of area 6aalpha (Vogt & Vogt, 1919) although it is difficult to establish the precise transition from area 4 to area 6.6. Posteriorly, the ;micro-excitable cortex' was found to be limited to regions cytoarchitectonically delineated as area 4 and did not include area 3a. On the other hand, low-threshold forelimb proprioceptive afferent inputs appeared restricted to area 3a neurones in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Corticospinal neurones were very dense in area 4, and there was a clear decrease in their occurrence in more caudal areas. However, scattered nests of corticospinal neurones were noted in areas 3a, 3b, 2, 1 and 5. It remains to be seen whether these scattered nests could be directly involved in motor control or whether they may modulate ascending somatosensory transmission, and whether they rely on sensory feed-back or inputs from other central areas for their spinal effects.

  11. Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar infections in captive macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Windell L; Yason, John Anthony D L; Adao, Davin Edric V

    2010-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that infects man and animals. This parasite has a global distribution and the disease it causes is usually characterized by diarrhea. In order to detect the parasite, it is necessary to differentiate it from Entamoeba dispar. E. dispar appears morphologically similar to E. histolytica but does not cause disease and tissue invasion. This study reports on the prevalence of E. histolytica and E. dispar among captive macaques in a primate facility in the Philippines. PCR was used to correctly identify both Entamoeba species. Indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was also performed to determine the seroprevalence of amebiasis in the captive macaques. Based on PCR targeting of the peroxiredoxin gene, of the 96 stool samples collected, 23 (24%) contained E. histolytica while 32 (33%) contained E. dispar. IFAT revealed 26 (27%) serum samples positive for antibodies against E. histolytica. Sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene showed that the 23 E. histolytica isolates were identical to human E. histolytica isolates deposited in the GenBank and not Entamoeba nuttalli as found in macaques in other recent reports. The Philippines is a major exporter of monkeys for biomedical research purposes, so screening animals before transporting them to other locations lessens the risk of spreading zoonoses to a wider area. This is the first report of the molecular detection of E. histolytica and E. dispar among macaques in the Philippines. This study complements the limited information available on the animal hosts of E. histolytica in the Philippines.

  12. Monitoring gene expression in muscle tissue of macaca fascicularis under the influence of testosterone and SARM.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Martina; Tichopad, Ales; Riedmaier, Irmgard; Pfaffl, Michael W; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to evaluate data on the gene expression profiles induced by testosterone and a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM, TAP Pharmaceutical Products Inc., Lake Forest, IL, USA) in androgen sensitive muscle tissue to obtain a better understanding on the molecular mechanisms of action and to identify biomarkers for SARM function in primate organs. A total of 24 male cyomolgus monkeys were divided into four groups: testosterone group, SARM1 group, SARM10 group, and control group, each consisting of six animals. The testosterone group was treated i.m. with 3.0 mg/kg Testostoviron®-depot-250 (Schering, Berlin, Germany) every 2 weeks, the SARM1 and SARM10 groups with 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg SARM LGD2941 daily, and the control group was not treated. Muscle biopsies from musculus quadriceps and musculus triceps were collected at three time points: baseline time point before SARM application (control), on day 16, and on day 90 of treatment. A total of 30 candidate genes were selected according to their functionality by screening the actual literature and were composed to the following functional groups: cell cycle, endocrine factors, energy metabolism, muscle fiber proteins, muscle specific transcription factors, protein metabolism, and satellite cell biology. Biomarkers were identified as genes regulated from baseline in any of the three treatment groups at day 16 or day 90 using analysis of variance with baseline defined as the contrast group. Out of 23 tested candidate genes, 3 were significantly regulated in m. quadriceps after 90 days treatment; in m. triceps no significant differences were identified. Cathepsin L, calpain 3, and insulin like growth factor binding protein 3 could be identified as first biomarkers, and first physiological differences between control and treatment samples were determined. Both testosterone and SARM LGD2941 appear to have similar effects after 90 days treatment, and thus a longer-term therapy with these substances can be recommended.

  13. Survey of prevalence of overweight body condition in laboratory-housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Sharon A; Leslie, Ken E; Pearl, David L; Fournier, Jocelyn; Turner, Patricia V

    2010-07-01

    Excessive weight gain has been reported to occur in captive cynomolgus macaques with little to no change in diet. Overweight body condition can result in development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes and should be avoided. The purpose of this survey was to assess the prevalence of overweight cynomolgus macaques in North American research facilities, including breeding colonies and short-term and long-term facilities, and to describe current methods used to assess body condition. The survey consisted of 51 questions covering animal population demographics, body weight and body condition scoring, feeding, and behavior. Voluntary participants included veterinarians and animal care managers. Respondents from 13 facilities completed the survey, and information was collected on 17,500 cynomolgus macaques. The majority of surveyed facilities housed juvenile and young adult macaques. The reported prevalence of overweight (greater than 10% of ideal body weight) animals ranged between 0% and 20% and reportedly was more frequent in animals younger than 10 y. Most facilities had weight reduction strategies in place. Despite these programs, a significant proportion of animals were reported as being overweight. The results of this survey demonstrate that most North American facilities housing cynomolgus macaques recognize the importance of tracking body condition regularly. However, implementing effective weight reduction programs may be difficult in captive housing environments. Because of the potential for adverse health effects, facilities should have a means of regularly tracking body weight as well as an action plan for managing overweight animals.

  14. Lower respiratory tract infection in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) infected with group A Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Randall J; Ashraf, Madiha; Gonulal, Vedia E; Ayeras, Ara A; Cantu, Concepcion; Shea, Patrick R; Carroll, Ronan K; Humbird, Tammy; Greaver, Jamieson L; Swain, Jody L; Chang, Ellen; Ragasa, Willie; Jenkins, Leslie; Lally, Kevin P; Blasdel, Terry; Cagle, Philip; Musser, James M

    2010-12-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS), a human-specific pathogen, is best known for causing pharyngitis ("strep-throat") and necrotizing fasciitis ("flesh-eating disease"). However, the organism is also an uncommon but important cause of community-acquired bronchopneumonia, an infection with an exceptionally high mortality rate. Inasmuch as little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of GAS lower respiratory tract infection, we sought to develop a relevant human infection model. Nine cynomolgus macaques were infected by intra-bronchial instillation of either sterile saline or GAS (10(5) or 10(7) CFU). Animals were continuously monitored and sacrificed at five days post-inoculation. Serial bronchial alveolar lavage specimens and tissues collected at necropsy were used for histologic and immunohistochemical examination, quantitative microbial culture, lung and blood biomarker analysis, and in vivo GAS gene expression studies. The lower respiratory tract disease observed in cynomolgus macaques mimicked the clinical and pathological features of severe GAS bronchopneumonia in humans. This new monkey model will be useful for testing hypotheses bearing on the molecular pathogenesis of GAS in the lower respiratory tract. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Transportation on Antioxidant Status in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xueying; Lu, Liang; Zeng, Xiancheng; Chang, Yan; Hua, Xiuguo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of transportation on oxidative stress in cynomolgus monkeys, we measured serum levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl (PC) and the activities of total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase in cynomolgus macaques before transportation (day 0), on the day of arrival (day 1), and on days 7, 14, and 21 after transportation. Compared with that on day 0, TAOC and catalase activities on days 1, 7, and 14 after transportation were significantly decreased, reached their nadirs on day 7, and increased thereafter to reach their pretransportation levels by day 21 after transportation. Compared with day 0 levels, mean SOD activity and GSH concentration were decreased significantly on day 1; they thereafter increased to reach their pretransportation measures by day 7 after transportation. In contrast, PC and malondialdehyde concentrations in serum and the activity of GSH-Px were increased on day 1 compared with day 0 and thereafter decreased to reach their pretransportation levels by day 14 after transportation. In summary, GSH, TAOC, catalase, and SOD levels decreased and malondialdehyde, PC, and GSH-Px concentrations increased in cynomolgus macaques after transportation. These results suggest that transportation might imbalance oxidant and antioxidant levels to create excess oxidative stress in cynomolgus macaques. Therefore, cynomolgus macaques should have at least 21 d to recover after transportation and regain their healthy status. PMID:27657707

  16. Mapping of FGF1 in the Medulla Oblongata of Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Bisem, Naomi J; Takeuchi, Shigeko; Imamura, Toru; Abdelalim, Essam M; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2012-12-26

    FGF1 is highly expressed in neurons and it has been proposed to play a role in the neuroprotection and in regeneration. Low FGF1 expression in neurons has been linked to increased vulnerability in cholinergic neurons. Previous reports have shown that the expression of FGF1 in rat brain is localized to the cholinergic nuclei of the medulla oblongata, with low ratio of neurons positive for FGF1 in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV). The role of FGF1 in the primate brain has yet to be clarified. In this study, we mapped FGF1 immunoreactivity in the medulla oblongata of cynomolgus monkey brainstems. Our results demonstrated that FGF1 immunoreactivity follows the pattern of distribution of cholinergic nuclei in the medulla oblongata; with strong localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus, the facial nucleus and the nucleus ambiguus. In contrast, the DMNV shows markedly lower FGF1 immunoreactivity. Localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons was only observed in the lateral region of the DMNV, with higher immunoreactivity in the rostral ventral-lateral region of the DMNV. These findings are consistent with the distribution of FGF1 immunoreactivity in previous studies of the rat brain.

  17. Sexual dimorphism of sulcal length asymmetry in the cerebrum of adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Imai, Noritaka; Sawada, Kazuhiko; Fukunishi, Katsuhiro; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Fukui, Yoshihiro

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to quantitatively clarify the gross anatomical asymmetry and sexual dimorphism of the cerebral hemispheres of cynomolgus monkeys. While the fronto-occipital length of the right and left cerebral hemispheres was not different between sexes, a statistically significant rightward asymmetry was detected in the cerebral width at the perisylvian region in females, but not in males (narrower width of the left side in the females). An asymmetry quotient of the sulcal lengths revealed a rightward asymmetry in the inferior occipital sulcus and a leftward asymmetry in the central and intraparietal sulci in both sexes. However, the laterality of the lengths of other sulci was different for males and females. The arcuate sulcus was directed rightward in males but there was no rightward bias in females. Interestingly, the principle sulcus and lateral fissure were left-lateralized in the males, but right-lateralized in the females. The results suggest that lateralization patterns are regionally and sexually different in the cerebrum of cynomolgus monkeys. The present results provide a reference for quantitatively evaluating the normality of the cerebral cortical morphology in cynomolgus monkeys. © 2011 The Authors. Congenital Anomalies © 2011 Japanese Teratology Society.

  18. The relationship between masseter force and masseter electromyogram during mastication in the monkey Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Hylander, W L; Johnson, K R

    1989-01-01

    In five adult monkeys, electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from bipolar surface electrodes positioned over the superficial masseter and from bipolar fine-wire electrodes within both the superficial and deep masseter. Relative masseter force was estimated by measuring surface bone strain from the lateral aspect of the zygomatic arch using rosette strain gauges. Multiple step-wise regression procedures demonstrated that peak values of the averaged masseter EMG could often explain a considerable amount of the variation of peak relative masseter force during mastication, i.e. r2 values ranged from 0.23 to 0.96 for the various single-electrode models and R2 values ranged from 0.78 to 0.96 for the various multiple-electrode models. The r2 values for relative masseter force and EMG data from the surface electrodes ranged from 0.69 to 0.96, and, on average, EMG data from surface electrodes provided somewhat more information about overall relative muscle force than data from fine-wire electrodes. The R2 values for a two-electrode model, consisting of data from surface electrodes over the superficial masseter and fine-wire electrodes in the posterior portion of the deep masseter, ranged from 0.78 to 0.95. The latency between the averaged surface EMG and relative muscle force was determined and the data indicated that the surface EMG usually preceded muscle force. This latency tended to decrease gradually throughout the entire power stroke of mastication. At peak values, the surface EMG preceded muscle force by about 22 ms. Towards the end of the power stroke, i.e. the 25% of peak values during unloading, muscle force may actually precede the average EMG.

  19. Population and landscape genetics of an introduced species (M. fascicularis) on the island of Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Satkoski Trask, Jessica; George, Debra; Houghton, Paul; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2013-01-01

    The cynomolgus macaque, Macaca fascicularis, was introduced onto the island of Mauritius in the early 17(th) century. The species experienced explosive population growth, and currently exists at high population densities. Anecdotes collected from nonhuman primate trappers on the island of Mauritius allege that animals from the northern portion of the island are larger in body size than and superior in condition to their conspecifics in the south. Although previous genetic studies have reported Mauritian cynomolgus macaques to be panmictic, the individuals included in these studies were either from the southern/central or an unknown portion of the island. In this study, we sampled individuals broadly throughout the entire island of Mauritius and used spatial principle component analysis to measure the fine-scale correlation between geographic and genetic distance in this population. A stronger correlation between geographic and genetic distance was found among animals in the north than in those in the southern and central portions of the island. We found no difference in body weight between the two groups, despite anecdotal evidence to the contrary. We hypothesize that the increased genetic structure among populations in the north is related to a reduction in dispersal distance brought about by human habitation and tourist infrastructure, but too recent to have produced true genetic differentiation.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina based on D-loop region sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Latiff M. A., B.; Ampeng, A.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain B., M.

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysian pig-tailed macaques have never been established even though the data are crucial in aiding conservation plan for the species. The aims of this study is to establish the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca nemestrina in Malaysia. A total of 21 genetic samples of M. nemestrina yielding 458 bp of D-loop sequences were used in phylogenetic analyses, in addition to one sample of M. fascicularis which was used as an outgroup. Sequence character analysis revealed that D-loop locus contains 23% parsimony informative character detected among the ingroups. Further analysis indicated a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula populations are separated from Borneo Insular population; and Perak population formed a distinctive clade within Peninsular Malaysia populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo population was distinguished from Peninsula population (100% bootstrap value in the NJ, MP, 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). Perak's population was separated from other Peninsula populations (100% in NJ, 99% in MP and 1.00 in Bayesian). D-loop region of mtDNA is proven to be a suitable locus in studying the separation of M. nemestrina at population level. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

  1. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features of compressive cervical myelopathy with traumatic intervertebral disc herniation in cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Hye-Jin; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Jung, Kyeong Cheon; Park, Seong Hoe

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) with nucleus pulposus extrusion, traumatic or not, is a devastating clinical condition accompanied by neurological problems. Here we report a cynomolgus macaque suffering from acute and progressive neurological dysfunction by a blunt trauma due to neck collar, an animal handling device. Tetraplegia, urinary incontinence, decreased proprioception, and imperception of pain were shown on physical and neurological examinations. MRI sagittal T2 weighted sequences revealed an extensive protrusion of disc material between C2 and C3 cervical vertebra, and this protrusion resulted in central stenosis of the spinal cord. Histopathologic findings showed a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated at sites of spinal cord injury (SCI). This case is the first report of compressive cervical SCI caused by IVDH associated with blunt trauma. PMID:28053621

  2. Variation in hair δ13C and δ15N values in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Singapore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schillaci, Michael A.; Castellini, J. Margaret; Stricker, Craig A.; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Lee, Benjamin P.Y.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the primatology literature on stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) has focused on African and New World species, with comparatively little research published on Asian primates. Here we present hair δ13C and δ15N isotope values for a sample of 33 long-tailed macaques from Singapore. We evaluate the suggestion by a previous researcher that forest degradation and biodiversity loss in Singapore have led to a decline in macaque trophic level. The results of our analysis indicated significant spatial variability in δ13C but not δ15N. The range of variation in δ13C was consistent with a diet based on C3 resources, with one group exhibiting low values consistent with a closed canopy environment. Relative to other macaque species from Europe and Asia, the macaques from Singapore exhibited a low mean δ13C value but mid-range mean δ15N value. Previous research suggesting a decline in macaque trophic level is not supported by the results of our study.

  3. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features of compressive cervical myelopathy with traumatic intervertebral disc herniation in cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Hye-Jin; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Jung, Kyeong Cheon; Park, Seong Hoe; Lee, Jae-Il

    2016-12-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) with nucleus pulposus extrusion, traumatic or not, is a devastating clinical condition accompanied by neurological problems. Here we report a cynomolgus macaque suffering from acute and progressive neurological dysfunction by a blunt trauma due to neck collar, an animal handling device. Tetraplegia, urinary incontinence, decreased proprioception, and imperception of pain were shown on physical and neurological examinations. MRI sagittal T2 weighted sequences revealed an extensive protrusion of disc material between C2 and C3 cervical vertebra, and this protrusion resulted in central stenosis of the spinal cord. Histopathologic findings showed a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated at sites of spinal cord injury (SCI). This case is the first report of compressive cervical SCI caused by IVDH associated with blunt trauma.

  4. Cryopreservation of Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) Sperm by Using a Commercial Egg-YolkFree Freezing Medium.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yaping; Ao, Lei; Wang, Hong; Duan, Yanchao; Chang, Shaohui; Chen, Bingbing; Zhi, Dalong; Li, Sujuan; Niu, Yuyu; Ji, Weizhi; Si, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Conventional TRISegg yolk (TEY) freezing medium for the cryopreservation of NHP sperm has the risk of contamination due to widespread zoonotic diseases. This study was aimed at determining the optimal glycerol concentration, freezing rate, and holding time in liquid N2 vapor for the cryopreservation of cynomolgus macaque sperm by using a commercial egg-yolkfree freezing medium (SC medium) designed for human sperm cryopreservation. Sperm motility and acrosomal integrity after freezing were assessed. Sperm in SC medium (dilution ratio, 3:1) frozen at cooling rates of 67 and 183C/min in liquid N2 vapor showed higher post-thaw motility than did samples frozen at 435C/min. At the cooling rate of 183C/min and dilution in SC medium at a 3:1 ratio, post-thaw motility was higher after a holding time of 10 min than after 30 min (recommended by the manufacturer). In addition, post-thaw motility of sperm frozen in SC medium was higher with dilution ratios of 3:1, 4.5:1, and 6:1 compared with 9:1, 10.5:1, and 12:1, and the sample diluted 12:1 showed the lowest percentage of thawed sperm with intact acrosomes. Sperm showed higher post-thaw motility after freezing in TEY than in SC medium; acrosomal integrity did not differ between the 2 media. Our results indicated that cynomolgus macaque sperm can be cryopreserved successfully by using a commercial egg-yolkfree freezing medium, which provides an option for genetic preservation with decreased zoonotic risk in this important NHP species.

  5. A critical analysis of the cynomolgus macaque, Macaca fascicularis, as a model to test HIV-1/SIV vaccine efficacy.

    PubMed

    Antony, Joseph M; MacDonald, Kelly S

    2015-06-17

    The use of a number of non-rhesus macaque species, but especially cynomolgus macaques as a model for HIV-1 vaccine development has increased in recent years. Cynomolgus macaques have been used in the United Kingdom, Europe, Canada and Australia as a model for HIV vaccine development for many years. Unlike rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques infected with SIV show a pattern of disease pathogenesis that more closely resembles that of human HIV-1 infection, exhibiting lower peak and set-point viral loads and slower progression to disease with more typical AIDS defining illnesses. Several advances have been made recently in the use of the cynomolgus macaque SIV challenge model that allow the demonstration of vaccine efficacy using attenuated viruses and vectors that are both viral and non-viral in origin. This review aims to probe the details of various vaccination trials carried out in cynomolgus macaques in the context of our modern understanding of the highly diverse immunogenetics of this species with a view to understanding the species-specific immune correlates of protection and the efficacy of vectors that have been used to design vaccines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Use of Operant Performance to Guide and Evaluate Medical Treatment in an Adult Male Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    treatment. The affected monkey received ketoprofen , buprenorphine, or their combination but continued to perform poorly during daily operant behavioral...evening administration of buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg IM) was added to the treatment regimen of ketoprofen (2.0 mg/kg IM) ad- ministration in the...well below the reinforced band. Treatment with ketoprofen or the ketoprofen -buprenorphine combination failed to increase mean response duration

  7. Use of Operant Performance to Guide and Evaluate Medical Treatment in an Adult Male Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lindsey R; Cox, David M; Myers, Todd M

    2011-01-01

    A 6-y-old male cynomolgus macaque presented with noticeable swelling of the left forearm and signs of discomfort, as indicated by nonuse of the arm even in a behavioral task that he previously had been well-motivated to perform. Examination under anesthesia revealed lacerations to the arm. Radiography of the forearm showed no fractures, indicating that the damage was limited to soft tissue. The daily operant behavioral session assessed the amount of force the monkey emitted when touching the screen with the affected arm and how long each touch was sustained. We then used these parameters (force and duration of touch) as objective measures of putative pain relief and recovery of function to guide the medical treatment. The affected monkey received ketoprofen, buprenorphine, or their combination but continued to perform poorly during daily operant behavioral sessions. Only after treatment with dexamethasone did performance return to preinjury levels, suggesting inflammation near the radial or ulnar nerve. These findings indicate that performance of a trained operant task performance can be useful in guiding medical treatment, evaluating pain relief, and objectively monitoring health in laboratory animals. PMID:22330792

  8. Efficacy of selective PDE4D negative allosteric modulators in the object retrieval task in female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Jane S; Beaumont, Vahri; Watson, James M; Chew, Chang Sing; Beconi, Maria; Hutcheson, Daniel M; Dominguez, Celia; Munoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signalling plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and information processing in the hippocampal and basal ganglia systems. The augmentation of cAMP signalling through the selective inhibition of phosphodiesterases represents a viable strategy to treat disorders associated with dysfunction of these circuits. The phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 4 inhibitor rolipram has shown significant pro-cognitive effects in neurological disease models, both in rodents and primates. However, competitive non-isoform selective PDE4 inhibitors have a low therapeutic index which has stalled their clinical development. Here, we demonstrate the pro-cognitive effects of selective negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of PDE4D, D159687 and D159797 in female Cynomolgous macaques, in the object retrieval detour task. The efficacy displayed by these NAMs in a primate cognitive task which engages the corticostriatal circuitry, together with their suitable pharmacokinetic properties and safety profiles, suggests that clinical development of these allosteric modulators should be considered for the treatment of a variety of brain disorders associated with cognitive decline.

  9. Efficacy of Selective PDE4D Negative Allosteric Modulators in the Object Retrieval Task in Female Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, Jane S.; Beaumont, Vahri; Watson, James M.; Chew, Chang Sing; Beconi, Maria; Hutcheson, Daniel M.; Dominguez, Celia; Munoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signalling plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and information processing in the hippocampal and basal ganglia systems. The augmentation of cAMP signalling through the selective inhibition of phosphodiesterases represents a viable strategy to treat disorders associated with dysfunction of these circuits. The phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 4 inhibitor rolipram has shown significant pro-cognitive effects in neurological disease models, both in rodents and primates. However, competitive non-isoform selective PDE4 inhibitors have a low therapeutic index which has stalled their clinical development. Here, we demonstrate the pro-cognitive effects of selective negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of PDE4D, D159687 and D159797 in female Cynomolgous macaques, in the object retrieval detour task. The efficacy displayed by these NAMs in a primate cognitive task which engages the corticostriatal circuitry, together with their suitable pharmacokinetic properties and safety profiles, suggests that clinical development of these allosteric modulators should be considered for the treatment of a variety of brain disorders associated with cognitive decline. PMID:25050979

  10. Superovulatory responses in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) depend on the interaction between donor status and superovulation method used

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Ji-Su; YOON, Seung-Bin; JEONG, Kang-Jin; SIM, Bo-Woong; CHOI, Seon-A; LEE, Sang-Il; JIN, Yeung Bae; SONG, Bong-Seok; LEE, Sang-Rae; KIM, Sun-Uk; CHANG, Kyu-Tae

    2017-01-01

    The current study was performed to investigate the effect of oocyte donor status, including age and body weight, on metaphase II (MII) oocyte recovery using two superovulation methods in cynomolgus monkeys. The use of Method A [recombinant gonadotrophin (75 IU/kg, 3 ×, 3-day intervals) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)] led to great increases in ovary size and the mean number of MII oocytes retrieved in age- and body-weight-dependent manner; in contrast, both the parameters were similar in Method B [recombinant gonadotrophin (60 IU, twice daily, 6 days), recombinant gonadotropin and recombinant human luteinizing hormone (rhLH) (60 IU, twice daily, 3 days), and hCG]. Importantly, Method A showed maximal MII oocyte recovery rate in > 60-month-old or 4.5–5.0-kg female monkeys, whereas Method B was equally effective regardless of the donor age and body weight. These results indicate that superovulatory responses depend on the interaction between oocyte donor status and the superovulation method used in cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:28070055

  11. Effect of sodium phytate on the chemical and microbial composition of dental plaque in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed

    Cole, M F; Bowen, W H

    1975-01-01

    The incorporation of 1 or 3% sodium phytate in confectioners sugar produced minimal changes in the physical,chemical, and microbial composition of dental plaque in tube-fed monkeys during a two-week period. Only a reduction in yeasts and lactobacilli could be ascribed to the presence of phytate. Other changes were attributable to the transition from conventional feeding to tube-feeding, irrespective of the presence of absence of phytate.

  12. Pathology of experimental Machupo virus infection, Chicava strain, in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) by intramuscular and aerosol exposure.

    PubMed

    Bell, T M; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Robinson, C G; Wilkinson, E R; Hensley, L E; Cashman, K A

    2015-01-01

    Machupo virus, the causative agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever of which little is known and for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics are available. This study evaluated the cynomolgus macaque as an animal model using the Machupo virus, Chicava strain, via intramuscular and aerosol challenge. The incubation period was 6 to 10 days with initial signs of depression, anorexia, diarrhea, mild fever, and a petechial skin rash. These were often followed by neurologic signs and death within an average of 18 days. Complete blood counts revealed leukopenia as well as marked thrombocytopenia. Serum chemistry values identified a decrease in total protein, marked increases in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and moderate increases in alkaline phosphatase. Gross pathology findings included a macular rash extending across the axillary and inguinal regions beginning at approximately 10 days postexposure as well as enlarged lymph nodes and spleen, enlarged and friable liver, and sporadic hemorrhages along the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and necrosis/apoptosis in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system (nonsuppurative encephalitis) was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection in cynomolgus macaques and supports the usefulness of cynomolgus macaques as a viable model of human Machupo virus infection. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Observations on healing following endodontic surgery in nonhuman primates (Macaca fascicularis): effects of rhBMP-2.

    PubMed

    Bergenholtz, Gunnar; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Sorensen, Rachel G; Xiropaidis, Andreas V; Wozney, John M

    2006-01-01

    The potential of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to enhance bone healing following endodontic surgery was tested. The pattern and timing of de novo bone formation and cementum regeneration, and the potential for root resorption and ankylosis to accompany bone formation were evaluated. Pulpal infections were induced in maxillary and mandibular incisor teeth in young adult Cynomolgus monkeys. The teeth received conventional endodontic treatment immediately followed by surgical root resection. In a randomized split-mouth design, contralateral apical bone defects received rhBMP-2 in absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) carrier or served as sham-surgery controls to provide histological and radiographic evaluations following 1 (mandibular incisors) and 4.5 (maxillary incisors) month(s) postsurgery. At 1 month postsurgery trabecular bone filled the apical bone defects. The newly formed bone appeared considerably more mature and had assumed characteristics of the contiguous resident bone at 4.5 months postsurgery. The resected root tips were almost completely covered by new cementum with a maturing functionally oriented periodontal ligament. Localized inflammatory infiltrates were associated with the filled root canals and extruded root-filling material. Root resorption and ankylosis were not observed. There were no apparent differences in healing patterns between sites implanted with rhBMP-2/ACS and those serving as sham-surgery controls. Under conditions where the influence of infectious elements and irritation caused by root filling material are minimized, bone formation and cementum regeneration appears rapid following endodontic surgery. rhBMP-2/ACS did not offer an obvious benefit above and beyond that of the native osteogenic potential in this animal model.

  14. Visible Lesion Laser Thresholds in Cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) Retina with a 1064-nm, 12-ns Pulsed Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    only 20 of the planned 25 exposures. : Visible Lesion from Test Laser 40r, Marker Lesions Figure 3. Cynomolgus retinal image from fundus camera...assure co-alignment of the fundus camera with the higher-energy test beam. An 80/20 beam splitter was placed in the coincidental optical path of a... fundus camera (Topcon Model TRC 50X) with the higher-power reflected beam being directed through the dilated pupil to the retina of the monkey. The low

  15. The anthropogenic environment lessens the intensity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Balinese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Lane, Kelly E; Holley, Concerta; Hollocher, Hope; Fuentes, Agustin

    2011-04-01

    The distribution of wildlife parasites in a landscape is intimately tied to the spatial distribution of hosts. In parasite species, including many gastrointestinal parasites, with obligate or common environmental life stages, the dynamics of the parasite can also be strongly affected by geophysical components of the environment. This is especially salient in host species, for example humans and macaques, which thrive across a wide variety of habitat types and quality and so are exposed to a wealth of environmentally resilient parasites. Here, we examine the effect of environmental and anthropogenic components of the landscape on the prevalence, intensity, and species diversity of gastrointestinal parasites across a metapopulation of long-tailed macaques on the island of Bali, Indonesia. Using principal-components analysis, we identified significant interaction effects between specific environmental and anthropogenic components of the landscape, parsing the Balinese landscape into anthropogenic (PC1), mixed environment (PC2), and non-anthropogenic (PC3) components. Further, we determined that the anthropogenic environment can mitigate the prevalence and intensity of specific gut parasites and the intensity of the overall community of gut parasites, but that non-anthropogenically driven landscape components have no significant effect in increasing or reducing the intensity or prevalence of the community of gut parasites in Balinese macaques.

  16. Efficacy of the UK Recombinant Plague Vaccine to Protect Against Pneumonic Plague in the Nonhuman Primate, Macaca Fascicularis (PRIVATE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-05

    Alhydrogel. They were challenged on day 60 with a lethal aerosol challen survived. 2 1 INTRODUCTION Plague is an infection caused by the gram negative...Testing has been completed and shown Plague is an infection of small rodents and mammals - for example the ra popu ess. Plague has been responsible for...protective against challenge 28 of the immunization schedule through to week 53 after two compete with mpetitive ELISA. The competitive binding data

  17. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  18. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  19. Pediculosis in Macaca sylvanus of Gibraltar

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Douglas L.; Smith, Vincent; Pizarro, Mark; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory; Fuentes, Agustin; Shaw, Eric; Cortes, John

    2007-01-01

    Pedicinus spp. parasitize several species of nonhuman primates. This is the first published report confirming the presence of Pedicinus albidus (Rudow) infestation in the free-ranging macaques (Macaca sylvanus) of Gibraltar. The diagnosis of pediculosis was based upon finding adult lice on host animals. PMID:17280788

  20. Activation of innate immunity in healthy Macaca mulatta macaques by a single subcutaneous dose of GMP CpG 7909: safety data and interferon-inducible protein-10 kinetics for humans and macaques.

    PubMed

    Stewart, V Ann; McGrath, Shannon; Krieg, Arthur M; Larson, Noelle S; Angov, Evelina; Smith, Christopher L; Brewer, Thomas G; Heppner, D Gray

    2008-02-01

    Following a demonstration that mouse-optimized cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides stimulated innate immune protection against intracellular pathogens, we tested the ability of CpG 7909, a primate-optimized Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, to stimulate rhesus macaques to produce interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), a biomarker of immune activation. This study was performed prior to a similar trial with humans in order to facilitate the development of CpG 7909 as an immunomodulator for biodefense. A single subcutaneous dose of clinical-grade CpG 7909 was given to four groups of healthy adult rhesus macaques (0-mg dose [n = 5], 0.75-mg dose [n = 9], 1.5-mg dose [n = 9], and 3.0-mg dose [n = 9]). Directed physical examination findings, clinical laboratory values, and serum IP-10 concentrations were collected at scheduled intervals for 28 days. All three dose levels of CpG 7909 were safe and not associated with significant clinical or laboratory abnormality. The time to peak serum IP-10 concentration was 1.0 days at the 0.75-mg dose and 0.5 days at the 1.5- and 3.0-mg doses. A dose-dependent response was observed for the magnitude and duration of IP-10 concentrations, which remained significantly above baseline for 3 days for the 3.0-mg and 1.5-mg dose groups but above baseline for only 2 days for the 0.75-mg dose group. There were no nonresponders to CpG 7909. These rhesus macaque safety and IP-10 response data closely parallel a subsequent phase 1 human study of subcutaneously administered CpG 7909. A single dose of clinical-grade CpG 7909 induced a rapid, sustained IP-10 response, a biomarker for activation of the innate immune system. Given the similar susceptibilities of humans and rhesus macaques to infectious diseases, the rhesus macaque appears to be a suitable model to evaluate the potential of CpG 7909-mediated innate immune activation to protect humans against pathogens.

  1. Cycloartane triterpenes from marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xinping; Zhu, Xiaobin; Deng, Liping; Deng, Zhiwei; Lin, Wenhan

    2006-12-01

    Six cycloartanes were isolated from ethanol extract of marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis by column chromatography. Procedure of isolation and description of these compounds are given in this paper. The structures were elucidated as (1). 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25- en-3β-ol; (2). cycloart-25-en-3β 24-diol; (3). 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3β-ol; (4). cycloart-23-en-3β, 25-diol; (5). cycloart-23, 25-dien-3β-ol; and (6). cycloart-24-en-3β-ol by spectroscopic (MS, ID and 2D NMR) data analysis. Cycloartane derivatives are widely distributed in terrestrial plants, but only few were obtained in the alga. All these compounds that have been isolated from terrestrial plants, were found in the marine alga for the first time.

  2. Tissue enzyme studies in Macaca nemestrina monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, R. W.; Hoffman, R. A.; Jenkins, D.

    1971-01-01

    Total enzyme activities in fresh tissue specimens from major organs of Macaca nemestrina were analyzed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and aldolase. The concentration of these enzymes varied among the different tissue with skeletal muscle, heart, and brain having the highest activities. LDH isozymes determinations for the various tissues were also made. The spectrum of LDH isozyme distribution appears to be quite specific and characteristic for at least some of the tissues analyzed.

  3. Tissue enzyme studies in Macaca nemestrina monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, R. W.; Hoffman, R. A.; Jenkins, D.

    1971-01-01

    Total enzyme activities in fresh tissue specimens from major organs of Macaca nemestrina were analyzed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and aldolase. The concentration of these enzymes varied among the different tissue with skeletal muscle, heart, and brain having the highest activities. LDH isozymes determinations for the various tissues were also made. The spectrum of LDH isozyme distribution appears to be quite specific and characteristic for at least some of the tissues analyzed.

  4. Effects of Aroclor 1254 reg sign on hydrocortisone levels in adult Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, J.C.K.; Tryphonas, H.; Jordan, N.; Brien, R.; Karpinski, K.R.; Arnold, D.L. )

    1989-11-01

    Researchers, using female Sprague Dawley rats, reported the effects of chronic (5-7 months) oral dosing with Aroclor 1254{reg sign} (Polychlorinated biphenyls-PCB) on the serum levels of corticosterone, the principle glucocorticoid in rats. Their findings indicated that corticosterone levels were significantly depressed at dose levels of 479 {mu}g/kg bw/day and above. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of PCB on the hydrocortisone levels in Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) serum. In the monkey the controlling hormone is hydrocortisone which is identical to that of humans.

  5. Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943 (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa): redescription and discussion of its phylogenetic position within the genus.

    PubMed

    Miglietta, Maria Pia

    2016-03-31

    Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943 was first described off Alligator Reef, Florida, USA, at a depth of 216 m. Presumably a deep-sea species, its validity has often been questioned due to the scarcity of available records. In this paper, T. fascicularis is re-described from some mature colonies from the upper slope of the Gulf of Mexico. Furthermore, new pictures of the colony, polyps, and medusa buds, are provided. A ~600bp sequence of the large ribosomal subunit of the mitochondrial RNA (lsu-rRNA, 16S), also known as the Hydrozoan barcoding molecule, is used for the first time to confirm the validity of T. fascicularis as a species, and analyze its phylogenetic position within the genus Turritopsis.

  6. Mechanical properties of the cement of the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Kovalev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis secretes foam-like cement, the amount of which usually exceeds that produced by other barnacles. When Dosima settles on small objects, this adhesive is additionally used as a float which gives buoyancy to the animal. The dual use of the cement by D. fascicularis requires mechanical properties different from those of other barnacle species. In the float, two regions with different morphological structure and mechanical properties can be distinguished. The outer compact zone with small gas-filled bubbles (cells) is harder than the interior one and forms a protective rind presumably against mechanical damage. The inner region with large, gas-filled cells is soft. This study demonstrates that D. fascicularis cement is soft and visco-elastic. We show that the values of the elastic modulus, hardness and tensile stress are considerably lower than in the rigid cement of other barnacles. PMID:25657833

  7. Energy metabolism of Macaca mulatta during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Stein, T. P.; Dotsenko, M. A.; Korolkov, V. I.; Fuller, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    The mean daily energy expenditure rates of two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were determined during spaceflight on the joint U.S./Russian Bion 11 mission by the doubly labeled water (DLW, 2H218O) method. Control values were obtained from two studies performed under flight-like conditions (n = 4). The mean inflight energy expenditure for the two Bion 11 monkeys was 81.3 kcal/kg/day, which was higher than that seen previously. The average energy expenditure (77.6 +/- 4.4 kcal/kg/day) for the four ground control monkeys was slightly lower than had been measured previously.

  8. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA

    PubMed Central

    James, David G.; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation. PMID:27367733

  9. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-06-29

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  10. Ash content of bones in the pigtail monkey, Macaca nemestrina.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vose, G. P.; Roach, T. L.

    1972-01-01

    Ash analyses of skeletons of four adult primates, Macaca nemestrina, revealed some similarities and some marked contrasts when compared with published data on human skeletal ash. The skull in both Macaca nemestrina and man has the highest ash content of all bones in the skeleton. While the bones of the arms of humans have an ash content nearly identical to that of the legs (0.3% difference), in Macaca nemestrina the humeri and radii contain 5.4% more ash than the femora and tibiae. Similarly in Macaca nemestrina the bones of the hands contain 3.5% more ash than the bones of the feet, while in humans the same bones agree within 0.3% implying that adaptive use function is a factor in bone ash concentration. The ribs of Macaca nemestrina showed an unexpectedly high ash content in comparison with those of humans. In contrast with the relatively constant ash content throughout the vertebrae in humans, a conspicuous decrease axially was noted in Macaca nemestrina.

  11. Ash content of bones in the pigtail monkey, Macaca nemestrina.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vose, G. P.; Roach, T. L.

    1972-01-01

    Ash analyses of skeletons of four adult primates, Macaca nemestrina, revealed some similarities and some marked contrasts when compared with published data on human skeletal ash. The skull in both Macaca nemestrina and man has the highest ash content of all bones in the skeleton. While the bones of the arms of humans have an ash content nearly identical to that of the legs (0.3% difference), in Macaca nemestrina the humeri and radii contain 5.4% more ash than the femora and tibiae. Similarly in Macaca nemestrina the bones of the hands contain 3.5% more ash than the bones of the feet, while in humans the same bones agree within 0.3% implying that adaptive use function is a factor in bone ash concentration. The ribs of Macaca nemestrina showed an unexpectedly high ash content in comparison with those of humans. In contrast with the relatively constant ash content throughout the vertebrae in humans, a conspicuous decrease axially was noted in Macaca nemestrina.

  12. Whole-genome sequencing of tibetan macaque (Macaca Thibetana) provides new insight into the macaque evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhenxin; Zhao, Guang; Li, Peng; Osada, Naoki; Xing, Jinchuan; Yi, Yong; Du, Lianming; Silva, Pedro; Wang, Hongxing; Sakate, Ryuichi; Zhang, Xiuyue; Xu, Huailiang; Yue, Bisong; Li, Jing

    2014-06-01

    Macaques are the most widely distributed nonhuman primates and used as animal models in biomedical research. The availability of full-genome sequences from them would be essential to both biomedical and primate evolutionary studies. Previous studies have reported whole-genome sequences from rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus macaque (M. fascicularis, CE), both of which belong to the fascicularis group. Here, we present a 37-fold coverage genome sequence of the Tibetan macaque (M. thibetana; TM). TM is an endemic species to China belonging to the sinica group. On the basis of mapping to the rhesus macaque genome, we identified approximately 11.9 million single-nucleotide variants), of which 3.9 million were TM specific, as assessed by comparison two Chinese rhesus macaques (CR) and two CE genomes. Some genes carried TM-specific homozygous nonsynonymous variants (TSHNVs), which were scored as deleterious in human by both PolyPhen-2 and SIFT (Sorting Tolerant From Intolerant) and were enriched in the eye disease genes. In total, 273 immune response and disease-related genes carried at least one TSHNV. The heterozygosity rates of two CRs (0.002617 and 0.002612) and two CEs (0.003004 and 0.003179) were approximately three times higher than that of TM (0.000898). Polymerase chain reaction resequencing of 18 TM individuals showed that 29 TSHNVs exhibited high allele frequencies, thus confirming their low heterozygosity. Genome-wide genetic divergence analysis demonstrated that TM was more closely related to CR than to CE. We further detected unusual low divergence regions between TM and CR. In addition, after applying statistical criteria to detect putative introgression regions (PIRs) in the TM genome, up to 239,620 kb PIRs (8.84% of the genome) were identified. Given that TM and CR have overlapping geographical distributions, had the same refuge during the Middle Pleistocene, and show similar mating behaviors, it is highly likely that there was an ancient

  13. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Tibetan Macaque (Macaca thibetana) Provides New Insight into the Macaque Evolutionary History

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Osada, Naoki; Xing, Jinchuan; Yi, Yong; Du, Lianming; Silva, Pedro; Wang, Hongxing; Sakate, Ryuichi; Zhang, Xiuyue; Xu, Huailiang; Yue, Bisong; Li, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Macaques are the most widely distributed nonhuman primates and used as animal models in biomedical research. The availability of full-genome sequences from them would be essential to both biomedical and primate evolutionary studies. Previous studies have reported whole-genome sequences from rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus macaque (M. fascicularis, CE), both of which belong to the fascicularis group. Here, we present a 37-fold coverage genome sequence of the Tibetan macaque (M. thibetana; TM). TM is an endemic species to China belonging to the sinica group. On the basis of mapping to the rhesus macaque genome, we identified approximately 11.9 million single-nucleotide variants), of which 3.9 million were TM specific, as assessed by comparison two Chinese rhesus macaques (CR) and two CE genomes. Some genes carried TM-specific homozygous nonsynonymous variants (TSHNVs), which were scored as deleterious in human by both PolyPhen-2 and SIFT (Sorting Tolerant From Intolerant) and were enriched in the eye disease genes. In total, 273 immune response and disease-related genes carried at least one TSHNV. The heterozygosity rates of two CRs (0.002617 and 0.002612) and two CEs (0.003004 and 0.003179) were approximately three times higher than that of TM (0.000898). Polymerase chain reaction resequencing of 18 TM individuals showed that 29 TSHNVs exhibited high allele frequencies, thus confirming their low heterozygosity. Genome-wide genetic divergence analysis demonstrated that TM was more closely related to CR than to CE. We further detected unusual low divergence regions between TM and CR. In addition, after applying statistical criteria to detect putative introgression regions (PIRs) in the TM genome, up to 239,620 kb PIRs (8.84% of the genome) were identified. Given that TM and CR have overlapping geographical distributions, had the same refuge during the Middle Pleistocene, and show similar mating behaviors, it is highly likely that there was an ancient

  14. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  15. Neurocysticercosis in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Jessica M; Dyer, Cecilia D; Madison-Antenucci, Susan; Mergen, Kimberly AM; Veeder, Christin L; Brice, Angela K

    2016-01-01

    An 8-y-old, intact, male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) was sedated to undergo MRI in preparation for the implantation of cranial hardware. During imaging, 9 focal lesions were noted in the brain and musculature of the head. The lesions were hyperechoic with hypoechoic rims. The animal was deemed inappropriate for neuroscience research, and euthanasia was elected. Gross examination revealed multiple round, thick-walled, fluid-filled cysts (diameter, approximately 0.5 cm) in multiple tissues: one each in the left caudal lung lobe, left masseter muscle, and the dura overlying the brain and 8 throughout the gray and white matter of the brain parenchyma. Formalin-fixed sections of cyst-containing brain were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Microscopic examination and molecular analysis of the COX1 (COI) gene recognized the causative organism as Taenia solium at 99.04% identity. PMID:28304255

  16. Biosorption and desorption of Cd2+ from wastewater by dehydrated shreds of Cladophora fascicularis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Liping; Zhu, Xiaobin; Su, Yingying; Su, Hua; Wang, Xinting

    2008-02-01

    The adsorption and desorption of algae Cladophora fascicularis and their relation with initial Cd2+ concentration, initial pH, and co-existing ions were studied. Adsorption equilibrium and biosorption kinetics were established from batch experiments. The adsorption equilibrium was adequately described by the Langmuir isotherm, and biosorption kinetics was in pseudo-second order model. The experiment on co-existing ions showed that the biosorption capacity of biomass decreased with an increasing concentration of competing ions. Desorption experiments indicated that EDTA was efficient desorbent for recovery from Cd2+. With high capacities of metal biosorption and desorption, the biomass of Cladophora fascicularis is promising as a cost-effective biosorbent for the removal of Cd2+ from wastewater.

  17. The Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) sperm proteome.

    PubMed

    Skerget, Sheri; Rosenow, Matthew; Polpitiya, Ashoka; Petritis, Konstantinos; Dorus, Steve; Karr, Timothy L

    2013-11-01

    Mass spectrometry based proteomics has facilitated sperm composition studies in several mammalian species but no studies have been undertaken in non-human primate species. Here we report the analysis of the 1247 proteins that comprise the Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) sperm proteome (termed the MacSP). Comparative analysis with previously characterized mouse and human sperm proteomes reveals substantial levels of orthology (47% and 40% respectively) and widespread overlap of functional categories based on Gene Ontology analyses. Approximately 10% of macaque sperm genes (113/1247) are significantly under-expressed in the testis as compared with other tissues, which may reflect proteins specifically acquired during epididymal maturation. Phylogenetic and genomic analyses of three MacSP ADAMs (A-Disintegrin and Metalloprotease proteins), ADAM18-, 20- and 21-like, provides empirical support for sperm genes functioning in non-human primate taxa which have been subsequently lost in the lineages leading to humans. The MacSP contains proteasome proteins of the 20S core subunit, the 19S proteasome activator complex and an alternate proteasome activator PA200, raising the possibility that proteasome activity is present in mature sperm. Robust empirical characterization of the Rhesus sperm proteome should greatly expand the possibility for targeted molecular studies of spermatogenesis and fertilization in a commonly used model species for human infertility.

  18. The Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Sperm Proteome*

    PubMed Central

    Skerget, Sheri; Rosenow, Matthew; Polpitiya, Ashoka; Petritis, Konstantinos; Dorus, Steve; Karr, Timothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry based proteomics has facilitated sperm composition studies in several mammalian species but no studies have been undertaken in non-human primate species. Here we report the analysis of the 1247 proteins that comprise the Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) sperm proteome (termed the MacSP). Comparative analysis with previously characterized mouse and human sperm proteomes reveals substantial levels of orthology (47% and 40% respectively) and widespread overlap of functional categories based on Gene Ontology analyses. Approximately 10% of macaque sperm genes (113/1247) are significantly under-expressed in the testis as compared with other tissues, which may reflect proteins specifically acquired during epididymal maturation. Phylogenetic and genomic analyses of three MacSP ADAMs (A-Disintegrin and Metalloprotease proteins), ADAM18-, 20- and 21-like, provides empirical support for sperm genes functioning in non-human primate taxa which have been subsequently lost in the lineages leading to humans. The MacSP contains proteasome proteins of the 20S core subunit, the 19S proteasome activator complex and an alternate proteasome activator PA200, raising the possibility that proteasome activity is present in mature sperm. Robust empirical characterization of the Rhesus sperm proteome should greatly expand the possibility for targeted molecular studies of spermatogenesis and fertilization in a commonly used model species for human infertility. PMID:23816990

  19. Evaluation of Serum Lipid, Thyroid, and Hepatic Clinical Chemistries in Association With Serum Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in Cynomolgus Monkeys After Oral Dosing With Potassium PFOS

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Bruce C.; Andres, Kara L.; Ehresman, David J.; Falvo, Ria; Provencher, Anne; Olsen, Geary W.; Butenhoff, John L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract An oral dose study with perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was undertaken to identify potential associations between serum PFOS and changes in serum clinical chemistry parameters in purpose-bred young adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). In this study, control group (n = 6/sex) was sham-dosed with vehicle (0.5% Tween 20 and 5% ethanol in water), low-dose group (n = 6/sex) received 1 single K+PFOS dose (9 mg/kg), and high-dose group (n = 4–6/sex) received 3 separate K+ PFOS doses (11–17.2 mg/kg). Monkeys were given routine checkups and observed carefully for health problems on a daily basis. Scheduled blood samples were drawn from all monkeys prior to, during, and after K+PFOS administration for up to 1 year and they were analyzed for PFOS concentrations and clinical chemistry markers for coagulation, lipids, hepatic, renal, electrolytes, and thyroid-related hormones. No mortality occurred during the study. All the monkeys were healthy, gained weight, and were released back to the colony at the end of the study. The highest serum PFOS achieved was approximately 165 μg/ml. When compared with time-matched controls, administration of K+PFOS to monkeys did not result in any toxicologically meaningful or clinically relevant changes in serum clinical measurements for coagulation, lipids, hepatic, renal, electrolytes, and thyroid-related hormones. A slight reduction in serum cholesterol (primarily the high-density lipoprotein fraction), although not toxicologically significant, was observed. The corresponding lower-bound fifth percentile benchmark concentrations (BMCL1sd) were 74 and 76 μg/ml for male and female monkeys, respectively. Compared to the 2013–2014 geometric mean serum PFOS level of 4.99 ng/ml (0.00499 μg/ml) in US general population reported by CDC NHANES, this represents 4 orders of magnitude for margin of exposure. PMID:28115654

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata fuscata (Macaca, Cercopithecinae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Kang; Tang, Yun-Qiang; Li, Si-Ying; Mai, Cong; Gong, Yuan-Feng

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata fuscata, with the total length of 16,565 bp, is determined for the first time. This mitogenome harbors 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). The overall base composition is A (31.7%), C (30.5%), G (12.9%), and T (24.9%), so the slight A-T bias (56.6%) was detected. Most of the genes are distributed on H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence reported here will provide new genetic resource to uncover the monkey's evolution.

  1. Increased sexual behavior in male Macaca arctoides monkeys produced by atipamezole, a selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Linnankoski, I; Grönroos, M; Carlson, S; Pertovaara, A

    1992-05-01

    The effect of a highly selective and potent alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, atipamezole, on sexual behavior was studied in three stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides). Following IM administration of atipamezole or saline control, the behavior of the male monkey with a female monkey was observed for 30 min. Atipamezole dose dependently (0.01-0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg) produced a significant increase in the number of ejaculations in all three monkeys, including an old one with decreased sexual activity in control conditions. Both ejaculations obtained by copulation and masturbation were increased. It is concluded that atipamezole is effective in increasing sexual behavior in male stumptail monkeys.

  2. Androgen correlates of male reproductive effort in wild male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis): A multi-level test of the challenge hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Girard-Buttoz, Cédric; Heistermann, Michael; Rahmi, Erdiansyah; Agil, Muhammad; Ahmad Fauzan, Panji; Engelhardt, Antje

    2015-03-15

    The challenge hypothesis (Wingfield et al., 1990) has been broadly utilised as a conceptual framework to study male androgen correlates of reproductive challenges in mammals. These studies mainly assessed male androgen responsiveness to a general degree of challenge over extended periods of time. Short term co-variation between the socio-sexual challenging context and androgen levels remains, however, largely understudied. We thus aim at providing a multi-level test of the challenge hypothesis by investigating the inter- and intra-individual variations in faecal androgen excretion associated to 1) breeding seasonality, 2) dominance rank, 3) mate-guarding activity and 4) value of the guarded female. We studied long-tailed macaques, a species in which males engage in highly challenging monopolisation of females over discreet periods of time. This particularity allows testing specifically the predicted increase from level B to level C in the challenge hypothesis. The study was carried out during two reproductive seasons on three groups of wild long-tailed macaques. We combined behavioural observations and non-invasive measurements of faecal androgen metabolite (fAM) levels. We found that, as predicted by the challenge hypothesis, male long-tailed macaques respond not only to seasonal but also to short term reproductive challenges by adapting their androgen levels. First, males exhibited a seasonal rise in fAM levels during the mating period which may be triggered by fruit availability as shown by our phenological data. Second, males had increased androgen levels when mate-guarding females and, across mate-guarding periods, males had higher fAM levels when monopolising high-ranking parous females than when monopolising low-ranking ones. Finally, high-ranking males had higher fAM levels than low-ranking males year round. Our study confirms that, in species with a high degree of female monopolisability, androgen may be an important physiological fitness enhancing tool for males by increasing female monopolisation efficiency (in particular with highly valuable females) and helping males to respond to rank take-over challenges.

  3. Identification and characterization of the tyrosinase gene (TYR) and its transcript variants (TYR_1 and TYR_2) in the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hyun; Park, Sang-Je; Choe, Se-Hee; Lee, Ja-Rang; Cho, Hyeon-Mu; Kim, Sun-Uk; Kim, Ji-Su; Sim, Bo-Woong; Song, Bong-Seok; Lee, Youngjeon; Jin, Yeung Bae; Hong, Jung-Joo; Jeong, Kang-Jin; Kang, Philyong; Baek, Seung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Rae; Huh, Jae-Won; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2017-09-30

    Tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme that regulates melanin biosynthesis and is encoded by the tyrosinase (TYR) gene. Previous studies demonstrated that mutations in TYR could lead to oculocutaneous albinism type 1 (OCA1) owing to the failure of melanin formation. Although a previous study found that albinism in the rhesus monkey was derived from a mutation in TYR, the identification and characterization of this gene in non-human primates has not been achieved thus far. Thus, using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and internal reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) we identified the full-length sequence of TYR in the crab-eating macaque, and two different transcript variants (TYR_1 and TYR_2). While TYR_1 comprised five exons and its coding sequence was highly similar to that of humans, TYR_2 comprised four exons and was generated by a third-exon-skipping event. Interestingly, these two transcripts were also present in the African green monkey (Old World monkey) and the common marmoset (New World monkey). Deduced amino acid sequence analyses revealed that TYR_2 had a shorter C-terminal region than TYR_1 owing to the exon-skipping event. Thus, the present study is the first to identify and characterize a full-length TYR gene in a non-human primate, while the further validation of the third-exon-skipping in TYR indicates that this event is well conserved in the primate lineage. Therefore, this study provides useful and important information for the study of albinism using non-human primate models. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Innate-like γδ T cell responses to mycobacterium Bacille Calmette-Guerin using the public Vγ2 repertoire in Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Cairo, Cristiana; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Propp, Nadia; Bryant, Joseph L; Colizzi, Vittorio; Pauza, C. David

    2010-01-01

    The Vγ2Vδ2 T cell subset responds to Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunization in macaques and may be a component of protective immunity against tuberculosis. We characterized the effects of BCG on the Vγ2Vδ2 T cell receptor repertoire by comparing the starting population of Vγ2 chains in cynomolgus macaques with the repertoire found after priming or booster immunization with BCG. The starting repertoire was dominated by public Vγ2 chain sequences that were found repeatedly among unrelated animals. Primary exposure to BCG triggered expansion of cells expressing public Vγ2 chains and booster immunization was often associated with contraction of these same subsets. Thus, BCG-reactive Vγ2 chains were present at high frequency in the repertoire of mycobacteria-naïve macaques and they comprised the major response to primary or booster immunization. Normal selection processes that created the naïve Vγ2 repertoire in macaques, also encoded the capacity for rapid responses to mycobacteria. The unusual composition of a normal Vγ2 repertoire helps to explain the powerful γδ T cell responses to BCG immunization. PMID:17292671

  5. Innate-like gammadelta T cell responses to mycobacterium Bacille Calmette-Guerin using the public V gamma 2 repertoire in Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Cairo, Cristiana; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Propp, Nadia; Bryant, Joseph L; Colizzi, Vittorio; Pauza, C David

    2007-07-01

    The V gamma 2 V delta 2 T cell subset responds to Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunization in macaques and may be a component of protective immunity against tuberculosis. We characterized the effects of BCG on the V gamma 2 V delta 2 T cell receptor repertoire by comparing the starting population of V gamma 2 chains in cynomolgus macaques with the repertoire found after priming or booster immunization with BCG. The starting repertoire was dominated by public V gamma 2 chain sequences that were found repeatedly among unrelated animals. Primary exposure to BCG triggered expansion of cells expressing public V gamma 2 chains and booster immunization was often associated with contraction of these same subsets. Thus, BCG-reactive V gamma 2 chains were present at high frequency in the repertoire of mycobacteria-naïve macaques and they comprised the major response to primary or booster immunization. Normal selection processes that created the naïve V gamma 2 repertoire in macaques, also encoded the capacity for rapid responses to mycobacteria. The unusual composition of a normal V gamma 2 repertoire helps to explain the powerful gammadelta T cell responses to BCG immunization.

  6. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with B19V and hepatitis A virus: no evidence of the co-infection as a cause of acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; de Almeida, Adilson José; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; de Castro, Tatiana Xavier; do Nascimento, Jussara Pereira; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group. PMID:27074255

  7. The use of a polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffold for bone regeneration of tooth socket facial wall defects and simultaneous immediate dental implant placement in Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Goh, Bee Tin; Chanchareonsook, Nattharee; Tideman, Henk; Teoh, Swee Hin; Chow, James Kwok Fai; Jansen, John A

    2014-05-01

    Bone regeneration and aesthetic outcomes may be compromised when immediate implants are placed at extraction sites with dehiscence defects. The aim of this study was to compare, in a monkey model, peri-implant bone regeneration and implant stability after immediate implant placement into tooth sockets with facial wall defects in two treatment groups. In eight control monkeys, the bony defect was reconstructed with autogenous particulate bone, whereas in 10 test monkeys a polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) scaffold was used. The monkeys were sacrificed after 6 months and the specimens were analyzed by histology and histomorphometry. Better maintenance of facial bone contour was noted in the test group; however, bone regeneration was seen only at areas adjacent to a bony wall of the defect. The mean bone-to-implant contact was 27.6 ± 19.1% (control group) versus 6.8 ± 7.9% (test group). The mean bone area percentage was 11.8 ± 10.1% (control group) versus 6.8 ± 6.9% (test group). Implant survival was 100% at 6 months for both the groups. It was concluded that although the use of a PCL-TCP scaffold showed better maintenance of the alveolar contour as compared to autogenous particulate bone at 6 months, there was minimal bone regeneration within the defect. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with B19V and hepatitis A virus: no evidence of the co-infection as a cause of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; Almeida, Adilson José de; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Castro, Tatiana Xavier de; Nascimento, Jussara Pereira do; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group.

  9. The Experimental Pathology of the Lake Lindu Strain of ’Schistosoma Japonicum’ in the Crab-Eating Macaque (Macaca Fascicularis) in Indonesia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-31

    SulOwo,!, tndOnOdfa, strofn of oSimA has not boon described In exporlmentolly Infecedo non-humor! pri- a -jjjfy--j.crIbat th light microscopy lesions ... lesions WW0 stool OPIs are described In this paper. "PROCEDURE Two young adult ,aole Macac. feI:lcularls monkeye (crab-oating maoaque), w07 OKWW t loshl...examinoatIon •a a•c€pl RESULTS ANIMAL A Orcm Obaervationo Lesions were Identified In the large Intettlne, liver, motenteric lymph nod$, end a few floci In

  10. Dark calcification and the daily rhythm of calcification in the scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Horani, F. A.; Tambutté, É.; Allemand, D.

    2007-09-01

    The rate of calcification in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis was followed during the daytime using 45Ca tracer. The coral began the day with a low calcification rate, which increased over time to a maximum in the afternoon. Since the experiments were carried out under a fixed light intensity, these results suggest that an intrinsic rhythm exists in the coral such that the calcification rate is regulated during the daytime. When corals were incubated for an extended period in the dark, the calcification rate was constant for the first 4 h of incubation and then declined, until after one day of dark incubation, calcification ceased, possibly as a result of the depletion of coral energy reserves. The addition of glucose and Artemia reduced the dark calcification rate for the short duration of the experiment, indicating an expenditure of oxygen in respiration. Artificial hypoxia reduced the rate of dark calcification to about 25% compared to aerated coral samples. It is suggested that G. fascicularis obtains its oxygen needs from the surrounding seawater during the nighttime, whereas during the day time the coral exports oxygen to the seawater.

  11. Isolation and Identification of Cytotoxic Compounds from Aeschynomene fascicularis, a Mayan Medicinal Plant.

    PubMed

    Caamal-Fuentes, Edgar E; Peraza-Sánchez, Sergio R; Torres-Tapia, Luis W; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2015-07-24

    The plant Aeschynomene fascicularis (Fabaceae) has been used in Mayan traditional medicine in the Yucatan peninsula. However, the compounds present in the plant responsible for its curative properties have not yet been investigated. Aeschynomene fascicularis root bark was extracted with 100% methanol to obtain a crude extract. The methanol extract was partitioned successively with solvents with increasing polarity to obtain the corresponding hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM) and ethyl acetate fractions (EtOAc), as well as a residual water-alcoholic fraction. These fractions were tested for their cytotoxic activities using an MTT assay against Hep-2 cancer cell lines. The Hx fraction led to the isolation of spinochalcone C (1), spinochalcone A (2), isocordoin (3) and secundiflorol G (4). Their structures were identified based on spectroscopic evidence and chemical properties. All compounds were subjected to cytotoxicity and antiproliferative assays against a panel of seven cell lines, including one normal-type cell line. Spinochalcone A (2) exhibited cytotoxic activity against DU-145 cell line and antiproliferative activity against the KB cell line. Secundiflorol G (4) showed strong cytotoxic activity towards KB and Hep-2 cell lines. In addition, isocordoin (3) showed moderate activity on KB, Hep-2 and DU-145 cell lines. The active Compounds 2, 3 and 4 are potential therapeutic entities against cancer.

  12. Yawning and social styles: Different functions in tolerant and despotic macaques (Macaca tonkeana and Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Zannella, Alessandra; Stanyon, Roscoe; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2017-08-01

    Yawning is a multifunctional behavior with a role in social communication. In Old World monkeys, the "tension yawn" is often used as a threat, allowing individuals to completely expose their canines. To explore the role of this phenomenon, we selected 2 closely related species-Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and Tonkean macaques (M. tonkeana)-which differ primarily in terms of their tolerance levels. Japanese macaques are classified as despotic; Tonkean macaques are classified as tolerant. Both species live in multimale-multifemale societies, show a high level of sexual dimorphism, and have comparable yawning repertoires that include displaying a covered teeth yawn and an uncovered gums yawn. We found comparable baseline frequencies of the 2 yawning types and a similar distribution of these behaviors according to sex (males yawned more frequently than females). This morphological homogeneity permitted us to evaluate potential differences in the meaning of yawning as a function of social tension, aggressive contexts, and dominance hierarchy. Divergent social styles determine a functional dichotomy in the use of the covered teeth yawn and the uncovered gums yawn. The covered teeth yawn is not susceptible to social and environmental stimuli and seems to be a form of yawning mostly linked to the physiology of the sleep-wake cycle. However, the uncovered gums yawn is modulated according to different social contexts, and its use could be favored by natural selection, especially in tolerant species, which apparently require more elaborate forms of social communication. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Thermal regulation in Macaca mulatta during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimovitsky, V. Y.; Alpatov, A. M.; Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Utekhina, E. S.; Fuller, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    The results of studies of body temperature and thermal regulation in Macaca mulatta flown on biosatellites Bion 6-11 are presented. The effect of microgravity on deep body temperature as compared to skin temperature was investigated. In most animals, deep body temperature declined moderately and then tended to return to normal. Brain temperature/ankle temperature correlation changed. The system of thermal regulation was found to function adequately in space.

  14. Thermal regulation in Macaca mulatta during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimovitsky, V. Y.; Alpatov, A. M.; Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Utekhina, E. S.; Fuller, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    The results of studies of body temperature and thermal regulation in Macaca mulatta flown on biosatellites Bion 6-11 are presented. The effect of microgravity on deep body temperature as compared to skin temperature was investigated. In most animals, deep body temperature declined moderately and then tended to return to normal. Brain temperature/ankle temperature correlation changed. The system of thermal regulation was found to function adequately in space.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Southern pig-tailed macaque, Macaca nemestrina, and comparative mitochondrial genomics of Macaca species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Mei, Huixian; Luo, Xueting

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Southern pig-tailed, Macaca nemestrina for the first time. The genome is found to be 16,560 bp in length and has a base composition of A (32.25%), G (12.31%), C (30.51%), and T (24.93%), indicating that the percentage of A + T (57.18%) was higher than G + C (42.82%). Similar to other monkeys, it contains a typically conserved structure including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). Most of the genes were located on the H-strand except for the ND6 gene and 8 tRNA genes. To obtain a more complete understanding of the evolutionary history of Macaca genus, 11 mitochondrial genomes were used for phylogenetic analysis. This mitochondrial sequence reported here would be useful to uncover the monkey's evolution and add a new genetic resource for the genus Macaca.

  16. Characterization of cement float buoyancy in the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Klepal, Waltraud

    2015-01-01

    Dosima fascicularis is the only barnacle which can drift autonomously at the water surface with a foam-like cement float. The cement secreted by the animal contains numerous gas-filled cells of different size. When several individuals share one float, their size and not their number is crucial for the production of both volume and mass of the float. The gas content within the cells of the foam gives positive static buoyancy to the whole float. The volume of the float, the gas volume and the positive static buoyancy are positively correlated. The density of the cement float without gas is greater than that of seawater. This study shows that the secreted cement consists of more than 90% water and the gas volume is on average 18.5%. Our experiments demonstrate that the intact foam-like cement float is sealed to the surrounding water. PMID:25657839

  17. Characterization of cement float buoyancy in the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N; Klepal, Waltraud

    2015-02-06

    Dosima fascicularis is the only barnacle which can drift autonomously at the water surface with a foam-like cement float. The cement secreted by the animal contains numerous gas-filled cells of different size. When several individuals share one float, their size and not their number is crucial for the production of both volume and mass of the float. The gas content within the cells of the foam gives positive static buoyancy to the whole float. The volume of the float, the gas volume and the positive static buoyancy are positively correlated. The density of the cement float without gas is greater than that of seawater. This study shows that the secreted cement consists of more than 90% water and the gas volume is on average 18.5%. Our experiments demonstrate that the intact foam-like cement float is sealed to the surrounding water.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Ceftiofur Crystalline Free Acid in Male Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) after Subcutaneous Administration.

    PubMed

    Salyards, Gregory W; Knych, Heather K; Hill, Ashley E; Kelly, Kristi R; Christe, Kari L

    2015-09-01

    Trauma is a common sequela to agonistic social encounters in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and veterinarians often prescribe antibiotics as part of a balanced treatment plan. Long-acting, single-dose, injectable antibiotics for use in rhesus macaques are unavailable currently. Ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) is a long-acting, single-dose, injectable third-generation cephalosporin that provides at least 7 d of ceftiofur therapeutic plasma concentrations in swine (Sus scrofa domesticus). We hypothesized that CCFA would achieve similar therapeutic concentrations (≥ 0.2 μg/mL) in rhesus macaques. We describe the pharmacokinetic profile of CCFA in healthy, adult male rhesus macaques ( n = 6) in this 2-period, 2-treatment crossover study of 5 and 20 mg/kg SC administered once. Plasma ceftiofur metabolite concentrations were determined prior to and for a maximum of 21 d after administration. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. The 5-mg dose achieved a maximal plasma concentration of 2.24 ± 0.525 μg/mL at 2.59 ± 1.63 h, an AUC of 46.9 ± 17.6 h/μg/mL, and a terminal elimination half-life of 56.5 ± 21.7 h; for the 20-mg/kg dose, these parameters were 9.18 ± 4.90 μg/mL at 1.82 ± 1.30 h, 331 ± 84.4 h/μg/mL, and 69.7 ± 8.86 h, respectively. No adverse effects were noted after either dose. Macaques maintained plasma ceftiofur concentrations of 0.2 μg/mL or greater for at least 2 d after 5 mg/kg SC and at least 7 d after 20 mg/kg SC.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of Ceftiofur Crystalline Free Acid in Male Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) after Subcutaneous Administration

    PubMed Central

    Salyards, Gregory W; Knych, Heather K; Hill, Ashley E; Kelly, Kristi R; Christe, Kari L

    2015-01-01

    Trauma is a common sequela to agonistic social encounters in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and veterinarians often prescribe antibiotics as part of a balanced treatment plan. Long-acting, single-dose, injectable antibiotics for use in rhesus macaques are unavailable currently. Ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) is a long-acting, single-dose, injectable third-generation cephalosporin that provides at least 7 d of ceftiofur therapeutic plasma concentrations in swine (Sus scrofa domesticus). We hypothesized that CCFA would achieve similar therapeutic concentrations (≥0.2 μg/mL) in rhesus macaques. We describe the pharmacokinetic profile of CCFA in healthy, adult male rhesus macaques (n = 6) in this 2-period, 2-treatment crossover study of 5 and 20 mg/kg SC administered once. Plasma ceftiofur metabolite concentrations were determined prior to and for a maximum of 21 d after administration. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. The 5-mg dose achieved a maximal plasma concentration of 2.24 ± 0.525 μg/mL at 2.59 ± 1.63 h, an AUC of 46.9 ± 17.6 h/μg/mL, and a terminal elimination half-life of 56.5 ± 21.7 h; for the 20-mg/kg dose, these parameters were 9.18 ± 4.90 μg/mL at 1.82 ± 1.30 h, 331 ± 84.4 h/μg/mL, and 69.7 ± 8.86 h, respectively. No adverse effects were noted after either dose. Macaques maintained plasma ceftiofur concentrations of 0.2 μg/mL or greater for at least 2 d after 5 mg/kg SC and at least 7 d after 20 mg/kg SC. PMID:26424255

  20. Epizoic acoelomorph flatworms impair zooplankton feeding by the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Wijgerde, Tim; Schots, Pauke; Van Onselen, Eline; Janse, Max; Karruppannan, Eric; Verreth, Johan A. J.; Osinga, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Summary Many scleractinian coral species host epizoic acoelomorph flatworms, both in aquaculture and in situ. These symbiotic flatworms may impair coral growth and health through light-shading, mucus removal and disruption of heterotrophic feeding. To quantify the effect of epizoic flatworms on zooplankton feeding, we conducted video analyses of single polyps of Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767) grazing on Artemia nauplii in the presence and absence of symbiotic flatworms. 18S DNA analysis revealed that flatworms inhabiting G. fascicularis belonged to the genus Waminoa (Convolutidae), which were hosted at a density of 3.6±0.4 individuals polyp−1. Polyps hosting flatworms exhibited prey capture rates of 2.2±2.5, 3.4±4.5 and 2.7±3.4 nauplii polyp−1 30 min−1 at prey concentrations of 250, 500 and 1,000 nauplii L−1, respectively. Polyps that had their flatworms removed displayed prey capture rates of 2.7±1.6, 4.8±4.1 and 16.9±10.3 nauplii polyp−1 30 min−1. Significant main and interactive effects of flatworm presence and ambient prey concentration were found, reflected by the fact that flatworms significantly impaired host feeding rates at the highest prey density of 1,000 nauplii L−1. In addition, flatworms displayed kleptoparasitism, removing between 0.1±0.3 and 0.6±1.1 nauplii 30 min−1 from the oral disc of their host, or 5.3±3.3 to 50.0±2.1% of prey acquired by the coral. We suggest classifying the coral-associated Waminoa sp. as an epizoic parasite, as its presence may negatively affect growth and health of the host. PMID:23336072

  1. Epizoic acoelomorph flatworms impair zooplankton feeding by the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Wijgerde, Tim; Schots, Pauke; Van Onselen, Eline; Janse, Max; Karruppannan, Eric; Verreth, Johan A J; Osinga, Ronald

    2013-01-15

    Many scleractinian coral species host epizoic acoelomorph flatworms, both in aquaculture and in situ. These symbiotic flatworms may impair coral growth and health through light-shading, mucus removal and disruption of heterotrophic feeding. To quantify the effect of epizoic flatworms on zooplankton feeding, we conducted video analyses of single polyps of Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767) grazing on Artemia nauplii in the presence and absence of symbiotic flatworms. 18S DNA analysis revealed that flatworms inhabiting G. fascicularis belonged to the genus Waminoa (Convolutidae), which were hosted at a density of 3.6±0.4 individuals polyp(-1). Polyps hosting flatworms exhibited prey capture rates of 2.2±2.5, 3.4±4.5 and 2.7±3.4 nauplii polyp(-1) 30 min(-1) at prey concentrations of 250, 500 and 1,000 nauplii L(-1), respectively. Polyps that had their flatworms removed displayed prey capture rates of 2.7±1.6, 4.8±4.1 and 16.9±10.3 nauplii polyp(-1) 30 min(-1). Significant main and interactive effects of flatworm presence and ambient prey concentration were found, reflected by the fact that flatworms significantly impaired host feeding rates at the highest prey density of 1,000 nauplii L(-1). In addition, flatworms displayed kleptoparasitism, removing between 0.1±0.3 and 0.6±1.1 nauplii 30 min(-1) from the oral disc of their host, or 5.3±3.3 to 50.0±2.1% of prey acquired by the coral. We suggest classifying the coral-associated Waminoa sp. as an epizoic parasite, as its presence may negatively affect growth and health of the host.

  2. Toxicity and fetotoxicity of TCDD, TCDF and PCB isomers in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    McNulty, W.P.

    1985-05-01

    In rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), consumption of food containing commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures, some pure polychlorobiphenyl congeners, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) caused the same clinical toxic manifestations and histopathologic lesions, although the potencies of the toxicants covered a range of five orders of magnitude. Recovery from poisoning by 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (34TCB) or TCDF was rapid, whereas recovery from poisoning by Aroclor 1242, 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (345HCB), or TCDD was protracted, if it occurred at all. 34TCB did not appreciably accumulate in body fat, but the level of 345HCB in fat rose steadily during ingestion. Among the symmetrical tetra- and hexachlorobiphenyl isomers tested, subacute oral toxicity could be demonstrated only for those without ortho chlorine substitutions. The principal demonstrable histopathological lesions, bone marrow excepted, were metaplasias in some specialized epithelial structures, such as sebaceous glands, nail beds, gastric mucosa, ameloblast, and thymic corpuscles. These changes were interpreted as toxicant-induced, reversible redirection of differentiation. this aberration was wholly reversible. TCDD and 34TCB caused abortions when given in one or a few oral doses early in pregnancy. At the total doses used (1 or 5 g/kg of body weight for TCDD, 3 or 0.6 mg/kg of body weight for 34TCB), maternal toxicity was frequently apparent subsequent to the abortion.

  3. Daily rhythms of activity and temperature of Macaca nemestrina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Sickles, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    The activity and temperature rhythms of pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) maintained in LD 16:8 at 25 C in specially designed restraint chairs have been examined. Activity was monitored via a sensor that was attached to the restraint chair. Temperature was monitored at the axilla, ankle and ear. All variables showed prominent day-night variations, and except for ankle temperature, had highest values during the daytime. These results show that the regulation of the daily rhythm of body temperature involves anatomical sites that are utilized in a temporally distinct fashion.

  4. Well-differentiated Liposarcoma in a Bonnet Macaque (Macaca radiata).

    PubMed

    Doane, Cynthia J; Johnson, Paula J; Besselsen, David G

    2017-03-01

    Here we describe the occurrence of a subcutaneous liposarcoma in a geriatric bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata). Clinical presentation was a rapidly growing, ulcerated, subcutaneous mass in the umbilical region of a 28-y-old intact female macaque. The mass was successfully removed through excisional biopsy, and histopathology provided a morphologic diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma. The macaque recovered without complication and displayed no signs of recurrence for at least 18 mo after excision. To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of liposarcoma in a bonnet macaque.

  5. Assessment of obesity in pigtailed monkeys (Macaca nemestrina).

    PubMed

    Walike, B C; Goodner, C J; Koerker, D J; Chideckel, E W; Kalnasy, L W

    1977-01-01

    Obesity was studied in a colony of 873 Macaca nemestrina to establish tools for epidemiologic studies, to examine a genetic form of obesity, to document age/sex relationships to obesity, and to compare metabolic profiles of obese and normal monkeys. Age/weight growth curves were analyzed to select the most obese monkeys and age- and sex-matched normal controls. Degree of adiposity was determined using tritiated water for estimation of lean body mass. Body weight, anterior trunk height, and abdominal and triceps skinfolds were measured. Fasting insulin, fasting free fatty acids, and glucose disappearance rate were determined. The results give evidence of similarities between macaque and human obestiy.

  6. Video-induced yawning in stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides)

    PubMed Central

    Paukner, Annika; Anderson, James R

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the first experimental exploration of possible contagious yawning in monkeys. Twenty-two stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides) were presented with video clips of either yawns or control mouth movements by conspecifics. At a group level, monkeys yawned significantly more often during and just after the yawn tape than the control tape. Supplementary analysis revealed that the yawn tape also elicited significantly more self-directed scratching responses than the control tape, which suggests that yawning might have been caused by tension arising from viewing the yawn tape. Understanding to what extent the observed effect resembles contagious yawning as found in humans and chimpanzees requires more detailed experimentation. PMID:17148320

  7. Intracranial meningioma with ophthalmoplegia in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takayuki; Canfield, Don R

    2012-10-01

    A 21-y-old female rhesus macaque presented with signs of internal and external ophthamoplegia, including anisocoria and ptosis. Ophthalmoplegia is the paralysis or weakness of one or more intraocular or extraocular muscles that control the movement of eye; this condition can be caused by neurologic or muscle disorders. The macaque was euthanized due to progression of clinical symptoms, and postmortem gross examination revealed a mass at the base of the brain attached to the meninges. Histopathologic examination led to the diagnosis of intracranial meningioma. Here we describe a case of intracranial meningioma with internal and external ophthalmoplegia in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

  8. Well-differentiated Liposarcoma in a Bonnet Macaque (Macaca radiata).

    PubMed

    J Doane Paula J Johnson And David G Besselsen, Cynthia

    2017-03-20

    Here we describe the occurrence of a subcutaneous liposarcoma in a geriatric bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata). Clinicalpresentation was a rapidly growing, ulcerated, subcutaneous mass in the umbilical region of a 28-y-old intact female macaque. The mass was successfully removed through excisional biopsy, and histopathology provided a morphologic diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma. The macaque recovered without complication and displayed no signs of recurrence for at least 18 mo after excision. To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of liposarcoma in a bonnet macaque.

  9. Naturally occurring melioidosis in a colonized rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Fritz, P E; Miller, J G; Slayter, M; Smith, T J

    1986-10-01

    An aged wild-caught male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), maintained in a research facility for 10 years, developed bilateral pelvic limb paralysis without other signs of disease. Unresponsive to therapy, the monkey was killed and necropsied. Chronic inflammation with osteolysis of thoracic vertebrae 10-13 was observed. Pseudomonas pseudomallei was cultured and identified from cerebrospinal fluid obtained at the site of the thoracic lesion. This Gram-negative bacterium can cause infection in animals and man and may remain latent for years before the appearance of clinical signs.

  10. Transcriptome profiling of Galaxea fascicularis and its endosymbiont Symbiodinium reveals chronic eutrophication tolerance pathways and metabolic mutualism between partners

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhenyue; Chen, Mingliang; Dong, Xu; Zheng, Xinqing; Huang, Haining; Xu, Xun; Chen, Jianming

    2017-01-01

    In the South China Sea, coastal eutrophication in the Beibu Gulf has seriously threatened reef habitats by subjecting corals to chronic physiological stress. To determine how coral holobionts may tolerate such conditions, we examined the transcriptomes of healthy colonies of the galaxy coral Galaxea fascicularis and its endosymbiont Symbiodinium from two reef sites experiencing pristine or eutrophied nutrient regimes. We identified 236 and 205 genes that were differentially expressed in eutrophied hosts and symbionts, respectively. Both gene sets included pathways related to stress responses and metabolic interactions. An analysis of genes originating from each partner revealed striking metabolic integration with respect to vitamins, cofactors, amino acids, fatty acids, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. The expression levels of these genes supported the existence of a continuum of mutualism in this coral-algal symbiosis. Additionally, large sets of transcription factors, cell signal transduction molecules, biomineralization components, and galaxin-related proteins were expanded in G. fascicularis relative to other coral species. PMID:28181581

  11. Transcriptome profiling of Galaxea fascicularis and its endosymbiont Symbiodinium reveals chronic eutrophication tolerance pathways and metabolic mutualism between partners.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhenyue; Chen, Mingliang; Dong, Xu; Zheng, Xinqing; Huang, Haining; Xu, Xun; Chen, Jianming

    2017-02-09

    In the South China Sea, coastal eutrophication in the Beibu Gulf has seriously threatened reef habitats by subjecting corals to chronic physiological stress. To determine how coral holobionts may tolerate such conditions, we examined the transcriptomes of healthy colonies of the galaxy coral Galaxea fascicularis and its endosymbiont Symbiodinium from two reef sites experiencing pristine or eutrophied nutrient regimes. We identified 236 and 205 genes that were differentially expressed in eutrophied hosts and symbionts, respectively. Both gene sets included pathways related to stress responses and metabolic interactions. An analysis of genes originating from each partner revealed striking metabolic integration with respect to vitamins, cofactors, amino acids, fatty acids, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. The expression levels of these genes supported the existence of a continuum of mutualism in this coral-algal symbiosis. Additionally, large sets of transcription factors, cell signal transduction molecules, biomineralization components, and galaxin-related proteins were expanded in G. fascicularis relative to other coral species.

  12. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joy N.; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H. C.; Schmidt, Gertraud M.; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2016-06-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans.

  13. Transcriptome profiling of Galaxea fascicularis and its endosymbiont Symbiodinium reveals chronic eutrophication tolerance pathways and metabolic mutualism between partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhenyue; Chen, Mingliang; Dong, Xu; Zheng, Xinqing; Huang, Haining; Xu, Xun; Chen, Jianming

    2017-02-01

    In the South China Sea, coastal eutrophication in the Beibu Gulf has seriously threatened reef habitats by subjecting corals to chronic physiological stress. To determine how coral holobionts may tolerate such conditions, we examined the transcriptomes of healthy colonies of the galaxy coral Galaxea fascicularis and its endosymbiont Symbiodinium from two reef sites experiencing pristine or eutrophied nutrient regimes. We identified 236 and 205 genes that were differentially expressed in eutrophied hosts and symbionts, respectively. Both gene sets included pathways related to stress responses and metabolic interactions. An analysis of genes originating from each partner revealed striking metabolic integration with respect to vitamins, cofactors, amino acids, fatty acids, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. The expression levels of these genes supported the existence of a continuum of mutualism in this coral-algal symbiosis. Additionally, large sets of transcription factors, cell signal transduction molecules, biomineralization components, and galaxin-related proteins were expanded in G. fascicularis relative to other coral species.

  14. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joy N.; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H. C.; Schmidt, Gertraud M.; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans. PMID:27255977

  15. Radiation-induced endometriosis in Macaca mulatta

    SciTech Connect

    Fanton, J.W.; Golden, J.G. )

    1991-05-01

    Female rhesus monkeys received whole-body doses of ionizing radiation in the form of single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, X rays, and electrons. Endometriosis developed in 53% of the monkeys during a 17-year period after exposure. Incidence rates for endometriosis related to radiation type were: single-energy protons, 54%; mixed-energy protons, 73%; X rays, 71%; and electrons, 57%. The incidence of endometriosis in nonirradiated control monkeys was 26%. Monkeys exposed to single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, and X rays developed endometriosis at a significantly higher rate than control monkeys (chi 2, P less than 0.05). Severity of endometriosis was staged as massive, moderate, and minimal. The incidence of these stages were 65, 16, and 19%, respectively. Observations of clinical disease included weight loss in 43% of the monkeys, anorexia in 35%, space-occupying masses detected by abdominal palpation in 55%, abnormal ovarian/uterine anatomy on rectal examination in 89%, and radiographic evidence of abdominal masses in 38%. Pathological lesions were endometrial cyst formation in 69% of the monkeys, adhesions of the colon in 66%, urinary bladder in 50%, ovaries in 86%, and ureters in 44%, focal nodules of endometrial tissue throughout the omentum in 59%, and metastasis in 9%. Clinical management of endometriosis consisted of debulking surgery and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy combined in some cases with total abdominal hysterectomy. Postoperative survival rates at 1 and 5 years for monkeys recovering from surgery were 48 and 36%, respectively.

  16. Variability of tail length in hybrids of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) and the Taiwanese macaque (Macaca cyclopis).

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yuzuru; Yamamoto, Ayumi; Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Tojima, Sayaka; Mouri, Toshio; Kawamoto, Yoshi

    2012-10-01

    In primates, tail length is subject to wide variation, and the tail may even be absent. Tail length varies greatly between each species group of the genus Macaca, which is explained by climatic factors and/or phylogeographic history. Here, tail length variability was studied in hybrids of the Japanese (M. fuscata) and Taiwanese (Macaca cyclopis) macaque, with various degrees of hybridization being evaluated through autosomal allele typing. Relative tail length (percent of crown-rump length) correlated well with the number of caudal vertebrae. Length profiles of caudal vertebrae of hybrids and parent species revealed a common pattern: the length of several proximal-most vertebrae do not differ greatly; then from the third or fourth vertebra, the length rapidly increases and peaks at around the fifth to seventh vertebra; then the length plateaus for several vertebrae and finally shows a gentle decrease. As the number of caudal vertebrae and relative tail length increase, peak vertebral length and lengths of proximal vertebrae also increase, except that of the first vertebra, which only shows a slight increase. Peak vertebral length and the number of caudal vertebrae explained 92 % of the variance in the relative tail length of hybrids. Relative tail length correlated considerably well with the degree of hybridization, with no significant deviation from the regression line being observed. Thus, neither significant heterosis nor hybrid depression occurred.

  17. Clinical care and evolution of paraplegic monkeys (Macaca mulatta) over fourteen months post-lesion.

    PubMed

    Piedras, María José G M; Hernández-Laín, Aurelio; Cavada, Carmen

    2011-02-01

    We have generated a non-human primate model of complete spinal cord injury (SCI) with a protracted survival time. Two adult Macaca mulatta underwent complete spinal cord transection at T8-T9. We report the effective daily care protocol for over one year survival, the health problems we encountered and the treatments applied. The animals' cages were customized to maintain them in the best possible condition when paraplegic. Daily care, adapted from human care protocols, focused mainly on urinary bladder and skin care, and lower limb rehabilitation. The most important health problems we faced were skin lesions, in particular from self-injury to insensitive regions, and urine voiding dysfunction. Skin lesions were chronic and severe in one of the monkeys. Serious voiding dysfunction occurred temporarily in one monkey in parallel with a high dose oxcarbazepine treatment. The main musculoskeletal complications were vertebral column deformities, which appeared in both monkeys. The rich experience gathered over the lengthy survival period of the two adult paraplegic macaques, the longest to date in the literature, should be useful for other scientists willing to study the long term physiopathological changes that follow SCI as well as the effects of diverse therapeutic strategies before they are applied to humans.

  18. Variation in Clitoral Length in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Beatriz; Cabello, Pedro H; Kugelmeier, Tatiana; Pereira, Barbara B; Lopes, Claudia A; Fasano, Daniele M; Andrade, Marcia C; Santos, Joice S; Marinho, Antonio M

    2009-01-01

    Clitoromegaly in the neonatal period is an important morphologic sign that can be useful for sexual determination in aberrant cases. In rhesus monkeys, differentiation of the external genitalia occurs early during gestation (at 55 to 60 d) and is complete by approximately 80 d. Most of the critical steps in genital differentiation in primates occur prenatally. We sought to determine clitoral size in normal rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and possible effects of age and inheritance. Clitoral length was highly variable and had no relationship to fertility. Statistical evaluation revealed no association in the distribution of daughters with and without clitoris between mothers with and without clitoris. However, even when mated with several female monkeys, some male macaques produced primarily daughters without clitoris. PMID:19807967

  19. Systemic Spironucleosis In Two Immunodeficient Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, C; Kramer, J; Mejia, A; MacKey, J; Mansfield, KG; Miller, AD

    2011-01-01

    Spironucleus spp. are parasites of fish and terrestrial vertebrates including mice and turkeys that rarely cause extraintestinal disease. Two rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were experimentally inoculated with simian immunodeficiency virus mac251 (SIVmac251). Both progressed to simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome (SAIDS) within one year of inoculation and, in addition to common opportunistic infections including rhesus cytomegalovirus, rhesus lymphocryptovirus, and rhesus adenovirus, developed systemic protozoal infections. In the first case, the protozoa were associated with colitis, multifocal abdominal abscessation, and lymphadenitis. In the second case they one of a number of organisms associated with extensive pyogranulomatous pneumonia and colitis. Ultrastructural, molecular, and phylogenetic analysis revealed the causative organism to be a species of Spironucleus closely related to Spironucleus meleagridis of turkeys. This is the first report of extraintestinal infection with Spironucleus sp. in higher mammals and further expands the list of opportunistic infections found in immunocompromised rhesus macaques. PMID:20351359

  20. What Do Arabic Numerals Mean to Macaques (Macaca mulatta)?

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Emily H.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.; Beran, Michael J.; Washburn, David A.

    2013-01-01

    In the past, rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) have demonstrated an ability to use Arabic numerals to facilitate performance in a variety of tasks. However, it remained unclear whether they understood the absolute and relative values of numerals. In Experiment 1, numeral-trained macaques picked the larger stimuli when presented with pairwise comparisons involving numerals and analog quantities. In Experiment 2, macaques were provided with numeral cues indicating the number of times a behavior could be performed in one location for a reward. Of the 4 monkeys, 3 performed above chance, but they often erred by performing more behaviors than indicated. The results of these studies indicate that the monkeys have knowledge of the approximate quantities represented by each numeral. PMID:20141318

  1. Ordinal judgments of numerical symbols by macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    Two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) learned that the arabic numerals 0 through 9 represented corresponding quantities of food pellets. By manipulating a joystick, the monkeys were able to make a selection of paired numerals presented on a computer screen. Although the monkeys received a corresponding number of pellets even if the lesser of the two numerals was selected, they learned generally to choose the numeral of greatest value even when pellet delivery was made arrhythmic. In subsequent tests, they chose the numerals of greater value when presented in novel combinations or in random arrays of up to five numerals. Thus, the monkeys made ordinal judgments of numerical symbols in accordance with their absolute or relative values.

  2. Pheochromocytoma in Old World Primates (Macaca mulatta and Chlorocebus aethiops).

    PubMed

    Colgin, L M A; Schwahn, D J; Castillo-Alcala, F; Kiupel, M; Lewis, A D

    2016-11-01

    Pheochromocytoma, a rarely reported adrenal gland neoplasm in Old World primates, was diagnosed in 5 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and 2 African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) from 3 research institutions. Age and sex were available for 6 primates. Two males and 4 females were affected, ranging in age from 9 to 31 years. All neoplasms were unilateral and, in the cases reporting the affected gland, 4 involved the right adrenal gland and 2 involved the left. Diagnosis was established by characteristic histologic features. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells in all cases expressed chromogranin A and met-enkephalin and were negative for melan-A and inhibin. Six of 7 tumors were positive for β-endorphin. Pulmonary metastases were present in 2 rhesus macaques and portal vein invasion in 1 African green monkey. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of malignant pheochromocytoma in Old World primates.

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of the crested black macaque (Macaca nigra).

    PubMed

    Du, Li-Na; Shi, Fang-Lei; Liu, Zhi-Jin; Zhou, Qi-Hai

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial sequence of the crested black macaque (Macaca nigra) has been determined by mapping the raw data to previously published mitochondrial assemblies of the corresponding species. The total sequence length is 16,564 bp and includes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 D-loop control region. The base composition of mtDNA genome is 31.76% A, 25.27% T, 30.17% C, and 12.80% G, with an AT content of 57.03%. The arrangement of genes in M. nigra is identical to that of M. mulatta. All genes are encoded on the heavy strand with the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome of M. nigra presented here will contribute to a better understanding of the population genetics, help to protect its genetic diversity and resolve phylogenetic relationships within the family.

  4. Biosorption of copper(II) from aqueous solutions by green alga Cladophora fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Liping; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Xinting; Su, Yingying; Su, Hua

    2007-08-01

    Biosorption is an effective means of removal of heavy metals from wastewater. In this work the biosorption behavior of Cladophora fascicularis was investigated as a function of pH, amount of biosorbent, initial Cu2+ concentration, temperature, and co-existing ions. Adsorption equilibria were well described by Langmuir isotherm models. The enthalpy change for the biosorption process was found to be 6.86 kJ mol(-1) by use of the Langmuir constant b. The biosorption process was found to be rapid in the first 30 min. The presence of co-existing cations such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ and anions such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate, and acetate did not significantly affect uptake of Cu2+ whereas EDTA substantially affected adsorption of the metal. When experiments were performed with different desorbents the results indicated that EDTA was an efficient desorbent for the recovery of Cu2+ from biomass. IR spectral analysis suggested amido or hydroxy, C=O, and C-O could combine strongly with Cu2+.

  5. Telomere length of the colonial coral Galaxea fascicularis at different developmental stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuta, H.; Hidaka, M.

    2013-06-01

    The ability to estimate coral age using soft tissue would be useful for population biology or aging studies on corals. In this study, we investigated whether telomere length can be used to estimate coral age. We applied single telomere length analysis to a colonial coral, Galaxea fascicularis, and estimated telomere lengths of specific coral chromosomes at different developmental stages. If the telomere shortened at each cell division, the telomere length of the coral would be longest in sperm and shortest in adult colonies. However, the mean telomere length of sperm, planula larvae, and polyps was approximately 4 kb, with no significant differences among the developmental stages. The telomerase restriction fragment (TRF) analysis also showed no significant difference in the mean TRF length among the developmental stages. Our results suggested that telomere length is maintained during developmental stages and that estimating the age of colonial coral based on telomere length may not be possible. However, our findings can be used to examine avoidance of aging and rejuvenation during regeneration and asexual reproduction in colonial corals.

  6. Reproductive toxicity of chromium in adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata Geoffrey). Reversible oxidative stress in the semen

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Senthivinayagam . E-mail: subbi100@yahoo.co.uk; Rajendiran, Gopalakrishnan; Sekhar, Pasupathi; Gowri, Chandrahasan; Govindarajulu, Pera; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael

    2006-09-15

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates chromium-induced reproductive toxicity. Monthly semen samples were collected from adult monkeys (Macaca radiata), which were exposed to varying doses (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) of chromium (as potassium dichromate) for 6 months through drinking water. Chromium treatment decreased sperm count, sperm forward motility and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the concentration of reduced glutathione in both seminal plasma and sperm in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the quantum of hydrogen peroxide in the seminal plasma/sperm from monkeys exposed to chromium increased with increasing dose and duration of chromium exposure. All these changes were reversed after 6 months of chromium-free exposure period. Simultaneous supplementation of vitamin C (0.5 g/L; 1.0 g/L; 2.0 g/L) prevented the development of chromium-induced oxidative stress. Data support the hypothesis and show that chronic chromium exposure induces a reversible oxidative stress in the seminal plasma and sperm by creating an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant system, leading to sperm death and reduced motility of live sperm.

  7. Oxygen and heterotrophy affect calcification of the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Wijgerde, Tim; Jurriaans, Saskia; Hoofd, Marleen; Verreth, Johan A J; Osinga, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Heterotrophy is known to stimulate calcification of scleractinian corals, possibly through enhanced organic matrix synthesis and photosynthesis, and increased supply of metabolic DIC. In contrast to the positive long-term effects of heterotrophy, inhibition of calcification has been observed during feeding, which may be explained by a temporal oxygen limitation in coral tissue. To test this hypothesis, we measured the short-term effects of zooplankton feeding on light and dark calcification rates of the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis (n=4) at oxygen saturation levels ranging from 13 to 280%. Significant main and interactive effects of oxygen, heterotrophy and light on calcification rates were found (three-way factorial repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05). Light and dark calcification rates of unfed corals were severely affected by hypoxia and hyperoxia, with optimal rates at 110% saturation. Light calcification rates of fed corals exhibited a similar trend, with highest rates at 150% saturation. In contrast, dark calcification rates of fed corals were close to zero under all oxygen saturations. We conclude that oxygen exerts a strong control over light and dark calcification rates of corals, and propose that in situ calcification rates are highly dynamic. Nevertheless, the inhibitory effect of heterotrophy on dark calcification appears to be oxygen-independent. We hypothesize that dark calcification is impaired during zooplankton feeding by a temporal decrease of the pH and aragonite saturation state of the calcifying medium, caused by increased respiration rates. This may invoke a transient reallocation of metabolic energy to soft tissue growth and organic matrix synthesis. These insights enhance our understanding of how oxygen and heterotrophy affect coral calcification, both in situ as well as in aquaculture.

  8. Oxygen and Heterotrophy Affect Calcification of the Scleractinian Coral Galaxea fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Wijgerde, Tim; Jurriaans, Saskia; Hoofd, Marleen; Verreth, Johan A. J.; Osinga, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Heterotrophy is known to stimulate calcification of scleractinian corals, possibly through enhanced organic matrix synthesis and photosynthesis, and increased supply of metabolic DIC. In contrast to the positive long-term effects of heterotrophy, inhibition of calcification has been observed during feeding, which may be explained by a temporal oxygen limitation in coral tissue. To test this hypothesis, we measured the short-term effects of zooplankton feeding on light and dark calcification rates of the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis (n = 4) at oxygen saturation levels ranging from 13 to 280%. Significant main and interactive effects of oxygen, heterotrophy and light on calcification rates were found (three-way factorial repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05). Light and dark calcification rates of unfed corals were severely affected by hypoxia and hyperoxia, with optimal rates at 110% saturation. Light calcification rates of fed corals exhibited a similar trend, with highest rates at 150% saturation. In contrast, dark calcification rates of fed corals were close to zero under all oxygen saturations. We conclude that oxygen exerts a strong control over light and dark calcification rates of corals, and propose that in situ calcification rates are highly dynamic. Nevertheless, the inhibitory effect of heterotrophy on dark calcification appears to be oxygen-independent. We hypothesize that dark calcification is impaired during zooplankton feeding by a temporal decrease of the pH and aragonite saturation state of the calcifying medium, caused by increased respiration rates. This may invoke a transient reallocation of metabolic energy to soft tissue growth and organic matrix synthesis. These insights enhance our understanding of how oxygen and heterotrophy affect coral calcification, both in situ as well as in aquaculture. PMID:23285159

  9. Assessing olfactory performance in an Old World primate, Macaca nemestrina.

    PubMed

    Hübener, F; Laska, M

    1998-06-15

    The present study demonstrates that an operant conditioning paradigm, originally designed for assessing olfactory performance in a small New World primate, the squirrel monkey, can successfully be adapted for use with a large Old World primate, the pigtail macaque. Using a task designed to simulate olfactory-guided foraging behavior, based on multiple discrimination of simultaneously presented odor stimuli, we could show that Macaca nemestrina is able to learn to discriminate between objects on the basis of odor cues. Moreover, they could readily transfer to new S+ and S- stimuli and could remember the significance of previously learned odor stimuli even after a 3-week break. Furthermore, we could show that this method is suitable for obtaining reliable measures of olfactory sensitivity. The few modifications of the original method employed here did not affect essential features such as the mode of stimulus presentation (odorized paper strips attached to manipulation objects) and the choice criterion (opening or rejecting the odorized manipulation objects), thus for the first time enabling valid interspecific comparisons of olfactory capabilities between a catarrhine and a platyrrhine primate species. Our results indicate that M. nemestrina and Saimiri sciureus are similar with regard to several measures of olfactory performance, such as speed of initial task acquisition and ability to master transfer tasks as well as their sensitivity to a food-related odorant.

  10. Scaffold degradation during bone tissue reconstruction in Macaca nemestrina mandible

    PubMed Central

    Bachtiar, Endang W.; Amir, Lisa Rinanda; Suhardi, Pradono; Abas, Basril

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the degradation of three scaffolds composed of hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) with 70∶30 ratio, HA/TCP with 50∶50 ratio, and HA/TCP/chitosan scaffold as analyzed by the RNA expression of matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP2), interleukin 13 (IL13), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) genes. Methods The three tested scaffolds and dental pulp stromal cells (DPSCs) were transplanted into the mandibular bone defect of six young male Macaca nemestrina. Defect on the left mandible served as the experimental group and the right mandible served as control group (split mouth design). The biopsies were retrieved at 0, 2, and 4 weeks after cell-scaffold transplantation. The expression of MMP2, IL13, and TRAP was analyzed by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Results The inflammatory cells were still detected in areas where active bone and blood vessel formation occurred. The remnants of scaffold biomaterials were rarely seen. The expression of MMP2, IL13, and TRAP was observed in all samples. Their expressions were increased at week 4 and the decrease of TRAP gene expression in the experimental group was found higher than the control group. TRAP gene in the HA/TCP/chitosan group was found to be the highest at week 2 and lowest at week 4. Conclusions Degradation of the scaffold did not induce higher inflammatory response compared to the control yet it induced more osteoclast activity. PMID:28386463

  11. Ventricular Parasystole in a Neonatal Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Collins, Dalis E; Dozier, Brandy L; Stanton, Jeffrey J; Colgin, Lois Ma; MacAllister, Rhonda

    2016-12-01

    A 6-d-old Indian-origin female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented with bradycardia shortly after sedation with ketamine. No other cardiac abnormalities were apparent. Approximately 2 wk after the initial presentation, the macaque was again bradycardic and exhibited a regularly irregular arrhythmia on a prestudy examination. ECG, echocardiography, blood pressure measurement, SpO2 assessment, and a CBC analysis were performed. The echocardiogram and bloodwork were normal, but the infant was hypotensive at the time of echocardiogram. The ECG revealed ventricular parasystole. Ventricular parasystole is considered a benign arrhythmia caused by an ectopic pacemaker that is insulated from impulses from the sinus node. Given this abnormality, the macaque was transferred to a short-term study protocol, according to veterinary recommendation. On the final veterinary exam, a grade 3 systolic murmur and a decrease in arrhythmia frequency were noted. Gross cardiac lesions were not identified at necropsy the following day. Cardiac tissue sections were essentially normal on microscopic examination. This infant did not display signs of cardiovascular insufficiency, and a review of the medical record indicated normal growth, feed intake and activity levels. This case demonstrates the importance of appropriate screening of potential neonatal and juvenile research candidates for occult cardiovascular abnormalities. Whether the arrhythmia diagnosed in this case was truly innocuous is unclear, given the documented hypotension and the development of a systolic heart murmur.

  12. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina).

    PubMed

    Stockinger, Diane E; Fong, Derek L; Vogel, Keith W; Durning, W McIntyre; Torrence, Anne E; Rose, Timothy M; Staheli, Jeannette P; Baldessari, Audrey; Murnane, Robert D; Hukkannen, Renee R

    2014-06-01

    An adult, gravid, female pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) presented for facial swelling centered on the left mandible that was approximately 5 cm wide. Differential diagnoses included infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic origins. Definitive antemortem diagnosis was not possible, and the macaque's condition worsened despite supportive care. Necropsy findings included a mandibular mass that was locally invasive and expansile, encompassing approximately 80% of the left mandibular bone. The mass replaced portions of the soft palate, hard palate, sinuses, ear canal, and the caudal-rostral calvarium and masseter muscle. Histologically, the mass was a neoplasm that was poorly circumscribed, unencapsulated, and infiltrative invading regional bone and soft tissue. The mass consisted of polygonal squamous epithelial cells with intercellular bridging that breached the epithelial basement membrane and formed invasive nests, cords, and trabeculae. The mitotic rate averaged 3 per 400× field of view, with occasional bizarre mitotic figures. Epithelial cells often exhibited dyskeratosis, and the nests often contained compact lamellated keratin (keratin pearls). The neoplasm was positive via immunohistochemistry for pancytokeratin, variably positive for S100, and negative for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, and desmin. The gross, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with an aggressive oral squamous cell carcinoma. The neoplasm was negative via PCR for papilloma virus. In general, neoplasia in macaques is rare. Although squamous cell carcinomas are one of the most common oral neoplasia in many species, to our knowledge this case represents the first reported oral squamous cell carcinoma in a pigtailed macaque.

  13. Personality of Wild Male Crested Macaques (Macaca nigra)

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Christof; Agil, Muhammad; Widdig, Anja; Engelhardt, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Animal personalities, i.e. consistent differences in behavior across time and/or context, have received increased attention of behavioral biologists over the last years. Recent research shows that personalities represent traits on which natural and sexual selection work and which can have substantial fitness consequences. The aim of this study is to establish the personality structure of crested macaque (Macaca nigra) males as foundation for future studies on its adaptive value. We collected behavioral data through focal animal sampling and additionally conducted two sets of playback experiments. Results of a factor analysis on the behavioral data revealed a four factor structure with components we labeled Anxiety, Sociability, Connectedness and Aggressiveness. Results from the experiments revealed an additional and independent Boldness factor but the absence of Neophilia. Overall, this structure resembles other macaque and animal species with the exception of Connectedness, which might be a consequence of the species' tolerant social style. Our results thus not only form the basis for future studies on the adaptive value of personality in crested macaques but also contribute an important data point for investigating the evolution of personality structure from a comparative perspective by refining, for example, which personality factors characterized the last common ancestor of hominids and macaques. PMID:23940517

  14. A Macaca mulatta model of fulminant hepatic failure

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ping; Xia, Jie; Guo, Gang; Huang, Zi-Xing; Lu, Qiang; Li, Li; Li, Hong-Xia; Shi, Yu-Jun; Bu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To establish an appropriate primate model of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). METHODS: We have, for the first time, established a large animal model of FHF in Macaca mulatta by intraperitoneal infusion of amatoxin and endotoxin. Clinical features, biochemical indexes, histopathology and iconography were examined to dynamically investigate the progress and outcome of the animal model. RESULTS: Our results showed that the enzymes and serum bilirubin were markedly increased and the enzyme-bilirubin segregation emerged 36 h after toxin administration. Coagulation activity was significantly decreased. Gradually deteriorated parenchymal abnormality was detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography at 48 h. The liver biopsy showed marked hepatocyte steatosis and massive parenchymal necrosis at 36 h and 49 h, respectively. The autopsy showed typical yellow atrophy of the liver. Hepatic encephalopathy of the models was also confirmed by hepatic coma, MRI and pathological changes of cerebral edema. The lethal effects of the extrahepatic organ dysfunction were ruled out by their biochemical indices, imaging and histopathology. CONCLUSION: We have established an appropriate large primate model of FHF, which is closely similar to clinic cases, and can be used for investigation of the mechanism of FHF and for evaluation of potential medical therapies. PMID:22346249

  15. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space

    PubMed Central

    Drucker, Caroline B.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance, location, and spacing of the vertical array. We next asked whether monkeys show a spatially-oriented number mapping by testing their responses to the same five-element stimulus array rotated ninety degrees into a horizontal line. In these horizontal probe trials, monkeys preferentially selected the fourth position from the left, but not the fourth position from the right. Our results indicate that rhesus macaques map number onto space, suggesting that the association between number and space in human cognition is not purely a result of cultural experience and instead has deep evolutionary roots. PMID:24762923

  16. Grooming reciprocity in female tibetan macaques macaca thibetana.

    PubMed

    Xia, Dongpo; Li, Jinhua; Garber, Paul A; Sun, Lixing; Zhu, Yong; Sun, Binghua

    2012-06-01

    Grooming among nonhuman primates is widespread and may represent an important service commodity that is exchanged within a biological marketplace. In this study, using focal animal sampling methods, we recorded grooming relationships among 12 adult females in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China, to determine the influence of rank and kinship on grooming relationships, and whether females act as reciprocal traders (exchange grooming received for grooming given) or interchange traders (interchange grooming for social tolerance or other commodities). The results showed that: (1) grooming given was positively correlated with grooming received; (2) kinship did not exert a significant influence on grooming reciprocity; and (3) grooming reciprocity occurred principally between individuals of adjacent rank; however, when females of different rank groomed, females tended to groom up the hierarchy (lower ranking individuals groomed higher ranking individuals more than vice versa). Our results support the contention that both grooming reciprocity and the interchange of grooming for tolerance represent important social tactics used by female Tibetan macaques. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Risk Factors for Dystocia in Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina)

    PubMed Central

    Stockinger, Diane E; Torrence, Anne E; Hukkanen, Renee R; Vogel, Keith W; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Ha, James C

    2011-01-01

    Dystocia (difficult labor) is an important component of the management of nonhuman primates and results in significant fetal and maternal morbidity and increased use of veterinary resources. Dystocias can arise from abnormalities of the maternal pelvis or fetus or uncoordinated uterine activity. Although risk factors for stillbirths have been established in nonhuman primates, risk factors for dystocias have not. The objective of this study was to determine maternal and fetal risk factors for dystocia in macaques. Retrospective data were collected from 83 pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) diagnosed with dystocia. The diagnosis of dystocia was made based on clinical or pathologic evidence. Maternal records of age, reproductive history, experimental history, clinical records, and fetal birth weight and any applicable fetal necropsy reports were reviewed. The gestational age of the fetus, the infant's birth weight, total previous births by the dam, and the proportions of both viable delivery (inverse effect) and surgical pregnancy interventions (direct effect) in the dam's history generated a model that maximized the experimental variance for predicting dystocia in the current pregnancy and explained 24% of the dystocia deliveries. The number of total previous births and proportion of previous cesarean sections accounted for the greatest effect. This model can identify individual dams within a colony that are at risk for dystocias and allow for changes in breeding colony management, more intense monitoring of dams at risk, or allocation of additional resources. PMID:21535929

  18. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space.

    PubMed

    Drucker, Caroline B; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2014-07-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance, location, and spacing of the vertical array. We next asked whether monkeys show a spatially-oriented number mapping by testing their responses to the same five-element stimulus array rotated ninety degrees into a horizontal line. In these horizontal probe trials, monkeys preferentially selected the fourth position from the left, but not the fourth position from the right. Our results indicate that rhesus macaques map number onto space, suggesting that the association between number and space in human cognition is not purely a result of cultural experience and instead has deep evolutionary roots.

  19. Measurement of Blood Volume in Adult Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Theodore R; Blue, Steven W; Park, Byung S; Greisel, Jennifer J; Conn, P Michael; Pau, Francis K-Y

    2015-01-01

    Most biomedical facilities that use rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) limit the amount of blood that may be collected for experimental purposes. These limits typically are expressed as a percentage of blood volume (BV), estimated by using a fixed ratio of blood (mL) per body weight (kg). BV estimation ratios vary widely among facilities and typically do not factor in variables known to influence BV in humans: sex, age, and body condition. We used indicator dilution methodology to determine the BV of 20 adult rhesus macaques (10 male, 10 female) that varied widely in body condition. We measured body composition by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, weight, crown-to-rump length, and body condition score. Two indicators, FITC-labeled hydroxyethyl starch (FITC–HES) and radioiodinated rhesus serum albumin (125I-RhSA), were injected simultaneously, followed by serial blood collection. Plasma volume at time 0 was determined by linear regression. BV was calculated from the plasma volume and Hct. We found that BV calculated by using FITC–HES was consistently lower than BV calculated by using 125I-RhSA. Sex and age did not significantly affect BV. Percentage body fat was significantly associated with BV. Subjects categorized as having ‘optimal’ body condition score had 18% body fat and 62.1 mL/kg BV (by FITC–HES; 74.5 mL/kg by 125I-RhSA). Each 1% increase in body fat corresponded to approximately 1 mL/kg decrease in BV. Body condition score correlated with the body fat percentage (R2 = 0.7469). We provide an equation for calculating BV from weight and body condition score. PMID:26632777

  20. Characterization of spontaneous malignant lymphomas in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Hirata, A; Hashimoto, K; Katoh, Y; Sakai, H; Bruce, A G; Rose, T M; Kaneko, A; Suzuki, J; Nikami, H; Yanai, T

    2015-05-01

    Lymphomas are common spontaneous tumors in nonhuman primates but remain poorly characterized in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). This study examined 5 cases of spontaneous malignant lymphoma in Japanese macaques, focusing on the immunophenotypes and presence of simian lymphocryptoviruses, which are Epstein-Barr virus-related herpesviruses in nonhuman primates. The macaques with lymphoma were 5 to 28 years old, indicating that lymphomas develop over a wide age range. The common macroscopic findings were splenomegaly and enlargement of lymph nodes. Histologic and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that all cases were non-Hodgkin type and exhibited a T-cell phenotype, positive for CD3 but negative for CD20 and CD79α. The lymphomas exhibited diverse cellular morphologies and were subdivided into 3 types according to the World Health Organization classification. These included 3 cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified; 1 case of T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia; and 1 case of an unclassifiable T-cell lymphoma. Positive signals were detected by in situ hybridization in 2 of the 4 examined cases using probes for the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA (EBER). Furthermore, the presence of M. fuscata lymphocryptovirus 2, a macaque homolog of Epstein-Barr virus, was demonstrated in EBER-positive cases by polymerase chain reaction amplification followed by direct sequencing. Immunohistochemistry using antibody to the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 was negative, even in the EBER-positive cases. The present study suggests that T-cell lymphoma is more common than B-cell lymphoma in Japanese macaques and that M. fuscata lymphocryptovirus 2 is present in some cases.

  1. Temporomandibular joint forces measured at the condyle of Macaca arctoides.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R L; Gibbs, C H; Mahan, P E; Richmond, A F; Laskin, J L

    1990-06-01

    Forces were measured at the articular surface of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle in two stump-tail monkeys (Macaca arctoides) during chewing, incisal biting, and drinking and also during aggressive behaviors. Force was measured with a thin piezoelectric foil transducer, which was cemented over the anterior and superior surfaces of the condyle. Wires from the upper and lower surfaces of the foil were insulated between two layers of Teflon tape and run subcutaneously to a telemetry unit, which was implanted in the upper back. Force applied across the foil by the condyle was detected by the telemetry unit and transmitted to an FM radio receiver outside the animal. The FM signals were received and demodulated, and a signal proportional to the force applied between the condyle and the TMJ fossa was displayed on a chart recorder. Data were collected over an 8-day period. The animals were not constrained. The TMJ was found to be load bearing. The greatest force of 39.0 lb (17.7 kg) was measured during feisty vocal aggression. Forces ranged as high as 34.5 lb (15.7 kg) during chewing and 28.5 lb (13.0 kg) during incisal biting. Forces were greater on the working (food) side than on the nonworking (balancing) side by average ratios of 1.4 to 2.6. A large unilateral interference at the most distal molar greatly disturbed chewing. It reduced TMJ forces by 50% or more, and the monkey refused to chew on the side opposite the interference.

  2. Seed dispersal by rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Asmita; McConkey, Kim R; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2014-12-01

    Frugivorous primates are important seed dispersers and their absence from forest patches is predicted to be detrimental to tropical forest regeneration and recruitment. With the reduction of primate populations globally, ecologically resilient primate species, characterized by dietary flexibility and the ability to thrive in a variety of habitats, assume new importance as seed dispersers. The most widely distributed non-human primate, the rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta has been intensively studied but little is known about its role in maintaining ecosystem structure and functions. Due to their frugivorous diet, large group sizes, large home ranges and tolerance to disturbance, rhesus macaques may be effective seed dispersers. We studied seed dispersal by rhesus macaques at the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India, through a combination of behavioural observations and germination experiments. Rhesus macaques dispersed 84% of the 49 species they fed on either through spitting or defecation. Nearly 96% of the handled seeds were undamaged and 61% of the species for which germination tests were performed had enhanced germination. Almost 50% of the monitored seeds among those deposited in situ germinated and 22% established seedlings, suggesting that rhesus macaques are important seed dispersers in tropical forests. Due to their widespread distribution and large populations, rhesus macaques are perceived as common and are categorized as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List, effectively excluding them from any conservation plans. Based on the results of our study, we argue that rhesus macaques fulfill critical ecological functions in their habitat and that this parameter must be taken into consideration when they are reviewed for conservation priorities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Do rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceive illusory motion?

    PubMed Central

    Agrillo, Christian; Gori, Simone; Beran, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, visual illusions have been used repeatedly to understand similarities and differences of visual perception of human and non-human animals. However, nearly all studies have focused only on illusions not related to motion perception and, to date, it is unknown whether non-human primates perceive any kind of motion illusion. In the present study we investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceived one of the most popular motion illusions in humans, the Rotating Snake illusion (RSI). To this purpose, we set up four experiments. In Experiment 1 subjects initially were trained to discriminate static vs. dynamic arrays. Once reaching the learning criterion, they underwent probe trials in which we presented the RSI and a control stimulus identical in overall configuration with the exception that the order of the luminance sequence was changed in a way that no apparent motion is perceived by humans. The overall performance of monkeys indicated that they spontaneously classified RSI as a dynamic array. Subsequently, we tested adult humans in the same task with the aim of directly comparing the performance of human and non-human primates (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3 we found that monkeys can be successfully trained to discriminate between the RSI and a control stimulus. Experiment 4 showed that a simple change in luminance sequence in the two arrays could not explain the performance reported in Exp. 3. These results suggest that some rhesus monkeys display a human-like perception of this motion illusion, raising the possibility that the neurocognitive systems underlying motion perception may be similar between human and non-human primates. PMID:25812828

  4. Essentialism in the Absence of Language? Evidence from Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Webb; Shankar, Maya; Santos, Laurie R.

    2010-01-01

    We explored whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) share one important feature of human essentialist reasoning: the capacity to track category membership across radical featural transformations. Specifically, we examined whether monkeys--like children (Keil, 1989)--expect a transformed object to have the internal properties of its original…

  5. Essentialism in the Absence of Language? Evidence from Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Webb; Shankar, Maya; Santos, Laurie R.

    2010-01-01

    We explored whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) share one important feature of human essentialist reasoning: the capacity to track category membership across radical featural transformations. Specifically, we examined whether monkeys--like children (Keil, 1989)--expect a transformed object to have the internal properties of its original…

  6. Prolonged in utero retention and mummification of a Macaca mulatta fetus.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Heubach, E; Battelli, A

    1981-01-01

    An intrauterine mummified fetus in a Macaca mulatta was delivered surgically 708 days after onset of the last menstrual flow. Supracervical hysterectomy and left salpingo-oophorectomy were done. The fetus consisted of a compressed but complete skeleton and hairy skin adherent to the intact, thin uterine wall. Placenta and umbilical cord could not be identified.

  7. Pre- and Post-harvest Influences on Seed Dormancy Status of an Australian Goodeniaceae species, Goodenia fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Hoyle, Gemma L.; Steadman, Kathryn J.; Daws, Matthew I.; Adkins, Steve W.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The period during which seeds develop on the parent plant has been found to affect many seed characteristics, including dormancy, through interactions with the environment. Goodenia fascicularis (Goodeniaceae) seeds were used to investigate whether seeds of an Australian native forb, harvested from different environments and produced at different stages of the reproductive period, differ in dormancy status. Methods During the reproductive phase, plants were grown ex situ in warm (39/21 °C) or cool (26/13 °C) conditions, with adequate or limited water availability. The physiological dormancy of resulting seeds was measured in terms of the germination response to warm stratification (34/20 °C, 100 % RH, darkness). Key Results Plants in the cool environment were tall and had high above-ground biomass, yet yielded fewer seeds over a shorter, later harvest period when compared with plants in the warm environment. Seeds from the cool environment also had higher viability and greater mass, despite a significant proportion (7 % from the cool-wet environment) containing no obvious embryo. In the warm environment, the reproductive phase was accelerated and plants produced more seeds despite being shorter and having lower above-ground biomass than those in the cool environment. Ten weeks of warm stratification alleviated physiological dormancy in seeds from all treatments resulting in 80–100 % germination. Seeds that developed at warm temperatures were less dormant (i.e. germination percentages were higher) than seeds from the cool environment. Water availability had less effect on plant and seed traits than air temperature, although plants with reduced soil moisture were shorter, had lower biomass and produced fewer, less dormant seeds than plants watered regularly. Conclusions Goodenia fascicularis seeds are likely to exhibit physiological dormancy regardless of the maternal environment. However, seeds collected from warm, dry environments are

  8. Macaca specific exon creation event generates a novel ZKSCAN5 transcript.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hyun; Choe, Se-Hee; Song, Bong-Seok; Park, Sang-Je; Kim, Myung-Jin; Park, Young-Ho; Yoon, Seung-Bin; Lee, Youngjeon; Jin, Yeung Bae; Sim, Bo-Woong; Kim, Ji-Su; Jeong, Kang-Jin; Kim, Sun-Uk; Lee, Sang-Rae; Park, Young-Il; Huh, Jae-Won; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2016-02-15

    ZKSCAN5 (also known as ZFP95) is a zinc-finger protein belonging to the Krűppel family. ZKSCAN5 contains a SCAN box and a KRAB A domain and is proposed to play a distinct role during spermatogenesis. In humans, alternatively spliced ZKSCAN5 transcripts with different 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs) have been identified. However, investigation of our Macaca UniGene Database revealed novel alternative ZKSCAN5 transcripts that arose due to an exon creation event. Therefore, in this study, we identified the full-length sequences of ZKSCAN5 and its alternative transcripts in Macaca spp. Additionally, we investigated different nonhuman primate sequences to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the exon creation event. We analyzed the evolutionary features of the ZKSCAN5 transcripts by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and genomic PCR, and by sequencing various nonhuman primate DNA and RNA samples. The exon-created transcript was only detected in the Macaca lineage (crab-eating monkey and rhesus monkey). Full-length sequence analysis by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) identified ten full-length transcripts and four functional isoforms of ZKSCAN5. Protein sequence analyses revealed the presence of two groups of isoforms that arose because of differences in start-codon usage. Together, our results demonstrate that there has been specific selection for a discrete set of ZKSCAN5 variants in the Macaca lineage. Furthermore, study of this locus (and perhaps others) in Macaca spp. might facilitate our understanding of the evolutionary pressures that have shaped the mechanism of exon creation in primates.

  9. Extended cleavage specificity of the mast cell chymase from the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis): an interesting animal model for the analysis of the function of the human mast cell chymase.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Michael; Yu, Jing; Boinapally, Vamsi; Ahooghalandari, Parvin; Kervinen, Jukka; Garavilla, Lawrence de; Hellman, Lars

    2012-12-01

    Serine proteases are the major protein constituents within mast cell secretory granules. These proteases are subdivided into chymases and tryptases depending on their primary cleavage specificity. Here, we present the extended cleavage specificity of the macaque mast cell chymase and compare the specificity with human chymase (HC) and dog chymase (DC) that were produced in the same insect cell expression host. The macaque chymase (MC) shows almost identical characteristics as the HC, including both primary and extended cleavage specificities as well as sensitivity to protease inhibitors, whereas the DC differs in several of these characteristics. Although previous studies have shown that mouse mast cell protease-4 (mMCP-4) is similar in its hydrolytic specificity to the HC, mouse mast cells contain several related enzymes. Thus mice may not be the most appropriate model organism for studying HC activity and inhibition. Importantly, macaques express only one chymase and, as primates, are closely related to human general physiology. In addition, the human and macaque enzymes both cleave angiotensin I (Ang I) in the same way, generating primarily angiotensin II (Ang II) and they do not further degrade the peptide like most rodent enzymes do. Both enzymes also cleave two additional potential in vivo substrates, fibronectin and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in a similar way. Given the fact that both HC and MC are encoded by a single gene with high sequence homology and that many physiological processes are similar between these species, the macaque may be a very interesting model to study the physiological role of the chymase and to determine the potency and potential side-effects of various chymase inhibitors designed for therapeutic human use.

  10. Effects of low-dose γ-irradiation on the counts of immunocompetent cells in a model experiment on primates.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, I E; Agrba, V Z; Lapin, B A

    2010-12-01

    Cellular immunity was studied by flow cytometry with Becton Dickinson monoclonal antibodies in clinically healthy Macaca mulatta males before and after low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation. It was shown that T and B cells are radiosensitive, B cells being more sensitive, which is seen from a significant drop of their count. Natural killers are radioresistant. The count of immunocompetent cells recovers sooner after single compared to fractionated irradiation in the same summary dose.

  11. Effect of chronic administration of 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone on serum testosterone, number of spermatozoa and fertility in adult male bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata).

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, S G; Ramesh, V; Krishnamurthy, H N; Kumar, N; Sundaram, K; Hardy, M P; Rao, A Jagannadha

    2002-08-01

    Hormonal approaches to male contraception that are based on the suppression of LH secretion require androgen replacement treatment to maintain sexual behaviour and secondary sexual characteristics. Androgen supplementation not only involves large and frequent doses of testosterone esters but also results in undesirable effects on the prostate gland. In an attempt to avoid such problems, a synthetic androgen, 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT), which is much more potent than testosterone, has been developed. In the present study, MENT was administered at different doses (25, 50, 100, 300 and 1000 microg day(-1)) either alone or in combination with oestradiol via Silastic implants for a specified period to adult male bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata). Blood and semen samples were collected at specific intervals and analysed for serum testosterone and seminal parameters, respectively. The results of the present study clearly indicate that administration of MENT at all doses tested results in suppression of the nocturnal surge of testosterone (by day 3), as well as a decrease in the number of spermatozoa (by day 45). Co-administration of oestradiol resulted in a reduction in the dose of MENT required to suppress the nocturnal surge. None of the male bonnet monkeys treated with MENT were able to impregnate females, clearly demonstrating the efficacy of MENT in blocking fertility in male bonnet monkeys.

  12. First joint record of Mesopithecus and cf. Macaca in the Miocene of Europe.

    PubMed

    Alba, David M; Delson, Eric; Carnevale, Giorgio; Colombero, Simone; Delfino, Massimo; Giuntelli, Piero; Pavia, Marco; Pavia, Giulio

    2014-02-01

    Cercopithecid fossil remains from the post-evaporitic Messinian (5.40-5.33 Ma, MN13, latest Turolian, latest Miocene) locality of Moncucco Torinese (Tertiary Piedmont Basin, NW Italy) are described. A talus is assigned to the fossil colobine Mesopithecus pentelicus, while a proximal fragment of ulna and a male lower canine are attributed to cf. Me. pentelicus. An isolated I(2) and M3 are assigned to the papionin cf. Macaca sp., and two cercopithecid phalanges are left unassigned even to the subfamily level. The record of Mesopithecus at Moncucco Torinese agrees well with the previously-known range of this species in Italy and elsewhere in Europe, whereas that of cf. Macaca constitutes only the second occurrence of macaques in the Miocene of Eurasia. Although the co-occurrence of these two genera in a single locality had been previously reported in the Pliocene, this is the first instance in which macaques are associated with the Late Miocene M. pentelicus instead of Mesopithecus monspessulanus. The record of cf. Macaca and Mesopithecus-and especially the latter's talar morphology, similar to that of extant arboreal colobines-fits well with paleoenvironmental reconstructions of Moncucco Torinese based on the associated fauna, which indicate a humid and densely-forested environment, probably with more open and drier habitats nearby. From a paleobiogeographic viewpoint, the record of Macaca at Moncucco Torinese, together with the previously reported occurrence at Almenara-Casablanca M (Spain), supports the contention that macaques dispersed from Africa into Europe during the latest Miocene (ca. 5.9-5.3 Ma) at the same time as the sea level drop associated with the Messinian Salinity Crisis.

  13. Therapy of calcium oxalate urolithiasis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Conze, Theresa; Wehrend, Axel; Exner, Cornelia; Kaminiarz, André

    2016-08-01

    A rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) was presented for anuria. Examination revealed calcium oxalate concrements in the bladder. A cystotomy was performed, and a therapy with alfuzosin was conducted. Over 1 year after the treatment, the rhesus macaque had not shown any more signs of stranguria. This is the first case reporting the successful treatment of urolithiasis in a rhesus macaque. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Macaques at the margins: the biogeography and extinction of Macaca sylvanus in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elton, Sarah; O'Regan, Hannah J.

    2014-07-01

    The genus Macaca (Primates: Cercopithecidae) originated in Africa, dispersed into Europe in the Late Miocene and resided there until the Late Pleistocene. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the evolutionary history of Macaca in Europe, putting it into context with the wider late Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene European monkey fossil record (also comprising Mesopithecus, Paradolichopithecus, Dolichopithecus and Theropithecus). The Pliocene and Pleistocene European Macaca fossil material is largely regarded as Macaca sylvanus, the same species as the extant Barbary macaque in North Africa. The M. sylvanus specimens found at West Runton in Norfolk (53°N) during the Middle Pleistocene are among the most northerly euprimates ever discovered. Our simple time-budget model indicates that short winter day lengths would have imposed a significant constraint on activity at such relatively high latitudes, so macaque populations in Britain may have been at the limit of their ecological tolerance. Two basic models using climatic and topographic data for the Last Interglacial and the Last Glacial Maximum alongside Middle and Late Pleistocene fossil distributions indicate that much of Europe may have been suitable habitat for macaques. The models also indicate that areas of southern Europe in the present day have a climate that could support macaque populations. However, M. sylvanus became locally extinct in the Late Pleistocene, possibly at a similar time as the straight-tusked elephant, Palaeoloxodon antiquus, and narrow-nosed rhinoceros, Stephanorhinus hemitoechus. Its extinction may be related to vegetation change or increased predation from Homo, although other factors (such as stochastic factors occurring as a result of small population sizes) cannot be ruled out. Notwithstanding the cause of extinction, the European macaque may thus be a previously overlooked member of the Late Pleistocene faunal turnover.

  15. Infection of Macaca Radiata with Viruses of the Tick-Borne Encephalitis Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    immunoperoxiddase (see Materials and methods) ABC. hematoxylin, ’ 100. Macaca radiata and tick-borne encephalitis viruses 405 II ~~ ; Fig. 6. Ileum, KFD...luminai surface stain positive for KFD viral antigens. lmniunoperoxidase (see Materials and methods). Hematoxylin, ý 50. Viral antigen -positive...stain viral antigen -positive neurons (arrows). Immunoperoxicdase (see Materials and methods). ABC, hematoxyhin, x 50. United Kingdom, Scandinavia and

  16. Prenatal ontogeny of subspecific variation in the craniofacial morphology of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Yano, Wataru; Egi, Naoko; Takano, Tomo; Ogihara, Naomichi

    2010-07-01

    We cross-sectionally investigated prenatal ontogeny of craniofacial shape in the two subspecies of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata fuscata and Macaca fuscata yakui) using a geometric morphometric technique to explore the process of morphogenetic divergence leading to the adult morphological difference between the subspecies. The sample comprised a total of 32 formalin-fixed fetal specimens of the two subspecies, in approximately the second and third trimesters. Each fetal cranium was scanned using computed tomography to generate a three-dimensional surface model, and 68 landmarks were digitized on the external and internal surface of each cranium to trace the growth-related changes in craniofacial shape of the two subspecies. The results of our study demonstrated that the two subspecies generally shared the same craniofacial growth pattern. Both crania tend to exhibit relative contraction of the neurocranium in the mediolateral and superoinferior directions, a more superiorly positioned cranial base, a more vertically oriented occipital squama, and a more anteriorly positioned viscerocranium as the cranial size increased. However, distinctive subspecific differences, for example relatively narrower orbital breadth, higher orbit, higher position of the nuchal crest, and more protrudent snout found in Macaca fuscata yakui were already present during the prenatal period. This study demonstrated that morphological differentiation in the craniofacial shape may occur at a very early stage of the fetal period even between closely related subspecies of the Japanese macaque.

  17. White-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys): A new macaque species from Medog, southeastern Tibet.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Zhao, Chao; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2015-07-01

    We describe a newly discovered Macaca species from the Medog, in southeastern Tibet, China, Macaca leucogenys sp. nov or the "white-cheeked macaque". Based on 738 photos taken during direct observations and captured by camera traps this new species appears to be distinct from the Macaca sinica species group. Moreover, the species is distinguished from all potential sympatric macaque species (M. mulatta, M. thibetana, M. assamensis, and M. munzala) in exhibiting a suite of pelage characteristics including relatively uniform dorsal hair pattern, hairy ventral pelage, relative hairless short tail, prominent pale to white side- and chin-whiskers creating a white cheek and round facial appearance, dark facial skin on the muzzle, long and thick hairs on its neck, and a round rather than arrow-shaped male genitalia. This new macaque species was found to exploit a diverse set of habitat types from tropical forest at 1395 m, to primary and secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest at 2000 m, as well as mixed broadleaf-conifer forest at 2700 m. Its range may extend to neighboring counties in Tibet and the part of southeastern Tibet controlled by India. The white-cheeked macaque is threatened by illegal hunting and the construction of hydropower stations. Discovery of this new primate species further highlights the high value for biodiversity conservation of southeastern Tibet and calls for more intensive surveys, studies, and environmental protection in this area. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Planum Temporale Grey Matter Asymmetries in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus), Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and Bonnet (Macaca radiata) monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Lyn, Heidi; Pierre, Peter; Bennett, Allyson J.; Fears, Scott; Woods, Roger; Hopkins, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Brain asymmetries, particularly asymmetries within regions associated with language, have been suggested as a key difference between humans and our nearest ancestors. These regions include the planum temporale (PT) - the bank of tissue that lies posterior to Heschl’s gyrus and encompasses Wernicke’s area, an important brain region involved in language and speech in the human brain. In the human brain, both the surface area and grey matter volume of the PT is larger in the left compared to right hemisphere, particularly among right-handed individuals. Here we compared the grey matter volume and asymmetry of the PT in chimpanzees and three other species of nonhuman primate in two Genera including vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus), rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). We show that the three monkey species do not show population-level asymmetries in this region whereas the chimpanzees do, suggesting that the evolutionary brain development that gave rise to PT asymmetry occurred after our split with the monkey species, but before our split with the chimpanzees. PMID:21447349

  19. Highly heterogeneous bacterial communities associated with the South China Sea reef corals Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Si; Huang, Hui; Yang, Jian; Tian, Xin-Peng; Long, Li-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Coral harbor diverse and specific bacteria play significant roles in coral holobiont function. Bacteria associated with three of the common and phylogenetically divergent reef-building corals in the South China Sea, Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora, were investigated using 454 barcoded-pyrosequencing. Three colonies of each species were sampled, and 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed individually. Analysis of pyrosequencing libraries showed that bacterial communities associated with the three coral species were more diverse than previous estimates based on corals from the Caribbean Sea, Indo-Pacific reefs and the Red Sea. Three candidate phyla, including BRC1, OD1 and SR1, were found for the first time in corals. Bacterial communities were separated into three groups: P. lutea and G. fascicular, A. millepora and seawater. P. lutea and G. fascicular displayed more similar bacterial communities, and bacterial communities associated with A. millepora differed from the other two coral species. The three coral species shared only 22 OTUs, which were distributed in Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and an unclassified bacterial group. The composition of bacterial communities within each colony of each coral species also showed variation. The relatively small common and large specific bacterial communities in these corals implies that bacterial associations may be structured by multiple factors at different scales and that corals may associate with microbes in terms of similar function, rather than identical species.

  20. Morphology of the cement apparatus and the cement of the buoy barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Thoracica, Lepadidae).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Von Byern, Janek; Kerbl, Alexandra; Leisch, Nikolaus; Staedler, Yannick; Grunwald, Ingo; Power, Anne Marie; Klepal, Waltraud

    2012-10-01

    Barnacles produce a proteinaceous adhesive called cement to attach permanently to rocks or to other hard substrata. The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis is of special interest as it produces a large amount of foam-like cement that can be used as a float. The morphology of the cement apparatus and of the polymerized cement of this species is almost unknown. The current study aims at filling these gaps in our knowledge using light and electron microscopy as well as x-ray microtomography. The shape of the cement gland cells changes from round to ovoid during barnacle development. The cytoplasm of the gland cells, unlike that of some other barnacles, does not have distinct secretory and storage regions. The cement canals, which transport the cement from the gland cells to the base of the stalk, end at different positions in juvenile and mature animals. With increasing size of the cement float, the exit of the cement canals shift from the centrally positioned attachment disk of the vestigial antennules to more lateral positions on the stalk. The bubbles enclosed in the foam-like float are most likely filled with CO(2) that diffuses from the hemolymph into the cement canal system and from there into the cement.

  1. Highly Heterogeneous Bacterial Communities Associated with the South China Sea Reef Corals Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Si; Huang, Hui; Yang, Jian; Tian, Xin-Peng; Long, Li-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Coral harbor diverse and specific bacteria play significant roles in coral holobiont function. Bacteria associated with three of the common and phylogenetically divergent reef-building corals in the South China Sea, Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora, were investigated using 454 barcoded-pyrosequencing. Three colonies of each species were sampled, and 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed individually. Analysis of pyrosequencing libraries showed that bacterial communities associated with the three coral species were more diverse than previous estimates based on corals from the Caribbean Sea, Indo-Pacific reefs and the Red Sea. Three candidate phyla, including BRC1, OD1 and SR1, were found for the first time in corals. Bacterial communities were separated into three groups: P. lutea and G. fascicular, A. millepora and seawater. P. lutea and G. fascicular displayed more similar bacterial communities, and bacterial communities associated with A. millepora differed from the other two coral species. The three coral species shared only 22 OTUs, which were distributed in Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and an unclassified bacterial group. The composition of bacterial communities within each colony of each coral species also showed variation. The relatively small common and large specific bacterial communities in these corals implies that bacterial associations may be structured by multiple factors at different scales and that corals may associate with microbes in terms of similar function, rather than identical species. PMID:23940737

  2. Sex-dependent expression of mRNA encoding a major egg protein in the gonochoric coral Galaxea fascicularis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, H.; Nakano, Y.; Andoh, T.; Watanabe, T.

    2005-11-01

    A cDNA encoding a major egg protein was cloned in Galaxea fascicularis, a hermatypic coral with a gonochoric breeding system, and gene expression at the transcriptional level was compared between female and functional male colonies. In an electrophoretic analysis, four soluble proteins were present in high abundance in the female egg, but not in the pseudo-eggs of functional males. Partial amino acid sequences of one of the major proteins named GfEP-1 (88 kDa) were determined, and a cDNA fragment of about 2 kb containing a partial GfEP-1 sequence was isolated. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited sequence similarities to vertebrate and invertebrate vitellogenins. GfEP-1 transcripts were detected in both sexes 0 1 month before spawning. However, the mRNA levels were significantly higher in females than in functional males. The expression of GfEP-1 may be utilized in sexing and also monitoring effects of environmental and anthropogenic factors on vitellogenesis and sex determination.

  3. Drug-Containing Gelatin Treats as an Alternative to Gavage for Long-Term Oral Administration in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Ye, Bin; Zeng, Li; Chen, Younan; He, Sirong; Wang, Chengshi; Li, Xinli; Zhao, Jiuming; Shi, Meimei; Wang, Li; Li, Hongxia; Cheng, Jingqiu; Wang, Wei; Lu, Yanrong

    2012-01-01

    Long-term oral administration of immunosuppressive agents to transplanted rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) is one of the major challenges in such studies. To avoid the drawbacks of gavage, we tested an alternative method for oral dosing of sirolimus in rhesus monkeys by adding sirolimus, a commonly used immunosuppressant, to gelatin to create drug-containing gelatin ‘treats’ that our macaques would accept voluntarily. We evaluated the oral bioequivalence of the oral solution and drug-containing gelatin and assayed the whole-blood levels of sirolimus after long-term drug delivery. We found that time to peak concentration but not peak concentration itself or the area under the time–concentration curve differed between the 2 groups. Although the maximal concentration data did not fit the condition of bioequivalence, those for the time–concentration curves from 0 to 24 h and from 0 h to infinity did; therefore the extent of sirolimus absorption did not differ significantly between the 2 formulations. The sirolimus levels for long-term drug delivery were equivalent at 2.97 ± 1.91 ng/mL in the gelatin group and 3.13 ± 2.03 ng/mL in the solution group. The gelatin dosing technique we describe here is convenient and effective for oral administration of sirolimus in rhesus monkeys and likely can be adapted for other drugs. PMID:23294893

  4. Phylogeography of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) and the origin of the Gibraltar colony

    PubMed Central

    Modolo, Lara; Salzburger, Walter; Martin, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    The Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) is the earliest offshoot of the genus Macaca and the only extant African representative, all other species being Asiatic. Once distributed throughout North Africa, M. sylvanus is now restricted to isolated forest fragments in Algeria and Morocco. The species is threatened; the maximum total wild population size is estimated at 10,000 individuals. Relationships among surviving wild subpopulations in Algeria (96 samples) and Morocco (116 samples) were examined by using 468-bp sequences from hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Twenty-four different haplotypes were identified, differing by 1-26 mutational steps (0.2-5.6%) and 1 insertion. With one exception (attributable to secondary introduction in coastal Morocco), Algerian and Moroccan haplotypes are clearly distinct. However, whereas Moroccan subpopulations show little divergence in hypervariable region I sequences and little correspondence with geographical distribution, there is a deep division between two main subpopulations in Algeria and one marked secondary division, with haplotypes generally matching geographical distribution. Accepting an origin of the genus Macaca of 5.5 million years ago, the Moroccan population and the two main Algerian subpopulations diverged ≈1.6 million years ago. Distinction between Moroccan and Algerian haplotypes permitted analysis of the origin of the Gibraltar colony of Barbary macaques (68 samples; 30% of the population). It is generally held that the present Gibraltar population descended from a dozen individuals imported during World War II. However, the Gibraltar sample was found to include Algerian and Moroccan haplotypes separated by at least 16 mutational steps, revealing a dual origin of the founding females. PMID:15870193

  5. Phylogeography of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) and the origin of the Gibraltar colony.

    PubMed

    Modolo, Lara; Salzburger, Walter; Martin, Robert D

    2005-05-17

    The Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) is the earliest offshoot of the genus Macaca and the only extant African representative, all other species being Asiatic. Once distributed throughout North Africa, M. sylvanus is now restricted to isolated forest fragments in Algeria and Morocco. The species is threatened; the maximum total wild population size is estimated at 10,000 individuals. Relationships among surviving wild subpopulations in Algeria (96 samples) and Morocco (116 samples) were examined by using 468-bp sequences from hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Twenty-four different haplotypes were identified, differing by 1-26 mutational steps (0.2-5.6%) and 1 insertion. With one exception (attributable to secondary introduction in coastal Morocco), Algerian and Moroccan haplotypes are clearly distinct. However, whereas Moroccan subpopulations show little divergence in hypervariable region I sequences and little correspondence with geographical distribution, there is a deep division between two main subpopulations in Algeria and one marked secondary division, with haplotypes generally matching geographical distribution. Accepting an origin of the genus Macaca of 5.5 million years ago, the Moroccan population and the two main Algerian subpopulations diverged approximately 1.6 million years ago. Distinction between Moroccan and Algerian haplotypes permitted analysis of the origin of the Gibraltar colony of Barbary macaques (68 samples; 30% of the population). It is generally held that the present Gibraltar population descended from a dozen individuals imported during World War II. However, the Gibraltar sample was found to include Algerian and Moroccan haplotypes separated by at least 16 mutational steps, revealing a dual origin of the founding females.

  6. Retinal, functional, and morphological comparisons of two different macaque species, Macaca mulatta and Macaca fasicularis, for models of laser eye injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCarlo, Cheryl D.; Hacker, Henry D.; Brown, Araceli; Cheramie, Rachael; Martinsen, Gary L.; Rockwell, Benjamin; Stuck, Bruce E.

    2005-04-01

    The past several years has seen a severe shortage of pathogen-free Indian origin rhesus macaques due to the increased requirement for this model in retroviral research. With greater than 30 years of research data accumulated using the Rhesus macaque as the model for laser eye injury there exists a need to bridge to a more readily available nonhuman primate model. Much of the data previously collected from the Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) provided the basis for the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards for laser safety. Currently a Tri-service effort is underway to utilize the Cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fasicularis) as a replacement for the Rhesus macaque. Preliminary functional and morphological baseline data collected from multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and retinal cell counts were compared from a small group of monkeys and tissues to determine if significant differences existed between the species. Initial functional findings rom mfERG yielded only one difference for the n2 amplitude value which was greater in the Cynomolgus monkey. No significant differences were seen in retinal and foveal thickness, as determined by OCT scans and no significant differences were seen in ganglion cell and inner nuclear cell nuclei counts. A highly significant difference was seen in the numbers of photoreceptor nuclei with greater numbers in the Rhesus macaque. This indicates more studies should be performed to determine the impact that a model change would have on the laser bioeffects community and their ability to continue to provide minimal visible lesion data for laser safety standards. The continued goal of this project will be to provide that necessary baseline information for a seamless transition to a more readily available animal model.

  7. The effect of different flow regimes on the growth and metabolic rates of the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutter, M.; Crocker, J.; Paijmans, A.; Janse, M.; Osinga, R.; Verreth, A. J.; Wijffels, R. H.

    2010-09-01

    To study the effect of water flow on coral growth, four series of ten coral nubbins of Galaxea fascicularis were exposed to four different flow regimes (0, 10, 20, and 25 cm s-1, bidirectional flow) for 42 weeks. Buoyant weight, surface area, and polyp number were measured at regular intervals. Net photosynthesis and dark respiration were measured at the corresponding flow speeds, and daily amount of photosynthetic carbon left for coral growth was calculated. Finally, skeletal density and CN content, chlorophyll concentration and dry weight of coral tissue were determined for each coral. Specific growth rate (in day-1) decreased with time in each flow treatment. Absence of flow resulted in significantly lower growth rates. Average specific growth rate calculated over the entire experiment was not significantly different between 10 and 20 cm s-1, while it was significantly higher at 25 cm s-1. From 10 to 25 cm s-1, average net photosynthetic rate decreased and average dark respiration rate did not change significantly. Scope for growth based on phototrophic carbon decreased with increasing flow. Growth was not positively correlated with either photosynthesis or respiration, or scope for growth. It is suggested that higher flow rates reduce the chance of disturbance of coral growth by competing algae or cyanobacteria, allowing corals to grow more readily with the maximum specific growth rate possible under the given environmental conditions. Notably, other effects of increased flow, such as increased respiratory rates and increased (in)organic nutrient uptake, might have been equally responsible for the increased growth of the corals in 25 cm s-1.

  8. [Isolation and characterization of twenty-one polymorphic microsatellite loci in the Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana)].

    PubMed

    Jia, X D; Yang, B D; Yue, B S; Yin, H L; Wang, H X; Zhang, X Y

    2011-07-01

    Twenty-one microsatellite loci were isolated from AC-enriched library of Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana). The number of alleles at the 21 microsatellite loci ranged from 8 to 15, with an average of 12.2 per locus. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.805 to 0.910 with an average of 0.873. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.208 to 0.792 and from 0.843 to 0.938, respectively. These microsatellite loci will be useful for future studies that relate to the genetic diversity and population structure of Tibetan macaque.

  9. Clinical allograft of a calcaneal tendon in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Lemoy, Marie-Josee; Summers, Laura; Colagross-Schouten, Angela

    2014-09-01

    A 5.5-y-old male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) housed in an outdoor field cage presented for severe trauma involving the left calcaneal tendon. Part of the management of this wound included an allograft of the calcaneal tendon from an animal that was euthanized for medical reasons. This case report describes the successful medical and surgical management of a macaque with a significant void of the calcaneal tendon. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of a successful tendon allograft in a rhesus macaque for clinical purposes.

  10. Brain abscess in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a cephalic implant.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristy; McCort, Holly; Reuter, Jon D

    2013-08-01

    We report a case of brain abscess after craniotomy and the placement of a recording chamber for electrophysiologic records in an adult rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) enrolled in visual research. Approximately 2 wk after surgery, the macaque presented with nonspecific gastrointestinal signs and showed no evidence of fever, neurologic deficits, increased intracranial pressure, suggestive alterations in the CBC, or abnormal changes in the recording chamber. The macaque responded to symptomatic and antibiotic treatment and showed no behavioral or abnormal clinical signs for 3 wk before collapsing suddenly. The macaque was euthanized, and pathologic evaluation revealed a large brain abscess immediately under the original craniotomy.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of stavudine (2',3'-didehydro-3'-deoxythymidine) in the neonatal macaque (Macaca nemestrina).

    PubMed Central

    Keller, R D; Nosbisch, C; Unadkat, J D

    1995-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether age effects the pharmacokinetics of stavudine (2',3'-didehydro-3'-deoxythymidine) in the neonatal pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina). The drug (5 mg/kg of body weight) was administered serially as a single intravenous bolus to the same four macaques at the ages of < 1 week, 1 month, and 4 months. Plasma clearance at < 1 week of age was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the corresponding values at 1 month and 4 months. Our data indicate that the pharmacokinetics of stavudine change significantly with age in M. nemestrina. PMID:8593033

  12. Brain Abscess in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a Cephalic Implant

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristy; McCort, Holly; Reuter, Jon D

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of brain abscess after craniotomy and the placement of a recording chamber for electrophysiologic records in an adult rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) enrolled in visual research. Approximately 2 wk after surgery, the macaque presented with nonspecific gastrointestinal signs and showed no evidence of fever, neurologic deficits, increased intracranial pressure, suggestive alterations in the CBC, or abnormal changes in the recording chamber. The macaque responded to symptomatic and antibiotic treatment and showed no behavioral or abnormal clinical signs for 3 wk before collapsing suddenly. The macaque was euthanized, and pathologic evaluation revealed a large brain abscess immediately under the original craniotomy. PMID:24209974

  13. Application of a computer serial probe recognition (SPR) task in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, A.V.; Kahler, D.W.

    1992-11-01

    The Serial Probe Recognition (SPR) task was established to fulfill a requirement for a nonhuman primate behavioral task as a final screening of candidate compound for the pretreatment and treatment (PT) against chemical warfare agents. Initially, equipment on hand was reconfigured to support this requirement. From this prototype, we designed and developed a behavioral testing system to study SPR memory in nonhuman primates. Our system consisted of an operant chamber, a personal computer with a monitor, a touch sensitive screen, a pellet dispenser and an interface system. In this report we describe the development and application of the behavioral testing system in our laboratory. Serial probe recognition, Behavior, Training Rhesus Monkeys, Macaca Mulatta.

  14. The vocal repertoire of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana): A quantitative classification.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Sofia K; Sheeran, Lori K; Wagner, R Steven; Li, Jin-Hua; Koda, Hiroki

    2016-09-01

    Vocal repertoires are basic and essential components for describing vocal communication in animals. Studying the entire suite of vocal signals aids investigations on the variation of acoustic structure across social contexts, comparisons on the complexity of communication systems across taxa, and in exploration of the evolutionary origins of species-specific vocalizations. Here, we describe the vocal repertoire of the largest species in the macaque genus, Macaca thibetana. We extracted thirty acoustic parameters from call recordings. Post hoc validation through quantitative analyses of the a priori repertoire classified eleven call types: coo, squawk, squeal, noisy scream, growl, bark, compound squeak, leap coo, weeping, modulated tonal scream, and pant. In comparison to the rest of the genus, Tibetan macaques uttered a wider array of vocalizations in the context of copulations. Previous reports did not include modulated tonal screams and pants during harassment of copulatory dyads. Furthermore, in comparison to the rest of the genus, Tibetan macaque females emit acoustically distinct copulation calls. The vocal repertoire of Tibetan macaques contributes to the literature on the emergence of species-specific calls in the genus Macaca with potential insights from social, reproductive, and ecological comparisons across species. Am. J. Primatol. 78:937-949, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effects of age and sex on the hematology and blood chemistry of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Yi, Yong; Sun, Fei; Zhou, Liang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Hongxing; Zhang, Guodong; Zhang, Yu Alex; Yue, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), also known as Chinese stump-tailed macaques, are a threatened primate species. Although Tibetan macaques are Old World monkeys in the genus of Macaca, limited age- and sex-related physiologic data are available for this particular species. We used 69 apparently healthy Tibetan male and female macaques to explore the effect of age and sex on physiologic parameters. Somatometric measurements, biochemistry, and hematologic parameters were analyzed. Significant age-related differences were found for weight, BMI, RBC count, Hgb, Hct, neutrophils, eosinophil count, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, creatine kinase (muscle and brain subtypes), LDH, α-amylase, creatinine, apolipoprotein A1, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, HDL, and potassium. Significant differences by sex were noted for weight, BMI, ALT, total bilirubin, and indirect bilirubin. An interaction between age and sex accounted for statistically significant differences in the values for weight, BMI, and lymphocyte and eosinophil counts. These physiologic data will provide veterinarians and researchers with important age- and sex-specific reference ranges for evaluating experimental results from Tibetan macaques.

  16. Serum testosterone and electroencephalography spectra in developmental male rhesus Macaca mulatta monkeys.

    PubMed

    Poblano, Adrián; Hernández-Godínez, Braulio; Arellano, Arturo; Arteaga, Carmina; Elías, Yolanda; Morales, José; Poblano, Román; Poblano-Alcalá, Adriana

    2004-01-01

    The main objectives in this work were to determine whether the relationship between serum testosterone concentration and electroencephalography (EEG) develop mental change observed in human males is also present in Macaca mulatta and, if so, to determine which frequency bands are involved and which regions change in pre-pubertal monkeys as a function of serum testosterone concentration. Nine healthy monkeys were divided into three groups according to age. Serum testosterone was measured using immunoenzymatic chemiluminescent assay. EEG results were processed using Fast Fourier transform; average relative spectral power analysis was calculated and separated into delta and theta bands. The main findings were higher delta relative power in temporal area of the youngest group. Significant positive correlations were observed between serum testosterone levels and theta relative power across the entire scalp, and between theta relative power at frontal and temporal locations and in negative direction between delta relative power in temporal areas. Partial correlations controlling for cephalic perimeter remained significant between testosterone and total theta relative power and theta relative power in temporal areas. Partial correlations remained significant for theta relative power controlling for age at temporal locations. Our data show that testosterone may be a significant covariate in EEG development in Macaca mulatta males.

  17. Pulmonary vasomotor nerve responses in isolated perfused lungs of Macaca mulatta and Papio species.

    PubMed Central

    de Burgh Daly, I; Ramsay, D J; Waaler, B A

    1975-01-01

    1. Lung lobes of Macaca mulatta and Papio species were isolated from the body and perfused by a pump delivering a constant volume inflow. The left atrial pressure was kept constant and therefore any recorded change in pulmonary arterial pressure reflected a change in pulmonary vascular resistance. 2. In five Macaca mulatta preparations stimulation of the upper thoracic sympathetic chain, the stellate ganglion, the middle cervical ganglion and the thoracic vagosympathetic nerve caused a small increase in calculated pulmonary vascular resistance usually followed by a larger decrease. Evidence is produced which suggests that the depressor response is mediated by adrenergic beta-receptors. In three preparations no change in pulmonary vascular resistance occurred. 3. In four Papio preparations stimulation of similar nerves invariably caused an increase in calculated pulmonary vascular resistance. In one animal no change in vascular resistance occurred. 4. A regression analysis of the results showed an inverse relationship between the magnitude of the pulmonary vascular response to nerve stimulation and the degree of excitement of the animals during capture, restraint and anaesthesia (P less than 0.01). Images Fig. 2 PMID:809575

  18. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R.; Pypendop, Bruno H.; Christe, Kari L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g. dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially-housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration (180 words). PMID:25488714

  19. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Kelly, K R; Pypendop, B H; Christe, K L

    2015-08-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g., dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post-tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration.

  20. Video-task acquisition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, W. D.; Washburn, D. A.; Hyatt, C. W.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This study describes video-task acquisition in two nonhuman primate species. The subjects were seven rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). All subjects were trained to manipulate a joystick which controlled a cursor displayed on a computer monitor. Two criterion levels were used: one based on conceptual knowledge of the task and one based on motor performance. Chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys attained criterion in a comparable number of trials using a conceptually based criterion. However, using a criterion based on motor performance, chimpanzees reached criterion significantly faster than rhesus monkeys. Analysis of error patterns and latency indicated that the rhesus monkeys had a larger asymmetry in response bias and were significantly slower in responding than the chimpanzees. The results are discussed in terms of the relation between object manipulation skills and video-task acquisition.

  1. Effects of feeding selenium deficient diets to rhesus monkeys (Macaca Mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.A.; Whanger, P.D.; Patton, N.M.

    1988-02-01

    Pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were fed either selenium (Se) deficient or Se supplemented diets with adequate vitamin E. Except for some cardiac irregularities in the first babies born to these females, no physiological disorders due to Se deficiency were seen in a subsequent offspring. Plasma and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activities and blood Se levels increased in the Se supplemented monkeys but decreased in the deficient ones. The data indicated that hair Se levels reflect long term exposure to this element. In a very preliminary experiment, evidence was obtained to indicate that dietary protein deficiency along with Se deficiency will generate cardiomyopathic lesions characteristic of Se deficiency. It is hypothesized that, in addition to Se deficiency, another dietary deficiency (or abnormality) is necessary to produce Se deficiency lesions in higher primates. Higher glutathione transferase (or non-Se glutathione peroxidase) activity in tissues of rhesus monkeys may account for this resistance.

  2. Radiographic Incidence of Spinal Osteopathologies in Captive Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Godínez, Braulio; Ibáñez-Contreras, Alejandra; Perdigón-Castañeda, Gerardo; Galván-Montaño, Alfonso; de Oca, Guadalupe García-Montes; Zapata-Valdez, Carinthia; Tena-Betancourt, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Degenerative spinal disease is a leading cause of chronic disability both in humans and animals. Although widely seen as a normal occurrence of aging, degenerative spinal disease can be caused by various genetic, iatrogenic, inflammatory, and congenital factors. The objective of this study was to characterize the degenerative spine-related diseases and the age at onset in a random subpopulation of 20 captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; male, 13; female, 7; age: range, 4 to 27 y; median, 18.5 y). Spinal radiographic evaluation (left lateral, right lateral, and ventrodorsal views) of the spinal column (C1 to S1) was performed, and spinal degenerative disease was scored. The incidence of osteopathology was higher in the 14- to 18-y-old group, but incidence did not differ according to sex. In the studied population, degenerative changes were present in monkeys as young as 9 y of age. PMID:21262126

  3. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, W. H.; Saphire, D. G.; Hackleman, S. M.; Braun, A. M.; Pennington, P.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J. C.; Cox, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure to protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age.

  4. Changes in blood parameters in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) during the first trimester of gestation.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Contreras, Alejandra; Hernández-Godínez, Braulio; Reyes-Pantoja, Sergio A; Jiménez-García, Andrea; Solís-Chavéz, Salvador A; Suarez-Gutiérrez, Rodrigo; Gálvan-Montaño, Alfonso

    2013-08-01

    Regarding the good practice in the laboratory work, it is essential to have a broad spectrum of biochemical and hematological references in pregnant females to determine the health status of the colony. To establish reference values to reveal changes in hematology and blood chemistry in pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in their first trimester of pregnancy. Twenty-eight females in reproductive stage were used, divided into two groups: 14 pregnant macaques in their first trimester and 14 non-pregnant used as the control group. Blood samples were collected for the hematological test and blood chemistry. The results showed significant difference in the blood chemistry for the following parameters: glucose, total bilirubin, and total protein. The hematological evaluation revealed significant difference in leukocytes and neutrophils. These findings offer a reference range and provide a basis for improvement in techniques and refinement of clinical processes in these specimens. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Contrafreeloading and the value of control over visual stimuli in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Ogura, Tadatoshi

    2011-05-01

    Contrafreeloading, which means that animals work for food even though identical food is freely available, has been reported in animals' feeding behavior. This phenomenon has been assumed to be explained by the information primacy model, in which the information about a food resource as well as the food itself is valuable for animals. This study confirmed a contrafreeloading-like phenomenon using movies as rewards rather than food in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and investigated the motivational system that exists behind contrafreeloading. In the experiment, movies that were presented dependently on subjects' responses (earned movies) and movies that were presented automatically (free movies) were supplied simultaneously. The subjects continued to make responses to obtain the presentation of the earned movies although identical movies were available as free movies. These results provide the first evidence of contrafreeloading that occurs with movie rewards. The motivation maintaining the contrafreeloading behavior for movies may be control over the environment according to the competence theory.

  6. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Adaptively Monitor Uncertainty While Multi-Tasking

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Beran, Michael J.; Washburn, David A.

    2014-01-01

    As researchers explore animals’ capacity for metacognition and uncertainty monitoring, some paradigms allow the criticism that animal participants—who are always extensively trained in one stimulus domain within which they learn to avoid difficult trials—use task-specific strategies to avoid aversive stimuli instead of responding to a generalized state of uncertainty like that humans might use. We addressed this criticism with an uncertainty-monitoring task environment in which four different task domains were interleaved randomly trial by trial. Four of five macaques (Macaca mulatta) were able to make adaptive uncertainty responses while multi-tasking, suggesting the generality of the psychological signal that occasions these responses. The findings suggest that monkeys may have an uncertainty-monitoring capacity that is like that of humans in transcending task-specific cues and extending simultaneously to multiple domains. PMID:19526256

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus non-aureus infection in an irradiated rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Kolappaswamy, Krishnan; Shipley, Steven T; Tatarov, Ivan I; DeTolla, Louis J

    2008-05-01

    We describe a case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus non-aureus infection in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). The nonhuman primate described was part of a research project that involved whole-body gamma irradiation and subsequently developed acute generalized dermatitis with skin dryness, peeling, and erythema around the eyes. After initial evaluation, which included microbiologic culture and 6 d of medical treatment, the animal was euthanized due to concern regarding a possible outbreak of infectious or zoonotic disease. On the basis of skin culture, diagnosis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus non-aureus was confirmed. This report underscores the importance of the occupational risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus non-aureus to research and animal care staff in a research animal facility setting.

  8. Perceived control in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - Enhanced video-task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine whether perceived control effects found in humans extend to rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) tested in a video-task format, using a computer-generated menu program, SELECT. Choosing one of the options in SELECT resulted in presentation of five trials of a corresponding task and subsequent return to the menu. In Experiments 1-3, the animals exhibited stable, meaningful response patterns in this task (i.e., they made choices). In Experiment 4, performance on tasks that were selected by the animals significantly exceeded performance on identical tasks when assigned by the experimenter under comparable conditions (e.g., time of day, order, variety). The reliable and significant advantage for performance on selected tasks, typically found in humans, suggests that rhesus monkeys were able to perceive the availability of choices.

  9. Comparative assessment of psychomotor performance - Target prediction by humans and macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Although nonhuman primates such as rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) have been useful models of many aspects of cognition and performance, it has been argued that, unlike humans, they may lack the capacity to respond as predictor-operators. Data from the present series of experiments undermine this claim, suggesting instead a continuity of predictive competency between humans and nonhuman primates. A prediction coefficient was devised to examine the degree to which each subject's response path approximated the optimal predictive strategy. Whereas human subjects (N= 30) generally predicted more accurately, rhesus monkeys (N= 10) also significantly anticipated the movements of the target in all conditions. It appears that humans and rhesus monkeys both exhibit the capacity to respond to where a stimulus is going.

  10. Paralysis due to a glomangioma in a Macaca mulatta. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, G.B.; Fanton, J.W.; Harvey, R.C.; Wood, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    Glomangioma have many synonyms including: glomus tumors, tumors of neuromyoarterial glomi, angioneuromas, angioneuromyomas, neuromyoarterial glomi, painful subcutaneous tubercles, Popoff tumors or subcotaneous glomal tumors. They are common in humans, rare in nonhuman primates and to the best of our knowledge, have only been reported in irradiated rhesus. The neoplasms originate in arterial-venous shunts known as neuromyoarterial glomi which are commonly found beneath fingernails and fingertips, but have been reported in many locations both superficial and deep. The neoplasm can be confused with hemangiopericytomas, hemangiomas, paragangliomas, and leiomyomas, and must be definitely diagnosed ultrastructurally. A glomangioma at the 6-7 thoracic intervertebral space caused compression of the spinal cord with posterior paralysis in an irradiated 20-year-old female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

  11. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, W. H.; Saphire, D. G.; Hackleman, S. M.; Braun, A. M.; Pennington, P.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J. C.; Cox, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure to protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age.

  12. Hematological and serum biochemical indices in healthy bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata)

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, Peter J.; Sequeira, Marlon K.; Corcoran, Christopher A.; Blevins, Maria W.; Gee, Melaney; Laudenslager, Mark L.; Bennett, Allyson J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood reference values for bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) are limited. The goal of this study was to determine reference ranges for hematological and serum biochemical indices in healthy, socially housed bonnet macaques for males and females over a range of ages. Methods Blood hematological and serum biochemical values were obtained from 50 healthy bonnet macaques of both sexes and aged 10-234 months. Results Age and sex differences were present in a number of measures. Globulins, total protein, and creatinine (CREAT) values were highest among older subjects, while alkaline phophatase, albumin, and phosphorus values were higher in juveniles. Sex differences were present in concentrations of red blood cells and CREAT, with higher values in males. Conclusion The blood parameter data reported here as age-specific reference values for laboratory-housed, healthy bonnet macaques may be used to inform clinical care and laboratory primate research. PMID:21366603

  13. A Chinese rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) model for vaginal Lactobacillus colonization and live microbicide development

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rosa R.; Cheng, Andrew T.; Lagenaur, Laurel A.; Huang, Wenjun; Weiss, Deborah E.; Treece, Jim; Sanders-Beer, Brigitte E.; Hamer, Dean H.; Lee, Peter P.; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to establish a nonhuman primate model of vaginal Lactobacillus colonization suitable for evaluating live microbial microbicide candidates. Methods Vaginal and rectal microflora in Chinese rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were analyzed, with cultivable bacteria identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Live lactobacilli were intravaginally administered to evaluate bacterial colonization. Results Chinese rhesus macaques harbored abundant vaginal Lactobacillus, with Lactobacillus johnsonii as the predominant species. Like humans, most examined macaques harbored only one vaginal Lactobacillus species. Vaginal and rectal Lactobacillus isolates from the same animal exhibited different genetic and biochemical profiles. Vaginal Lactobacillus was cleared by a vaginal suppository of azithromycin, and endogenous L. johnsonii was subsequently restored by intravaginal inoculation. Importantly, prolonged colonization of a human vaginal Lactobacillus jensenii was established in these animals. Conclusions The Chinese rhesus macaque harbors vaginal Lactobacillus and is a potentially useful model to support the pre-clinical evaluation of Lactobacillus-based topical microbicides. PMID:19367737

  14. Characterization of Spontaneous Subclavian Steal Phenomenon in a Female Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez-Contreras, Alejandra; Hernández-Godínez, Braulio; Perdigón-Castañeda, Gerardo; Tena-Betancourt, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    In subclavian steal phenomenon (SSP), the subclavian artery develops a stenoocclusive disease proximal to the origin of the vertebral artery, leading to pronounced hemodynamic changes such as arterial flow reversal. Although SSP is a common echographic finding in humans, the phenomenon occurs only rarely in animals; consequently its physiologic features have not been reported previously. Here we describe the clinical and morphologic features of a spontaneous left SSP that was an incidental finding in an 18-y-old female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Our findings were documented through high-quality imaging studies obtained by using a computerized 3D tomography apparatus and clinical assessment of systolic and diastolic blood pressures. PMID:21640038

  15. Comparative assessment of psychomotor performance - Target prediction by humans and macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Although nonhuman primates such as rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) have been useful models of many aspects of cognition and performance, it has been argued that, unlike humans, they may lack the capacity to respond as predictor-operators. Data from the present series of experiments undermine this claim, suggesting instead a continuity of predictive competency between humans and nonhuman primates. A prediction coefficient was devised to examine the degree to which each subject's response path approximated the optimal predictive strategy. Whereas human subjects (N= 30) generally predicted more accurately, rhesus monkeys (N= 10) also significantly anticipated the movements of the target in all conditions. It appears that humans and rhesus monkeys both exhibit the capacity to respond to where a stimulus is going.

  16. Effects of competition on video-task performance in monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of competition on performance of a video-formatted task were examined in a series of experiments. Two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to manipulate a joystick to shoot at moving targets on a computer screen. The task was made competitive by requiring both animals to shoot at the same target and by rewarding only the animal that hit the target first each trial. The competitive task produced a significant and robust speed-accuracy trade-off in performance. The monkeys hit the target in significantly less time on contested than on uncontested trials. However, they required significantly more shots to hit the target on contested trials in relation to uncontested trials. This effect was unchanged when various schedules of reinforcement were introduced in the uncontested trials. This supports the influence of competition qua competition on performance, a point further bolstered by other findings of behavioral contrast presented here.

  17. Video-task acquisition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, W. D.; Washburn, D. A.; Hyatt, C. W.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This study describes video-task acquisition in two nonhuman primate species. The subjects were seven rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). All subjects were trained to manipulate a joystick which controlled a cursor displayed on a computer monitor. Two criterion levels were used: one based on conceptual knowledge of the task and one based on motor performance. Chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys attained criterion in a comparable number of trials using a conceptually based criterion. However, using a criterion based on motor performance, chimpanzees reached criterion significantly faster than rhesus monkeys. Analysis of error patterns and latency indicated that the rhesus monkeys had a larger asymmetry in response bias and were significantly slower in responding than the chimpanzees. The results are discussed in terms of the relation between object manipulation skills and video-task acquisition.

  18. Sex Determination According to the Lengths of Hand Bones in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta).

    PubMed

    Tian, Huaxiang; Zhao, Xiaojin; Hu, Fengxia; Hu, Haiyang

    2017-10-01

    Measurement of hand bone length has been used for sex determination in humans and nonhuman primates (McFadden and Bracht: Early Hum Dev 85 (2009) 117-124; El-Morsi and Al-Hawary: J Forensic Leg Med 20 (2013) 6-13). The aim of this study was to determine the sex of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on the basis of the lengths of corresponding rows of metacarpals and phalanges in a macaque population by means of developing discriminant functions. Measurements on direct dry bones only included lengths for 19 bones of the left hand in 39 macaques (consisting of 13 adult males and 26 adult females). The results revealed that the mean values of males were significantly greater than those of females for all of the metacarpals and phalanges. The results were obtained in 84.4% of accuracy from distal phalanges, 93.8% from middle phalanges, and 96.9% from both metacarpals and proximal phalanges, respectively. There was a remarkable difference in the magnitude of sex dimorphism in lengths of each section of the hand bones between the population of macaques and humans. This difference may be attributable to the interaction between genetic factors and various environmental factors. As sex differences of hand bones are population-specific (Lazenby: Am J phys Anthropol 118 (2002) 378-384; Lu, Huo, Shi, Peng, Dang, Jiao, Zhu, Zhong, and Chen: Acta Aantomica Sinica 39 (2008) 267-271; Eshak, Ahmed, and Gawad: J Forensic Leg Med 18 (2011) 246-252), the discriminant equations for all of the metacarpals and phalanges are applicable to the population of Macaca mulatta from the Taihang Mountain. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:1741-1746, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Collective Movement in the Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana): Early Joiners Write the Rule of the Game.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Sun, Lixing; Li, Jinhua; Xia, Dongpo; Sun, Binghua; Zhang, Dao

    2015-01-01

    Collective behavior has recently attracted a great deal of interest in both natural and social sciences. While the role of leadership has been closely scrutinized, the rules used by joiners in collective decision making have received far less attention. Two main hypotheses have been proposed concerning these rules: mimetism and quorum. Mimetism predicts that individuals are increasingly likely to join collective behavior as the number of participants increases. It can be further divided into selective mimetism, where relationships among the participants affect the process, and anonymous mimetism, where no such effect exists. Quorum predicts that a collective behavior occurs when the number of participants reaches a threshold. To probe into which rule is used in collective decision making, we conducted a study on the joining process in a group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) in Huangshan, China using a combination of all-occurrence and focal animal sampling methods. Our results show that the earlier individuals joined movements, the more central a role they occupied among the joining network. We also found that when less than three adults participated in the first five minutes of the joining process, no entire group movement occurred subsequently. When the number of these early joiners ranged from three to six, selective mimetism was used. This means higher rank or closer social affiliation of early joiners could be among the factors of deciding whether to participate in movements by group members. When the number of early joiners reached or exceeded seven, which was the simple majority of the group studied, entire group movement always occurred, meaning that the quorum rule was used. Putting together, Macaca thibetana used a combination of selective mimetism and quorum, and early joiners played a key role in deciding which rule should be used.

  20. Collective Movement in the Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana): Early Joiners Write the Rule of the Game

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhua; Xia, Dongpo; Sun, Binghua; Zhang, Dao

    2015-01-01

    Collective behavior has recently attracted a great deal of interest in both natural and social sciences. While the role of leadership has been closely scrutinized, the rules used by joiners in collective decision making have received far less attention. Two main hypotheses have been proposed concerning these rules: mimetism and quorum. Mimetism predicts that individuals are increasingly likely to join collective behavior as the number of participants increases. It can be further divided into selective mimetism, where relationships among the participants affect the process, and anonymous mimetism, where no such effect exists. Quorum predicts that a collective behavior occurs when the number of participants reaches a threshold. To probe into which rule is used in collective decision making, we conducted a study on the joining process in a group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) in Huangshan, China using a combination of all-occurrence and focal animal sampling methods. Our results show that the earlier individuals joined movements, the more central a role they occupied among the joining network. We also found that when less than three adults participated in the first five minutes of the joining process, no entire group movement occurred subsequently. When the number of these early joiners ranged from three to six, selective mimetism was used. This means higher rank or closer social affiliation of early joiners could be among the factors of deciding whether to participate in movements by group members. When the number of early joiners reached or exceeded seven, which was the simple majority of the group studied, entire group movement always occurred, meaning that the quorum rule was used. Putting together, Macaca thibetana used a combination of selective mimetism and quorum, and early joiners played a key role in deciding which rule should be used. PMID:25992882

  1. Comparative anatomy of the arm muscles of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) with some comments on locomotor mechanics and behavior.

    PubMed

    Aversi-Ferreira, Tales Alexandre; Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A G M F; Bretas, Rafael Vieira; Nishimaru, Hiroshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    The anatomical literature on the genus Macaca has focused mainly on the rhesus monkey. However, some aspects in the positional behaviors of the Japanese monkey may be different from those in rhesus monkey, suggesting that the anatomical details of these species are divergent. Four thoracic limbs of Macaca fuscata adults were dissected. The arm muscles in Japanese macaques are more similar to rhesus monkeys and Papio; these characteristics are closer to those of bearded capuchins than apes, indicating more proximity of this genus to New World primates. The anatomical features observed favor quadrupedal locomotor behaviors on the ground and in arboreal environments. Japanese monkeys, rhesus monkeys, and bearded capuchins, which share more primitive characteristics in their arm muscles, present features that favor both arboreal and quadrupedal locomotor behaviors, whereas apes, mainly Pan and Gorilla, which spend more time on the ground, present more quadrupedal specializations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Comparison of calcium and phosphorus excretion with bone density changes during restraint in immature Macaca nemestrina primates.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R. A.; Hood, W. N.; Mack, P. B.

    1972-01-01

    Calcium and phosphorus balance data on Macaca nemestrina monkeys during immobilization are presented and correlated with X-ray bone densitometry findings. A positive mineral balance was maintained during the immobilized period. A reduced bone density was observed in most skeletal sites examined with increased density observed in epiphyseal regions. Migration of mineral from one site to another is suggested as a possible explanation for the findings.

  3. Comparison of calcium and phosphorus excretion with bone density changes during restraint in immature Macaca nemestrina primates.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R. A.; Hood, W. N.; Mack, P. B.

    1972-01-01

    Calcium and phosphorus balance data on Macaca nemestrina monkeys during immobilization are presented and correlated with X-ray bone densitometry findings. A positive mineral balance was maintained during the immobilized period. A reduced bone density was observed in most skeletal sites examined with increased density observed in epiphyseal regions. Migration of mineral from one site to another is suggested as a possible explanation for the findings.

  4. Experimental infection of pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) with Campylobacter cinaedi and Campylobacter fennelliae.

    PubMed Central

    Flores, B M; Fennell, C L; Kuller, L; Bronsdon, M A; Morton, W R; Stamm, W E

    1990-01-01

    Campylobacter cinaedi and C. fennelliae have been associated with proctocolitis, bacteremia, and asymptomatic rectal infection, primarily in homosexual men. To more directly assess the pathogenic role of these organisms, we studied their disease-producing potential in 12- to 25-day-old pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Four infant monkeys were challenged with 10(8) to 10(9) C. cinaedi, three were challenged with C. fennelliae, two were challenged with C. jejuni, and one received no microorganisms. Watery or loose stools without associated fever or fecal leukocytes developed 3 to 7 days postinoculation in all of the animals given C. cinaedi, C. fennelliae, and C. jejuni, but not in the control animal. Stool cultures were simultaneously positive and remained so in the animals challenged with C. cinaedi or C. fennelliae for 3 weeks after inoculation despite the resolution of clinical illness. All of the animals challenged with C. cinaedi and C. fennelliae became bacteremic, and three had clinical evidence of septicemia. Histopathologic evaluation of rectal biopsies (five animals) and necropsy (one animal) showed no evidence of mucosal disruption. Specific immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibody responses occurred in all of the animals challenged with C. cinaedi and C. fennelliae, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting. We conclude that C. cinaedi and C. fennelliae consistently produce a diarrheal illness accompanied by bacteremia and followed by prolonged gastrointestinal colonization in M. nemestrina. Images PMID:2254021

  5. Challenges in oral administration of metronidazole dissolved in drinking water to rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Labberton, Linda; Bakker, Jaco; Klomp, Rianne; Langermans, Jan A M; van Geijlswijk, Ingeborg M

    2013-06-01

    Intestinal pathogens such as Entamoeba spp. and Giardia spp. protozoans are not uncommon among rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in research facilities. These infections affect the health of the macaques, potentially causing severe diarrhea, and also pose a risk of zoonotic transmission to human caretakers. Infections must therefore be treated, but no standard treatment for intestinal protozoans in macaques has been developed. Metronidazole is commonly used to treat infections with Giardia spp. and Entamoeba spp. in veterinary medicine, but evidence-based information on effectiveness and dosages for nonhuman primates is lacking, and administration of drugs to nonhuman primates is challenging. The authors designed a study to determine whether oral administration of metronidazole dissolved in drinking water would be successful in rhesus macaques. They monitored daily fluid intake of macaques given water with or without metronidazole and with or without flavored syrup. Metronidazole addition, with or without flavored syrup, resulted in a decrease in fluid intake. Although it was possible to administer metronidazole in drinking water to some macaques, the authors conclude that this strategy is not a practical clinical method because of variation in the amount of water and metronidazole ingested by the macaques.

  6. Training pair-housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using a combination of negative and positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Wergård, Eva-Marie; Temrin, Hans; Forkman, Björn; Spångberg, Mats; Fredlund, Hélène; Westlund, Karolina

    2015-04-01

    When training animals, time is sometimes a limiting factor hampering the use of positive reinforcement training (PRT) exclusively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of negative and positive reinforcement training (NPRT). Twenty naïve female Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were trained in 30 sessions with either PRT (n=8) or NPRT (n=12) to respond to a signal, move into a selected cage section and accept confinement. In the NPRT-group a signal preceded the presentation of one or several novel, and thus aversive, stimuli. When the correct behaviour was performed, the novel stimulus was removed and treats were given. As the animal learned to perform the correct behaviour, the use of novel stimuli was decreased and finally phased out completely. None of the PRT-trained animals finished the task. Ten out of 12 monkeys in the NPRT-group succeeded to perform the task within the 30 training sessions, a significant difference from the PRT-group (p=0.0007). A modified approach test showed no significant difference between the groups (p=0.67) in how they reacted to the trainer. The results from this study suggest that carefully conducted NPRT can be an alternative training method to consider, especially when under a time constraint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of seasonal changes in dietary energy on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kouhei; Mitsutsuka, Syuuhei; Yamazaki, Ato; Nagai, Kazumi; Tezuka, Atsuko; Tsuji, Yamato

    2015-01-01

    Food availability varies seasonally for wild animals, and body weight fluctuates accordingly in the wild. In contrast, controlling availability of diet under captive condition is difficult from keepers' standpoint, and monotonous diet often causes health problems in captive animals. We evaluated the effects of a seasonally controlled diet on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in an outside enclosure at Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan. We fed a high-energy diet in spring and fall, and a more restricted diet in summer and winter for 3 years (2011-2013). Seasonal changes in body weight were similar to those that occur in wild macaques: for both sexes, body weight was higher in spring and fall and lower in winter. A decrease in body weight between fall and winter occurred only in adults, which implied that reducing dietary intake in winter had a more severe effect on adults than on juveniles. Different from wild populations, the body weight of captive macaques did not decrease between spring and summer, which we attributed to a lack of movement within the enclosure and to excess energy intake in summer. In addition to controlling dietary composition, providing large enclosure with complex structure and making efforts of giving unpredictability in feeding are necessary to motivate the captive animals to be more active, which would cause the macaques to show seasonal change in body weight, which is found in wild.

  8. Geographic distribution of Gongylonema pulchrum and Gongylonema macrogubernaculum from Macaca fuscata in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uni, S; Kobayashi, S; Miyashita, M; Kimura, N; Kato, A; Aimi, M; Kimata, I; Iseki, M; Shoho, C

    1994-06-01

    After a first report on the gullet nematode, Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857, being found in the Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata, in Kyushu, Japan, the geographic distribution of the parasite, a causative agent of gongylonemiasis in cattle and man, was examined in 181 monkeys transferred to the Japan. Monkey Centre from 23 sites in Japan, including Yaku-shima (Island). Yaku-shima is included in the World Natural Heritage List of the United Nations for its subtropical forests, which have an unusual variety of plant and animal species. G. pulchrum was found in M. fuscata yakui monkeys inhabiting Yaku-shima and M. fuscata fuscata monkeys inhabiting Honshu and an is and near Honshu. G. macrogubernaculum was found in M. fuscata yakui monkeys. Comparison of the two kinds of parasite specimens obtained from the variety M. fuscata yakui confirmed that G. macrogubernaculum Lubimov, 1931 is a valid species. Thus, the finding of G. macrogubernaculum constitutes a record of a newly identified host. M. fuscata yakui, and shows that Yaku-shima, Japan, is a natural locality of G. macrogubernaculum.

  9. Buton macaques (Macaca ochreata brunnescens): crops, conflict, and behavior on farms.

    PubMed

    Priston, Nancy E C; Wyper, Rebecca M; Lee, Phyllis C

    2012-01-01

    One consequence of anthropogenic habitat alteration is that many nonhuman primates are forced into conflict interactions with humans and their livelihood activities, especially through crop raiding. These problems are particularly acute for the endemic and threatened Buton Island macaque (Macaca ochreata brunnescens), in southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Our study investigated the crop raiding behavior of this species over time. Foods eaten and the behavioral repertoire exhibited by macaques during crop raiding at and inside farm perimeters were observed over a period of 8 years (2002-2009). Storage organ crops (e.g. sweet potato) were abundant and most frequently raided by macaques. Individual macaques were most commonly observed to raid close (0-10 m) to farm perimeters. Activities such as feeding, resting, moving, and social interaction varied significantly as a function of penetration distance into the farm, but only marginally between age-sex classes. The annual average raid frequency per farm decreased over the latter years of the study period, raising questions about changes in macaque foraging and ranging behavior over time and their response to farm management and mitigation strategies.

  10. Efficacy of Antibiotic-Impregnated Polymethylmethacrylate Beads in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) with Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R; Kapatkin, Amy R; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Christe, Kari L

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe the successful surgical implementation of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with marked osteomyelitis. The macaque presented to the veterinary clinic with grossly contaminated bite wounds in the left ankle secondary to conspecific trauma. Radiographic findings were highly suggestive of osteomyelitis. Additional differential diagnoses included bony infarct, fracture, and cellulitis. In light of the location of the lesion and extensive tissue trauma, the animal had a poor prognosis. Systemic, broad-spectrum antibiotics were instituted. After 2 wk of care, lesions did not respond to empirical therapies. On consultation, a veterinary orthopedic surgeon at another facility recommended placement of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads at the sites of osteomyelitis. The animal underwent minor surgery in which beads were introduced into the wound. The monkey had a positive response to therapy. The animal regained full function and was returned to outdoor social housing. Veterinarians are encouraged to consider using antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads when treating osteomyelitis in other nonhuman primates and in other traditional laboratory animal species. PMID:23043785

  11. Efficacy of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kristi R; Kapatkin, Amy R; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Christe, Kari L

    2012-08-01

    Here we describe the successful surgical implementation of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with marked osteomyelitis. The macaque presented to the veterinary clinic with grossly contaminated bite wounds in the left ankle secondary to conspecific trauma. Radiographic findings were highly suggestive of osteomyelitis. Additional differential diagnoses included bony infarct, fracture, and cellulitis. In light of the location of the lesion and extensive tissue trauma, the animal had a poor prognosis. Systemic, broad-spectrum antibiotics were instituted. After 2 wk of care, lesions did not respond to empirical therapies. On consultation, a veterinary orthopedic surgeon at another facility recommended placement of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads at the sites of osteomyelitis. The animal underwent minor surgery in which beads were introduced into the wound. The monkey had a positive response to therapy. The animal regained full function and was returned to outdoor social housing. Veterinarians are encouraged to consider using antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads when treating osteomyelitis in other nonhuman primates and in other traditional laboratory animal species.

  12. Evaluation of cell sheet application on one wall bone defect in Macaca nemestrina through periostin expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamin, R. Y.; Soeroso, Y.; Amir, L.; Idrus, E.

    2017-08-01

    Chronic periodontitis is an oral disease in which the destruction of periodontal tissue leads to tooth loss. Regenerative therapy for attachment cannot be applied to one wall bone defects owing to the minimal existing healthy bone. Tissue engineering in the form of cell sheets has been developed to overcome this limitation. In a previous study, cell sheet application to a one wall bone defect in Macaca nemestrina showed good clinical results. To evaluate the effectiveness of cell sheet application histologically, the level of periostin expression in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of M. nemestrina was determined. Periostin is a 90-kDa protein that regulates coordination and interaction for regeneration and tissue repair. A laboratory observation study was performed to see the differences in periostin levels in samples collected from M. nemestrina’s GCF, where a cell sheet was applied to the bone defect. Gel electrophoresis with SDS-PAGE was performed to detect periostin expression based on its molecular weight and to compare the expression band between the cell sheet and the control at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after treatment. The gel electrophoresis result shows different thicknesses of the protein band around the molecular weight of periostin between the cell sheet groups.

  13. Positive reinforcement training as enrichment for singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Baker, K C; Bloomsmith, M A; Neu, K; Griffis, C; Maloney, M

    2010-08-01

    Positive reinforcement training is one component of behavioural management employed to improve psychological well-being. There has been regulatory promotion to compensate for restricted social housing in part by providing human interaction to singly caged primates, implying an efficacy standard for evaluating human interaction. The effect of positive reinforcement training on the behaviour of 61 singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) was evaluated at two large primate facilities. Training involved body part presentation and basic control behaviours. Baseline data were compared to two treatment phases presented in varying order across individuals, six minutes per week of positive reinforcement training and six minutes per week of unstructured human interaction. While a MANOVA involving behavioural categories and study conditions across study subjects was significant, univariate ANOVAs found no effect of phase within any behavioural category. Categorising subjects according to rearing, housing facility, or baseline levels of abnormal behaviour did not reveal changes in behaviour with positive reinforcement training or human interaction. This study failed to detect, to any degree, the types of behavioural changes documented in the scientific literature to result from pairing singly housed monkeys. Implementing short durations of positive reinforcement training across large numbers of singly housed animals may not be the most effective manner for incorporating positive reinforcement training in the behavioural management of laboratory macaques. Rather, directing efforts toward individuals with specific behavioural, management, clinical, research or therapeutic needs may represent a more fruitful approach to improving psychological well-being with this technique.

  14. Thromboelastography values from pigtail macaques ( Macaca nemestrina): effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Fong, Derek L; Ha, James C; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E

    2012-01-01

    Thromboelastography is a clinical laboratory test used to assess global hemostasis. With technologic advances and the test's reemergence in human medicine, its utility in veterinary medicine is being explored. Because assays for PT, aPTT, and d-dimers require platelet-poor plasma, whereas thromboelastography is performed on whole blood, thromboelastography provides a more accurate representation of coagulation and allows the identification of hypocoagulable, hypercoagulable, and hyperfibrinolytic states. Conflicting information has been reported about the effects of age and sex on thromboelastog- raphy in humans and animals. Human studies have reported significant effects of age and sex on thromboelastography more often than have animal studies, but few publications are available about thromboelastography in the nonhuman primate and laboratory animal literature. We used a sample of 50 pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) to determine whether age or sex influence thromboelastography values. Of 5 measured and 2 calculated variables produced by thromboelastography, sex had a significant effect only on the lysis-30 parameter, which also showed significant interaction between age and sex; values increased with age in male macaques but decreased with age in female macaques. In addition, we used the data to define reference intervals for thromboelastography parameters in pigtail macaques.

  15. Social bonds affect anti-predator behaviour in a tolerant species of macaque, Macaca nigra

    PubMed Central

    Micheletta, Jérôme; Waller, Bridget M.; Panggur, Maria R.; Neumann, Christof; Duboscq, Julie; Agil, Muhammad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2012-01-01

    Enduring positive social bonds between individuals are crucial for humans' health and well being. Similar bonds can be found in a wide range of taxa, revealing the evolutionary origins of humans' social bonds. Evidence suggests that these strong social bonds can function to buffer the negative effects of living in groups, but it is not known whether they also function to minimize predation risk. Here, we show that crested macaques (Macaca nigra) react more strongly to playbacks of recruitment alarm calls (i.e. calls signalling the presence of a predator and eliciting cooperative mobbing behaviour) if they were produced by an individual with whom they share a strong social bond. Dominance relationships between caller and listener had no effect on the reaction of the listener. Thus, strong social bonds may improve the coordination and efficiency of cooperative defence against predators, and therefore increase chances of survival. This result broadens our understanding of the evolution and function of social bonds by highlighting their importance in the anti-predator context. PMID:22859593

  16. Effects of Human Management Events on Conspecific Aggression in Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Theil, Jacob H; Beisner, Brianne A; Hill, Ashley E; McCowan, Brenda

    2017-03-01

    Conspecific aggression in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at primate research facilities is a leading source of trauma and can potentially influence animal wellbeing and research quality. Although aggression between macaques is a normal part of daily social interactions, human presence might affect the frequency of various behaviors and instigate increases in conspecific aggression. We sought to determine how and which human management events affect conspecific aggression both immediately after an event and throughout the course of a day. From June 2008 through December 2009, we recorded agonistic encounters among macaques living in 7 social groups in large outdoor field cages. Behavioral data were then synchronized with specific management events (for example, feeding, enclosure cleaning, animal catching) that occurred within or near the enclosure. By using an Information Theoretical approach, 2 generalized linear mixed models were developed to estimate the effects of human management events on 1) aggression after individual management events and 2) daily levels of aggression. Univariate analysis revealed an increase in the rate of aggression after a management event occurred. The best predictor of aggression in a cage was the type of management event that occurred. Various factors including the number of daily management events, the total time of management events, the technicians involved, reproductive season, and their interactions also showed significant associations with daily aggression levels. Our findings demonstrate that human management events are associated with an increase in conspecific aggression between rhesus macaques and thus have implications regarding how humans manage primates in research facilities.

  17. Determination of genetic status in a closed colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Andrade, Marcia C Ribeiro; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T; Ward, Thea; Silva, Virgilio F; Bertolini, Luciana R; Roberts, Jeffrey A; Leite, Jose Paulo G; Cabello, Pedro H

    2004-07-01

    The long-term management of breeding colonies requires some measure of genetic diversity in the animal population. For the maintenance of breeding colonies of monkeys used for biomedical research, known pedigrees supply precise data to determine the genetic status of colonies. We present data of genetic analyses in an old closed colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that was established in 1932 with 100 animals. For more than 40 years, the animals were kept on an isolated island and, in 1980, single-male breeding groups were established. A total of 333 DNA samples of these animals were typed to 20 microsatellite markers using multiplex PCR in order to verify inbreeding coefficient (alpha) and level of heterozygosity. We found an average heterozygosity of 64% and obtained alpha=-0.03293 (+/-0.00573). Our results indicate that the reproductive strategy used was effective because consanguineous breeding was avoided. A continuous genetic program must be carried out in order to obtain better quality primates for biomedical research.

  18. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, W.H.; Hackleman, S.M.; Braun, A.M.; Pennington, P.; Saphire, D.G.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J.C.; Cox, A.B.

    1994-06-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure of protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age. 48 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Distribution of pacinian corpuscles in the hand of the monkey, Macaca fuscata.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, K; Senuma, H; Ebara, S; Matsuura, T

    1993-08-01

    The size and distribution of pacinian corpuscles were investigated in the palmar aspect of both hands of the monkey, Macaca fuscata. Most pacinian corpuscles were located in the dermis (dermal type) and subcutaneous tissue (subcutaneous type) throughout the hand. On light microscopy there were no differences in the structure of these 2 types, although almost all the subcutaneous type had a greater longitudinal dimension than the dermal type. Corpuscles were oval or elliptical and their longitudinal and transverse dimensions varied from 156 to 2025 microns and 88 to 1240 microns, respectively. Many pacinian corpuscles were in close relation to the small blood vessels, and their diameters were as large as those of capillaries. There were 458 corpuscles (dermal type: subcutaneous type = 140:318) in the right hand and 416 (186:230) in the left hand. About 40% of the corpuscles in each hand were found in the digital region; the remainder were located in the palm. The mean number of corpuscles in each finger was 33 and they were concentrated in the distal and middle phalanges. In the palmar region, most corpuscles were localised in the 2nd and 3rd interdigital eminences and the thenar and hypothenar eminences.

  20. Spontaneous T/NK-cell lymphoma associated with simian lymphocryptovirus in a Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Hirata, A; Tachikawa, Y; Hashimoto, K; Sakai, H; Kaneko, A; Suzuki, J; Eguchi, K; Shigematsu, K; Nikami, H; Yanai, T

    2013-01-01

    A 5-year-old female Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) was humanely destroyed because of severe anaemia with poor response to treatment. At necropsy examination, marked splenomegaly and systemic enlargement of lymph nodes were observed. Microscopical examination revealed diffuse proliferation of neoplastic lymphoid cells in the spleen and lymph nodes with infiltration of the liver, lung, gastrointestinal tract, kidney and bone marrow. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells expressed CD3 and CD4, but not CD20, CD79α or CD8, consistent with a T helper phenotype. A portion of neoplastic cells expressed the natural killer (NK) cell marker CD56. In-situ hybridization detected Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNAs in the neoplastic cells, indicating the involvement of simian lymphocryptovirus (LCV). This is the first report of simian LCV-associated T/NK-cell lymphoma with the predominant expression of T-cell antigens in non-human primates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Replication potentials of HIV-1/HSIV in PBMCs from northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina).

    PubMed

    Lei, Ai-Hua; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Tian, Ren-Rong; Zhu, Jia-Wu; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Pang, Wei; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2014-05-01

    The northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) has been identified as an independent species of Old World monkey, and we previously found that PBMCs from M. leonina were susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), which may be due to the absence of a TRIM5 protein restricting HIV-1 replication. Here we investigated the infection potentials of six laboratory adapted HIV-1 strains and three primary HIV-1 isolates in PBMCs from M. leonina. The results indicate that these strains are characterized by various but low replication levels, and among which, HIV-1NL4-3 shows the highest replication ability. Based on the abundant evidence of species-specific interactions between restriction factors APOBEC3 and HIV/SIV-derived Vif protein, we subsequently examined the replication potentials of vif-substituted HIV-1 (HSIV) in M. leonina PBMCs. Notably, HSIV-vifmac and stHIV-1SV chimeras, two HIV-1NL4-3-derived viruses encoding the viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein from SIVmac239, replicated robustly in cells from M. leonina, which suggests that HSIV could effectively antagonize the antiviral activity of APOBEC3 proteins expressed in cells of M. leonina. Therefore, our data demonstrate that M. leonina has the potential to be developed into a promising animal model for human AIDS.

  2. Concealing of facial expressions by a wild Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus).

    PubMed

    Thunström, Maria; Kuchenbuch, Paul; Young, Christopher

    2014-07-01

    Behavioural research on non-vocal communication among non-human primates and its possible links to the origin of human language is a long-standing research topic. Because human language is under voluntary control, it is of interest whether this is also true for any communicative signals of other species. It has been argued that the behaviour of hiding a facial expression with one's hand supports the idea that gestures might be under more voluntary control than facial expressions among non-human primates, and it has also been interpreted as a sign of intentionality. So far, the behaviour has only been reported twice, for single gorilla and chimpanzee individuals, both in captivity. Here, we report the first observation of concealing of facial expressions by a monkey, a Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus), living in the wild. On eight separate occasions between 2009 and 2011 an adult male was filmed concealing two different facial expressions associated with play and aggression ("play face" and "scream face"), 22 times in total. The videos were analysed in detail, including gaze direction, hand usage, duration, and individuals present. This male was the only individual in his group to manifest this behaviour, which always occurred in the presence of a dominant male. Several possible interpretations of the function of the behaviour are discussed. The observations in this study indicate that the gestural communication and cognitive abilities of monkeys warrant more research attention.

  3. Development of an anatomically based whole-body musculoskeletal model of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Naomichi; Makishima, Haruyuki; Aoi, Shinya; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Kazuo; Nakatsukasa, Masato

    2009-07-01

    We constructed a three-dimensional whole-body musculoskeletal model of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) based on computed tomography and dissection of a cadaver. The skeleton was modeled as a chain of 20 bone segments connected by joints. Joint centers and rotational axes were estimated by joint morphology based on joint surface approximation using a quadric function. The path of each muscle was defined by a line segment connecting origin to insertion through an intermediary point if necessary. Mass and fascicle length of each were systematically recorded to calculate physiological cross-sectional area to estimate the capacity of each muscle to generate force. Using this anatomically accurate model, muscle moment arms and force vectors generated by individual limb muscles at the foot and hand were calculated to computationally predict muscle functions. Furthermore, three-dimensional whole-body musculoskeletal kinematics of the Japanese macaque was reconstructed from ordinary video sequences based on this model and a model-based matching technique. The results showed that the proposed model can successfully reconstruct and visualize anatomically reasonable, natural musculoskeletal motion of the Japanese macaque during quadrupedal/bipedal locomotion, demonstrating the validity and efficacy of the constructed musculoskeletal model. The present biologically relevant model may serve as a useful tool for comprehensive understanding of the design principles of the musculoskeletal system and the control mechanisms for locomotion in the Japanese macaque and other primates.

  4. Social bonds affect anti-predator behaviour in a tolerant species of macaque, Macaca nigra.

    PubMed

    Micheletta, Jérôme; Waller, Bridget M; Panggur, Maria R; Neumann, Christof; Duboscq, Julie; Agil, Muhammad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2012-10-07

    Enduring positive social bonds between individuals are crucial for humans' health and well being. Similar bonds can be found in a wide range of taxa, revealing the evolutionary origins of humans' social bonds. Evidence suggests that these strong social bonds can function to buffer the negative effects of living in groups, but it is not known whether they also function to minimize predation risk. Here, we show that crested macaques (Macaca nigra) react more strongly to playbacks of recruitment alarm calls (i.e. calls signalling the presence of a predator and eliciting cooperative mobbing behaviour) if they were produced by an individual with whom they share a strong social bond. Dominance relationships between caller and listener had no effect on the reaction of the listener. Thus, strong social bonds may improve the coordination and efficiency of cooperative defence against predators, and therefore increase chances of survival. This result broadens our understanding of the evolution and function of social bonds by highlighting their importance in the anti-predator context.

  5. Replication potentials of HIV-1/HSIV in PBMCs from northern pigtailed macaque (Macaca leonina)

    PubMed Central

    LEI, Ai-Hua; ZHANG, Gao-Hong; TIAN, Ren-Rong; ZHU, Jia-Wu; ZHENG, Hong-Yi; PANG, Wei; ZHENG, Yong-Tang

    2014-01-01

    The northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) has been identified as an independent species of Old World monkey, and we previously found that PBMCs from M. leonina were susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), which may be due to the absence of a TRIM5 protein restricting HIV-1 replication. Here we investigated the infection potentials of six laboratory adapted HIV-1 strains and three primary HIV-1 isolates in PBMCs from M. leonina. The results indicate that these strains are characterized by various but low replication levels, and among which, HIV-1NL4-3 shows the highest replication ability. Based on the abundant evidence of species-specific interactions between restriction factors APOBEC3 and HIV/SIV-derived Vif protein, we subsequently examined the replication potentials of vif-substituted HIV-1 (HSIV) in M. leonina PBMCs. Notably, HSIV-vifmac and stHIV-1SV chimeras, two HIV-1NL4-3-derived viruses encoding the viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein from SIVmac239, replicated robustly in cells from M. leonina, which suggests that HSIV could effectively antagonize the antiviral activity of APOBEC3 proteins expressed in cells of M. leonina. Therefore, our data demonstrate that M. leonina has the potential to be developed into a promising animal model for human AIDS. PMID:24866489

  6. Septic arthritis due to moraxella osloensis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Wren, Melissa A; Caskey, John R; Liu, David X; Embers, Monica E

    2013-01-01

    A 5.5-y-old Chinese-origin female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral hindlimb lameness. The primate had been group-reared in an SPF breeding colony and was seronegative for Macacine herpesvirus 1, SIV, simian retrovirus type D, and simian T-lymphotropic virus. The macaque's previous medical history included multiple occasions of swelling in the left tarsus, and trauma to the right arm and bilateral hands. In addition, the macaque had experienced osteomyelitis of the left distal tibia and rupture of the right cranial cruciate ligament that had been surgically repaired. Abnormal physical examination findings on presentation included a thin body condition, mild dehydration, and bilaterally swollen stifles that were warm to the touch, with the right stifle more severely affected. Mild instability in the left stifle was noted, and decreased range of motion and muscle atrophy were present bilaterally. Hematologic findings included marked neutrophilia and lymphopenia and moderate anemia. Arthrocentesis and culture of joint fluid revealed Moraxella-like organisms. Treatment with enrofloxacin was initiated empirically and subsequently switched to cephalexin, which over time alleviated the joint swelling and inflammation. Definitive diagnosis of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis was made through isolation of the organism and sequencing of the 16S rDNA region. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis in a rhesus macaque.

  7. Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of adult females for thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Masataka; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A majority of huddling among adult females was recorded during winter season (December, January, and February). Females who had young (0- or 1-year-old) offspring huddled less frequently with other adult females compared to females who did not have young offspring in winter. However, including young offspring, the frequency of huddling with any other individuals did not differ by whether females had young offspring. Moreover, the females who did not have young offspring huddled with other adult females more often in cloudy than in sunny weather during winter season. In contrast, females who had young offspring increased huddling with their young offspring in cloudy than in sunny weather, but did not do so with other adult females. This study indicates that Japanese macaque mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of other adult females when there is need for thermoregulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma with intracranial metastasis in a Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Hirata, Akihiro; Kaneko, Akihisa; Ishigami, Akiyo; Miyamoto, Yoko; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Owaki, Keishi; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma; Suzuki, Juri

    2017-06-01

    A 23-year-old male Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) showed left ptosis, which progressed to exophthalmos. The macaque underwent a clinical examination, CT and MRI, and was euthanized. Necropsy and histopathological examination were performed after euthanasia. The CT revealed and MRI confirmed an intracranial mass at the skull base with orbital extension. At necropsy, there were a large hepatic mass and an intracranial mass compressing the left temporal lobe of the brain. Histopathological and immunohistological examinations revealed that the masses were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and a metastatic lesion. In both the primary and metastatic lesions, neoplastic hepatocytes were arranged mainly in a trabecular pattern. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3 and CAM5.2) and hepatocyte paraffin 1 and negative for cytokeratin 7 and 20 and vimentin. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of HCC with intracranial metastasis in a macaque. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus After Transplantation in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fasicularis).

    PubMed

    Matthews, Kristin A; Tonsho, Makoto; Madsen, Joren C

    2015-08-01

    A 5.5-y-old intact male cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fasicularis) presented with inappetence and weight loss 57 d after heterotopic heart and thymus transplantation while receiving an immunosuppressant regimen consisting of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and methylprednisolone to prevent graft rejection. A serum chemistry panel, a glycated hemoglobin test, and urinalysis performed at presentation revealed elevated blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (727 mg/dL and 10.1%, respectively), glucosuria, and ketonuria. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed, and insulin therapy was initiated immediately. The macaque was weaned off the immunosuppressive therapy as his clinical condition improved and stabilized. Approximately 74 d after discontinuation of the immunosuppressants, the blood glucose normalized, and the insulin therapy was stopped. The animal's blood glucose and HbA1c values have remained within normal limits since this time. We suspect that our macaque experienced new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation, a condition that is commonly observed in human transplant patients but not well described in NHP. To our knowledge, this report represents the first documented case of new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation in a cynomolgus macaque.

  10. Sperm membrane proteome in wild Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) and Sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    PubMed

    Kawase, Osamu; Cao, Shinuo; Xuan, Xuenan

    2015-01-01

    Whereas recent advances in proteome-related techniques have accumulated a lot of information about sperm proteins in model animals, the information in non-model wildlife species is absolutely deficient, although this knowledge would be valuable to regulate wildlife overabundance. To characterize the repertoires of sperm membrane proteins in Japanese overpopulated wildlife, our study focuses on the following two species: Macaca fuscata and Cervus nippon. We enriched sperm membrane proteins by the phase partitioning with Triton X-114, and then separated them by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and, finally, they were comprehensively identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Sperm membrane proteins were successfully enriched. They included some proteins with unknown function and fertility-related proteins that work in sperm development, motility, capacitation, transport, protection, acrosome reaction, and fertilization. Additionally, beta-defensin 126 and epithelial chloride channel were strongly detected in M. fuscata but not in C. nippon, whereas lactadherin and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 1 were strongly detected in C. nippon alone. This study is an initiative case showing that the sperm of wildlife conserve major fertility-related proteins, but express some proteins in a species-specific manner. In the development of a practical method for fertility control, this aspect may be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunohistochemical and morphological features of a small bowel leiomyoma in a black crested macaque (Macaca nigra).

    PubMed

    Aristizabal-Arbelaez, Mónica; Mejía-Restrepo, Julian; Montoya-Flórez, Mauricio; Grandi, Fabrizio; Pedraza-Ordóñez, Francisco

    2012-06-29

    Spontaneous gastrointestinal neoplasms in non-human primates are commonly seen in aged individuals. Due to genetic similarities between human and non-human primates, scientists have shown increasing interest in terms of comparative oncology studies. The present study is related to a case of an intestinal leiomyoma in a black crested macaque (Macaca nigra), kept on captivity by Matecaña Zoo, Pereira City, Colombia. The animal had abdominal distension, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea and behavioral changes. Clinical examination showed an increased volume in the upper right abdominal quadrant caused by a neoplastic mass. The patient died during the surgical procedure. Necropsy revealed several small nodules in the peritoneum with adhesion to different portions of the small and large intestines, liver, stomach and diaphragm. Tissue samples were collected, routinely processed and stained by H&E. Microscopic examination revealed a mesenchymal tumor limited to tunica muscularis, resembling normal smooth muscle cells. Neoplastic cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, and negative for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 by immunohistochemistry. Those morphological and immunohistochemical findings allowed to diagnose the intestinal leiomyoma referred above. Neoplastic diseases in primates have multifaceted causes. Their manifestations are understudied, leading to a greater difficulty in detection and measurement of the real impact provides by this disease.

  12. Longitudinal Stability of Friendships in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta): Individual- and Relationship-level Effects

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Tamara A.R.; Capitanio, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The longevity of children’s friendships is influenced by a multitude of individual- and relationship-level attributes, but little is known about the factors that impact friendship maintenance in nonhuman primate juveniles. We investigated whether the following predicted the longitudinal stability of friendships in juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): (a) individual characteristics including sex, dominance rank, matriline size, and temperament; and (b) relationship characteristics including kinship, reciprocity, complexity, and similarity between friends in sex, rank, and temperament. We recorded affiliative interactions of 29 two-year-old rhesus monkeys, previously observed as yearlings, at the California National Primate Research Center. Friends were defined as peers with whom subjects spent more time affiliating than expected by chance. Temperament had been assessed at 3-4 months of age. Sex was the only individual characteristic predicting friendship stability: males maintained more friendships from age one to two than did females. Relationship characteristics predicting friendship stability included similarity between individuals in temperament, kinship, and sex. In addition, reciprocated friendships, rather than unidirectional friendships, were significantly more likely to persist over time. Our findings suggest that the factors influencing friendship maintenance in rhesus monkeys are similar to those impacting human friendship longevity. PMID:22352887

  13. Body signals during social play in free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): A systematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Akie; Berman, Carol M

    2014-02-01

    Social play involves one of the most sophisticated types of communication, that is, the use of play signals. Most primate research on play signals has focused on the use of the play face. However, some species appear to exhibit a variety of play signals. For example, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) have been reported to use body movements or postures that might have signal value during social play, in addition to the play face. However, it is not clear whether these body signals actually meet several criteria necessary to label them as "play signals." Here we examine the forms and possible functions of seven candidate signals that we observed exclusively during social play contexts among free-ranging rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago. We aim to (1) distinguish them from actual play behavior (play involving contact or chasing) using loglinear analysis and (2) determine whether they predict playful behavior using modified PC-MC methods. Two candidate signals did not resemble any behaviors used in actual play. The other five signals contained elements that lasted longer or increased their conspicuousness over similar play behaviors, suggesting ritualized characteristics. Youngsters were likely to initiate contact or chasing play significantly sooner after candidate signals than in their absence. Thus, these candidate signals appear to meet critical criteria of signals that promote, moderate or facilitate play. As such, these findings open the door to questions about why multiple play signals have evolved. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Oxymorphone in Titi Monkeys (Callicebus spp.) and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R; Pypendop, Bruno H; Grayson, J Kevin; Stanley, Scott D; Christe, Kari L; Summers, Laura M; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2011-01-01

    Oxymorphone is a pure μ-opioid receptor agonist that is commonly used in nonhuman primate medicine and surgery to minimize pain ranging in intensity from moderate to severe. We compared pharmacokinetic profiles and physiologic and behavioral responses to oxymorphone between titi monkeys (Callicebus spp.) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Titi monkeys (n = 4) and rhesus macaques (n = 4) were injected intravenously with either a bolus of 0.075 mg/kg oxymorphone or placebo on multiple occasions, with a minimal washout period of 14 d between trials. Blood collection was limited to no more than 3 samples per trial, with samples collected at multiple time points until 10 h after injection. Collection periods, animal order, and testing day were randomized. In addition, macaques underwent a single serial collection at all time points to validate study design. A 2-compartment model best described the disposition of oxymorphone in both species. Clearance was faster in macaques than titi monkeys, in which terminal half-life was longer. Statistically significant physiologic differences were found between species and between treatments within species. Apart from these effects, oxymorphone did not significantly change physiologic parameters over time. After oxymorphone treatment, macaques demonstrated behaviors reflecting pruritis, whereas titi monkeys exhibited sedation. Despite its mild side effects, we recommend the consideration of oxymorphone for pain management protocols in both Old and New World nonhuman primates. PMID:21439215

  15. Reference Intervals for Preprandial and Postprandial Serum Bile Acid in Adult Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Lemoy, Marie-Josee MF; Westworth, Diccon R; Ardeshir, Amir; Tarara, Ross P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the 12-h fasting preprandial and 2-h postprandial serum bile acid concentration (SBAC) reference intervals for healthy, adult rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We hypothesized that the mean 2-h postprandial SBAC would be significantly higher than the mean preprandial SBAC. We included 40 (24 male, 16 female) macaques after confirming that their health records, physical examinations, CBC, serum chemistry panels, and urinalyses were all within normal limits. In addition, hepatitis A titers were determined, an ultrasound examination of the liver was performed, and two 16-gauge ultrasound guided percutaneous liver biopsies were collected and submitted for histopathology. Macaques were confirmed healthy according to hepatitis A screens and sonographic and histologic evaluation of hepatic tissue. Within 2 wk of the screening procedures, preprandial and postprandial SBACs were measured. Preprandial SBAC (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.1 ± 1.9 µmol/L and postprandial SBAC was 19.7 ± 8.0 µmol/L, which was significantly higher than the preprandial value. Sex and hepatitis titers did not significantly influence preprandial and postprandial SBAC. The current study indicates that the SBAC reference values for rhesus macaques are higher than those reported for humans and companion animals. PMID:23849441

  16. Comparison of the two methods of electroejaculation in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, K

    1982-01-01

    Electrical parameters in two methods of stimulation, i. e. the rectal probe method under anesthesia and the penile method in consciousness, were examined in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata). In rectal probe method, ejaculation occurred in almost all animals by the stimulation of intermittent charges of 10-15 volts at a frequency of between 3-5 impulses per second by using a monophasic alternating current of 60 cycles. In penile method, good results were obtained by a DC, square wave stimulus applied with a frequency of 18-20 pulses per second and a duration of 20 milli-seconds per pulse. Animals required some training period for the penile method initially, but they responded well after sufficient practices. Although the semen samples obtained by the penile method showed spontaneous liquefaction partially at all times, samples by the rectal probe method frequently stayed in absolute coagulum. The fluid portion in the specimen by the penile method contained free, motile and rich spermatozoa in contrast with the rectal probe method that included little sperm in it. The details of stimulation and the observation of liquefaction are presented and discussed.

  17. Transmission of Chagas Disease via Blood Transfusions in 2 Immunosuppressed Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina)

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Derek L; Torrence, Annie E; Vogel, Keith W; Stockinger, Diane E; Nelson, Veronica; Murnane, Robert D; Baldessari, Audrey; Kuller, LaRene; Agy, Michael; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E

    2014-01-01

    A 2.25-y-old male pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) was experimentally irradiated and received a bone marrow transplant. After transplantation and engraftment, the macaque had unexpected recurring pancytopenia and dependent edema of the prepuce, scrotum, and legs. The diagnostic work-up included a blood smear, which revealed a trypomastigote consistent with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease (CD). We initially hypothesized that the macaque had acquired the infection when it lived in Georgia. However, because the animal had received multiple blood transfusions, all blood donors were screened for CD. One male pigtailed macaque blood donor, which was previously housed in Louisiana, was positive for T. cruzi antibodies via serology. Due to the low prevalence of infection in Georgia, the blood transfusion was hypothesized to be the source of T. cruzi infection. The transfusion was confirmed as the mechanism of transmission when screening of archived serum revealed seroconversion after blood transfusion from the seropositive blood donor. The macaque made a full clinical recovery, and further follow-up including thoracic radiography, echocardiography, and gross necropsy did not show any abnormalities associated with CD. Other animals that received blood transfusions from the positive blood donor were tested, and one additional pigtailed macaque on the same research protocol was positive for T. cruzi. Although CD has been reported to occur in many nonhuman primate species, especially pigtailed macaques, the transmission of CD via blood transfusion in nonhuman primates has not been reported previously. PMID:24512963

  18. Variation in body mass and morphological characters in Macaca mulatta brevicaudus from Hainan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Lyu, Mu-Yang; Wu, Cheng-Feng; Chu, Yuan-Meng-Ran; Han, Ning; Yang, Danhe; Hu, Kaijin

    2016-06-01

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most widely distributed nonhuman primate species in the world, with six subspecies distributed through China. From 2012 to 2014, we conducted studies on the body mass and morphological variation of the southernmost subspecies M. m. brevicaudus in Nanwan Nature Reserve for Rhesus Macaque, Hainan, China. We compared measurements with other populations of this species. We also investigated the inter-group body mass variation from seven provisioned free-ranging groups in our study site. Our results show that M. m. brevicaudus has the smallest body size, the smallest body mass, and the shortest tail among rhesus macaque subspecies. Its sexual dimorphism score is also among the lowest, which is similar to other southern distributed subspecies in China, but smaller than northern distributed subspecies. We found that the average body mass of female macaques is not correlated with their dominance ranks. There are significant differences in body mass among the seven adjacent study groups at the same site, suggesting the existence of inter-group competition. Average body mass of a group is better described by a quadratic function of group size than a linear one as predicted by the socio-ecological model. Am. J. Primatol. 78:679-698, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Parameter comparison of white matter diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    MO, Yin; CHAO, Fang; SONG, Ming; LIU, Ci-Rong; LIU, Hui-Lang; QIAN, Xi-Ying; ZHAO, Xu-Dong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) results of brain white matter in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with four different parameter settings and found that the sequence A (b=1 000 s/mm2, spatial resolution=1.25 mm×1.25 mm× 1.25 mm, numbers of direction=33, NSA=3) and B (b=800 s/mm2, spatial resolution=1.25 mm×1.25 mm×1.25 mm, numbers of direction=33, NSA=3) could accurately track coarse fibers. The fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from sequence C (b=1 000s/mm2, spatial resolution=0.55 mm×0.55 mm×2.5 mm, direction number=33, NSA=3) was too fuzzy to be used in tracking white matter fibers. By comparison, the high resolution and the FA with high contrast of gray matter and white matter derived from sequence D (b=800 s/mm2, spatial resolution=1.0 mm×1.0 mm ×1.0 mm, numbers of direction=33, NSA=3) qualified in its application in tracking both thick and thin fibers, making it an optimal DTI setting for rhesus macaques. PMID:24866488

  20. Tailored Enrichment Strategies and Stereotypic Behavior in Captive Individually Housed Macaques (Macaca spp.).

    PubMed

    Cannon, Tessa H; Heistermann, Michael; Hankison, Shala J; Hockings, Kimberley J; McLennan, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    The welfare of nonhuman animals in captivity is widely dependent on the natural psychological, physical, and behavioral needs of the animals and how adequately these needs are met. Inability to engage in natural behaviors can lead to chronic stress and expression of stereotypic behavior. The majority of research on decreasing stereotypic behavior in captivity addresses problems at the group level and does not account for individual variability in each animal's needs, history, and preferences. This study combined physiological and behavioral measures of well being to comprehensively assess the unique needs of individually housed captive macaques (Macaca spp.) with the aim of developing tailored welfare strategies. Behavioral and hormonal data were collected under 2 conditions: baseline and individualized enrichment. The results showed a significant decrease in stereotypic behavior under the enrichment condition. Additionally, 7 out of 9 individuals showed a decrease in fecal glucocorticoid (stress hormone) levels, indicating a reduction in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. Addressing welfare on an individual, rather than group, level allows for a better overall characterization of well being and maximizes the probability of improving the welfare of each animal.

  1. Catheter-tract infections in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with indwelling intravenous catheters.

    PubMed

    Taylor, W M; Grady, A W

    1998-10-01

    Development of catheter-tract infections in experimental animals can have devastating consequences on animal health and the functional lifespan of surgical implants. To measure the incidence of catheter-tract infections in animals with exteriorized intravenous catheters in this facility and assess the effects of these infections on mean catheter lifespan, health records of 31 Macaca mulatta with catheters were reviewed. Records spanned the interval of January 1, 1996 through October 1, 1997. Catheter-tract infections in 16 of 53 (30.2%) monkeys with catheters were diagnosed based on a combination of clinical signs of infection and results of bacterial culture. Segmental catheter-tract infections reduced mean catheter lifespan to 147 days, compared with 354 days for uninfected catheters. Exit-wound, local tunnel, and surgical-site infections did not significantly reduce catheter lifespan. Bacterial culture reports documented 31 isolates; 41.9% (13 of 31) were coagulase-negative staphylococci, and 22.6% (7 of 31) were Staphylococcus aureus. Of 20 isolates tested, 15 (75%) were resistant to methicillin/oxacillin in vitro. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible isolates indicated that, compared with methicillin-sensitive isolates, methicillin-resistant isolates had a pattern of multiple antibiotic resistance. Catheter-tract infections were common in this colony of rhesus macaques, and clinically severe infections caused a drastic reduction in catheter lifespan. Approximately half (48%) the bacterial isolates were methicillin-resistant gram-positive bacteria.

  2. Facial width-to-height ratio relates to dominance style in the genus Macaca.

    PubMed

    Borgi, Marta; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2016-01-01

    Background. Physical, visual, chemical, and auditory cues signalling fighting ability have independently evolved in many animal taxa as a means to resolve conflicts without escalating to physical aggression. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR, i.e., the relative width to height of the face) has been associated with dominance-related phenotypes both in humans and in other primates. In humans, faces with a larger fWHR are perceived as more aggressive. Methods. We examined fWHR variation among 11 species of the genus Macaca. Macaques have been grouped into four distinct categories, from despotic to tolerant, based on their female dominance style. Female dominance style is related to intra- and inter-sexual competition in both males and females and is the result of different evolutionary pressure across species. We used female dominance style as a proxy of intra-/inter-sexual competition to test the occurrence of correlated evolution between competitive regimes and dominance-related phenotypes. fWHR was calculated from 145 2D photographs of male and female adult macaques. Results. We found no phylogenetic signal on the differences in fWHR across species in the two sexes. However, fWHR was greater, in females and males, in species characterised by despotic female dominance style than in tolerant species. Discussion. Our results suggest that dominance-related phenotypes are related to differences in competitive regimes and intensity of inter- and intra-sexual selection across species.

  3. Niche separation of sympatric macaques, Macaca assamensis and M. mulatta, in limestone habitats of Nonggang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qihai; Wei, Hua; Tang, Huaxing; Huang, Zhonghao; Krzton, Ali; Huang, Chengming

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of sympatric species are essential in understanding those species' behavioral and ecological adaptations as well as the mechanisms that can reduce resource competition enough to allow coexistence. We collected data on diet, activity budget and habitat use from two sympatric macaque species, the Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis) and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), in a limestone seasonal rainforest of Nonggang Nature Reserve, southwestern Guangxi, China. Our results show that the two sympatric macaques differ in diet, activity budget, and habitat use: (1) out of the 131 plant species that were used by both macaque species as food over the year, only 15 plant species (11 %) were shared. Rhesus macaques used more plant species as major foods, and had higher dietary diversity and evenness indexes than Assamese macaques. (2) Assamese macaques fed predominantly on leaves, whereas rhesus macaques fed more selectively on fruits. The rhesus macaques' diet varied according to season, and was significantly correlated to season fluctuation in fruit availability. (3) Assamese macaques devoted more time to resting, and less time to feeding than rhesus macaques (4) Assamese macaques were present mostly on the cliff, and tended to stay on the ground, whereas rhesus macaques were present mostly on the hillside, and showed preference to lower and middle canopy. The observed differences in diet and habitat use between the two macaque species represent behavioral patterns enabling their coexistence.

  4. The population genomics of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) based on whole-genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Xue, Cheng; Raveendran, Muthuswamy; Harris, R Alan; Fawcett, Gloria L; Liu, Xiaoming; White, Simon; Dahdouli, Mahmoud; Rio Deiros, David; Below, Jennifer E; Salerno, William; Cox, Laura; Fan, Guoping; Ferguson, Betsy; Horvath, Julie; Johnson, Zach; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Kubisch, H Michael; Liu, Dahai; Platt, Michael; Smith, David G; Sun, Binghua; Vallender, Eric J; Wang, Feng; Wiseman, Roger W; Chen, Rui; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Yu, Fuli; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are the most widely used nonhuman primate in biomedical research, have the largest natural geographic distribution of any nonhuman primate, and have been the focus of much evolutionary and behavioral investigation. Consequently, rhesus macaques are one of the most thoroughly studied nonhuman primate species. However, little is known about genome-wide genetic variation in this species. A detailed understanding of extant genomic variation among rhesus macaques has implications for the use of this species as a model for studies of human health and disease, as well as for evolutionary population genomics. Whole-genome sequencing analysis of 133 rhesus macaques revealed more than 43.7 million single-nucleotide variants, including thousands predicted to alter protein sequences, transcript splicing, and transcription factor binding sites. Rhesus macaques exhibit 2.5-fold higher overall nucleotide diversity and slightly elevated putative functional variation compared with humans. This functional variation in macaques provides opportunities for analyses of coding and noncoding variation, and its cellular consequences. Despite modestly higher levels of nonsynonymous variation in the macaques, the estimated distribution of fitness effects and the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous variants suggest that purifying selection has had stronger effects in rhesus macaques than in humans. Demographic reconstructions indicate this species has experienced a consistently large but fluctuating population size. Overall, the results presented here provide new insights into the population genomics of nonhuman primates and expand genomic information directly relevant to primate models of human disease.

  5. The Influence of Kinship on Familiar Natal Migrant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Albers, Monika; Widdig, Anja

    2013-02-01

    In most primate species, females remain in the natal group with kin while males disperse away from kin around the time of puberty. Philopatric females bias their social behavior toward familiar maternal and paternal kin in several species, but little is known about kin bias in the dispersing sex. Male dispersal is likely to be costly because males encounter an increased risk of predation and death, which might be reduced by dispersing together with kin and/or familiar males (individuals that were born and grew up in same natal group) or into a group containing kin and/or familiar males. Here we studied the influence of kinship on familiar natal migrant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, by combining demographic, behavioral, and genetic data. Our data suggest that kinship influences spatial proximity between recent natal immigrants and males familiar to them. Immigrants were significantly nearer to more closely related familiar males than to more distantly related individuals. Within a familiar subgroup, natal migrants were significantly closer to maternal kin, followed by paternal kin, then non-kin, and finally to males related via both the maternal and paternal line. Spatial proximity between natal immigrants and familiar males did not decrease over time in the new group, suggesting that there is no decline in associations between these individuals within the first months of immigration. Overall, our results might indicate that kinship is important for the dispersing sex, at least during natal dispersal when kin are still available.

  6. Purkinje Cell Axon Collaterals Terminate on Cat-301+ Neurons in Macaca Monkey Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Crook, J.D.; Hendrickson, A.; Erickson, A.; Possin, D.; Robinson, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody Cat-301 identifies perineuronal nets around specific neuronal types, including those in the cerebellum. This report finds in adult Macaca monkey that Basket cells in the deep molecular layer; granule cell layer (GCL) interneurons including Lugaro cells; large neurons in the foliar white matter (WM); and deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) neurons contain subsets of Cat-301+ cells. Most Cat-301+ GCL interneurons are glycine+ and all are densely innervated by a meshwork of calbindin+/GAD+ Purkinje cell collaterals and their synapses. DCN and WM Cat-301+ neurons also receive a similar but less dense innervation. Due to the heavy labeling of adjacent Purkinje cell dendrites, the innervation of Cat-301+ Basket cells was less certain. These findings suggest that several complex feedback circuits from Purkinje cell to cerebellar interneurons exist in primate cerebellum whose function needs to be investigated. Cat-301 labeling begins postnatally in WM and DCN, but remains sparse until at least 3 months of age. Because the appearance of perineuronal nets is associated with maturation of synaptic circuits, this suggests that the Purkinje cell feedback circuits develop for some time after birth. PMID:17936513

  7. Coagulation Biomarkers in Healthy Chinese-Origin Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Frydman, Galit H; Bendapudi, Pavan K; Marini, Robert P; Vanderburg, Charles R; Tompkins, Ronald G; Fox, James G

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are a common model for the study of human biology and disease. To manage coagulopathies in these animals and to study their clotting changes, the ability to measure coagulation biomarkers is necessary. Currently, few options for coagulation testing in NHP are commercially available. In this study, assays for 4 coagulation biomarkers—D-dimer, antithrombin III, protein C, and soluble P-selectin—were developed and optimized for rhesus macaques. Whole blood was collected from 28 healthy Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (11 male; 17 female) ranging in age from 5 to 20 y. Coagulation biomarkers were measured by using bead-based sandwich ELISA technology. The ranges (mean ± 90% confidence interval) for these biomarkers were: antithrombin III, 124.2 to 133.4 μg/mL; protein C, 3.2 to 3.6 μg/mL; D-dimer, 110.3 to 161.3 ng/mL; soluble P-selectin, 0.12 to 0.14 ng/106 platelets. These reference values did not differ significantly according to sex or age. These new assays for coagulation biomarkers in rhesus macaques will facilitate the evaluation of in vivo hemostasis. PMID:27177557

  8. Aggression in pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) breeding groups affects pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Ha, James; Alloway, Hayley; Sussman, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Past research has shown that aggressive behaviors can affect female reproductive outcome in non-human primate captive breeding programs. In this study, aggressive behaviors were recorded in a colony of pigtailed macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina) and related to pregnancy outcome. For twenty-two weeks, behavioral data were collected from nine breeding groups, consisting of zero to one male (some males were removed after a cycle of conceptions for husbandry reasons) and four to eight females. Observations included all occurrences of eleven aggressive behaviors during 15-minute observation sessions, one to three times a week. Mean weekly aggression levels during the study period were determined for each group, as well as for each pregnancy. Aggression data were summarized with Principal Components Analyses (PCA). Results indicate that pigtailed macaque aggression falls into five distinctive categories: warn, engage, threaten, pursue, and attack. Breeding groups differed in their levels of aggression, even after controlling for group size, presence of a sire, and group stability. Levels of the five aggression categories were found to affect the probability that a pregnancy ended in either a natural birth of a live infant, a clinical intervention producing a live infant, or a nonviable outcome. The predictive value of aggression was significant when clinical interventions were included as possible reproductive outcomes, Behavioral observation of captive groups could identify “risk” conditions affecting pregnancy outcome and the requirement for clinical intervention. PMID:21898511

  9. Covalent structure of apolipoprotein A-II from Macaca mulatta serum high-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, C; Noyes, C; Keim, P; Heinrikson, R L; Fellows, R E; Scanu, A M

    1976-03-23

    The covalent structure of apolipoprotein A-II, isolated from the serum high-density lipoprotein of a single male Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), was determined. The amino acid sequence of this 77-residue polypeptide is: less than Glu-Ala-Glu-Glu-Pro5-Ser-Val-Glu-Ser-Leu10-Val-Ser-Gln-Tyr-Phe15-Gln-Thr-Val-Thr-Asp20-Tyr-Gly-Lys-Asp-Leu25-Met-Glu-Lys-Val-Lys30-Ser-Pro-Glu-Leu-Gln35-Ala-Gln-Ala-Lys-Ala40-Tyr-Phe-Glu-Lys-Ser45-Lys-Glu-Gln-Leu-Thr50-Pro-Leu-Val-Lys-Lys55-Ala-Gly-Thr-Asp-Leu60-Val-Asn-Phe-Leu-Ser65-Tyr-Phe-Val-Glu-Leu70-Arg-Thr-Gln-Pro-Ala75-Thr-Gln-COOH. A comparison of this structure to that of the monomeric form of human apolipoprotein A-II reveals a high degree of homology except for six conservative amino acid replacements (positions 3, 6, 40, 53, 59, and 71). Of particular structural significance is the replacement of cysteine by serine in position 6. This explaines why Rhesus A-II exists in monomeric form, contrary to the established dimeric nature of the human protein.

  10. Goal attribution to inanimate moving objects by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

    PubMed Central

    Atsumi, Takeshi; Koda, Hiroki; Masataka, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    Humans interpret others’ goals based on motion information, and this capacity contributes to our mental reasoning. The present study sought to determine whether Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) perceive goal-directedness in chasing events depicted by two geometric particles. In Experiment 1, two monkeys and adult humans were trained to discriminate between Chasing and Random sequences. We then introduced probe stimuli with various levels of correlation between the particle trajectories to examine whether participants performed the task using higher correlation. Participants chose stimuli with the highest correlations by chance, suggesting that correlations were not the discriminative cue. Experiment 2 examined whether participants focused on particle proximity. Participants differentiated between Chasing and Control sequences; the distance between two particles was identical in both. Results indicated that, like humans, the Japanese macaques did not use physical cues alone to perform the discrimination task and integrated the cues spontaneously. This suggests that goal attribution resulting from motion information is a widespread cognitive phenotype in primate species. PMID:28053305

  11. Facial width-to-height ratio relates to dominance style in the genus Macaca

    PubMed Central

    Majolo, Bonaventura

    2016-01-01

    Background. Physical, visual, chemical, and auditory cues signalling fighting ability have independently evolved in many animal taxa as a means to resolve conflicts without escalating to physical aggression. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR, i.e., the relative width to height of the face) has been associated with dominance-related phenotypes both in humans and in other primates. In humans, faces with a larger fWHR are perceived as more aggressive. Methods. We examined fWHR variation among 11 species of the genus Macaca. Macaques have been grouped into four distinct categories, from despotic to tolerant, based on their female dominance style. Female dominance style is related to intra- and inter-sexual competition in both males and females and is the result of different evolutionary pressure across species. We used female dominance style as a proxy of intra-/inter-sexual competition to test the occurrence of correlated evolution between competitive regimes and dominance-related phenotypes. fWHR was calculated from 145 2D photographs of male and female adult macaques. Results. We found no phylogenetic signal on the differences in fWHR across species in the two sexes. However, fWHR was greater, in females and males, in species characterised by despotic female dominance style than in tolerant species. Discussion. Our results suggest that dominance-related phenotypes are related to differences in competitive regimes and intensity of inter- and intra-sexual selection across species. PMID:27019780

  12. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  13. Use of an Aquarium as a Novel Enrichment Item for Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Theresa M; Hutchinson, Eric; Krall, Caroline; Watson, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Locomotor stereotypies are behaviors often seen in singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and are considered to represent a maladaptive response to captive environments. Active and passive enrichment items are commonly used to mitigate these and other abnormal behaviors. Active enrichment items allow physical manipulation and may be temporarily successful in reducing stereotypies, but their beneficial effects usually are confined to relatively short periods of active use. Passive enrichment items that do not involve physical manipulation are less well studied, and the results are mixed. This study evaluated an aquarium with live fish for use as a novel passive enrichment item in a common facility setting as a means to decrease locomotor stereotypy. We hypothesized that the introduction of the aquarium would decrease the frequency of locomotor stereotypy in a group of singly housed rhesus macaques (n = 11) with a known history of abnormal behaviors. Unexpectedly, locomotor stereotypy increased with the introduction of the aquarium and then decreased over time. Furthermore, when the aquarium was removed, the frequency of stereotypy decreased to below baseline levels. These unexpected results are best explained by neophobia, a common phenomenon documented in many animal species. The increase in abnormal behavior is likely to result from the addition of a novel object within the environment. This study demonstrates that, in the context of reducing abnormal behavior, presumably innocuous enrichment items may have unexpected effects and should be evaluated critically after their introduction to a captive population. PMID:25255069

  14. Role of vocal tract characteristics in individual discrimination by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

    PubMed Central

    Furuyama, Takafumi; Kobayasi, Kohta I.; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) exhibits a species-specific communication sound called the “coo call” to locate group members and maintain within-group contact. Monkeys have been demonstrated to be capable of discriminating between individuals based only on their voices, but there is still debate regarding how the fundamental frequencies (F0) and filter properties of the vocal tract characteristics (VTC) contribute to individual discrimination in nonhuman primates. This study was performed to investigate the acoustic keys used by Japanese macaques in individual discrimination. Two animals were trained with standard Go/NoGo operant conditioning to distinguish the coo calls of two unfamiliar monkeys. The subjects were required to continue depressing a lever until the stimulus changed from one monkey to the other. The test stimuli were synthesized by combining the F0s and VTC from each individual. Both subjects released the lever when the VTC changed, whereas they did not when the F0 changed. The reaction times to the test stimuli were not significantly different from that to the training stimuli that shared the same VTC. Our data suggest that vocal tract characteristics are important for the identification of individuals by Japanese macaques. PMID:27550840

  15. Visual Nesting of Stimuli Affects Rhesus Monkeys' (Macaca mulatta) Quantity Judgments in a Bisection Task

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Parrish, Audrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman animals are highly proficient at judging relative quantities presented in a variety of formats including visual, auditory, and even cross modal formats. Performance typically is constrained by the ratio between sets, as would be expected under Weber's Law, and as is described in the Approximate Number System (ANS) hypothesis. In most cases, tests are designed to avoid any perceptual confusion for animals regarding the stimulus sets, but despite this, animals show some of the perceptual biases that humans show based on organization of stimuli. Here, we demonstrate an additional perceptual bias that emerges from the illusion of nested sets. When arrays of circles were presented on a computer screen and were to be classified as larger than or as smaller than an established central value, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) underestimated quantities when circles were nested within each other. This matched a previous report with adult humans (Chesney & Gelman, 2012), indicating that macaques, like humans, show the pattern of biased perception predicted by ANS estimation. Although some macaques overcame this perceptual bias demonstrating that they could come to view nested stimuli as individual elements to be included in the estimates of quantity used for classifying arrays, the majority of the monkeys showed the bias of underestimating nested arrays throughout the experiment. PMID:23709063

  16. Noninvasive saliva collection for DNA analyses from free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    PubMed

    Simons, N D; Lorenz, J G; Sheeran, L K; Li, J H; Xia, D P; Wagner, R S

    2012-11-01

    Cryptic and endangered fauna, including many primate taxa, pose challenges for noninvasive collection of biomaterials. As a result, application of noninvasive genotyping to primates has been limited to the use of samples such as feces and hair for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA. We present a method for noninvasive collection of saliva from habituated, free-ranging monkeys. The method utilizes a low-cost apparatus that controls for contamination and is usable with individual, free-ranging primates. Saliva samples were collected from 18 individuals in a population of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) in the Valley of Wild Monkeys in Huangshan, People's Republic of China. DNA was extracted from these samples and PCR-amplified for both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, Cytochrome B and MHC-DR Beta 1, respectively. These results indicate this is an effective technique for the noninvasive collection of saliva across age and sex class, and dominance rank in a free-ranging, terrestrial primate species. This device could have wide application for obtaining high-quality saliva samples from free-ranging primate populations for use in epidemiological studies, hormonal analyses of HPA axis function, pathogen screening, noninvasive genotyping, and behavioral genetics.

  17. Influence of heavy snow on the feeding behavior of Japanese macaques (macaca fuscata) in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Enari, Hiroto; Sakamaki-Enari, Haruka

    2013-06-01

    Natural disasters can degrade primate habitat and alter feeding behavior. Here, we examined the influence of unusually heavy snow on diet and feeding-site use by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. To compare the winter-feeding behavior under different snow conditions, we recorded the plant species foraged on by macaques in multiple transects of the Shirakami Mountains from 2008 to 2012 (excluding 2011). We used cluster analysis to describe foraged plant assemblages, and applied multiple dimensional scaling and decision tree modeling to evaluate annual variation in feeding-site use by macaques. Our cluster analysis revealed five types of foraged plant assemblages. The proportion of each type present in transects varied considerably across the years, indicating that the diet of macaques in heavy snow conditions was influenced more by resource accessibility than by preference. Multiple dimensional scaling and decision tree modeling demonstrated that heavy snow conditions restricted feeding-site use. Moreover, the distribution of refuges relative to severe external ambient environments was a stronger limiting factor for feeding-site use than was the availability of food resources. While most primate species facing unexpected starvation employ risk-prone foraging tactics (i.e., choosing the option with higher pay-off by accepting risk), Japanese macaques have a tendency to adopt risk-averse foraging behavior (i.e., minimizing energy loss when searching for preferred diet items under long-lasting heavy snow conditions), because winters with temperatures below freezing have higher thermoregulatory costs.

  18. Immunohistochemical and morphological features of a small bowel leiomyoma in a black crested macaque (Macaca nigra)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Spontaneous gastrointestinal neoplasms in non-human primates are commonly seen in aged individuals. Due to genetic similarities between human and non-human primates, scientists have shown increasing interest in terms of comparative oncology studies. Case presentation The present study is related to a case of an intestinal leiomyoma in a black crested macaque (Macaca nigra), kept on captivity by Matecaña Zoo, Pereira City, Colombia. The animal had abdominal distension, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea and behavioral changes. Clinical examination showed an increased volume in the upper right abdominal quadrant caused by a neoplastic mass. The patient died during the surgical procedure. Necropsy revealed several small nodules in the peritoneum with adhesion to different portions of the small and large intestines, liver, stomach and diaphragm. Tissue samples were collected, routinely processed and stained by H&E. Microscopic examination revealed a mesenchymal tumor limited to tunica muscularis, resembling normal smooth muscle cells. Neoplastic cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, and negative for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 by immunohistochemistry. Those morphological and immunohistochemical findings allowed to diagnose the intestinal leiomyoma referred above. Conclusion Neoplastic diseases in primates have multifaceted causes. Their manifestations are understudied, leading to a greater difficulty in detection and measurement of the real impact provides by this disease. PMID:22747606

  19. Effects of Human Management Events on Conspecific Aggression in Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Theil, Jacob; Beisner, Brianne; Hill, Ashley; McCowan, Brenda

    2017-03-02

    Conspecific aggression in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at primate research facilities is a leadingsource of trauma and can potentially influence animal wellbeing and research quality. Although aggression between macaquesis a normal part of daily social interactions, human presence might affect the frequency of various behaviors and instigateincreases in conspecific aggression. We sought to determine how and which human management events affect conspecificaggression both immediately after an event and throughout the course of a day. From June 2008 through December 2009, werecorded agonistic encounters among macaques living in 7 social groups in large outdoor field cages. Behavioral data werethen synchronized with specific management events (for example, feeding, enclosure cleaning, animal catching) that occurredwithin or near the enclosure. By using an Information Theoretical approach, 2 generalized linear mixed models were developedto estimate the effects of human management events on 1) aggression after individual management events and 2) dailylevels of aggression. Univariate analysis revealed an increase in the rate of aggression after a management event occurred.The best predictor of aggression in a cage was the type of management event that occurred. Various factors including thenumber of daily management events, the total time of management events, the technicians involved, reproductive season,and their interactions also showed significant associations with daily aggression levels. Our findings demonstrate that humanmanagement events are associated with an increase in conspecific aggression between rhesus macaques and thus haveimplications regarding how humans manage primates in research facilities.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of Hydromorphone after Intravenous and Intramuscular Administration in Male Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R; Pypendop, Bruno H; Christe, Kari L

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone after intravenous and intramuscular administration to rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta ). Hydromorphone (0.075 mg/kg) was administered intravenously as a bolus or intramuscularly on separate occasions to healthy, socially housed, socially reared, adult, intact male rhesus macaques (n = 4). Blood samples were collected prior to and until 10 h after administration. Serum hydromorphone concentrations were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compartment models were fit to time–concentration data. A 3-compartment model with input in and elimination from the central compartment best fit intravenous data, whereas a 1-comparment model best fit intramuscular data. After intravenous administration, the median clearance and terminal half-life were 37.7 (range, 33.7 to 47.1) mL/kg/min and 142 (range, 131 to 218) min, respectively. The median (range) elimination half-life after intramuscular administration was 81.5 (77.2 to 92.5) min. Median intramuscular bioavailability was 92% (range, 75% to 104%). Rhesus macaques maintained concentrations greater than or equal to 4.0 ng/mL for at least 2 h after intravenous and intramuscular administration. The disposition of hydromorphone was characterized by a large volume of distribution and moderate clearance. Intramuscular administration resulted in rapid and almost complete drug absorption. Whole-body pruritus, sedation, and decreased appetite were observed in all macaques after initial drug administration. PMID:25255074

  1. The Influence of Kinship on Familiar Natal Migrant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Monika; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    In most primate species, females remain in the natal group with kin while males disperse away from kin around the time of puberty. Philopatric females bias their social behavior toward familiar maternal and paternal kin in several species, but little is known about kin bias in the dispersing sex. Male dispersal is likely to be costly because males encounter an increased risk of predation and death, which might be reduced by dispersing together with kin and/or familiar males (individuals that were born and grew up in same natal group) or into a group containing kin and/or familiar males. Here we studied the influence of kinship on familiar natal migrant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, by combining demographic, behavioral, and genetic data. Our data suggest that kinship influences spatial proximity between recent natal immigrants and males familiar to them. Immigrants were significantly nearer to more closely related familiar males than to more distantly related individuals. Within a familiar subgroup, natal migrants were significantly closer to maternal kin, followed by paternal kin, then non-kin, and finally to males related via both the maternal and paternal line. Spatial proximity between natal immigrants and familiar males did not decrease over time in the new group, suggesting that there is no decline in associations between these individuals within the first months of immigration. Overall, our results might indicate that kinship is important for the dispersing sex, at least during natal dispersal when kin are still available. PMID:24850977

  2. Multi-tissue analysis of oxygen isotopes in wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Chenery, Carolyn A; Lamb, Angela L; O'Regan, Hannah J; Elton, Sarah

    2011-03-30

    Oxygen isotopes in animal tissues are directly related to body water composition and thus the environment. Accurate measurement of animal tissue δ(18)O provides information about local climate, an animal's geographical origin and subsequent movements, with wide applications in palaeobiology and forensic science. The genesis and evolution of tissue-based oxygen isotopes within species and within individuals are complex. We present the first data, for non-human primates, rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), on the relationship between oxygen isotope sources in bio-apatite (PO(4) and PCO(3)) and hair taken from six sample sites in Asia, ranging from western India to northern Vietnam. The range of values is similar within each tissue type, with good correlation between tissues (r = 0.791 to 0.908), allowing cross-tissue extrapolations. This is important when the availability of suitable tissues is limited. Biological interpretation of the small data set is difficult: macaque diets are eclectic, and the samples are from various locations. However, factors such as overall climate, precipitation quantity and source, and altitude are clearly influencing the results for each discrete geographical grouping. Future work could be aimed at assessing δ(18)O tissue associations for other species as the relationships appear to be species-specific. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Development of sensitivity to global form and motion in macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina).

    PubMed

    Kiorpes, Lynne; Price, Tracy; Hall-Haro, Cynthia; Movshon, J Anthony

    2012-06-15

    To explore the relative development of the dorsal and ventral extrastriate processing streams, we studied the development of sensitivity to form and motion in macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina). We used Glass patterns and random dot kinematograms (RDK) to assay ventral and dorsal stream function, respectively. We tested 24 animals, longitudinally or cross-sectionally, between the ages of 5 weeks and 3 years. Each animal was tested with Glass patterns and RDK stimuli with each of two pattern types--circular and linear--at each age using a two alternative forced-choice task. We measured coherence threshold for discrimination of the global form or motion pattern from an incoherent control stimulus. Sensitivity to global motion appeared earlier than to global form and was higher at all ages, but performance approached adult levels at similar ages. Infants were most sensitive to large spatial scale (Δx) and fast speeds; sensitivity to fine scale and slow speeds developed more slowly independently of pattern type. Within the motion domain, pattern type had little effect on overall performance. However, within the form domain, sensitivity for linear Glass patterns was substantially poorer than that for concentric patterns. Our data show comparatively early onset for global motion integration ability, perhaps reflecting early development of the dorsal stream. However, both pathways mature over long time courses reaching adult levels between 2 and 3 years after birth.

  4. Subtoxic hepatic vitamin A concentrations in captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Penniston, K L; Tanumihardjo, S A

    2001-11-01

    Although the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is a widely used experimental animal, its exact vitamin A requirement is unknown. An amount of 430-3600 IU/d [129-1080 retinol equivalents (RE)] is recommended, largely on the basis of depletion studies. Normal hepatic vitamin A appears to be 1 micromol/g liver. Our goal was to determine hepatic vitamin A concentrations of captive monkeys. Liver autopsy samples from rhesus and marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) monkeys were obtained from the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center. The rhesus monkeys consumed a diet with 40 IU (12 RE) retinyl acetate/g. Male and female monkeys consumed an estimated 250 and 175 g diet/d, respectively. Marmosets were fed a powder-based diet consisting of 20 IU (6 RE) retinyl acetate/g. The marmosets consumed an estimated 25 g of the diet/d. Liver samples were extracted and analyzed by HPLC. The vitamin A concentration of the rhesus monkey livers was very high at 17.0 +/- 6.3 micromol/g. The hepatic vitamin A of the marmosets was 1.25 +/- 0.58 micromol/g liver. Histologic examination of the livers revealed Ito cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in the rhesus monkeys compared with the marmosets. Considering that the natural diet of the rhesus monkey (fruits, seeds, roots and insects) is not high in preformed vitamin A, the vitamin A content of the diet appears excessive, supplying four times the NRC recommendation and resulting in high liver stores.

  5. The population genomics of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) based on whole-genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Cheng; Raveendran, Muthuswamy; Harris, R. Alan; Fawcett, Gloria L.; Liu, Xiaoming; White, Simon; Dahdouli, Mahmoud; Rio Deiros, David; Below, Jennifer E.; Salerno, William; Cox, Laura; Fan, Guoping; Ferguson, Betsy; Horvath, Julie; Johnson, Zach; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Kubisch, H. Michael; Liu, Dahai; Platt, Michael; Smith, David G.; Sun, Binghua; Vallender, Eric J.; Wang, Feng; Wiseman, Roger W.; Chen, Rui; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Yu, Fuli; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are the most widely used nonhuman primate in biomedical research, have the largest natural geographic distribution of any nonhuman primate, and have been the focus of much evolutionary and behavioral investigation. Consequently, rhesus macaques are one of the most thoroughly studied nonhuman primate species. However, little is known about genome-wide genetic variation in this species. A detailed understanding of extant genomic variation among rhesus macaques has implications for the use of this species as a model for studies of human health and disease, as well as for evolutionary population genomics. Whole-genome sequencing analysis of 133 rhesus macaques revealed more than 43.7 million single-nucleotide variants, including thousands predicted to alter protein sequences, transcript splicing, and transcription factor binding sites. Rhesus macaques exhibit 2.5-fold higher overall nucleotide diversity and slightly elevated putative functional variation compared with humans. This functional variation in macaques provides opportunities for analyses of coding and noncoding variation, and its cellular consequences. Despite modestly higher levels of nonsynonymous variation in the macaques, the estimated distribution of fitness effects and the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous variants suggest that purifying selection has had stronger effects in rhesus macaques than in humans. Demographic reconstructions indicate this species has experienced a consistently large but fluctuating population size. Overall, the results presented here provide new insights into the population genomics of nonhuman primates and expand genomic information directly relevant to primate models of human disease. PMID:27934697

  6. The effects of thermal and high-CO2 stresses on the metabolism and surrounding microenvironment of the coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Sylvain; Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Tomihiko; Yuyama, Ikuko; Casareto, Beatriz E; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Nakano, Yoshikatsu

    2013-08-01

    The effects of elevated temperature and high pCO2 on the metabolism of Galaxea fascicularis were studied with oxygen and pH microsensors. Photosynthesis and respiration rates were evaluated from the oxygen fluxes from and to the coral polyps. High-temperature alone lowered both photosynthetic and respiration rates. High pCO2 alone did not significantly affect either photosynthesis or respiration rates. Under a combination of high-temperature and high-CO2, the photosynthetic rate increased to values close to those of the controls. The same pH in the diffusion boundary layer was observed under light in both (400 and 750 ppm) CO2 treatments, but decreased significantly in the dark as a result of increased CO2. The ATP contents decreased with increasing temperature. The effects of temperature on the metabolism of corals were stronger than the effects of increased CO2. The effects of acidification were minimal without combined temperature stress. However, acidification combined with higher temperature may affect coral metabolism due to the amplification of diel variations in the microenvironment surrounding the coral and the decrease in ATP contents.

  7. Trace elements found to be variable in two coral reef species, Heliofungia actiniformis and Galaxea fascicularis, collected from the Ryukyu Islands.

    PubMed

    Yamada, G; Fujimori, K; Yamada, M; Minami, T; Tohno, S; Tohno, Y

    1998-11-01

    Biominerals and metals of intertidal corals of two species (Heliofungia actiniformis, Quoy and Gaimard; Galaxea fascicularis, Linnaeus), collected from the Iriomote Island of Ryukyu, were examined with an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). Twelve elements were detectable in the coralline skeletons dissected radially along the growth axis. The relative content (RC) of Hg periodically fluctuated and was minimum at the hollow sites of the coralline slab of Heliofungia sp., corresponding to the cyclic growth. There were two types of elements: constant elements and variable elements along the growth axis. RCs of Ca, Mg, Al, Si, and P were nearly constant. RCs of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Ba were variable, but not as regularly changed as Hg. There were positive mass correlations of Hg to Mn, Cu and Zn, but not to Ba and Fe. In contrast, these relationships were not prominent and were likely degraded by aging in the skeleton of Galaxea sp., suggesting a different mode from that of the Heliofungia sp.

  8. Innovative coconut-opening in a semi free-ranging rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta): A case report on behavioral propensities

    PubMed Central

    Comins, Jordan A.; Russ, Brian E.; Humbert, Kelley A.; Hauser, Marc D.

    2012-01-01

    The present case report provides a description of the emergence of an innovative, highly beneficial for- aging behavior in a single rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) on the island of Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. Selectively choosing the island’s cement dock and nearby surrounding rocky terrain, our focal subject (ID: 84 J) opens coconuts using two types of underhand tosses: (1) a rolling motion to move it, and (2) a throwing motion up in the air to crack the shell. We discuss this innovative behavior in light of species-specific behavioral propensities. PMID:23280047

  9. Impaired performance from brief social isolation of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A multiple video-task assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    Social isolation has been demonstrated to produce profound and lasting psychological effects in young primates. In the present investigation, two adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were isolated from one another for up to 6 days and tested on 7 video tasks designed to assess psychomotor and cognitive functioning. Both the number and quality (i.e., speed and accuracy) of responses were significantly compromised in the social isolation condition relative to levels in which the animals were tested together. It is argued that adult rhesus are susceptible to performance disruption by even relatively brief social isolation, and that these effects can best be assessed by a battery of complex and sensitive measures.

  10. Impaired performance from brief social isolation of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A multiple video-task assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    Social isolation has been demonstrated to produce profound and lasting psychological effects in young primates. In the present investigation, two adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were isolated from one another for up to 6 days and tested on 7 video tasks designed to assess psychomotor and cognitive functioning. Both the number and quality (i.e., speed and accuracy) of responses were significantly compromised in the social isolation condition relative to levels in which the animals were tested together. It is argued that adult rhesus are susceptible to performance disruption by even relatively brief social isolation, and that these effects can best be assessed by a battery of complex and sensitive measures.

  11. A Behavioral Taxonomy of Loneliness in Humans and Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Capitanio, John P.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Cole, Steven W.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Social relationships endow health and fitness benefits, but considerable variation exists in the extent to which individuals form and maintain salutary social relationships. The mental and physical health effects of social bonds are more strongly related to perceived isolation (loneliness) than to objective social network characteristics. We sought to develop an animal model to facilitate the experimental analysis of the development of, and the behavioral and biological consequences of, loneliness. In Study 1, using a population-based sample of older adults, we examined how loneliness was influenced both by social network size and by the extent to which individuals believed that their daily social interactions reflected their own choice. Results revealed three distinct clusters of individuals: (i) individuals with large networks who believed they had high choice were lowest in loneliness, (ii) individuals with small social networks who believed they had low choice were highest in loneliness, and (iii) the remaining two groups were intermediate and equivalent in loneliness. In Study 2, a similar three-group structure was identified in two separate samples of adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) living in large social groups: (i) those high in sociability who had complex social interaction with a broad range of social partners (putatively low in loneliness), (ii) those low in sociability who showed tentative interactions with certain classes of social partners (putatively high in loneliness), and (iii) those low in sociability who interacted overall at low levels with a broad range of social partners (putatively low or intermediate in loneliness). This taxonomy in monkeys was validated in subsequent experimental social probe studies. These results suggest that, in highly social nonhuman primate species, some animals may show a mismatch between social interest and social attainment that could serve as a useful animal model for experimental and mechanistic

  12. Diversity and molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2014-11-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India.

  13. Sleep Architecture in Unrestrained Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Synchronized to 24-Hour Light-Dark Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Kung-Chiao; Robinson, Edward L.; Fuller, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To characterize the sleep patterns of unrestrained, diurnal nonhuman primates entrained to 24-hour light-dark cycles. Design: EEG, EMG, and EOG were recorded continuously via implanted telemetry from 5 unrestrained male rhesus monkeys housed individually under a 16:8 light-dark cycle (LD 16:8; L = 13 lux; D = 0 lux). Results: In a LD 16:8 cycle, all 5 monkeys demonstrated a long period of consolidated sleep during the 8-h dark period. On average, sleep accounted for 89.2% of the 8-h dark period and 25.2% of the 16-hour light period. REM sleep occupied 23% of total sleep time over 24 h, or 10.7% of the total time. The average length of the consolidated sleep (CS) period was 10.5 h, although the time of CS onset was variable. In contrast, the end of CS, and thus the onset of consolidated wakefulness (CW) demonstrated very little variation, typically occurring within 2 min of light onset. Ultradian NREM-REM cycles with periods of approximately 60 min were also observed. EEG delta activity during NREM sleep, thought to reflect the homeostatic sleep process, peaked at 3–4 h after CS onset. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the feasibility of long-term, unrestrained sleep monitoring in nonhuman primates using fully-implantable biotelemetry. With minor exceptions, most notably a delay in peak delta activity, sleep-wake architecture, regulation, and consolidation in rhesus monkeys strongly resembles that of humans. These results demonstrate that the unrestrained rhesus monkey is an excellent biomedical model for human sleep. Citation: Hsieh KC; Robinson EL; Fuller CA. Sleep architecture in unrestrained rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) synchronized to 24-hour light-dark cycles. SLEEP 2008;31(9):1239-1250. PMID:18788649

  14. Hormone profiles and reproductive characteristics in wild female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Fujita, Shiho; Sugiura, Hideki; Mitsunaga, Fusako; Shimizu, Keiko

    2004-12-01

    In this study we investigated the reproductive characteristics of wild female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata fuscata) in 2 nonconsecutive years using noninvasive methods to monitor physiological events. We detected ovulation dates and ascertained conceptions from fecal hormone profiles. First ovulations occurred from middle October to early November in 1997, and from middle to late November in 1999. Most females conceived during their first ovarian cycle. On average, postconception bleeding occurred 18.4 days after ovulation, and menstruation occurred 13.7 days after ovulation. The average gestation length was 176.3 days. The average degree of facial redness and the percentage of females that copulated synchronously changed across the ovarian cycle and peaked in the periovulatory period. Although prolonged periods of postconception copulation have been reported in previous studies, they did not occur in this study, which suggests that such behavior may not be a species-typical characteristic. Female fertility varied between the 2 years. The copulation rates of females with no infant <1 year of age were 100% (14/14) in 1997 and 45.5% (5/11) in 1999. The ovulation rates of the female subjects that we chose for hormonal assays were 100% (9/9) in 1997 and 50.0% (3/6) in 1999. Th conception rates of these selected females were 100% (9/9) in 1997 and 16.7% (1/6) in 1999. The birth rates (the number of females that delivered divided by the total number of adult females in the troop) were 73.3% (11/15) in 1998 and 6.7% (1/15) in 2000. The modified birth rates (the number of females that delivered /the number of adult females with no infant <1 year of age) x 100 were 78.6% (11/14) in 1998 and 9.1% (1/11) in 2000.

  15. Terminal investment and senescence in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago

    PubMed Central

    Higham, James P.; Mas-Rivera, Adaris; Ayala, James E.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Long-lived iteroparous species often show aging-related changes in reproduction that may be explained by 2 non-mutually exclusive hypotheses. The terminal investment hypothesis predicts increased female reproductive effort toward the end of the life span, as individuals have little to gain by reserving effort for the future. The senescence hypothesis predicts decreased female reproductive output toward the end of the life span due to an age-related decline in body condition. Nonhuman primates are ideal organisms for testing these hypotheses, as they are long lived and produce altricial offspring heavily dependent on maternal investment. In this study, we integrated 50 years of continuous demographic records for the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) population with new morphometric and behavioral data to test the senescence and terminal investment hypotheses. We examined relationships between maternal age and activity, mother and infant body condition, interbirth intervals, measures of behavioral investment in offspring, and offspring survival and fitness to test for age-associated declines in reproduction that would indicate senescence, and for age-associated increases in maternal effort that would indicate terminal investment. Compared with younger mothers, older mothers had lower body mass indices and were less active, had longer interbirth intervals, and spent more time in contact with infants, but had infants of lower masses and survival rates. Taken together, our results provide strong evidence for the occurrence of reproductive senescence in free-ranging female rhesus macaques but are also consistent with some of the predictions of the terminal investment hypothesis. PMID:22475990

  16. Pyrosequencing as a method for SNP identification in the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Satkoski, Jessica A; Malhi, RS; Kanthaswamy, S; Tito, RY; Malladi, VS; Smith, DG

    2008-01-01

    Background Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are the primate most used for biomedical research, but phenotypic differences between Indian-origin and Chinese rhesus macaques have encouraged genetic methods for identifying genetic differences between these two populations. The completion of the rhesus genome has led to the identification of many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this species. These single nucleotide polymorphisms have many advantages over the short tandem repeat (STR) loci currently used to assay genetic variation. However, the number of currently identified polymorphisms is too small for whole genome analysis or studies of quantitative trait loci. To that end, we tested a combination of methods to identify large numbers of high-confidence SNPs, and screen those with high minor allele frequencies (MAF). Results By testing our previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms, we identified a subset of high-confidence, high-MAF polymorphisms. Resequencing revealed a large number of regionally specific SNPs not identified through a single pyrosequencing run. By resequencing a pooled sample of four individuals, we reliably identified loci with a MAF of at least 12.5%. Finally, we found that when applied to a larger, geographically variable sample of rhesus, a large proportion of our loci were variable in both populations, and very few loci were ancestry informative. Despite this fact, the SNP loci were more effective at discriminating Indian and Chinese rhesus than STR loci. Conclusion Pyrosequencing and pooled resequencing are viable methods for the identification of high-MAF SNP loci in rhesus macaques. These SNP loci are appropriate for screening both the inter- and intra-population genetic variation. PMID:18510772

  17. Evolutionary relevance and experience contribute to face discrimination in infant macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Paukner, Annika

    2015-01-01

    In human children and adults, familiar face types—typically own-age and own-species faces—are discriminated better than other face types; however, human infants do not appear to exhibit an own-age bias, but instead better discriminate adult faces, which they see more often. There are two possible explanations for this pattern: Perceptual attunement, which predicts advantages in discrimination for the most-experienced face types; additionally or alternatively, there may be an experience-independent bias for infants to discriminate own-species faces, an adaptation for evolutionarily relevant faces. These possibilities have not been disentangled in studies thus far, which did not control infants’ early experiences with faces. In the present study, we tested these predictions in infant macaques (Macaca mulatta) reared under controlled environments, not exposed to adult conspecifics. We measured newborns’ (15–25 days; n = 27) and 6- to 7-month-olds’ (n = 35) discrimination of human and macaque faces of three ages—young infants, old infants, and adults—in a visual paired comparison task. We found that 6- to 7-month-olds were the best at discriminating adult macaque faces; however, in the first few seconds of looking, additionally discriminated familiar face types—same-aged peer and adult human faces—highlighting the importance of experience with certain face categories. The present data suggest that macaque infants possess both experience-independent and experientially tuned face biases. In human infants, early face skills may likewise be driven by both experience and evolutionary relevance; future studies should consider both of these factors. PMID:27212893

  18. Population density-dependent hair cortisol concentrations in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Dettmer, A M; Novak, M A; Meyer, J S; Suomi, S J

    2014-04-01

    Population density is known to influence acute measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in a variety of species, including fish, deer, birds, and humans. However, the effects of population density on levels of chronic stress are unknown. Given the fact that exposure to chronically elevated levels of circulating glucocorticoids results in a host of health disparities in animals and humans alike, it is important to understand how population density may impact chronic stress. We assessed hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), which are reliable indicators of chronic HPA axis activity, in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to determine the influence of population density on these values. In Experiment 1, we compared HCCs of monkeys living in high-density (HD; 1 monkey/0.87m(2)) and low-density (LD; 1 monkey/63.37m(2)) environments (N=236 hair samples) and found that HD monkeys exhibited higher hair cortisol across all age categories (infant, juvenile, young adult, adult, and aged) except infancy and aged (F(5)=4.240, p=0.001), for which differences were nearly significant. HD monkeys also received more severe fight wounds than LD monkeys (χ(2)=26.053, p<0.001), though no effects of dominance status emerged. In Experiment 2, we examined how HCCs change with fluctuating population levels across 5 years in the adult LD monkeys (N=155 hair samples) and found that increased population density was significantly positively correlated with HCCs in this semi-naturalistic population (r(s)=0.975, p=0.005). These are the first findings to demonstrate that increased population density is associated with increased chronic, endogenous glucocorticoid exposure in a nonhuman primate species. We discuss the implications of these findings with respect to laboratory research, population ecology, and human epidemiology.

  19. A behavioral taxonomy of loneliness in humans and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Capitanio, John P; Hawkley, Louise C; Cole, Steven W; Cacioppo, John T

    2014-01-01

    Social relationships endow health and fitness benefits, but considerable variation exists in the extent to which individuals form and maintain salutary social relationships. The mental and physical health effects of social bonds are more strongly related to perceived isolation (loneliness) than to objective social network characteristics. We sought to develop an animal model to facilitate the experimental analysis of the development of, and the behavioral and biological consequences of, loneliness. In Study 1, using a population-based sample of older adults, we examined how loneliness was influenced both by social network size and by the extent to which individuals believed that their daily social interactions reflected their own choice. Results revealed three distinct clusters of individuals: (i) individuals with large networks who believed they had high choice were lowest in loneliness, (ii) individuals with small social networks who believed they had low choice were highest in loneliness, and (iii) the remaining two groups were intermediate and equivalent in loneliness. In Study 2, a similar three-group structure was identified in two separate samples of adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) living in large social groups: (i) those high in sociability who had complex social interaction with a broad range of social partners (putatively low in loneliness), (ii) those low in sociability who showed tentative interactions with certain classes of social partners (putatively high in loneliness), and (iii) those low in sociability who interacted overall at low levels with a broad range of social partners (putatively low or intermediate in loneliness). This taxonomy in monkeys was validated in subsequent experimental social probe studies. These results suggest that, in highly social nonhuman primate species, some animals may show a mismatch between social interest and social attainment that could serve as a useful animal model for experimental and mechanistic

  20. Postmortem recovery and cryopreservation of spermatozoa from the vas deferens of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Kelly; Liukkonen, John; Kubisch, H. Michael

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether sperm derived form the vas deferens could be retrieved and successfully cryopreserved, testes were collected from 20 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The males ranged in age from 3 to 19 years with an average of 8.5 years. No sperm was obtained from three animals which were younger than 4 years. The remaining 17 samples contained sperm with an average sperm cell number of 421.8 ±88.7 × 106 and an average motility of 72.8 ± 4.4 %. After 24 h of culture in TALP medium at 37° C in 5% CO2 and 95% air, the overall motility decreased significantly in all samples regardless of treatment. Freezing in TEST-yolk buffer containing 6% (vol/vol) glycerol had a significant effect on sperm reducing the immediate post-thaw motility to 42.4 % in non-treated samples. Treatment with db-cAMP and caffeine further reduced sperm motility after 4 hr in fresh sperm (72.8 vs 50.4%), but increased in sperm that had been frozen (14.0 vs 23.2%). The age of the male did not influence sperm concentration or grade, but proved to be a significant factor in determining motility of frozen-thawed treated sperm with lower motility found in samples from older males. Overall the study demonstrates that motile sperm can be obtained from post-mortem males, although subsequent studies will have to determine whether the quality is sufficient to facilitate its use in assisted reproduction. PMID:19646745

  1. Abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in an adult rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-10-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque.

  2. Age-related changes of sulcal imprints on the endocranium in the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Van Minh, Nguyen; Hamada, Yuzuru

    2017-06-01

    The degree of expression of sulcal patterns on endocasts of nonhuman primates has been shown to depend primarily on species (brain size) and age of the individual. It has been suggested that brain details on endocasts are reproduced better in juvenile than adult primates. Here, we investigated age-related changes in the imprint of the major sulci on the endocranium of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) from the juvenile period to adulthood. Using CT scans of 25 (12 males, 13 females) cranial specimens from macaques, we generated virtual endocasts to assess imprints of the seven main sulci on the endocranial surface. Expression of each sulcal imprint was evaluated by imprint score method. The degree of expression of sulcal imprints differed between sulci. Arcuate, superior temporal, and principal sulci were well defined, whereas lunate and intraparietal sulci were poorly represented. Sulcal imprints showed significant age-related changes in Japanese macaques from juvenile to elderly. Sulcal imprints showed a slight decrease in degree of expression from the juvenile period (2-4 years) to adolescence (4-6 years), and then remained unchanged until mid-adulthood (15-16 years). The degree of expression of the sulcal imprints significantly decreased from mid-adulthood to old age (>20 years). The degree of expression of the sulcal imprints (relief forms) in inner table bone surface (endocranium) reveals significant age-related decreases in adults. The great decrease starts at around 20 years of age. The endocranial volume showed a significant age-related increase, and thus, it is suggested that the endocranial surface in macaques may be resorbed with advancing age. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Speech-like orofacial oscillations in stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides) facial and vocal signals.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Aru; Maruhashi, Tamaki; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Koda, Hiroki

    2017-10-01

    Speech is unique to humans and characterized by facial actions of ∼5 Hz oscillations of lip, mouth or jaw movements. Lip-smacking, a facial display of primates characterized by oscillatory actions involving the vertical opening and closing of the jaw and lips, exhibits stable 5-Hz oscillation patterns, matching that of speech, suggesting that lip-smacking is a precursor of speech. We tested if facial or vocal actions exhibiting the same rate of oscillation are found in wide forms of facial or vocal displays in various social contexts, exhibiting diversity among species. We observed facial and vocal actions of wild stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides), and selected video clips including facial displays (teeth chattering; TC), panting calls, and feeding. Ten open-to-open mouth durations during TC and feeding and five amplitude peak-to-peak durations in panting were analyzed. Facial display (TC) and vocalization (panting) oscillated within 5.74 ± 1.19 and 6.71 ± 2.91 Hz, respectively, similar to the reported lip-smacking of long-tailed macaques and the speech of humans. These results indicated a common mechanism for the central pattern generator underlying orofacial movements, which would evolve to speech. Similar oscillations in panting, which evolved from different muscular control than the orofacial action, suggested the sensory foundations for perceptual saliency particular to 5-Hz rhythms in macaques. This supports the pre-adaptation hypothesis of speech evolution, which states a central pattern generator for 5-Hz facial oscillation and perceptual background tuned to 5-Hz actions existed in common ancestors of macaques and humans, before the emergence of speech. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Auditory Rehabilitation in Rhesus Macaque Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with Auditory Brainstem Implants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Min; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Zhao, Fu; Wang, Bo; Wang, Xing-Chao; Qu, Pei-Ran; Liu, Pi-Nan

    2015-05-20

    The auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) have been used to treat deafness for patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 and nontumor patients. The lack of an appropriate animal model has limited the study of improving hearing rehabilitation by the device. This study aimed to establish an animal model of ABI in adult rhesus macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta). Six adult rhesus macaque monkeys (M. mulatta) were included. Under general anesthesia, a multichannel ABI was implanted into the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle through the modified suboccipital-retrosigmoid (RS) approach. The electrical auditory brainstem response (EABR) waves were tested to ensure the optimal implant site. After the operation, the EABR and computed tomography (CT) were used to test and verify the effectiveness via electrophysiology and anatomy, respectively. The subjects underwent behavioral observation for 6 months, and the postoperative EABR was tested every two weeks from the 1 st month after implant surgery. The implant surgery lasted an average of 5.2 h, and no monkey died or sacrificed. The averaged latencies of peaks I, II and IV were 1.27, 2.34 and 3.98 ms, respectively in the ABR. One-peak EABR wave was elicited in the operation, and one- or two-peak waves were elicited during the postoperative period. The EABR wave latencies appeared to be constant under different stimulus intensities; however, the amplitudes increased as the stimulus increased within a certain scope. It is feasible and safe to implant ABIs in rhesus macaque monkeys (M. mulatta) through a modified suboccipital RS approach, and EABR and CT are valid tools for animal model establishment. In addition, this model should be an appropriate animal model for the electrophysiological and behavioral study of rhesus macaque monkey with ABI.

  5. Sex Differences in the Development of Social Relationships in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Amici, Federica; Langos, Doreen; Widdig, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have documented the importance of social bonding for the enhancement of individual fitness. However, little is known about how social relationships develop through ontogeny, and whether their development follows the same trajectory in males and females. Here we analyzed affiliative interactions (proximity, social grooming, play) combined with demographic and genetic data in semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago over their first 4 yr of life (from birth to sexual maturation) to understand how these interactions change through development in both sexes. Generalized linear mixed models revealed that social behaviors mostly followed different developmental trajectories in males and females and were highly dependent on the social context. In particular, sex differences in social behavior varied through development depending on the partner’s sex and age. Females engaged in more social interactions than males, especially with other females, and were more involved in grooming around the time of maturation. In contrast, males interacted more with males and age peers, especially around maturation. Sex differences in social behavior varied through development, but also depended on rank, partner’s rank, and kin line, although not consistently. High-ranking individuals, especially older females, were generally preferred as social partners. Moreover, both male and female individuals interacted mostly with maternal kin, although males also preferred paternal kin over nonkin. Importantly, most developmental changes in sociality happened when individuals were ca. 2 yr old, suggesting that this might be a milestone in the development of sociality in rhesus macaques. The only notable exception to this pattern was play, which was more pronounced in males from the beginning of their lives. We propose that play might serve as a trigger of sex differences in social behavior, with sex differences emerging early in development and

  6. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  7. Feeding behavior and aggression in wild Siberut macaques (Macaca siberu) living under low predation risk.

    PubMed

    Richter, Christin; Gras, Pierre; Hodges, Keith; Ostner, Julia; Schülke, Oliver

    2015-07-01

    Investigating which factors influence feeding competition is crucial for our understanding of the diversity of social relationships. Socio-ecological models differ in their predictions whether predation risk directly influences feeding competition and which factors exactly predict contest competition. We investigated feeding competition in Siberut macaques (Macaca siberu), a species endemic to Siberut Island (West Sumatra, Indonesia). Siberut macaques experience low predation risk, as major predators (felids, raptors) are absent. They are therefore appropriate subjects to test the prediction that low predation risk reduces feeding competition. To estimate contest potential, we quantified size, spatial distribution and density of food plants, and the availability of alternative resources. We recorded behavior in food patches using a modified focal tree method. Food patches, sorted by decreasing average feeding group size, included large trees (40% of focal plant observations), lianas/strangler (16%), medium trees (9%), small (palm) trees (20%), and rattan (15%). Most food patches were clumped but occurred at low densities relative to the area of average group spread. Thus, availability of alternative food patches was low. Although food patch characteristics indicate high contest potential, the observed aggression rate (0.13 bouts between adults/h) was low relative to other primates. Average feeding group size was small relative to total group size, and feeding group size matched crown volume. Perceived predation risk was low, based on spatial and feeding behavior of juveniles. Together, these results suggest that predation risk may influence feeding competition. Social and temporal factors (patch feeding time), but not ecological factors (fruit abundance in patch and forest, alternative resources) predicted aggression frequency in food patches. Overall, comparative data are still relatively scarce, and researchers should collect more data on group spread, sub

  8. Diversity and Molecular Phylogeny of Mitochondrial DNA of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    HASAN, M. KAMRUL; FEEROZ, M. MOSTAFA; JONES-ENGEL, LISA; ENGEL, GREGORY A.; KANTHASWAMY, SREE; SMITH, DAVID GLENN

    2015-01-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India. PMID:24810278

  9. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Port System for the Collection of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    MacAllister, Rhonda Pung; Lester McCully, Cynthia M; Bacher, John; Thomas Iii, Marvin L; Cruz, Rafael; Wangari, Solomon; Warren, Katherine E

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical translational research frequently incorporates collection of CSF from NHP, because CSF drug levels are used as a surrogate for CNS tissue penetration in pharmacokinetic and dynamic studies. Surgical placement of a CNS ventricular catheter reservoir for CSF collection is an intensive model to create and maintain and thus may not be feasible or practical for short-term studies. Furthermore, previous NHP lumbar port models require laminectomy for catheter placement. The new model uses a minimally invasive technique for percutaneous placement of a lumbar catheter to create a closed, subcutaneous system for effective, repeated CSF sample collection. None of the rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 10) implanted with our minimally invasive lumbar port (MILP) system experienced neurologic deficits, postoperative infection of the surgical site, or skin erosion around the port throughout the 21.7-mo study. Functional MILP systems were maintained in 70% of the macaques, with multiple, high-quality, 0.5- to 1.0-mL samples of CSF collected for an average of 3 mo by using aspiration or gravitational flow. Among these macaques, 57% had continuous functionality for a mean of 19.2 mo; 50% of the cohort required surgical repair for port repositioning and replacement during the study. The MILP was unsuccessful in 2 macaques, at an average of 9.5 d after surgery. Nonpatency in these animals was attributed to the position of the lumbar catheter. The MILP system is an appropriate replacement for temporary catheterization and previous models requiring laminectomy and is a short-term alternative for ventricular CSF collection systems in NHP.

  10. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Detect Rhythmic Groups in Music, but Not the Beat

    PubMed Central

    Honing, Henkjan; Merchant, Hugo; Háden, Gábor P.; Prado, Luis; Bartolo, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN) to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1). Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2) and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the ‘downbeat’; Experiment 3). In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm), the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm) is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group), but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm). PMID:23251509

  11. Do Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) perceive what conspecifics do and do not see?

    PubMed Central

    Piraux, Emilie; Poulin, Nicolas; Meunier, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the visual perception of others, also named visual perspective taking, is a component of Theory of Mind. Although strong evidence of visual perspective taking has been reported in great apes, the issue is more open to discussion in monkeys. We investigated whether Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) know what conspecifics do and do not see, using a food competition paradigm originally developed in great apes. We tested individuals in pairs, after establishing the dominance relationship within each pair. Twenty-one pairs were tested in four different conditions. In one condition, the subordinate had the choice between two pieces of food, one that was visible only to it and another that was also visible to the dominant. It was predicted that if the subordinate understands that the dominant cannot see both pieces of food because one is hidden from its view, the subordinate should preferentially go for the food visible only to itself. In the three other conditions, we varied the temporal and visual access to food for both individuals, to control for alternative explanations based on dominance. We recorded the first movement direction chosen by subjects, i.e. towards a) visible food b) hidden food or c) elsewhere; and the outcome of the test, i.e. the quantity of food obtained. Results showed that subordinates moved preferentially for the hidden food when released simultaneously with the dominant and also with a head start on the dominant. By contrast, dominants’ choices of the two pieces of food were random. We also describe and discuss some of the strategies used by subordinates in these tests. According to the whole of our results, Tonkean macaques seem capable of visual perspective taking despite the fact that a low-level explanation as behavior reading has not been totally excluded. PMID:26925323

  12. Alu-Derived Alternative Splicing Events Specific to Macaca Lineages in CTSF Gene

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ja-Rang; Park, Sang-Je; Kim, Young-Hyun; Choe, Se-Hee; Cho, Hyeon-Mu; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Sun-Uk; Kim, Ji-Su; Sim, Bo-Woong; Song, Bong-Seok; Jeong, Kang-Jin; Lee, Youngjeon; Jin, Yeung Bae; Kang, Philyong; Huh, Jae-Won; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Cathepsin F, which is encoded by CTSF, is a cysteine proteinase ubiquitously expressed in several tissues. In a previous study, novel transcripts of the CTSF gene were identified in the crab-eating monkey deriving from the integration of an Alu element–AluYRa1. The occurrence of AluYRa1-derived alternative transcripts and the mechanism of exonization events in the CTSF gene of human, rhesus monkey, and crab-eating monkey were investigated using PCR and reverse transcription PCR on the genomic DNA and cDNA isolated from several tissues. Results demonstrated that AluYRa1 was only integrated into the genome of Macaca species and this lineage-specific integration led to exonization events by producing a conserved 3′ splice site. Six transcript variants (V1–V6) were generated by alternative splicing (AS) events, including intron retention and alternative 5′ splice sites in the 5′ and 3′ flanking regions of CTSF_AluYRa1. Among them, V3–V5 transcripts were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues of rhesus monkey and crab-eating monkey, whereas AluYRa1-exonized V1 was dominantly expressed in the testis of the crab-eating monkey, and V2 was only expressed in the testis of the two monkeys. These five transcript variants also had different amino acid sequences in the C-terminal region of CTSF, as compared to reference sequences. Thus, species-specific Alu-derived exonization by lineage-specific integration of Alu elements and AS events seems to have played an important role during primate evolution by producing transcript variants and gene diversification. PMID:28196413

  13. Whom to groom and for what? Patterns of grooming in female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    PubMed

    Roubová, Veronika; Konečná, Martina; Šmilauer, Petr; Wallner, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Grooming is one of the most conspicuous social interactions among nonhuman primates. The selection of grooming partners can provide important clues about factors relevant for the distribution of grooming within a social group. We analyzed grooming behavior among 17 semi-free ranging female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). We tested whether grooming is related to kinship, rank and friendship. Furthermore, we tested whether grooming is reciprocated or exchanged for rank related benefits (i.e. lower aggression and increased tolerance whilst feeding). We found that in general grooming was reciprocally exchanged, directed up the hierarchy and at the same time affected by friendship and kinship. Grooming was more frequent among individuals with higher friendship values as well as amongst related individuals. We also divided our data set on the basis of rank difference and tested if different power asymmetries between individuals affected the tendency to exchange grooming for rank related benefits and grooming reciprocation. In support of our initial hypothesis our results show that the reciprocation of grooming was a significant predictor of grooming interactions between individuals of similar rank, but not between those individuals more distantly separated in the social hierarchy. However, we did not find any evidence for grooming being exchanged for rank related benefits in either data set. Our results, together with previously published studies, illustrate the behavioral flexibility of macaques. It is clear that multiple studies of the same species are necessary to gather the data required for the solid comparative studies needed to shed light on patterns of grooming behavior in primates.

  14. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  15. Population density-dependent hair cortisol concentrations in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, A.M.; Novak, M.A.; Meyer, J.S.; Suomi, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Population density is known to influence acute measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in a variety of species, including fish, deer, birds, and humans. However, the effects of population density on levels of chronic stress are unknown. Given the fact that exposure to chronically elevated levels of circulating glucocorticoids results in a host of health disparities in animals and humans alike, it is important to understand how population density may impact chronic stress. We assessed hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), which are reliable indicators of chronic HPA axis activity, in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to determine the influence of population density on these values. In Experiment 1, we compared HCCs of monkeys living in high-density (HD; 1 monkey/0.87m2) and low-density (LD; 1 monkey/63.37m2) environments (N=236 hair samples) and found that HD monkeys exhibited higher hair cortisol across all age categories (infant, juvenile, young adult, adult, and aged) except infancy and aged (F(5)=4.240, p=0.001), for which differences were nearly significant. HD monkeys also received more severe fight wounds than LD monkeys (χ2=26.053, p<0.001), though no effects of dominance status emerged. In Experiment 2, we examined how HCCs change with fluctuating population levels across five years in the adult LD monkeys (N=155 hair samples) and found that increased population density was significantly positively correlated with HCCs in this semi-naturalistic population (r(s)=0.975, p=0.005). These are the first findings to demonstrate that increased population density is associated with increased chronic, endogenous glucocorticoid exposure in a nonhuman primate species. We discuss the implications of these findings with respect to laboratory research, population ecology, and human epidemiology. PMID:24636502

  16. Influence of dominance rank and affiliation relationships on selfdirected behavior in female Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana)

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Qi-Xin; LI, Jin-Hua; XIA, Dong-Po; ZHU, Yong; WANG, Xi; ZHANG, Dao

    2014-01-01

    Self-directed behavior (SDB) is characterized as an indicator of anxiety, frustration and stress in nonhuman primates. In this study, we collected self-directed behavior data from one group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China (September 2012–May 2013) using a combination of behavioral sampling methods including focal animal sampling, behavioral sampling, continuous sampling and instantaneous sampling. Our results showed that females engaged in significantly higher rates of self-directed behavior when they were in proximity to dominant individuals compared to subordinate ones. Conflict losers significantly increased their SDB rates after agonistic episodes, indicating that SDB might also serve as an index of anxiety in M. thibetana. We further found that females significantly increased their SDB rates when focal individual was proximity to weakly affiliation relationship higher rank members than to strongly affiliation relationship higher rank members. If conflicts were not reconciled, the postconflict SDB rates of losers were higher when they stayed with strongly affiliation opponents; if conflicts were reconciled, victims of strongly affiliation relationships opponents engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation, while victims of moderately affiliation relationships opponents did not engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation. We conclude that both of dominance rank and affiliation relationships might both influence the SDB rates of female Tibetan macaques significantly, suggesting that SDB is not only an index of anxiety in Tibetan macaques, but also can provide a new insight into evaluation of social relationships between individuals. PMID:24866492

  17. Disability, compensatory behavior, and innovation in free-ranging adult female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Turner, Sarah E; Fedigan, Linda M; Matthews, H Damon; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2012-09-01

    Little is known about consequences of disability in nonhuman primates, yet individuals with disabilities can reveal much about behavioral flexibility, innovation, and the capabilities of a species. The Macaca fuscata population surrounding the Awajishima Monkey Center has experienced high rates of congenital limb malformation for at least 40 years, creating a unique opportunity to examine consequences of physical impairment in situ, in a relatively large sample of free-ranging adult monkeys. Here we present behavioral data on 11 disabled adult females and 12 nondisabled controls from 279 hours of randomly ordered 30-minute focal animal follows collected during May-August in 2005, 2006, and 2007. We quantified numerous statistically significant disability-related behavioral differences among females. Disabled females spent less time begging for peanuts from tourists, and employed a behavioral variant of such peanut begging; they had a lower frequency of hand use in grooming and compensated with increased direct use of the mouth or a two-arm pinch technique; and they had a higher frequency of self-scratching, and more use of feet in self-scratching. Self-scratching against substrates was almost exclusively a disability associated behavior. Two females used habitual bipedalism. These differences not withstanding, disabled females behaved similarly to controls in many respects: overall reliance on provisioned and wild foods, time spent feeding, and feeding efficiency did not differ among females, and there was no time difference in behavior performed arboreally or terrestrially. Disabled adult females were able to compensate behaviorally to perform social and life-sustaining activities, modifying existing behaviors to suit their individual physical situations and, occasionally, inventing new ways of doing things.

  18. Factors increasing snake detection and perceived threat in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Etting, Stephanie F; Isbell, Lynne A; Grote, Mark N

    2014-02-01

    The primary predators of primates are all ambush hunters, and yet felids, raptors, and snakes differ in aspects of their ecology that affect the evasive strategies of their primate prey. Felids and raptors can traverse long distances quickly, thus the urgency of threat they present increases as they come closer in proximity to primates. In contrast, snakes do not move rapidly over long distances, and so primates may be reasonably safe even at close distances provided snakes can be detected and monitored. We investigated the ability of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to detect snakes at distances ranging from 15 to 1.5 m. We also examined variation in intensity of perceived threat by applying a Hidden Markov Model to infer changes in underlying state from observable behaviors, that is, increased attention and mobbing. We found that the macaques often failed to detect snake models but that closer proximity improved snake detection, which is necessary before threat can be perceived. We also found that having only one individual in fairly close proximity (≤ 7.5 m) was sufficient to alert the rest of the group and so the chances of detection did not increase with increasing group size. Finally, we found that when the snakes were perceived, they did not elicit greater intensity of response with closer proximity. These results provide evidence that the threat from snakes is greatest when they are in proximity to primates but are unseen. When snakes are seen, however, distance appears not to affect primates' perceived risk, in contrast to their perceived risk from raptors and felids.

  19. Elasticity and stress relaxation of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) vocal folds

    PubMed Central

    Riede, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental frequency is an important perceptual parameter for acoustic communication in mammals. It is determined by vocal fold oscillation, which depends on the morphology and viscoelastic properties of the oscillating tissue. In this study, I tested if stress–strain and stress–relaxation behavior of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) vocal folds allows the prediction of a species' natural fundamental frequency range across its entire vocal repertoire as well as of frequency contours within a single call type. In tensile tests, the load–strain and stress–relaxation behavior of rhesus monkey vocal folds and ventricular folds has been examined. Using the string model, predictions about the species' fundamental frequency range, individual variability, as well as the frequency contour of ‘coo’ calls were made. The low- and mid-frequency range (up to 2 kHz) of rhesus monkeys can be predicted relatively well with the string model. The discrepancy between predicted maximum fundamental frequency and what has been recorded in rhesus monkeys is currently ascribed to the difficulty in predicting the behavior of the lamina propria at very high strain. Histological sections of the vocal fold and different staining techniques identified collagen, elastin, hyaluronan and, surprisingly, fat cells as components of the lamina propria. The distribution of all four components is not uniform, suggesting that different aspects of the lamina propria are drawn into oscillation depending on vocal fold tension. A differentiated recruitment of tissue into oscillation could extend the frequency range specifically at the upper end of the frequency scale. PMID:20709920

  20. Abdominal Lipomatosis with Secondary Self-Strangulation of Masses in an Adult Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque. PMID:25402181

  1. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

    PubMed

    Honing, Henkjan; Merchant, Hugo; Háden, Gábor P; Prado, Luis; Bartolo, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN) to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1). Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2) and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3). In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm), the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm) is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group), but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm).

  2. Using biological markets principles to examine patterns of grooming exchange in Macaca thibetana.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, K N; Berman, C M; Ogawa, H; Li, J

    2011-12-01

    Biological markets principles offer testable hypotheses to explain variation in grooming exchange patterns among nonhuman primates. They predict that when within-group contest competition (WGC) is high and dominance hierarchies steep, grooming interchange with other "commodity" behaviors (such as agonistic support) should prevail. In contrast, when WGC is low and gradients shallow, market theory predicts that grooming reciprocity should prevail. We tested these predictions in a wild, provisioned Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) group across six time periods during which the group had been subjected to varying degrees of range restriction. Data on female-female aggression, grooming, and support were collected using all-occurrences and focal animal sampling techniques, and analyzed using ANCOVA methods and correlation analyses. We found that hierarchical steepness varied significantly across periods, but did not correlate with two indirect indicators of WGC (group size and range restriction) in predicted directions. Contrary to expectations, we found a negative correlation between steepness and group size, perhaps because the responses of group members to external risks (i.e. prolonged and unavoidable exposure to humans) may have overshadowed the effects of WGC. As predicted, grooming reciprocity was significant in each period and negatively correlated with steepness, even after we controlled group size, kinship, rank differences, and proximity. In contrast, there was no evidence for grooming interchange with agonistic support or for a positive relationship between interchange and steepness. We hypothesize that stressful conditions and/or the presence of stable hierarchies during each period may have led to a greater market demand for grooming than support. We suggest that future studies testing these predictions consider more direct measures of WGC and commodities in addition to support, such as feeding tolerance and access to infants. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals

  3. Microvasculature of the Olfactory Organ in the Japanese Monkey (Macaca fuscata fuscata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shigenori; Schraufnagel, Dean E.

    2002-06-01

    Olfaction is an important and primitive sense. As its importance has changed with evolution, anatomic adjustments have occurred in its structure and vasculature. Primates are a family of vertebrates that have had to develop their visual system to adapt to the arboreal environment and have evolved from a macrosmatic to a microsmatic species as the optic system has enlarged. This has resulted in anatomic changes of a small but critical area at the base of the brain. This paper describes the three-dimensional vascular anatomy of the olfactory organ of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata fuscata). This is best understood by dividing the organ into three parts: the olfactory tract, olfactory bulb, and olfactory nerves in the nasal mucosa. The bulb can be partitioned into an outer or cortical part and inner or medullary part. The vasculature and tissue were examined grossly and with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. The olfactory tract and bulb were supplied by an arteriole from the anterior cerebral artery on each side. The tract was supplied by capillaries running spirally with a coarse network. At the olfactory bulb, the arteriole ramified into the intracortical and medullary branches that formed capillary networks. The bulbar intracortical capillaries were divided into two layers with different densities and vascular patterns. The capillaries of the superficial layer had a ladder-like pattern. The branches that ran into the medulla of the olfactory bulb were more widely spaced. Twigs from the posterior ethmoidal artery ran along the nerve fiber and formed intra- and extrafascicular networks. Each region of the olfactory organ had characteristic three-dimensional vascular patterns that were related to their cellular architecture.

  4. Facial paralysis and lymphocytic facial neuritis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) positive for simian retrovirus type D2.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Anna L; Colby, Lesley A; Bergin, Ingrid L

    2011-12-01

    Simian retrovirus type D (SRVD) is a naturally occurring betaretrovirus in nonhuman primates of the genus Macaca. Infection can lead to a variety of clinical, hematologic, and histopathologic abnormalities. We report an unusual clinical presentation of facial paralysis and histologic lymphocytic neuritis in an SRVD type 2 (SRVD2)-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a catheter-associated vena caval thrombus, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and multisystemic lymphoid hyperplasia. At initial presentation, a right atrial mass was detected by echocardiography. The macaque was clinically asymptomatic but had persistent anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, and later neutropenia. It was seropositive for SRV and PCR-positive for SRVD 2. Approximately 1 mo after initial presentation, the macaque developed right facial paralysis and was euthanized. Histologic lesions included lymphoplasmacytic aggregates affecting multiple organs, consistent with SRV-related lymphoid hyperplasia. The right facial nerve showed lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. The nerve itself was negative immunohistochemically for SRV antigen, but antigen was present infrequently in pericapillary lymphoid cells within the facial nerve and abundantly within lymphoid aggregates in the adjacent parotid salivary gland, bone marrow, and soft tissue. Known neurotropic viruses could not be identified. Given the widespread inflammation in this macaque, particularly in the area surrounding the facial nerve, lymphocytic neuritis and facial paralysis likely were an indirect effect of SRV infection due to local extension of SRV-related inflammation in the surrounding tissue.

  5. Plasmodium coatneyi in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) as a model of malaria in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Davison, B B; Cogswell, F B; Baskin, G B; Falkenstein, K P; Henson, E W; Tarantal, A F; Krogstad, D J

    1998-08-01

    Pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum infection are at increased risk for complications such as anemia and cerebral malaria. In addition, the infants of these women suffer intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), low birth weight (LBW), congenital infection, and high infant mortality. Although much has been learned from studies of malaria during human pregnancy, progress has been limited by the lack of a suitable animal model. Nonhuman primates are of particular interest because, other than the armadillo, they are the only animals with a discoidal, villous, hemochorial placenta like that of humans. We have established a model of malaria during human pregnancy by inoculating pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with Plasmodium coatneyi (a sequestering parasite) during the first trimester. In our initial experiment, four monkeys were inoculated with a fresh inoculum containing 10(8) viable parasites from an infected donor monkey. All four monkeys became parasitemic seven days postinoculation (PI) and three monkeys aborted 7-10 days PI coincident with high peak parasitemias (41,088-374,325 parasites/mm3). Although abortion is one of the outcomes observed in Plasmodium-infected women, the intent of this study was to examine the effects of Plasmodium infection throughout gestation. Since the rapid onset of high parasitemia may have been responsible for the abortions, a decision was made to reduce the size of the effective inoculum. Six additional pregnant monkeys were inoculated with a frozen isolate taken from the same donor containing 10(6) parasites. These six animals became parasitemic by 14 days PI and, along with monkey E412, carried their infants to term. These seven infants weighed significantly less at term than the infants of uninfected mothers (P = 0.0355). Symmetrical IUGR was detected by ultrasound in one fetus with an LBW of 334 g. Another LBW infant (300 g) had asymmetrical growth retardation, which has been associated with uteroplacental

  6. Experience-based human perception of facial expressions in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    PubMed

    Maréchal, Laëtitia; Levy, Xandria; Meints, Kerstin; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions convey key cues of human emotions, and may also be important for interspecies interactions. The universality hypothesis suggests that six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) should be expressed by similar facial expressions in close phylogenetic species such as humans and nonhuman primates. However, some facial expressions have been shown to differ in meaning between humans and nonhuman primates like macaques. This ambiguity in signalling emotion can lead to an increased risk of aggression and injuries for both humans and animals. This raises serious concerns for activities such as wildlife tourism where humans closely interact with wild animals. Understanding what factors (i.e., experience and type of emotion) affect ability to recognise emotional state of nonhuman primates, based on their facial expressions, can enable us to test the validity of the universality hypothesis, as well as reduce the risk of aggression and potential injuries in wildlife tourism. The present study investigated whether different levels of experience of Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, affect the ability to correctly assess different facial expressions related to aggressive, distressed, friendly or neutral states, using an online questionnaire. Participants' level of experience was defined as either: (1) naïve: never worked with nonhuman primates and never or rarely encountered live Barbary macaques; (2) exposed: shown pictures of the different Barbary macaques' facial expressions along with the description and the corresponding emotion prior to undertaking the questionnaire; (3) expert: worked with Barbary macaques for at least two months. Experience with Barbary macaques was associated with better performance in judging their emotional state. Simple exposure to pictures of macaques' facial expressions improved the ability of inexperienced participants to better discriminate neutral and distressed faces, and a trend was found for

  7. Mitochondrial DNA variation in Chinese and Indian rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Smith, David Glenn; McDonough, John

    2005-01-01

    DNA was extracted from the buffy coats or serum of 212 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) sampled throughout the species' geographic range. An 835 base pair (bp) fragment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was amplified from each sample, sequenced, aligned, and used to estimate genetic distances from which phylogenetic trees were constructed. A tree that included sequences from rhesus macaques whose exact origins in China are known was used to determine the regional origin of clusters of haplotypes, or haplogroups, defined by the trees. Indian rhesus sequences formed one large homogeneous haplogroup with very low levels of nucleotide diversity and no geographic structure, and a second much smaller haplogroup apparently derived from Burma. The sequences from Burma and eastern and western China were quite divergent from those in the major haplogroup of India. Each of these sequences formed separate clusters of haplotypes that exhibited far greater nucleotide diversity and/or population structure. Correspondingly, sequences from Indian rhesus macaques that are considered to represent different subspecies (based on morphological differences) were intermingled in the tree, while those from China reflected some, but not all, aspects of subspecific taxonomy. Regional variation contributed 72% toward the paired differences between sequences in an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), and the average differences between the populations of eastern and western China were also statistically significant. These results suggest that Indian and Chinese rhesus macaques were reproductively isolated during most, if not all, of the Pleistocene, during which time Indian rhesus macaques experienced a severe genetic bottleneck, and that some gene flow westward into India was subsequently reestablished. Samples from breeding centers in three different provinces of China included sequences from rhesus macaques that originated in both eastern (or southern) and western China, confirming anecdotal

  8. Experience-based human perception of facial expressions in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Xandria; Meints, Kerstin; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2017-01-01

    Background Facial expressions convey key cues of human emotions, and may also be important for interspecies interactions. The universality hypothesis suggests that six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) should be expressed by similar facial expressions in close phylogenetic species such as humans and nonhuman primates. However, some facial expressions have been shown to differ in meaning between humans and nonhuman primates like macaques. This ambiguity in signalling emotion can lead to an increased risk of aggression and injuries for both humans and animals. This raises serious concerns for activities such as wildlife tourism where humans closely interact with wild animals. Understanding what factors (i.e., experience and type of emotion) affect ability to recognise emotional state of nonhuman primates, based on their facial expressions, can enable us to test the validity of the universality hypothesis, as well as reduce the risk of aggression and potential injuries in wildlife tourism. Methods The present study investigated whether different levels of experience of Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, affect the ability to correctly assess different facial expressions related to aggressive, distressed, friendly or neutral states, using an online questionnaire. Participants’ level of experience was defined as either: (1) naïve: never worked with nonhuman primates and never or rarely encountered live Barbary macaques; (2) exposed: shown pictures of the different Barbary macaques’ facial expressions along with the description and the corresponding emotion prior to undertaking the questionnaire; (3) expert: worked with Barbary macaques for at least two months. Results Experience with Barbary macaques was associated with better performance in judging their emotional state. Simple exposure to pictures of macaques’ facial expressions improved the ability of inexperienced participants to better discriminate neutral and distressed

  9. The Effects of Predictability in Daily Husbandry Routines on Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Coleman, Kristine; McCowan, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) housed indoors experience many routine husbandry activities on a daily basis. The anticipation of these events can lead to stress, regardless of whether the events themselves are positive or aversive in nature. The specific goal of this study was to identify whether increasing the predictability of husbandry events could decrease stress and anxiety in captive rhesus macaques. This study was conducted on 39 single-housed subjects in four indoor rooms at the Oregon National Primate Research Center. Temporal and signaled predictability were added to four daily husbandry events: morning and afternoon feeding, enrichment distribution, and room cleaning. Temporally predictable husbandry events occurred reliably at the same time daily, while signaled predictable husbandry events were preceded by a distinct event-specific signal in the form of a doorbell. Informal tests prior to study onset found the doorbells not to be aversive to the subjects. Subjects received each of four treatments: unpredictable events, temporally predictable events, signaled predictable events, and temporally and signaled predictable events. Change in stress was evaluated by monitoring changes in motor stereotypies and displacement behaviors. Our results showed that subjects displayed less stress and anticipatory behaviors related to feeding and enrichment events when the events were temporally predictable (P < 0 .0001). When husbandry events were preceded by a reliable signal, subjects vocalized less prior to the event and were less responsive to activity outside of the room (P < 0 .01). However this may have come at a cost as the animals were extremely reactive to the doorbell signals and showed a heightened stress response during the actual husbandry events (P < 0 .01). Similar to temporal predictability alone, when temporal predictability was combined with signaled predictability subjects displayed less stress and anticipatory behaviors related to feeding and

  10. 76 FR 13120 - Requirements for Importers of Nonhuman Primates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... (42 CFR 71.53) for the importation of live nonhuman primates (NHPs). Written comments were to be... the imporation of live nonhuman primates (NHPs) by extending existing requirements for the importation of Macaca fascicularis (cyanmologus), Chlororcebus aethlops (African green) and Macaca...

  11. Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya virus antibody prevalence among captive monkey (Macaca nemestrina) colonies of Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nakgoi, Khajornpong; Nitatpattana, Narong; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Kaewchot, Supakarn; Yoksan, Sutee; Siripolwat, Voravit; Souris, Marc; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The potential of macaque Macaca nemestrina leonina in Thailand to be infected by endemic arboviruses was assessed. The prevalence of antibodies of three arboviruses actively circulating in Thailand was determined by Plaque Reduction Neutralization assay procedures using samples from captive colonies in Northern Thailand. Out of 38 macaques, 9 (24%) presented reacting antibodies against dengue virus, 5 (13%) against Japanese encephalitis virus, and 4 (10%) against Chikungunya virus. Our results indicate that the northern pig-tailed macaque in Thailand can be infected by these arboviruses, inferring therefore that their virus specific vectors have bitten them. Given that, northern pig-tailed macaque represents an abundant population, living in close range to human or in peridomestic setting, they could play a role as potential reservoir host for arboviruses circulating in Thailand. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Primacy and recency effects in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a serial probe recognition task. III. A developmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Matzke, S M; Castro, C A

    1998-04-01

    In children, the recency effect emerges prior to the primacy effect. To determine whether this dissociation is also seen in nonhuman primates, we evaluated the development of the primacy and recency effect in 3 young adult (35 months) and 4 adolescent (21 months) male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a six-item serial probe recognition (SPR) task. As predicted, the young adult monkeys displayed both effects, while the adolescent monkeys only displayed the recency effect. Not until after 26 months of training on the SPR task did the adolescent monkeys exhibit both the primacy and recency effect. Interference and strategy differences are discussed in terms of the results along with an interpretation of Rudy's (1992) configural association theory of cognitive development. Additional possible explanations for this developmental dissociation include the delayed maturation of the neocortical, hippocampal, and/or cholinergic systems, the latter two having been shown to be important in the expression of the primacy but not the recency effect.

  13. Reactive amyloidosis associated with ischial callosititis: a report with histology of ischial callosities in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, David X.; Gilbert, Margaret H.; Wang, Xiaolei; Didier, Peter J.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    Ischial callosities have received little attention in veterinary medicine even though they are distinguishing anatomic organs. The organs are characterized by a pair of hairless pads of thickened epidermis, located bilaterally in the gluteal region, which overlay the tuberosities of the ischia of all Old World monkeys, gibbons, and siamangs. The current report describes a case of reactive amyloidosis associated with ischial callosititis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Amyloid A (AA) protein was found in the liver, spleen, small intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ischial callosities by histology, Congo red stain, and immunohistochemistry. Confocal microscopy showed that many cluster of differentiation (CD)68-positive macrophages within the ischial callosities contained intracellular AA protein, which suggests that CD68-positive macrophages have an important role in the pathogenesis of reactive amyloidosis in nonhuman primates. The normal histology of ischial callosities of rhesus macaques is also documented in this report. PMID:23104953

  14. Reactive amyloidosis associated with ischial callosititis: a report with histology of ischial callosities in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Liu, David X; Gilbert, Margaret H; Wang, Xiaolei; Didier, Peter J; Veazey, Ronald S

    2012-11-01

    Ischial callosities have received little attention in veterinary medicine even though they are distinguishing anatomic organs. The organs are characterized by a pair of hairless pads of thickened epidermis, located bilaterally in the gluteal region, which overlay the tuberosities of the ischia of all Old World monkeys, gibbons, and siamangs. The current report describes a case of reactive amyloidosis associated with ischial callosititis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Amyloid A (AA) protein was found in the liver, spleen, small intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ischial callosities by histology, Congo red stain, and immunohistochemistry. Confocal microscopy showed that many cluster of differentiation (CD)68-positive macrophages within the ischial callosities contained intracellular AA protein, which suggests that CD68-positive macrophages have an important role in the pathogenesis of reactive amyloidosis in nonhuman primates. The normal histology of ischial callosities of rhesus macaques is also documented in this report.

  15. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of Japanese Macaque Babesia-1 (JM-1) detected from a Japanese Macaque (Macaca fuscata fuscata).

    PubMed

    Hirata, Haruyuki; Kawai, Satoru; Maeda, Mari; Jinnai, Michio; Fujisawa, Kohei; Katakai, Yuko; Hikosaka, Kenji; Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2011-10-01

    We demonstrate here the identification and phylogenetic characterization of Babesia microti (B. microti)-like parasite detected from a splenectomized Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata fuscata) at a facility for laboratory animal science. On Day 133 after splenectomy, intra-erythrocytic parasites were found on light microscopic examination, and the level of parasitemia reached 0.3% on blood smear. Molecular characterization of the parasite using nested-polymerization chain reactions targeting the 18S rRNA, β-tubulin, and subunit 7 (eta) of the chaperonin-containing t-complex polypeptide 1 (CCT7) genes were identified as a B. microti-like parasite, designated the Japanese Macaque Babesia-1 (JM-1).

  16. Aplasia of the maxillary sinus in a Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) with implications for its evolutionary loss and reacquisition.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi D; Ito, Tsuyoshi

    2014-10-01

    The skull of an adult female Tibetan macaque, Macaca thibetana, was found to completely lack the maxillary sinus (MS). This absence was accompanied by a slight lateral concavity where the ostium should have formed in the MS, a slight drop of the orbital floor, posterior and medial displacement of the zygomaxillary suture, an unusual position of the lacrimal canal, malocclusion with severely worn cheek teeth, and abnormalities in the temporomandibular joints. The facial component was disproportionally large compared with the neurocranium and mandible. This hypertrophic face probably caused the malocclusion and associated anatomical disorders and simultaneously displaced the lacrimal canal posterior to other nasal structures to preclude the possibility of maxillary pneumatization. These modifications in the spatial relationships to nasal structures might help explain the evolutionary loss and reacquisition of the MS in some primate lineages displaying great variations in facial anatomy.

  17. Investigation of cadmium contamination using hair of the Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata, from Shimokita Peninsula, Aomori Prefecture in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Anahara, Reiko; Mano, Tomoki; Nakayama, Yuri; Kobori, Mutsumi; Omi, Toshinori; Matsuoka, Shiro; Ueda, Fukiko

    2012-09-01

    The cadmium (Cd) contents in hair of macaques (n = 45, Macaca fuscata) living on the Shimokita Peninsula were investigated. The mean Cd contents in the hair of Japanese (n = 34, 5.01 μg/g) and macaques (3.05 μg/g) tendency to be higher than those of animals living other areas. The Cd contents of hair of wild macaques were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than that of humans, although three were no significant difference between Cd contents of humans and that of the macaque in captivity. The hair of the macaque was suggested as a useful sample for measurement of Cd contamination in the environment.

  18. Spontaneously arising concurrent ileocaecal adenocarcinoma and renal pelvis transitional cell carcinoma in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Gumber, S; Wood, J S; Jones, A C; Strobert, E

    2013-11-01

    A 25-year-old, female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented with a history of weight loss despite a normal appetite and supportive care. The animal was humanely destroyed due to poor prognosis. Post-mortem examination revealed a focally extensive, firm, white annular constriction at the ileocaecal junction and an incidental finding of a pale white nodule approximately 0.8 cm in diameter in the left renal pelvis. Based on the microscopical findings, ileocaecal adenocarcinoma and renal pelvis transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) were diagnosed. The use of cytokeratin (CK)-7 and -20 and uroplakin III as potential renal TCC markers was evaluated. The neoplastic cells were labelled intensely with antibodies to uroplakin III, but not to CK-7 or -20. Spontaneous intestinal adenocarcinoma has been documented in the rhesus macaque, but concurrent renal pelvis TCC is highly unusual. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Locally infiltrative ameloblastic fibroma in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with characterizations of its proliferating activity and biological behavior.

    PubMed

    Liu, David X; Doyle, Lara A; Bouljihad, Mostafa T; Didier, Peter J; Gilbert, Margaret H; Wang, Xiaolei; Pahar, Bapi; Bohm, Rudolf P; Veazey, Ronald S; Lackner, Andrew A

    2012-05-01

    An 8-year-old male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented with unilateral enlargement of the left mandible. Radiographs revealed a marked expansion of the left mandible with a multilocular radiolucent mass with abundant osteolysis. The mass was grossly firm, fleshy, and gelatinous on the cut surface. Histologically, the mass was locally infiltrative and composed of neoplastic epithelial and mesenchymal components that stained positive for cytokeratin and vimentin, respectively. Occasional densely spherical condensations of fibroblasts resembling the cap stage of odontogenesis were present in the mesenchyma. Immunohistochemical staining with Ki-67, S-100, and CD34 indicated that both epithelial and mesenchymal components of the neoplasm had low proliferation. Alcian blue, periodic acid-Schiff, and trichrome stains showed an immature stromal component with no collagen formation. Based on the clinical, histologic, and immunophenotypic features, the tumor was identified as a locally infiltrative ameloblastic fibroma.

  20. Habitual hot-spring bathing by a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in their natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Watanabe, Kunio; Eishi, Tokida

    2007-12-01

    Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in a free-ranging group in Jigokudani valley, Nagano prefecture, are known to bathe in a hot spring. We used scan sampling in a study aimed at elucidating the causal factors and possible social transmission of this behavior. From 1980-2003, 31% of a total 114 females in the group habitually bathed in the hot spring. The habit was more widespread in dominant matrilines than in subordinate matrilines. Infants whose mothers bathed were more likely to bathe than infants of mothers who did not bathe. The number of monkeys bathing was clearly influenced by ambient air temperature. More monkeys bathed in the hot spring in winter than in summer. The results support the thermoregulation hypothesis of hot-spring bathing. Bathing behavior varies among age and sex categories of monkeys, with adult females and juveniles bathing more often than adult males and subadults. We compared hot-spring bathing with other thermoregulatory behaviors in various primate populations.

  1. Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of Japanese Macaque Babesia-1 (JM-1) detected from a Japanese Macaque (Macaca fuscata fuscata)

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Haruyuki; Kawai, Satoru; Maeda, Mari; Jinnai, Michio; Fujisawa, Kohei; Katakai, Yuko; Hikosaka, Kenji; Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate here the identification and phylogenetic characterization of Babesia microti (B. microti)-like parasite detected from a splenectomized Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata fuscata) at a facility for laboratory animal science. On Day 133 after splenectomy, intra-erythrocytic parasites were found on light microscopic examination, and the level of parasitemia reached 0.3% on blood smear. Molecular characterization of the parasite using nested-polymerization chain reactions targeting the 18S rRNA, β-tubulin, and subunit 7 (eta) of the chaperonin-containing t-complex polypeptide 1 (CCT7) genes were identified as a B. microti-like parasite, designated the Japanese Macaque Babesia-1 (JM-1). PMID:21976563

  2. Evidence of Placentophagia and Mother-Infant Cannibalism in Free-Ranging Macaca mulatta tcheliensis in Mount Taihangshan, Jiyuan, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jundong; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Yongman; Garber, Paul A; Guo, Weijie; Kuang, San''ao; Lu, Jiqi

    2016-01-01

    Placentophagia or the consumption of the afterbirth is reported in many primate species, whereas cannibalism is a relatively rare event. Based on our field observations over the course of 3 years, we present evidence of placentophagia and mother-infant cannibalism in a free-ranging population of the Taihangshan macaque, Macaca mulatta tcheliensis, in the Mt. Taihangshan area, Jiyuan, Henan, China. We documented 1 case in which a mother consumed the afterbirth of her infant. In a second instance, we observed a fresh placenta discarded on the ground by an unknown individual. We also present a description of the first documented instance of mother-infant cannibalism in the same group of free-ranging rhesus macaques. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Behavioral asymmetries of psychomotor performance in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A dissociation between hand preference and skill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Berke, Leslie; Williams, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Hand preferences were recorded for 35 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) as they manipulated a joystick in response to 2 computerized tasks. These preferences were then used to contrast 8 left- and 10 right-handed subjects on performance measures of hand skill. Individual hand preferences were found, but no significant population asymmetry was observed across the sample. However, the performance data reveal substantial benefits of right-handedness for joystick manipulation, as this group of monkeys mastered the 2 psychomotor tasks significantly faster than did their left-handed counterparts. The data support earlier reports of a right-hand advantage for joystick manipulation and also support the importance of distinguishing between hand preference and manual performance in research on functional asymmetries.

  4. Comparison of noncontact infrared thermometry and 3 commercial subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Brunell, Marla K

    2012-07-01

    This study compared a noncontact infrared laser thermometer and 3 different brands of subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in 50 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The data were analyzed by using intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. In addition, the technical capabilities and practicality of the thermometers in the clinical setting were reviewed. None of the alternative techniques investigated was equivalent to rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques. Temperatures obtained by using microchips had higher correlation and agreed more closely with rectal temperatures than did those obtained by the noncontact infrared method. However, transponding microchips did not yield consistent results. Due to difficulty in positioning nonsedated macaques in their homecage, subcutaneous microchips were not practical in the clinical setting. Furthermore, pair-housed macaques may be able to break or remove microchips from their cagemates.

  5. Locally infiltrative ameloblastic fibroma in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with characterizations of its proliferating activity and biological behavior

    PubMed Central

    Liu, David X.; Doyle, Lara A.; Bouljihad, Mostafa T.; Didier, Peter J.; Gilbert, Margaret H.; Wang, Xiaolei; Pahar, Bapi; Bohm, Rudolf P.; Veazey, Ronald S.; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented with unilateral enlargement of the left mandible. Radiographs revealed a marked expansion of the left mandible with a multilocular radiolucent mass with abundant osteolysis. The mass was grossly firm, fleshy, and gelatinous on the cut surface. Histologically, the mass was locally infiltrative and composed of neoplastic epithelial and mesenchymal components that stained positive for cytokeratin and vimentin, respectively. Occasional densely spherical condensations of fibroblasts resembling the cap stage of odontogenesis were present in the mesenchyma. Immunohistochemical staining with Ki-67, S-100, and CD34 indicated that both epithelial and mesenchymal components of the neoplasm had low proliferation. Alcian blue, periodic acid–Schiff, and trichrome stains showed an immature stromal component with no collagen formation. Based on the clinical, histologic, and immunophenotypic features, the tumor was identified as a locally infiltrative ameloblastic fibroma. PMID:22529141

  6. What Are My Chances? Closing the Gap in Uncertainty Monitoring between Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Smith, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) but not capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) respond to difficult or ambiguous situations by choosing not to respond or by seeking more information. Here we assessed whether a task with very low chance accuracy could diminish this species difference, presumably indicating that capuchins—compared to macaques—are less risk averse as opposed to less sensitive to signals of uncertainty. Monkeys searched for the largest of six stimuli on a computer screen. Trial difficulty was varied, and monkeys could choose to opt out of any trial. All rhesus monkeys, including some with no prior use of the uncertainty response, selectively avoided the most difficult trials. The majority of capuchins sometimes made uncertainty responses, but at lower rates than rhesus monkeys. Nonetheless, the presence of some adaptive uncertainty responding suggests that capuchins also experience uncertainty and can respond to it, though with less proficiency than macaque monkeys. PMID:25368870

  7. The effects of age and sex on interest toward movies of conspecifics in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Junko; Izumi, Akihiro

    2009-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that images of conspecifics are useful for environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates, but whether the age and sex of the animals alter the effectiveness of such images is unclear. We investigated preferences to movies in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata; male and female; age, 2 to 19 y). Each monkey was housed individually in a cage outfitted with a touch-sensitive computer display. A subject monkey that touched the display was shown 1 of 30 movies that were recorded at an open enclosure containing their conspecifics. During the experimental sessions, 25 of 38 subjects touched the display at least once. The response duration was longer when monkeys appeared in the movies. The response duration decreased with age in male monkeys but not female monkeys. The results suggested the movies of conspecifics are useful for environmental enrichment, but further consideration seems appropriate for various subpopulations, particularly aged monkeys.

  8. Behavioral asymmetries of psychomotor performance in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A dissociation between hand preference and skill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Berke, Leslie; Williams, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Hand preferences were recorded for 35 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) as they manipulated a joystick in response to 2 computerized tasks. These preferences were then used to contrast 8 left- and 10 right-handed subjects on performance measures of hand skill. Individual hand preferences were found, but no significant population asymmetry was observed across the sample. However, the performance data reveal substantial benefits of right-handedness for joystick manipulation, as this group of monkeys mastered the 2 psychomotor tasks significantly faster than did their left-handed counterparts. The data support earlier reports of a right-hand advantage for joystick manipulation and also support the importance of distinguishing between hand preference and manual performance in research on functional asymmetries.

  9. Social Tolerance in Wild Female Crested Macaques (Macaca nigra) in Tangkoko-Batuangus Nature Reserve, Sulawesi, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Duboscq, Julie; Micheletta, Jérôme; Agil, Muhammad; Hodges, Keith; Thierry, Bernard; Engelhardt, Antje

    2013-01-01

    In primates, females typically drive the evolution of the social system and present a wide diversity of social structures. To understand this diversity, it is necessary to document the consistency and/or flexibility of female social structures across and within species, contexts, and environments. Macaques (Macaca sp.) are an ideal taxon for such comparative study, showing both consistency and variation in their social relations. Their social styles, constituting robust sets of social traits, can be classified in four grades, from despotic to tolerant. However, tolerant species are still understudied, especially in the wild. To foster our understanding of tolerant societies and to assess the validity of the concept of social style, we studied female crested macaques, Macaca nigra, under entirely natural conditions. We assessed their degree of social tolerance by analyzing the frequency, intensity, and distribution of agonistic and affiliative behaviors, their dominance gradient, their bared-teeth display, and their level of conciliatory tendency. We also analyzed previously undocumented behavioral patterns in grade 4 macaques: reaction upon approach and distribution of affiliative behavior across partners. We compared the observed patterns to data from other populations of grade 4 macaques and from species of other grades. Overall, female crested macaques expressed a tolerant social style, with low intensity, frequently bidirectional, and reconciled conflicts. Dominance asymmetry was moderate, associated with an affiliative bared-teeth display. Females greatly tolerated one another in close proximity. The observed patterns matched the profile of other tolerant macaques and were outside the range of patterns of more despotic species. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of females’ social behavior in a tolerant macaque species under natural conditions and as such, contributes to a better understanding of macaque societies. It also highlights the

  10. Mimetic Muscles in a Despotic Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Differ from Those in a Closely Related Tolerant Macaque (M. nigra).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    Facial displays (or expressions) are a primary means of visual communication among conspecifics in many mammalian orders. Macaques are an ideal model among primates for investigating the co-evolution of facial musculature, facial displays, and social group size/behavior under the umbrella of "ecomorphology". While all macaque species share some social behaviors, dietary, and ecological parameters, they display a range of social dominance styles from despotic to tolerant. A previous study found a larger repertoire of facial displays in tolerant macaque species relative to despotic species. The present study was designed to further explore this finding by comparing the gross morphological features of mimetic muscles between the Sulawesi macaque (Macaca nigra), a tolerant species, and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), a despotic species. Five adult M. nigra heads were dissected and mimetic musculature was compared to those from M. mulatta. Results showed that there was general similarity in muscle presence/absence between the species as well as muscle form except for musculature around the external ear. M. mulatta had more musculature around the external ear than M. nigra. In addition, M. nigra lacked a zygomaticus minor while M. mulatta is reported to have one. These morphological differences match behavioral observations documenting a limited range of