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Sample records for macaques macaca fascicularis

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are highly conserved in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques

    PubMed Central

    Street, Summer L; Kyes, Randall C; Grant, Richard; Ferguson, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Background Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus or longtail macaques) is the most commonly used non-human primate in biomedical research. Little is known about the genomic variation in cynomolgus macaques or how the sequence variants compare to those of the well-studied related species, Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaque). Previously we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in portions of 94 rhesus macaque genes and reported that Indian and Chinese rhesus had largely different SNPs. Here we identify SNPs from some of the same genomic regions of cynomolgus macaques (from Indochina, Indonesia, Mauritius and the Philippines) and compare them to the SNPs found in rhesus. Results We sequenced a portion of 10 genes in 20 cynomolgus macaques. We identified 69 SNPs in these regions, compared with 71 SNPs found in the same genomic regions of 20 Indian and Chinese rhesus macaques. Thirty six (52%) of the M. fascicularis SNPs were overlapping in both species. The majority (70%) of the SNPs found in both Chinese and Indian rhesus macaque populations were also present in M. fascicularis. Of the SNPs previously found in a single rhesus population, 38% (Indian) and 44% (Chinese) were also identified in cynomolgus macaques. In an alternative approach, we genotyped 100 cynomolgus DNAs using a rhesus macaque SNP array representing 53 genes and found that 51% (29/57) of the rhesus SNPs were present in M. fascicularis. Comparisons of SNP profiles from cynomolgus macaques imported from breeding centers in China (where M. fascicularis are not native) showed they were similar to those from Indochina. Conclusion This study demonstrates a surprisingly high conservation of SNPs between M. fascicularis and M. mulatta, suggesting that the relationship of these two species is closer than that suggested by morphological and mitochondrial DNA analysis alone. These findings indicate that SNP discovery efforts in either species will generate useful resources for both macaque species

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Olive Baboons (Papio anubis), and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatto)

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, Brigitte M.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Grover, GScott; Brown, Scott A.; Boucher, Joseph F.; Yuan, Yang; Civil, Jacqueline R.; Gillhouse, Kimberly A.; Stubbs, Makeida N.; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Halliday, Lisa C.; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-05-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 {+-} 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 {+-} 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 {+-} 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage.

  3. Whole-genome sequencing and analysis of the Malaysian cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) genome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genetic background of the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is made complex by the high genetic diversity, population structure, and gene introgression from the closely related rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Herein we report the whole-genome sequence of a Malaysian cynomolgus macaque male with more than 40-fold coverage, which was determined using a resequencing method based on the Indian rhesus macaque genome. Results We identified approximately 9.7 million single nucleotide variants (SNVs) between the Malaysian cynomolgus and the Indian rhesus macaque genomes. Compared with humans, a smaller nonsynonymous/synonymous SNV ratio in the cynomolgus macaque suggests more effective removal of slightly deleterious mutations. Comparison of two cynomolgus (Malaysian and Vietnamese) and two rhesus (Indian and Chinese) macaque genomes, including previously published macaque genomes, suggests that Indochinese cynomolgus macaques have been more affected by gene introgression from rhesus macaques. We further identified 60 nonsynonymous SNVs that completely differentiated the cynomolgus and rhesus macaque genomes, and that could be important candidate variants for determining species-specific responses to drugs and pathogens. The demographic inference using the genome sequence data revealed that Malaysian cynomolgus macaques have experienced at least three population bottlenecks. Conclusions This list of whole-genome SNVs will be useful for many future applications, such as an array-based genotyping system for macaque individuals. High-quality whole-genome sequencing of the cynomolgus macaque genome may aid studies on finding genetic differences that are responsible for phenotypic diversity in macaques and may help control genetic backgrounds among individuals. PMID:22747675

  4. Geographical, genetic and functional diversity of antiretroviral host factor TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Akatsuki; Kono, Ken; Nomaguchi, Masako; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Shioda, Tatsuo; Akari, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    The antiretroviral factor tripartite motif protein 5 (TRIM5) gene-derived isoform (TRIMCyp) has been found in at least three species of Old World monkey: rhesus (Macaca mulatta), pig-tailed (Macaca nemestrina) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques. Although the frequency of TRIMCyp has been well studied in rhesus and pig-tailed macaques, the frequency and prevalence of TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaques remain to be definitively elucidated. Here, the geographical and genetic diversity of TRIM5α/TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaques was studied in comparison with their anti-lentiviral activity. It was found that the frequency of TRIMCyp in a population in the Philippines was significantly higher than those in Indonesian and Malaysian populations. Major and minor haplotypes of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp with single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cyclophilin A domain were also found. The functional significance of the polymorphism in TRIMCyp was examined, and it was demonstrated that the major haplotype of TRIMCyp suppressed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but not HIV-2, whilst the minor haplotype of TRIMCyp suppressed HIV-2 but not HIV-1. The major haplotype of TRIMCyp did not restrict a monkey-tropic HIV-1 clone, NL-DT5R, which contains a capsid with the simian immunodeficiency virus-derived loop between α-helices 4 and 5 and the entire vif gene. These results indicate that polymorphisms of TRIMCyp affect its anti-lentiviral activity. Overall, the results of this study will help our understanding of the genetic background of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp, as well as the host factors composing species barriers of primate lentiviruses. PMID:22113010

  5. Allele frequency of antiretroviral host factor TRIMCyp in wild-caught cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Akatsuki; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Higashino, Atsunori; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Ikoma, Tomoko; Suzaki, Yuriko; Ami, Yasushi; Shioda, Tatsuo; Nakayama, Emi E.; Akari, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    A recent study showed that the frequency of an antiretroviral factor TRIM5 gene-derived isoform, TRIMCyp, in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) varies widely according to the particular habitat examined. However, whether the findings actually reflect the prevalence of TRIMCyp in wild cynomolgus macaques is still uncertain because the previous data were obtained with captive monkeys in breeding and rearing facilities. Here, we characterized the TRIM5 gene in cynomolgus macaques captured in the wild, and found that the frequency of the TRIMCyp allele was comparable to those in captive monkeys. This suggests that the previous results with captive monkeys do indeed reflect the natural allele frequency and that breeding and rearing facilities may not affect the frequency of TRIM5 alleles. Interestingly, the prevalence of a minor haplotype of TRIMCyp in wild macaques from the Philippines was significantly lower than in captive ones, suggesting that it is advantageous for wild monkeys to possess the major haplotype of TRIMCyp. Overall, our results add to our understanding of the geographic and genetic prevalence of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp. PMID:22969754

  6. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Guzman, Roberto E; Radi, Zaher A

    2007-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis characterized by multifocal follicular lymphoid cell infiltrates with germinal centers, thyroid acinar atrophy and pituitary cell hyperplasia/hypertrophy of the adenohypophysis was detected in a vehicle control, 4-year-old female Cynomolgus macaque in a routine toxicology study. Lymphoid cells of germinal centers were positive for the B-cell marker CD20 by immunohistochemistry (IHC), while remaining lymphocytes were positive for the T-cell marker CD3. Hypertrophied/hyperplastic pituitary cells were positive for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) by IHC, consistent with an adaptive response due to removal of hormonal negative feedback from the diseased thyroid gland. Features of this case are similar to chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in humans, an autoimmune disorder also known as Hashimoto's disease. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis with compensatory pituitary changes may occur spontaneously in young, clinically normal cynomolgus macaques and its presence in drug treated animals should be interpreted with caution.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Transdermal Fentanyl in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Amy M; Kelly, Richard; Fetterer, David P; Rico, Pedro J; Bailey, Emily J

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is a μ-opioid agonist that often is used as the analgesic component for balanced anesthesia in both human and veterinary patients. Minimal information has been published regarding appropriate dosing, and the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl are unknown in NHP. The pharmacokinetic properties of 2 transdermal fentanyl delivery methods, a solution (2.6 and 1.95 mg/kg) and a patch (25 µg/h), were determined when applied topically to the dorsal scapular area of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Serum fentanyl concentrations were analyzed by using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Compared with the patch, the transdermal fentanyl solution generated higher drug concentrations over longer time. Adverse reactions occurred in the macaques that received the transdermal fentanyl solution at 2.6 mg/kg. Both preparations showed significant interanimal variability in the maximal serum drug levels, time to achieve maximal fentanyl levels, elimination half-life, and AUC values. Both the maximal concentration and the time at which this concentration occurred were increased in macaques compared with most other species after application of the transdermal fentanyl patch and compared with dogs after application of the transdermal fentanyl solution. The pharmacokinetic properties of transdermal fentanyl in macaques are markedly different from those in other veterinary species and preclude its use as a long-acting analgesic drug in NHP. PMID:27423151

  8. Nutritional Composition of Fruits Selected by Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Kassim, Norazila; Hambali, Kamarul; Amir, Aainaa

    2017-01-01

    Proximate analysis of twelve species of fruits commonly consumed by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), i.e., Arenga pinnata, Areca catechu, Terminalia catappa, Elaeis guineensis, Lagerstroemia tomentosa, Mangifera indica, Cascabela thevetia, Muntingia calabura, Musa sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, Ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa and Ficus microcarpa, was conducted with the specific objective to determine the nutritional composition of the foodstuffs of long-tailed macaques. The results showed the following order of nutrients: fibre, protein, fat and ash. Based on the results of the chemical analysis, the highest percentage of fibre content (52.7%), protein (9.9%), fat (77.2%) and ash (8.5%) were found in A. catechu, T. catappa, E. guineensis and C. thevetia, respectively. The nutrient composition of these twelve fruit species was found to differ (ANOVA test: crude protein, F (11,24) = 87.978, p < 0.05; crude fibre, F (11,24) = 28.886, p < 0.05; crude fat, F (11,24) = 2081.396, p < 0.05 and ash, F (11,24) = 41.011, p < 0.05). Fibre was found in the highest amount among the four types of nutrients studied. Here, A. catechu had the highest relative fibre content of all tested fruits, E. guineensis had the highest fat content, T. catappa had the highest protein content, and the total mineral content was highest in C. thevetia. PMID:28228918

  9. Nutritional Composition of Fruits Selected by Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Norazila; Hambali, Kamarul; Amir, Aainaa

    2017-01-01

    Proximate analysis of twelve species of fruits commonly consumed by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), i.e., Arenga pinnata, Areca catechu, Terminalia catappa, Elaeis guineensis, Lagerstroemia tomentosa, Mangifera indica, Cascabela thevetia, Muntingia calabura, Musa sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, Ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa and Ficus microcarpa, was conducted with the specific objective to determine the nutritional composition of the foodstuffs of long-tailed macaques. The results showed the following order of nutrients: fibre, protein, fat and ash. Based on the results of the chemical analysis, the highest percentage of fibre content (52.7%), protein (9.9%), fat (77.2%) and ash (8.5%) were found in A. catechu, T. catappa, E. guineensis and C. thevetia, respectively. The nutrient composition of these twelve fruit species was found to differ (ANOVA test: crude protein, F (11,24) = 87.978, p < 0.05; crude fibre, F (11,24) = 28.886, p < 0.05; crude fat, F (11,24) = 2081.396, p < 0.05 and ash, F (11,24) = 41.011, p < 0.05). Fibre was found in the highest amount among the four types of nutrients studied. Here, A. catechu had the highest relative fibre content of all tested fruits, E. guineensis had the highest fat content, T. catappa had the highest protein content, and the total mineral content was highest in C. thevetia.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Buprenorphine in Macaques (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Halliday, Lisa C; Moody, David E; Fang, Wenfang B; Lindeblad, Matthew; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Buprenorphine is the cornerstone of pain management in nonhuman primates, but the pharmacokinetics of this widely used drug are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of buprenorphine (0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg IM) and sustained-release buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg SC) in 2 macaque species (M. mulatta and M. fascicularis) by using mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetics did not differ significantly between species, and buprenorphine was dose-proportional at the tested doses. The low and high doses of buprenorphine had elimination half-lives of 2.6 ± 0.7 and 5.3 ± 2.0 h, respectively, but the low-dose data were constrained by the sensitivity of the analytical method. Sustained-release buprenorphine had an elimination half-life of 42.6 ± 26.2 h. The AUC0-Tlast of buprenorphine were 9.1 ± 4.3 and 39.0 ± 25.1 ng×h/mL for the low and high doses, respectively, and sustained-release buprenorphine had an AUC0-Tlast of 177 ± 74 ng×h/mL. Assuming a hypothesized therapeutic buprenorphine plasma concentration threshold of 0.1 ng/mL in macaques, these results suggest that buprenorphine doses of 0.01 mg/kg IM should be administered every 6 to 8 h, whereas doses of 0.03 mg/kg IM can be administered every 12 h. These results further demonstrate that a single 0.2-mg/kg SC injection of sustained-release buprenorphine maintains plasma concentrations above 0.1 ng/mL for 5 d in macaques. These findings support a new dosing strategy using sustained-release buprenorphine to improve pain management, decrease animal stress, improve animal welfare, and simplify the postoperative management of nonhuman primates in laboratory animal and zoological settings. PMID:23562033

  11. Mitochondrial DNA and two Y-chromosome genes of common long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) throughout Thailand and vicinity.

    PubMed

    Bunlungsup, Srichan; Imai, Hiroo; Hamada, Yuzuru; Matsudaira, Kazunari; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2017-02-01

    Macaca fascicularis fascicularis is distributed over a wide area of Southeast Asia. Thailand is located at the center of their distribution range and is the bridge connecting the two biogeographic regions of Indochina and Sunda. However, only a few genetic studies have explored the macaques in this region. To shed some light on the evolutionary history of M. f. fascicularis, including hybridization with M. mulatta, M. f. fascicularis and M. mulatta samples of known origins throughout Thailand and the vicinity were analyzed by molecular phylogenetics using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), including the hypervariable region 1, and Y-chromosomal DNA, including SRY and TSPY genes. The mtDNA phylogenetic analysis divided M. f. fascicularis into five subclades (Insular Indonesia, Sundaic Thai Gulf, Vietnam, Sundaic Andaman sea coast, and Indochina) and revealed genetic differentiation between the two sides of the Thai peninsula, which had previously been reported as a single group of Malay peninsular macaques. From the estimated divergence time of the Sundaic Andaman sea coast subclade, it is proposed that after M. f. fascicularis dispersed throughout Southeast Asia, some populations on the south-easternmost Indochina (eastern Thailand, southern Cambodia and southern Vietnam at the present time) migrated south-westwards across the land bridge, which was exposed during the glacial period of the late Pleistocene epoch, to the southernmost Thailand/northern peninsular Malaysia. Then, some of them migrated north and south to colonize the Thai Andaman sea coast and northern Sumatra, respectively. The SRY-TSPY phylogenetic analysis suggested that male-mediated gene flow from M. mulatta southward to M. f. fascicularis was restricted south of, but close to, the Isthmus of Kra. There was a strong impact of the geographical factors in Thailand, such as the Isthmus of Kra, Nakhon Si Thammarat, and Phuket ranges and Sundaland, on M. f. fascicularis biogeography and their hybridization

  12. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Fui, Vun Vui; Abu, Mohd-Hashim; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Lakim, Maklarin; Roos, Christian; Yaakop, Salmah; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo’s population was distinguished from Peninsula’s population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia’s M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations

  13. Development of real-time PCR assays for the detection of Moraxella macacae associated with bloody nose syndrome in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Chris A.; Chase, Kitty; Embers, Monica E.; Kulesh, David A.; Ladner, Jason T.; Palacios, Gustavo F.; Minogue, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Moraxella macacae is a recently described bacterial pathogen that causes epistaxis or so-called bloody nose syndrome in captive macaques. The aim of this study was to develop specific molecular diagnostic assays for M. macacae and to determine their performance characteristics. Methods We developed six real-time PCR assays on the Roche LightCycler. The accuracy, precision, selectivity, and limit of detection (LOD) were determined for each assay, in addition to further validation by testing nasal swabs from macaques presenting with epistaxis at the Tulane National Primate Research Center. Results All assays exhibited 100% specificity and were highly sensitive with an LOD of 10 fg for chromosomal assays and 1 fg for the plasmid assay. Testing of nasal swabs from 10 symptomatic macaques confirmed the presence of M. macacae in these animals. Conclusions We developed several accurate, sensitive, and species-specific real-time PCR assays for the detection of M. macacae in captive macaques. PMID:26365904

  14. The role of anthropic, ecological, and social factors in sleeping site choice by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Brotcorne, Fany; Maslarov, Cindy; Wandia, I Nengah; Fuentes, Agustin; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline C; Huynen, Marie-Claude

    2014-12-01

    When choosing their sleeping sites, primates make adaptive trade-offs between various biotic and abiotic constraints. In human-modified environments, anthropic factors may play a role. We assessed the influence of ecological (predation), social (intergroup competition), and anthropic (proximity to human settlements) factors in sleeping site choice by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) occupying a habitat at the interface of natural forests and human-modified zones in Bali Barat National Park, Indonesia. Over the course of 56 nights, we collected data relating to physical features of sleeping trees, patterns of the use of sleeping sites within the home range, pre-sleep behavior, diurnal ranging patterns and availability of natural and human food. Overall, the macaques used 17 sleeping sites with 37 sleeping trees. When the monkeys slept in forest zones, they selected sleeping trees that had larger trunks but were not significantly taller than surrounding trees. Though the macaques rarely re-used sleeping sites on consecutive nights, they frequently re-used four sites over the study period. The group favored sleeping within the core area of its home range, despite the occurrence of frequent agonistic intergroup encounters there. Macaques preferentially selected sleeping trees located within or near human-modified zones, especially when human food was abundant and natural food was scarce. These results partially support the hypothesis that long-tailed macaques choose their sleeping sites to avoid predation; proximity to human settlements appears to be the primary factor influencing sleeping site choice in this primate species. Our results reflect the strong influence that anthropic factors have on primates, which subsist in increasingly human-dominated landscapes.

  15. Analysis of sea almond (Terminalia catappa) cracking sites used by wild Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea).

    PubMed

    Falótico, Tiago; Spagnoletti, Noemi; Haslam, Michael; Luncz, Lydia V; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael

    2017-01-05

    Nut-cracking is shared by all non-human primate taxa that are known to habitually use percussive stone tools in the wild: robust capuchins (Sapajus spp.), western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), and Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea). Despite opportunistically processing nuts, Burmese long-tailed macaques predominantly use stone tools to process mollusks in coastal environments. Here, we present the first comprehensive survey of sea almond (Terminalia catappa) nut-cracking sites created by macaques. We mapped T. catappa trees and nut-cracking sites that we encountered along the intertidal zone and forest border on the coasts of Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand. For each nut-cracking site, we measured the physical properties (i.e., size, weight, use-wear) of hammer stones and anvils. We found that T. catappa trees and nut-cracking sites primarily occurred on the western coast facing the open sea, and cracking sites clusters around the trees. We confirmed previous results that nut cracking tools are among the heaviest tools used by long-tailed macaques; however, we found our sample of T. catappa stone tools lighter than a previously collected sea almond sample that, unlike our sample, was collected immediately after use within the intertidal zone. The difference was likely the result of tidal influences on tool-use sites. We also found that tool accumulations above the intertidal region do not resemble those within them, possibly leading to incomplete assessments of macaque stone tools through archaeological techniques that would use these durable sites.

  16. Use of photogrammetry as a means to assess hybrids of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed (M. fascicularis) macaques.

    PubMed

    Jadejaroen, Janya; Hamada, Yuzuru; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed (M. fascicularis) macaques are the most commonly used non-human primate models for biomedical research, but it is difficult to identify these two species in the hybrid zone (15-20°N). In this work, we used morphological values obtained via photogrammetry to assess hybrids of rhesus and long-tailed macaques at Khao Khieow Open Zoo (KKZ; 13°21'N, 101°06'E), eastern Thailand. Long-tailed and rhesus macaques have species-specific tail lengths and contrasts of their yellowish pelages. The accuracy and precision of the relative tail length (%RTL) and the contrast of the yellow hue (Cb*) of the pelage, as obtained from photographs, were compared with the corresponding direct measurements (morphometrics). The photogrammetric and morphometric measurements of %RTL and Cb* were highly significantly correlated (r = 0.989 and 0.980, p < 0.001), and there were no significant differences between the two datasets (t test, p = 0.13 and 0.41; n = 42 and 17 for %RTL and Cb*, respectively). The reproducibilities of the %RTL and Cb* measurements (calculated in the photogrammetric case by taking photographs of the same macaques in two different environments) were significantly correlated between the datasets (r = 0.983 and 0.914, p < 0.001 and 0.005), and there were no significant differences between the datasets (t test, p = 0.539 and 0.344; n = 30 each for %RTL and Cb*, respectively). The %RTL and Cb* data were combined with data on the crown and cheek hair patterns and sex skin reddening of the macaques, and this combined data set was then analyzed by multiple correspondence analysis and agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis, leading to the categorization of the rhesus macaques, long-tailed macaques, and hybrids at KKZ into five groups. Thus, photogrammetry can be utilized to identify macaque species or hybrids when species identification relies mainly on tail length and pelage color.

  17. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India

    PubMed Central

    Velankar, Avadhoot D.; Kumara, Honnavalli N.

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal) of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004) after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species. PMID:26886197

  18. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India.

    PubMed

    Velankar, Avadhoot D; Kumara, Honnavalli N; Pal, Arijit; Mishra, Partha Sarathi; Singh, Mewa

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal) of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004) after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species.

  19. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis) using transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Zhang, Rui; Jing, Ying; Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Chang; Wang, Jin; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Junfeng; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chenyu; Li, Donghai

    2014-02-25

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), with an average length between 16 nt and 26 nt, are small non-coding RNAs that can repress gene expression on the post-transcriptional level. Macaca fascicularis (M. fascicularis), one of the most important nonhuman primate animal models, is widely used in basic and applied preclinical research, especially in studies that involve neuroscience and disease. However, due to the lack of a complete genome sequence, the miRNAs in M. fascicularis have not been completely characterized. In this study, 86 putative M. fascicularis miRNAs were identified using a strategy of our design. The expression of some of these miRNAs in the tissue was confirmed by qRT-PCR. The function and pathway of their targeted genes were analyzed to reveal the potential relevance of miRNA regulation on diseases and physiological processes. The current study provides insight into potential miRNAs and forms a useful knowledge base for the future understanding of the function of miRNAs in M. fascicularis.

  20. Effects of Ketamine on Metabolomics of Serum and Urine in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xueying; Zeng, Xiancheng; Hong, Jiehua; Yuan, Congli; Cui, Li; Ma, Jing; Chang, Yan; Hua, Xiuguo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a metabolomics approach based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and pertinent multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the effect of ketamine on metabolic markers in cynomolgus macaques. Principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis showed that ketamine (10 mg/kg) induced metabolic perturbations. Compared with the control group, ketamine-treated macaques had lower serum levels of α-glucose, myoinositol, lactate and succinate and lower urine levels of pyruvate and lactate. In contrast, the levels of leucine in serum and arginine in urine were significantly higher in the ketamine group. Our results also demonstrated that a single injection of ketamine influenced the major energy and amino acid metabolic pathways in cynomolgus macaques. Our study suggests that these influences should be considered in the design of experiments and the interpretation related blood and urine data from ketamine-sedated cynomolgus macaques. PMID:27657710

  1. Survey of prevalence of overweight body condition in laboratory-housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Sharon A; Leslie, Ken E; Pearl, David L; Fournier, Jocelyn; Turner, Patricia V

    2010-07-01

    Excessive weight gain has been reported to occur in captive cynomolgus macaques with little to no change in diet. Overweight body condition can result in development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes and should be avoided. The purpose of this survey was to assess the prevalence of overweight cynomolgus macaques in North American research facilities, including breeding colonies and short-term and long-term facilities, and to describe current methods used to assess body condition. The survey consisted of 51 questions covering animal population demographics, body weight and body condition scoring, feeding, and behavior. Voluntary participants included veterinarians and animal care managers. Respondents from 13 facilities completed the survey, and information was collected on 17,500 cynomolgus macaques. The majority of surveyed facilities housed juvenile and young adult macaques. The reported prevalence of overweight (greater than 10% of ideal body weight) animals ranged between 0% and 20% and reportedly was more frequent in animals younger than 10 y. Most facilities had weight reduction strategies in place. Despite these programs, a significant proportion of animals were reported as being overweight. The results of this survey demonstrate that most North American facilities housing cynomolgus macaques recognize the importance of tracking body condition regularly. However, implementing effective weight reduction programs may be difficult in captive housing environments. Because of the potential for adverse health effects, facilities should have a means of regularly tracking body weight as well as an action plan for managing overweight animals.

  2. Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar infections in captive macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Windell L; Yason, John Anthony D L; Adao, Davin Edric V

    2010-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that infects man and animals. This parasite has a global distribution and the disease it causes is usually characterized by diarrhea. In order to detect the parasite, it is necessary to differentiate it from Entamoeba dispar. E. dispar appears morphologically similar to E. histolytica but does not cause disease and tissue invasion. This study reports on the prevalence of E. histolytica and E. dispar among captive macaques in a primate facility in the Philippines. PCR was used to correctly identify both Entamoeba species. Indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was also performed to determine the seroprevalence of amebiasis in the captive macaques. Based on PCR targeting of the peroxiredoxin gene, of the 96 stool samples collected, 23 (24%) contained E. histolytica while 32 (33%) contained E. dispar. IFAT revealed 26 (27%) serum samples positive for antibodies against E. histolytica. Sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene showed that the 23 E. histolytica isolates were identical to human E. histolytica isolates deposited in the GenBank and not Entamoeba nuttalli as found in macaques in other recent reports. The Philippines is a major exporter of monkeys for biomedical research purposes, so screening animals before transporting them to other locations lessens the risk of spreading zoonoses to a wider area. This is the first report of the molecular detection of E. histolytica and E. dispar among macaques in the Philippines. This study complements the limited information available on the animal hosts of E. histolytica in the Philippines.

  3. Effects of Transportation on Antioxidant Status in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xueying; Lu, Liang; Zeng, Xiancheng; Chang, Yan; Hua, Xiuguo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of transportation on oxidative stress in cynomolgus monkeys, we measured serum levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl (PC) and the activities of total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase in cynomolgus macaques before transportation (day 0), on the day of arrival (day 1), and on days 7, 14, and 21 after transportation. Compared with that on day 0, TAOC and catalase activities on days 1, 7, and 14 after transportation were significantly decreased, reached their nadirs on day 7, and increased thereafter to reach their pretransportation levels by day 21 after transportation. Compared with day 0 levels, mean SOD activity and GSH concentration were decreased significantly on day 1; they thereafter increased to reach their pretransportation measures by day 7 after transportation. In contrast, PC and malondialdehyde concentrations in serum and the activity of GSH-Px were increased on day 1 compared with day 0 and thereafter decreased to reach their pretransportation levels by day 14 after transportation. In summary, GSH, TAOC, catalase, and SOD levels decreased and malondialdehyde, PC, and GSH-Px concentrations increased in cynomolgus macaques after transportation. These results suggest that transportation might imbalance oxidant and antioxidant levels to create excess oxidative stress in cynomolgus macaques. Therefore, cynomolgus macaques should have at least 21 d to recover after transportation and regain their healthy status. PMID:27657707

  4. Emergence and evolution of inter-specific segregating retrocopies in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Retroposition is an RNA-mediated mechanism to generate gene duplication, and is believed to play an important role in genome evolution and phenotypic adaptation in various species including primates. Previous studies suggested an elevated rate of recent retroposition in the rhesus macaque genome. To better understand the impact of retroposition on macaque species which have undergone an adaptive radiation approximately 3–6 million years ago, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify recently derived retrocopies in cynomolgus monkeys. As a result, we identified seven experimentally validated young retrocopies, all of which are polymorphic in cynomolgus monkeys. Unexpectedly, five of them are also present in rhesus monkeys and are still segregating. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicates that the observed inter-specific polymorphism is attribute to ancestral polymorphism. Further population genetics analysis provided strong evidence of balancing selection on at least one case (Crab-eating monkey retrocopy 6, or CER6) in both species. CER6 is in adjacent with an immunoglobulin related gene and may be involved in host-pathogen interaction, a well-known target of balancing selection. Altogether, our data support that retroposition is an important force to shape genome evolution and species adaptation. PMID:27600022

  5. Nonsurgical repair of a pseudoaneurysm in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Daviau, Judith S; Merton, Daniel A

    2010-09-01

    A cynomolgus macaque presented with an ecchymotic and edematous left leg approximately 1 wk after a blood sample had been collected from the left femoral vein. Ecchymosis was noted in the femoral triangle, prepuce, and scrotum. The animal was not febrile or exhibiting signs of pain or distress. Duplex Doppler ultrasound imaging was used to evaluate the area. An arteriovenous fistula between the femoral artery and vein, accompanied by a pseudoaneurysm arising from the femoral artery, was identified. Various invasive and noninvasive treatment options for the pseudoaneurysm, including surgical repair, thrombin injection, stent placement, and ultrasound-guided compression repair (UGCR), were considered. UGCR was chosen as the first option for treatment. After a total of 20 min of UGCR at the neck of the pseudoaneurysm, complete thrombosis was achieved. Subsequent imaging of the lesion revealed resolution of the pseudoaneurysm. Because of the risks involved with invasive management techniques for this vascular lesion, UGCR is a valuable noninvasive treatment option for the repair of pseudoaneurysms.

  6. Nonsurgical Repair of a Pseudoaneurysm in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Daviau, Judith S; Merton, Daniel A

    2010-01-01

    A cynomolgus macaque presented with an ecchymotic and edematous left leg approximately 1 wk after a blood sample had been collected from the left femoral vein. Ecchymosis was noted in the femoral triangle, prepuce, and scrotum. The animal was not febrile or exhibiting signs of pain or distress. Duplex Doppler ultrasound imaging was used to evaluate the area. An arteriovenous fistula between the femoral artery and vein, accompanied by a pseudoaneurysm arising from the femoral artery, was identified. Various invasive and noninvasive treatment options for the pseudoaneurysm, including surgical repair, thrombin injection, stent placement, and ultrasound-guided compression repair (UGCR), were considered. UGCR was chosen as the first option for treatment. After a total of 20 min of UGCR at the neck of the pseudoaneurysm, complete thrombosis was achieved. Subsequent imaging of the lesion revealed resolution of the pseudoaneurysm. Because of the risks involved with invasive management techniques for this vascular lesion, UGCR is a valuable noninvasive treatment option for the repair of pseudoaneurysms. PMID:20858370

  7. Pharmacokinetics of 3 Formulations of Meloxicam in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Cassondra; Frost, Patrice; Kirschner, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Meloxicam is a commonly used COX2-preferential NSAID in both human and veterinary patients. Minimal information has been published regarding appropriate dosing in nonhuman primates. Here we investigated the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 formulations of meloxicam in cynomolgus macaques. A single dose of meloxicam SR, an extended-release formulation purported to provide therapeutic levels for as long as 72 h, was compared with the intramuscular and oral formulations dosed for 3 consecutive days and as a single dose. The oral formulation, both over 3 d and as a single dose, yielded lower plasma levels and a shorter duration than did intramuscular and sustained-release subcutaneous formulations. The intramuscular formulation, both over 3 d and as a single dose, provided lower plasma levels and a shorter duration than did a sustained-release subcutaneous formulation. The sustained-release formulations generated the highest plasma concentrations for the longest periods of time. None of the formulations caused significant effects on kidney or liver function. Our results indicate that the sustained-release formulation of meloxicam can achieve an adequate steady-state plasma concentration for 2 to 3 d in nonhuman primates. The standard intramuscular formulation provides adequate plasma concentrations for 12 to 24 h, with waxing and waning levels associated with daily dosing. The oral formulation has limited utility in nonhuman primates because of low circulating levels of drug. PMID:25255073

  8. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Six Mauritian Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) Reveals a Genome-Wide Pattern of Polymorphisms under Extreme Population Bottleneck

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Naoki; Hettiarachchi, Nilmini; Adeyemi Babarinde, Isaac; Saitou, Naruya; Blancher, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were introduced to the island of Mauritius by humans around the 16th century. The unique demographic history of the Mauritian cynomolgus macaques provides the opportunity to not only examine the genetic background of well-established nonhuman primates for biomedical research but also understand the effect of an extreme population bottleneck on the pattern of polymorphisms in genomes. We sequenced the whole genomes of six Mauritian cynomolgus macaques and obtained an average of 20-fold coverage of the genome sequences for each individual. The overall level of nucleotide diversity was 23% smaller than that of the Malaysian cynomolgus macaques, and a reduction of low-frequency polymorphisms was observed. In addition, we also confirmed that the Mauritian cynomolgus macaques were genetically closer to a representative of the Malaysian population than to a representative of the Indochinese population. Excess of nonsynonymous polymorphisms in low frequency, which has been observed in many other species, was not very strong in the Mauritian samples, and the proportion of heterozygous nonsynonymous polymorphisms relative to synonymous polymorphisms is higher within individuals in Mauritian than Malaysian cynomolgus macaques. Those patterns indicate that the extreme population bottleneck made purifying selection overwhelmed by the power of genetic drift in the population. Finally, we estimated the number of founding individuals by using the genome-wide site frequency spectrum of the six samples. Assuming a simple demographic scenario with a single bottleneck followed by exponential growth, the estimated number of founders (∼20 individuals) is largely consistent with previous estimates. PMID:25805843

  9. There Is More than One Way to Crack an Oyster: Identifying Variation in Burmese Long-Tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis aurea) Stone-Tool Use

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Amanda; Tan, Say Hoon; Vyas, Dhaval; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    We explored variation in patterns of percussive stone-tool use on coastal foods by Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) from two islands in Laem Son National Park, Ranong, Thailand. We catalogued variation into three hammering classes and 17 action patterns, after examining 638 tool-use bouts across 90 individuals. Hammering class was based on the stone surface used for striking food, being face, point, and edge hammering. Action patterns were discriminated by tool material, hand use, posture, and striking motion. Hammering class was analyzed for associations with material and behavioural elements of tool use. Action patterns were not, owing to insufficient instances of most patterns. We collected 3077 scan samples from 109 macaques on Piak Nam Yai Island’s coasts, to determine the proportion of individuals using each hammering class and action pattern. Point hammering was significantly more associated with sessile foods, smaller tools, faster striking rates, smoother recoil, unimanual use, and more varied striking direction, than were face and edge hammering, while both point and edge hammering were significantly more associated with precision gripping than face hammering. Edge hammering also showed distinct differences depending on whether such hammering was applied to sessile or unattached foods, resembling point hammering for sessile foods and face hammering for unattached foods. Point hammering and sessile edge hammering compared to prior descriptions of axe hammering, while face and unattached edge hammering compared to pound hammering. Analysis of scans showed that 80% of individuals used tools, each employing one to four different action patterns. The most common patterns were unimanual point hammering (58%), symmetrical-bimanual face hammering (47%) and unimanual face hammering (37%). Unimanual edge hammering was relatively frequent (13%), compared to the other thirteen rare action patterns (<5%). We compare our study to other stone

  10. Continental Monophyly and Molecular Divergence of Peninsular Malaysia's Macaca fascicularis fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Faiq, Hamdan; Hairul, Mohd Salleh; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) populations distributed in Peninsular Malaysia in relation to other regions remain unknown. The aim of this study was to reveal the phylogeography and population genetics of Peninsular Malaysia's M. f. fascicularis based on the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. Sixty-five haplotypes were detected in all populations, with only Vietnam and Cambodia sharing four haplotypes. The minimum-spanning network projected a distant relationship between Peninsular Malaysian and insular populations. Genetic differentiation (FST, Nst) results suggested that the gene flow among Peninsular Malaysian and the other populations is very low. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions indicated a monophyletic clade of Malaysia's population with continental populations (NJ = 97%, MP = 76%, and Bayesian = 1.00 posterior probabilities). The results demonstrate that Peninsular Malaysia's M. f. fascicularis belonged to Indochinese populations as opposed to the previously claimed Sundaic populations. M. f. fascicularis groups are estimated to have colonized Peninsular Malaysia ~0.47 million years ago (MYA) directly from Indochina through seaways, by means of natural sea rafting, or through terrestrial radiation during continental shelf emersion. Here, the Isthmus of Kra played a central part as biogeographical barriers that then separated it from the remaining continental populations. PMID:25143948

  11. Variation in hair δ13C and δ15N values in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Singapore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schillaci, Michael A.; Castellini, J. Margaret; Stricker, Craig A.; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Lee, Benjamin P.Y.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the primatology literature on stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) has focused on African and New World species, with comparatively little research published on Asian primates. Here we present hair δ13C and δ15N isotope values for a sample of 33 long-tailed macaques from Singapore. We evaluate the suggestion by a previous researcher that forest degradation and biodiversity loss in Singapore have led to a decline in macaque trophic level. The results of our analysis indicated significant spatial variability in δ13C but not δ15N. The range of variation in δ13C was consistent with a diet based on C3 resources, with one group exhibiting low values consistent with a closed canopy environment. Relative to other macaque species from Europe and Asia, the macaques from Singapore exhibited a low mean δ13C value but mid-range mean δ15N value. Previous research suggesting a decline in macaque trophic level is not supported by the results of our study.

  12. The anthropogenic environment lessens the intensity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Balinese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Lane, Kelly E; Holley, Concerta; Hollocher, Hope; Fuentes, Agustin

    2011-04-01

    The distribution of wildlife parasites in a landscape is intimately tied to the spatial distribution of hosts. In parasite species, including many gastrointestinal parasites, with obligate or common environmental life stages, the dynamics of the parasite can also be strongly affected by geophysical components of the environment. This is especially salient in host species, for example humans and macaques, which thrive across a wide variety of habitat types and quality and so are exposed to a wealth of environmentally resilient parasites. Here, we examine the effect of environmental and anthropogenic components of the landscape on the prevalence, intensity, and species diversity of gastrointestinal parasites across a metapopulation of long-tailed macaques on the island of Bali, Indonesia. Using principal-components analysis, we identified significant interaction effects between specific environmental and anthropogenic components of the landscape, parsing the Balinese landscape into anthropogenic (PC1), mixed environment (PC2), and non-anthropogenic (PC3) components. Further, we determined that the anthropogenic environment can mitigate the prevalence and intensity of specific gut parasites and the intensity of the overall community of gut parasites, but that non-anthropogenically driven landscape components have no significant effect in increasing or reducing the intensity or prevalence of the community of gut parasites in Balinese macaques.

  13. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features of compressive cervical myelopathy with traumatic intervertebral disc herniation in cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Hye-Jin; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Jung, Kyeong Cheon; Park, Seong Hoe

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) with nucleus pulposus extrusion, traumatic or not, is a devastating clinical condition accompanied by neurological problems. Here we report a cynomolgus macaque suffering from acute and progressive neurological dysfunction by a blunt trauma due to neck collar, an animal handling device. Tetraplegia, urinary incontinence, decreased proprioception, and imperception of pain were shown on physical and neurological examinations. MRI sagittal T2 weighted sequences revealed an extensive protrusion of disc material between C2 and C3 cervical vertebra, and this protrusion resulted in central stenosis of the spinal cord. Histopathologic findings showed a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated at sites of spinal cord injury (SCI). This case is the first report of compressive cervical SCI caused by IVDH associated with blunt trauma. PMID:28053621

  14. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features of compressive cervical myelopathy with traumatic intervertebral disc herniation in cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Hye-Jin; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Jung, Kyeong Cheon; Park, Seong Hoe; Lee, Jae-Il

    2016-12-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) with nucleus pulposus extrusion, traumatic or not, is a devastating clinical condition accompanied by neurological problems. Here we report a cynomolgus macaque suffering from acute and progressive neurological dysfunction by a blunt trauma due to neck collar, an animal handling device. Tetraplegia, urinary incontinence, decreased proprioception, and imperception of pain were shown on physical and neurological examinations. MRI sagittal T2 weighted sequences revealed an extensive protrusion of disc material between C2 and C3 cervical vertebra, and this protrusion resulted in central stenosis of the spinal cord. Histopathologic findings showed a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated at sites of spinal cord injury (SCI). This case is the first report of compressive cervical SCI caused by IVDH associated with blunt trauma.

  15. Effects of MDMA Injections on the Behavior of Socially-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Reymond, Gilles; Pozzobon, Matthieu; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2016-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methyl amphetamine (MDMA) is one of the few known molecules to increase human and rodent prosocial behaviors. However, this effect has never been assessed on the social behavior of non-human primates. In our study, we subcutaneously injected three different doses of MDMA (1.0, 1.5 or 2.0mg/kg) to a group of three, socially housed, young male long-tailed macaques. More than 200 hours of behavioral data were recorded, during 68 behavioral sessions, by an automatic color-based video device that tracked the 3D positions of each animal and of a toy. This data was then categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play). In addition, received and given social grooming was manually scored. Results show several significant dose-dependent behavioral effects. At 1.5mg/kg only, MDMA induces a significant increase in social grooming behavior, thus confirming the prosocial effect of MDMA in macaques. Additionally, at 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection substantially decreases foraging behavior, which is consistent with the known anorexigenic effect of this compound. Furthermore, at 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection induces an increase in locomotor behavior, which is also in accordance with its known stimulant property. Interestingly, MDMA injected at 1.0mg/kg increases the rate of object play, which might be interpreted as a decrease of the inhibition to manipulate a unique object in presence of others, or, as an increase of the intrinsic motivation to manipulate this object. Together, our results support the effectiveness of MDMA to study the complex neurobiology of primates' social behaviors.

  16. Effects of MDMA Injections on the Behavior of Socially-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Reymond, Gilles; Pozzobon, Matthieu; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2016-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methyl amphetamine (MDMA) is one of the few known molecules to increase human and rodent prosocial behaviors. However, this effect has never been assessed on the social behavior of non-human primates. In our study, we subcutaneously injected three different doses of MDMA (1.0, 1.5 or 2.0mg/kg) to a group of three, socially housed, young male long-tailed macaques. More than 200 hours of behavioral data were recorded, during 68 behavioral sessions, by an automatic color-based video device that tracked the 3D positions of each animal and of a toy. This data was then categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play). In addition, received and given social grooming was manually scored. Results show several significant dose-dependent behavioral effects. At 1.5mg/kg only, MDMA induces a significant increase in social grooming behavior, thus confirming the prosocial effect of MDMA in macaques. Additionally, at 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection substantially decreases foraging behavior, which is consistent with the known anorexigenic effect of this compound. Furthermore, at 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection induces an increase in locomotor behavior, which is also in accordance with its known stimulant property. Interestingly, MDMA injected at 1.0mg/kg increases the rate of object play, which might be interpreted as a decrease of the inhibition to manipulate a unique object in presence of others, or, as an increase of the intrinsic motivation to manipulate this object. Together, our results support the effectiveness of MDMA to study the complex neurobiology of primates’ social behaviors. PMID:26840064

  17. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch-Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys (MACACA Fascicularis) With or Without a Positive Response Contingency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 37, 461–484. Cawthon-Lang, K. A. (2006). Primate Factsheets: Long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) Taxonomy , Morphology... Ecology . ,http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/ long-tailed_macaque.. Cleland, G. G., & Davey, G. C. L. (1983). Autoshaping in the rat: The...2003). Diet of Macaca fasicicularis in a mangrove forest, Vietnam. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 42, 1–5. Staddon, J. E. R., & Simmelhag, V. L. (1971

  18. Validation of multi-detector computed tomography as a non-invasive method for measuring ovarian volume in macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeryl C; Appt, Susan E; Werre, Stephen R; Tan, Joshua C; Kaplan, Jay R

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate low radiation dose, contrast-enhanced, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) as a non-invasive method for measuring ovarian volume in macaques. Computed tomography scans of four known-volume phantoms and nine mature female cynomolgus macaques were acquired using a previously described, low radiation dose scanning protocol, intravenous contrast enhancement, and a 32-slice MDCT scanner. Immediately following MDCT, ovaries were surgically removed and the ovarian weights were measured. The ovarian volumes were determined using water displacement. A veterinary radiologist who was unaware of actual volumes measured ovarian CT volumes three times, using a laptop computer, pen display tablet, hand-traced regions of interest, and free image analysis software. A statistician selected and performed all tests comparing the actual and CT data. Ovaries were successfully located in all MDCT scans. The iliac arteries and veins, uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix, ureters, urinary bladder, rectum, and colon were also consistently visualized. Large antral follicles were detected in six ovaries. Phantom mean CT volume was 0.702+/-SD 0.504 cc and the mean actual volume was 0.743+/-SD 0.526 cc. Ovary mean CT volume was 0.258+/-SD 0.159 cc and mean water displacement volume was 0.257+/-SD 0.145 cc. For phantoms, the mean coefficient of variation for CT volumes was 2.5%. For ovaries, the least squares mean coefficient of variation for CT volumes was 5.4%. The ovarian CT volume was significantly associated with actual ovarian volume (ICC coefficient 0.79, regression coefficient 0.5, P=0.0006) and the actual ovarian weight (ICC coefficient 0.62, regression coefficient 0.6, P=0.015). There was no association between the CT volume accuracy and mean ovarian CT density (degree of intravenous contrast enhancement), and there was no proportional or fixed bias in the CT volume measurements. Findings from this study indicate that MDCT is a valid non

  19. Jaw-muscle architecture and mandibular morphology influence relative maximum jaw gapes in the sexually dimorphic Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Claire E; Hylander, William L; Vinyard, Christopher J; Taylor, Andrea B

    2015-05-01

    Maximum jaw gape is a performance variable related to feeding and non-feeding oral behaviors, such as canine gape displays, and is influenced by several factors including jaw-muscle fiber architecture, muscle position on the skull, and jaw morphology. Maximum gape, jaw length, and canine height are strongly correlated across catarrhine primates, but relationships between gape and other aspects of masticatory apparatus morphology are less clear. We examine the effects of jaw-adductor fiber architecture, jaw-muscle leverage, and jaw form on gape in an intraspecific sample of sexually dimorphic crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis). As M. fascicularis males have relatively larger maximum gapes than females, we predict that males will have muscle and jaw morphologies that facilitate large gape, but these morphologies may come at some expense to bite force. Male crab-eating macaques have relatively longer jaw-muscle fibers, masseters with decreased leverage, and temporomandibular joint morphologies that facilitate the production of wide gapes. Because relative canine height is correlated with maximum gape in catarrhines, and males have relatively longer canines than females, these results support the hypothesis that male M. fascicularis have experienced selection to increase maximum gape. The sexes do not differ in relative masseter physiologic cross-sectional area (PCSA), but males compensate for a potential trade-off between muscle excursion versus muscle force with increased temporalis weight and PCSA. This musculoskeletal configuration is likely functionally significant for behaviors involving aggressive canine biting and displays in male M. fascicularis and provides additional evidence supporting the multifactorial nature of the catarrhine masticatory apparatus. Our results have implications for the evolution of craniofacial morphology in catarrhine primates and reinforce the importance of evaluating additional factors other than feeding behavior and diet

  20. Construction and validation of a systematic ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a free enclosure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Xie, Liang; Li, Xin; Li, Qi; Wang, Tao; Ji, Yongjia; Kong, Fei; Zhan, Qunlin; Cheng, Ke; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations.

  1. Construction and Validation of a Systematic Ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a Free Enclosure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Ji, Yongjia; Kong, Fei; Zhan, Qunlin; Cheng, Ke; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations. PMID:22662158

  2. The Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Sperm Proteome*

    PubMed Central

    Skerget, Sheri; Rosenow, Matthew; Polpitiya, Ashoka; Petritis, Konstantinos; Dorus, Steve; Karr, Timothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry based proteomics has facilitated sperm composition studies in several mammalian species but no studies have been undertaken in non-human primate species. Here we report the analysis of the 1247 proteins that comprise the Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) sperm proteome (termed the MacSP). Comparative analysis with previously characterized mouse and human sperm proteomes reveals substantial levels of orthology (47% and 40% respectively) and widespread overlap of functional categories based on Gene Ontology analyses. Approximately 10% of macaque sperm genes (113/1247) are significantly under-expressed in the testis as compared with other tissues, which may reflect proteins specifically acquired during epididymal maturation. Phylogenetic and genomic analyses of three MacSP ADAMs (A-Disintegrin and Metalloprotease proteins), ADAM18-, 20- and 21-like, provides empirical support for sperm genes functioning in non-human primate taxa which have been subsequently lost in the lineages leading to humans. The MacSP contains proteasome proteins of the 20S core subunit, the 19S proteasome activator complex and an alternate proteasome activator PA200, raising the possibility that proteasome activity is present in mature sperm. Robust empirical characterization of the Rhesus sperm proteome should greatly expand the possibility for targeted molecular studies of spermatogenesis and fertilization in a commonly used model species for human infertility. PMID:23816990

  3. Whole-genome sequencing of tibetan macaque (Macaca Thibetana) provides new insight into the macaque evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhenxin; Zhao, Guang; Li, Peng; Osada, Naoki; Xing, Jinchuan; Yi, Yong; Du, Lianming; Silva, Pedro; Wang, Hongxing; Sakate, Ryuichi; Zhang, Xiuyue; Xu, Huailiang; Yue, Bisong; Li, Jing

    2014-06-01

    Macaques are the most widely distributed nonhuman primates and used as animal models in biomedical research. The availability of full-genome sequences from them would be essential to both biomedical and primate evolutionary studies. Previous studies have reported whole-genome sequences from rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus macaque (M. fascicularis, CE), both of which belong to the fascicularis group. Here, we present a 37-fold coverage genome sequence of the Tibetan macaque (M. thibetana; TM). TM is an endemic species to China belonging to the sinica group. On the basis of mapping to the rhesus macaque genome, we identified approximately 11.9 million single-nucleotide variants), of which 3.9 million were TM specific, as assessed by comparison two Chinese rhesus macaques (CR) and two CE genomes. Some genes carried TM-specific homozygous nonsynonymous variants (TSHNVs), which were scored as deleterious in human by both PolyPhen-2 and SIFT (Sorting Tolerant From Intolerant) and were enriched in the eye disease genes. In total, 273 immune response and disease-related genes carried at least one TSHNV. The heterozygosity rates of two CRs (0.002617 and 0.002612) and two CEs (0.003004 and 0.003179) were approximately three times higher than that of TM (0.000898). Polymerase chain reaction resequencing of 18 TM individuals showed that 29 TSHNVs exhibited high allele frequencies, thus confirming their low heterozygosity. Genome-wide genetic divergence analysis demonstrated that TM was more closely related to CR than to CE. We further detected unusual low divergence regions between TM and CR. In addition, after applying statistical criteria to detect putative introgression regions (PIRs) in the TM genome, up to 239,620 kb PIRs (8.84% of the genome) were identified. Given that TM and CR have overlapping geographical distributions, had the same refuge during the Middle Pleistocene, and show similar mating behaviors, it is highly likely that there was an ancient

  4. Genomic diversity and interspecies host infection of Macaca fascicularis papillomaviruses (MfPVs) within the alpha papillomavirus α12 species

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zigui; van Doorslaer, Koenraad; DeSalle, Rob; Wood, Charles E.; Kaplan, Jay R.; Wagner, Janice D.; Burk, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Alpha human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are among the most common sexually transmitted agents of which a subset causes cervical neoplasia and cancer in humans. Alpha-PVs have also been identified in non-human primates although few studies have systematically characterized such mucosal PVs. We cloned and characterized 10 distinct types of PVs from exfoliated cervicovaginal cells from different populations of female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) originating from China and Indonesia. These include 5 novel genotypes and 5 previously identified genotypes found in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) (RhPV-1, RhPV-a, RhPV-b and RhPV-d) and cynomolgus macaques (MfPV-a). Type-specific primers were designed to amplify the complete PV genomes using an overlapping PCR method. Four MfPVs were associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The most prevalent virus type was MfPV-3 (formerly RhPV-d), which was identified in 60% of animals with CIN. In addition, the complete genomes of variants of MfPV-3 and RhPV-1 were characterized. These variants are 97.1% and 97.7% similar across the L1 nucleotide sequences with the prototype genomes, respectively. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicate that these novel MfPVs cluster together within the alpha PV α12 species closely related to the α9 (e.g., HPV16) and α11 species (e.g., HPV34), and all share a most recent common ancestor. Our data expand the molecular diversity of non-human primate PVs and suggest the recent expansion of alpha PV species groups. Moreover, identification of an overlapping set of MfPVs in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques indicates that non-human primate alpha PVs might not be strictly species specific and that “subtypes” may represent recent divergence of host species or past interspecies infection. PMID:19716580

  5. Extended cleavage specificity of the mast cell chymase from the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis): an interesting animal model for the analysis of the function of the human mast cell chymase.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Michael; Yu, Jing; Boinapally, Vamsi; Ahooghalandari, Parvin; Kervinen, Jukka; Garavilla, Lawrence de; Hellman, Lars

    2012-12-01

    Serine proteases are the major protein constituents within mast cell secretory granules. These proteases are subdivided into chymases and tryptases depending on their primary cleavage specificity. Here, we present the extended cleavage specificity of the macaque mast cell chymase and compare the specificity with human chymase (HC) and dog chymase (DC) that were produced in the same insect cell expression host. The macaque chymase (MC) shows almost identical characteristics as the HC, including both primary and extended cleavage specificities as well as sensitivity to protease inhibitors, whereas the DC differs in several of these characteristics. Although previous studies have shown that mouse mast cell protease-4 (mMCP-4) is similar in its hydrolytic specificity to the HC, mouse mast cells contain several related enzymes. Thus mice may not be the most appropriate model organism for studying HC activity and inhibition. Importantly, macaques express only one chymase and, as primates, are closely related to human general physiology. In addition, the human and macaque enzymes both cleave angiotensin I (Ang I) in the same way, generating primarily angiotensin II (Ang II) and they do not further degrade the peptide like most rodent enzymes do. Both enzymes also cleave two additional potential in vivo substrates, fibronectin and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in a similar way. Given the fact that both HC and MC are encoded by a single gene with high sequence homology and that many physiological processes are similar between these species, the macaque may be a very interesting model to study the physiological role of the chymase and to determine the potency and potential side-effects of various chymase inhibitors designed for therapeutic human use.

  6. Urinary cystic calculi in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis): a case report.

    PubMed

    Stephens, E C; Middleton, C C; Thompson, L J

    1979-12-01

    An adult female Macaca fascicularis monkey became acutely anorexic and depressed and was found dead approximately 24 hours later. Necropsy revealed three hard brownish-yellow stones within the urinary bladder and urethra, a moderately shrunken left kidney, hemorrhage of the medulla of the left adrenal gland and a yellow liver. The stones, one of which was lodged in the urethra, were 1-2.5 cm in diameter, and their surfaces were rough and covered with spines. Chemical analysis of the stones revealed oxalates, phosphates, carbonates, ammonium salts, magnesium and calcium. Microscopic examination revealed chronic interstitial and glomerular nephritis and papillary hyperplasia of the transitional epithelium of the bladder.

  7. Reaching and grasping behavior in Macaca fascicularis: a kinematic study.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    The prehensile hand is one of the major traits distinguishing primates from other mammal species. All primates, in fact, are able to grasp an object and hold it in part or entirely using a single hand. Although there is a wealth of behavioral data regarding grasping movements in humans and apes, there is relatively little material on macaques, the animal model often used to investigate neuronal mechanisms responsible for grip control in humans. To date, evidence regarding free-ranging macaques is confined to observational data, while quantitative reports describe studies carried out in laboratory settings or in captivity. The purpose of the present study was to provide the first kinematic descriptions of basic grip behavior with regard to precision and power grips in free-ranging macaque monkeys. Video footage of those animals grasping objects was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The results revealed that the two types of grips considered are each characterized by specific kinematic signatures. It was also found that hand kinematics was scaled depending on the type of grasp needing to be adopted and the intrinsic properties of the object to be grasped. In accordance with data concerning humans, these findings indicate that the intrinsic features of an object affect the planning and control of reach-to-grasp movements even in free-ranging macaques. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative reach-to-grasp kinematics in human and non-human primates another step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment.

  8. Camptomelia in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Hopper, Kelly; Morales, Pablo; Garcia, Anapatricia; Wagner, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    An 8.5-mo-old female rhesus macaque was examined for an apparent lump on the right arm, below the elbow. The macaque showed no signs of pain or discomfort. Examination revealed that the lump was actually a bend in the forearm. Radiography demonstrated that some of the long bones of the animal were bowed. Differential diagnoses included rickets, hyperparathyroidism, pseudohyperparathyroidism, and a growth dysplasia. No other similar abnormalities in animals from that cage or any other enclosure in our large colony were observed. Blood chemistries and a complete hemogram were within normal limits for a macaque of this age. Serum was submitted for a vitamin D profile that included assays for parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and ionized calcium. Serum samples from sex- and age-matched normal controls were sent for comparison and to establish a baseline profile. The affected animal had vitamin D levels comparable to unaffected controls. Bone biopsies appeared normal for a macaque of this age. Fluorine levels in the drinking water supply were within acceptable limits. Consistent with the information available, a diagnosis of idiopathic camptomelia, or bowing of the long bones, was made. In humans, developmental camptomelia is associated with several bone dysplasias in infants and children. These conditions are thought to be caused by genetic mutations in enzymes or transcription factors that control development of the epiphyses and are almost always associated with other lethal and nonlethal developmental abnormalities.

  9. Seed dispersal by rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Asmita; McConkey, Kim R; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2014-12-01

    Frugivorous primates are important seed dispersers and their absence from forest patches is predicted to be detrimental to tropical forest regeneration and recruitment. With the reduction of primate populations globally, ecologically resilient primate species, characterized by dietary flexibility and the ability to thrive in a variety of habitats, assume new importance as seed dispersers. The most widely distributed non-human primate, the rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta has been intensively studied but little is known about its role in maintaining ecosystem structure and functions. Due to their frugivorous diet, large group sizes, large home ranges and tolerance to disturbance, rhesus macaques may be effective seed dispersers. We studied seed dispersal by rhesus macaques at the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India, through a combination of behavioural observations and germination experiments. Rhesus macaques dispersed 84% of the 49 species they fed on either through spitting or defecation. Nearly 96% of the handled seeds were undamaged and 61% of the species for which germination tests were performed had enhanced germination. Almost 50% of the monitored seeds among those deposited in situ germinated and 22% established seedlings, suggesting that rhesus macaques are important seed dispersers in tropical forests. Due to their widespread distribution and large populations, rhesus macaques are perceived as common and are categorized as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List, effectively excluding them from any conservation plans. Based on the results of our study, we argue that rhesus macaques fulfill critical ecological functions in their habitat and that this parameter must be taken into consideration when they are reviewed for conservation priorities.

  10. Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma and Juxtacortical Chondrosarcoma in Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Schmelting, Barthel; Zöller, Martina; Kaspareit, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Literature on spontaneous primary bone tumors in nonhuman primates is sparse. This case report describes 2 different neoplastic bone lesions in 2 adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), including macroscopic, radiographic, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings. In one monkey, a firm mass located at the palatogingival junction of the left rostral maxilla was confirmed to be a peripheral ossifying fibroma in light of its histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics. In another monkey, a lobulated tumor at the right distal femur that radiographically showed moderate radiopacity with splotchy areas of mineralization was confirmed to be a juxtacortical chondrosarcoma on histologic examination. The 2 neoplastic bone lesions revealed rare histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics and contribute to the known tumor spectrum of cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:21333171

  11. Bilateral hamartomatous medullary lipoma within the nasal turbinate bones in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    KATSUTA, Osamu; SHIBATA, Toru; KURIKI-YAMAMOTO, Yumi; MOCHIZUKI, Takaharu; YOSHIMI, Miwa; NOTO, Takahisa; MANO, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    A 15-year-old male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) showed large bilateral masses in the maxillary sinus. In histopathological examination, both masses revealed benign medullary lipomas within the turbinate bones. The tumors were composed of well-developed lipocytes, trabecular bones and a few blood vessels. Although we initially diagnosed the tumor as bilateral lipomas in the nasal turbinates, it was not differentiated from lipomatous hamartoma. Findings, such as unique symmetrical proliferation, lack of border from the normal marrow and the intact surrounding tissue, indicated a lipomatous hamartoma/hamartomatous lipoma, thought to be a suitable diagnosis of the lesion. Of most interest was that such a proliferating lesion occurred in the nasal turbinate. PMID:27499062

  12. Neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Akiko; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K.; Okazaki, Takanobu; Kobayashi, Kinji; Nakatsuji, Shunji; Matsumoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    A male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) of 5 years and 11 months of age from the vehicle control group of a 4-week repeated oral dose toxicity study had a spontaneously occurring mass lesion directly attached to the proximal part of the left trigeminal nerve. Histologically, the mass was characterized by a multifocal nodular appearance. Nodular zones showed low to moderate cellularity and were composed of small round cells exhibiting nuclear uniformity. On the other hand, inter-nodular zones were composed of nerve fiber containing septa and closely aggregated highly pleomorphic cells. Immunohistochemically, the small round cells were strongly immunopositive for synaptophysin, neuN, and class III beta-tubulin, while the highly pleomorphic cells were weakly immunopositive for neuN and occasionally immunopositive for class III beta-tubulin and doublecortin, suggesting that the tumor had originated from a neuronal lineage cell. Based on these findings, the mass was diagnosed as a neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve. PMID:27559245

  13. Light and scanning electron microscopical study of the cavernous sinus of the monkey, Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, K; Ling, E A

    1985-01-01

    The cavernous sinus of Macaca fascicularis is in many respects similar to the human sinus. It consists predominantly of one main venous channel that, together with the internal carotid artery, occupies a meningo-endocranial compartment lateral to the pituitary gland. Trabeculae are few and do not in any way cause the sinus to appear cavernous. They are mostly flattened in the direction of the main venous channel. Cranial nerves three, four, six and the ophthalmic division of five are all located in the lateral wall of the meningo-endocranial compartment with cranial nerve six located most medially adjacent to the internal carotid artery. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:4077687

  14. Incidence of ketamine-induced emesis in cynomologus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) used for staphylococcal enterotoxin bioassay.

    PubMed Central

    Adesiyun, A. A.; Tatini, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    Ten (24%) of 41 cynomologus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) showed emetic response to 2.5-20 mg/Kg of ketamine injected i.m. Reduction of the levels of ketamine to one half or less of the emetic level resulted in faster recovery from sedation yet provided adequate time for intubation and subsequent intragastric feeding of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) in only 6 of the 10 monkeys without emesis. The onset of the first emetic episode with ketamine was similar to that induced by staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA). Cynomologus monkeys showing emetic response to ketamine could still be used for SE bioassay if an experimentally determined non-emetic dose for individual monkeys is employed for sedation. PMID:7093145

  15. Personality of Wild Male Crested Macaques (Macaca nigra)

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Christof; Agil, Muhammad; Widdig, Anja; Engelhardt, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Animal personalities, i.e. consistent differences in behavior across time and/or context, have received increased attention of behavioral biologists over the last years. Recent research shows that personalities represent traits on which natural and sexual selection work and which can have substantial fitness consequences. The aim of this study is to establish the personality structure of crested macaque (Macaca nigra) males as foundation for future studies on its adaptive value. We collected behavioral data through focal animal sampling and additionally conducted two sets of playback experiments. Results of a factor analysis on the behavioral data revealed a four factor structure with components we labeled Anxiety, Sociability, Connectedness and Aggressiveness. Results from the experiments revealed an additional and independent Boldness factor but the absence of Neophilia. Overall, this structure resembles other macaque and animal species with the exception of Connectedness, which might be a consequence of the species' tolerant social style. Our results thus not only form the basis for future studies on the adaptive value of personality in crested macaques but also contribute an important data point for investigating the evolution of personality structure from a comparative perspective by refining, for example, which personality factors characterized the last common ancestor of hominids and macaques. PMID:23940517

  16. Vicarious reinforcement in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Chang, Steve W C; Winecoff, Amy A; Platt, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1) and/or rewards to another monkey (M2) with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in non-social control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  17. Efficacy of the UK Recombinant Plague Vaccine to Protect Against Pneumonic Plague in the Nonhuman Primate, Macaca Fascicularis (PRIVATE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    septicaemic illness. This prese classical bubonic plague [2]. However, man-to-man transmission can occu nuclei spread by the coughing of patients with... bubonic or septicaemic plagu as the USP plague vaccine. A new sub-unit vaccine for plague has been rese developed at DSTL, Porton Down in the UK and...Efficacy of the UK recombinant plague vaccine to protect against pneumonic plague in the nonhuman primate, Macaca fascicularis {PRIVATE

  18. Characterization of spontaneous malignant lymphomas in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Hirata, A; Hashimoto, K; Katoh, Y; Sakai, H; Bruce, A G; Rose, T M; Kaneko, A; Suzuki, J; Nikami, H; Yanai, T

    2015-05-01

    Lymphomas are common spontaneous tumors in nonhuman primates but remain poorly characterized in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). This study examined 5 cases of spontaneous malignant lymphoma in Japanese macaques, focusing on the immunophenotypes and presence of simian lymphocryptoviruses, which are Epstein-Barr virus-related herpesviruses in nonhuman primates. The macaques with lymphoma were 5 to 28 years old, indicating that lymphomas develop over a wide age range. The common macroscopic findings were splenomegaly and enlargement of lymph nodes. Histologic and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that all cases were non-Hodgkin type and exhibited a T-cell phenotype, positive for CD3 but negative for CD20 and CD79α. The lymphomas exhibited diverse cellular morphologies and were subdivided into 3 types according to the World Health Organization classification. These included 3 cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified; 1 case of T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia; and 1 case of an unclassifiable T-cell lymphoma. Positive signals were detected by in situ hybridization in 2 of the 4 examined cases using probes for the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA (EBER). Furthermore, the presence of M. fuscata lymphocryptovirus 2, a macaque homolog of Epstein-Barr virus, was demonstrated in EBER-positive cases by polymerase chain reaction amplification followed by direct sequencing. Immunohistochemistry using antibody to the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 was negative, even in the EBER-positive cases. The present study suggests that T-cell lymphoma is more common than B-cell lymphoma in Japanese macaques and that M. fuscata lymphocryptovirus 2 is present in some cases.

  19. Analysis of Macular Drusen and Blood Test Results in 945 Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Nishiguchi, Koji M.; Yokoyama, Yu; Fujii, Yusuke; Fujita, Kosuke; Tomiyama, Yusuke; Kawasaki, Ryo; Furukawa, Toshinori; Ono, Fumiko; Shimozawa, Nobuhiro; Togo, Mutsumi; Suzuki, Michihiro; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Age-dependent formation of macular drusen caused by the focal accumulation of extracellular deposits beneath the retinal pigment epithelium precede the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. It is established that inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of drusen and AMD. However, development of a preemptive therapeutic strategy targeting macular drusen and AMD has been impeded by the lack of relevant animal models because most laboratory animals lack macula, an anatomic feature present only in humans and a subset of monkeys. Reportedly, macular drusen and macular degeneration develop in monkeys in an age-dependent manner. In this study, we analyzed blood test results from 945 Macaca fascicularis, 317 with and 628 without drusen. First, a trend test for drusen frequency (the Cochran–Armitage test) was applied to the quartile data for each parameter. We selected variables with an increasing or decreasing trend with higher quartiles at P < 0.05, to which multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied. This revealed a positive association of age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.10 per year, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07–1.12) and white blood cell count (OR: 1.01 per 1 × 103/μl, 95% CI: 1.00–1.01) with drusen. When the monkeys were divided by age, the association between drusen and white blood cell count was only evident in younger monkeys (OR: 1.01 per 1 × 103/μl, 95% CI: 1.00–1.02). In conclusion, age and white blood cell count may be associated with drusen development in M. fascicularis. Systemic inflammation may contribute to drusen formation in monkeys. PMID:27776188

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina based on D-loop region sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Latiff M. A., B.; Ampeng, A.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain B., M.

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysian pig-tailed macaques have never been established even though the data are crucial in aiding conservation plan for the species. The aims of this study is to establish the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca nemestrina in Malaysia. A total of 21 genetic samples of M. nemestrina yielding 458 bp of D-loop sequences were used in phylogenetic analyses, in addition to one sample of M. fascicularis which was used as an outgroup. Sequence character analysis revealed that D-loop locus contains 23% parsimony informative character detected among the ingroups. Further analysis indicated a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula populations are separated from Borneo Insular population; and Perak population formed a distinctive clade within Peninsular Malaysia populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo population was distinguished from Peninsula population (100% bootstrap value in the NJ, MP, 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). Perak's population was separated from other Peninsula populations (100% in NJ, 99% in MP and 1.00 in Bayesian). D-loop region of mtDNA is proven to be a suitable locus in studying the separation of M. nemestrina at population level. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

  1. Influence of testosterone and a novel SARM on gene expression in whole blood of Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Riedmaier, Irmgard; Tichopad, Ales; Reiter, Martina; Pfaffl, Michael W; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2009-04-01

    Anabolic hormones, including testosterone, have been suggested as a therapy for aging-related conditions, such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia. These therapies are sometimes associated with severe androgenic side effects. A promising alternative to testosterone replacement therapy are selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). SARMs have the potential to mimic the desirable central and peripheral androgenic anabolic effects of testosterone without having its side effects. In this study we evaluated the effects of LGD2941, in comparison to testosterone, on mRNA expression of selected target genes in whole blood in an non-human model. The regulated genes can act as potential blood biomarker candidates in future studies with AR ligands. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were treated either with testosterone or LGD2941 for 90 days in order to compare their effects on mRNA expression in blood. Blood samples were taken before SARM application, on day 16 and on day 90 of treatment. Gene expression of 37 candidate genes was measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) technology. Our study shows that both testosterone and LGD2941 influence mRNA expression of 6 selected genes out of 37 in whole blood. The apoptosis regulators CD30L, Fas, TNFR1 and TNFR2 and the interleukins IL-12B and IL-15 showed significant changes in gene expression between control and the treatment groups and represent potential biomarkers for androgen receptor ligands in whole blood.

  2. Experimental and postexperimental effects of posteriorly directed extraoral traction in adult Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Brandt, H C; Shapiro, P A; Kokich, V G

    1979-03-01

    The experimental, postexperimental, and postretention effects of continuous high-pull headgear force application to the maxilla were evaluated in four adult, nongrowing Macaca fascicularis monkeys. Force was applied at 450 grams per side to face-bows attached to cast maxillary splints with an implanted occipital plug for anchorage. The active experimental phase lasted from 84 days to 205 days, and its effects were documented histologically, cephalometrically, and with dry skull preparations. Postexperimental, retention, and postretention responses were documented cephalometrically. The findings of the present investigation lead to the following conclusions: 1. The termination active sutural growth is of little significance to the remodeling potential of the sutural articulations and the morphologic adaptability of the facial skeletal complex. 2. The length of time necessary for resorptive remodeling of the sutural bony projections is partially responsible for the slower rate of detectable skeletal movement in adult animals. 3. The sutural ligament in adult animals is initially less responsive to the effects of extraoral force application, possibly because of a diminished level of cellular activity at older ages. 4. Increases in age do not appear to affect the osteogenic potential of the periosteal envelope. 5. Retention aids in establishing a maintainable equilibrium following experimentally induced sutural and skeletal remodeling, but it is of little importance in maintaining the altered position of the denition. 6. The amount of postexperimental skeletal reorientation following force application to the maxilla may be related to the force level and the duration of force.

  3. Niche separation of sympatric macaques, Macaca assamensis and M. mulatta, in limestone habitats of Nonggang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qihai; Wei, Hua; Tang, Huaxing; Huang, Zhonghao; Krzton, Ali; Huang, Chengming

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of sympatric species are essential in understanding those species' behavioral and ecological adaptations as well as the mechanisms that can reduce resource competition enough to allow coexistence. We collected data on diet, activity budget and habitat use from two sympatric macaque species, the Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis) and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), in a limestone seasonal rainforest of Nonggang Nature Reserve, southwestern Guangxi, China. Our results show that the two sympatric macaques differ in diet, activity budget, and habitat use: (1) out of the 131 plant species that were used by both macaque species as food over the year, only 15 plant species (11 %) were shared. Rhesus macaques used more plant species as major foods, and had higher dietary diversity and evenness indexes than Assamese macaques. (2) Assamese macaques fed predominantly on leaves, whereas rhesus macaques fed more selectively on fruits. The rhesus macaques' diet varied according to season, and was significantly correlated to season fluctuation in fruit availability. (3) Assamese macaques devoted more time to resting, and less time to feeding than rhesus macaques (4) Assamese macaques were present mostly on the cliff, and tended to stay on the ground, whereas rhesus macaques were present mostly on the hillside, and showed preference to lower and middle canopy. The observed differences in diet and habitat use between the two macaque species represent behavioral patterns enabling their coexistence.

  4. Increased atherosclerosis and glomerulonephritis in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) given injections of BSA over an extended period of time.

    PubMed Central

    Stills, H. F.; Bullock, B. C.; Clarkson, T. B.

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effects of experimental immune complex disease on the development of glomerulonephritis and aortic and coronary artery atherosclerosis. Fourteen adult male macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were fed a mildly atherogenic diet. Ten of these animals were given repeated intravenous injections of bovine serum albumin (BSA), and the remaining 4 were given similar injections of saline. Three of the monkeys given BSA responded with a high antibody titer, 4 with a moderate titer, and 3 with a low level titer to BSA. In all 4 monkeys with the moderate antibody response glomerulonephritis developed, characterized by increased glomerular cellularity, electron-dense deposits in the glomerular capillary basal lamina, and deposits of IgG, IgM, C3, C4, and BSA. Glomerulonephritis was not seen in the other 6 monkeys given BSA or the 4 control monkeys. Aortic lesions seen at necropsy consisted of a few fatty intimal streaks with no differences between test monkeys (given BSA) and control monkeys (given saline). There was no correlation between total serum cholesterol concentration, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, or BSA antibody levels and the degree of aortic atherosclerosis. Immunochemical stains for immunoglobulins and complement components revealed increased intimal staining when intimal thickness increased. Medial staining for immunoglobulin and complement components appeared to be slightly increased in monkeys with moderately high-level titers of BSA. The extent of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries of monkeys given BSA was greater than in the control animals. Differences in the extent and severity of the atherosclerotic lesions were most pronounced in the proximal portions of the main coronary arteries, suggesting an increased susceptibility of this site to immune-complex-exacerbated atherosclerosis. In addition to the increased lesion severity in monkeys given BSA, there were numerous granulocytes seen within

  5. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

    PubMed

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests.

  6. Effects elicited by toxaphene in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis): a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bryce, F; Iverson, F; Andrews, P; Barker, M; Cherry, W; Mueller, R; Pulido, O; Hayward, S; Fernie, S; Arnold, D L

    2001-12-01

    Toxaphene, which was added to glycerol/corn oil, was administered at a level of 1 mg/kg body weight/day in gelatin capsules to four healthy young adult cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys for 52 weeks. Four control monkeys ingested capsules containing only glycerol/corn oil. Each group had two males and two females. On a daily basis, each monkey's feed and water consumption was determined, its health was monitored and the females were swabbed to evaluate menstrual status. On a weekly basis, each monkey's body weight was determined and a detailed clinical evaluation was performed. At 4-week intervals, blood samples were taken for serum biochemistry, haematology and toxaphene analysis. Also, a local anaesthetic was administered to the nuchal fat pad area of each monkey, and adipose samples were obtained for toxaphene analysis. 1 day prior to the biopsies, a 24-h urine and faecal collection was obtained for toxaphene analysis. After 34 weeks of treatment, the immune system of the monkeys was evaluated. After 52 weeks of dosing, all treated and two control animals were necropsied. Liver samples were obtained and microsomal fractions were prepared immediately. A portion of liver and kidney was taken for toxaphene analysis. All of the major internal organs were weighed and bone marrow evaluations were conducted. Organ and tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin and processed for light microscopy. There was no effect of treatment on body weight gain, feed consumption, water consumption or haematological parameters. Two major clinical findings were inflammation and/or enlargement of the tarsal gland and impacted diverticulae in the upper and lower eye lids. At necropsy, the relative spleen and thymus weights were greater for the treated monkeys than the controls. Toxaphene administration produced an increase in metabolism of aminopyrene, methoxyresorufin and ethoxyresorufin, three substrates that are altered specifically by cytochrome P450-based hepatic

  7. A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2014-05-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans

  8. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys ("Macaca Fascicularis") with or without a Positive Response Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Christopher E.; Myers, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naive cynomolgus monkeys ("Macaca fascicularis") under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or…

  9. Studies on the Structure of Low Density Lipoproteins Isolated from Macaca Fascicularis Fed an Atherogenic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Tall, Alan R.; Small, Donald M.; Atkinson, David; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    1978-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys, Macaca fascicularis, fed cholesterol-containing saturated-fat diets develop increased levels of high molecular weight plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL), associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. To study the composition and structure of these abnormal particles, LDL from monkeys, fed atherogenic and control diets, were characterized chemically and examined by differential scanning calorimetry and low-angle X-ray scattering. LDL from animals on the experimental diet showed an increase in molecular weight (4.0 to 7.0 × 106, experimental diet compared with 3.0 to 3.7 × 106, control diet) associated with a large increase in cholesterol ester content and concomitant smaller increases in protein, phospholipid, and free cholesterol. There was a strong positive correlation between molecular weight and the number of saturated and monounsaturated cholesterol esters in the particle. In contrast, particle content of polyunsaturated cholesterol esters remained constant despite large changes in total particle cholesterol esters. When examined by calorimetry and X-ray scattering, LDL from monkeys on both diets diplayed a reversible transition of cholesterol esters from an ordered smeticlike (layered) structure to a more disordered state. For all animals on the experimental diet, the peak temperature of the cholesterol-ester transition (42-48°C) was above body temperature (39°C), but below body temperature on the control diet (34-38.5°C). In the experimental group, the transition temperature was correlated with the LDL molecular weight. However, after thermal disruption of LDL, liquid-crystalline transitions of LDL cholesterol esters were observed in the same temperature range as in the intact lipoprotein, which shows that changes in particle size had little effect on the cholesterol-ester transition temperature. Rather, the transition temperature was determined by the degree of saturation of the LDL cholesterol ester fatty acids and the LDL

  10. Visible lesion laser thresholds in Cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) retina with a 1064 nm 12-ns pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Stolarski, David J.; Noojin, Gary D.; Hodnett, Harvey M.; Imholte, Michelle L.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Kumru, Semih S.

    2007-02-01

    A series of experiments in a new animal model for retinal damage, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), have been conducted to determine the damage threshold for 12.5-nanosecond laser exposures at 1064 nm. These results provide a direct comparison to threshold values obtained in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), which is the model historically used in establishing retinal maximum permissible exposure (MPE) limits. In this study, the irradiance level of a collimated Gaussian laser beam of 2.5 mm diameter at the cornea was randomly varied to produce a rectangular grid of exposures on the retina. Exposures sites were fundoscopically evaluated at post-irradiance intervals of 1 hour and 24 hours. Probit analysis was performed on dose-response data to obtain probability of response curves. The 50% probability of damage (ED50) values for 1 and 24 hours post-exposure are 28.5(22.7-38.4) μJ and 17.0(12.9-21.8) μJ, respectively. These values compare favorably to data obtained with the rhesus model, 28.7(22.3-39.3) μJ and 19.1(13.6-24.4) μJ, suggesting that the cynomolgus monkey may be a suitable replacement for rhesus monkey in photoacoustic minimum visible lesion threshold studies.

  11. Macaques at the margins: the biogeography and extinction of Macaca sylvanus in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elton, Sarah; O'Regan, Hannah J.

    2014-07-01

    The genus Macaca (Primates: Cercopithecidae) originated in Africa, dispersed into Europe in the Late Miocene and resided there until the Late Pleistocene. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the evolutionary history of Macaca in Europe, putting it into context with the wider late Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene European monkey fossil record (also comprising Mesopithecus, Paradolichopithecus, Dolichopithecus and Theropithecus). The Pliocene and Pleistocene European Macaca fossil material is largely regarded as Macaca sylvanus, the same species as the extant Barbary macaque in North Africa. The M. sylvanus specimens found at West Runton in Norfolk (53°N) during the Middle Pleistocene are among the most northerly euprimates ever discovered. Our simple time-budget model indicates that short winter day lengths would have imposed a significant constraint on activity at such relatively high latitudes, so macaque populations in Britain may have been at the limit of their ecological tolerance. Two basic models using climatic and topographic data for the Last Interglacial and the Last Glacial Maximum alongside Middle and Late Pleistocene fossil distributions indicate that much of Europe may have been suitable habitat for macaques. The models also indicate that areas of southern Europe in the present day have a climate that could support macaque populations. However, M. sylvanus became locally extinct in the Late Pleistocene, possibly at a similar time as the straight-tusked elephant, Palaeoloxodon antiquus, and narrow-nosed rhinoceros, Stephanorhinus hemitoechus. Its extinction may be related to vegetation change or increased predation from Homo, although other factors (such as stochastic factors occurring as a result of small population sizes) cannot be ruled out. Notwithstanding the cause of extinction, the European macaque may thus be a previously overlooked member of the Late Pleistocene faunal turnover.

  12. The population genomics of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) based on whole-genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Cheng; Raveendran, Muthuswamy; Harris, R. Alan; Fawcett, Gloria L.; Liu, Xiaoming; White, Simon; Dahdouli, Mahmoud; Rio Deiros, David; Below, Jennifer E.; Salerno, William; Cox, Laura; Fan, Guoping; Ferguson, Betsy; Horvath, Julie; Johnson, Zach; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Kubisch, H. Michael; Liu, Dahai; Platt, Michael; Smith, David G.; Sun, Binghua; Vallender, Eric J.; Wang, Feng; Wiseman, Roger W.; Chen, Rui; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Yu, Fuli; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are the most widely used nonhuman primate in biomedical research, have the largest natural geographic distribution of any nonhuman primate, and have been the focus of much evolutionary and behavioral investigation. Consequently, rhesus macaques are one of the most thoroughly studied nonhuman primate species. However, little is known about genome-wide genetic variation in this species. A detailed understanding of extant genomic variation among rhesus macaques has implications for the use of this species as a model for studies of human health and disease, as well as for evolutionary population genomics. Whole-genome sequencing analysis of 133 rhesus macaques revealed more than 43.7 million single-nucleotide variants, including thousands predicted to alter protein sequences, transcript splicing, and transcription factor binding sites. Rhesus macaques exhibit 2.5-fold higher overall nucleotide diversity and slightly elevated putative functional variation compared with humans. This functional variation in macaques provides opportunities for analyses of coding and noncoding variation, and its cellular consequences. Despite modestly higher levels of nonsynonymous variation in the macaques, the estimated distribution of fitness effects and the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous variants suggest that purifying selection has had stronger effects in rhesus macaques than in humans. Demographic reconstructions indicate this species has experienced a consistently large but fluctuating population size. Overall, the results presented here provide new insights into the population genomics of nonhuman primates and expand genomic information directly relevant to primate models of human disease. PMID:27934697

  13. The population genomics of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) based on whole-genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Xue, Cheng; Raveendran, Muthuswamy; Harris, R Alan; Fawcett, Gloria L; Liu, Xiaoming; White, Simon; Dahdouli, Mahmoud; Rio Deiros, David; Below, Jennifer E; Salerno, William; Cox, Laura; Fan, Guoping; Ferguson, Betsy; Horvath, Julie; Johnson, Zach; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Kubisch, H Michael; Liu, Dahai; Platt, Michael; Smith, David G; Sun, Binghua; Vallender, Eric J; Wang, Feng; Wiseman, Roger W; Chen, Rui; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Yu, Fuli; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are the most widely used nonhuman primate in biomedical research, have the largest natural geographic distribution of any nonhuman primate, and have been the focus of much evolutionary and behavioral investigation. Consequently, rhesus macaques are one of the most thoroughly studied nonhuman primate species. However, little is known about genome-wide genetic variation in this species. A detailed understanding of extant genomic variation among rhesus macaques has implications for the use of this species as a model for studies of human health and disease, as well as for evolutionary population genomics. Whole-genome sequencing analysis of 133 rhesus macaques revealed more than 43.7 million single-nucleotide variants, including thousands predicted to alter protein sequences, transcript splicing, and transcription factor binding sites. Rhesus macaques exhibit 2.5-fold higher overall nucleotide diversity and slightly elevated putative functional variation compared with humans. This functional variation in macaques provides opportunities for analyses of coding and noncoding variation, and its cellular consequences. Despite modestly higher levels of nonsynonymous variation in the macaques, the estimated distribution of fitness effects and the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous variants suggest that purifying selection has had stronger effects in rhesus macaques than in humans. Demographic reconstructions indicate this species has experienced a consistently large but fluctuating population size. Overall, the results presented here provide new insights into the population genomics of nonhuman primates and expand genomic information directly relevant to primate models of human disease.

  14. Juxtaarticular Myxoma in a Pigtail Macaque (Macaca nemestrina)

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Brianna L; Johnson, Crystal H; Lacy, Shannon H

    2016-01-01

    A 10-y-old pigtail macaque presented with a subcutaneous, soft-tissue mass overlying the right stifle joint. Here we describe the clinical case and histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of this lesion. This case represents the first published report of juxtaarticular myxoma in a pigtail macaque. PMID:27780010

  15. Effects of age and sex on the hematology and blood chemistry of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Yi, Yong; Sun, Fei; Zhou, Liang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Hongxing; Zhang, Guodong; Zhang, Yu Alex; Yue, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), also known as Chinese stump-tailed macaques, are a threatened primate species. Although Tibetan macaques are Old World monkeys in the genus of Macaca, limited age- and sex-related physiologic data are available for this particular species. We used 69 apparently healthy Tibetan male and female macaques to explore the effect of age and sex on physiologic parameters. Somatometric measurements, biochemistry, and hematologic parameters were analyzed. Significant age-related differences were found for weight, BMI, RBC count, Hgb, Hct, neutrophils, eosinophil count, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, creatine kinase (muscle and brain subtypes), LDH, α-amylase, creatinine, apolipoprotein A1, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, HDL, and potassium. Significant differences by sex were noted for weight, BMI, ALT, total bilirubin, and indirect bilirubin. An interaction between age and sex accounted for statistically significant differences in the values for weight, BMI, and lymphocyte and eosinophil counts. These physiologic data will provide veterinarians and researchers with important age- and sex-specific reference ranges for evaluating experimental results from Tibetan macaques.

  16. Transmission of Chagas Disease via Blood Transfusions in 2 Immunosuppressed Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina)

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Derek L; Torrence, Annie E; Vogel, Keith W; Stockinger, Diane E; Nelson, Veronica; Murnane, Robert D; Baldessari, Audrey; Kuller, LaRene; Agy, Michael; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E

    2014-01-01

    A 2.25-y-old male pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) was experimentally irradiated and received a bone marrow transplant. After transplantation and engraftment, the macaque had unexpected recurring pancytopenia and dependent edema of the prepuce, scrotum, and legs. The diagnostic work-up included a blood smear, which revealed a trypomastigote consistent with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease (CD). We initially hypothesized that the macaque had acquired the infection when it lived in Georgia. However, because the animal had received multiple blood transfusions, all blood donors were screened for CD. One male pigtailed macaque blood donor, which was previously housed in Louisiana, was positive for T. cruzi antibodies via serology. Due to the low prevalence of infection in Georgia, the blood transfusion was hypothesized to be the source of T. cruzi infection. The transfusion was confirmed as the mechanism of transmission when screening of archived serum revealed seroconversion after blood transfusion from the seropositive blood donor. The macaque made a full clinical recovery, and further follow-up including thoracic radiography, echocardiography, and gross necropsy did not show any abnormalities associated with CD. Other animals that received blood transfusions from the positive blood donor were tested, and one additional pigtailed macaque on the same research protocol was positive for T. cruzi. Although CD has been reported to occur in many nonhuman primate species, especially pigtailed macaques, the transmission of CD via blood transfusion in nonhuman primates has not been reported previously. PMID:24512963

  17. MaqFACS (Macaque Facial Action Coding System) can be used to document facial movements in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)

    PubMed Central

    Julle-Danière, Églantine; Whitehouse, Jamie; Joly, Marine; Gass, Carolin; Burrows, Anne M.; Waller, Bridget M.

    2015-01-01

    Human and non-human primates exhibit facial movements or displays to communicate with one another. The evolution of form and function of those displays could be better understood through multispecies comparisons. Anatomically based coding systems (Facial Action Coding Systems: FACS) are developed to enable such comparisons because they are standardized and systematic and aid identification of homologous expressions underpinned by similar muscle contractions. To date, FACS has been developed for humans, and subsequently modified for chimpanzees, rhesus macaques, orangutans, hylobatids, dogs, and cats. Here, we wanted to test whether the MaqFACS system developed in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could be used to code facial movements in Barbary macaques (M. sylvanus), a species phylogenetically close to the rhesus macaques. The findings show that the facial movement capacity of Barbary macaques can be reliably coded using the MaqFACS. We found differences in use and form of some movements, most likely due to specializations in the communicative repertoire of each species, rather than morphological differences. PMID:26401458

  18. Disseminated Hemangiosarcoma in a Juvenile Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Amanda P; Gray, Stanton B; Chaffee, Beth K

    2016-01-01

    Hemangiosarcoma is a malignant tumor of vascular endothelial origin that is sporadically reported in rhesus macaques. This report describes the clinicopathologic features of a 1-y-old rhesus macaque with spontaneous disseminated hemangiosarcoma that originally presented as a focal cutaneous mass. Histopathologic examination of multiple tumor foci revealed regions in which the neoplastic cells formed diffuse sheets, as well as the well-defined vascular channels typically associated with hemangiosarcoma. Multiple endothelial cell immunomarkers were used to confirm the diagnosis in this rhesus macaque. The tumor exhibited staining properties consistent with those seen in domestic animals and humans. In addition, to our knowledge, this animal represents the youngest case of any form of spontaneous hemangiosarcoma reported in the rhesus macaque to date. PMID:27298251

  19. Serum Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Concentrations in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina) with Chronic Idiopathic Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Izzi, Jessica M; Beck, Sarah E; Adams, Robert J; Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Hutchinson, Eric K

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea poses a significant threat to the health of NHP research colonies, and its primary etiology remains unclear. In macaques, the clinical presentation of intractable diarrhea and weight loss that are accompanied by inflammatory infiltrates within the gastrointestinal tract closely resembles inflammatory bowel disease of humans, dogs, and cats, in which low serum and tissue cobalamin (vitamin B12) levels are due to intestinal malabsorption. We therefore hypothesized that macaques with chronic idiopathic diarrhea (CID) have lower serum cobalamin concentrations than do healthy macaques. Here we measured serum cobalamin concentrations in both rhesus and pigtailed macaques with CID and compared them with those of healthy controls. Serum cobalamin levels were 2.5-fold lower in pigtailed macaques with CID than control animals but did not differ between rhesus macaques with CID and their controls. This finding supports the use of serum cobalamin concentration as an adjunct diagnostic tool in pigtailed macaques that present with clinical symptoms of chronic gastrointestinal disease. This use of serum vitamin B12 levels has implications for the future use of parenteral cobalamin supplementation to improve clinical outcomes in this species. PMID:27538863

  20. Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of Japanese Macaque Babesia-1 (JM-1) detected from a Japanese Macaque (Macaca fuscata fuscata)

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Haruyuki; Kawai, Satoru; Maeda, Mari; Jinnai, Michio; Fujisawa, Kohei; Katakai, Yuko; Hikosaka, Kenji; Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate here the identification and phylogenetic characterization of Babesia microti (B. microti)-like parasite detected from a splenectomized Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata fuscata) at a facility for laboratory animal science. On Day 133 after splenectomy, intra-erythrocytic parasites were found on light microscopic examination, and the level of parasitemia reached 0.3% on blood smear. Molecular characterization of the parasite using nested-polymerization chain reactions targeting the 18S rRNA, β-tubulin, and subunit 7 (eta) of the chaperonin-containing t-complex polypeptide 1 (CCT7) genes were identified as a B. microti-like parasite, designated the Japanese Macaque Babesia-1 (JM-1). PMID:21976563

  1. Attenuation of neurovirulence, biodistribution, and shedding of a poliovirus:rhinovirus chimera after intrathalamic inoculation in Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Dobrikova, Elena Y; Goetz, Christian; Walters, Robert W; Lawson, Sarah K; Peggins, James O; Muszynski, Karen; Ruppel, Sheryl; Poole, Karyol; Giardina, Steven L; Vela, Eric M; Estep, James E; Gromeier, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    A dependence of poliovirus on an unorthodox translation initiation mode can be targeted selectively to drive viral protein synthesis and cytotoxicity in malignant cells. Transformed cells are naturally susceptible to poliovirus, due to widespread ectopic upregulation of the poliovirus receptor, Necl-5, in ectodermal/neuroectodermal cancers. Viral tumor cell killing and the host immunologic response it engenders produce potent, lasting antineoplastic effects in animal tumor models. Clinical application of this principle depends on unequivocal demonstration of safety in primate models for paralytic poliomyelitis. We conducted extensive dose-range-finding, toxicity, biodistribution, shedding, and neutralizing antibody studies of the prototype oncolytic poliovirus recombinant, PVS-RIPO, after intrathalamic inoculation in Macaca fascicularis. These studies suggest that intracerebral PVS-RIPO inoculation does not lead to viral propagation in the central nervous system (CNS), does not cause histopathological CNS lesions or neurological symptoms that can be attributed to the virus, is not associated with extraneural virus dissemination or replication and does not induce shedding of virus with stool. Intrathalamic PVS-RIPO inoculation induced neutralizing antibody responses against poliovirus serotype 1 in all animals studied.

  2. Attenuation of Neurovirulence, Biodistribution, and Shedding of a Poliovirus:Rhinovirus Chimera after Intrathalamic Inoculation in Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Dobrikova, Elena Y.; Goetz, Christian; Walters, Robert W.; Lawson, Sarah K.; Peggins, James O.; Muszynski, Karen; Ruppel, Sheryl; Poole, Karyol; Giardina, Steven L.; Vela, Eric M.; Estep, James E.

    2012-01-01

    A dependence of poliovirus on an unorthodox translation initiation mode can be targeted selectively to drive viral protein synthesis and cytotoxicity in malignant cells. Transformed cells are naturally susceptible to poliovirus, due to widespread ectopic upregulation of the poliovirus receptor, Necl-5, in ectodermal/neuroectodermal cancers. Viral tumor cell killing and the host immunologic response it engenders produce potent, lasting antineoplastic effects in animal tumor models. Clinical application of this principle depends on unequivocal demonstration of safety in primate models for paralytic poliomyelitis. We conducted extensive dose-range-finding, toxicity, biodistribution, shedding, and neutralizing antibody studies of the prototype oncolytic poliovirus recombinant, PVS-RIPO, after intrathalamic inoculation in Macaca fascicularis. These studies suggest that intracerebral PVS-RIPO inoculation does not lead to viral propagation in the central nervous system (CNS), does not cause histopathological CNS lesions or neurological symptoms that can be attributed to the virus, is not associated with extraneural virus dissemination or replication and does not induce shedding of virus with stool. Intrathalamic PVS-RIPO inoculation induced neutralizing antibody responses against poliovirus serotype 1 in all animals studied. PMID:22171271

  3. Oocyte glutathione and fertilisation outcome of Macaca nemestrina and Macaca fascicularis in in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes.

    PubMed

    Curnow, E C; Ryan, J P; Saunders, D M; Hayes, E S

    2010-01-01

    Fertilisation and development of IVM non-human primate oocytes is limited compared with that of in vivo-matured (IVO) oocytes. The present study describes the IVM of macaque oocytes with reference to oocyte glutathione (GSH). Timing of maturation, comparison of IVM media and cysteamine (CYS) supplementation as a modulator of GSH were investigated. A significantly greater proportion of oocytes reached MII after 30 h compared with 24 h of IVM. Following insemination, IVM oocytes had a significantly lower incidence of normal fertilisation (i.e. 2PN = two pronuclei and at least one polar body) and a higher rate of abnormal fertilisation (1PN = one pronucleus and at least one polar body) compared with IVO oocytes. Immunofluorescence of 1PN zygotes identified incomplete sperm head decondensation and failure of male pronucleus formation as the principal cause of abnormal fertilisation in IVM oocytes. The IVO oocytes had significantly higher GSH content than IVM oocytes. Cumulus-denuded oocytes had significantly lower GSH following IVM compared with immature oocytes at collection. Cysteamine supplementation of the IVM medium significantly increased the GSH level of cumulus-intact oocytes and reduced the incidence of 1PN formation, but did not improve GSH levels of the denuded oocyte. Suboptimal GSH levels in macaque IVM oocytes may be related to reduced fertilisation outcomes.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R.; Pypendop, Bruno H.; Christe, Kari L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g. dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially-housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration (180 words). PMID:25488714

  5. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Kelly, K R; Pypendop, B H; Christe, K L

    2015-08-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g., dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post-tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration.

  6. Gastric trichobezoars in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Mook, Deborah M

    2002-12-01

    On physical examination, a 5 x 10-cm abdominal mass was found in an eight-year-old female rhesus macaque. Radiography revealed an opaque mass in the cranial portion of the abdomen, displacing the stomach craniad. Percutaneous biopsy obtained hair with little tissue, confirming a diagnosis of trichobezoar. Initially, the hairball was medically managed by oral administration of lubricants. Medical management proved unsuccessful, the macaque began to lose weight, and two gastric trichobezoars were subsequently removed surgically. Normal appetite and activity were regained within one week. Gastric trichobezoars may lead to severe clinical illness, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis for anorexia and/or weight loss in any nonhuman primate. Trichobezoars may also be detected and treated prior to development of illness.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Oxymorphone in Titi Monkeys (Callicebus spp.) and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R; Pypendop, Bruno H; Grayson, J Kevin; Stanley, Scott D; Christe, Kari L; Summers, Laura M; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2011-01-01

    Oxymorphone is a pure μ-opioid receptor agonist that is commonly used in nonhuman primate medicine and surgery to minimize pain ranging in intensity from moderate to severe. We compared pharmacokinetic profiles and physiologic and behavioral responses to oxymorphone between titi monkeys (Callicebus spp.) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Titi monkeys (n = 4) and rhesus macaques (n = 4) were injected intravenously with either a bolus of 0.075 mg/kg oxymorphone or placebo on multiple occasions, with a minimal washout period of 14 d between trials. Blood collection was limited to no more than 3 samples per trial, with samples collected at multiple time points until 10 h after injection. Collection periods, animal order, and testing day were randomized. In addition, macaques underwent a single serial collection at all time points to validate study design. A 2-compartment model best described the disposition of oxymorphone in both species. Clearance was faster in macaques than titi monkeys, in which terminal half-life was longer. Statistically significant physiologic differences were found between species and between treatments within species. Apart from these effects, oxymorphone did not significantly change physiologic parameters over time. After oxymorphone treatment, macaques demonstrated behaviors reflecting pruritis, whereas titi monkeys exhibited sedation. Despite its mild side effects, we recommend the consideration of oxymorphone for pain management protocols in both Old and New World nonhuman primates. PMID:21439215

  8. Buton macaques (Macaca ochreata brunnescens): crops, conflict, and behavior on farms.

    PubMed

    Priston, Nancy E C; Wyper, Rebecca M; Lee, Phyllis C

    2012-01-01

    One consequence of anthropogenic habitat alteration is that many nonhuman primates are forced into conflict interactions with humans and their livelihood activities, especially through crop raiding. These problems are particularly acute for the endemic and threatened Buton Island macaque (Macaca ochreata brunnescens), in southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Our study investigated the crop raiding behavior of this species over time. Foods eaten and the behavioral repertoire exhibited by macaques during crop raiding at and inside farm perimeters were observed over a period of 8 years (2002-2009). Storage organ crops (e.g. sweet potato) were abundant and most frequently raided by macaques. Individual macaques were most commonly observed to raid close (0-10 m) to farm perimeters. Activities such as feeding, resting, moving, and social interaction varied significantly as a function of penetration distance into the farm, but only marginally between age-sex classes. The annual average raid frequency per farm decreased over the latter years of the study period, raising questions about changes in macaque foraging and ranging behavior over time and their response to farm management and mitigation strategies.

  9. Influence of heavy snow on the feeding behavior of Japanese macaques (macaca fuscata) in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Enari, Hiroto; Sakamaki-Enari, Haruka

    2013-06-01

    Natural disasters can degrade primate habitat and alter feeding behavior. Here, we examined the influence of unusually heavy snow on diet and feeding-site use by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. To compare the winter-feeding behavior under different snow conditions, we recorded the plant species foraged on by macaques in multiple transects of the Shirakami Mountains from 2008 to 2012 (excluding 2011). We used cluster analysis to describe foraged plant assemblages, and applied multiple dimensional scaling and decision tree modeling to evaluate annual variation in feeding-site use by macaques. Our cluster analysis revealed five types of foraged plant assemblages. The proportion of each type present in transects varied considerably across the years, indicating that the diet of macaques in heavy snow conditions was influenced more by resource accessibility than by preference. Multiple dimensional scaling and decision tree modeling demonstrated that heavy snow conditions restricted feeding-site use. Moreover, the distribution of refuges relative to severe external ambient environments was a stronger limiting factor for feeding-site use than was the availability of food resources. While most primate species facing unexpected starvation employ risk-prone foraging tactics (i.e., choosing the option with higher pay-off by accepting risk), Japanese macaques have a tendency to adopt risk-averse foraging behavior (i.e., minimizing energy loss when searching for preferred diet items under long-lasting heavy snow conditions), because winters with temperatures below freezing have higher thermoregulatory costs.

  10. Cryotolerance of Sperm from Transgenic Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Sean P; Chi, Tim; Prucha, Melinda S; Agca, Yuksel; Chan, Anthony WS

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation is an important tool routinely used in preserving sperm for assisted reproductive technologies and for genetic preservation of unique animal models. Here we investigated the viability of fresh and frozen sperm from rhesus macaques on the basis of motility, membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity. Sperm motility was determined by visual evaluation; membrane and acrosome integrity were assessed simultaneously through triple staining with Hoechst 33342, propidium iodide, and fluorescein isothiocyanate–peanut agglutinin. We compared thawed semen that had been cryopreserved by using 2 different media with fresh semen from wildtype (WT) macaques; fresh semen from a model of Huntington disease (HD) with fresh WT semen; and fresh HD with cryopreserved-thawed HD semen. Our new freezing media (TEST EQ) preserved the acrosome better, with less net damage, than did traditional TEST (egg yolk extender containing TES and Tris) media. In addition, the percentage of membrane-damaged cells was similar in fresh HD semen (38.6% ± 2.9%) and WT semen (35.5% ±1.9%). Membrane and acrosomal damage were not different between HD and WT sperm after cryopreservation and subsequent thawing. Furthermore, cryopreservation had similar negative effects on the motility of HD and WT sperm. These data illustrate that semen from a rhesus macaque model of HD is similarly cryotoleratant to that from WT animals. PMID:27657705

  11. Diversity and Molecular Phylogeny of Mitochondrial DNA of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    HASAN, M. KAMRUL; FEEROZ, M. MOSTAFA; JONES-ENGEL, LISA; ENGEL, GREGORY A.; KANTHASWAMY, SREE; SMITH, DAVID GLENN

    2015-01-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India. PMID:24810278

  12. Diversity and molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2014-11-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India.

  13. Physiological parameters of Macaca fascicularis immunized with anti-rubella vaccine with germanium-based adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Karal-Ogly, D D; Agrba, V Z; Lavrent'eva, I N; Ambrosov, I V; Matelo, S K; Chuguev, Yu P; Gvaramiya, I A; Gvozdik, T E; Mukhametzyanova, E I

    2014-05-01

    Clinical status, hematological and biochemical parameters, and allergenic activity of organogermanium compounds used as adjuvants in complex with preparation from Orlov rubella virus vaccine strain and reference commercial anti-rubella vaccine based on Wistar RA 27/3 strain were studied on Macaca fascilcularis of both genders. Physiological parameters of monkeys immunized with the Russian and foreign rubella virus vaccine strains with and without adjuvants did not differ. The adjuvants were inessential for the safety of vaccines (absence of toxicity, reactogenic activity, or allergenic activity) in preclinical studies on lower primates.

  14. Ordinal judgments of numerical symbols by macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    Two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) learned that the arabic numerals 0 through 9 represented corresponding quantities of food pellets. By manipulating a joystick, the monkeys were able to make a selection of paired numerals presented on a computer screen. Although the monkeys received a corresponding number of pellets even if the lesser of the two numerals was selected, they learned generally to choose the numeral of greatest value even when pellet delivery was made arrhythmic. In subsequent tests, they chose the numerals of greater value when presented in novel combinations or in random arrays of up to five numerals. Thus, the monkeys made ordinal judgments of numerical symbols in accordance with their absolute or relative values.

  15. Determinants of immigration strategies in male crested macaques (Macaca nigra)

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Pascal R.; Hodges, Keith; Agil, Muhammad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2016-01-01

    Immigration into a new group can produce substantial costs due to resistance from residents, but also reproductive benefits. Whether or not individuals base their immigration strategy on prospective cost-benefit ratios remains unknown. We investigated individual immigration decisions in crested macaques, a primate species with a high reproductive skew in favour of high-ranking males. We found two different strategies. Males who achieved low rank in the new group usually immigrated after another male had immigrated within the previous 25 days and achieved high rank. They never got injured but also had low prospective reproductive success. We assume that these males benefitted from immigrating into a destabilized male hierarchy. Males who achieved high rank in the new group usually immigrated independent of previous immigrations. They recieved injuries more frequently and therefore bore immigration costs. They, however, also had higher reproductive success prospects. We conclude that male crested macaques base their immigration strategy on relative fighting ability and thus potential rank in the new group i.e. potential reproductive benefits, as well as potential costs of injury. PMID:27535622

  16. Giant Thoracic Schwannoma in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Derron A; Bell, Todd M; Benton, Carrie; Rushing, Elisabeth J; Stevens, Edward L

    2010-01-01

    A 15-y-old male rhesus macaque with a 3-d history of labored breathing, was culled from a nonhuman primate research colony after thoracic radiographs and exploratory surgery revealed a 10-cm, well-circumscribed space-occupying mass in the posterior thoracic cavity. The multilobulated cystic and necrotic neoplasm was composed of interlacing streams and fascicles of neoplastic spindle cells arranged in Antoni A, and less commonly, Antoni B patterns. Verocay bodies were present also. The neoplasm was encapsulated mostly, and histomorphologic features were benign. Immunohistochemistry indicated that neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin, S100, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and nerve growth factor receptor. Reticulin histochemical staining and immunohistochemical stains for collagen IV and laminin showed a prominent basal lamina surrounding the neoplastic cells. The histologic features and results of the immunohistochemical stains confirmed peripheral nerve origin and were consistent with schwannoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case of thoracic schwannoma in a rhesus macaque and the second reported case of schwannoma in a nonhuman primate. PMID:21205456

  17. First Complete Genome Sequence of a Simian Foamy Virus Isolate from a Cynomolgus Macaque

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Koji; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete proviral genome sequence (DDBJ/ENA/GenBank accession no. LC094267) of a simian foamy virus, SFVmfa/Cy5061, isolated from a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis). This proviral genome consists of 12,965 nucleotides and has five open reading frames, gag, pol, env, tas, and bet, as with other foamy viruses. PMID:27908992

  18. Morphometric studies on the structural development of the lung in Macaca fascicularis during fetal and postnatal life.

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, A; Howard, S; Fairweather, D V

    1984-01-01

    The structural development of the normal monkey lung (Macaca fascicularis) from 61 days of gestation to 14 days postnatal age has been described using quantitative morphometric techniques. The lung of the adult monkey has also been studied. The airway and arterial branching pattern has been traced using serial sections. The alveolar number and size have been estimated and the structure of the arteries after postmortem arterial injection has been assessed. Comparison of lung morphology in monkey and man shows that there are similarities in segmental arrangement, structure and branching pattern of airways, in arterial structure and in changes in the arteries after birth. Although there are differences in the number of lobes, the number of generations of different types of airways and the number and size of alveoli, the overall structure in the monkey is more similar to that in man than is the structure of the lung in species such as sheep, pig or rat. During fetal life the monkey lung passes through the same stages of development as the human fetus but at birth the monkey has a full complement of airways and mature alveoli. Postnatal growth of airways and alveoli is due to increase in size rather than to multiplication. In man there is an increase in the number of alveoli and alveolar ducts after birth as well as an increase in size. Despite the differences between the species it seems appropriate to use the monkey in experimental studies on the lung. Images Fig. 1 (cont.) Fig. 1 Fig. 4 (cont.) Fig. 4 PMID:6706842

  19. Glial response and myelin clearance in areas of wallerian degeneration after spinal cord hemisection in the monkey Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fujun; Zhu, Hui; Yang, Senfu; Liu, Yansheng; Feng, Yaping; Shi, Jihong; Xu, Dingze; Wu, Wutian; You, Siwei; Ma, Zhengwen; Zou, Jian; Lu, Peihua; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2009-11-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals not only damages the focal area, but also leads to wallerian degeneration (WD) of axons and myelin distal to the injury. In the present study, we investigated cellular responses within areas of WD of a sensory pathway, the fasciculus gracilis, after a T8-9 lateral spinal hemisection in the adult monkey Macaca fascicularis. Spinal cord segments rostral and caudal to the injury at two clinically-relevant time points, 1 week and 4 weeks post-SCI, representing subacute and chronic stages, respectively, were examined. We observed marked axon degeneration in the areas of WD at the subacute stage, and minimal axonal neurofilament staining at the chronic stage. At the ultrastructural level, however, many degenerating axonal profiles remained at the chronic stage. Myelin breakdown was a much-delayed process. A large number of residual myelin sheaths was observed at the chronic stage. In contrast to rodents, a substantial astrogliotic response was not found in the WD regions up to 4 weeks post-injury. Microglia activation was evident in the WD areas at the subacute stage, and was enhanced at the chronic stage. However, the lack of round reactive microglia/macrophages in these regions suggests that microglial activation was either delayed or incomplete. Thus it appears that many pathological characteristics of WD in monkeys are much delayed compared to those in rodents, but are similar to those in humans. Our results suggest that non-human primate SCI models are useful for evaluating repair strategies before they are translated to clinical trials of human SCI.

  20. Axonal and glial responses to a mid-thoracic spinal cord hemisection in the Macaca fascicularis monkey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjie; Wu, Wei; Zou, Jian; Shi, Fujun; Yang, Senfu; Liu, Yansheng; Lu, Peihua; Ma, Zhengwen; Zhu, Hui; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2013-05-15

    A comprehensive understanding of the pathology of spinal cord injury (SCI) in non-human primates may facilitate greatly the development of new strategies to promote recovery in humans with SCI. Relatively few studies, however, have been conducted to systemically examine pathological changes in the monkey, a non-human primate, after SCI. We report axonal, glial, and fibrotic responses in the spinal cord of monkey Macaca fascicularis after a thoracic (T) 8-9 lateral hemisection. We examined these changes at three regions--i.e., the lesion epicenter, the peri-lesion area, and the lateral white matter of the intact, contralateral hemicord at 7 (subacute) and 30 (early chronic) days post-injury. The lateral hemisection resulted in a marked axon and myelin loss, along with tissue loss, at the lesion epicenter at both time points. Unexpectedly, axonal loss and myelin degeneration, along with reactive gliosis and microglia/macrophages activation, were also observed in the contralateral spared hemicord, indicating a spread of the initial damage to the contralateral side. In addition, activated microglia/macrophages were found both within the injury epicenter and the peri-lesion area, indicating that they participate in injury-induced immune responses that may exacerbate the secondary damage. In contrast to rodents, substantial reactive astrocytic responses at the lesion border were not observed in the monkey. Conversely, a deposit of robust fibrotic scar was observed at the injury epicenter, which filled the space originally created by the hemisection. Thus, understanding the pathology of monkey SCI may provide clinically relevant information in designing repair strategies targeting specific problems associated with human SCIs.

  1. Coagulation Biomarkers in Healthy Chinese-Origin Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Frydman, Galit H; Bendapudi, Pavan K; Marini, Robert P; Vanderburg, Charles R; Tompkins, Ronald G; Fox, James G

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are a common model for the study of human biology and disease. To manage coagulopathies in these animals and to study their clotting changes, the ability to measure coagulation biomarkers is necessary. Currently, few options for coagulation testing in NHP are commercially available. In this study, assays for 4 coagulation biomarkers—D-dimer, antithrombin III, protein C, and soluble P-selectin—were developed and optimized for rhesus macaques. Whole blood was collected from 28 healthy Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (11 male; 17 female) ranging in age from 5 to 20 y. Coagulation biomarkers were measured by using bead-based sandwich ELISA technology. The ranges (mean ± 90% confidence interval) for these biomarkers were: antithrombin III, 124.2 to 133.4 μg/mL; protein C, 3.2 to 3.6 μg/mL; D-dimer, 110.3 to 161.3 ng/mL; soluble P-selectin, 0.12 to 0.14 ng/106 platelets. These reference values did not differ significantly according to sex or age. These new assays for coagulation biomarkers in rhesus macaques will facilitate the evaluation of in vivo hemostasis. PMID:27177557

  2. Coagulation Biomarkers in Healthy Chinese-Origin Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Frydman, Galit H; Bendapudi, Pavan K; Marini, Robert P; Vanderburg, Charles R; Tompkins, Ronald G; Fox, James G

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are a common model for the study of human biology and disease. To manage coagulopathies in these animals and to study their clotting changes, the ability to measure coagulation biomarkers is necessary. Currently, few options for coagulation testing in NHP are commercially available. In this study, assays for 4 coagulation biomarkers-D-dimer, antithrombin III, protein C, and soluble P-selectin-were developed and optimized for rhesus macaques. Whole blood was collected from 28 healthy Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (11 male; 17 female) ranging in age from 5 to 20 y. Coagulation biomarkers were measured by using bead-based sandwich ELISA technology. The ranges (mean ± 90% confidence interval) for these biomarkers were: antithrombin III, 124.2 to 133.4 μg/mL; protein C, 3.2 to 3.6 μg/mL; D-dimer, 110.3 to 161.3 ng/mL; soluble P-selectin, 0.12 to 0.14 ng/10(6) platelets. These reference values did not differ significantly according to sex or age. These new assays for coagulation biomarkers in rhesus macaques will facilitate the evaluation of in vivo hemostasis.

  3. Reference Intervals for Preprandial and Postprandial Serum Bile Acid in Adult Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Lemoy, Marie-Josee MF; Westworth, Diccon R; Ardeshir, Amir; Tarara, Ross P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the 12-h fasting preprandial and 2-h postprandial serum bile acid concentration (SBAC) reference intervals for healthy, adult rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We hypothesized that the mean 2-h postprandial SBAC would be significantly higher than the mean preprandial SBAC. We included 40 (24 male, 16 female) macaques after confirming that their health records, physical examinations, CBC, serum chemistry panels, and urinalyses were all within normal limits. In addition, hepatitis A titers were determined, an ultrasound examination of the liver was performed, and two 16-gauge ultrasound guided percutaneous liver biopsies were collected and submitted for histopathology. Macaques were confirmed healthy according to hepatitis A screens and sonographic and histologic evaluation of hepatic tissue. Within 2 wk of the screening procedures, preprandial and postprandial SBACs were measured. Preprandial SBAC (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.1 ± 1.9 µmol/L and postprandial SBAC was 19.7 ± 8.0 µmol/L, which was significantly higher than the preprandial value. Sex and hepatitis titers did not significantly influence preprandial and postprandial SBAC. The current study indicates that the SBAC reference values for rhesus macaques are higher than those reported for humans and companion animals. PMID:23849441

  4. Effects of Human Management Events on Conspecific Aggression in Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Theil, Jacob H; Beisner, Brianne A; Hill, Ashley E; McCowan, Brenda

    2017-03-01

    Conspecific aggression in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at primate research facilities is a leading source of trauma and can potentially influence animal wellbeing and research quality. Although aggression between macaques is a normal part of daily social interactions, human presence might affect the frequency of various behaviors and instigate increases in conspecific aggression. We sought to determine how and which human management events affect conspecific aggression both immediately after an event and throughout the course of a day. From June 2008 through December 2009, we recorded agonistic encounters among macaques living in 7 social groups in large outdoor field cages. Behavioral data were then synchronized with specific management events (for example, feeding, enclosure cleaning, animal catching) that occurred within or near the enclosure. By using an Information Theoretical approach, 2 generalized linear mixed models were developed to estimate the effects of human management events on 1) aggression after individual management events and 2) daily levels of aggression. Univariate analysis revealed an increase in the rate of aggression after a management event occurred. The best predictor of aggression in a cage was the type of management event that occurred. Various factors including the number of daily management events, the total time of management events, the technicians involved, reproductive season, and their interactions also showed significant associations with daily aggression levels. Our findings demonstrate that human management events are associated with an increase in conspecific aggression between rhesus macaques and thus have implications regarding how humans manage primates in research facilities.

  5. New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus After Transplantation in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fasicularis).

    PubMed

    Matthews, Kristin A; Tonsho, Makoto; Madsen, Joren C

    2015-08-01

    A 5.5-y-old intact male cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fasicularis) presented with inappetence and weight loss 57 d after heterotopic heart and thymus transplantation while receiving an immunosuppressant regimen consisting of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and methylprednisolone to prevent graft rejection. A serum chemistry panel, a glycated hemoglobin test, and urinalysis performed at presentation revealed elevated blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (727 mg/dL and 10.1%, respectively), glucosuria, and ketonuria. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed, and insulin therapy was initiated immediately. The macaque was weaned off the immunosuppressive therapy as his clinical condition improved and stabilized. Approximately 74 d after discontinuation of the immunosuppressants, the blood glucose normalized, and the insulin therapy was stopped. The animal's blood glucose and HbA1c values have remained within normal limits since this time. We suspect that our macaque experienced new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation, a condition that is commonly observed in human transplant patients but not well described in NHP. To our knowledge, this report represents the first documented case of new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation in a cynomolgus macaque.

  6. Effects of seasonal changes in dietary energy on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kouhei; Mitsutsuka, Syuuhei; Yamazaki, Ato; Nagai, Kazumi; Tezuka, Atsuko; Tsuji, Yamato

    2015-01-01

    Food availability varies seasonally for wild animals, and body weight fluctuates accordingly in the wild. In contrast, controlling availability of diet under captive condition is difficult from keepers' standpoint, and monotonous diet often causes health problems in captive animals. We evaluated the effects of a seasonally controlled diet on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in an outside enclosure at Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan. We fed a high-energy diet in spring and fall, and a more restricted diet in summer and winter for 3 years (2011-2013). Seasonal changes in body weight were similar to those that occur in wild macaques: for both sexes, body weight was higher in spring and fall and lower in winter. A decrease in body weight between fall and winter occurred only in adults, which implied that reducing dietary intake in winter had a more severe effect on adults than on juveniles. Different from wild populations, the body weight of captive macaques did not decrease between spring and summer, which we attributed to a lack of movement within the enclosure and to excess energy intake in summer. In addition to controlling dietary composition, providing large enclosure with complex structure and making efforts of giving unpredictability in feeding are necessary to motivate the captive animals to be more active, which would cause the macaques to show seasonal change in body weight, which is found in wild.

  7. Thromboelastography values from pigtail macaques ( Macaca nemestrina): effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Fong, Derek L; Ha, James C; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E

    2012-01-01

    Thromboelastography is a clinical laboratory test used to assess global hemostasis. With technologic advances and the test's reemergence in human medicine, its utility in veterinary medicine is being explored. Because assays for PT, aPTT, and d-dimers require platelet-poor plasma, whereas thromboelastography is performed on whole blood, thromboelastography provides a more accurate representation of coagulation and allows the identification of hypocoagulable, hypercoagulable, and hyperfibrinolytic states. Conflicting information has been reported about the effects of age and sex on thromboelastog- raphy in humans and animals. Human studies have reported significant effects of age and sex on thromboelastography more often than have animal studies, but few publications are available about thromboelastography in the nonhuman primate and laboratory animal literature. We used a sample of 50 pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) to determine whether age or sex influence thromboelastography values. Of 5 measured and 2 calculated variables produced by thromboelastography, sex had a significant effect only on the lysis-30 parameter, which also showed significant interaction between age and sex; values increased with age in male macaques but decreased with age in female macaques. In addition, we used the data to define reference intervals for thromboelastography parameters in pigtail macaques.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Hydromorphone after Intravenous and Intramuscular Administration in Male Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R; Pypendop, Bruno H; Christe, Kari L

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone after intravenous and intramuscular administration to rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta ). Hydromorphone (0.075 mg/kg) was administered intravenously as a bolus or intramuscularly on separate occasions to healthy, socially housed, socially reared, adult, intact male rhesus macaques (n = 4). Blood samples were collected prior to and until 10 h after administration. Serum hydromorphone concentrations were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compartment models were fit to time–concentration data. A 3-compartment model with input in and elimination from the central compartment best fit intravenous data, whereas a 1-comparment model best fit intramuscular data. After intravenous administration, the median clearance and terminal half-life were 37.7 (range, 33.7 to 47.1) mL/kg/min and 142 (range, 131 to 218) min, respectively. The median (range) elimination half-life after intramuscular administration was 81.5 (77.2 to 92.5) min. Median intramuscular bioavailability was 92% (range, 75% to 104%). Rhesus macaques maintained concentrations greater than or equal to 4.0 ng/mL for at least 2 h after intravenous and intramuscular administration. The disposition of hydromorphone was characterized by a large volume of distribution and moderate clearance. Intramuscular administration resulted in rapid and almost complete drug absorption. Whole-body pruritus, sedation, and decreased appetite were observed in all macaques after initial drug administration. PMID:25255074

  9. Macaques (Macaca nemestrina) recognize when they are being imitated.

    PubMed

    Paukner, Annika; Anderson, James R; Borelli, Eleonora; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Pier F

    2005-06-22

    This study investigated whether monkeys recognize when a human experimenter imitates their actions towards an object. Two experimenters faced 10 pigtailed macaques, who were given access to an interesting object. One experimenter imitated the monkeys' object-directed actions, the other performed temporally contingent but structurally different object-directed actions. Results show a significant visual preference for the imitator during manual object manipulations, but not mouthing actions. We argue that the ability to match actions could be based on both visual-visual and kinaesthetic-visual matching skills, and that mirror neurons, which have both visual and motor properties, could serve as a neural basis for recognizing imitation. However, imitation recognition as assessed by visual preference does not necessarily imply the capacity to attribute imitative intentionality to the imitator. The monkeys might implicitly recognize when they are being imitated without deeper insight into the mental processes of others.

  10. Antibody responses of Macaca fascicularis against a new inactivated polio vaccine derived from Sabin strains (sIPV) in DTaP-sIPV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Shiosaki, K; Goto, Y; Sonoda, K; Kino, Y

    2013-05-01

    Antibody responses of Macaca fascicularis against a new tetravalent vaccine composed of diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis antigens, and inactivated poliovirus derived from Sabin strains (sIPV) was investigated to predict an optimal dose of sIPV in a new tetravalent vaccine (DTaP-sIPV) prior to conducting a dose-defined clinical study. Monkeys were inoculated with DTaP-sIPVs containing three different antigen units of sIPVs: Vaccine A (types 1:2:3 = 3:100:100 DU), Vaccine B (types 1:2:3 = 1.5:50:50 DU), and Vaccine C (types 1:2:3 = 0.75:25:25 DU). There was no difference in the average titers of neutralizing antibody against the attenuated or virulent polioviruses between Vaccines A and B. The average neutralizing antibody titers of Vaccine C tended to be lower than those of Vaccines A and B. The sIPV antigens did not affect the anti-diphtheria or anti-tetanus antibody titers of DTaP-sIPV. Furthermore, the average neutralizing antibody titers of Vaccine A against the attenuated and virulent polioviruses were comparable between M. fascicularis and humans. These results suggest that M. fascicularis may be a useful animal model for predicting the antibody responses to sIPVs in humans, and that it may be likely to reduce the amount of sIPVs contained in DTaP-sIPVs, even for humans.

  11. Reticulospinal neurons in the pontomedullary reticular formation of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Sakai, S T; Davidson, A G; Buford, J A

    2009-11-10

    Recent neurophysiological studies indicate a role for reticulospinal neurons of the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) in motor preparation and goal-directed reaching in the monkey. Although the macaque monkey is an important model for such investigations, little is known regarding the organization of the PMRF in the monkey. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of reticulospinal neurons in the macaque. Bilateral injections of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) were made into the cervical spinal cord. A wide band of retrogradely labeled cells was found in the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi) and labeled cells continued rostrally into the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC) and into the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO). Additional retrograde tracing studies following unilateral cervical spinal cord injections of cholera toxin subunit B revealed that there were more ipsilateral (60%) than contralateral (40%) projecting cells in Gi, while an approximately 50:50 ratio contralateral to ipsilateral split was found in PnC and more contralateral projections arose from PnO. Reticulospinal neurons in PMRF ranged widely in size from over 50 microm to under 25 microm across the major somatic axis. Labeled giant cells (soma diameters greater than 50 microm) comprised a small percentage of the neurons and were found in Gi, PnC and PnO. The present results define the origins of the reticulospinal system in the monkey and provide an important foundation for future investigations of the anatomy and physiology of this system in primates.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Ceftiofur Crystalline Free Acid in Male Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) after Subcutaneous Administration

    PubMed Central

    Salyards, Gregory W; Knych, Heather K; Hill, Ashley E; Kelly, Kristi R; Christe, Kari L

    2015-01-01

    Trauma is a common sequela to agonistic social encounters in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and veterinarians often prescribe antibiotics as part of a balanced treatment plan. Long-acting, single-dose, injectable antibiotics for use in rhesus macaques are unavailable currently. Ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) is a long-acting, single-dose, injectable third-generation cephalosporin that provides at least 7 d of ceftiofur therapeutic plasma concentrations in swine (Sus scrofa domesticus). We hypothesized that CCFA would achieve similar therapeutic concentrations (≥0.2 μg/mL) in rhesus macaques. We describe the pharmacokinetic profile of CCFA in healthy, adult male rhesus macaques (n = 6) in this 2-period, 2-treatment crossover study of 5 and 20 mg/kg SC administered once. Plasma ceftiofur metabolite concentrations were determined prior to and for a maximum of 21 d after administration. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. The 5-mg dose achieved a maximal plasma concentration of 2.24 ± 0.525 μg/mL at 2.59 ± 1.63 h, an AUC of 46.9 ± 17.6 h/μg/mL, and a terminal elimination half-life of 56.5 ± 21.7 h; for the 20-mg/kg dose, these parameters were 9.18 ± 4.90 μg/mL at 1.82 ± 1.30 h, 331 ± 84.4 h/μg/mL, and 69.7 ± 8.86 h, respectively. No adverse effects were noted after either dose. Macaques maintained plasma ceftiofur concentrations of 0.2 μg/mL or greater for at least 2 d after 5 mg/kg SC and at least 7 d after 20 mg/kg SC. PMID:26424255

  13. Role of vocal tract characteristics in individual discrimination by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

    PubMed Central

    Furuyama, Takafumi; Kobayasi, Kohta I.; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) exhibits a species-specific communication sound called the “coo call” to locate group members and maintain within-group contact. Monkeys have been demonstrated to be capable of discriminating between individuals based only on their voices, but there is still debate regarding how the fundamental frequencies (F0) and filter properties of the vocal tract characteristics (VTC) contribute to individual discrimination in nonhuman primates. This study was performed to investigate the acoustic keys used by Japanese macaques in individual discrimination. Two animals were trained with standard Go/NoGo operant conditioning to distinguish the coo calls of two unfamiliar monkeys. The subjects were required to continue depressing a lever until the stimulus changed from one monkey to the other. The test stimuli were synthesized by combining the F0s and VTC from each individual. Both subjects released the lever when the VTC changed, whereas they did not when the F0 changed. The reaction times to the test stimuli were not significantly different from that to the training stimuli that shared the same VTC. Our data suggest that vocal tract characteristics are important for the identification of individuals by Japanese macaques. PMID:27550840

  14. Effects of Human Management Events on Conspecific Aggression in Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Theil, Jacob; Beisner, Brianne; Hill, Ashley; McCowan, Brenda

    2017-03-02

    Conspecific aggression in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at primate research facilities is a leadingsource of trauma and can potentially influence animal wellbeing and research quality. Although aggression between macaquesis a normal part of daily social interactions, human presence might affect the frequency of various behaviors and instigateincreases in conspecific aggression. We sought to determine how and which human management events affect conspecificaggression both immediately after an event and throughout the course of a day. From June 2008 through December 2009, werecorded agonistic encounters among macaques living in 7 social groups in large outdoor field cages. Behavioral data werethen synchronized with specific management events (for example, feeding, enclosure cleaning, animal catching) that occurredwithin or near the enclosure. By using an Information Theoretical approach, 2 generalized linear mixed models were developedto estimate the effects of human management events on 1) aggression after individual management events and 2) dailylevels of aggression. Univariate analysis revealed an increase in the rate of aggression after a management event occurred.The best predictor of aggression in a cage was the type of management event that occurred. Various factors including thenumber of daily management events, the total time of management events, the technicians involved, reproductive season,and their interactions also showed significant associations with daily aggression levels. Our findings demonstrate that humanmanagement events are associated with an increase in conspecific aggression between rhesus macaques and thus haveimplications regarding how humans manage primates in research facilities.

  15. Factors influencing reproduction in captive-bred cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Naiken, Sandiren; Griffiths, Mary-Ann; Edouard, Lindsay; Padayatchy, Nada

    2015-12-01

    The cynomolgus monkey is widely used in reproductive research. However, the effects on their reproductive parameters of infant and maternal factors such as birth order, sex of infants, twin births, maternal age and lactation status have not been fully examined. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine how such infant and maternal factors impact on infant birth weight, birth viability, neonatal loss and retained placenta in cynomolgus monkeys. The study was based on birth data from a cohort of 789 females over an eight-year period. Consistent with reports made in other macaque species, female offspring had lower birth weight compared with males. Birth weights of firstborn infants were lower compared with birth weights of higher birth order infants. Results from the logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of non-viable births was increased by advancing maternal age and retained placenta. As in other non-human primates, maternal age had predictive value for non-viable births in cynomolgus monkeys. The risk of neonatal loss decreased with advancing maternal age but was not affected by birth order. Firstborn offspring did not have an increased risk for neonatal loss, possibly from the practice of retaining mothers in their natal groups, which improved maternal skills in primiparous females. However, infant low birth weight and non-lactating females increased the risk of neonatal loss, and the delivery of low birth weight infants was associated with retained placenta. The results from this study can be useful for scientists conducting reproductive studies and for colony managers in maximizing fertility and infant survival of cynomolgus monkeys.

  16. Evolutionary relevance and experience contribute to face discrimination in infant macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Paukner, Annika

    2015-01-01

    In human children and adults, familiar face types—typically own-age and own-species faces—are discriminated better than other face types; however, human infants do not appear to exhibit an own-age bias, but instead better discriminate adult faces, which they see more often. There are two possible explanations for this pattern: Perceptual attunement, which predicts advantages in discrimination for the most-experienced face types; additionally or alternatively, there may be an experience-independent bias for infants to discriminate own-species faces, an adaptation for evolutionarily relevant faces. These possibilities have not been disentangled in studies thus far, which did not control infants’ early experiences with faces. In the present study, we tested these predictions in infant macaques (Macaca mulatta) reared under controlled environments, not exposed to adult conspecifics. We measured newborns’ (15–25 days; n = 27) and 6- to 7-month-olds’ (n = 35) discrimination of human and macaque faces of three ages—young infants, old infants, and adults—in a visual paired comparison task. We found that 6- to 7-month-olds were the best at discriminating adult macaque faces; however, in the first few seconds of looking, additionally discriminated familiar face types—same-aged peer and adult human faces—highlighting the importance of experience with certain face categories. The present data suggest that macaque infants possess both experience-independent and experientially tuned face biases. In human infants, early face skills may likewise be driven by both experience and evolutionary relevance; future studies should consider both of these factors. PMID:27212893

  17. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Port System for the Collection of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    MacAllister, Rhonda Pung; Lester McCully, Cynthia M; Bacher, John; Thomas Iii, Marvin L; Cruz, Rafael; Wangari, Solomon; Warren, Katherine E

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical translational research frequently incorporates collection of CSF from NHP, because CSF drug levels are used as a surrogate for CNS tissue penetration in pharmacokinetic and dynamic studies. Surgical placement of a CNS ventricular catheter reservoir for CSF collection is an intensive model to create and maintain and thus may not be feasible or practical for short-term studies. Furthermore, previous NHP lumbar port models require laminectomy for catheter placement. The new model uses a minimally invasive technique for percutaneous placement of a lumbar catheter to create a closed, subcutaneous system for effective, repeated CSF sample collection. None of the rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 10) implanted with our minimally invasive lumbar port (MILP) system experienced neurologic deficits, postoperative infection of the surgical site, or skin erosion around the port throughout the 21.7-mo study. Functional MILP systems were maintained in 70% of the macaques, with multiple, high-quality, 0.5- to 1.0-mL samples of CSF collected for an average of 3 mo by using aspiration or gravitational flow. Among these macaques, 57% had continuous functionality for a mean of 19.2 mo; 50% of the cohort required surgical repair for port repositioning and replacement during the study. The MILP was unsuccessful in 2 macaques, at an average of 9.5 d after surgery. Nonpatency in these animals was attributed to the position of the lumbar catheter. The MILP system is an appropriate replacement for temporary catheterization and previous models requiring laminectomy and is a short-term alternative for ventricular CSF collection systems in NHP.

  18. Characterization of Spontaneous Subclavian Steal Phenomenon in a Female Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez-Contreras, Alejandra; Hernández-Godínez, Braulio; Perdigón-Castañeda, Gerardo; Tena-Betancourt, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    In subclavian steal phenomenon (SSP), the subclavian artery develops a stenoocclusive disease proximal to the origin of the vertebral artery, leading to pronounced hemodynamic changes such as arterial flow reversal. Although SSP is a common echographic finding in humans, the phenomenon occurs only rarely in animals; consequently its physiologic features have not been reported previously. Here we describe the clinical and morphologic features of a spontaneous left SSP that was an incidental finding in an 18-y-old female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Our findings were documented through high-quality imaging studies obtained by using a computerized 3D tomography apparatus and clinical assessment of systolic and diastolic blood pressures. PMID:21640038

  19. Contrafreeloading and the value of control over visual stimuli in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Ogura, Tadatoshi

    2011-05-01

    Contrafreeloading, which means that animals work for food even though identical food is freely available, has been reported in animals' feeding behavior. This phenomenon has been assumed to be explained by the information primacy model, in which the information about a food resource as well as the food itself is valuable for animals. This study confirmed a contrafreeloading-like phenomenon using movies as rewards rather than food in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and investigated the motivational system that exists behind contrafreeloading. In the experiment, movies that were presented dependently on subjects' responses (earned movies) and movies that were presented automatically (free movies) were supplied simultaneously. The subjects continued to make responses to obtain the presentation of the earned movies although identical movies were available as free movies. These results provide the first evidence of contrafreeloading that occurs with movie rewards. The motivation maintaining the contrafreeloading behavior for movies may be control over the environment according to the competence theory.

  20. Comparison of Methods for Determining ABO Blood Type in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae M; Park, Hyojun; Cho, Kahee; Kim, Jong S; Park, Mi K; Choi, Ju Y; Park, Jae B; Park, Wan J; Kim, Sung J

    2015-05-01

    Thorough examination of ABO blood type in cynomolgus monkeys is an essential experimental step to prevent humoral rejection during transplantation research. In the present study, we evaluated current methods of ABO blood-antigen typing in cynomolgus monkeys by comparing the outcomes obtained by reverse hemagglutination, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, and buccal mucosal immunohistochemistry. Among 21 animals, 5 were type A regardless of the method. However, of 8 serologically type B animals, 3 had a heterozygous type AB SNP profile, among which 2 failed to express A antigen, as shown by immunohistochemical analysis. Among 8 serologically type AB animals, 2 appeared to be type A by SNP analysis and immunohistochemistry. None of the methods identified any type O subjects. We conclude that the expression of ABO blood-group antigens is regulated by an incompletely understood process and that using both SNP and immunohistochemistry might minimize the risk of incorrect results obtained from the conventional hemagglutination assay.

  1. [TRIMCyp frequency of the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in captivity in China].

    PubMed

    Tian, Shuai; Meng, Yu-Huan; Liu, Ming-Yu; Sun, Fei; Chen, Jun-Hui; Du, Hong-Li; Wang, Xiao-Ning

    2013-04-01

    In most Old world monkey species, TRIM5α plays a role in combating retroviruses and restricting HIV-1. Alongside TRIM5α, the TRIMCyp fusion gene formed by the retrotransposition of a CypA pseudogene cDNA to 3' terminal or 3'-UTR of TRIM5 gene in these monkeys has become a key research area in anti HIV-1 factors. The regional differences, gene frequencies, genotypes, and retrovirus restrictive activities of TRIMCyp vary among different primate species. While the frequencies of cynomolgus TRIMCyp have been studied in several areas of Southeast Asia, the frequency and prevalence of cynomolgus TRIMCyp in China remains unclear. In this study, we screened 1, 594 cynomolgus samples from 11 monkey manufacturers located across 5 provinces in China. Our results showed that the frequencies of TRIMCyp range from 7.65% to 19.79%, markedly lower than the frequencies found in monkey species in the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia (ranging from 34.85% to 100%). We speculate that potentially the latter were isolated groups established since 1978. The NE haplotype frequencies of cynomolgus TRIMCyp were 4.93% in China, also significantly lower than those found in species in the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia (from 11.1% to 14.3%). Our research provides interesting findings that contribute towards a more firm basis of further studies of HIV-1 animal models and relevant pathogenesis.

  2. Experimental Infection of Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with Aerosolized Monkeypox Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Aerobiological Sciences for conducting the aerosol sprays of animals, the personnel of the Veterinary Medicine Division for the care and handling of the...disease: the inside story of eradicating a worldwide killer. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. 23. Swearengen JR (2006) Biodefense: research methodology

  3. Comparison of noncontact infrared thermometry and 3 commercial subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Brunell, Marla K

    2012-07-01

    This study compared a noncontact infrared laser thermometer and 3 different brands of subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in 50 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The data were analyzed by using intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. In addition, the technical capabilities and practicality of the thermometers in the clinical setting were reviewed. None of the alternative techniques investigated was equivalent to rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques. Temperatures obtained by using microchips had higher correlation and agreed more closely with rectal temperatures than did those obtained by the noncontact infrared method. However, transponding microchips did not yield consistent results. Due to difficulty in positioning nonsedated macaques in their homecage, subcutaneous microchips were not practical in the clinical setting. Furthermore, pair-housed macaques may be able to break or remove microchips from their cagemates.

  4. Parameter comparison of white matter diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    MO, Yin; CHAO, Fang; SONG, Ming; LIU, Ci-Rong; LIU, Hui-Lang; QIAN, Xi-Ying; ZHAO, Xu-Dong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) results of brain white matter in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with four different parameter settings and found that the sequence A (b=1 000 s/mm2, spatial resolution=1.25 mm×1.25 mm× 1.25 mm, numbers of direction=33, NSA=3) and B (b=800 s/mm2, spatial resolution=1.25 mm×1.25 mm×1.25 mm, numbers of direction=33, NSA=3) could accurately track coarse fibers. The fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from sequence C (b=1 000s/mm2, spatial resolution=0.55 mm×0.55 mm×2.5 mm, direction number=33, NSA=3) was too fuzzy to be used in tracking white matter fibers. By comparison, the high resolution and the FA with high contrast of gray matter and white matter derived from sequence D (b=800 s/mm2, spatial resolution=1.0 mm×1.0 mm ×1.0 mm, numbers of direction=33, NSA=3) qualified in its application in tracking both thick and thin fibers, making it an optimal DTI setting for rhesus macaques. PMID:24866488

  5. Goal attribution to inanimate moving objects by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

    PubMed Central

    Atsumi, Takeshi; Koda, Hiroki; Masataka, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    Humans interpret others’ goals based on motion information, and this capacity contributes to our mental reasoning. The present study sought to determine whether Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) perceive goal-directedness in chasing events depicted by two geometric particles. In Experiment 1, two monkeys and adult humans were trained to discriminate between Chasing and Random sequences. We then introduced probe stimuli with various levels of correlation between the particle trajectories to examine whether participants performed the task using higher correlation. Participants chose stimuli with the highest correlations by chance, suggesting that correlations were not the discriminative cue. Experiment 2 examined whether participants focused on particle proximity. Participants differentiated between Chasing and Control sequences; the distance between two particles was identical in both. Results indicated that, like humans, the Japanese macaques did not use physical cues alone to perform the discrimination task and integrated the cues spontaneously. This suggests that goal attribution resulting from motion information is a widespread cognitive phenotype in primate species. PMID:28053305

  6. Use of an Aquarium as a Novel Enrichment Item for Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Theresa M; Hutchinson, Eric; Krall, Caroline; Watson, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Locomotor stereotypies are behaviors often seen in singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and are considered to represent a maladaptive response to captive environments. Active and passive enrichment items are commonly used to mitigate these and other abnormal behaviors. Active enrichment items allow physical manipulation and may be temporarily successful in reducing stereotypies, but their beneficial effects usually are confined to relatively short periods of active use. Passive enrichment items that do not involve physical manipulation are less well studied, and the results are mixed. This study evaluated an aquarium with live fish for use as a novel passive enrichment item in a common facility setting as a means to decrease locomotor stereotypy. We hypothesized that the introduction of the aquarium would decrease the frequency of locomotor stereotypy in a group of singly housed rhesus macaques (n = 11) with a known history of abnormal behaviors. Unexpectedly, locomotor stereotypy increased with the introduction of the aquarium and then decreased over time. Furthermore, when the aquarium was removed, the frequency of stereotypy decreased to below baseline levels. These unexpected results are best explained by neophobia, a common phenomenon documented in many animal species. The increase in abnormal behavior is likely to result from the addition of a novel object within the environment. This study demonstrates that, in the context of reducing abnormal behavior, presumably innocuous enrichment items may have unexpected effects and should be evaluated critically after their introduction to a captive population. PMID:25255069

  7. Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of adult females for thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Masataka; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A majority of huddling among adult females was recorded during winter season (December, January, and February). Females who had young (0- or 1-year-old) offspring huddled less frequently with other adult females compared to females who did not have young offspring in winter. However, including young offspring, the frequency of huddling with any other individuals did not differ by whether females had young offspring. Moreover, the females who did not have young offspring huddled with other adult females more often in cloudy than in sunny weather during winter season. In contrast, females who had young offspring increased huddling with their young offspring in cloudy than in sunny weather, but did not do so with other adult females. This study indicates that Japanese macaque mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of other adult females when there is need for thermoregulation.

  8. Efficacy of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kristi R; Kapatkin, Amy R; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Christe, Kari L

    2012-08-01

    Here we describe the successful surgical implementation of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with marked osteomyelitis. The macaque presented to the veterinary clinic with grossly contaminated bite wounds in the left ankle secondary to conspecific trauma. Radiographic findings were highly suggestive of osteomyelitis. Additional differential diagnoses included bony infarct, fracture, and cellulitis. In light of the location of the lesion and extensive tissue trauma, the animal had a poor prognosis. Systemic, broad-spectrum antibiotics were instituted. After 2 wk of care, lesions did not respond to empirical therapies. On consultation, a veterinary orthopedic surgeon at another facility recommended placement of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads at the sites of osteomyelitis. The animal underwent minor surgery in which beads were introduced into the wound. The monkey had a positive response to therapy. The animal regained full function and was returned to outdoor social housing. Veterinarians are encouraged to consider using antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads when treating osteomyelitis in other nonhuman primates and in other traditional laboratory animal species.

  9. Efficacy of Antibiotic-Impregnated Polymethylmethacrylate Beads in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) with Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R; Kapatkin, Amy R; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Christe, Kari L

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe the successful surgical implementation of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with marked osteomyelitis. The macaque presented to the veterinary clinic with grossly contaminated bite wounds in the left ankle secondary to conspecific trauma. Radiographic findings were highly suggestive of osteomyelitis. Additional differential diagnoses included bony infarct, fracture, and cellulitis. In light of the location of the lesion and extensive tissue trauma, the animal had a poor prognosis. Systemic, broad-spectrum antibiotics were instituted. After 2 wk of care, lesions did not respond to empirical therapies. On consultation, a veterinary orthopedic surgeon at another facility recommended placement of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads at the sites of osteomyelitis. The animal underwent minor surgery in which beads were introduced into the wound. The monkey had a positive response to therapy. The animal regained full function and was returned to outdoor social housing. Veterinarians are encouraged to consider using antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads when treating osteomyelitis in other nonhuman primates and in other traditional laboratory animal species. PMID:23043785

  10. Positive reinforcement training as enrichment for singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Baker, K C; Bloomsmith, M A; Neu, K; Griffis, C; Maloney, M

    2010-08-01

    Positive reinforcement training is one component of behavioural management employed to improve psychological well-being. There has been regulatory promotion to compensate for restricted social housing in part by providing human interaction to singly caged primates, implying an efficacy standard for evaluating human interaction. The effect of positive reinforcement training on the behaviour of 61 singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) was evaluated at two large primate facilities. Training involved body part presentation and basic control behaviours. Baseline data were compared to two treatment phases presented in varying order across individuals, six minutes per week of positive reinforcement training and six minutes per week of unstructured human interaction. While a MANOVA involving behavioural categories and study conditions across study subjects was significant, univariate ANOVAs found no effect of phase within any behavioural category. Categorising subjects according to rearing, housing facility, or baseline levels of abnormal behaviour did not reveal changes in behaviour with positive reinforcement training or human interaction. This study failed to detect, to any degree, the types of behavioural changes documented in the scientific literature to result from pairing singly housed monkeys. Implementing short durations of positive reinforcement training across large numbers of singly housed animals may not be the most effective manner for incorporating positive reinforcement training in the behavioural management of laboratory macaques. Rather, directing efforts toward individuals with specific behavioural, management, clinical, research or therapeutic needs may represent a more fruitful approach to improving psychological well-being with this technique.

  11. Influence of dominance rank and affiliation relationships on selfdirected behavior in female Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana)

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Qi-Xin; LI, Jin-Hua; XIA, Dong-Po; ZHU, Yong; WANG, Xi; ZHANG, Dao

    2014-01-01

    Self-directed behavior (SDB) is characterized as an indicator of anxiety, frustration and stress in nonhuman primates. In this study, we collected self-directed behavior data from one group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China (September 2012–May 2013) using a combination of behavioral sampling methods including focal animal sampling, behavioral sampling, continuous sampling and instantaneous sampling. Our results showed that females engaged in significantly higher rates of self-directed behavior when they were in proximity to dominant individuals compared to subordinate ones. Conflict losers significantly increased their SDB rates after agonistic episodes, indicating that SDB might also serve as an index of anxiety in M. thibetana. We further found that females significantly increased their SDB rates when focal individual was proximity to weakly affiliation relationship higher rank members than to strongly affiliation relationship higher rank members. If conflicts were not reconciled, the postconflict SDB rates of losers were higher when they stayed with strongly affiliation opponents; if conflicts were reconciled, victims of strongly affiliation relationships opponents engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation, while victims of moderately affiliation relationships opponents did not engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation. We conclude that both of dominance rank and affiliation relationships might both influence the SDB rates of female Tibetan macaques significantly, suggesting that SDB is not only an index of anxiety in Tibetan macaques, but also can provide a new insight into evaluation of social relationships between individuals. PMID:24866492

  12. Abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in an adult rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-10-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque.

  13. Abdominal Lipomatosis with Secondary Self-Strangulation of Masses in an Adult Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque. PMID:25402181

  14. Natural Infection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in an Imported Pigtail Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Management of the Exposed Colony

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Crystal H; Skinner, Brianna L; Dietz, Sharon M; Blaney, David; Engel, Robyn M; Lathrop, George W; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Gee, Jay E; Elrod, Mindy G; Powell, Nathaniel; Walke, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Identification of the select agent Burkholderia pseudomallei in macaques imported into the United States is rare. A purpose-bred, 4.5-y-old pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina) imported from Southeast Asia was received from a commercial vendor at our facility in March 2012. After the initial acclimation period of 5 to 7 d, physical examination of the macaque revealed a subcutaneous abscess that surrounded the right stifle joint. The wound was treated and resolved over 3 mo. In August 2012, 2 mo after the stifle joint wound resolved, the macaque exhibited neurologic clinical signs. Postmortem microbiologic analysis revealed that the macaque was infected with B. pseudomallei. This case report describes the clinical evaluation of a B. pseudomallei-infected macaque, management and care of the potentially exposed colony of animals, and protocols established for the animal care staff that worked with the infected macaque and potentially exposed colony. This article also provides relevant information on addressing matters related to regulatory issues and risk management of potentially exposed animals and animal care staff. PMID:24326230

  15. Collective Movement in the Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana): Early Joiners Write the Rule of the Game.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Sun, Lixing; Li, Jinhua; Xia, Dongpo; Sun, Binghua; Zhang, Dao

    2015-01-01

    Collective behavior has recently attracted a great deal of interest in both natural and social sciences. While the role of leadership has been closely scrutinized, the rules used by joiners in collective decision making have received far less attention. Two main hypotheses have been proposed concerning these rules: mimetism and quorum. Mimetism predicts that individuals are increasingly likely to join collective behavior as the number of participants increases. It can be further divided into selective mimetism, where relationships among the participants affect the process, and anonymous mimetism, where no such effect exists. Quorum predicts that a collective behavior occurs when the number of participants reaches a threshold. To probe into which rule is used in collective decision making, we conducted a study on the joining process in a group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) in Huangshan, China using a combination of all-occurrence and focal animal sampling methods. Our results show that the earlier individuals joined movements, the more central a role they occupied among the joining network. We also found that when less than three adults participated in the first five minutes of the joining process, no entire group movement occurred subsequently. When the number of these early joiners ranged from three to six, selective mimetism was used. This means higher rank or closer social affiliation of early joiners could be among the factors of deciding whether to participate in movements by group members. When the number of early joiners reached or exceeded seven, which was the simple majority of the group studied, entire group movement always occurred, meaning that the quorum rule was used. Putting together, Macaca thibetana used a combination of selective mimetism and quorum, and early joiners played a key role in deciding which rule should be used.

  16. Collective Movement in the Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana): Early Joiners Write the Rule of the Game

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhua; Xia, Dongpo; Sun, Binghua; Zhang, Dao

    2015-01-01

    Collective behavior has recently attracted a great deal of interest in both natural and social sciences. While the role of leadership has been closely scrutinized, the rules used by joiners in collective decision making have received far less attention. Two main hypotheses have been proposed concerning these rules: mimetism and quorum. Mimetism predicts that individuals are increasingly likely to join collective behavior as the number of participants increases. It can be further divided into selective mimetism, where relationships among the participants affect the process, and anonymous mimetism, where no such effect exists. Quorum predicts that a collective behavior occurs when the number of participants reaches a threshold. To probe into which rule is used in collective decision making, we conducted a study on the joining process in a group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) in Huangshan, China using a combination of all-occurrence and focal animal sampling methods. Our results show that the earlier individuals joined movements, the more central a role they occupied among the joining network. We also found that when less than three adults participated in the first five minutes of the joining process, no entire group movement occurred subsequently. When the number of these early joiners ranged from three to six, selective mimetism was used. This means higher rank or closer social affiliation of early joiners could be among the factors of deciding whether to participate in movements by group members. When the number of early joiners reached or exceeded seven, which was the simple majority of the group studied, entire group movement always occurred, meaning that the quorum rule was used. Putting together, Macaca thibetana used a combination of selective mimetism and quorum, and early joiners played a key role in deciding which rule should be used. PMID:25992882

  17. Self-Injurious Behavior Secondary to Cytomegalovirus-Induced Neuropathy in an SIVInfected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Gumber, Sanjeev; Strobert, Elizabeth; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Jean, Sherrie M

    2015-06-01

    A 3.5-y-old, female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) inoculated with SIVmac239 presented 8 mo later for inappetence and facial bruising. Physical examination revealed a superficial skin abrasion below the left eye, bruising below the left brow, and epistaxis of the left nostril. There were no significant findings on CBC, serum chemistry, urinalysis, or radiographs. Differential diagnoses included infectious etiologies, self-injurious behavior, immune-mediated dermatitis, and neoplasia. Lack of response to antibiotic and analgesic therapy and observations of the macaque made it apparent that the skin lesions were self-inflicted. The excoriations rapidly progressed to extend over the nose, and the left palpebrae became edematous. Euthanasia was elected because the macaque appeared to be experiencing continued discomfort despite analgesic therapy. Histopathologic examination revealed systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection involving the facial nerves, periocular nerves, meninges, and perimesenteric lymph nodes. CMV is a common infection in macaques, with adult seroprevalence close to 100% in most colonies. Infection in immunocompetent animals is usually asymptomatic but can cause significant clinical disease in immunodeficient hosts. CMV is associated with a painful peripheral neuropathy in human AIDS patients, and analgesic treatment is often unsatisfactory. Peripheral neuropathy secondary to CMV should be considered as an underlying cause of self-injurious behavior in SIV-infected macaques. Macaques affected by other diseases and disorders may also be at risk for development of painful peripheral neuropathies.

  18. Self-Injurious Behavior Secondary to Cytomegalovirus-Induced Neuropathy in an SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Gumber, Sanjeev; Strobert, Elizabeth; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Jean, Sherrie M

    2015-06-01

    A 3.5-y-old, female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) inoculated with SIVmac239 presented 8 mo later for inappetence and facial bruising. Physical examination revealed a superficial skin abrasion below the left eye, bruising below the left brow, and epistaxis of the left nostril. There were no significant findings on CBC, serum chemistry, urinalysis, or radiographs. Differential diagnoses included infectious etiologies, self-injurious behavior, immune-mediated dermatitis, and neoplasia. Lack of response to antibiotic and analgesic therapy and observations of the macaque made it apparent that the skin lesions were self-inflicted. The excoriations rapidly progressed to extend over the nose, and the left palpebrae became edematous. Euthanasia was elected because the macaque appeared to be experiencing continued discomfort despite analgesic therapy. Histopathologic examination revealed systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection involving the facial nerves, periocular nerves, meninges, and perimesenteric lymph nodes. CMV is a common infection in macaques, with adult seroprevalence close to 100% in most colonies. Infection in immunocompetent animals is usually asymptomatic but can cause significant clinical disease in immunodeficient hosts. CMV is associated with a painful peripheral neuropathy in human AIDS patients, and analgesic treatment is often unsatisfactory. Peripheral neuropathy secondary to CMV should be considered as an underlying cause of self-injurious behavior in SIV-infected macaques. Macaques affected by other diseases and disorders may also be at risk for development of painful peripheral neuropathies.

  19. Self-Injurious Behavior Secondary to Cytomegalovirus-Induced Neuropathy in an SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Gumber, Sanjeev; Strobert, Elizabeth; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Jean, Sherrie M

    2015-01-01

    A 3.5-y-old, female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) inoculated with SIVmac239 presented 8 mo later for inappetence and facial bruising. Physical examination revealed a superficial skin abrasion below the left eye, bruising below the left brow, and epistaxis of the left nostril. There were no significant findings on CBC, serum chemistry, urinalysis, or radiographs. Differential diagnoses included infectious etiologies, self-injurious behavior, immune-mediated dermatitis, and neoplasia. Lack of response to antibiotic and analgesic therapy and observations of the macaque made it apparent that the skin lesions were self-inflicted. The excoriations rapidly progressed to extend over the nose, and the left palpebrae became edematous. Euthanasia was elected because the macaque appeared to be experiencing continued discomfort despite analgesic therapy. Histopathologic examination revealed systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection involving the facial nerves, periocular nerves, meninges, and perimesenteric lymph nodes. CMV is a common infection in macaques, with adult seroprevalence close to 100% in most colonies. Infection in immunocompetent animals is usually asymptomatic but can cause significant clinical disease in immunodeficient hosts. CMV is associated with a painful peripheral neuropathy in human AIDS patients, and analgesic treatment is often unsatisfactory. Peripheral neuropathy secondary to CMV should be considered as an underlying cause of self-injurious behavior in SIV-infected macaques. Macaques affected by other diseases and disorders may also be at risk for development of painful peripheral neuropathies. PMID:26141451

  20. Do Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) perceive what conspecifics do and do not see?

    PubMed Central

    Piraux, Emilie; Poulin, Nicolas; Meunier, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the visual perception of others, also named visual perspective taking, is a component of Theory of Mind. Although strong evidence of visual perspective taking has been reported in great apes, the issue is more open to discussion in monkeys. We investigated whether Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) know what conspecifics do and do not see, using a food competition paradigm originally developed in great apes. We tested individuals in pairs, after establishing the dominance relationship within each pair. Twenty-one pairs were tested in four different conditions. In one condition, the subordinate had the choice between two pieces of food, one that was visible only to it and another that was also visible to the dominant. It was predicted that if the subordinate understands that the dominant cannot see both pieces of food because one is hidden from its view, the subordinate should preferentially go for the food visible only to itself. In the three other conditions, we varied the temporal and visual access to food for both individuals, to control for alternative explanations based on dominance. We recorded the first movement direction chosen by subjects, i.e. towards a) visible food b) hidden food or c) elsewhere; and the outcome of the test, i.e. the quantity of food obtained. Results showed that subordinates moved preferentially for the hidden food when released simultaneously with the dominant and also with a head start on the dominant. By contrast, dominants’ choices of the two pieces of food were random. We also describe and discuss some of the strategies used by subordinates in these tests. According to the whole of our results, Tonkean macaques seem capable of visual perspective taking despite the fact that a low-level explanation as behavior reading has not been totally excluded. PMID:26925323

  1. Feeding behavior and aggression in wild Siberut macaques (Macaca siberu) living under low predation risk.

    PubMed

    Richter, Christin; Gras, Pierre; Hodges, Keith; Ostner, Julia; Schülke, Oliver

    2015-07-01

    Investigating which factors influence feeding competition is crucial for our understanding of the diversity of social relationships. Socio-ecological models differ in their predictions whether predation risk directly influences feeding competition and which factors exactly predict contest competition. We investigated feeding competition in Siberut macaques (Macaca siberu), a species endemic to Siberut Island (West Sumatra, Indonesia). Siberut macaques experience low predation risk, as major predators (felids, raptors) are absent. They are therefore appropriate subjects to test the prediction that low predation risk reduces feeding competition. To estimate contest potential, we quantified size, spatial distribution and density of food plants, and the availability of alternative resources. We recorded behavior in food patches using a modified focal tree method. Food patches, sorted by decreasing average feeding group size, included large trees (40% of focal plant observations), lianas/strangler (16%), medium trees (9%), small (palm) trees (20%), and rattan (15%). Most food patches were clumped but occurred at low densities relative to the area of average group spread. Thus, availability of alternative food patches was low. Although food patch characteristics indicate high contest potential, the observed aggression rate (0.13 bouts between adults/h) was low relative to other primates. Average feeding group size was small relative to total group size, and feeding group size matched crown volume. Perceived predation risk was low, based on spatial and feeding behavior of juveniles. Together, these results suggest that predation risk may influence feeding competition. Social and temporal factors (patch feeding time), but not ecological factors (fruit abundance in patch and forest, alternative resources) predicted aggression frequency in food patches. Overall, comparative data are still relatively scarce, and researchers should collect more data on group spread, sub

  2. Sex Differences in the Development of Social Relationships in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Amici, Federica; Langos, Doreen; Widdig, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have documented the importance of social bonding for the enhancement of individual fitness. However, little is known about how social relationships develop through ontogeny, and whether their development follows the same trajectory in males and females. Here we analyzed affiliative interactions (proximity, social grooming, play) combined with demographic and genetic data in semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago over their first 4 yr of life (from birth to sexual maturation) to understand how these interactions change through development in both sexes. Generalized linear mixed models revealed that social behaviors mostly followed different developmental trajectories in males and females and were highly dependent on the social context. In particular, sex differences in social behavior varied through development depending on the partner’s sex and age. Females engaged in more social interactions than males, especially with other females, and were more involved in grooming around the time of maturation. In contrast, males interacted more with males and age peers, especially around maturation. Sex differences in social behavior varied through development, but also depended on rank, partner’s rank, and kin line, although not consistently. High-ranking individuals, especially older females, were generally preferred as social partners. Moreover, both male and female individuals interacted mostly with maternal kin, although males also preferred paternal kin over nonkin. Importantly, most developmental changes in sociality happened when individuals were ca. 2 yr old, suggesting that this might be a milestone in the development of sociality in rhesus macaques. The only notable exception to this pattern was play, which was more pronounced in males from the beginning of their lives. We propose that play might serve as a trigger of sex differences in social behavior, with sex differences emerging early in development and

  3. Factors increasing snake detection and perceived threat in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Etting, Stephanie F; Isbell, Lynne A; Grote, Mark N

    2014-02-01

    The primary predators of primates are all ambush hunters, and yet felids, raptors, and snakes differ in aspects of their ecology that affect the evasive strategies of their primate prey. Felids and raptors can traverse long distances quickly, thus the urgency of threat they present increases as they come closer in proximity to primates. In contrast, snakes do not move rapidly over long distances, and so primates may be reasonably safe even at close distances provided snakes can be detected and monitored. We investigated the ability of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to detect snakes at distances ranging from 15 to 1.5 m. We also examined variation in intensity of perceived threat by applying a Hidden Markov Model to infer changes in underlying state from observable behaviors, that is, increased attention and mobbing. We found that the macaques often failed to detect snake models but that closer proximity improved snake detection, which is necessary before threat can be perceived. We also found that having only one individual in fairly close proximity (≤ 7.5 m) was sufficient to alert the rest of the group and so the chances of detection did not increase with increasing group size. Finally, we found that when the snakes were perceived, they did not elicit greater intensity of response with closer proximity. These results provide evidence that the threat from snakes is greatest when they are in proximity to primates but are unseen. When snakes are seen, however, distance appears not to affect primates' perceived risk, in contrast to their perceived risk from raptors and felids.

  4. Noninvasive saliva collection for DNA analyses from free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    PubMed

    Simons, N D; Lorenz, J G; Sheeran, L K; Li, J H; Xia, D P; Wagner, R S

    2012-11-01

    Cryptic and endangered fauna, including many primate taxa, pose challenges for noninvasive collection of biomaterials. As a result, application of noninvasive genotyping to primates has been limited to the use of samples such as feces and hair for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA. We present a method for noninvasive collection of saliva from habituated, free-ranging monkeys. The method utilizes a low-cost apparatus that controls for contamination and is usable with individual, free-ranging primates. Saliva samples were collected from 18 individuals in a population of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) in the Valley of Wild Monkeys in Huangshan, People's Republic of China. DNA was extracted from these samples and PCR-amplified for both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, Cytochrome B and MHC-DR Beta 1, respectively. These results indicate this is an effective technique for the noninvasive collection of saliva across age and sex class, and dominance rank in a free-ranging, terrestrial primate species. This device could have wide application for obtaining high-quality saliva samples from free-ranging primate populations for use in epidemiological studies, hormonal analyses of HPA axis function, pathogen screening, noninvasive genotyping, and behavioral genetics.

  5. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  6. Training pair-housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using a combination of negative and positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Wergård, Eva-Marie; Temrin, Hans; Forkman, Björn; Spångberg, Mats; Fredlund, Hélène; Westlund, Karolina

    2015-04-01

    When training animals, time is sometimes a limiting factor hampering the use of positive reinforcement training (PRT) exclusively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of negative and positive reinforcement training (NPRT). Twenty naïve female Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were trained in 30 sessions with either PRT (n=8) or NPRT (n=12) to respond to a signal, move into a selected cage section and accept confinement. In the NPRT-group a signal preceded the presentation of one or several novel, and thus aversive, stimuli. When the correct behaviour was performed, the novel stimulus was removed and treats were given. As the animal learned to perform the correct behaviour, the use of novel stimuli was decreased and finally phased out completely. None of the PRT-trained animals finished the task. Ten out of 12 monkeys in the NPRT-group succeeded to perform the task within the 30 training sessions, a significant difference from the PRT-group (p=0.0007). A modified approach test showed no significant difference between the groups (p=0.67) in how they reacted to the trainer. The results from this study suggest that carefully conducted NPRT can be an alternative training method to consider, especially when under a time constraint.

  7. The Influence of Kinship on Familiar Natal Migrant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Albers, Monika; Widdig, Anja

    2013-02-01

    In most primate species, females remain in the natal group with kin while males disperse away from kin around the time of puberty. Philopatric females bias their social behavior toward familiar maternal and paternal kin in several species, but little is known about kin bias in the dispersing sex. Male dispersal is likely to be costly because males encounter an increased risk of predation and death, which might be reduced by dispersing together with kin and/or familiar males (individuals that were born and grew up in same natal group) or into a group containing kin and/or familiar males. Here we studied the influence of kinship on familiar natal migrant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, by combining demographic, behavioral, and genetic data. Our data suggest that kinship influences spatial proximity between recent natal immigrants and males familiar to them. Immigrants were significantly nearer to more closely related familiar males than to more distantly related individuals. Within a familiar subgroup, natal migrants were significantly closer to maternal kin, followed by paternal kin, then non-kin, and finally to males related via both the maternal and paternal line. Spatial proximity between natal immigrants and familiar males did not decrease over time in the new group, suggesting that there is no decline in associations between these individuals within the first months of immigration. Overall, our results might indicate that kinship is important for the dispersing sex, at least during natal dispersal when kin are still available.

  8. Concealing of facial expressions by a wild Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus).

    PubMed

    Thunström, Maria; Kuchenbuch, Paul; Young, Christopher

    2014-07-01

    Behavioural research on non-vocal communication among non-human primates and its possible links to the origin of human language is a long-standing research topic. Because human language is under voluntary control, it is of interest whether this is also true for any communicative signals of other species. It has been argued that the behaviour of hiding a facial expression with one's hand supports the idea that gestures might be under more voluntary control than facial expressions among non-human primates, and it has also been interpreted as a sign of intentionality. So far, the behaviour has only been reported twice, for single gorilla and chimpanzee individuals, both in captivity. Here, we report the first observation of concealing of facial expressions by a monkey, a Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus), living in the wild. On eight separate occasions between 2009 and 2011 an adult male was filmed concealing two different facial expressions associated with play and aggression ("play face" and "scream face"), 22 times in total. The videos were analysed in detail, including gaze direction, hand usage, duration, and individuals present. This male was the only individual in his group to manifest this behaviour, which always occurred in the presence of a dominant male. Several possible interpretations of the function of the behaviour are discussed. The observations in this study indicate that the gestural communication and cognitive abilities of monkeys warrant more research attention.

  9. Immunohistochemical and morphological features of a small bowel leiomyoma in a black crested macaque (Macaca nigra)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Spontaneous gastrointestinal neoplasms in non-human primates are commonly seen in aged individuals. Due to genetic similarities between human and non-human primates, scientists have shown increasing interest in terms of comparative oncology studies. Case presentation The present study is related to a case of an intestinal leiomyoma in a black crested macaque (Macaca nigra), kept on captivity by Matecaña Zoo, Pereira City, Colombia. The animal had abdominal distension, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea and behavioral changes. Clinical examination showed an increased volume in the upper right abdominal quadrant caused by a neoplastic mass. The patient died during the surgical procedure. Necropsy revealed several small nodules in the peritoneum with adhesion to different portions of the small and large intestines, liver, stomach and diaphragm. Tissue samples were collected, routinely processed and stained by H&E. Microscopic examination revealed a mesenchymal tumor limited to tunica muscularis, resembling normal smooth muscle cells. Neoplastic cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, and negative for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 by immunohistochemistry. Those morphological and immunohistochemical findings allowed to diagnose the intestinal leiomyoma referred above. Conclusion Neoplastic diseases in primates have multifaceted causes. Their manifestations are understudied, leading to a greater difficulty in detection and measurement of the real impact provides by this disease. PMID:22747606

  10. The Influence of Kinship on Familiar Natal Migrant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Monika; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    In most primate species, females remain in the natal group with kin while males disperse away from kin around the time of puberty. Philopatric females bias their social behavior toward familiar maternal and paternal kin in several species, but little is known about kin bias in the dispersing sex. Male dispersal is likely to be costly because males encounter an increased risk of predation and death, which might be reduced by dispersing together with kin and/or familiar males (individuals that were born and grew up in same natal group) or into a group containing kin and/or familiar males. Here we studied the influence of kinship on familiar natal migrant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, by combining demographic, behavioral, and genetic data. Our data suggest that kinship influences spatial proximity between recent natal immigrants and males familiar to them. Immigrants were significantly nearer to more closely related familiar males than to more distantly related individuals. Within a familiar subgroup, natal migrants were significantly closer to maternal kin, followed by paternal kin, then non-kin, and finally to males related via both the maternal and paternal line. Spatial proximity between natal immigrants and familiar males did not decrease over time in the new group, suggesting that there is no decline in associations between these individuals within the first months of immigration. Overall, our results might indicate that kinship is important for the dispersing sex, at least during natal dispersal when kin are still available. PMID:24850977

  11. Development of sensitivity to global form and motion in macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina).

    PubMed

    Kiorpes, Lynne; Price, Tracy; Hall-Haro, Cynthia; Movshon, J Anthony

    2012-06-15

    To explore the relative development of the dorsal and ventral extrastriate processing streams, we studied the development of sensitivity to form and motion in macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina). We used Glass patterns and random dot kinematograms (RDK) to assay ventral and dorsal stream function, respectively. We tested 24 animals, longitudinally or cross-sectionally, between the ages of 5 weeks and 3 years. Each animal was tested with Glass patterns and RDK stimuli with each of two pattern types--circular and linear--at each age using a two alternative forced-choice task. We measured coherence threshold for discrimination of the global form or motion pattern from an incoherent control stimulus. Sensitivity to global motion appeared earlier than to global form and was higher at all ages, but performance approached adult levels at similar ages. Infants were most sensitive to large spatial scale (Δx) and fast speeds; sensitivity to fine scale and slow speeds developed more slowly independently of pattern type. Within the motion domain, pattern type had little effect on overall performance. However, within the form domain, sensitivity for linear Glass patterns was substantially poorer than that for concentric patterns. Our data show comparatively early onset for global motion integration ability, perhaps reflecting early development of the dorsal stream. However, both pathways mature over long time courses reaching adult levels between 2 and 3 years after birth.

  12. The Effects of Predictability in Daily Husbandry Routines on Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Coleman, Kristine; McCowan, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) housed indoors experience many routine husbandry activities on a daily basis. The anticipation of these events can lead to stress, regardless of whether the events themselves are positive or aversive in nature. The specific goal of this study was to identify whether increasing the predictability of husbandry events could decrease stress and anxiety in captive rhesus macaques. This study was conducted on 39 single-housed subjects in four indoor rooms at the Oregon National Primate Research Center. Temporal and signaled predictability were added to four daily husbandry events: morning and afternoon feeding, enrichment distribution, and room cleaning. Temporally predictable husbandry events occurred reliably at the same time daily, while signaled predictable husbandry events were preceded by a distinct event-specific signal in the form of a doorbell. Informal tests prior to study onset found the doorbells not to be aversive to the subjects. Subjects received each of four treatments: unpredictable events, temporally predictable events, signaled predictable events, and temporally and signaled predictable events. Change in stress was evaluated by monitoring changes in motor stereotypies and displacement behaviors. Our results showed that subjects displayed less stress and anticipatory behaviors related to feeding and enrichment events when the events were temporally predictable (P < 0 .0001). When husbandry events were preceded by a reliable signal, subjects vocalized less prior to the event and were less responsive to activity outside of the room (P < 0 .01). However this may have come at a cost as the animals were extremely reactive to the doorbell signals and showed a heightened stress response during the actual husbandry events (P < 0 .01). Similar to temporal predictability alone, when temporal predictability was combined with signaled predictability subjects displayed less stress and anticipatory behaviors related to feeding and

  13. Social rank versus affiliation: Which is more closely related to leadership of group movements in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana)?

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Sun, Lixing; Sheeran, Lori K; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhang, Qi-Xin; Zhang, Dao; Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Research on leadership is a critical step for understanding collective decision making. However, only 4 of the 22 extant macaque species have been examined for the impact of social rank and affiliation on the initiation of collective movement. It is far from clear whether such impact exists and, if so, how it works among other macaques. To answer these questions, we investigated free-ranging, Tibetan macaques' (Macaca thibetana) group departures from a provisioning area and tested two alternative hypotheses: personal versus distributed leadership. Personal leadership predicts that a single, highest ranking individual initiates the most group movements, whereas distributed leadership predicts that different members lead the group on different occasions and affiliative individuals have more initiations. We recorded how often and how successfully adults initiated group movements from a provisioning area into the forest, and related these variables to the duration of interindividual proximity and grooming time in the forest. All adults initiated group movements, but did so variably. Social rank was related neither to the number of successful initiations nor to the success ratio of initiations. By contrast, eigenvector centrality based on proximity relations was positively correlated with the number and ratio of successful initiations. Moreover, successful initiations were positively correlated with social grooming. Overall, Tibetan macaques showed a pattern of distributed leadership. Our study demonstrated the relationship between social affiliation and individual leadership in a macaque society. Am. J. Primatol. 78:816-824, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Postnatal development of the hippocampus in the Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta): a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Hunsaker, Michael R; Scott, Julia A; Bauman, Melissa D; Schumann, Cynthia M; Amaral, David G

    2014-07-01

    Nonhuman primates are widely used models to investigate the neural substrates of human behavior, including the development of higher cognitive and affective function. Due to their neuroanatomical and behavioral homologies with humans, the rhesus macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta) provides an excellent animal model in which to characterize the maturation of brain structures from birth through adulthood and into senescence. To evaluate hippocampal development in rhesus macaques, structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained longitudinally at 9 time points between 1 week and 260 weeks (5 years) of age on 24 rhesus macaque monkeys (12 males, 12 females). In our sample, the hippocampus reaches 50% of its adult volume by 13 weeks of age and reaches an adult volume by 52 weeks in both males and females. The hippocampus appears to be slightly larger at 3 years than at 5 years of age. Male rhesus macaques have larger hippocampi than females from 8 weeks onward by approximately 5%. Interestingly, there was increased variability in hemispheric asymmetry for hippocampus volumes at younger ages than at later ages. These data provide a comprehensive evaluation of the longitudinal development of male and female rhesus macaque hippocampus across development from 1 week to 5 years of age.

  15. Effect of photoperiod on characteristics of semen obtained by electroejaculation in stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides).

    PubMed

    García Granados, Mónica Dafne; Hernández López, Leonor Estela; Córdoba Aguilar, Alejandro; Cerda Molina, Ana Lilia; Pérez-Ramírez, Olivia; Mondragón-Ceballos, Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    Some environmental variables determining seasonal reproduction in mammals are temperature, humidity, food availability, and photoperiod. Among these, photoperiod is considered the main regulator of primates' seasonal reproduction, thus the latitudinal distribution of primate populations is a key factor determining the appearance of seasonal reproduction. The present work presents supporting discrete seasonality in male stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides). We investigated whether semen quality and testosterone covaried with Mexico City's photoperiod and relative humidity by analyzing variations in the portions that form the ejaculate: the seminal liquid, the seminal coagulum, and the copulatory plug. Five male adult stump-tailed macaques were electroejaculated once a month, obtaining three semen samples per male, from August 2011 to July 2012 (except for December 2011) (n = 165). Our results showed that stump-tailed macaque sperm counts were significantly different between the portions of the ejaculate. The seminal coagulum contained the significantly largest number of spermatozoids, followed by the copulatory plug and the seminal fluid. Photoperiod and relative humidity had major influence on the sperm count in the seminal coagulum and the testosterone concentrations. Testosterone reached its highest values around the time when days and nights lasted the same hours, decreasing when days either grew longer or became shorter. Concerning relative humidity, sperm counts in the seminal coagulum were highly variable on dry days, but decreased as the relative humidity increased. We conclude that stump-tailed macaques have a discrete seasonality, occurring in spring and fall when macaques' reproductive condition and readiness for postcopulatory intrasexual competition increase.

  16. Finding the factors of reduced genetic diversity on X chromosomes of Macaca fascicularis: male-driven evolution, demography, and natural selection.

    PubMed

    Osada, Naoki; Nakagome, Shigeki; Mano, Shuhei; Kameoka, Yosuke; Takahashi, Ichiro; Terao, Keiji

    2013-11-01

    The ratio of genetic diversity on X chromosomes relative to autosomes in organisms with XX/XY sex chromosomes could provide fundamental insight into the process of genome evolution. Here we report this ratio for 24 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) originating in Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. The average X/A diversity ratios in these samples was 0.34 and 0.20 in the Indonesian-Malaysian and Philippine populations, respectively, considerably lower than the null expectation of 0.75. A Philippine population supposed to derive from an ancestral population by founding events showed a significantly lower ratio than the parental population, suggesting a demographic effect for the reduction. Taking sex-specific mutation rate bias and demographic effect into account, expected X/A diversity ratios generated by computer simulations roughly agreed with the observed data in the intergenic regions. In contrast, silent sites in genic regions on X chromosomes showed strong reduction in genetic diversity and the observed X/A diversity ratio in the genic regions cannot be explained by mutation rate bias and demography, indicating that natural selection also reduces the level of polymorphism near genes. Whole-genome analysis of a female cynomolgus monkey also supported the notion of stronger reduction of genetic diversity near genes on the X chromosome.

  17. Postmortem recovery and cryopreservation of spermatozoa from the vas deferens of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Kelly; Liukkonen, John; Kubisch, H. Michael

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether sperm derived form the vas deferens could be retrieved and successfully cryopreserved, testes were collected from 20 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The males ranged in age from 3 to 19 years with an average of 8.5 years. No sperm was obtained from three animals which were younger than 4 years. The remaining 17 samples contained sperm with an average sperm cell number of 421.8 ±88.7 × 106 and an average motility of 72.8 ± 4.4 %. After 24 h of culture in TALP medium at 37° C in 5% CO2 and 95% air, the overall motility decreased significantly in all samples regardless of treatment. Freezing in TEST-yolk buffer containing 6% (vol/vol) glycerol had a significant effect on sperm reducing the immediate post-thaw motility to 42.4 % in non-treated samples. Treatment with db-cAMP and caffeine further reduced sperm motility after 4 hr in fresh sperm (72.8 vs 50.4%), but increased in sperm that had been frozen (14.0 vs 23.2%). The age of the male did not influence sperm concentration or grade, but proved to be a significant factor in determining motility of frozen-thawed treated sperm with lower motility found in samples from older males. Overall the study demonstrates that motile sperm can be obtained from post-mortem males, although subsequent studies will have to determine whether the quality is sufficient to facilitate its use in assisted reproduction. PMID:19646745

  18. Hormone profiles and reproductive characteristics in wild female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Fujita, Shiho; Sugiura, Hideki; Mitsunaga, Fusako; Shimizu, Keiko

    2004-12-01

    In this study we investigated the reproductive characteristics of wild female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata fuscata) in 2 nonconsecutive years using noninvasive methods to monitor physiological events. We detected ovulation dates and ascertained conceptions from fecal hormone profiles. First ovulations occurred from middle October to early November in 1997, and from middle to late November in 1999. Most females conceived during their first ovarian cycle. On average, postconception bleeding occurred 18.4 days after ovulation, and menstruation occurred 13.7 days after ovulation. The average gestation length was 176.3 days. The average degree of facial redness and the percentage of females that copulated synchronously changed across the ovarian cycle and peaked in the periovulatory period. Although prolonged periods of postconception copulation have been reported in previous studies, they did not occur in this study, which suggests that such behavior may not be a species-typical characteristic. Female fertility varied between the 2 years. The copulation rates of females with no infant <1 year of age were 100% (14/14) in 1997 and 45.5% (5/11) in 1999. The ovulation rates of the female subjects that we chose for hormonal assays were 100% (9/9) in 1997 and 50.0% (3/6) in 1999. Th conception rates of these selected females were 100% (9/9) in 1997 and 16.7% (1/6) in 1999. The birth rates (the number of females that delivered divided by the total number of adult females in the troop) were 73.3% (11/15) in 1998 and 6.7% (1/15) in 2000. The modified birth rates (the number of females that delivered /the number of adult females with no infant <1 year of age) x 100 were 78.6% (11/14) in 1998 and 9.1% (1/11) in 2000.

  19. Complete Taiwanese Macaque (Macaca cyclopis) Mitochondrial Genome: Reference-Assisted de novo Assembly with Multiple k-mer Strategy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Feng; Midha, Mohit; Chen, Tzu-Han; Wang, Yu-Tai; Smith, David Glenn; Pei, Kurtis Jai-Chyi; Chiu, Kuo Ping

    2015-01-01

    The Taiwanese (Formosan) macaque (Macaca cyclopis) is the only nonhuman primate endemic to Taiwan. This primate species is valuable for evolutionary studies and as subjects in medical research. However, only partial fragments of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of this primate species have been sequenced, not mentioning its nuclear genome. We employed next-generation sequencing to generate 2 x 90 bp paired-end reads, followed by reference-assisted de novo assembly with multiple k-mer strategy to characterize the M. cyclopis mitogenome. We compared the assembled mitogenome with that of other macaque species for phylogenetic analysis. Our results show that, the M. cyclopis mitogenome consists of 16,563 nucleotides encoding for 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNAs. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that M. cyclopis is most closely related to M. mulatta lasiota (Chinese rhesus macaque), supporting the notion of Asia-continental origin of M. cyclopis proposed in previous studies based on partial mitochondrial sequences. Our work presents a novel approach for assembling a mitogenome that utilizes the capabilities of de novo genome assembly with assistance of a reference genome. The availability of the complete Taiwanese macaque mitogenome will facilitate the study of primate evolution and the characterization of genetic variations for the potential usage of this species as a non-human primate model for medical research.

  20. Facial musculature in the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta): evolutionary and functional contexts with comparisons to chimpanzees and humans

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Parr, Lisa A

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression is a common mode of visual communication in mammals but especially so in primates. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) have a well-documented facial expression repertoire that is controlled by the facial/mimetic musculature as in all mammals. However, little is known about the musculature itself and how it compares with those of other primates. Here we present a detailed description of the facial musculature in rhesus macaques in behavioral, evolutionary and comparative contexts. Formalin-fixed faces from six adult male specimens were dissected using a novel technique. The morphology, attachments, three-dimensional relationships and variability of muscles were noted and compared with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and with humans. The results showed that there was a greater number of facial muscles in rhesus macaques than previously described (24 muscles), including variably present (and previously unmentioned) zygomaticus minor, levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, depressor septi, anterior auricularis, inferior auricularis and depressor supercilii muscles. The facial muscles of the rhesus macaque were very similar to those in chimpanzees and humans but M. mulatta did not possess a risorius muscle. These results support previous studies that describe a highly graded and intricate facial expression repertoire in rhesus macaques. Furthermore, these results indicate that phylogenetic position is not the primary factor governing the structure of primate facial musculature and that other factors such as social behavior are probably more important. The results from the present study may provide valuable input to both biomedical studies that use rhesus macaques as a model for human disease and disorder that includes assessment of facial movement and studies into the evolution of primate societies and communication. PMID:19563473

  1. Alopecia in three macaque species housed in a laboratory environment.

    PubMed

    Kroeker, R; Bellanca, R U; Lee, G H; Thom, J P; Worlein, J M

    2014-04-01

    Alopecia is a persistent problem in captive macaque populations and despite recent interest, no factors have been identified that can unequivocally explain the presence of alopecia in a majority of cases. Seasonal, demographic, and environmental factors have been identified as affecting alopecia presentation in rhesus macaques, the most widely studied macaque species. However, few studies have investigated alopecia rates in other macaque species. We report alopecia scores over a period of 12 months for three macaque species (Macaca nemestrina, M. mulatta, and M. fascicularis) housed at three indoor facilities within the Washington National Primate Research Center (WaNPRC) in Seattle. Clear species differences emerged with cynomolgus (M. fascicularis) showing the lowest alopecia rates and pigtails (M. nemestrina) the highest rates. Further analysis of pigtail and rhesus (M. mulatta) macaques revealed that sex effects were apparent for rhesus but not pigtails. Age and seasonal effects were evident for both species. In contrast to previous reports, we found that older animals (over 10 years of age) had improved alopecia scores in comparison to younger adults. This is the first report on alopecia rates in pigtail macaques and the first comparison of alopecia scores in pigtail, cynomolgus, and rhesus macaques housed under similar conditions.

  2. Temporal Expression of Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Biomarkers in a Macaca fascicularis Infection Model of Tuberculosis; Comparison with Human Datasets and Analysis with Parametric/Non-parametric Tools for Improved Diagnostic Biomarker Identification

    PubMed Central

    Wareham, Alice; Lewandowski, Kuiama S.; Williams, Ann; Dennis, Michael J.; Sharpe, Sally; Vipond, Richard; Silman, Nigel; Ball, Graham

    2016-01-01

    A temporal study of gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) from a Mycobacterium tuberculosis primary, pulmonary challenge model Macaca fascicularis has been conducted. PBL samples were taken prior to challenge and at one, two, four and six weeks post-challenge and labelled, purified RNAs hybridised to Operon Human Genome AROS V4.0 slides. Data analyses revealed a large number of differentially regulated gene entities, which exhibited temporal profiles of expression across the time course study. Further data refinements identified groups of key markers showing group-specific expression patterns, with a substantial reprogramming event evident at the four to six week interval. Selected statistically-significant gene entities from this study and other immune and apoptotic markers were validated using qPCR, which confirmed many of the results obtained using microarray hybridisation. These showed evidence of a step-change in gene expression from an ‘early’ FOS-associated response, to a ‘late’ predominantly type I interferon-driven response, with coincident reduction of expression of other markers. Loss of T-cell-associate marker expression was observed in responsive animals, with concordant elevation of markers which may be associated with a myeloid suppressor cell phenotype e.g. CD163. The animals in the study were of different lineages and these Chinese and Mauritian cynomolgous macaque lines showed clear evidence of differing susceptibilities to Tuberculosis challenge. We determined a number of key differences in response profiles between the groups, particularly in expression of T-cell and apoptotic makers, amongst others. These have provided interesting insights into innate susceptibility related to different host `phenotypes. Using a combination of parametric and non-parametric artificial neural network analyses we have identified key genes and regulatory pathways which may be important in early and adaptive responses to TB. Using comparisons

  3. Toward reduction in animal sacrifice for drugs: molecular modeling of Macaca fascicularis P450 2C20 for virtual screening of Homo sapiens P450 2C8 substrates.

    PubMed

    Rua, Francesco; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Macaca fascicularis P450 2C20 shares 92% identity with human cytochrome P450 2C8, which is involved in the metabolism of more than 8% of all prescribed drugs. To date, only paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two substrate markers of the human P450 2C8, have been experimentally confirmed as M. fascicularis P450 2C20 drugs. To bridge the lack of information on the ligands recognized by M. fascicularis P450 2C20, in this study, a three-dimensional homology model of this enzyme was generated on the basis of the available crystal structure of the human homologue P450 2C8 using YASARA. The results indicated that 90.0%, 9.0%, 0.5%, and 0.5% of the residues of the P450 2C20 model were located in the most favorable, allowed, generously allowed, and disallowed regions, respectively. The root-mean-square deviation of the C-alpha superposition of the M. fascicularis P450 2C20 model with the Homo sapiens P450 2C8 was 0.074 Å, indicating a very high similarity of the two structures. Subsequently, the 2C20 model was used for in silico screening of 58 known P450 2C8 substrates and 62 inhibitors. These were also docked in the active site of the crystal structure of the human P450 2C8. The affinity of each compound for the active site of both cytochromes proved to be very similar, meaning that the few key residues that are mutated in the active site of the M. fascicularis P450 do not prevent the P450 2C20 from recognizing the same substrates as the human P450 2C8.

  4. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Zippo, Antonio G; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R; Caramenti, Gian C; Benabid, Alim L; Biella, Gabriele E M

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1-8 V, 1-10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being <1 ms and interblock intervals of 1.5-4 s) have been analyzed. We found 150-250 ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses.

  5. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Zippo, Antonio G.; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R.; Caramenti, Gian C.; Benabid, Alim L.; Biella, Gabriele E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1–8 V, 1–10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being <1 ms and interblock intervals of 1.5–4 s) have been analyzed. We found 150–250 ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses. PMID:26029061

  6. Influence of dominance rank and affiliation relationships on self-directed behavior in female Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Xin; Li, Jin-Hua; Xia, Dong-Po; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Dao

    2014-05-01

    Self-directed behavior (SDB) is characterized as an indicator of anxiety, frustration and stress in nonhuman primates. In this study, we collected self-directed behavior data from one group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China (September 2012-May 2013) using a combination of behavioral sampling methods including focal animal sampling, behavioral sampling, continuous sampling and instantaneous sampling. Our results showed that females engaged in significantly higher rates of self-directed behavior when they were in proximity to dominant individuals compared to subordinate ones. Conflict losers significantly increased their SDB rates after agonistic episodes, indicating that SDB might also serve as an index of anxiety in M. thibetana. We further found that females significantly increased their SDB rates when focal individual was proximity to weakly affiliation relationship higher rank members than to strongly affiliation relationship higher rank members. If conflicts were not reconciled, the postconflict SDB rates of losers were higher when they stayed with strongly affiliation opponents; if conflicts were reconciled, victims of strongly affiliation relationships opponents engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation, while victims of moderately affiliation relationships opponents did not engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation. We conclude that both of dominance rank and affiliation relationships might both influence the SDB rates of female Tibetan macaques significantly, suggesting that SDB is not only an index of anxiety in Tibetan macaques, but also can provide a new insight into evaluation of social relationships between individuals.

  7. Analysis of immunoglobulin, complements and CRP levels in serum of captive northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Pang, Wei; Deng, De-Yao; Lv, Long-Bao; Feng, Yue; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2014-05-01

    The northern pig-tailed macaque (NPM,Macaca leonina) has become a widely used animal model in biomedical research. In this study, we measured serum immunoglobulin IgG, IgM, IgA, complement C3, C4 and CRP levels in 3-11 year old captive northern pig-tailed macaques using HITACHI 7600-20 automated chemistry analyzer in order to determine the influences of age and gender on these items. The results showed that serum IgA, IgM, C3 and C4 levels were not correlated with age (P>0.05), while serum IgG levels increased progressively with age (r=0.202;P=0.045). Serum IgG, IgA, IgM and C3 levels were higher in females than in males (P<0.05). Moreover, serum C3 concentration was both positively and strongly correlated with that of C4 (r=0.700; P<0.0001). This study provides basic serum immunoglobulin and complement data of captive northern pig-tailed macaques, which may prove useful for future breeding efforts and biomedical research.

  8. Cashing out: The decisional flexibility of uncertainty responses in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Perdue, Bonnie M; Beran, Michael J; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2014-10-01

    Researchers are exploring whether animals share with humans something like a metacognitive capacity. Though some results point to human-animal continuities in this domain, they face the dominant criticism that animals' performances might be associative. A persistent problem is that animal-metacognition paradigms present static environments of risk and reward that may foster inflexible and conditioned responding. Those environments do not challenge animals to show the flexibility in their decision strategies that could indicate an antecedent capacity to metacognition. Accordingly, we tested macaques and humans on an uncertainty-monitoring paradigm in which risk changed dynamically. Participants classified stimuli of different difficulties while also choosing when to use a cashout response to collect the accumulated rewards that would be forfeit on a discrimination error. Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans flexibly adjusted their decision criteria to achieve appropriate protection against the cost of error that could differ depending on trial difficulty and the number of rewards at risk. In particular, monkeys widened their cashout-response region as their accumulated rewards increased, providing more protection against a more costly error. These findings demonstrate a new continuity between humans' and animals' uncertainty systems. They reveal a calibration by macaques of present risk to trial difficulty tolerated. They show that animals' uncertainty-monitoring and risk-management systems have substantial trial-by-trial flexibility.

  9. Neonatal imitation predicts infant rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) social and anxiety-related behaviours at one year

    PubMed Central

    Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Paukner, Annika; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of early markers that predict the development of specific social trajectories is critical to understand the developmental and neurobiological underpinnings of healthy social development. We investigated, in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), whether newborns’ capacity to imitate facial gestures is a valid predictive marker for the emergence of social competencies later in development, at one year of age. Here we first assessed whether infant macaques (N = 126) imitate lipsmacking gestures (a macaque affiliative expression) performed by a human experimenter in their first week of life. We then collected data on infants’ social interactions (aggression, grooming, and play) and self-scratching (a proxy indicator of anxiety) at 11–14 months when infants were transferred into a new enclosure with a large social group. Our results show that neonatal imitators exhibit more dominant behaviours, are less anxious, and, for males only, spend more time in play at one year old. These findings suggest that neonatal imitation may be an early predictor of infant sociality and may help identify infants at risk of neurodevelopmental social deficits. PMID:27725768

  10. Recognition of partially concealed leopards by wild bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). The role of the spotted coat.

    PubMed

    Coss, Richard G; Ramakrishnan, Uma; Schank, Jeffrey

    2005-02-28

    Wild bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) have been shown to recognize models of leopards (Panthera pardus), based on their configuration and spotted yellow coat. This study examined whether bonnet macaques could recognize the spotted and dark melanic morph when partially concealed by vegetation. Seven troops were studied at two sites in southern India, the Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary and the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve. The forequarters and hindquarters of the two leopard morphs were presented from behind thick vegetation to individuals at feeding stations 25 m away. Flight reaction times and frequency of flight were obtained from video for only those individuals who oriented towards the models prior to hearing alarm calls. Bonnet macaques exhibited faster reaction times and greater frequency of flight after looking at the spotted morph's forequarter than after looking at either its spotted hindquarter or the dark morph's forequarter. The hindquarter of the dark morph was ignored completely. Artificial neural network modeling examined the perceptual aspects of leopard face recognition and the role of spots as camouflage. When spots were integrated into the pattern recognition process via network training, these spots contributed to leopard face recognition. When networks were not trained with spots, spots did not act as camouflage by disrupting facial features.

  11. Immunoglobulins A, G, and M in serum and in some secretions of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis syn. irus).

    PubMed Central

    Cole, M F; Bowen, W H

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the distribution and levels of the following immunoglobulins, IgA, IgG, and IgM ,in sera and in some secretions of monkeys (M. fascicularis). IgG, IgA, and IgM were isolated from monkey serum and secretory IgA was separated from monkey milk by combined gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. These pure preparations served as standards to quantitate immunoglobulins in sera and secretions by single radial immunodiffusion. Antisera were raised in the rabbit against the pure immunoglobulins and also against the whole secretions to identify the immunoglobulins in immunoelectrophoresis. In common with humans, the major immunoglobulin in serum and amniotic fluid is IgG and the IgG/IgA ratio is greater than unity. In secretions IgA is the dominant immunoglobulin and the IgG/IgA ratio is less than 1. In general, the levels of immunoglobulins in the sera and secretions of monkeys paralleled the levels found in humans. No age-related increase in immunoglobulin levels was detected in the sera of monkeys. PMID:818024

  12. Endozoochorous seed dispersal by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): Effects of temporal variation in ranging and seed characteristics on seed shadows.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yamato; Morimoto, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    Variation in seed shadows generated by frugivores is caused by daily, seasonal, and inter-annual variation in ranging, as well as inter-specific variability in gut passage times according to seed characteristics. We studied the extent to which seed weight, specific gravity, and daily (morning, afternoon, and evening) and inter-annual (2004 vs. 2005) variation in ranging affected seed shadows generated by wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. The macaques ingested fleshy fruits of 11 species during the two year study period; Viburnum dilatatum (Caprifoliaceae: heavier seeds with higher specific gravity) and Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae: lighter seeds with lower specific gravity) were eaten frequently in both years. The travel distances of macaques after feeding on V. dilatatum and R. multiflora fruits were estimated by combining feeding locations and ranging patterns measured in the field with gut passage times of model seeds in captive animals. Median travel distances after fruit feeding were 431 (quantile range: 277-654) and 478 m (265-646), respectively, with a maximum of 1,261 m. Neither year nor time of day affected travel distances. The gut passage time of model V. dilatatum seeds was longer than that of model R. multiflora seed, but this did not affect dispersal distances. Seed shadows for both species over 2 years showed unimodal distribution (peak: 101-500 m) and more than 90%, 20%, and 3% of ingested seeds were estimated to be dispersed >100, >500, and >1000 m, respectively, the longest known distances among macaque species. R. multiflora seeds tended to be dispersed further in 2004 than 2005, but V. dilatatum seeds were not, implying that inter-annual variations in ranging pattern due to the distribution and abundance of nut fruiting could affect dispersal distance.

  13. Habitual hot-spring bathing by a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in their natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Watanabe, Kunio; Eishi, Tokida

    2007-12-01

    Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in a free-ranging group in Jigokudani valley, Nagano prefecture, are known to bathe in a hot spring. We used scan sampling in a study aimed at elucidating the causal factors and possible social transmission of this behavior. From 1980-2003, 31% of a total 114 females in the group habitually bathed in the hot spring. The habit was more widespread in dominant matrilines than in subordinate matrilines. Infants whose mothers bathed were more likely to bathe than infants of mothers who did not bathe. The number of monkeys bathing was clearly influenced by ambient air temperature. More monkeys bathed in the hot spring in winter than in summer. The results support the thermoregulation hypothesis of hot-spring bathing. Bathing behavior varies among age and sex categories of monkeys, with adult females and juveniles bathing more often than adult males and subadults. We compared hot-spring bathing with other thermoregulatory behaviors in various primate populations.

  14. Condylomatous genital lesions in cynomolgus macaques from Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Harari, Ariana; Wood, Charles E; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Chen, Zigui; Domaingue, Marie Claire; Elmore, David; Koenig, Patricia; Wagner, Janice D; Jennings, Ryan N; Burk, Robert D

    2013-08-01

    Genital condyloma-like lesions were observed on male and female cynomolgus macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) originating from the island of Mauritius. Cytobrush and/or biopsy samples were obtained from lesions of 57 affected macaques. Primary histologic features included eosinophilic, neutrophilic, and lymphoplasmacytic penile and vulvar inflammation, epidermal hyperplasia with acanthosis, and increased collagenous stroma. Polymerase chain reaction-based assays to amplify viral DNA revealed the presence of macaque lymphocryptovirus (LCV) DNA but not papillomavirus or poxvirus DNA. Subsequent DNA analyses of 3 genomic regions of LCV identified isolates associated with lesions in 19/25 (76%) biopsies and 19/57 (33%) cytology samples. Variable immunolabeling for proteins related to the human LCV Epstein Barr Virus was observed within intralesional plasma cells, stromal cells, and epithelial cells. Further work is needed to characterize the epidemiologic features of these lesions and their association with LCV infection in Mauritian-origin macaques.

  15. The Organization of Collective Group Movements in Wild Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus): Social Structure Drives Processes of Group Coordination in Macaques.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Anne; Majolo, Bonaventura; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Social animals have to coordinate activities and collective movements to benefit from the advantages of group living. Animals in large groups maintain cohesion by self-organization processes whereas in smaller groups consensus decisions can be reached. Where consensus decisions are relevant leadership may emerge. Variation in the organization of collective movements has been linked to variation in female social tolerance among macaque species ranging from despotic to egalitarian. Here we investigated the processes underlying group movements in a wild macaque species characterized by a degree of social tolerance intermediate to previously studied congeneric species. We focused on processes before, during and after the departure of the first individual. To this end, we observed one group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in the Middle Atlas, Morocco using all-occurrence behaviour sampling of 199 collective movements. We found that initiators of a collective movement usually chose the direction in which more individuals displayed pre-departure behavior. Dominant individuals contributed to group movements more than subordinates, especially juveniles, measured as frequencies of successful initiations and pre-departure behaviour. Joining was determined by affiliative relationships and the number of individuals that already joined the movement (mimetism). Thus, in our study group partially shared consensus decisions mediated by selective mimetism seemed to be prevalent, overall supporting the suggestion that a species' social style affects the organization of group movements. As only the most tolerant species show equally shared consensus decisions whereas in others the decision is partially shared with a bias to dominant individuals the type of consensus decisions seems to follow a stepwise relation. Joining order may also follow a stepwise, however opposite, relationship, because dominance only determined joining in highly despotic, but not in intermediate and

  16. The Organization of Collective Group Movements in Wild Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus): Social Structure Drives Processes of Group Coordination in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Seltmann, Anne; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2013-01-01

    Social animals have to coordinate activities and collective movements to benefit from the advantages of group living. Animals in large groups maintain cohesion by self-organization processes whereas in smaller groups consensus decisions can be reached. Where consensus decisions are relevant leadership may emerge. Variation in the organization of collective movements has been linked to variation in female social tolerance among macaque species ranging from despotic to egalitarian. Here we investigated the processes underlying group movements in a wild macaque species characterized by a degree of social tolerance intermediate to previously studied congeneric species. We focused on processes before, during and after the departure of the first individual. To this end, we observed one group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in the Middle Atlas, Morocco using all-occurrence behaviour sampling of 199 collective movements. We found that initiators of a collective movement usually chose the direction in which more individuals displayed pre-departure behavior. Dominant individuals contributed to group movements more than subordinates, especially juveniles, measured as frequencies of successful initiations and pre-departure behaviour. Joining was determined by affiliative relationships and the number of individuals that already joined the movement (mimetism). Thus, in our study group partially shared consensus decisions mediated by selective mimetism seemed to be prevalent, overall supporting the suggestion that a species’ social style affects the organization of group movements. As only the most tolerant species show equally shared consensus decisions whereas in others the decision is partially shared with a bias to dominant individuals the type of consensus decisions seems to follow a stepwise relation. Joining order may also follow a stepwise, however opposite, relationship, because dominance only determined joining in highly despotic, but not in intermediate

  17. Brief communication: Fecal androgen excretion and fetal sex effects during gestation in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis).

    PubMed

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2012-02-01

    In placental mammals, pregnancy usually is associated with an increase in maternal androgens, which may significantly impact fetal growth and differentiation, and affect postnatal development and behavior. Owing to their slow life histories and challenging social conditions, determination of maternal androgens and potential interference effects of fetal androgen production are of particular interest in wild primates. However, androgen production has been rarely investigated in wild female primates, and studies on maternal androgens during gestation in particular often do not span the entire pregnancy. Here, we characterize fecal androgen production throughout gestation in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) using noninvasive hormone analysis and, furthermore, examine fetal sex effects on maternal androgen excretion. A total of 207 fecal samples were analyzed from seven females for concentrations of immunoreactive epiandrosterone (iEA). Fecal iEA concentrations, as predicted based on cercopithecine blood-serum patterns, increased during early gestation and were significantly higher during the first trimester compared with preconception concentrations and those recorded during later stages of gestation. Further, during the third trimester, male-carrying mothers showed significantly higher iEA concentrations compared with female-carrying mothers. This first characterization of fecal androgen excretion during gestation in Assamese macaques indicates both a maternal and fetal effect on androgen production. Although our sample size is small, our results, nevertheless, provide the basis for assessing potential influences of maternal androgens on postnatal offspring development and behavior.

  18. Female Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) copulation calls do not reveal the fertile phase but influence mating outcome

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferle, Dana; Brauch, Katrin; Heistermann, Michael; Hodges, J. Keith; Fischer, Julia

    2007-01-01

    In a number of primate species, females utter loud and distinctive calls during mating. Here we aim to clarify the information content and function of Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) copulation calls by testing (i) whether or not copulation calls advertise the female fertile phase and (ii) whether and how copulation calls influence male ejaculatory behaviour. In order to do this, we combined hormone measurements with acoustic analysis and behavioural observations. In contrast to a previous study implying that the structure of copulation calls indicates the timing of the fertile phase, our results, using objective endocrine criteria for assessing ovulation, provide evidence that the structure of copulation calls of female Barbary macaques does not reveal the timing of the fertile phase. More importantly, females seem to influence the likelihood of ejaculation by calling versus remaining silent and by adjusting the timing of call onset. Females make use of this ability to influence mating outcome to ensure ejaculatory matings with almost all males in the group. In addition, calls given during ejaculatory copulations differ from those during non-ejaculatory copulations, providing information about mating outcome for listeners. We conclude that in this species, copulation calls apparently serve to enhance sperm competition and maximize paternity confusion. PMID:18089536

  19. Expression Analysis of Taste Signal Transduction Molecules in the Fungiform and Circumvallate Papillae of the Rhesus Macaque, Macaca mulatta

    PubMed Central

    Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Abe, Miki; Asakura, Tomiko; Imai, Hiroo; Abe, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of the mammalian gustatory system have been examined in many studies using rodents as model organisms. In this study, we examined the mRNA expression of molecules involved in taste signal transduction in the fungiform papillae (FuP) and circumvallate papillae (CvP) of the rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta, using in situ hybridization. TAS1R1, TAS1R2, TAS2Rs, and PKD1L3 were exclusively expressed in different subsets of taste receptor cells (TRCs) in the FuP and CvP. This finding suggests that TRCs sensing different basic taste modalities are mutually segregated in macaque taste buds. Individual TAS2Rs exhibited a variety of expression patterns in terms of the apparent level of expression and the number of TRCs expressing these genes, as in the case of human TAS2Rs. GNAT3, but not GNA14, was expressed in TRCs of FuP, whereas GNA14 was expressed in a small population of TRCs of CvP, which were distinct from GNAT3- or TAS1R2-positive TRCs. These results demonstrate similarities and differences between primates and rodents in the expression profiles of genes involved in taste signal transduction. PMID:23029001

  20. Efficacy of selective PDE4D negative allosteric modulators in the object retrieval task in female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Jane S; Beaumont, Vahri; Watson, James M; Chew, Chang Sing; Beconi, Maria; Hutcheson, Daniel M; Dominguez, Celia; Munoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signalling plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and information processing in the hippocampal and basal ganglia systems. The augmentation of cAMP signalling through the selective inhibition of phosphodiesterases represents a viable strategy to treat disorders associated with dysfunction of these circuits. The phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 4 inhibitor rolipram has shown significant pro-cognitive effects in neurological disease models, both in rodents and primates. However, competitive non-isoform selective PDE4 inhibitors have a low therapeutic index which has stalled their clinical development. Here, we demonstrate the pro-cognitive effects of selective negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of PDE4D, D159687 and D159797 in female Cynomolgous macaques, in the object retrieval detour task. The efficacy displayed by these NAMs in a primate cognitive task which engages the corticostriatal circuitry, together with their suitable pharmacokinetic properties and safety profiles, suggests that clinical development of these allosteric modulators should be considered for the treatment of a variety of brain disorders associated with cognitive decline.

  1. Efficacy of Selective PDE4D Negative Allosteric Modulators in the Object Retrieval Task in Female Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, Jane S.; Beaumont, Vahri; Watson, James M.; Chew, Chang Sing; Beconi, Maria; Hutcheson, Daniel M.; Dominguez, Celia; Munoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signalling plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and information processing in the hippocampal and basal ganglia systems. The augmentation of cAMP signalling through the selective inhibition of phosphodiesterases represents a viable strategy to treat disorders associated with dysfunction of these circuits. The phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 4 inhibitor rolipram has shown significant pro-cognitive effects in neurological disease models, both in rodents and primates. However, competitive non-isoform selective PDE4 inhibitors have a low therapeutic index which has stalled their clinical development. Here, we demonstrate the pro-cognitive effects of selective negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of PDE4D, D159687 and D159797 in female Cynomolgous macaques, in the object retrieval detour task. The efficacy displayed by these NAMs in a primate cognitive task which engages the corticostriatal circuitry, together with their suitable pharmacokinetic properties and safety profiles, suggests that clinical development of these allosteric modulators should be considered for the treatment of a variety of brain disorders associated with cognitive decline. PMID:25050979

  2. A simple multiplex polymerase chain reaction to determine ABO blood types of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Premasuthan, A; Kanthaswamy, S; Satkoski, J; Smith, D G

    2011-06-01

    Rhesus macaques are the most common nonhuman primate model organism used in biomedical research. Their increasingly frequent use as subjects in studies involving transplantation requires that blood and other tissue antigens of donors and recipients be compatible. We report here an easy and rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the ABO blood group phenotypes of rhesus macaques that can be performed with only small amounts of DNA. We phenotyped 78 individuals and found this species to exhibit the A, B and AB phenotypes in frequencies that vary by geographic region. The probability of randomly pairing rhesus macaque donors and recipients that exhibit major ABO phenotype incompatibility is approximately 0.35 and 0.45 for Indian and Chinese rhesus macaques, respectively.

  3. Dietary adaptations of Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) in limestone forests in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhonghao; Huang, Chengming; Tang, Chuangbin; Huang, Libin; Tang, Huaxing; Ma, Guangzhi; Zhou, Qihai

    2015-02-01

    Limestone hills are an unusual habitat for primates, prompting them to evolve specific behavioral adaptations to the component karst habitat. From September 2012 to August 2013, we collected data on the diet of one group of Assamese macaques living in limestone forests at Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi Province, China, using instantaneous scan sampling. Assamese macaques were primarily folivorous, young leaves accounting for 75.5% and mature leaves an additional 1.8% of their diet. In contrast, fruit accounted for only 20.1%. The young leaves of Bonia saxatilis, a shrubby, karst-endemic bamboo that is superabundant in limestone hills, comprised the bulk of the average monthly diet. Moreover, macaques consumed significantly more bamboo leaves during the season when the availability of fruit declined, suggesting that bamboo leaves are an important fallback food for Assamese macaques in limestone forests. In addition, diet composition varied seasonally. The monkeys consumed significantly more fruit and fewer young leaves in the fruit-rich season than in the fruit-lean season. Fruit consumption was positively correlated with fruit availability, indicating that fruit is a preferred food for Assamese macaques. Of seventy-eight food species, only nine contributed >0.5% of the annual diet, and together these nine foods accounted for 90.7% of the annual diet. Our results suggest that bamboo consumption represents a key factor in the Assamese macaque's dietary adaptation to limestone habitat.

  4. Chagas Disease in 2 Geriatric Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Housed in the Pacific Northwest

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Mary F; Astorga, Nestor Gerardo; Astorga, Nestor Rodrigo; Lewis, Anne D

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It is endemic in Latin America but also is found in the southern United States, particularly Texas and along the Gulf Coast. Typical clinical manifestations of Chagas disease are not well-characterized in rhesus macaques, but conduction abnormalities, myocarditis, and encephalitis and megaesophagus have been described. Here we report 2 cases of Chagas disease in rhesus macaques housed in the northwestern United States. The first case involved a geriatric male macaque with cardiomegaly, diagnosed as dilated cardiomyopathy on ultrasonographic examination. Postmortem findings included myocarditis as well as ganglioneuritis in the esophagus, stomach, and colon. The second case affected a geriatric female macaque experimentally infected with SIV. She was euthanized for a protocol-related time point. Microscopic examination revealed chronic myocarditis with amastigotes present in the cardiomyocytes, ganglioneuritis, and opportunistic infections attributed to her immunocompromised status. Banked serum samples from both macaques had positive titers for T. cruzi. T. cruzi DNA was amplified by conventional PCR from multiple tissues from both animals. Review of their histories revealed that both animals had been obtained from facilities in South Texas more than 12 y earlier. Given the long period of clinical latency, Chagas disease may be more prevalent in rhesus macaques than typically has been reported. T. cruzi infection should be considered for animals with unexplained cardiac or gastrointestinal pathology and that originated from areas known to have a high risk for disease transmission. PMID:25296019

  5. Preliminary study on eye colour in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in their natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Watanabe, Kunio

    2007-04-01

    Eye colour in Japanese macaques shows apparent differences between individuals, continuously ranging from orange (bright), through shades of yellow and hazel-blue to dark blue (dark). We arbitrarily classified them into either 'yellow' eyes or 'blue' eyes based on the yellow area occupying in the iris' peripupillary ring. Most Japanese macaques have yellow eyes after infant phase, whilst 19, 17, 12, and 15% of monkeys (>6 months, sexes combined) have blue-eye in studied two groups of Shodoshima and two groups of Takasakiyama, respectively. Frequency of eye colour did not differ between males and females, but significantly differed in each age class. Blue eyes significantly more frequently occurred in newborns, infants and aged monkeys than in juveniles and prime adults. Data from mother-infant pairs indicated eye colour could be inherited from their parents. A case of asymmetric eye colour in Japanese macaques was found from a sample of 1962 individuals. Eye colour variation of Japanese macaques was discussed in relation to those of humans and rhesus macaques. A possible evolutionary model of eye colour in Japanese macaques was discussed.

  6. MHC class I characterization of Indonesian cynomolgus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Pendley, Chad J.; Becker, Ericka A.; Karl, Julie A.; Blasky, Alex J.; Wiseman, Roger W.; Hughes, Austin L.; O’Connor, Shelby L.; O’Connor, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are quickly becoming a useful model for infectious disease and transplantation research. Even though cynomolgus macaques from different geographic regions are used for these studies, there has been limited characterization of full-length Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I immunogenetics of distinct geographic populations. Here, we identified 48 MHC class I cDNA nucleotide sequences in eleven Indonesian cynomolgus macaques, including 41 novel Mafa-A and Mafa-B sequences. We found seven MHC class I sequences in Indonesian macaques that were identical to MHC class I sequences identified in Malaysian or Mauritian macaques. Sharing of nucleotide sequences between these geographically distinct populations is also consistent with the hypothesis that Indonesia was a source of the Mauritian macaque population. In addition, we found that the Indonesian cDNA sequence Mafa-B*7601 is identical throughout its peptide binding domain to Mamu-B*03, an allele that has been associated with control of SIV viremia in Indian rhesus macaques. Overall, a better understanding of the MHC class I alleles present in Indonesian cynomolgus macaques improves their value as a model for disease research and it better defines the biogeography of cynomolgus macaques throughout Southeast Asia. PMID:18504574

  7. Adenocarcinoma of the ileocolic junction and multifocal hepatic sarcomas in an aged rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Lang, Cynthia D; Daviau, Judith S; Merton, Daniel A; Caraker, Susan M

    2013-08-01

    An aged male rhesus macaque in our colony had decreased appetite and a loss of interest in behavioral testing. CBC analysis revealed a regenerative, microcytic, hypochromic anemia with thrombocytosis, consistent with iron deficiency. A fecal occult blood test was positive. Ultrasound imaging revealed numerous, vascularized focal liver lesions that suggested metastases. The macaque's appetite continued to decrease, and he became more lethargic. At this point, the investigator elected to euthanize the macaque. At necropsy, the ileocolic junction was white and abnormally thickened, and the liver was pale tan with approximately 18 discrete white masses randomly scattered throughout the hepatic parenchyma. Histologically, the mass at the ileocolic junction was identified as an intestinal adenocarcinoma, whereas the liver masses were confirmed to be undifferentiated hepatic sarcomas. This case report describes a rhesus macaque that had 2 unrelated primary neoplasms. A review of the literature indicates that this rhesus macaque is the first reported to have an adenocarcinoma of the ileocolic junction and multiple hepatic sarcomas simultaneously.

  8. Use of Operant Performance to Guide and Evaluate Medical Treatment in an Adult Male Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    treatment. The affected monkey received ketoprofen , buprenorphine, or their combination but continued to perform poorly during daily operant behavioral...evening administration of buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg IM) was added to the treatment regimen of ketoprofen (2.0 mg/kg IM) ad- ministration in the...well below the reinforced band. Treatment with ketoprofen or the ketoprofen -buprenorphine combination failed to increase mean response duration

  9. Response of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to the Body of a Group Member That Died from a Fatal Attack

    PubMed Central

    Buhl, Jacqueline S.; Aure, Bonn; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Platt, Michael L.; Brent, Lauren J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Among animals that form social bonds, the death of a conspecific may be a significant social event, representing the loss of an ally and resulting in disruptions to the dominance hierarchy. Despite this potential biological importance, we have only limited knowledge of animals' reactions to the death of a group member. This is particularly true of responses to dead adults, as most reports describe the responses of mothers to dead infants. Here, we describe in detail and provide video evidence of the behavioral responses of a group of free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) immediately after the death of a mid-ranking adult male as a result of a fatal attack. High-ranking male members of the group, suspected to have carried out the attack, dragged and bit the dead body, exhibiting a rate of aggression 20 times greater than baseline levels. Lower-ranking individuals approached and inspected the body by looking closely, smelling, and grooming the fur. There was inconclusive evidence that these rhesus macaques found the death of a conspecific stressful: Levels of grooming between group members after the fatal attack were significantly higher than baseline levels, and higher than levels of grooming after nonfatal attacks. However, when grooming levels were adjusted based on the assumption that individuals positioned close to the body, i.e., those visible to researchers, were more likely to be engaged in grooming than those positioned farther away, this difference from baseline was no longer significant. The rate of self-directed behaviors after the fatal attack was also not different from baseline. Many of the behaviors we observed directed toward the body (aggression, inspection) have been previously reported in chimpanzees and geladas, and are similar to reactions sometimes displayed by humans. As such, this report represents a potentially valuable contribution the nascent field of nonhuman primate thanatology. PMID:23459587

  10. Mixed Fortunes: Ancient Expansion and Recent Decline in Population Size of a Subtropical Montane Primate, the Arunachal Macaque Macaca munzala

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Debapriyo; Sinha, Anindya; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary glacial oscillations are known to have caused population size fluctuations in many temperate species. Species from subtropical and tropical regions are, however, considerably less studied, despite representing most of the biodiversity hotspots in the world including many highly threatened by anthropogenic activities such as hunting. These regions, consequently, pose a significant knowledge gap in terms of how their fauna have typically responded to past climatic changes. We studied an endangered primate, the Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala, from the subtropical southern edge of the Tibetan plateau, a part of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, also known to be highly threatened due to rampant hunting. We employed a 534 bp-long mitochondrial DNA sequence and 22 autosomal microsatellite loci to investigate the factors that have potentially shaped the demographic history of the species. Analysing the genetic data with traditional statistical methods and advance Bayesian inferential approaches, we demonstrate a limited effect of past glacial fluctuations on the demographic history of the species before the last glacial maximum, approximately 20,000 years ago. This was, however, immediately followed by a significant population expansion possibly due to warmer climatic conditions, approximately 15,000 years ago. These changes may thus represent an apparent balance between that displayed by the relatively climatically stable tropics and those of the more severe, temperate environments of the past. This study also draws attention to the possibility that a cold-tolerant species like the Arunachal macaque, which could withstand historical climate fluctuations and grow once the climate became conducive, may actually be extremely vulnerable to anthropogenic exploitation, as is perhaps indicated by its Holocene ca. 30-fold population decline, approximately 3,500 years ago. Our study thus provides a quantitative appraisal of these demographically important

  11. Social Preferences by and for Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca Nemestrina) with Trisomy 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Karyl B.; Sackett, Gene P.

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of social choices of trisomic macaques and of control groups found that groups showed few differences in preferences for stimulus animals with and without disabilities. Results suggest that the avoidance of individuals with disabilities is not a general primate trait and the presence of mental retardation and physical handicaps need not…

  12. High maltose sensitivity of sweet taste receptors in the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata)

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Emiko; Tsutsui, Kei; Imai, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    Taste sensitivity differs among animal species depending on feeding habitat. To humans, sucrose is one of the sweetest natural sugars, and this trait is expected to be similar in other primates. However, previous behavioral tests have shown that some primate species have equal preferences for maltose and sucrose. Because sweet tastes are recognized when compounds bind to the sweet taste receptor Tas1R2/Tas1R3, we evaluated the responses of human and Japanese macaque Tas1R2/Tas1R3 to various natural sugars using a heterologous expression system. Human Tas1R2/Tas1R3 showed high sensitivity to sucrose, as expected; however, Japanese macaque Tas1R2/Tas1R3 showed equally high sensitivity to maltose and sucrose. Furthermore, Japanese macaques showed equally high sensitivity to sucrose and maltose in a two-bottle behavioral experiment. These results indicate that Japanese macaques have high sensitivity to maltose, and this sensitivity is directly related to Tas1R2/Tas1R3 function. This is the first molecular biological evidence that for some primate species, sucrose is not the most preferable natural sugar, as it is for humans. PMID:27982108

  13. Can Gender Differences Be Evaluated in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Model of Focal Cerebral Ischemia?

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Stephanie J; Kirsch, Jeffrey R; Zhang, Wenri; Grafe, Marjorie R; West, G Alex; del Zoppo, Gregory J; Traystman, Richard J; Hurn, Patricia D

    2008-01-01

    Gender differences, sex steroid effects, and sex-specific candidate therapeutics in ischemic stroke have been studied in rodents but not in nonhuman primates. In this feasibility study (n = 3 per group), we developed a model of transient focal cerebral ischemia in adult male and female rhesus macaques that consistently includes white matter injury. The animals also were used to determine whether gender-linked differences in histopathologic outcomes could be evaluated in this model in future, larger preclinical trials. Histologic brain pathology was evaluated at 4 d after 90 min of reversible occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). MCA occlusion was accomplished by using a transorbital approach and temporary placement of an aneurysm clip. Male and female rhesus macaques 7 to 11 y of age were studied. Baseline and intraischemic blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, end-tidal CO2, and rectal temperatures were not different among groups. The variability in injury volume was comparable to that observed in human focal cerebrovascular ischemia and in other nonhuman primate models using proximal MCA occlusion. In this small sample, the volume of injury was not different between male and female subjects, but observed variability was higher in female caudate nucleus, putamen, and hemisphere. This report is the first to compare cerebral ischemic outcomes in female and male rhesus macaques. The female rhesus macaque ischemic stroke model could be used after rodent studies to provide preclinical data for clinical trials in women. PMID:19149416

  14. Visual Recognition Memory in High- and Low-Risk Infant Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca Nemestrina).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Virginia M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Study looks at pigtailed macaque in the context of visual recognition problems adapted from a standardized test developed for use with human infants. Results demonstrate that the low-risk group easily differentiated novel from previously seen targets; the high-risk group gave no evidence of recognition. (Author/RWB)

  15. Molecular composition of drusen and possible involvement of anti-retinal autoimmunity in two different forms of macular degeneration in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Umeda, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Michihiro T; Okamoto, Haru; Ono, Fumiko; Mizota, Atsushi; Terao, Keiji; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Iwata, Takeshi

    2005-10-01

    We have previously reported a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) pedigree with early onset macular degeneration that develops drusen at 2 yr after birth. In this study, the molecular composition of drusen in monkeys affected with late onset and early onset macular degeneration was both characterized. Involvement of anti-retinalautoimmunity in the deposition of drusen and the pathogenesis of the disease was also evaluated. Funduscopic and histological examinations were performed on 278 adult monkeys (mean age=16.94 yr) for late onset macular degeneration. The molecular composition of drusen was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and/or direct proteome analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Anti-retinal autoantibodies in sera were screened in 20 affected and 10 age-matched control monkeys by Western blot techniques. Immunogenic molecules were identified by 2D electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Relative antibody titer against each antigen was determined by ELISA in sera from 42 affected (late onset) and 41 normal monkeys. Yellowish-white spots in the macular region were observed in 90 (32%) of the late onset monkeys that were examined. Histological examination demonstrated that drusen or degenerative retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were associated with the pigmentary abnormalities. Drusen in both late and early onset monkeys showed immunoreactivities for apolipoprotein E, amyloid P component, complement component C5, the terminal C5b-9 complement complex, vitronectin, and membrane cofactor protein. LC-MS/MS analyses identified 60 proteins as constituents of drusen, including a number of common components in drusen of human age-related macular degeneration (AMD), such as annexins, crystallins, immunoglobulins, and complement components. Half of the affected monkeys had single or multiple autoantibodies against 38, 40, 50, and 60 kDa retinal proteins. The reacting antigens of 38 and 40 kDa were identified as annexin II and mu

  16. Ranging and site fidelity in northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina) over different temporal scales.

    PubMed

    José-Domínguez, Juan Manuel; Savini, Tommaso; Asensio, Norberto

    2015-08-01

    Space-use patterns are crucial to understanding the ecology, evolution, and conservation of primates, but detailed ranging data are scarce for many species, especially those in Southeast Asia. Researchers studying site fidelity to either home ranges or core areas have focused mainly on territorial species, whereas less information is available for non-territorial species. We analyzed the ranging patterns and site fidelity of one wild troop of northern pigtailed macaques over 16 months at different temporal scales. We used characteristic hull polygons in combination with spatial statistics to estimate home ranges and core areas. The total home range and core areas were 449 ha and 190 ha, respectively. Average daily path length was 2,246 m. The macaques showed a high defendabili--ty index according to the expected ranging of a non-territorial species in which movement does not theoretically permit the defense of a large territory. Overall, the study troop ranged more extensively than conspecific groups and closely related species studied elsewhere. These differences may reflect variable troop size, degree of terrestriality and habitat characteristics, but could also reflect methodological differences. The location, size and shape of home ranges and core areas, and extent of daily path lengths changed on a monthly basis resulting in low site fidelity between months. The macaques also showed clear shifts in the location of daily home ranges with low site fidelity scores between consecutive days. Daily home range and daily path length were related to seasonality, with greater values during the fruit-abundant period. Low site fidelity associated with lack of territoriality is consistent with macaques structuring their movement based on available food sources. However, ranging patterns and site fidelity can also be explained by macaques feeding on the move, a foraging strategy that hinders frequent and long visits to the same location.

  17. Arboreal adaptations of body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) and the evolution of adiposity in primates.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J

    2013-11-01

    There is a paucity of information on body composition and fat patterning in wild nonhuman primates. Dissected adipose tissue from wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) (WTM), feeding on a natural diet, accounted for 2.1% of body weight. This was far less than fatness reported for nonhuman primates raised in captivity or for contemporary humans. In WTM, fatness increased with age and diet richness, but did not differ by sex. In WTM (none of which were obese) intra-abdominal fat filled first, and "excess" fat was stored peripherally in a ratio of about 6:1. Intermuscular fat was minimal (0.1%). The superficial paunch held <15% of subcutaneous fat weight in contrast to its much larger proportions in obese humans and captive monkeys where most added fat accumulates subcutaneously. With increasing total adiposity, accumulating fat shifted in its distribution among eight different main internal and peripheral deposit areas-consistent with maintaining body balance and a low center of gravity. The available data suggest that, in arboreal primates, adaptations for agile locomotion and terminal branch feeding set constraints on the quantity and distribution of fat. The absence of a higher percentage of body fat in females and neonates (as are typical of humans) suggests that arboreal adaptations preclude the development of fat-dependent, large-brained infants and the adipose-rich mothers needed to sustain them. The lifestyle and body composition of wild primates represent a more appropriate model for early human foragers than well-fed captive monkeys do.

  18. The use of honey as a topical dressing to treat a large, devitalized wound in a stumptail macaque (Macaca arctoides).

    PubMed

    Staunton, Christine J; Halliday, Lisa C; Garcia, Kelly D

    2005-07-01

    There are many reasons wounds are managed as open wounds rather than by primary closure. Indications include gross contamination, infection, and skin loss leading to insufficient adjacent tissue for wound closure. The most common method of managing an open wound is with wet-to-dry dressings. Wet-to-dry dressings provide mechanical debridement and promote the movement of viscous exudates away from the wound. Wet-to-dry bandages ideally are changed every 12 to 24 h. For nonhuman primates, it is desirable to develop wound management techniques that limit animal handling for bandage changes and thus the frequency of sedation. Anecdotal reports on the use of honey to treat wounds date back to 2000 B.C. Recently, scientific inquiries have found merit to these reports. Honey accelerates healing because of its direct effects on tissue and antibacterial properties. In addition, dressings with honey can be changed relatively infrequently. Honey decreases inflammatory edema, hastens sloughing of devitalized tissue, attracts macrophages which cleanse the wound, provides a local cellular energy source, and protectively covers the wound. A high osmolarity, acidity, and hydrogen peroxide content confer honey with antibacterial properties. Here we describe the use of honey to manage a bite wound in a stumptail macaque (Macaca arctoides). The wound healed rapidly: after 2 weeks of treatment, there was markedly less exudate and no necrotic tissue. This report describes how honey may be helpful in the management of open wounds in nonhuman primates by minimizing the need for sedation for bandage changes.

  19. Development of breeding populations of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that are specific pathogen-free for rhesus cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Barry, Peter A; Strelow, Lisa

    2008-02-01

    Development of breeding colonies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that are specific pathogen-free (SPF) for rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) is relatively straightforward and requires few modifications from current SPF programs. Infants separated from the dam at or within a few days of birth and cohoused with similarly treated animals remain RhCMV seronegative indefinitely, provided they are never directly or indirectly exposed to a RhCMV-infected monkey. By systematically cohousing seronegative animals into larger social cohorts, breeding populations of animals SPF for RhCMV can be established. The additional costs involved in expanding the current definition of SPF status to include RhCMV are incremental compared with the money already being spent on existing SPF efforts. Moreover, the large increase in research opportunities available for RhCMV-free animals arguably would far exceed the development costs. Potential new areas of research and further expansion of existing research efforts involving these newly defined SPF animals would have direct implications for improvements in human health.

  20. Physiological, Behavioral, and Scientific Impact of Different Fluid Control Protocols in the Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Henri; Mindus, Claire; Flecknell, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rhesus macaques are an important model in behavioral neuroscience due to their advanced cognitive abilities. To motivate animals to engage in complex tasks, fluid rewards, in conjunction with fluid control protocols, are often used. The impact of these protocols on animal welfare is controversial. We compared two fluid control protocols against a protocol providing free access to water and evaluated the impacts on physiological states of hydration, behavioral measures of welfare, and scientific output. Blood physiology did not significantly differ between any of the protocols, and urine measures were indicative of well functioning, healthy kidneys. Changes in behaviors were limited, the main one being an increase in motivation to drink on the stricter fluid control protocol, and improved task performance early in the week. Overall, fluid control protocols had little measurable impact on the welfare of rhesus macaques while ensuring that scientific data of high quality could be obtained. PMID:27679812

  1. High incidence of supernumerary nipples and twins in formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at Mt. Longevity, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, M J; Moore, J; Lin, J F; Agoramoorthy, G

    2000-12-01

    A population of Formosan macaques at Mt. Longevity exhibits an unusually high incidence of supernumerary nipples (polythelia: between 1-6 accessory nipples and/or areolae on 33% of adults), as well as a high rate of twinning (about 1% of births). The coexistence of these unusual traits suggests a connection, which is further supported by a tendency for mothers of twins to have accessory nipples and for twins to be born in troops with high incidence of polythelia.

  2. Using porches to decrease feces painting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; O'Connor, Jillann Rawlins; Coleman, Kristine

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the efficacy of a porch in decreasing feces painting in captive rhesus macaques. The porch is a small extension that is hung on the outside of a monkey's primary home cage. Porches provide many potential benefits to indoor-housed macaques, including opportunities to perch above the ground, additional space, and increased field of view. Rates of feces painting, an abnormal behavior in which the animal smears or rubs feces on a surface, were compared in 3 situations: with porch enrichment, with 'smear board' enrichment (a foraging device commonly used to decrease feces painting), and without either enrichment item. Feces painting was evaluated daily by using a 5-point scale that ranged from 0, no feces present, to 4, multiple large areas of feces. We found that subjects received significantly lower feces painting scores when given porch enrichment or smear board enrichment compared with baseline. Furthermore, subjects received significantly lower feces painting scores with porch enrichment than smear board enrichment. These results demonstrate that the porch is an effective tool to decrease feces painting in captive macaques.

  3. Renal pigmentation due to chronic bismuth administration in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A.L.; Blaine, E.T.; Lewis, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Renal pigmentation due to the administration of exogenous compounds is an uncommon finding in most species. This report describes renal pigmentation and intranuclear inclusions of the proximal convoluted tubules due to chronic bismuth administration in a rhesus macaque. An 11 year old Indian-origin rhesus macaque with a medical history of chronic intermittent vomiting had been treated with bismuth subsalicylate (BSS), famotidine, and omeprazole singly or in combination over the course of 8 years. At necropsy, the renal cortices were diffusely dark green to black. Light and electron microscopy revealed intranuclear inclusions within the majority of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. These inclusions appeared magenta to brown when stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and were negative by the Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast stain. Elemental analysis performed on frozen kidney measured bismuth levels to be markedly elevated at 110.6 ppm, approximately 500-1000 times acceptable limits. To our knowledge this is the first report of renal bismuth deposition in a rhesus macaque resulting in renal pigmentation and intranuclear inclusions. PMID:24990482

  4. Fading Perceptual Resemblance: A Path for Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to Conceptual Matching?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. David; Flemming, Timothy M.; Boomer, Joseph; Beran, Michael J.; Church, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive, comparative, and developmental psychologists have long been intrigued by humans’ and animals’ capacity to respond to abstract relations like sameness and difference, because this capacity may underlie crucial aspects of cognition like analogical reasoning. Recently, this capacity has been explored in higher-order, relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks in which humans and animals try to complete analogies of sameness and difference between disparate groups of items. The authors introduced a new paradigm to this area, by yoking the relational-matching cue to a perceptual-matching cue. Then, using established algorithms for shape distortion, the perceptual cue was weakened and eliminated. Humans’ RMTS performance easily transcended the elimination of perceptual support. In contrast, RMTS performance by six macaques faltered as they were weaned from perceptual support. No macaque showed evidence of mature RMTS performance, even given more than 260,000 training trials during which we tried to coax a relational-matching performance from them. It is an important species difference that macaques show so hesitant a response to conceptual relations when humans respond to them so effortlessly. It raises theoretical questions about the emergence of this crucial capacity during humans’ cognitive evolution and during humans’ cognitive development. PMID:24076537

  5. Renal pigmentation due to chronic bismuth administration in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Johnson, A L; Blaine, E T; Lewis, A D

    2015-05-01

    Renal pigmentation due to the administration of exogenous compounds is an uncommon finding in most species. This report describes renal pigmentation and intranuclear inclusions of the proximal convoluted tubules due to chronic bismuth administration in a rhesus macaque. An 11-year-old Indian-origin rhesus macaque with a medical history of chronic intermittent vomiting had been treated with bismuth subsalicylate, famotidine, and omeprazole singly or in combination over the course of 8 years. At necropsy, the renal cortices were diffusely dark green to black. Light and electron microscopy revealed intranuclear inclusions within the majority of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. These inclusions appeared magenta to brown when stained with hematoxylin and eosin and were negative by the Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain. Elemental analysis performed on frozen kidney measured bismuth levels to be markedly elevated at 110.6 ppm, approximately 500 to 1000 times acceptable limits. To our knowledge, this is the first report of renal bismuth deposition in a rhesus macaque resulting in renal pigmentation and intranuclear inclusions.

  6. Identification and characterization of the major histocompatibility complex class II DQB (MhcMath-DQB1) alleles in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    PubMed

    Yao, Y-F; Zhao, J-J; Dai, Q-X; Li, J-Y; Zhou, L; Wang, Y-T; Ni, Q-Y; Zhang, M-w; Xu, H-L

    2013-08-01

    Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana), an endangered primate species endemic to China, have been used as experimental animal model for various human diseases. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play a crucial role in the susceptibility and/or resistance to many human diseases, but little is known about Tibetan macaques. To gain an insight into the MHC background and to facilitate the experimental use of Tibetan macaques, the second exon of Mhc-DQB1 gene was sequenced in a cohort of wild Tibetan macaques living in the Sichuan province of China. A total of 23 MhcMath-DQB1 alleles were identified for the first time, illustrating a marked allelic polymorphism at the DQB1 locus for these macaques. Most of the sequences (74%) observed in this study belong to DQB1*06 (9 alleles) and DQB1*18 (8 alleles) lineages, and the rest (26%) belong to DQB1*15 (3 alleles) and DQB1*17 (3 alleles) lineages. The most frequent alleles detected among these macaques were MhcMath-DQB1*15:02:02 (17.9%), followed by Math-DQB1*06:06, 17:03 and 18:01, which were detected in 9 (16.1%) of the monkeys, respectively. Non-synonymous substitutions occurred at a significantly higher frequency than synonymous substitutions in the peptide-binding region, suggesting balancing selection for maintaining polymorphisms at the MHC class II DQB1 locus. Phylogenetic analyses confirms the trans-species model of evolution of the Mhc-DQB1 genes in non-human primates, and in particular, the extensive allele sharing is observed between Tibetan and other macaque species.

  7. Comparative assessment of psychomotor performance - Target prediction by humans and macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Although nonhuman primates such as rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) have been useful models of many aspects of cognition and performance, it has been argued that, unlike humans, they may lack the capacity to respond as predictor-operators. Data from the present series of experiments undermine this claim, suggesting instead a continuity of predictive competency between humans and nonhuman primates. A prediction coefficient was devised to examine the degree to which each subject's response path approximated the optimal predictive strategy. Whereas human subjects (N= 30) generally predicted more accurately, rhesus monkeys (N= 10) also significantly anticipated the movements of the target in all conditions. It appears that humans and rhesus monkeys both exhibit the capacity to respond to where a stimulus is going.

  8. Effects of the macrolide drug tylosin on chronic diarrhea in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Blackwood, Rebecca S; Tarara, Ross P; Christe, Kari L; Spinner, Abigail; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2008-02-01

    Diarrhea is the gastrointestinal disease most frequently encountered in captive rhesus macaques. The precise pathogenic mechanisms underlying chronic diarrhea in nonhuman primates are not well understood, but a persistent inflammatory component has been implicated strongly. This study evaluated the inflammatory changes in the colon of macaques with diarrhea and assessed the efficacy of a 10-d course of tylosin in a cohort of 21 animals with chronic diarrhea. Stool quality was evaluated daily, and fecal consistency was scored. Colonoscopies were performed; biopsy samples were characterized histologically and assayed for expression of TNFalpha mRNA. Blood samples collected pre-, mid-, and post-treatment were assayed for C-reactive protein (CRP). The results indicated that 63% of the animals receiving tylosin showed improvement in stool quality, compared with 10% in the sham-treated group. Histologically, 82% of animals in the tylosin-treated group had a reduction in the severity of colonic lesions post-treatment, compared with 40% of animals in the sham group. The amount of TNFalpha mRNA before treatment did not differ from that afterward in either tylosin- or sham-treated animals. CRP levels serially decreased in tylosin-treated monkeys; the average post-treatment CRP value for tylosin-treated animals was 11.96 +/- 3.86 microg/ml compared with 26.48 +/- 4.86 microg/ml for sham-treated controls. In conclusion, tylosin significantly improved the fecal consistency score, significantly decreased colonic inflammation, and significantly decreased serum CRP levels post-treatment in rhesus macaques with chronic diarrhea.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of (+)-primaquine and (-)-primaquine enantiomers in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Saunders, David; Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Imerbsin, Rawiwan; Khemawoot, Phisit; Siripokasupkul, Raveewan; Tekwani, Babu L; Sampath, Aruna; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Ohrt, Colin; Lanteri, Charlotte; Gettyacamin, Montip; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Walker, Larry

    2014-12-01

    Primaquine (PQ) remains the sole available drug to prevent relapse of Plasmodium vivax malaria more than 60 years after licensure. While this drug was administered as a racemic mixture, prior studies suggested a pharmacodynamic advantage based on differential antirelapse activity and/or toxicities of its enantiomers. Oral primaquine enantiomers prepared using a novel, easily scalable method were given for 7 days to healthy rhesus macaques in a dose-rising fashion to evaluate their effects on the blood, liver, and kidneys. The enantiomers were then administered to Plasmodium cynomolgi-infected rhesus macaques at doses of 1.3 and 0.6 mg/kg of body weight/day in combination with chloroquine. The (-)-PQ enantiomer had higher clearance and apparent volume of distribution than did (+)-PQ and was more extensively converted to the carboxy metabolite. There is evidence for differential oxidative stress with a concentration-dependent rise in methemoglobin (MetHgb) with increasing doses of (+)-PQ greater than that seen for (-)-PQ. There was a marked, reversible hepatotoxicity in 2 of 3 animals dosed with (-)-PQ at 4.5 mg/kg. (-)-PQ in combination with chloroquine was successful in preventing P. cynomolgi disease relapse at doses of 0.6 and 1.3 mg/kg/day, while 1 of 2 animals receiving (+)-PQ at 0.6 mg/kg/day relapsed. While (-)-PQ was also associated with hepatotoxicity at higher doses as seen previously, this has not been identified as a clinical concern in humans during >60 years of use. Limited evidence for increased MetHgb generation with the (+) form in the rhesus macaque model suggests that it may be possible to improve the therapeutic window for hematologic toxicity in the clinic by separating primaquine into its enantiomers.

  10. Septicemia in an Indian Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) associated with Providencia stuartii.

    PubMed

    Liu, David X; Didier, Peter J; Plauche, Gail; Pahar, Bapi

    2016-07-28

    Providencia stuartii (P. stuartii) is an opportunistic pathogen and major concern in urinary catheter-related infections in human medicine. Here we report P. stuartii-induced septicemia in an eighteen-year-old, female India-origin Rhesus macaque with multiple traumatic wounds. The animal had neutrophilic leukocytosis, necrosuppurative meningoencephalitis, hypophysitis and bronchopneumonia with vasculitis, thrombosis, and clusters of extracellular Gram-negative bacilli. P. stuartii was isolated from the lesions of the brain and lung and confirmed by PCR and sequencing. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of septicemia associated with P. stuartii in a non-human primate.

  11. Retrograde ejaculation associated spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Courtney, Cynthia L; Strait, Karen R; Sharma, Prachi; Freebersyser, Julie E; Crane, Maria M

    2015-01-01

    Retrograde ejaculation (RE) has been reported in humans and animals but RE with subsequent sperm calculi has rarely been reported. This report documents clinical and pathological findings of spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four rhesus macaques. While this condition has been associated with repeated electroejaculation, spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis is highly unusual. The animals presented with either stranguria, dysuria, hematuria, distended abdomen or lethargy. Ultrasound examination revealed several hyperechoic masses within the lumen of the urinary bladder. The animals were euthanized due to poor prognosis or study end points. Postmortem examination revealed multiple angular, amorphous, soft to firm, pale yellow to greenish-brown and variably sized calculi in the lumen of the urinary bladder or prostatic/penile urethra. Histologically, the calculi were composed of numerous sperm embedded in abundant brightly eosinophilic matrix. Based on gross and histologic findings, RE associated sperm cystolithiasis was diagnosed, with ulcerative urethritis as the major primary apparent etiology. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of four spontaneous cases of sperm cystolithiasis in rhesus macaques. PMID:23735542

  12. Allelic diversity at the Mhc-DP locus in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Slierendregt, B L; Otting, N; Kenter, M; Bontrop, R E

    1995-01-01

    Allelic diversity at the major histocompatibility complex class II DP locus of rhesus macaques was studied by sequencing exon 2 of Mamu-DPA1 and -DPB1 genes. The Mamu-DPA1 gene is apparently invariant, whereas the Mamu-DPB1 locus displays polymorphism. Here we report the characterization of 1 Mamu-DPA1 and 13 Mamu-DPB1 alleles which were compared with other available primate Mhc-DPA1 and -DPB1 sequences. As compared with Mhc-DRB and -DQB1, most codons for the contact residues in the antigen binding site of the primate Mhc-DPB1 gene have a relatively low degree of variation in encoding various types of amino acids. In contrast to Mhc-DRB and -DQB, the HLA- and Mamu-DPB1 sequences cluster in a species-specific manner in phylogenetic trees. Mhc-DPB1 polymorphisms, however, are inherited in a transspecies mode of evolution, as is demonstrated by the sharing of lineage members between closely related macaque species. The data demonstrate that the transspecies character of Mhc-DPB1 polymorphism was retained over much shorter periods of time as compared with its sister class II loci, Mhc-DQ and -DR.

  13. Implicit and Explicit Category Learning by Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and Humans (Homo sapiens)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. David; Beran, Michael J.; Crossley, Matthew J.; Boomer, Joseph. T.; Ashby, F. Gregory

    2010-01-01

    An influential theoretical perspective differentiates in humans an explicit, rule-based system of category learning from an implicit system that slowly associates different regions of perceptual space with different response outputs. This perspective was extended for the first time to the category learning of nonhuman primates. Humans and macaques learned categories composed of sine-wave gratings that varied across trials in bar width and bar orientation. The categories had either a single-dimensional, rule-based solution or a two-dimensional, information-integration solution. Humans strongly dimensionalized the stimuli and learned the rule-based task far more quickly. Six macaques showed the same performance advantage in the rule-based task. In humans, rule-based category learning is linked to explicit cognition, consciousness, and to declarative reports about the contents of cognition. The present results demonstrate an empirical continuity between human and nonhuman primate cognition, suggesting that nonhuman primates may have some structural components of humans’ capacity for explicit cognition. PMID:20141317

  14. Retrograde ejaculation associated spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Courtney, Cynthia L; Strait, Karen R; Sharma, Prachi; Freebersyser, Julie E; Crane, Maria M

    2013-11-01

    Retrograde ejaculation (RE) has been reported in humans and animals but RE with subsequent sperm calculi has rarely been reported. This report documents clinical and pathological findings of spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four rhesus macaques. While this condition has been associated with repeated electroejaculation, spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis is highly unusual. The animals presented with either stranguria, dysuria, hematuria, distended abdomen or lethargy. Ultrasound examination revealed several hyperechoic masses within the lumen of the urinary bladder. The animals were euthanized due to poor prognosis or study end points. Postmortem examination revealed multiple angular, amorphous, soft to firm, pale yellow to greenish-brown and variably sized calculi in the lumen of the urinary bladder or prostatic/penile urethra. Histologically, the calculi were composed of numerous sperm embedded in abundant brightly eosinophilic matrix. Based on gross and histologic findings, RE associated sperm cystolithiasis was diagnosed, with ulcerative urethritis as the major primary apparent etiology. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of four spontaneous cases of sperm cystolithiasis in rhesus macaques.

  15. Matrilineal Behavioral and Physiological Changes following the Removal of a Non-Alpha Matriarch in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Wooddell, Lauren J.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Rosenberg, Kendra L.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Dettmer, Amanda M.

    2016-01-01

    In many species, the loss of alpha matriarchs is associated with a number of negative outcomes such as troop fission, eviction, wounding, and reduced vitality. However, whether the dramatic consequences of their loss are due to their role as an old experienced figure or to their alpha status remains unclear. In a retrospective study, we tested that in a semi-free ranging colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), the removal of a non-alpha matriarch, who had a large set of kin, led to changes in behavior and physiological stress within her matriline. Following her removal, her matriline increased in aggression, vigilance, and social grooming. Additionally, hierarchical stability, measured by levels of rank changes, decreased within her matriline, and levels of intense aggression by high-ranking animals were more frequent, as well as matrilineal wounding. Although ordinal rank was positively associated with higher chronic hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) in the months before the matriarch’s removal, following her removal, only those who experienced large increases in rank within her matriline displayed higher HCCs. Changes in matrilineal stability, aggression, behavior, and HCCs within the other two matrilines in the troop were not evident, although caution is needed due to the small sample sizes. We conclude that the removal of the non-alpha matriarch led to matrilineal instability, characterized by higher levels of aggression and subsequent vigilance, rank changes, physiological stress, and grooming. We suggest that non-alpha matriarchs with a large number of kin and social support can be integral to the stability of matrilines. PMID:27275743

  16. Fasting induced kisspeptin signaling suppression is regulated by glutamate mediated cues in adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Shamas, Shazia; Khan, Saeed-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Muhammad Yousaf; Shabbir, Nadia; Zubair, Hira; Shafqat, Saira; Wahab, Fazal; Shahab, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Kisspeptin signaling is suppressed by short term fasting. It has been reported that hypothalamic Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA expression decreased after 48h of fasting in male rhesus monkey. But the mechanism involved in the reduction of kisspeptin signaling after 48h of fasting is unknown. Recent studies have suggested the role of afferent excitatory and inhibitory pathways in the regulation of kisspeptin neurons. Therefore, this study was designed to observe the changes in the glutamate and GABA signaling during fed and 48h fasting states by performing immunofluorescence to examine the interaction of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors and by performing SYBR green qRT-PCR to measure and quantify the levels of Kiss1, Kiss1r, NR1 and GAD67 mRNA in the POA and MBH of adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) during 48h of fasting (n=2) and fed ad libitum (n=2). Plasma testosterone (p<0.05) and blood glucose levels were significantly (p<0.001) decreased after short term fasting. Our results clearly showed that expression of hypothalamic Kiss1, Kiss1r and NR1 mRNA was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in adult male rhesus monkeys which were fasted for 48h as compared to those which were fed ad libitum. There was no clear difference in the GAD67 mRNA contents between the two groups. Number of kisspeptin neurons and the interactions of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 were significantly (p<0.05) reduced after 48h fasting. These observations suggest that decreased kisspeptin signaling during fasting may occur due to reduction in glutamatergic inputs to kisspeptin neurons. Our results also suggest that fasting induced suppression of kisspeptin signaling is not mediated through GABAergic neurons.

  17. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Tamara A. R.; Bales, Karen L.; Maninger, Nicole; Hostetler, Caroline M.; Capitanio, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta) friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC). Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject), multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain), and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social

  18. Comparison of Indoor Air Quality between 2 Ventilation Strategies in a Facility Housing Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Monts de Oca, Nicole A; Laughlin, Mitzi; Jenkins, John; Lockworth, Cynthia R; Bolton, Iris D; Brammer, David W

    2015-01-01

    Adequate indoor-air quality (IAQ)—defined by the temperature, relative humidity, and the levels of carbon dioxide, small particles, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)—is crucial in laboratory animal facilities. The ventilation standards for controlling these parameters are not well defined. This study assessed the effect of 2 ventilation strategies on IAQ in 2 rooms housing rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We hypothesized that using a demand-controlled ventilation (DCV) system with a baseline ventilation rate of less than 3 fresh-air changes per hour (ACH) would maintain IAQ comparable to or better than the traditional constant flow rate (CFR) system at 12 fresh ACH. During a 60-d study period, each of the 2 rooms operated 30 d on DCV and 30 d on CFR ventilation. In both rooms, temperatures remained more consistently within the established setpoint during the DCV phase than during the CFR phase. Relative humidity did not differ significantly between rooms or strategies. CO2 was lower during the CFR phase than DCV phase. Small-particle and TVOC levels were lower during CFR in the larger (3060 ft3) room but not the smaller (2340 ft3) room. During the DCV phase, the larger room was at the baseline airflow rate over 99% of the time and the smaller room over 96% of the time. The DCV strategy resulted in a baseline airflow rate of less than 3 ACH, which in turn provided acceptable IAQ over 96% of the time; higher ventilation rates were warranted only during sanitation periods. PMID:26424251

  19. Characterization of Corynebacterium species in macaques

    PubMed Central

    Venezia, Jaime; Cassiday, Pamela K.; Marini, Robert P.; Shen, Zeli; Buckley, Ellen M.; Peters, Yaicha; Taylor, Nancy; Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Tondella, Maria L.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Corynebacterium are important primary and opportunistic pathogens. Many are zoonotic agents. In this report, phenotypic (API Coryne analysis), genetic (rpoB and 16S rRNA gene sequencing), and physical methods (MS) were used to distinguish the closely related diphtheroid species Corynebacterium ulcerans and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, and to definitively diagnose Corynebacterium renale from cephalic implants of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques used in cognitive neuroscience research. Throat and cephalic implant cultures yielded 85 isolates from 43 macaques. Identification by API Coryne yielded C. ulcerans (n = 74), Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (n = 2), C. renale or most closely related to C. renale (n = 3), and commensals and opportunists (n = 6). The two isolates identified as C. pseudotuberculosis by API Coryne required genetic and MS analysis for accurate characterization as C. ulcerans. Of three isolates identified as C. renale by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, only one could be confirmed as such by API Coryne, rpoB gene sequencing and MS. This study emphasizes the importance of adjunct methods in identification of coryneforms and is the first isolation of C. renale from cephalic implants in macaques. PMID:22723254

  20. Alterations in Peripheral Blood B-cell Populations in SHIV89.6P-infected Macaques (Macacca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Kling, Heather M; Shipley, Timothy W; Norris, Karen A

    2011-01-01

    In addition to CD4+ T cell depletion, the B cell compartment of HIV-infected patients exhibits abnormalities, including deficits and diminished responses to ex vivo antigenic stimulation and in vivo vaccination. We used chimeric simian–human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection of cynomolgus macaques to determine the dynamics of peripheral blood B cell alterations in this model of HIV infection. During the course of infection, we observed progressive loss of total and memory (CD27+) B cells, increased percentages of activated (CD95+) B cells, hypergammaglobulinemia, and deficits in the CD21+ B cell population. In addition, we noted declines in subsets of memory B cells, including both IgM+ and class-switched (IgD–IgM– CD27+) cells, with sustained deficits in the IgM+ memory (IgM+CD27+) B cell population. The similarity of the B cell alterations in these studies to those observed in HIV+ subjects supports the utility of the SHIV macaque model for examination of HIV-related B cell dysfunction. PMID:21819698

  1. Granuloma Due to Oxidized Regenerated Cellulose in an Aged Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Lemoy, Marie-Josee MF; Schouten, Angela Colagross; Canfield, Don R

    2016-01-01

    Bioabsorbable hemostatic agents such as oxidized regenerated cellulose are widely used to control intraoperative diffuse capillary bleeding. Compared with electrocautery or ligation, oxidized regenerated cellulose has the advantage of controlling bleeding without occluding the vessel lumen or causing thermal injuries to adjacent tissue. Although the manufacturer recommends removal of the material once hemostasis is achieved, oxidized regenerated cellulose is a bioabsorbable hemostatic agent and is often left in the surgical bed to prevent subsequent bleeding after surgical closure. However, noninvasive imaging techniques have revealed granulomatous foreign-body reactions that mimic infection or tumor recurrence. We present a case report of sterile peritonitis and granuloma formation secondary to the presence of oxidized regenerated cellulose after intestinal resection to excise a colonic adenocarcinoma in an aged rhesus macaque. PMID:26884411

  2. Coping with the cold: predictors of survival in wild Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Richard; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2013-08-23

    We report the death of 30 wild Barbary macaques, living in two groups, during an exceptionally cold and snowy winter in the Middle Atlas Mountains, Morocco. We examined whether an individual's time spent feeding, the quality and number of its social relationships, sex and rank predicted whether it survived the winter or not. The time an individual spent feeding and the number of social relationships that an individual had in the group were positive and significant predictors of survival. This is the first study to show that the degree of sociality affects an individual's chance of survival following extreme environmental conditions. Our findings support the view that sociality is directly related to an individual's fitness, and that factors promoting the establishment and maintenance of social relationships are favoured by natural selection.

  3. Multimodal Advertisement of Pregnancy in Free-Ranging Female Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Rigaill, Lucie; MacIntosh, Andrew J J; Higham, James P; Winters, Sandra; Shimizu, Keiko; Mouri, Keiko; Furuichi, Takeshi; Garcia, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    The role of multiple sexual signals in indicating the timing of female ovulation, and discrimination of this timing by males, has been particularly well studied among primates. However the exhibition of pregnancy signals, and how such signals might modulate male post-conception mating decisions, is still poorly understood. Here we aimed to determine if Japanese macaque males use changes in female sexual signals (behavioral, visual and auditory) to discriminate pregnancy and adjust their socio-sexual behaviors. We combined behavioral observations, digital photography and endocrinological (progestogen and estrogen) data, collected systematically during three one-month periods: the pre-conceptive period, the 1st month of pregnancy and the 2nd month of pregnancy. We analyzed variation in the probability of detecting male and female socio-sexual behaviors and estrus calls, as well as changes in female face color parameters, in relation to female reproductive state. Based on our focal observations, we found that males did not copulate during the pregnancy period, and that female socio-sexual behaviors generally decreased from the pre-conceptive to post-conceptive periods. Female face luminance decreased from the pre-conceptive month to the pregnancy period whereas face color only varied between the 1st and 2nd month of gestation. Our results suggest that Japanese macaque females display sexual cues of pregnancy that males might use to reduce energy wasted on non-reproductive copulations with pregnant females. We hypothesize that females advertize their pregnancy through changes in behavioral, visual and potential auditory signals that males can use to adjust their mating behaviors. We finish by discussing implications for male and female post-conception strategies.

  4. Disability, compensatory behavior, and innovation in free-ranging adult female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Turner, Sarah E; Fedigan, Linda M; Matthews, H Damon; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2012-09-01

    Little is known about consequences of disability in nonhuman primates, yet individuals with disabilities can reveal much about behavioral flexibility, innovation, and the capabilities of a species. The Macaca fuscata population surrounding the Awajishima Monkey Center has experienced high rates of congenital limb malformation for at least 40 years, creating a unique opportunity to examine consequences of physical impairment in situ, in a relatively large sample of free-ranging adult monkeys. Here we present behavioral data on 11 disabled adult females and 12 nondisabled controls from 279 hours of randomly ordered 30-minute focal animal follows collected during May-August in 2005, 2006, and 2007. We quantified numerous statistically significant disability-related behavioral differences among females. Disabled females spent less time begging for peanuts from tourists, and employed a behavioral variant of such peanut begging; they had a lower frequency of hand use in grooming and compensated with increased direct use of the mouth or a two-arm pinch technique; and they had a higher frequency of self-scratching, and more use of feet in self-scratching. Self-scratching against substrates was almost exclusively a disability associated behavior. Two females used habitual bipedalism. These differences not withstanding, disabled females behaved similarly to controls in many respects: overall reliance on provisioned and wild foods, time spent feeding, and feeding efficiency did not differ among females, and there was no time difference in behavior performed arboreally or terrestrially. Disabled adult females were able to compensate behaviorally to perform social and life-sustaining activities, modifying existing behaviors to suit their individual physical situations and, occasionally, inventing new ways of doing things.

  5. Macaque-human interactions and the societal perceptions of macaques in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Sha, John Chih Mun; Gumert, Michael D; Lee, Benjamin P Y-H; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Chan, Sharon; Fuentes, Agustín

    2009-10-01

    Humans and long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) interface in several locations in Singapore. We investigated six of these interface zones to assess the level of conflict between the two species. We observed macaque-to-human interactions and distributed questionnaires to residents and visitors of nature reserves. We observed an average of two macaque-to-human interactions per hour at the sites, which included affiliative or submissive behaviors (46.9%), aggression (19.1%), taking food and other items (18.5%) searching bins, cars, and houses (13.4%), and nonaggressive contact (2.1%). Two-thirds of interactions occurred when a human was carrying food or food cues, and one-quarter occurred when a human provoked macaques. Only 8% of interactions occurred without a clear human-triggered context. Our interview showed one-third of respondents experienced nuisance problems from macaques. They had items taken from them (50.5%) and received threats (31.9%). Residents reported more nuisance problems than visitors, and their perceptions toward macaques differed. Residents were more aware of the consequences of food provisioning and that there were regulations against feeding. Residents fed macaques less and held more negative sentiments toward macaques. Nearly half of the interviewed people held neutral attitudes toward macaques and only 26.2% of respondents thought conflict with macaques warranted urgent action. Nearly two-thirds of the respondents supported education programs to ameliorate human-macaque conflict, and less than 15% supported removing or eradicating macaques. 87.6% felt that it is importance to conserve and protect macaques. Our results show that human-macaque conflict exists in Singapore, but that it may not be severe. Human behavior is largely responsible for macaque-to-human interactions, and thus could be lessened with management of human behavior in interface zones (i.e. restrict food carrying and provocation). Moreover, our interviews shows people

  6. Personality Traits in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Are Heritable but Do Not Predict Reproductive Output

    PubMed Central

    Brent, Lauren J. N.; Semple, Stuart; MacLarnon, Ann; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Platt, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that behavioral tendencies, or “personalities,” in animals are an important aspect of their biology, yet their evolutionary basis is poorly understood. Specifically, how individual variation in personality arises and is subsequently maintained by selection remains unclear. To address this gap, studies of personality require explicit incorporation of genetic information. Here, we explored the genetic basis of personality in rhesus macaques by determining the heritability of personality components and by examining the fitness consequences of those components. We collected observational data for 108 adult females living in three social groups in a free-ranging population via focal animal sampling. We applied principal component analysis to nine spontaneously occurring behaviors and identified six putative personality components, which we named Meek, Bold, Aggressive, Passive, Loner, and Nervous. All components were repeatable and heritable, with heritability estimates ranging from 0.14 to 0.35. We found no evidence of an association with reproductive output, measured either by infant survival or by interbirth interval, for any of the personality components. This finding suggests either that personality does not have fitness-related consequences in this population or that selection has acted to reduce fitness-associated variation in personality. PMID:24659840

  7. Marked variation between winter and spring gut microbiota in free-ranging Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Binghua; Wang, Xi; Bernstein, Sofi; Huffman, Michael A.; Xia, Dong-Po; Gu, Zhiyuan; Chen, Rui; Sheeran, Lori K.; Wagner, R. S; Li, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the availability and distribution of food resources is a strong selective pressure on wild primates. We explored variation in Tibetan macaque gut microbiota composition during winter and spring seasons. Our results showed that gut microbial composition and diversity varied by season. In winter, the genus Succinivibrio, which promotes the digestion of cellulose and hemicellulose, was significantly increased. In spring, the abundance of the genus Prevotella, which is associated with digestion of carbohydrates and simple sugars, was significantly increased. PICRUSt analysis revealed that the predicted metagenomes related to the glycan biosynthesis and metabolic pathway was significantly increased in winter samples, which would aid in the digestion of glycan extracted from cellulose and hemicellulose. The predicted metagenomes related to carbohydrate and energy metabolic pathways were significantly increased in spring samples, which could facilitate a monkey’s recovery from acute energy loss experienced during winter. We propose that shifts in the composition and function of the gut microbiota provide a buffer against seasonal fluctuations in energy and nutrient intake, thus enabling these primates to adapt to variations in food supply and quality. PMID:27180722

  8. Behavioral responses to injury and death in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    PubMed

    Campbell, Liz A D; Tkaczynski, Patrick J; Mouna, Mohamed; Qarro, Mohamed; Waterman, James; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2016-07-01

    The wounding or death of a conspecific has been shown to elicit varied behavioral responses throughout thanatology. Recently, a number of reports have presented contentious evidence of epimeletic behavior towards the dying and dead among non-human animals, a behavioral trait previously considered uniquely human. Here, we report on the behavioral responses of Barbary macaques, a social, non-human primate, to the deaths of four group members (one high-ranking adult female, one high-ranking adult male, one juvenile male, and one female infant), all caused by road traffic accidents. Responses appeared to vary based on the nature of the death (protracted or instant) and the age class of the deceased. Responses included several behaviors with potential adaptive explanations or consequences. These included exploration, caretaking (guarding, carrying, and grooming), and proximity to wounded individuals or corpses, and immediate as well as longer-lasting distress behaviors from other group members following death, all of which have been reported in other non-human primate species. These observations add to a growing body of comparative evolutionary analysis of primate thanatology and help to highlight the multifaceted impacts of human-induced fatalities on an endangered and socially complex primate.

  9. Cerebromalacia with epilepsy and cortical blindness in a laboratory Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Nakao, Kazuko; Habiro, Mayu; Hayashi, Kazuko; Kuwata, Maki; Uehara, Norihisa; Yuri, Takashi; Nakamura, Kae; Tsubura, Airo

    2010-12-01

    The authors performed a pathological examination of a 5-year-old female laboratory Japanese monkey who developed cortical blindness and epileptic seizures. Generalized, tonic-clonic seizures started to occur during behavioral training to get the animal to enter a carrying cage for future psychological experiments. Blindness was suspected because of a lack of approaching behavior toward foods such as fruits. Although the monkey was extensively treated with anticonvulsants, the clinical signs did not improve. An increased serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) level and bilateral occipital brain atrophy were detected. Histopathologically, a severe degree of cerebromalacia was detected bilaterally in the occipital lobe, and necrosis and gliosis were seen mainly in the temporal lobe. Focal inflammation was found in the meninges. No other changes were observed in other nervous tissues or organs, and no signs of a parasitic or viral infection were found in the systemic organs. Spontaneously occurring lesions in the central nervous system have been rarely reported in laboratory monkeys. In the present case, the cause of cerebromalacia could not be confirmed, but the relationship between symptoms such as abnormal vision and the presence of brain lesions was distinct. The authors believe that this case is a valuable historical control case for the laboratory Japanese macaque.

  10. Efficacy of 3 types of foraging enrichment for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Ghirardo, Stephanie; Minier, Darren E; Sharpe, Nicole; Tatum, Lindsay; McCowan, Brenda

    2011-11-01

    Primate facilities provide environmental enrichment to improve animal wellbeing, increase opportunities for expression of species-typical behaviors, and decrease the occurrence of stereotypic behaviors. The current study assessed the efficacy of 3 types of foraging enrichment: puzzle balls, supertubes, and shakers. We assigned 48 rhesus macaques to 3 experimental groups, each of which received (after a 3-wk baseline observation period) 1 of the 3 enrichment devices intermittently for 3 wk. Observations were collected during 10-min sessions by using 1-0 sampling with 15-s intervals (480 h total). Observations were collected at the same 10 specified time points each week during the baseline period and after enrichment. Data were analyzed by using generalized linear mixed-effects modeling under the assumption that the underlying response followed a Poisson distribution. Foraging behavior increased significantly in all 3 groups and remained increased in some groups when enrichment was removed after 43 h. The 3 enrichment devices had different effects on individual expression of stereotypy: supertubes decreased it, shakers increased it, and puzzle balls led to a decrease followed by an increase. We present potential reasons for the changes in stereotypy and postulate a likely balance between the beneficial and negative effects of enrichment in any given environment.

  11. Social regulation of the lymph node transcriptome in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Chun, K; Capitanio, J P; Lamkin, D M; Sloan, E K; Arevalo, J M G; Cole, S W

    2017-02-01

    Previous research has shown that adverse social conditions may promote a conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) involving up-regulation of proinflammatory gene expression and down-regulation of Type I interferon anti-viral genes in circulating blood cells. However, the impact of social conditions on lymphoid tissue gene regulation remains largely unexplored. This project assessed how social instability in adult male rhesus macaques (N=10, 5 in unstable, and 5 in stable social conditions) might regulate gene expression within secondary lymphoid tissue (lymph nodes; LN). Unstable social conditions down-regulated axillary LN expression of genes involved in Type I interferon anti-viral responses. Transcript origin analyses implicated monocytes and B cells as cellular mediators of these effects, and promoter-based bioinformatics analyses indicated reduced activity of AP-1, NF-κB, IRF, and CREB transcription factors within the axillary LN microenvironment. Although the current study is limited in sample size, these results suggest that social influences on immune cell gene regulation extend beyond the circulating leukocyte pool to alter generalized transcriptome profiles in secondary lymphoid tissue, and they do so in a regulatory program that resembles the pattern of antiviral inhibition previously observed in circulating leukocytes.

  12. Personality Traits in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Are Heritable but Do Not Predict Reproductive Output.

    PubMed

    Brent, Lauren J N; Semple, Stuart; Maclarnon, Ann; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Platt, Michael L

    2014-02-01

    There is growing evidence that behavioral tendencies, or "personalities," in animals are an important aspect of their biology, yet their evolutionary basis is poorly understood. Specifically, how individual variation in personality arises and is subsequently maintained by selection remains unclear. To address this gap, studies of personality require explicit incorporation of genetic information. Here, we explored the genetic basis of personality in rhesus macaques by determining the heritability of personality components and by examining the fitness consequences of those components. We collected observational data for 108 adult females living in three social groups in a free-ranging population via focal animal sampling. We applied principal component analysis to nine spontaneously occurring behaviors and identified six putative personality components, which we named Meek, Bold, Aggressive, Passive, Loner, and Nervous. All components were repeatable and heritable, with heritability estimates ranging from 0.14 to 0.35. We found no evidence of an association with reproductive output, measured either by infant survival or by interbirth interval, for any of the personality components. This finding suggests either that personality does not have fitness-related consequences in this population or that selection has acted to reduce fitness-associated variation in personality.

  13. Inhaled oxytocin amplifies both vicarious reinforcement and self reinforcement in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Chang, Steve W C; Barter, Joseph W; Ebitz, R Becket; Watson, Karli K; Platt, Michael L

    2012-01-17

    People attend not only to their own experiences, but also to the experiences of those around them. Such social awareness profoundly influences human behavior by enabling observational learning, as well as by motivating cooperation, charity, empathy, and spite. Oxytocin (OT), a neurosecretory hormone synthesized by hypothalamic neurons in the mammalian brain, can enhance affiliation or boost exclusion in different species in distinct contexts, belying any simple mechanistic neural model. Here we show that inhaled OT penetrates the CNS and subsequently enhances the sensitivity of rhesus macaques to rewards occurring to others as well as themselves. Roughly 2 h after inhaling OT, monkeys increased the frequency of prosocial choices associated with reward to another monkey when the alternative was to reward no one. OT also increased attention to the recipient monkey as well as the time it took to render such a decision. In contrast, within the first 2 h following inhalation, OT increased selfish choices associated with delivery of reward to self over a reward to the other monkey, without affecting attention or decision latency. Despite the differences in species typical social behavior, exogenous, inhaled OT causally promotes social donation behavior in rhesus monkeys, as it does in more egalitarian and monogamous ones, like prairie voles and humans, when there is no perceived cost to self. These findings potentially implicate shared neural mechanisms.

  14. Individual Analyses of Lévy Walk in Semi-Free Ranging Tonkean Macaques (Macaca tonkeana)

    PubMed Central

    Sueur, Cédric; Briard, Léa; Petit, Odile

    2011-01-01

    Animals adapt their movement patterns to their environment in order to maximize their efficiency when searching for food. The Lévy walk and the Brownian walk are two types of random movement found in different species. Studies have shown that these random movements can switch from a Brownian to a Lévy walk according to the size distribution of food patches. However no study to date has analysed how characteristics such as sex, age, dominance or body mass affect the movement patterns of an individual. In this study we used the maximum likelihood method to examine the nature of the distribution of step lengths and waiting times and assessed how these distributions are influenced by the age and the sex of group members in a semi free-ranging group of ten Tonkean macaques. Individuals highly differed in their activity budget and in their movement patterns. We found an effect of age and sex of individuals on the power distribution of their step lengths and of their waiting times. The males and old individuals displayed a higher proportion of longer trajectories than females and young ones. As regards waiting times, females and old individuals displayed higher rates of long stationary periods than males and young individuals. These movement patterns resembling random walks can probably be explained by the animals moving from one location to other known locations. The power distribution of step lengths might be due to a power distribution of food patches in the enclosure while the power distribution of waiting times might be due to the power distribution of the patch sizes. PMID:22046356

  15. Long-term population survey of the Sulawesi black macaques (Macaca nigra) at Tangkoko Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kyes, Randall C; Iskandar, Entang; Onibala, Jane; Paputungan, Umar; Laatung, Sylvia; Huettmann, Falk

    2013-01-01

    The Sulawesi black macaque (Macaca nigra) population at Tangkoko Nature Reserve in North Sulawesi, Indonesia has been the focus of periodic study for over 30 years. The population has shown considerable decline during much of that time. Here we present the results of a long-term population survey of the Tangkoko M. nigra, conducted over the past decade, to provide updated information and on-going assessment of the population. Line-transect sampling was conducted annually from 1999 to 2002 and 2005 to 2011 along the same transect during a 2- to 3-week survey period. Although further decline in the population was observed at the outset of the survey, over the subsequent 12-year period we have seen stability in the population parameters with evidence of modest increases in both group and population density. During the 1999-2002 survey periods, there was a mean group density of 3.6 groups/km(2) and a mean population density of 39.8 individuals/km(2) . During 2005-2011, mean group density increased to 3.8 groups/km(2) and mean population density was 51.4 individuals/km(2) . The 2011 survey data indicated an estimated group density of 4.3 groups/km(2) and a population density of 61.5 individuals/km(2) . Given that our transect was located in the core of the Tangkoko reserve, our density estimates should be limited to that area of the reserve. One explanation for the apparent stabilization of the population may be tied to the increasing and sustained number of training and research programs being conducted at the reserve. This collective effort by local and international groups may be helping to reduce illegal activity in the reserve (i.e., hunting and habitat destruction) and generate greater awareness of this critically endangered species. Without the continued vigilance afforded by the existing research and training programs and the support and involvement of the local people, the M. nigra at the Tangkoko Nature Reserve will likely face further decline.

  16. Validation of a body condition scoring system in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): assessment of body composition by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Summers, Laura; Clingerman, Karen J; Yang, Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is a subjective semiquantitative method of assessing body fat and muscle by palpation of key anatomic features. A previously published BCS system for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) uses a scale comprising both whole and half units, in which the midrange represents optimal body condition (3.0), lower values represent emaciated to lean conditions (1.0 to 2.0), and higher values (4.0 to 5.0) indicate excessive body fat. A valid BCS system is well described, relevant to the species, has agreement within and between raters, and is consistent with objective measures. Here we correlate the subjective BCS assigned during physical exam with percentage body fat as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Adult rhesus monkeys from an indoor-housed breeding colony were evaluated by the veterinary staff and assigned to 1 of 9 BCS score groups to give a minimum of 6 animals in each group. DEXA was used to obtain objective body composition measurements for macaques in each BCS group. Animals in the 'optimal' BCS group (3.0) had 25% body fat on average. Each full unit change in BCS was associated with an approximate 10% change in body fat percentage for macaques in the 2.0-to-5.0 BCS range. Absolute body fat in animals with BCS of 1.0 or 1.5 may be too low for accurate assessment by DEXA.

  17. Personality structure in brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella): comparisons with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Morton, F Blake; Lee, Phyllis C; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Brosnan, Sarah F; Thierry, Bernard; Paukner, Annika; de Waal, Frans B M; Widness, Jane; Essler, Jennifer L; Weiss, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    Species comparisons of personality structure (i.e., how many personality dimensions and the characteristics of those dimensions) can facilitate questions about the adaptive function of personality in nonhuman primates. Here we investigate personality structure in the brown capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella), a New World primate species, and compare this structure to those of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Brown capuchins evolved behavioral and cognitive traits that are qualitatively similar to those of great apes, and individual differences in behavior and cognition often reflect differences in personality. Thus, we hypothesized that brown capuchin personality structure would overlap more with great apes than with rhesus macaques. We obtained personality ratings from seven sites, including 127 brown capuchin monkeys. Principal-components analysis identified five personality dimensions (Assertiveness, Openness, Neuroticism, Sociability, and Attentiveness), which were reliable across raters and, in a subset of subjects, significantly correlated with relevant behaviors up to a year later. Comparisons between species revealed that brown capuchins and great apes overlapped in personality structure, particularly chimpanzees in the case of Neuroticism. However, in some respects (i.e., capuchin Sociability and Openness) the similarities between capuchins and great apes were not significantly greater than those between capuchins and rhesus macaques. We discuss the relevance of our results to brown capuchin behavior and the evolution of personality structure in primates.

  18. Color vision test for dichromatic and trichromatic macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Koida, Kowa; Yokoi, Isao; Okazawa, Gouki; Mikami, Akichika; Widayati, Kanthi Arum; Miyachi, Shigehiro; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2013-11-01

    Dichromacy is a color vision defect in which one of the three cone photoreceptors is absent. Individuals with dichromacy are called dichromats (or sometimes "color-blind"), and their color discrimination performance has contributed significantly to our understanding of color vision. Macaque monkeys, which normally have trichromatic color vision that is nearly identical to humans, have been used extensively in neurophysiological studies of color vision. In the present study we employed two tests, a pseudoisochromatic color discrimination test and a monochromatic light detection test, to compare the color vision of genetically identified dichromatic macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with that of normal trichromatic macaques. In the color discrimination test, dichromats could not discriminate colors along the protanopic confusion line, though trichromats could. In the light detection test, the relative thresholds for longer wavelength light were higher in the dichromats than the trichromats, indicating dichromats to be less sensitive to longer wavelength light. Because the dichromatic macaque is very rare, the present study provides valuable new information on the color vision behavior of dichromatic macaques, which may be a useful animal model of human dichromacy. The behavioral tests used in the present study have been previously used to characterize the color behaviors of trichromatic as well as dichromatic new world monkeys. The present results show that comparative studies of color vision employing similar tests may be feasible to examine the difference in color behaviors between trichromatic and dichromatic individuals, although the genetic mechanisms of trichromacy/dichromacy is quite different between new world monkeys and macaques.

  19. Novel cynomolgus macaque MHC-DPB1 polymorphisms in three South-East Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Sano, K; Shiina, T; Kohara, S; Yanagiya, K; Hosomichi, K; Shimizu, S; Anzai, T; Watanabe, A; Ogasawara, K; Torii, R; Kulski, J K; Inoko, H

    2006-04-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Mafa), alias the crab-eating monkeys or long-tailed macaques, live across a vast range of South-East Asia. These non-human primates have emerged as important animal models in infectious and chronic diseases and transplantation studies, necessitating a more extensive characterization of their major histocompatibility complex polymorphic regions. The current information on the polymorphic variation or diversity of the Mafa-DPB1 locus is largely limited in comparison with the more commonly studied rhesus macaque DPB1 locus. In this article, to better elucidate the degree and types of polymorphisms and genetic differences of Mafa-DPB1 locus among three South-East Asian populations and to investigate how the allele differences between macaques and humans might affect their respective immune responses, we identified 40 alleles within exon 2 of the Mafa-DPB1 locus by DNA sequencing using 217 individuals. We also performed evolutionary and population analyses using these sequences to reveal some population-specific alleles and trans-species allelic conservation between the cynomolgus macaques and the rhesus macaques. Of the 40 new alleles, eight belong to a newly identified lineage group not previously found in the rhesus macaque species. This allele information will be useful for medical researchers using the cynomolgus macaques in disease and immunological studies.

  20. Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba in wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) living in urban and semi-rural North-West India.

    PubMed

    Debenham, John J; Tysnes, Kristoffer; Khunger, Sandhya; Robertson, Lucy J

    2017-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. are intestinal protozoa capable of infecting a range of host species, and are important causes of human morbidity and mortality. Understanding their epidemiology is important, both for public health and for the health of the animals they infect. This study investigated the occurrence of these protozoans in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in India, with the aim of providing preliminary information on the potential for transmission of these pathogens between macaques and humans. Faecal samples (n = 170) were collected from rhesus macaques from four districts of North-West India. Samples were analysed for Giardia/Cryptosporidium using a commercially available direct immunofluorescent antibody test after purification via immunomagnetic separation. Positive samples were characterised by sequencing of PCR products. Occurrence of Entamoeba was investigated first by using a genus-specific PCR, and positive samples further investigated via species-specific PCRs for Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. Giardia cysts were found in 31% of macaque samples, with all isolates belonging to Assemblage B. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 1 sample, however this sample did not result in amplification by PCR. Entamoeba spp. were found in 79% of samples, 49% of which were positive for E. coli. Multiplex PCR for E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, did not result in amplification in any of the samples. Thus in 51% of the samples positive at the genus specific PCR, the Entamoeba species was not identified. This study provides baseline information on the potential for transmission of these zoonotic parasites at the wildlife-human interface.

  1. Longitudinal analysis reveals characteristically high proportions of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Lei, Ai-Hua; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Lyu, Long-Bao; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2015-09-18

    The complex and dynamic vaginal microbial ecosystem is critical to both health and disease of the host. Studies focusing on how vaginal microbiota influences HIV-1 infection may face limitations in selecting proper animal models. Given that northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, they may be an optimal animal model for elucidating the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota contributes to resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. However, little is known about the composition and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota of the northern pig-tailed macaque. Here, we present a comprehensive catalog of the composition and temporal dynamics of vaginal microbiota of two healthy northern pig-tailed macaques over 19 weeks using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. We found remarkably high proportions of a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. Atopobium and Sneathia were dominant genera, and interestingly, we demonstrated the presence of Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota. Moreover, longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota were considerably individualized. Finally, network analysis revealed that vaginal pH may influence the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota, suggesting that inter-subject variability of vaginal bacterial communities could be mirrored in inter-subject variation in correlation profiles of species with each other and with vaginal pH over time. Our results suggest that the northern pig-tailed macaque could be an ideal animal model for prospective investigation of the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota influence susceptibility and resistance to HIV-1 infection in the context of highly polymicrobial and Lactobacillus-dominated states.

  2. Persistent Effects of Peer Rearing on Abnormal and Species-Appropriate Activities but Not Social Behavior in Group-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Sharon A; Baker, Kate C

    2016-01-01

    Nursery rearing of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) alters behaviors but may be necessitated by maternal rejection or death, for research protocols, or for derivation of SPF colonies. The Tulane National Primate Research Center maintains a nursery-reared colony that is free from 9 pathogens as well as a mother-reared colony free from 4 pathogens, thus affording an opportunity to assess the outcomes of differential rearing. Nursery-reared macaques had continuous contact with 2 peers and an artificial surrogate (peer rearing). Focal sampling (432 h) was collected on the behavior of 32 peer-reared and 40 mother-reared subjects (age, 1 to 10 y; immature group, younger than 4 y; adult group 4 y or older). All animals were housed outdoors in like-reared social groups of 3 to 8 macaques. Contrary to expectation, no rearing effects on affiliative or agonistic social behaviors were detected. Compared with mother-reared subjects, peer-reared macaques in both age classes had elevated levels of abnormal appetitive, abnormal self-directed, and eating behaviors and lower levels of locomoting and vigilance (highly alert to activities in surrounding environment); a trend toward reduced foraging was detected. Immature but not adult peer-reared monkeys demonstrated more enrichment-directed behavior and drinking and a trend toward more anxiety-related behavior and inactivity. No new rearing effects were detected in adults that had not been detected in immature subjects. Results suggest that modern peer-rearing practices may not result in inevitable perturbations in aggressive, rank-related, sexual, and emotional behavior. However, abnormal behaviors may be lifelong issues once they appear. PMID:27053567

  3. Longitudinal analysis reveals characteristically high proportions of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina)

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, Lin; LEI, Ai-Hua; ZHENG, Hong-Yi; LYU, Long-Bao; ZHANG, Zhi-Gang; ZHENG, Yong-Tang

    2015-01-01

    The complex and dynamic vaginal microbial ecosystem is critical to both health and disease of the host. Studies focusing on how vaginal microbiota influences HIV-1 infection may face limitations in selecting proper animal models. Given that northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, they may be an optimal animal model for elucidating the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota contributes to resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. However, little is known about the composition and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota of the northern pig-tailed macaque. Here, we present a comprehensive catalog of the composition and temporal dynamics of vaginal microbiota of two healthy northern pig-tailed macaques over 19 weeks using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. We found remarkably high proportions of a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. Atopobium and Sneathia were dominant genera, and interestingly, we demonstrated the presence of Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota. Moreover, longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota were considerably individualized. Finally, network analysis revealed that vaginal pH may influence the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota, suggesting that inter-subject variability of vaginal bacterial communities could be mirrored in inter-subject variation in correlation profiles of species with each other and with vaginal pH over time. Our results suggest that the northern pig-tailed macaque could be an ideal animal model for prospective investigation of the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota influence susceptibility and resistance to HIV-1 infection in the context of highly polymicrobial and Lactobacillus-dominated states. PMID:26452693

  4. Emergence of infectious malignant thrombocytopenia in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) by SRV-4 after transmission to a novel host

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Munehiro; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Morikawa, Shigeru; Ono, Fumiko; Nakamura, Shota; Sato, Eiji; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Sakai, Kouji; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Nagata, Noriyo; Takano, Jun-ichiro; Okabayashi, Sachi; Hamano, Masataka; Fujimoto, Koji; Nakaya, Takaaki; Iida, Tetsuya; Horii, Toshihiro; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Watanabe, Akino; Kaneko, Akihisa; Saito, Akatsuki; Matsui, Atsushi; Hayakawa, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Juri; Akari, Hirofumi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2015-01-01

    We discovered a lethal hemorrhagic syndrome arising from severe thrombocytopenia in Japanese macaques kept at the Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University. Extensive investigation identified that simian retrovirus type 4 (SRV-4) was the causative agent of the disease. SRV-4 had previously been isolated only from cynomolgus macaques in which it is usually asymptomatic. We consider that the SRV-4 crossed the so-called species barrier between cynomolgus and Japanese macaques, leading to extremely severe acute symptoms in the latter. Infectious agents that cross the species barrier occasionally amplify in virulence, which is not observed in the original hosts. In such cases, the new hosts are usually distantly related to the original hosts. However, Japanese macaques are closely related to cynomolgus macaques, and can even hybridize when given the opportunity. This lethal outbreak of a novel pathogen in Japanese macaques highlights the need to modify our expectations about virulence with regards crossing species barriers. PMID:25743183

  5. Testing for localized stimulus enhancement and object movement reenactment in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and young children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, Marco M; Custance, Deborah M; Previde, Emanuela Prato; Spiezio, Caterina

    2005-08-01

    Four puzzle boxes were used to investigate localized stimulus enhancement and object movement reenactment (OMR) in 13 pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and 30 human infants (Homo sapiens). Participants received contrasting demonstrations on each box. A circular lid was gripped by its rim or handle and swiveled to the left or right. A flap door was pushed or flipped. A sliding lid was pushed to the left or right. A pin bolt was demonstrated being pushed down, or the participants were left to solve the puzzle for themselves. Despite the fact that the monkeys watched the demonstrations about 60% of the time, only a weak OMR effect was found on the sliding lid. In contrast, the children watched significantly more, and there was clear evidence of socially mediated learning on all of the boxes.

  6. Automated recording of individual performance and hand preference during joystick-task acquisition in group-living bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata).

    PubMed

    Andrews, M W; Rosenblum, L A

    1994-12-01

    A microchip that provided a unique identification number was injected into each forearm of all 8 members of a bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata) social group. The group was then given computer-controlled joystick tasks of increasing difficulty. The identification number of the arm used on each trial was input into the computer and used to determine individual performance and hand preference in more than 23,000 trials. Three subjects reversed hand preference as task difficulty was increased over time. All subjects exhibited nearly exclusive use of a single hand on the most difficult task; 6 used the right hand, and 2 used the left. Daily patterns of joystick activity for the group members differed somewhat from that of our individually housed monkeys.

  7. Growth pattern of the maxillary sinus in the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata): reflections on the structural role of the paranasal sinuses

    PubMed Central

    KOPPE, THOMAS; NAGAI, HIROSHI

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the claim that the primate paranasal sinuses possess not a functional but a structural role associated with the skull architecture (Blaney, 1990), the relationship between the maxillary sinus and the skull architecture was studied ontogenetically in 30 skulls of male and female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Coronal CT scan series and computerised 3-dimensional images served to evaluate the maxillary sinus. The definitive hemispherical shape of the sinus was already achieved after the completion of the primary dentition. Sinus volume increased with a trend indicating positive allometry. When compared with an ontogenetic data set of orang-utan (Koppe et al. 1995), however, the growth rate of the maxillary sinus of M. fuscata was significantly less. The maxillary sinus both of male and female macaques enlarged according to a common growth pattern. However, no sexual dimorphism could be established for the maxillary sinus size. Although the volume of the right maxillary sinus was normally bigger than that of the left side, the results suggested that asymmetry in maxillary sinus volume is related neither to skull size nor sex. Whereas a correlation analysis showed close relationships between the maxillary sinus volume and external cranial dimensions, the partial correlation coefficients revealed that these relationships were highly influenced by skull size. Although it cannot be ruled out that the paranasal sinuses are to some extent linked to the skull architecture, this study does not support a solely structural role for these air cavities. PMID:9183677

  8. Refining the pole-and-collar method of restraint: emphasizing the use of positive training techniques with rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    McMillan, Jennifer L; Perlman, Jaine E; Galvan, Adriana; Wichmann, Thomas; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2014-01-01

    The pole-and-collar method is one of several techniques that enable the safe transfer of a nonhuman primate from its home environment into a restraint chair without the need for sedation. It has been used within the scientific community for decades. Traditional methods to train animals for pole-and-collar use rely primarily on aspects of negative reinforcement, with very little incorporation of positive-reinforcement techniques. With increasing emphasis on animal training and welfare, research facilities are incorporating positive-reinforcement training into husbandry and experimental procedures. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of training rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 8) to cooperate for pole-and-collar transfer to a primate restraint chair. By using predominantly positive-reinforcement techniques, with supplemental elements of negative reinforcement, macaques were trained in a mean of 85 training sessions (a mean of 1085 min of training time). We also provide tools for investigators using the pole-and-collar method to help them successfully incorporate positive-reinforcement training into their procedures. This refinement has the potential to improve animal welfare and enhance the value of nonhuman primate models in research.

  9. Maintaining social cohesion is a more important determinant of patch residence time than maximizing food intake rate in a group-living primate, Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Kazahari, Nobuko

    2014-04-01

    Animals have been assumed to employ an optimal foraging strategy (e.g., rate-maximizing strategy). In patchy food environments, intake rate within patches is positively correlated with patch quality, and declines as patches are depleted through consumption. This causes patch-leaving and determines patch residence time. In group-foraging situations, patch residence times are also affected by patch sharing. Optimal patch models for groups predict that patch residence times decrease as the number of co-feeding animals increases because of accelerated patch depletion. However, group members often depart patches without patch depletion, and their patch residence time deviates from patch models. It has been pointed out that patch residence time is also influenced by maintaining social proximity with others among group-living animals. In this study, the effects of maintaining social cohesion and that of rate-maximizing strategy on patch residence time were examined in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). I hypothesized that foragers give up patches to remain in the proximity of their troop members. On the other hand, foragers may stay for a relatively long period when they do not have to abandon patches to follow the troop. In this study, intake rate and foraging effort (i.e., movement) did not change during patch residency. Macaques maintained their intake rate with only a little foraging effort. Therefore, the patches were assumed to be undepleted during patch residency. Further, patch residence time was affected by patch-leaving to maintain social proximity, but not by the intake rate. Macaques tended to stay in patches for short periods when they needed to give up patches for social proximity, and remained for long periods when they did not need to leave to keep social proximity. Patch-leaving and patch residence time that prioritize the maintenance of social cohesion may be a behavioral pattern in group-living primates.

  10. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the California National Primate Research Center (1992–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Reader, J Rachel; Canfield, Don R; Lane, Jennifer F; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Ardeshir, Amir; Allen, A Mark; Tarara, Ross P

    2016-01-01

    Necropsy records and associated clinical histories from the rhesus macaque colony at the California National Primate Research Center were reviewed to identify mortality related to cardiac abnormalities involving left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Over a 21-y period, 162 cases (female, 90; male, 72) of idiopathic LVH were identified. Macaques presented to necropsy with prominent concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle associated with striking reduction of the ventricular lumen. Among all LVH cases, 74 macaques (female, 39; male, 35), mostly young adults, presented for spontaneous (sudden) death; more than 50% of these 74 cases were associated with a recent history of sedation or intraspecific aggression. The risk of sudden death in the 6- to 9-y-old age group was significantly higher in male macaques. Subtle histologic cardiac lesions included karyomegaly and increased cardiac myocyte diameter. Pedigree analyses based on rhesus macaque LVH probands suggested a strong genetic predisposition for the condition. In humans, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is defined by the presence of unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy, associated with diverse clinical outcomes ranging from asymptomatic disease to sudden death. Although the overall risk of disease complications such as sudden death, end-stage heart failure, and stroke is low (1% to 2%) in patients with HCM, the absolute risk can vary dramatically. Prima facie comparison of HCM and LVH suggest that further study may allow the development of spontaneously occurring LVH in rhesus macaques as a useful model of HCM, to better understand the pathogenesis of this remarkably heterogeneous disease. PMID:27053572

  11. Park Rangers’ Behaviors and Their Effects on Tourists and Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Rie; Sheeran, Lori K.; Li, Jin-hua; Sun, Lixing; Wang, Xi; Pritchard, Alexander J.; DuVall-Lash, Alexander S.; Wagner, R. Steve

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Conflict between macaques and humans is a commonly reported problem in Asian tourism. However, without understanding how macaques are managed, the establishment of an effective management design is impracticable. This study explored how monkeys were managed and tourists were regulated at the Valley of the Wild Monkeys in Mt. Huangshan, Anhui Province, China, through a field observation. Two teams of park rangers alternated monthly and managed a group of macaques. The results suggested that undesired tourists’ interactions with monkeys were not regularly intervened by park rangers, and park rangers established dominance over the monkeys by using physical threats to manage them. Abstract Previous studies have reported the negative impacts of tourism on nonhuman primates (NHPs) and tourists and advocated the improvement of tourism management, yet what constitutes good quality management remains unclear. We explored whether rates of macaque aggression and self-directed behaviors (SDBs) differed under the supervision of two park ranger teams at the Valley of the Wild Monkeys (VWM) in Mt. Huangshan, Anhui Province, China. The two ranger teams provisioned and managed a group of macaques on an alternating monthly basis. Monkey, tourist and ranger behaviors were collected from August 16–September 30, 2012. Macaque aggression and SDB rates did not differ significantly under the management of the two teams. Overall, there was little intervention in tourist-macaque interactions by park rangers, and even when rangers discouraged tourists’ undesirable behaviors, tourist interactions with monkeys persisted. Furthermore, only one or sometimes two park rangers managed monkeys and tourists, and rangers established dominance over the monkeys to control them. In order to effectively manage tourists and monkeys by a single park ranger, we recommend that rangers: (1) prohibit tourists from feeding; (2) move around the viewing platform more frequently; and (3) limit

  12. Human behavior and opportunities for parasite transmission in communities surrounding long-tailed macaque populations in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lane-DeGraaf, Kelly E; Putra, I G A Arta; Wandia, I Nengah; Rompis, Aida; Hollocher, Hope; Fuentes, Agustin

    2014-02-01

    Spatial overlap and shared resources between humans and wildlife can exacerbate parasite transmission dynamics. In Bali, Indonesia, an agricultural-religious temple system provides sanctuaries for long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), concentrating them in areas in close proximity to humans. In this study, we interviewed individuals in communities surrounding 13 macaque populations about their willingness to participate in behaviors that would put them at risk of exposure to gastrointestinal parasites to understand if age, education level, or occupation are significant determinants of exposure behaviors. These exposure risk behaviors and attitudes include fear of macaques, direct contact with macaques, owning pet macaques, hunting and eating macaques, and overlapping water uses. We find that willingness to participate in exposure risk behaviors are correlated with an individual's occupation, age, and/or education level. We also found that because the actual risk of infection varies across populations, activities such as direct macaque contact and pet ownership, could be putting individuals at real risk in certain contexts. Thus, we show that human demographics and social structure can influence willingness to participate in behaviors putting them at increased risk for exposure to parasites.

  13. Differences in compact bone tissue microscopic structure between adult humans (Homo sapiens) and Assam macaques (Macaca assamensis).

    PubMed

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Phatsara, Manussabhorn; Settakorn, Jongkolnee; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the osteon structure of adult humans and Assam macaques, which served as a nonhuman primate model, to find an adequate key for species identification. Samples of compact bone from humans (n=5) and Assam macaques (n=5) - including humerus (n=20), radius (n=20), ulna (n=20), femur (n=20), tibia (n=20) and fibula (n=20) - were processed using conventional histological techniques. 100 secondary osteons from each sample were evaluated under light microscopy. Parameter measurements included: diameter, perimeter and area of Haversian canal and osteon; distance between centers of Haversian canals; and ratio between diameter of Haversian canal and osteon. Four parameters, including diameters and areas of Haversian canal and osteon, demonstrated significantly higher (P<0.05) values in humans than in Assam macaques. Therefore, compact bone microstructure could thus be used as a potential tool to differentiate human and nonhuman primates.

  14. Food resources, distribution and seasonal variations in ranging in lion-tailed macaques, Macaca silenus in the Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Erinjery, Joseph J; Kavana, T S; Singh, Mewa

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and availability of food was examined to see how it influenced ranging patterns and sleeping site selection in a group of lion-tailed macaques. The home range and core area were 130.48 ha (95% kernel) and 26.68 ha (50% kernel) respectively. The lion-tailed macaques had a longer day range, had a greater number of sleeping sites and used more core areas in the summer as compared to the monsoon and the post-monsoon seasons. The ranging patterns and sleeping site use were influenced by the major food resources used in a particular season. The ranging was mainly influenced by Artocarpus heterophyllus in monsoon, Cullenia exarillata and Toona ciliata in post- monsoon, and Artocarpus heterophyllus and Ficus amplissima in summer. The distribution of these four plant species is, therefore, critical to ranging, and thus to conservation of the lion-tailed macaque.

  15. Use of Femoral Head and Neck Ostectomy and Physical Therapy to Manage Osteoarthritis in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Uchihashi, Mayu; Hampel, Joseph A; Nemzek, Jean A; Saccone, Phillip A; Eaton, Kathryn A; Nowland, Megan H

    2015-06-01

    Osteoarthritis is associated with pain and immobility in both humans and animals. However, available resources for osteoarthritis management in captive NHP are limited. This case report describes a novel management strategy for a 10-y-old male macaque with unilateral hindlimb lameness, prominent muscle wasting, and severely limited range of motion. Radiographs of the affected limb showed lytic lesions of the femoral head. To relieve pain and improve mobility, femoral head and neck ostectomy (FHO) was performed, and multiple pharmacotherapies were initiated. The macaque also received a unique method of physical therapy that required no sedation, acted as enrichment, and was implemented by using a conventional caging system. The response to therapy was monitored by measuring thigh circumference in the operated and nonoperated limbs, which demonstrated improvement in both legs. The unique physical therapy in conjunction with surgery and pharmacotherapy benefited the macaque with osteoarthritis by reducing discomfort and improving mobility.

  16. Accuracy of Human and Veterinary Point-of-Care Glucometers for Use in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta), Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Stovall, Melissa I; Owens, Devon C; Scott, Jessica A; Jones-Wilkes, Amelia C; Kempf, Doty J; Ethun, Kelly F

    2016-01-01

    Handheld, point-of-care glucometers are commonly used in NHP for clinical and research purposes, but whether these devices are appropriate for use in NHP is unknown. Other animal studies indicate that glucometers should be species-specific, given differences in glucose distribution between RBC and plasma; in addition, Hct and sampling site (venous compared with capillary) influence glucometer readings. Therefore, we compared the accuracy of 2 human and 2 veterinary glucometers at various Hct ranges in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with that of standard laboratory glucose analysis. Subsequent analyses assessed the effect of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and sampling site on glucometer accuracy. The veterinary glucometers overestimated blood glucose (BG) values in all species by 26 to 75 mg/dL. The mean difference between the human glucometers and the laboratory analyzer was 7 mg/dL or less in all species. The human glucometers overestimated BG in hypoglycemic mangabeys by 4 mg/dL and underestimated BG in hyperglycemic mangabeys by 11 mg/dL; similar patterns occurred in rhesus macaques. Hct did not affect glucometer accuracy, but all samples were within the range at which glucometers generally are accurate in humans. BG values were significantly lower in venous than capillary samples. The current findings show that veterinary glucometers intended for companion-animal species are inappropriate for use in the studied NHP species, whereas the human glucometers showed clinically acceptable accuracy in all 3 species. Finally, potential differences between venous and capillary BG values should be considered when comparing and evaluating results. PMID:27177571

  17. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat.

  18. Effects of maternal and infant characteristics on birth weight and gestation length in a colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Hopper, Kelly J; Capozzi, Denise K; Newsome, Joseph T

    2008-12-01

    A retrospective study using maternal and birth statistics from an open, captive rhesus macaque colony was done to determine the effects of parity, exposure to simian retrovirus (SRV), housing, maternal parity, and maternal birth weight on infant birth weight, viability and gestation length. Retrospective colony statistics for a 23-y period indicated that birth weight, but not gestation length, differed between genders. Adjusted mean birth weights were higher in nonviable infants. Mothers positive for SRV had shorter gestations, but SRV exposure did not affect neonatal birth weights or viability. Infants born in cages had longer gestations than did those born in pens, but neither birth weight nor viability differed between these groups. Maternal birth weight did not correlate with infant birth weight but positively correlated with gestation length. Parity was correlated with birth weight and decreased viability. Increased parity of the mother was associated with higher birth weight of the infant. A transgenerational trend toward increasing birth weight was noted. The birth statistics of this colony were consistent with those of other macaque colonies. Unlike findings for humans, maternal birth weight had little predictive value for infant outcomes in rhesus macaques. Nonviable rhesus infants had higher birth weights, unlike their human counterparts, perhaps due to gestational diabetes occurring in a sedentary caged population. Similar to the situation for humans, multiparity had a protective effect on infant viability in rhesus macaques.

  19. Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Diabetic Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Treated with Medroxyprogesterone Acetate for Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Meghan A; Trentalange, Mark; Zeiss, Caroline J

    2016-01-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a common medical treatment for endometriosis in NHP. Because DMPA reportedly impairs glucoregulatory function in humans and rhesus macaques, as well as predisposes humans to diabetes mellitus (DM), we performed a retrospective study to further investigate its potential long-term clinical effects in animals with and without DM. Using a cohort of 29 rhesus macaques, we explored the hypotheses that DMPA treatment accelerates the onset of DM and that its use in rhesus macaques with endometriosis worsens clinical outcome measures (lifespan, body weight and body condition score). For both body weight and body condition score, a declining and statistically significant trend in mean values was evident as macaques developed either DM, or endometriosis or both. The addition of DMPA did not significantly alter this pattern. The presence of DM, endometriosis, or DMPA treatment statistically but not clinically significantly increased risk of death. Similarly, the presence of the 2 highly correlated variables endometriosis and DMPA treatment statistically but not clinically significantly increased the risk of incident DM. These results indicate that DMPA treatment was associated with worsening trends in lifespan and incident DM, however these trends did not achieve clinical significance in this cohort. PMID:27538865

  20. Use of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography–Computed Tomography to Aid in Diagnosing Intestinal Adenocarcinoma in 2 Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Caporizzo, Debra J; Kwiatkowski, Anna E; Chen, Ming-Kai; Beck, Amanda P; Booth, Carmen J; Zeiss, Caroline; Smith, Peter C; Scholz, Jodi A Carlson; Wilson, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    Two aged female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) presented with weight loss and intermittent inappetence. The signalment and constellation of clinical signs led clinicians to suspect the presence of intestinal adenocarcinoma. Because of each animal's advanced age and inconclusive radiographic findings, a noninvasive diagnostic tool was preferred over exploratory laparotomy to assist in determining a diagnosis. Consequently, 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography–CT (FDG-PET–CT) was chosen to aid in confirming a suspicion of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma in both animals. FDG is a glucose analogue labeled with fluorine-18 and is taken up by highly metabolically active cells, as observed in many cancers. Tomography revealed an annular constriction of the small intestine with focal FDG uptake in one animal, and an FDG avid transmural mass in the ascending colon of the second animal. Necropsy later confirmed both sites to be adenocarcinomas. This report supports the use of FDG-PET–CT as an adjunct to conventional radiography in the diagnosis of intestinal adenocarcinoma in nonhuman primates. PMID:24956213

  1. Use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography to aid in diagnosing intestinal adenocarcinoma in 2 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Caporizzo, Debra J; Kwiatkowski, Anna E; Chen, Ming-Kai; Beck, Amanda P; Booth, Carmen J; Zeiss, Caroline; Smith, Peter C; Carlson Scholz, Jodi A; Wilson, Steven R

    2014-06-01

    Two aged female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) presented with weight loss and intermittent inappetence. The signalment and constellation of clinical signs led clinicians to suspect the presence of intestinal adenocarcinoma. Because of each animal's advanced age and inconclusive radiographic findings, a noninvasive diagnostic tool was preferred over exploratory laparotomy to assist in determining a diagnosis. Consequently, 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-CT (FDG-PET-CT) was chosen to aid in confirming a suspicion of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma in both animals. FDG is a glucose analogue labeled with fluorine-18 and is taken up by highly metabolically active cells, as observed in many cancers. Tomography revealed an annular constriction of the small intestine with focal FDG uptake in one animal, and an FDG avid transmural mass in the ascending colon of the second animal. Necropsy later confirmed both sites to be adenocarcinomas. This report supports the use of FDG-PET-CT as an adjunct to conventional radiography in the diagnosis of intestinal adenocarcinoma in nonhuman primates.

  2. The development of an instrument to measure global dimensions of maternal care in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    McCormack, K; Howell, B R; Guzman, D; Villongco, C; Pears, K; Kim, H; Gunnar, M R; Sanchez, M M

    2015-01-01

    One of the strongest predictors of healthy child development is the quality of maternal care. Although many measures of observation and self-report exist in humans to assess global aspects of maternal care, such qualitative measures are lacking in nonhuman primates. In this study, we developed an instrument to measure global aspects of maternal care in rhesus monkeys, with the goal of complementing the individual behavioral data collected using a well-established rhesus macaque ethogram during the first months postpartum. The 22 items of the instrument were adapted from human maternal sensitivity assessments and a maternal Q-sort instrument already published for macaques. The 22 items formed four dimensions with high levels of internal reliability that represented major constructs of maternal care: (1) Sensitivity/Responsivity, (2) Protectiveness, (3) Permissiveness, and (4) Irritability. These dimensions yielded high construct validity when correlated with mother-infant frequency and duration behavior that was collected from focal observations across the first 3 postnatal months. In addition, comparisons of two groups of mothers (Maltreating vs. Competent mothers) showed significant differences across the dimensions suggesting that this instrument has strong concurrent validity, even after controlling for focal observation variables that have been previously shown to significantly differentiate these groups. Our findings suggest that this Instrument of Macaque Maternal Care has the potential to capture global aspects of the mother-infant relationship that complement individual behaviors collected through focal observations.

  3. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with self-injurious behavior show less behavioral anxiety during the human intruder test.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Emily J; Worlein, Julie M; Lee, Grace H; Dettmer, Amanda M; Varner, Elana K; Novak, Melinda A

    2017-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) has been linked to anxiety in the human literature, but relatively few studies have explored this link in rhesus macaques. A widely used behavioral assessment of anxiety, the human intruder test (HIT), employs the mildly stressful stimulus of an unfamiliar experimenter to assess anxious behavior in macaques. The HIT was conducted on 59 (20 male) laboratory housed rhesus macaques, 30 with a record of SIB (10 male). If monkeys with SIB have a more anxious phenotype, they should show stronger reactions to the HIT. However, contrary to our predictions, monkeys with SIB did not show higher levels of anxious behavior compared to controls. They spent significantly less time showing anxious behavior and displayed little aggression in response to the stare of the intruder. SIB and control monkeys did not differ in a range score (number of unique behaviors expressed per phase); however, SIB monkeys had a lower change score (total number of behaviors expressed including repetitions) than controls. In general, monkeys that paced regardless of SIB status, showed a reduction in pacing when the intruder entered the room. Possible explanations for the failure of SIB monkeys to show increased anxiety in the HIT include greater exposure of SIB monkeys to unfamiliar humans because of their condition, evidence for a subtype of SIB which is not anxiety related, and/or the presence of comorbid depressive-like symptoms. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22569, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Macaque–Human Interactions and the Societal Perceptions of Macaques in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    SHA, JOHN CHIH MUN; GUMERT, MICHAEL D.; LEE, BENJAMIN P. Y-H.; JONES-ENGEL, LISA; CHAN, SHARON; FUENTES, AGUSTÍN

    2015-01-01

    Humans and long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) interface in several locations in Singapore. We investigated six of these interface zones to assess the level of conflict between the two species. We observed macaque-to-human interactions and distributed questionnaires to residents and visitors of nature reserves. We observed an average of two macaque-to-human interactions per hour at the sites, which included affiliative or submissive behaviors (46.9%), aggression (19.1%), taking food and other items (18.5%) searching bins, cars, and houses (13.4%), and nonaggressive contact (2.1%). Two-thirds of interactions occurred when a human was carrying food or food cues, and one-quarter occurred when a human provoked macaques. Only 8% of interactions occurred without a clear human-triggered context. Our interview showed one-third of respondents experienced nuisance problems from macaques. They had items taken from them (50.5%) and received threats (31.9%). Residents reported more nuisance problems than visitors, and their perceptions toward macaques differed. Residents were more aware of the consequences of food provisioning and that there were regulations against feeding. Residents fed macaques less and held more negative sentiments toward macaques. Nearly half of the interviewed people held neutral attitudes toward macaques and only 26.2% of respondents thought conflict with macaques warranted urgent action. Nearly two-thirds of the respondents supported education programs to ameliorate human–macaque conflict, and less than 15% supported removing or eradicating macaques. 87.6% felt that it is importance to conserve and protect macaques. Our results show that human–macaque conflict exists in Singapore, but that it may not be severe. Human behavior is largely responsible for macaque-to-human interactions, and thus could be lessened with management of human behavior in interface zones (i.e. restrict food carrying and provocation). Moreover, our interviews shows

  5. Possible shift in macaque trophic level following a century of biodiversity loss in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Luke

    2011-07-01

    Biodiversity loss in tropical forests is a major problem in conservation biology, and nowhere is this more dire than in Southeast Asia. Deforestation and the associated loss of species may trigger shifts in habitat and feeding preferences of persisting species. In this study, I compared the habitat use and diet of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) populations in Singapore from two time periods: museum specimens originally collected between 1893 and 1944, and living macaques sampled in 2009. I collected hair and used stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to identify temporal changes in dietary source and trophic position, respectively. δ(13)C ratios were virtually identical, suggesting that macaques foraged in similar habitats during both time periods. However, δ(15)N ratios decreased considerably over time, suggesting that macaques today feed at a lower trophic level than previously. This decline in trophic level may be because of the disappearance or decline of other species that compete with macaques for fruit. This study highlights the effect of biodiversity loss on persisting species in degraded habitats of Southeast Asia, and improves our understanding of how species will adapt to further human-driven changes in tropical forest habitats.

  6. Comparison of physiologic and pharmacologic parameters in Asian and mauritius cynomolgus macaques.

    PubMed

    Kozlosky, John C; Mysore, Jagannatha; Clark, Shawn P; Burr, Holly N; Li, Jinze; Aranibar, Nelly; Vuppugalla, Ragini; West, Ronald C; Mangipudy, Raja S; Graziano, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    This comparative study was conducted to assess background physiologic and pharmacologic parameters of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Cambodia, from a mixed Asian source (Cambodia, Vietnam and Indonesia), and from Mauritius. This evaluation provides a comprehensive assessment of several of these parameters in a single study. Ten male and 10 female captive-bred, age-matched macaques from each source were evaluated. Criteria for evaluation included weight gain, assessment of drug metabolizing enzyme activity, metabolomic analysis, immunologic assessments (lymphocyte subsets, TDAR, and serum Ig isotyping), clinical pathology evaluations, physical (respiratory, neurologic, cardiovascular, and ophthalmologic) examinations, pathogen screening, organ weights, and gross and microscopic pathology analyses. The results of this evaluation indicate that, compared to macaques of Asian origin, macaques from Mauritius had the lowest incidence and/or severity of spontaneous pathologic findings in several organs and tissues (lymphoid organs, stomach, kidney, urothelium, heart, arteries and lung) and better testicular maturity at a given age with minimal variability in organ weights. Although slight differences were observed in other parameters, none were considered detrimental to the use of macaques of Asian or Mauritius origin in pharmaceutical candidate safety studies with the use of a consistent source, concomitant controls, and appropriate background knowledge and screening.

  7. Necrotizing Scleritis, Conjunctivitis, and Other Pathologic Findings in the Left Eye and Brain of an Ebola Virus–Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) With Apparent Recovery and a Delayed Time of Death

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Derron A.; Honko, Anna N.; Kortepeter, Mark G.; Sun, Mei; Johnson, Joshua C.; Lugo-Roman, Luis A.; Hensley, Lisa E.

    2016-01-01

    A 3.5-year-old adult female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) manifested swelling of the left upper eyelid and conjunctiva and a decline in clinical condition 18 days following intramuscular challenge with Ebola virus (EBOV; Kikwit-1995), after apparent clinical recovery. Histologic lesions with strong EBOV antigen staining were noted in the left eye (scleritis, conjunctivitis, and peri-optic neuritis), brain (choriomeningoencephalitis), stomach, proximal duodenum, and pancreas. Spleen, liver, and adrenal glands, common targets for acute infection, appeared histologically normal with no evidence of EBOV immunoreactivity. These findings may provide important insight for understanding sequelae seen in West African survivors of Ebola virus disease. PMID:26153408

  8. Necrotizing Scleritis, Conjunctivitis, and Other Pathologic Findings in the Left Eye and Brain of an Ebola Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) With Apparent Recovery and a Delayed Time of Death.

    PubMed

    Alves, Derron A; Honko, Anna N; Kortepeter, Mark G; Sun, Mei; Johnson, Joshua C; Lugo-Roman, Luis A; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-01-01

    A 3.5-year-old adult female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) manifested swelling of the left upper eyelid and conjunctiva and a decline in clinical condition 18 days following intramuscular challenge with Ebola virus (EBOV; Kikwit-1995), after apparent clinical recovery. Histologic lesions with strong EBOV antigen staining were noted in the left eye (scleritis, conjunctivitis, and peri-optic neuritis), brain (choriomeningoencephalitis), stomach, proximal duodenum, and pancreas. Spleen, liver, and adrenal glands, common targets for acute infection, appeared histologically normal with no evidence of EBOV immunoreactivity. These findings may provide important insight for understanding sequelae seen in West African survivors of Ebola virus disease.

  9. Population and landscape genetics of an introduced species (M. fascicularis) on the island of Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Satkoski Trask, Jessica; George, Debra; Houghton, Paul; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2013-01-01

    The cynomolgus macaque, Macaca fascicularis, was introduced onto the island of Mauritius in the early 17(th) century. The species experienced explosive population growth, and currently exists at high population densities. Anecdotes collected from nonhuman primate trappers on the island of Mauritius allege that animals from the northern portion of the island are larger in body size than and superior in condition to their conspecifics in the south. Although previous genetic studies have reported Mauritian cynomolgus macaques to be panmictic, the individuals included in these studies were either from the southern/central or an unknown portion of the island. In this study, we sampled individuals broadly throughout the entire island of Mauritius and used spatial principle component analysis to measure the fine-scale correlation between geographic and genetic distance in this population. A stronger correlation between geographic and genetic distance was found among animals in the north than in those in the southern and central portions of the island. We found no difference in body weight between the two groups, despite anecdotal evidence to the contrary. We hypothesize that the increased genetic structure among populations in the north is related to a reduction in dispersal distance brought about by human habitation and tourist infrastructure, but too recent to have produced true genetic differentiation.

  10. Risk factor analysis may provide clues to diarrhea prevention in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Prongay, Kamm; Park, Byung; Murphy, Stephanie J

    2013-08-01

    Seventy-five percent of rhesus macaques at national primate research centers are housed outside. Annually, 15-39% of these animals experience diarrhea and require veterinary treatment for dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, or weight loss. An estimated 21-33% of these patients will die or be euthanized. Many studies have explored the various infectious etiologies of non-human primate diarrhea. However, there is little published information on diarrhea incidence rates and risk factors in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques. Without this information, it is challenging to determine endemic and epidemic diarrhea levels, or to develop and evaluate mitigation strategies. Using electronic medical records, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to calculate diarrhea incidence rates for rhesus macaques (N = 3,181) housed in three different outdoor housing types (corrals, shelters, and temporary housing) at the Oregon National Primate Research Center between November 1, 2009 and October 31, 2010. With multiple logistic regression analysis, we determined the relative risk of housing type, sex, and age on development of diarrhea. Diarrhea incidence and mortality in our population was lower than many published ranges. Type of outdoor housing, age, and previous diarrhea episode were positively correlated with diarrhea risk. Younger animals in smaller shelters and temporary housing had a greater risk of acquiring diarrhea, with juvenile animals (0.7-3.9 years) having the highest mortality rate. Sex was not a risk factor, but adult females with diarrhea were more likely to develop life-threatening complications than adult males. We also constructed a predictive model for diarrhea-associated mortality using Classification and Regression Tree. Findings from this study will be used to develop and evaluate mitigation strategies in our outdoor-housed population and to provide a foundation for genetic susceptibility and immune function testing.

  11. Severity and Distribution of Wounds in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Correlate with Observed Self-Injurious Behavior.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Zachary T; Krall, Caroline; Rice, Kelly A; Adams, Robert J; Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Hutchinson, Eric K

    2015-09-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) occurs within laboratory-housed NHP at low frequency but can have a devastating effect on animal research and wellbeing. One barrier to the study and clinical management of these cases is the cost of equipment and personnel time to quantify the behavior according to the current standard of observation and to score remotely obtained video recordings. In studies of human SIB, in which direct observation is difficult or prohibited, researchers have demonstrated that quantifying the tissue damage resulting from SIB can be a useful proxy to represent the underlying behavior. We hypothesized that the nature of wounds resulting from SIB in NHP could be used in a similar manner to measure the abnormal behavior. Using a cohort of rhesus macaques with high-incidence SIB, we examined severity, distribution, and number of wounds and compared them with observed incidences of SIB during a 12-wk experiment. We found that the number, severity, and distribution of physical wounds were associated with the incidences of biting behavior observed during the 2 wk prior to measurement. We also found that an increased number of wounds was associated with increased severity. Animals with wounds of moderate severity were more likely to also have severe wounds than were macaques with wounds that were lower than moderate in severity. This work is the first representative study in NHP to find that behavioral SIB correlates with physical wounding and that increases in the frequency and number of the body regions affected correlates with the severity of wounding.

  12. Early maternal rejection affects the development of monoaminergic systems and adult abusive parenting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Maestripieri, Dario; Higley, J Dee; Lindell, Stephen G; Newman, Timothy K; McCormack, Kai M; Sanchez, Mar M

    2006-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of early exposure to variable parenting style and infant abuse on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of monoamine metabolites and examined the role of monoaminergic function in the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Forty-three infants reared by their biological mothers and 15 infants that were cross-fostered at birth and reared by unrelated mothers were followed longitudinally through their first 3 years of life or longer. Approximately half of the infants were reared by abusive mothers and half by nonabusive controls. Abused infants did not differ from controls in CSF concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylgycol (MHPG). Abused infants, however, were exposed to higher rates of maternal rejection, and highly rejected infants had lower CSF 5-HIAA and HVA than low-rejection infants. The abused females who became abusive mothers in adulthood had lower CSF 5-HIAA than the abused females who did not. A similar trend was also observed among the cross-fostered females, suggesting that low serotonergic function resulting from early exposure to high rates of maternal rejection plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse.

  13. Characterization of Multi-Drug Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Cephalic Recording Chambers in Research Macaques (Macaca spp.).

    PubMed

    Woods, Stephanie E; Lieberman, Mia T; Lebreton, Francois; Trowel, Elise; de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Dzink-Fox, Joanne; Gilmore, Michael S; Fox, James G

    2017-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance. Multi-locus sequence typing showed that most belonged to two E. faecalis sequence types (ST): ST 4 and ST 55. The genomes of three representative isolates were sequenced to identify genes encoding antimicrobial resistances and other traits. Antimicrobial resistance genes identified included aac(6')-aph(2"), aph(3')-III, str, ant(6)-Ia, tetM, tetS, tetL, ermB, bcrABR, cat, and dfrG, and polymorphisms in parC (S80I) and gyrA (S83I) were observed. These isolates also harbored virulence factors including the cytolysin toxin genes in ST 4 isolates, as well as multiple biofilm-associated genes (esp, agg, ace, SrtA, gelE, ebpABC), hyaluronidases (hylA, hylB), and other survival genes (ElrA, tpx). Crystal violet biofilm assays confirmed that ST 4 isolates produced more biofilm than ST 55 isolates. The abundance of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor genes in the ST 4 isolates likely relates to the loss of CRISPR-cas. This macaque colony represents a unique model for studying E. faecalis infection associated with indwelling devices, and provides an opportunity to understand the basis of persistence of this pathogen in a healthcare setting.

  14. Characterization of Multi-Drug Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Cephalic Recording Chambers in Research Macaques (Macaca spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Lebreton, Francois; Trowel, Elise; de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Dzink-Fox, Joanne; Gilmore, Michael S.; Fox, James G.

    2017-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance. Multi-locus sequence typing showed that most belonged to two E. faecalis sequence types (ST): ST 4 and ST 55. The genomes of three representative isolates were sequenced to identify genes encoding antimicrobial resistances and other traits. Antimicrobial resistance genes identified included aac(6’)-aph(2”), aph(3’)-III, str, ant(6)-Ia, tetM, tetS, tetL, ermB, bcrABR, cat, and dfrG, and polymorphisms in parC (S80I) and gyrA (S83I) were observed. These isolates also harbored virulence factors including the cytolysin toxin genes in ST 4 isolates, as well as multiple biofilm-associated genes (esp, agg, ace, SrtA, gelE, ebpABC), hyaluronidases (hylA, hylB), and other survival genes (ElrA, tpx). Crystal violet biofilm assays confirmed that ST 4 isolates produced more biofilm than ST 55 isolates. The abundance of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor genes in the ST 4 isolates likely relates to the loss of CRISPR-cas. This macaque colony represents a unique model for studying E. faecalis infection associated with indwelling devices, and provides an opportunity to understand the basis of persistence of this pathogen in a healthcare setting. PMID:28081148

  15. Quantitative analyses of cross-sectional shape of the distal radius in three species of macaques.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yasuhiro

    2004-04-01

    I conducted quantitative analyses of the cross-sectional shape of the distal radial shaft in three species of macaques, which differ in locomotor behavior: semi-terrestrial Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata), arboreal long tailed macaques ( M. fascicularis), and relatively terrestrial rhesus macaques ( M. mulatta). I took CT scans of the distal radial shafts of a total of 180 specimens at the level of the inferior radio-ulnar articulation. From each CT image, the periosteal outline of the radius was traced automatically by a digital imaging technique. I determined five points (landmarks) on the outline by developing a standardized morphometric technique. Bone surface lengths were measured by using these landmarks and their soft tissue correlates were investigated. The results of this study were as follows: (1) Semi-terrestrial M. fuscata has features that are approximately intermediate between those of the other two species. M. fuscata has a relatively small groove for M. abductor pollicis longus and a large groove for Mm. extensor carpi radialis longus et brevis. These characters resemble those of M. fascicularis. On the other hand, the ulnar notch of M. fuscata is relatively large, a character which is similar to that of M. mulatta. Moreover, compared to the other two macaques, the surface of the flexor muscles of M. fuscata is intermediate in size. (2) The more terrestrial M. mulatta has a relatively large groove for M. abductor pollicis longus and a small groove for Mm. extensor carpi radialis longus et brevis. Moreover, M. mulatta has a relatively large ulnar notch and a small surface for the flexor muscles. (3) The arboreal M. fascicularis has similar features to those of M. fuscata for the first and second relative size index. However, in the ulnar notch, M. fascicularis has a peculiar character and the surface for the flexor muscles is relatively large compared to those of the other two species. These results can be interpreted in terms of positional

  16. Macaque Monkeys Discriminate Pitch Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Bucks, Cornelia; Scheich, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This study demonstrates that non-human primates can categorize the direction of the pitch change of tones in a sequence. Two "Macaca fascicularis" were trained in a positive-reinforcement behavioral paradigm in which they listened to sequences of a variable number of different acoustic items. The training of discriminating pitch direction was…

  17. Alzheimer's disease and methanol toxicity (part 2): lessons from four rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) chronically fed methanol.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meifeng; Miao, Junye; Rizak, Joshua; Zhai, Rongwei; Wang, Zhengbo; Huma, Tanzeel; Li, Ting; Zheng, Na; Wu, Shihao; Zheng, Yingwei; Fan, Xiaona; Yang, Jianzhen; Wang, Jianhong; Yang, Shangchuan; Ma, Yuanye; Lü, Longbao; He, Rongqiao; Hu, Xintian

    2014-01-01

    A recently established link between formaldehyde, a methanol metabolite, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology has provided a new impetus to investigate the chronic effects of methanol exposure. This paper expands this investigation to the non-human primate, rhesus macaque, through the chronic feeding of young male monkeys with 3% methanol ad libitum. Variable Spatial Delay Response Tasks of the monkeys found that the methanol feeding led to persistent memory decline in the monkeys that lasted 6 months beyond the feeding regimen. This change coincided with increases in tau protein phosphorylation at residues T181 and S396 in cerebrospinal fluid during feeding as well as with increases in tau phosphorylated aggregates and amyloid plaques in four brain regions postmortem: the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, and the hippocampus. Tau phosphorylation in cerebrospinal fluid was found to be dependent on methanol feeding status, but phosphorylation changes in the brain were found to be persistent 6 months after the methanol feeding stopped. This suggested the methanol feeding caused long-lasting and persistent pathological changes that were related to AD development in the monkey. Most notably, the presence of amyloid plaque formations in the monkeys highlighted a marked difference in animal systems used in AD investigations, suggesting that the innate defenses in mice against methanol toxicity may have limited previous investigations into AD pathology. Nonetheless, these findings support a growing body of evidence that links methanol and its metabolite formaldehyde to AD pathology.

  18. Comparative efficacy of a canine distemper-measles and a standard measles vaccine for immunization of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Christe, Kari L; McChesney, Michael B; Spinner, Abigail; Rosenthal, Ann N; Allen, Philip C; Valverde, Celia R; Roberts, Jeffrey A; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2002-10-01

    Measles virus (MV), a highly infective paramyxovirus, has caused sporadic epizootics characterized by high morbidity and increased mortality in nonhuman primates. Measles vaccines for human use, although effective, are cost prohibitive for use in primate colonies. We compared the efficacy of one or two doses of Vanguard D-M, a canine distemper-measles (CD-M) vaccine, with a single dose of Attenuvax, a human measles vaccine. Compared with 81% of animals inoculated with Attenuvax, all animals inoculated with one or two doses of Vanguard developed detectable MV antibodies. One year after immunization, six juveniles from each vaccine group, along with three unvaccinated controls, were challenged with pathogenic MV and were monitored for clinical signs of disease, viremia, viral shedding, and immune response. All uninoculated controls developed clinical disease and viremia, and shed virus in nasopharangeal secretions. Subclinical viremia without viral shedding was identified in two Attenuvax- and two single-dose Vanguard-inoculated animals. Viremia was not detected in any two-dose Vanguard-inoculated animals. Significantly higher neutralization antibody titers were observed in animals receiving Vanguard. Results of this study indicate that Vanguard is at least as efficacious as Attenuvax for protection of rhesus macaques. The considerably lower cost of Vanguard makes vaccination against measles in large breeding colonies economically feasible.

  19. Causes of obesity in captive cynomolgus macaques: influence of body condition, social and management factors on behaviour around feeding.

    PubMed

    Bauer, S A; Pearl, D L; Leslie, K E; Fournier, J; Turner, P V

    2012-07-01

    Similar to other primate species, captive cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are prone to becoming overweight. The relationship between body condition and feeding behaviour in group-housed animals has not been reported. This study evaluated the effect of daily feeding routines on behaviour patterns in cynomolgus macaques to determine whether overweight macaques displayed different behaviours and activity levels. In this prospective observational study, 16 macaques (m = 4, f = 12) from four separate troops (n = 4 per troop) were selected from a colony of 165 animals. Observational data were collected over six months during morning and afternoon feedings by scan sampling. Behaviours of interest included foraging, eating, aggressive and positive social interactions, inactivity and physical activities. Multivariable mixed logistic regression modelling was used for data analysis. Results indicated that overweight animals were more likely to be inactive, dominant animals had increased probabilities of eating compared with non-dominants, and aggressive behaviours were more likely to occur in the morning and before feeding, suggesting feeding anticipation. Positive social interaction before feeding was seen and may be a strategy used to avoid aggressive encounters around food resources. Individual animal caregivers had an unintentional impact on behaviour, as decreased eating and an increase in inactivity were noted when certain individuals fed animals. These findings illustrate the complexities of feeding group-housed cynomolgus macaques to avoid overweight body condition. Feeding routines may require more care and attention to distribute food in a way that ensures equitable food intake among troop animals, while not disturbing group cohesion.

  20. Glycerol Monolaurate Does Not Alter Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Vaginal Lactobacilli and Is Safe for Chronic Use▿

    PubMed Central

    Schlievert, Patrick M.; Strandberg, Kristi L.; Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Peterson, Marnie L.; Pambuccian, Stefan E.; Nephew, Karla R.; Brunner, Kevin G.; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J.; Haase, Ashley T.

    2008-01-01

    Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a fatty acid monoester that inhibits growth and exotoxin production of vaginal pathogens and cytokine production by vaginal epithelial cells. Because of these activities, and because of the importance of cytokine-mediated immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission to women, our laboratories are performing studies on the potential efficacy of GML as a topical microbicide to interfere with HIV-1 transmission in the simian immunodeficiency virus-rhesus macaque model. While GML is generally recognized as safe by the FDA for topical use, its safety for chronic use and effects on normal vaginal microflora in this animal model have not been evaluated. GML was therefore tested both in vitro for its effects on vaginal flora lactobacilli and in vivo as a 5% gel administered vaginally to monkeys. In vitro studies demonstrated that lactobacilli are not killed by GML; GML blocks the loss of their viability in stationary phase and does not interfere with lactic acid production. GML (5% gel) does not quantitatively alter monkey aerobic vaginal microflora compared to vehicle control gel. Lactobacilli and coagulase-negative staphylococci are the dominant vaginal aerobic microflora, with beta-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and yeasts sporadically present; gram-negative rods are not part of their vaginal flora. Colposcopy and biopsy studies indicate that GML does not alter normal mucosal integrity and does not induce inflammation; instead, GML reduces epithelial cell production of interleukin 8. The studies suggest that GML is safe for chronic use in monkeys when applied vaginally; it does not alter either mucosal microflora or integrity. PMID:18838587

  1. Glycerol monolaurate does not alter rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) vaginal lactobacilli and is safe for chronic use.

    PubMed

    Schlievert, Patrick M; Strandberg, Kristi L; Brosnahan, Amanda J; Peterson, Marnie L; Pambuccian, Stefan E; Nephew, Karla R; Brunner, Kevin G; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J; Haase, Ashley T

    2008-12-01

    Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a fatty acid monoester that inhibits growth and exotoxin production of vaginal pathogens and cytokine production by vaginal epithelial cells. Because of these activities, and because of the importance of cytokine-mediated immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission to women, our laboratories are performing studies on the potential efficacy of GML as a topical microbicide to interfere with HIV-1 transmission in the simian immunodeficiency virus-rhesus macaque model. While GML is generally recognized as safe by the FDA for topical use, its safety for chronic use and effects on normal vaginal microflora in this animal model have not been evaluated. GML was therefore tested both in vitro for its effects on vaginal flora lactobacilli and in vivo as a 5% gel administered vaginally to monkeys. In vitro studies demonstrated that lactobacilli are not killed by GML; GML blocks the loss of their viability in stationary phase and does not interfere with lactic acid production. GML (5% gel) does not quantitatively alter monkey aerobic vaginal microflora compared to vehicle control gel. Lactobacilli and coagulase-negative staphylococci are the dominant vaginal aerobic microflora, with beta-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and yeasts sporadically present; gram-negative rods are not part of their vaginal flora. Colposcopy and biopsy studies indicate that GML does not alter normal mucosal integrity and does not induce inflammation; instead, GML reduces epithelial cell production of interleukin 8. The studies suggest that GML is safe for chronic use in monkeys when applied vaginally; it does not alter either mucosal microflora or integrity.

  2. Risk factors for stereotypic behavior and self-biting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): animal's history, current environment, and personality.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Capitanio, John P; McCowan, Brenda

    2013-10-01

    Captive rhesus macaques sometimes exhibit undesirable abnormal behaviors, such as motor stereotypic behavior (MSB) and self-abuse. Many risk factors for these behaviors have been identified but the list is far from comprehensive, and large individual differences in rate of behavior expression remain. The goal of the current study was to determine which experiences predict expression of MSB and self-biting, and if individual differences in personality can account for additional variation in MSB expression. A risk factor analysis was performed utilizing data from over 4,000 rhesus monkeys at the California National Primate Research Center. Data were analyzed using model selection, with the best fitting models evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion. Results confirmed previous research that males exhibit more MSB and self-biting than females, MSB decreases with age, and indoor reared animals exhibit more MSB and self-biting than outdoor reared animals. Additionally, results indicated that animals exhibited less MSB and self-biting for each year spent outdoors; frequency of room moves and number of projects positively predicted MSB; pair separations positively predicted MSB and self-biting; pair housed animals expressed less MSB than single housed and grate paired animals; and that animals expressed more MSB and self-biting when in bottom rack cages, or cages near the room entrance. Based on these results we recommend limiting exposure to these risk factors when possible. Our results also demonstrated a relationship between personality and MSB expression, with animals low on gentle temperament, active in response to a human intruder, and high on novel object contact expressing more MSB. From these results we propose that an animal's MSB is related to its predisposition for an active personality, with active animals expressing higher rates of MSB.

  3. Evaluation of environmental and intrinsic factors that contribute to stereotypic behavior in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Maier, Adriane; Coleman, Kristine

    2015-10-01

    Full body repetitive behaviors, known as motor stereotypic behaviors (MSBs), are one of the most commonly seen abnormal behaviors in captive non-human primates, and are frequently used as a behavioral measure of well-being. The main goal of this paper was to examine the role of environmental factors (i.e., foraging enrichment and socialization) and intrinsic factors (i.e., temperament and origin) in the development of MSB in rhesus macaques living in cages. MSB was assessed during short annual observations in which a trained observer recorded a monkey's behavior for 5 min, followed by a 3-min novel object test. Data were collected over 11 years, totaling 9805 observations. We compared MSB for animals with and without foraging enrichment, and across three socialization conditions: full contact pairing, protected contact socialization (partners physically separated by widely spaced bars), and single housing. In addition, we evaluated whether individual differences in response to a novel object and ancestral origin (i.e., China vs. India), predicted MSB expression during the annual observations. Data were analyzed using generalized mixed effects modeling, with the best fitting models chosen using Akaike Information Criterion. Subjects were at lowest risk for MSB when a foraging device was present (p < 0.05), and when in full contact social housing (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in MSB between subjects that were single housed and subjects housed in protected contact pairs. In addition, subjects that never touched the novel object were significantly less likely to exhibit MSB than those that touched the object immediately (p < 0.001) or within 3 min (p < 0.001). Finally, monkeys with some degree of Chinese ancestry were significantly more likely to display MSB than Indian-origin monkeys (p < 0.05). These results add to the growing body of literature on factors that can contribute to the development of MSB.

  4. Evaluation of environmental and intrinsic factors that contribute to stereotypic behavior in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Daniel H.; Maier, Adriane; Coleman, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Full body repetitive behaviors, known as motor stereotypic behaviors (MSBs), are one of the most commonly seen abnormal behaviors in captive non-human primates, and are frequently used as a behavioral measure of well-being. The main goal of this paper was to examine the role of environmental factors (i.e., foraging enrichment and socialization) and intrinsic factors (i.e., temperament and origin) in the development of MSB in rhesus macaques living in cages. MSB was assessed during short annual observations in which a trained observer recorded a monkey’s behavior for 5 min, followed by a 3-min novel object test. Data were collected over 11 years, totaling 9805 observations. We compared MSB for animals with and without foraging enrichment, and across three socialization conditions: full contact pairing, protected contact socialization (partners physically separated by widely spaced bars), and single housing. In addition, we evaluated whether individual differences in response to a novel object and ancestral origin (i.e., China vs. India), predicted MSB expression during the annual observations. Data were analyzed using generalized mixed effects modeling, with the best fitting models chosen using Akaike Information Criterion. Subjects were at lowest risk for MSB when a foraging device was present (p < 0.05), and when in full contact social housing (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in MSB between subjects that were single housed and subjects housed in protected contact pairs. In addition, subjects that never touched the novel object were significantly less likely to exhibit MSB than those that touched the object immediately (p < 0.001) or within 3 min (p < 0.001). Finally, monkeys with some degree of Chinese ancestry were significantly more likely to display MSB than Indian-origin monkeys (p < 0.05). These results add to the growing body of literature on factors that can contribute to the development of MSB. PMID:27034527

  5. Nanogel-based pneumococcal surface protein A nasal vaccine induces microRNA-associated Th17 cell responses with neutralizing antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae in macaques

    PubMed Central

    Fukuyama, Y; Yuki, Y; Katakai, Y; Harada, N; Takahashi, H; Takeda, S; Mejima, M; Joo, S; Kurokawa, S; Sawada, S; Shibata, H; Park, E J; Fujihashi, K; Briles, D E; Yasutomi, Y; Tsukada, H; Akiyoshi, K; Kiyono, H

    2015-01-01

    We previously established a nanosized nasal vaccine delivery system by using a cationic cholesteryl group-bearing pullulan nanogel (cCHP nanogel), which is a universal protein-based antigen-delivery vehicle for adjuvant-free nasal vaccination. In the present study, we examined the central nervous system safety and efficacy of nasal vaccination with our developed cCHP nanogel containing pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA-nanogel) against pneumococcal infection in nonhuman primates. When [18F]-labeled PspA-nanogel was nasally administered to a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), longer-term retention of PspA was noted in the nasal cavity when compared with administration of PspA alone. Of importance, no deposition of [18F]-PspA was seen in the olfactory bulbs or brain. Nasal PspA-nanogel vaccination effectively induced PspA-specific serum IgG with protective activity and mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) Ab responses in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Nasal PspA-nanogel-induced immune responses were mediated through T-helper (Th) 2 and Th17 cytokine responses concomitantly with marked increases in the levels of miR-181a and miR-326 in the serum and respiratory tract tissues, respectively, of the macaques. These results demonstrate that nasal PspA-nanogel vaccination is a safe and effective strategy for the development of a nasal vaccine for the prevention of pneumonia in humans. PMID:25669148

  6. Distinctive Leukocyte Subpopulations According to Organ Type in Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Zitsman, Jonah S; Alonso-Guallart, Paula; Ovanez, Christopher; Kato, Yojiro; Rosen, Joanna F; Weiner, Joshua I; Duran-Struuck, Raimon

    2016-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (CYNO; Macaca fascicularis) are a well-established NHP model used for studies in immunology. To provide reference values on the baseline cell distributions in the hematopoietic and lymphoid organs (HLO) of these animals, we used flow cytometry to analyze the peripheral blood, bone marrow, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus of a cohort of male, adult, research-naïve, Mauritian CYNO. Our findings demonstrate that several cell distribution patterns differ between CYNO and humans. First, the CD4+:CD8+ T-cell ratio is lower in CYNO compared with humans. Second, the peripheral blood of CYNO contains a population of CD4+CD8+ T cells. Third, the CD31 level was elevated in all organs studied, suggesting that CD31 may not be an accurate marker of recent thymic emigrants within the CD4+ T cells of CYNO. Finally the B-cell population is lower in CYNO compared with humans. In summary, although the majority of immune cell populations are similar between cynomolgus macaques and humans, several important differences should be considered when using CYNO in immunologic studies. Our current findings provide valuable information to not only researchers but also veterinarians working with CYNO at research centers, in zoos, or in the wild. PMID:27538862

  7. Admixture in Humans of Two Divergent Plasmodium knowlesi Populations Associated with Different Macaque Host Species

    PubMed Central

    Divis, Paul C. S.; Singh, Balbir; Anderios, Fread; Hisam, Shamilah; Matusop, Asmad; Kocken, Clemens H.; Assefa, Samuel A.; Duffy, Craig W.; Conway, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Human malaria parasite species were originally acquired from other primate hosts and subsequently became endemic, then spread throughout large parts of the world. A major zoonosis is now occurring with Plasmodium knowlesi from macaques in Southeast Asia, with a recent acceleration in numbers of reported cases particularly in Malaysia. To investigate the parasite population genetics, we developed sensitive and species-specific microsatellite genotyping protocols and applied these to analysis of samples from 10 sites covering a range of >1,600 km within which most cases have occurred. Genotypic analyses of 599 P. knowlesi infections (552 in humans and 47 in wild macaques) at 10 highly polymorphic loci provide radical new insights on the emergence. Parasites from sympatric long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and pig-tailed macaques (M. nemestrina) were very highly differentiated (FST = 0.22, and K-means clustering confirmed two host-associated subpopulations). Approximately two thirds of human P. knowlesi infections were of the long-tailed macaque type (Cluster 1), and one third were of the pig-tailed-macaque type (Cluster 2), with relative proportions varying across the different sites. Among the samples from humans, there was significant indication of genetic isolation by geographical distance overall and within Cluster 1 alone. Across the different sites, the level of multi-locus linkage disequilibrium correlated with the degree of local admixture of the two different clusters. The widespread occurrence of both types of P. knowlesi in humans enhances the potential for parasite adaptation in this zoonotic system. PMID:26020959

  8. CpG site degeneration triggered by the loss of functional constraint created a highly polymorphic macaque drug-metabolizing gene, CYP1A2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Elucidating the pattern of evolutionary changes in drug-metabolizing genes is an important subject not only for evolutionary but for biomedical research. We investigated the pattern of divergence and polymorphisms of macaque CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes, which are major drug-metabolizing genes in humans. In humans, CYP1A2 is specifically expressed in livers while CYP1A1 has a wider gene expression pattern in extrahepatic tissues. In contrast, macaque CYP1A2 is expressed at a much lower level than CYP1A1 in livers. Interestingly, a previous study has shown that Macaca fascicularis CYP1A2 harbored unusually high genetic diversity within species. Genomic regions showing high genetic diversity within species is occasionally interpreted as a result of balancing selection, where natural selection maintains highly diverged alleles with different functions. Nevertheless many other forces could create such signatures. Results We found that the CYP1A1/2 gene copy number and orientation has been highly conserved among mammalian genomes. The signature of gene conversion between CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 was detected, but the last gene conversion event in the simian primate lineage occurred before the Catarrhini-Platyrrhini divergence. The high genetic diversity of macaque CYP1A2 therefore cannot be explained by gene conversion between CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. By surveying CYP1A2 polymorphisms in total 91 M. fascicularis and M. mulatta, we found several null alleles segregating in these species, indicating functional constraint on CYP1A2 in macaques may have weakened after the divergence between humans and macaques. We propose that the high genetic diversity in macaque CYP1A2 is partly due to the degeneration of CpG sites, which had been maintained at a high level by purifying selection, and the rapid degeneration process was initiated by the loss of functional constraint on macaque CYP1A2. Conclusions Our findings show that the highly polymorphic CYP1A2 gene in macaques has not been

  9. Use-Wear Patterns on Wild Macaque Stone Tools Reveal Their Behavioural History

    PubMed Central

    Haslam, Michael; Gumert, Michael D.; Biro, Dora; Carvalho, Susana; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2013-01-01

    Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) are one of a limited number of wild animal species to use stone tools, with their tool use focused on pounding shelled marine invertebrates foraged from intertidal habitats. These monkeys exhibit two main styles of tool use: axe hammering of oysters, and pound hammering of unattached encased foods. In this study, we examined macroscopic use-wear patterns on a sample of 60 wild macaque stone tools from Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand, that had been collected following behavioural observation, in order to (i) quantify the wear patterns in terms of the types and distribution of use-damage on the stones, and (ii) develop a Use-Action Index (UAI) to differentiate axe hammers from pound hammers by wear patterns alone. We used the intensity of crushing damage on differing surface zones of the stones, as well as stone weight, to produce a UAI that had 92% concordance when compared to how the stones had been used by macaques, as observed independently prior to collection. Our study is the first to demonstrate that quantitative archaeological use-wear techniques can accurately reconstruct the behavioural histories of non-human primate stone tools. PMID:23977365

  10. Novel Methodology for Creating Macaque Retinas with Sortable Photoreceptors and Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Shreyasi; Strang, Christianne E.; Alexander, John J.; Scalabrino, Miranda L.; Lynch Hill, Julie; Kasuga, Daniel T.; Witherspoon, C. Douglas; Boye, Sanford L.; Gamlin, Paul D.; Boye, Shannon E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The ability to generate macaque retinas with sortable cell populations would be of great benefit to both basic and translational studies of the primate retina. The purpose of our study was therefore to develop methods to achieve this goal by selectively labeling, in life, photoreceptors (PRs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with separate fluorescent markers. Methods: Labeling of macaque (Macaca fascicularis) PRs and RGCs was accomplished by subretinal delivery of AAV5-hGRK1-GFP, and retrograde transport of micro-ruby™ from the lateral geniculate nucleus, respectively. Retinas were anatomically separated into different regions. Dissociation conditions were optimized, and cells from each region underwent fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS). Expression of retinal cell type- specific genes was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR to characterize isolated cell populations. Results: We show that macaque PRs and RGCs can be simultaneously labeled in-life and enriched populations isolated by FACS. Recovery from different retinal regions indicated efficient isolation/enrichment for PRs and RGCs, with the macula being particularly amendable to this technique. Conclusions: The methods and materials presented here allow for the identification of novel reagents designed to target RGCs and/or photoreceptors in a species that is phylogenetically and anatomically similar to human. These techniques will enable screening of intravitreally-delivered AAV capsid libraries for variants with increased tropism for PRs and/or RGCs and the evaluation of vector tropism and/or cellular promoter activity of gene therapy vectors in a clinically relevant species. PMID:27990105

  11. A preliminary study on activity budget, daily travel distance and feeding behaviour of long-tailed macaques and spectacled dusky leaf monkey in Bangi campus of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruslin, Farhani; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2014-09-01

    The activity budget, ranging behaviour and feeding behaviour of a multimale-multifemale group of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and a multimale-multifemale group of spectacled dusky leaf monkey (Trachypithecus obscurus) were studied. A total of 145 hours and 143 hours have been spent to observe the group of long-tailed macaque and spectacled dusky leaf monkey that ranged the same habitat adjacent to the campus areas. The researchers examined the activity budgets, daily travel length and feeding activity of both species and distinguished how the sympatric species used the same forested habitat. Preliminary study found that the long-tailed macaques spent longer time feeding, moving than resting and other activities. On the other hand, the dusky leaf monkey spent much time in feeding and resting than moving. The differences of daily pattern between these two groups are significant. Macaques have higher daily mean of path length compared to the dusky leaf monkey and spent much time moving compare to the leaf monkey group. The spectacled dusky leaf monkey group also has fully utilized the forested areas where else the long-tailed macaques adopted foraging to the adjacent residential colleges.

  12. Characterization of the major histocompatibility complex class II DQB (MhcMamu-DQB1) alleles in a cohort of Chinese rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chen-Li; Yang, Gui-Bo; Yu, Kai; Li, Yue; Li, Xiao-Li; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Hui; Xing, Hui; Shao, Yiming

    2008-08-01

    Rhesus macaques have long been used in animal models for various human diseases, the susceptibility and/or resistance to some of which have been associated with the major histocompatibilty complex (MHC). To gain insight into the MHC background and to facilitate the experimental use of Chinese rhesus macaques, the second exon of MhcMamu-DQB1 genes in 105 rhesus macaques were characterized by cloning and sequencing. A total of 37 MhcMamu-DQB1 alleles were identified, illustrating a marked allelic polymorphism at DQB1 in these monkeys. In addition to 10 alleles were novel sequences that had not been documented in earlier reports, at least 14 alleles reported in earlier studies were not detected in this study. Most of the sequences (73%) observed in this study belong to DQB1 06 (13 alleles) and DQB1 18 (14 alleles) lineages, and the rest (27%) belong to DQB1 15, DQB1 16 and DQB1 17 lineages. The most frequent allele detected among these monkeys was MhcMamu-DQB1 06111 (22%), followed by DQB1 1503 (19%); and most of the novel alleles were present at a frequency of less than 2.5%. As for individual animals, 24 of 105 (23%) were homozygous whereas 81 of 105 (77%) were heterozygous at the MhcMamu-DQB1 locus. These data indicated significant differences in MhcMamu-DQB1 allele distribution between the Chinese rhesus macaques and the previously reported rhesus macaques, which were mostly of Indian origin. This information will not only promote the understanding of rhesus macaque MHC diversity and polymorphism but will also facilitate the use of Chinese rhesus macaques in human disease studies, especially those that may be associated with HLA-DQB genes.

  13. Unique Pattern of Enzootic Primate Viruses in Gibraltar Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Gregory A.; Pizarro, Mark; Shaw, Eric; Cortes, John; Fuentes, Agustin; Barry, Peter; Lerche, Nicholas; Grant, Richard; Cohn, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Because Gibraltar's macaques (Macaca sylvanus) have frequent contact with humans, we assayed 79 macaques for antibodies to enzootic primate viruses. All macaques were seronegative for herpesvirus B, simian T-cell lymphotropic virus, simian retrovirus, simian immunodeficiency virus, and rhesus cytomegalovirus. Seroprevalence of simian foamy virus reached 88% among adult animals. PMID:18598634

  14. Genomic Sequencing and Characterization of Cynomolgus Macaque Cytomegalovirus▿

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Angie K.; Willer, David O.; Ambagala, Aruna P. N.; Dzamba, Misko; Chan, Jacqueline K.; Pilon, Richard; Fournier, Jocelyn; Sandstrom, Paul; Brudno, Michael; MacDonald, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed individuals, such as transplant recipients or people living with HIV/AIDS, and congenital CMV is the leading viral cause of developmental disabilities in infants. Due to the highly species-specific nature of CMV, animal models that closely recapitulate human CMV (HCMV) are of growing importance for vaccine development. Here we present the genomic sequence of a novel nonhuman primate CMV from cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis; CyCMV). CyCMV (Ottawa strain) was isolated from the urine of a healthy, captive-bred, 4-year-old cynomolgus macaque of Philippine origin, and the viral genome was sequenced using next-generation Illumina sequencing to an average of 516-fold coverage. The CyCMV genome is 218,041 bp in length, with 49.5% G+C content and 84% protein-coding density. We have identified 262 putative open reading frames (ORFs) with an average coding length of 789 bp. The genomic organization of CyCMV is largely colinear with that of rhesus macaque CMV (RhCMV). Of the 262 CyCMV ORFs, 137 are homologous to HCMV genes, 243 are homologous to RhCMV 68.1, and 200 are homologous to RhCMV 180.92. CyCMV encodes four ORFs that are not present in RhCMV strain 68.1 or 180.92 but have homologies with HCMV (UL30, UL74A, UL126, and UL146). Similar to HCMV, CyCMV does not produce the RhCMV-specific viral homologue of cyclooxygenase-2. This newly characterized CMV may provide a novel model in which to study CMV biology and HCMV vaccine development. PMID:21994460

  15. Complementary Patterns of Direct Amygdala and Hippocampal Projections to the Macaque Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Aggleton, John P.; Wright, Nicholas F.; Rosene, Douglas L.; Saunders, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    The projections from the amygdala and hippocampus (including subiculum and presubiculum) to prefrontal cortex were compared using anterograde tracers injected into macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta). Almost all prefrontal areas were found to receive some amygdala inputs. These connections, which predominantly arose from the intermediate and magnocellular basal nucleus, were particularly dense in parts of the medial and orbital prefrontal cortex. Contralateral inputs were not, however, observed. The hippocampal projections to prefrontal areas were far more restricted, being confined to the ipsilateral medial and orbital prefrontal cortex (within areas 11, 13, 14, 24a, 32, and 25). These hippocampal projections principally arose from the subiculum, with the fornix providing the sole route. Thus, while the lateral prefrontal cortex essentially receives only amygdala inputs, the orbital prefrontal cortex receives both amygdala and hippocampal inputs, though these typically target different areas. Only in medial prefrontal cortex do direct inputs from both structures terminate in common sites. But, even when convergence occurs within an area, the projections predominantly terminate in different lamina (hippocampal inputs to layer III and amygdala inputs to layers I, II, and VI). The resulting segregation of prefrontal inputs could enable the parallel processing of different information types in prefrontal cortex. PMID:25715284

  16. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue’s welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated ‘Monkey schools’ offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn’t have a negative impact on wild populations. PMID:26407173

  17. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  18. Effect of Indoor Compared with Outdoor Location during Gestation on the Incidence of Diarrhea in Indoor-Reared Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Elfenbein, Hanie A; Rosso, Laura Del; McCowan, Brenda; Capitanio, John P

    2016-01-01

    Behavior and health, including the incidence of chronic idiopathic diarrhea, can vary widely among NHP reared indoors. We hypothesized that factors during gestation account for some of the variability in chronic diarrhea risk that cannot be explained by postnatal environment, genes, or known physiologic deficits. We hypothesized that, among macaques reared indoors postnatally, outdoor housing during gestation (when the dam engaged with a large, species-typical social group) would be protective against diarrhea as compared with gestation experienced in an indoor setting. We also hypothesized that exposure to routine husbandry and veterinary care in utero would increase diarrhea rates in offspring. We built models to test the influence of specific events during pregnancy as well as their interactions with anxiety-related genotype as a way of understanding gene×environment interaction on the development of diarrhea in indoor-reared rhesus macaques. Although previous reports have suggested that rearing by the mother in an indoor environment is preferable to nursery rearing, we found that whether gestation occurred indoors (in single or pair housing) or outdoors (in a large social group) better explained the variability in diarrhea rate in our study population of indoor-reared macaques. Furthermore, the diarrhea incidence was associated with nervous temperament and serotonin transporter promoter genotype. Several significant interactions indicated that some of these effects were specific to subsets of animals. Our results demonstrate that the prenatal environment can have unexpected lasting health consequences. PMID:27177560

  19. Milk composition of captive vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with observations on gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and white handed gibbon (Hylobates lar).

    PubMed

    Osthoff, G; Hugo, A; de Wit, M; Nguyen, T P M; Seier, J

    2009-04-01

    The nutrient content and fatty acid composition of vervet monkey milk has been determined and is compared with rhesus macaque, and two hominoid apes, the white handed gibbon and gorilla. With 15.7+/-4.1 g protein, 33.1+/-9.4 g fat, and 85.1+/-7.5 g lactose per kg milk, vervet monkey milk does not differ from that of rhesus macaque, and is within the range of other primates. Small amounts (>1 g kg(-1)) of oligosaccharides, glucose, galactose and fucose were noted. In comparison, gorilla milk has a low fat content of 13.8 g kg(-1), but contains high levels of oligosaccharides at 7.0 g kg(-1) milk. The hominoid partner, the white handed gibbon, contains no oligosaccharides and a milk fat content similar to other hominoid species. Differences between vervet monkey and rhesus macaque milks were observed in the electrophoretic pattern of the milk proteins, mainly amongst the kappa- and gamma-caseins, which also differ from that of the hominids. The fatty acid contents of these milks differ from studies where a natural diet of leafy material was available in that a low content of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) was noted. A phylogenetic effect is observed for the content of 8:0, 10:0 fatty acids between the Cercopithecidae and Hominoidea, and a further phylogenetic effect suggested between the Hylobatidae and Hominidae.

  20. Effects of B Cell Depletion on Early Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Phuah, Jiayao; Wong, Eileen A.; Gideon, Hannah P.; Maiello, Pauline; Coleman, M. Teresa; Hendricks, Matthew R.; Ruden, Rachel; Cirrincione, Lauren R.; Chan, John; Lin, Philana Ling

    2016-01-01

    Although recent studies in mice have shown that components of B cell and humoral immunity can modulate the immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the roles of these components in human and nonhuman primate infections are unknown. The cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) model of M. tuberculosis infection closely mirrors the infection outcomes and pathology in human tuberculosis (TB). The present study used rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody, to deplete B cells in M. tuberculosis-infected macaques to examine the contribution of B cells and humoral immunity to the control of TB in nonhuman primates during the acute phase of infection. While there was no difference in the overall pathology, disease profession, and clinical outcome between the rituximab-treated and untreated macaques in acute infection, analyzing individual granulomas revealed that B cell depletion resulted in altered local T cell and cytokine responses, increased bacterial burden, and lower levels of inflammation. There were elevated frequencies of T cells producing interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-10, and IL-17 and decreased IL-6 and IL-10 levels within granulomas from B cell-depleted animals. The effects of B cell depletion varied among granulomas in an individual animal, as well as among animals, underscoring the previously reported heterogeneity of local immunologic characteristics of tuberculous granulomas in nonhuman primates. Taken together, our data clearly showed that B cells can modulate the local granulomatous response in M. tuberculosis-infected macaques during acute infection. The impact of these alterations on disease progression and outcome in the chronic phase remains to be determined. PMID:26883591

  1. Macaque Proteome Response to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza and 1918 Reassortant Influenza Virus Infections▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joseph N.; Palermo, Robert E.; Baskin, Carole R.; Gritsenko, Marina; Sabourin, Patrick J.; Long, James P.; Sabourin, Carol L.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Albrecht, Randy; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.; Katze, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    The host proteome response and molecular mechanisms that drive disease in vivo during infection by a human isolate of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) and 1918 pandemic influenza virus remain poorly understood. This study presents a comprehensive characterization of the proteome response in cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) lung tissue over 7 days of infection with HPAI (the most virulent), a reassortant virus containing 1918 hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface proteins (intermediate virulence), or a human seasonal strain (least virulent). A high-sensitivity two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy strategy and functional network analysis were implemented to gain insight into response pathways activated in macaques during influenza virus infection. A macaque protein database was assembled and used in the identification of 35,239 unique peptide sequences corresponding to approximately 4,259 proteins. Quantitative analysis identified an increase in expression of 400 proteins during viral infection. The abundance levels of a subset of these 400 proteins produced strong correlations with disease progression observed in the macaques, distinguishing a “core” response to viral infection from a “high” response specific to severe disease. Proteome expression profiles revealed distinct temporal response kinetics between viral strains, with HPAI inducing the most rapid response. While proteins involved in the immune response, metabolism, and transport were increased rapidly in the lung by HPAI, the other viruses produced a delayed response, characterized by an increase in proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, RNA processing, and translation. Proteomic results were integrated with previous genomic and pathological analysis to characterize the dynamic nature of the influenza virus infection process. PMID:20844032

  2. Human contact influences the foraging behaviour and parasite community in long-tailed macaques.

    PubMed

    Wenz-Mücke, Alexandra; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Petney, Trevor N; Taraschewski, Horst

    2013-05-01

    Human–wildlife interactions have reached unprecedented levels, and humans are influencing the earth’s ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than ever before. This situation is cause for serious concern, especially since disease interactions between wildlife and humans have been recognized as major conservation threats. In this study, long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, from 2 forest parks located in north-eastern Thailand were investigated to determine the influence of habitat modification by humans on helminth parasite associations in non-human primates. Macaque populations with contact to anthropogenically modified environments were compared with sylvatic groups in nearby natural environments. In order to test for human–non-human primate transmission of parasites, the local human populations were also examined. Humans were infected with a number of potentially pathogenic parasites, including Opisthorchis viverrini and Strongyloides stercoralis. However, eggs of these helminths were not detected in macaque feces. Thus, no direct parasite transfer from humans to non-human primates could be confirmed. However, macaque groups with more frequent contact with human modified habitats, and a higher portion of human-provided food in their diet, had significantly higher prevalences and intensities of Strongyloides fuelleborni and of an intestinal fluke (probably Haplorchis sp.) than sylvatic groups. Positive correlations were found between the time foraging on the ground and infection with S. fuelleborni, and the amount of human-provided food and intestinal fluke infection. Human alteration of habitat and associated modifications in nonhuman primate behaviour are likely to play a role in determining the occurrence, prevalence and intensity of zoonotic helminth infection of wild non-human primates.

  3. Divergent Simian Arteriviruses Cause Simian Hemorrhagic Fever of Differing Severities in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Moncla, Louise H.; Weiler, Andrea M.; Charlier, Olivia; Rojas, Oscar; Byrum, Russell; Ragland, Dan R.; Cohen, Melanie; Sanford, Hannah B.; Qin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF) is a highly lethal disease in captive macaques. Three distinct arteriviruses are known etiological agents of past SHF epizootics, but only one, simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV), has been isolated in cell culture. The natural reservoir(s) of the three viruses have yet to be identified, but African nonhuman primates are suspected. Eleven additional divergent simian arteriviruses have been detected recently in diverse and apparently healthy African cercopithecid monkeys. Here, we report the successful isolation in MARC-145 cell culture of one of these viruses, Kibale red colobus virus 1 (KRCV-1), from serum of a naturally infected red colobus (Procolobus [Piliocolobus] rufomitratus tephrosceles) sampled in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Intramuscular (i.m.) injection of KRCV-1 into four cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) resulted in a self-limiting nonlethal disease characterized by depressive behavioral changes, disturbance in coagulation parameters, and liver enzyme elevations. In contrast, i.m. injection of SHFV resulted in typical lethal SHF characterized by mild fever, lethargy, lymphoid depletion, lymphoid and hepatocellular necrosis, low platelet counts, increased liver enzyme concentrations, coagulation abnormalities, and increasing viral loads. As hypothesized based on the genetic and presumed antigenic distance between KRCV-1 and SHFV, all four macaques that had survived KRCV-1 injection died of SHF after subsequent SHFV injection, indicating a lack of protective heterotypic immunity. Our data indicate that SHF is a disease of macaques that in all likelihood can be caused by a number of distinct simian arteriviruses, although with different severity depending on the specific arterivirus involved. Consequently, we recommend that current screening procedures for SHFV in primate-holding facilities be modified to detect all known simian arteriviruses. PMID:26908578

  4. Activation of innate immunity in healthy Macaca mulatta macaques by a single subcutaneous dose of GMP CpG 7909: safety data and interferon-inducible protein-10 kinetics for humans and macaques.

    PubMed

    Stewart, V Ann; McGrath, Shannon; Krieg, Arthur M; Larson, Noelle S; Angov, Evelina; Smith, Christopher L; Brewer, Thomas G; Heppner, D Gray

    2008-02-01

    Following a demonstration that mouse-optimized cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides stimulated innate immune protection against intracellular pathogens, we tested the ability of CpG 7909, a primate-optimized Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, to stimulate rhesus macaques to produce interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), a biomarker of immune activation. This study was performed prior to a similar trial with humans in order to facilitate the development of CpG 7909 as an immunomodulator for biodefense. A single subcutaneous dose of clinical-grade CpG 7909 was given to four groups of healthy adult rhesus macaques (0-mg dose [n = 5], 0.75-mg dose [n = 9], 1.5-mg dose [n = 9], and 3.0-mg dose [n = 9]). Directed physical examination findings, clinical laboratory values, and serum IP-10 concentrations were collected at scheduled intervals for 28 days. All three dose levels of CpG 7909 were safe and not associated with significant clinical or laboratory abnormality. The time to peak serum IP-10 concentration was 1.0 days at the 0.75-mg dose and 0.5 days at the 1.5- and 3.0-mg doses. A dose-dependent response was observed for the magnitude and duration of IP-10 concentrations, which remained significantly above baseline for 3 days for the 3.0-mg and 1.5-mg dose groups but above baseline for only 2 days for the 0.75-mg dose group. There were no nonresponders to CpG 7909. These rhesus macaque safety and IP-10 response data closely parallel a subsequent phase 1 human study of subcutaneously administered CpG 7909. A single dose of clinical-grade CpG 7909 induced a rapid, sustained IP-10 response, a biomarker for activation of the innate immune system. Given the similar susceptibilities of humans and rhesus macaques to infectious diseases, the rhesus macaque appears to be a suitable model to evaluate the potential of CpG 7909-mediated innate immune activation to protect humans against pathogens.

  5. Complex processing of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia sp.) by free-ranging long-tailed macaques: preliminary analysis for hierarchical organisation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Amanda W Y; Luncz, Lydia; Haslam, Michael; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Complex food-processing techniques by gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans have allowed comparisons of complex hierarchical cognition between great apes and humans. Here, we analyse preliminary observations of free-ranging long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) (n = 3) in Thailand processing Opuntia sp. cactus fruits. From our observations, we suggest that there is potential to extend the analyses of hierarchical cognition to Old World monkeys. We found that the macaques used six behavioural sequences to obtain Opuntia fruits, remove irritant hairs from the skin of the fruits, and break open, and consume the fruits, each a unique combination of 17 action elements. Removing irritant hairs involved abrading fruits on a sand or rock substrate, and washing fruit in water. The behavioural sequences that macaques use to process Opuntia potentially show features of hierarchical organisation described in the leaf-processing behaviours of great apes. Our observations highlight the need for closer study of complex food-processing behaviour in monkeys to better understand the organisational capacities involved.

  6. Population dynamics of a group of lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) inhabiting a rainforest fragment in the Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Krishna, B A; Singh, Mridula; Singh, Mewa

    2006-01-01

    We observed the overall population dynamics and number of births and deaths in identified individuals between January 2002 and October 2005, in a large group of lion-tailed macaques in the Anaimalai Hills of the Western Ghats in the south Indian state of Tamilnadu. The group inhabited an isolated rainforest fragment located inside a private tea/coffee garden. The group size increased from 56 in January 2002 to 84 in October 2005. All females reproduced, and the interbirth interval was 23.18 months. Of the 37 infants born between 2002 and 2005, only 1 died providing an infant survivorship rate of about 97.3%. Although births occurred in all months, most of the infants were born between February and March, and this pattern of births was consistent over the years, indicating a major birth peak in this species. The population growth rate in this unusually large group was found to be higher than even in those groups of lion-tailed macaques that inhabit large and relatively undisturbed rainforest complexes. This high growth rate could be attributed to the availability of abundant cultivated fruit plants including commercial crops such as coffee seeds. The observations provide a perspective for the management of other groups of this endangered species inhabiting rainforest fragments.

  7. A Practical Approach for Designing Breeding Groups to Maximize Genetic Diversity in a Large Colony of Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Vinson, Amanda; Raboin, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Limited guidance is available on practical approaches for maintaining genetic diversity in large NHP colonies that support biomedical research, despite the fact that reduced diversity in these colonies is likely to compromise the application of findings in NHP to human disease. In particular, constraints related to simultaneously housing, breeding, and providing ongoing veterinary care for thousands of animals with a highly complex social structure creates unique challenges for genetic management in these colonies. Because the composition of new breeding groups is a critical component of genetic management, here we outline a 3-stage protocol for forming new breeding groups of NHP that is aimed at maximizing genetic diversity in the face of frequent restrictions on age, sex, and numbers of animals per breeding group. As an example application of this protocol, we describe optimal combinations of rhesus macaques from an analysis of candidate animals available for breeding in July 2013, selected from among the approximately 4000 macaques maintained at the Oregon National Primate Research Center. In addition, a simulation study to explore the genetic diversity in breeding groups formed by using this protocol, indicated an approximate 10-fold higher genome uniqueness, 50% lower mean kinship, and an 84-fold lower mean inbreeding coefficient among potential offspring within groups, when compared with a suboptimal group design. We conclude that this protocol provides a practical and effective approach to breeding group design for colony managers who want to prevent the loss of genetic diversity in large, semiisolated NHP colonies.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a new simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 from naturally infected celebes macaques (Macaca tonkeana): complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic relationship with the Australo-Melanesian human T-cell leukemia virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, F; de Thé, G; Gessain, A

    1995-01-01

    A study of simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) infection in a captive colony of 23 Macaca tonkeana macaques indicated that 17 animals had high human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antibody titers. Genealogical analysis suggested mainly a mother-to-offspring transmission of this STLV-1. Three long-term T-cell lines, established from peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures from three STLV-1-seropositive monkeys, produced HTLV-1 Gag and Env antigens and retroviral particles. The first complete nucleotide sequence of an STLV-1 (9,025 bp), obtained for one of these isolates, indicated an overall genetic organization similar to that of HTLV-1 but with a nucleotide variability for the structural genes ranging from 7.8 to 13.1% compared with the HTLV-1 ATK and STLV-1 PTM3 Asian prototypes. The Tax and Rex regulatory proteins were well conserved, while the pX region, known to encode new proteins in HTLV-1 (open reading frames I and II), was more divergent than that in the ATK strain. Furthermore, a fragment of 522 bp of the gp21 env gene from uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNAs from five of the STLV-1-infected monkeys was sequenced. Phylogenetic trees constructed with the long terminal repeat and env (gp46 and gp21) regions demonstrated that this new STLV-1 occupies a unique position within the Asian STLV-1 and HTLV-1 isolates, being, by most analyses, related more to the Australo-Melanesian HTLV-1 topotype than to any other Asian STLV-1. These data raise new hypotheses on the possible interspecies viral transmission between monkeys carrying STLV-1 and early Australoid settlers, ancestors of the present day Australo-Melanesian inhabitants, during their migrations from the Southeast Asian land mass to the greater Australian continent. PMID:7474117

  9. The Macaque Social Responsiveness Scale (mSRS): A Rapid Screening Tool for Assessing Variability in the Social Responsiveness of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Feczko, Eric J; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Walum, Hasse; Pruett, John R; Parr, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying human neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has been hindered by the lack of a robust, translational animal model. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) display many of the same social behaviors that are affected in ASD, making them an excellent animal species in which to model social impairments. However, the social impairments associated with ASD may reflect extreme ends of a continuous distribution of traits. Thus, to validate the rhesus monkey as an animal model for studying social impairments that has strong translational relevance for ASD, researchers need an easily-implemented measurement tool that can quantify variation in social behavior dimensionally. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a 65-item survey that identifies both typical and atypical social behaviors in humans that covary with ASD symptom severity. A chimpanzee SRS has already been validated and the current study adapted this tool for use in the rhesus monkey (mSRS). Fifteen raters completed the mSRS for 105 rhesus monkeys living at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. The mSRS scores showed a unimodal distribution with a positive skew that identified 6 statistical outliers. Inter-rater reliability was very strong, but only 17 of the 36 questions showed positive intra-item reliability. The results of an exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that explained over 60% of the variance, with 12 items significantly loading onto the primary factor. These items reflected behaviors associated with social avoidance, social anxiety or inflexibility and social confidence. These initial findings are encouraging and suggest that variability in the social responsiveness of rhesus monkeys can be quantified using the mSRS: a tool that has strong translational relevance for human disorders. With further modification, the mSRS may provide an promising new direction for research on the biological mechanisms underlying

  10. Effects of a Mechanical Response-Contingent Surrogate on the Development of Behaviors in Nursery-Reared Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Rebecca L; Blake, Jennifer; Willits, Neil; Rommeck, Ina; McCowan, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Nursery-reared infants have several behavioral and physiologic differences from their mother-reared counterparts. We investigated whether a response-contingent surrogate mitigated some of those differences by decreasing fearfulness and partner-clinging and increasing environmental exploration in nursery-reared infants continuously paired with a peer. Six nursery-reared infant rhesus macaques (in pairs) were given a mechanical responsive surrogate (RS), and 6 (in pairs) were given an identical but nonresponsive surrogate (NRS). The 2 treatment groups were compared and then combined into a single group of all 12 of surrogate-exposed animals (CS) that was compared with a nonsurrogate control group (NS) of 10 nursery-reared infants. Results showed significant differences between CS and NS infants but no significant differences between the RS and NRS infants. As compared with NS infants, CS infants showed less partner-clinging, less affiliation directed toward only partner, and more foraging and tactile–oral exploration of the environment. These advantageous effects support additional research to develop improved surrogate and the implementation of surrogate programs for nursery-reared infants. PMID:25255068

  11. The first case of dental flossing by a Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata): implications for the determinants of behavioral innovation and the constraints on social transmission.

    PubMed

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Huffman, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    We report the first case of dental flossing behavior by a Japanese macaque. We used cross-sectional data to assess the presence of this novel tool-use behavior at the group-level. Although this behavior was performed frequently by a central middle-ranking middle-aged female during her grooming interactions, and appeared at least four years ago, it remained idiosyncratic to its innovator, and until now has not spread to other group members. We examined the factors that may have favored this innovation, including the environmental context, the individual characteristics of the innovator, and the structural and functional aspects of the behavior. Group size, kinship, and dominance are socio-demographic factors that are likely to limit the opportunities for any group member to observe the innovator, and thus constrain the diffusion of this potential candidate as a new behavioral tradition. This is one of the rare studies to document the spontaneous appearance of tool-use behavior in primates under natural conditions. Identifying the determinants of innovations and the constraints on their diffusion within social groups of non-human primates is of special interest to understanding cultural evolution.

  12. Social correlates of the dominance rank and long-term cortisol levels in adolescent and adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaoli; Wu, Xujun; Morrill, Ryan J.; Li, Zhifei; Li, Chunlu; Yang, Shangchuan; Li, Zhaoxia; Cui, Ding; Lv, Longbao; Hu, Zhengfei; Zhang, Bo; Yin, Yong; Guo, Liyun; Qin, Dongdong; Hu, Xintian

    2016-01-01

    A common pattern in dominance hierarchies is that some ranks result in higher levels of psychosocial stress than others. Such stress can lead to negative health outcomes, possibly through altered levels of stress hormones. The dominance rank-stress physiology relationship is known to vary between species; sometimes dominants show higher levels of glucocorticoid stress hormones, whereas in other cases subordinates show higher levels. It is less clear how this relationship varies between groups of different ages or cultures. In this study, we used long-term cortisol measurement methods to compare the effect of rank on cortisol levels in adult and adolescent male rhesus macaques. In the adult groups, subordinates had significantly higher cortisol levels. In the adolescents, no significant correlation between cortisol and status was found. Further analysis demonstrated that the adult hierarchy was stricter than that of the adolescents. Adult subordinates received extreme aggression more frequently than dominants, and this class of behavior was positively correlated with cortisol; by contrast, adolescents showed neither trend. Together, these findings provide evidence for a cortisol-rank relationship determined by social factors, namely, despotism of the group, and highlight the importance of group-specific social analysis when comparing or combining results obtained from different groups of animals. PMID:27145729

  13. An Empirical Comparison of Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) for Relatedness Estimation in Chinese Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Cody T.; Weise, Jessica A.; Bonnar, Sarah; Nolin, David; Trask, Jessica Satkoski; Smith, David Glenn; Ferguson, Betsy; Ha, James; Kubisch, H. Michael; Vinson, Amanda; Kanthaswamy, Sree

    2015-01-01

    We compare the effectiveness of short tandem repeat (STR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes for estimating pairwise relatedness, using molecular data and pedigree records from a captive Chinese rhesus macaque population at the California National Primate Research Center. We find that a panel of 81 SNPs is as effective at estimating first-order kin relationships as a panel of 14 highly polymorphic STRs. We note, however, that the selected STRs provide more precise predictions of relatedness than the selected SNPs, and may be preferred in contexts that require the discrimination of kin related more distantly than first-order relatives. Additionally, we compare the performance of three commonly used relatedness estimation algorithms, and find that the Wang [2002] algorithm outperforms other algorithms when analyzing STR data, while the Queller and Goodnight [1994] algorithm outperforms other algorithms when analyzing SNP data. Future research is needed to address the number of SNPs required to reach the discriminatory power of a standard STR panel in relatedness estimation for primate colony management. PMID:24273109

  14. Whole-scalp EEG mapping of somatosensory evoked potentials in macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gindrat, Anne-Dominique; Quairiaux, Charles; Britz, Juliane; Brunet, Denis; Lanz, Florian; Michel, Christoph M; Rouiller, Eric M

    2015-07-01

    High-density scalp EEG recordings are widely used to study whole-brain neuronal networks in humans non-invasively. Here, we validate EEG mapping of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) for the long-term investigation of large-scale neuronal networks and their reorganisation after lesions requiring a craniotomy. SSEPs were acquired from 33 scalp electrodes in five adult anaesthetized animals after electrical median or tibial nerve stimulation. SSEP scalp potential maps were identified by cluster analysis and identified in individual recordings. A distributed, linear inverse solution was used to estimate the intracortical sources of the scalp potentials. SSEPs were characterised by a sequence of components with unique scalp topographies. Source analysis confirmed that median nerve SSEP component maps were in accordance with the somatotopic organisation of the sensorimotor cortex. Most importantly, SSEP recordings were stable both intra- and interindividually. We aim to apply this method to the study of recovery and reorganisation of large-scale neuronal networks following a focal cortical lesion requiring a craniotomy. As a prerequisite, the present study demonstrated that a 300-mm(2) unilateral craniotomy over the sensorimotor cortex necessary to induce a cortical lesion, followed by bone flap repositioning, suture and gap plugging with calcium phosphate cement, did not induce major distortions of the SSEPs. In conclusion, SSEPs can be successfully and reproducibly recorded from high-density EEG caps in macaque monkeys before and after a craniotomy, opening new possibilities for the long-term follow-up of the cortical reorganisation of large-scale networks in macaque monkeys after a cortical lesion.

  15. The effect of SNP discovery method and sample size on estimation of population genetic data for Chinese and Indian rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Trask, Jessica A Satkoski; Malhi, Ripan S; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Johnson, Jesse; Garnica, Wendy T; Malladi, Venkat S; Smith, David Glenn

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to address issues regarding sample size and marker location that have arisen from the discovery of SNPs in the genomes of poorly characterized primate species and the application of these markers to the study of primate population genetics. We predict the effect of discovery sample size on the probability of discovering both rare and common SNPs and then compare this prediction with the proportion of common and rare SNPs discovered when different numbers of individuals are sequenced. Second, we examine the effect of genomic region on estimates of common population genetic data, comparing markers from both coding and non-coding regions of the rhesus macaque genome and the population genetic data calculated from these markers, to measure the degree and direction of bias introduced by SNPs located in coding versus non-coding regions of the genome. We found that both discovery sample size and genomic region surveyed affect SNP marker attributes and population genetic estimates, even when these are calculated from an expanded data set containing more individuals than the original discovery data set. Although none of the SNP detection methods or genomic regions tested in this study was completely uninformative, these results show that each has a different kind of genetic variation that is suitable for different purposes, and each introduces specific types of bias. Given that each SNP marker has an individual evolutionary history, we calculated that the most complete and unbiased representation of the genetic diversity present in the individual can be obtained by incorporating at least 10 individuals into the discovery sample set, to ensure the discovery of both common and rare polymorphisms.

  16. Poster: the macaque genome.

    PubMed

    2007-04-13

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) facilitates an extraordinary range of biomedical and basic research, and the publication of the genome only makes it a more powerful model for studies of human disease; moreover, the macaque's position relative to humans and chimpanzees affords the opportunity to learn about the processes that have shaped the last 25 million years of primate evolution. To allow users to explore these themes of the macaque genome, Science has created a special interactive version of the poster published in the print edition of the 13 April 2007 issue. The interactive version includes additional text and exploration, as well as embedded video featuring seven scientists discussing the importance of the macaque and its genome sequence in studies of biomedicine and evolution. We have also created an accompanying teaching resource, including a lesson plan aimed at teachers of advanced high school life science students, for exploring what a comparison of the macaque and human genomes can tell us about human biology and evolution. These items are free to all site visitors.

  17. A suitable method for the detection of a potential fraud of bringing macaque monkey meat into the food chain.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Nur Raifana Abdul; Ali, Md Eaqub; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Rahman, Md Mahfujur; Razzak, Md Abdur; Asing; Amin, Md Al

    2015-01-01

    Being the third-largest primate population has not made macaque (Macaca fascicularis sp.) monkeys less exposed to threats and dangers. Despite wildlife protection, they have been widely hunted and consumed in several countries because of their purported nutritional values. In addition to trading as pure bush meats in several places, monkey meat has been sold in meatball and soup products in Indonesia. Thus the possibility of macaque meat trafficking under the label of common meats is quite high. This paper reports the development of a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay with the shortest amplicon length for the confirmed detection of monkey meat under compromised states which are known to degrade DNA. We amplified a 120-bp region of d-loop gene using a pair of macaque-specific primers and confirmed their specificity for the target species through cross-challenging against 17 different species using a 141-bp site of an 18 S rRNA gene as an endogenous control for eukaryotes. This eliminated the possibilities of any false-negative detection with complex matrices or degraded specimens. The detection limit was 0.00001 ng DNA in a pure state and 0.1% of meat in mixed matrices and commercial meatball products. RFLP analysis further authenticated the originality of the PCR product and distinctive restriction patterns were found upon AluI and CViKI-1 digestion. A micro-fluidic lab-on-a-chip automated electrophoretic system separated the fragments with high resolution. The assay was validated for screening commercial meatball products with sufficient internal control.

  18. A Nonhuman Primate Scrub Typhus Model: Protective Immune Responses Induced by pKarp47 DNA Vaccination in Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Suchismita; Jiang, Ju; Nawtaisong, Pruksa; Lee, John S.; Tan, Esterlina; Dela Cruz, Eduardo; Burgos, Jasmin; Abalos, Rodolfo; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Lombardini, Eric; Turner, Gareth D.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Richards, Allen L.

    2015-01-01

    We developed an intradermal (ID) challenge cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) model of scrub typhus, the leading cause of treatable undifferentiated febrile illness in tropical Asia, caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium, Orientia tsutsugamushi. A well-characterized animal model is required for the development of clinically relevant diagnostic assays and evaluation of therapeutic agents and candidate vaccines. We investigated scrub typhus disease pathophysiology and evaluated two O. tsutsugamushi 47-kDa, Ag-based candidate vaccines, a DNA plasmid vaccine (pKarp47), and a virus-vectored vaccine (Kp47/47-Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle) for safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy against homologous ID challenge with O. tsutsugamushi Karp. Control cynomolgus macaques developed fever, classic eschars, lymphadenopathy, bacteremia, altered liver function, increased WBC counts, pathogen-specific Ab (IgM and IgG), and cell-mediated immune responses. Vaccinated macaques receiving the DNA plasmid pKarp47 vaccine had significantly increased O. tsutsugamushi–specific, IFN-γ–producing PBMCs (p = 0.04), reduced eschar frequency and bacteremia duration (p ≤ 0.01), delayed bacteremia onset (p < 0.05), reduced circulating bacterial biomass (p = 0.01), and greater reduction of liver transaminase levels (p < 0.03) than controls. This study demonstrates a vaccine-induced immune response capable of conferring sterile immunity against high-dose homologous ID challenge of O. tsutsugamushi in a nonhuman primate model, and it provides insight into cell-mediated immune control of O. tsutsugamushi and dissemination dynamics, highlights the importance of bacteremia indices for evaluation of both natural and vaccine-induced immune responses, and importantly, to our knowledge, has determined the first phenotypic correlates of immune protection in scrub typhus. We conclude that this model is suitable for detailed investigations into vaccine

  19. Genetic diversity and differentiation of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) population in western Sichuan, China, based on the second exon of the major histocompatibility complex class II DQB (MhcMamu-DQB1) alleles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstracts Background Rhesus macaques living in western Sichuan, China, have been separated into several isolated populations due to habitat fragmentation. Previous studies based on the neutral or nearly neutral markers (mitochondrial DNA or microsatellites) showed high levels of genetic diversity and moderate genetic differentiation in the Sichuan rhesus macaques. Variation at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci is widely accepted as being maintained by balancing selection, even with a low level of neutral variability in some species. However, in small and isolated or bottlenecked populations, balancing selection may be overwhelmed by genetic drift. To estimate microevolutionary forces acting on the isolated rhesus macaque populations, we examined genetic variation at Mhc-DQB1 loci in 119 wild rhesus macaques from five geographically isolated populations in western Sichuan, China, and compared the levels of MHC variation and differentiation among populations with that previously observed at neutral microsatellite markers. Results 23 Mamu-DQB1 alleles were identified in 119 rhesus macaques in western Sichuan, China. These macaques exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity at Mamu-DQB1. The Hanyuan population presented the highest genetic variation, whereas the Heishui population was the lowest. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and pairwise FST values showed moderate genetic differentiation occurring among the five populations at the Mhc-DQB1 locus. Non-synonymous substitutions occurred at a higher frequency than synonymous substitutions in the peptide binding region. Levels of MHC variation within rhesus macaque populations are concordant with microsatellite variation. On the phylogenetic tree for the rhesus and crab-eating macaques, extensive allele or allelic lineage sharing is observed betweenthe two species. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses confirm the apparent trans-species model of evolution of the Mhc-DQB1 genes in these

  20. Influenza A Virus Challenge Models in Cynomolgus Macaques Using the Authentic Inhaled Aerosol and Intra-Nasal Routes of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, Anthony C.; Dennis, Mike; Kane, Jennifer A.; Gooch, Karen E.; Hatch, Graham; Sharpe, Sally; Prevosto, Claudia; Leeming, Gail; Zekeng, Elsa-Gayle; Staples, Karl J.; Hall, Graham; Ryan, Kathryn A.; Bate, Simon; Moyo, Nathifa; Whittaker, Catherine J.; Hallis, Bassam; Silman, Nigel J.; Lalvani, Ajit; Wilkinson, Tom M.; Hiscox, Julian A.; Stewart, James P.; Carroll, Miles W.

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates are the animals closest to humans for use in influenza A virus challenge studies, in terms of their phylogenetic relatedness, physiology and immune systems. Previous studies have shown that cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are permissive for infection with H1N1pdm influenza virus. These studies have typically used combined challenge routes, with the majority being intra-tracheal delivery, and high doses of virus (> 107 infectious units). This paper describes the outcome of novel challenge routes (inhaled aerosol, intra-nasal instillation) and low to moderate doses (103 to 106 plaque forming units) of H1N1pdm virus in cynomolgus macaques. Evidence of virus replication and sero-conversion were detected in all four challenge groups, although the disease was sub-clinical. Intra-nasal challenge led to an infection confined to the nasal cavity. A low dose (103 plaque forming units) did not lead to detectable infectious virus shedding, but a 1000-fold higher dose led to virus shedding in all intra-nasal challenged animals. In contrast, aerosol and intra-tracheal challenge routes led to infections throughout the respiratory tract, although shedding from the nasal cavity was less reproducible between animals compared to the high-dose intra-nasal challenge group. Intra-tracheal and aerosol challenges induced a transient lymphopaenia, similar to that observed in influenza-infected humans, and greater virus-specific cellular immune responses in the blood were observed in these groups in comparison to the intra-nasal challenge groups. Activation of lung macrophages and innate immune response genes was detected at days 5 to 7 post-challenge. The kinetics of infection, both virological and immunological, were broadly in line with human influenza A virus infections. These more authentic infection models will be valuable in the determination of anti-influenza efficacy of novel entities against less severe (and thus more common) influenza infections. PMID

  1. Influenza A Virus Challenge Models in Cynomolgus Macaques Using the Authentic Inhaled Aerosol and Intra-Nasal Routes of Infection.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Anthony C; Dennis, Mike; Kane, Jennifer A; Gooch, Karen E; Hatch, Graham; Sharpe, Sally; Prevosto, Claudia; Leeming, Gail; Zekeng, Elsa-Gayle; Staples, Karl J; Hall, Graham; Ryan, Kathryn A; Bate, Simon; Moyo, Nathifa; Whittaker, Catherine J; Hallis, Bassam; Silman, Nigel J; Lalvani, Ajit; Wilkinson, Tom M; Hiscox, Julian A; Stewart, James P; Carroll, Miles W

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates are the animals closest to humans for use in influenza A virus challenge studies, in terms of their phylogenetic relatedness, physiology and immune systems. Previous studies have shown that cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are permissive for infection with H1N1pdm influenza virus. These studies have typically used combined challenge routes, with the majority being intra-tracheal delivery, and high doses of virus (> 107 infectious units). This paper describes the outcome of novel challenge routes (inhaled aerosol, intra-nasal instillation) and low to moderate doses (103 to 106 plaque forming units) of H1N1pdm virus in cynomolgus macaques. Evidence of virus replication and sero-conversion were detected in all four challenge groups, although the disease was sub-clinical. Intra-nasal challenge led to an infection confined to the nasal cavity. A low dose (103 plaque forming units) did not lead to detectable infectious virus shedding, but a 1000-fold higher dose led to virus shedding in all intra-nasal challenged animals. In contrast, aerosol and intra-tracheal challenge routes led to infections throughout the respiratory tract, although shedding from the nasal cavity was less reproducible between animals compared to the high-dose intra-nasal challenge group. Intra-tracheal and aerosol challenges induced a transient lymphopaenia, similar to that observed in influenza-infected humans, and greater virus-specific cellular immune responses in the blood were observed in these groups in comparison to the intra-nasal challenge groups. Activation of lung macrophages and innate immune response genes was detected at days 5 to 7 post-challenge. The kinetics of infection, both virological and immunological, were broadly in line with human influenza A virus infections. These more authentic infection models will be valuable in the determination of anti-influenza efficacy of novel entities against less severe (and thus more common) influenza infections.

  2. Spatial Relational Memory in 9-Month-Old Macaque Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys ("Macaca mulatta"). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in…

  3. Seeing the Experimenter Influences the Response to Pointing Cues in Long-Tailed Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Vanessa; Schloegl, Christian; Fischer, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Methodological variations in experimental conditions can strongly influence animals' performances in cognitive tests. Specifically, the procedure of the so-called object-choice task has been controversially discussed; here, a human experimenter indicates the location of hidden food by pointing or gazing at one of two or more containers. Whereas dogs usually succeed, results for nonhuman primates are ambiguous. In the standard version of the task the majority of subjects do not respond appropriately to human pointing. However, modifying the task setup, such as placing the containers further apart, seems to improve subjects' performances, suggesting that cue salience may be an important variable. Here we investigated whether the visibility of the experimenter inhibits long-tailed macaques' (Macaca fascicularis) usage of the pointing cue. In our baseline condition, with the experimenter fully visible, the monkeys chose the correct container in 61% of the trials. The performance increased significantly, however, when the experimenter was hidden behind a curtain and only the arm of the experimenter, a doll's arm, or a stick was visible. Furthermore, the monkeys performed significantly better when the tip of the pointing finger or device was close to the target compared to the more distant condition. Intriguingly, after these experiments the monkeys' performance was also significantly improved in the baseline condition (70%). Apparently, the monkeys were first distracted by the presence of the experimenter, but then learned to use the cue. These findings highlight the importance of the test conditions, and question some of the assumptions about species-specific differences in the object-choice task. PMID:24646501

  4. Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders in Neuronal Xenotransplanted Macaques.

    PubMed

    Cavicchioli, L; Ferraresso, S; Westmoreland, S; Kaliyaperumal, S; Knight, H; Crossan, C; Scobie, L; Danesi, A; Vadori, M; Trez, D; Badin, R Aron; Hantraye, P; Cozzi, E

    2017-03-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoid proliferations that occur in the setting of depressed T-cell function due to immunosuppressive therapy used following solid organ transplantation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and also xenotransplantation. In the present study, 28 immunosuppressed parkinsonian Macaca fascicularis were intracerebrally injected with wild-type or CTLA4-Ig transgenic porcine xenografts to identify a suitable strategy to enable long-term cell survival, maturation, and differentiation. Nine of 28 (32%) immunosuppressed primates developed masses compatible with PTLD, located mainly in the gastrointestinal tract and/or nasal cavity. The masses were classified as monomorphic PTLD according to the World Health Organization classification. Immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses revealed that the PTLDs were associated with macaca lymphocryptovirus as confirmed by double-labeling immunohistochemistry for CD20 and Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2), where the viral protein was located within the CD20+ neoplastic B cells. In sera from 3 distinct phases of the experimental life of the primates, testing by quantitative PCR revealed a progression of the viral load that paralleled the PTLD progression and no evidence of zoonotic transmission of porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus through xenoneuronal grafts. These data suggest that monitoring the variation of macaca lymphocryptovirus DNA in primates could be used as a possible early diagnostic tool for PTLD progression, allowing preemptive treatment such as immunosuppression therapy reduction.

  5. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  6. Assessment of obesity in pigtailed monkeys (Macaca nemestrina).

    PubMed

    Walike, B C; Goodner, C J; Koerker, D J; Chideckel, E W; Kalnasy, L W

    1977-01-01

    Obesity was studied in a colony of 873 Macaca nemestrina to establish tools for epidemiologic studies, to examine a genetic form of obesity, to document age/sex relationships to obesity, and to compare metabolic profiles of obese and normal monkeys. Age/weight growth curves were analyzed to select the most obese monkeys and age- and sex-matched normal controls. Degree of adiposity was determined using tritiated water for estimation of lean body mass. Body weight, anterior trunk height, and abdominal and triceps skinfolds were measured. Fasting insulin, fasting free fatty acids, and glucose disappearance rate were determined. The results give evidence of similarities between macaque and human obestiy.

  7. Pheochromocytoma in Old World Primates (Macaca mulatta and Chlorocebus aethiops).

    PubMed

    Colgin, L M A; Schwahn, D J; Castillo-Alcala, F; Kiupel, M; Lewis, A D

    2016-11-01

    Pheochromocytoma, a rarely reported adrenal gland neoplasm in Old World primates, was diagnosed in 5 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and 2 African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) from 3 research institutions. Age and sex were available for 6 primates. Two males and 4 females were affected, ranging in age from 9 to 31 years. All neoplasms were unilateral and, in the cases reporting the affected gland, 4 involved the right adrenal gland and 2 involved the left. Diagnosis was established by characteristic histologic features. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells in all cases expressed chromogranin A and met-enkephalin and were negative for melan-A and inhibin. Six of 7 tumors were positive for β-endorphin. Pulmonary metastases were present in 2 rhesus macaques and portal vein invasion in 1 African green monkey. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of malignant pheochromocytoma in Old World primates.

  8. Evolutionary and biomedical insights from the rhesus macaque genome.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Katze, Michael G; Bumgarner, Roger; Weinstock, George M; Mardis, Elaine R; Remington, Karin A; Strausberg, Robert L; Venter, J Craig; Wilson, Richard K; Batzer, Mark A; Bustamante, Carlos D; Eichler, Evan E; Hahn, Matthew W; Hardison, Ross C; Makova, Kateryna D; Miller, Webb; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Palermo, Robert E; Siepel, Adam; Sikela, James M; Attaway, Tony; Bell, Stephanie; Bernard, Kelly E; Buhay, Christian J; Chandrabose, Mimi N; Dao, Marvin; Davis, Clay; Delehaunty, Kimberly D; Ding, Yan; Dinh, Huyen H; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Fulton, Lucinda A; Gabisi, Ramatu Ayiesha; Garner, Toni T; Godfrey, Jennifer; Hawes, Alicia C; Hernandez, Judith; Hines, Sandra; Holder, Michael; Hume, Jennifer; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad Mohid; Kirkness, Ewen F; Cree, Andrew; Fowler, R Gerald; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora R; Li, Zhangwan; Liu, Yih-Shin; Moore, Stephanie M; Muzny, Donna; Nazareth, Lynne V; Ngo, Dinh Ngoc; Okwuonu, Geoffrey O; Pai, Grace; Parker, David; Paul, Heidie A; Pfannkoch, Cynthia; Pohl, Craig S; Rogers, Yu-Hui; Ruiz, San Juana; Sabo, Aniko; Santibanez, Jireh; Schneider, Brian W; Smith, Scott M; Sodergren, Erica; Svatek, Amanda F; Utterback, Teresa R; Vattathil, Selina; Warren, Wesley; White, Courtney Sherell; Chinwalla, Asif T; Feng, Yucheng; Halpern, Aaron L; Hillier, Ladeana W; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Minx, Pat; Nelson, Joanne O; Pepin, Kymberlie H; Qin, Xiang; Sutton, Granger G; Venter, Eli; Walenz, Brian P; Wallis, John W; Worley, Kim C; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Jones, Steven M; Marra, Marco A; Rocchi, Mariano; Schein, Jacqueline E; Baertsch, Robert; Clarke, Laura; Csürös, Miklós; Glasscock, Jarret; Harris, R Alan; Havlak, Paul; Jackson, Andrew R; Jiang, Huaiyang; Liu, Yue; Messina, David N; Shen, Yufeng; Song, Henry Xing-Zhi; Wylie, Todd; Zhang, Lan; Birney, Ewan; Han, Kyudong; Konkel, Miriam K; Lee, Jungnam; Smit, Arian F A; Ullmer, Brygg; Wang, Hui; Xing, Jinchuan; Burhans, Richard; Cheng, Ze; Karro, John E; Ma, Jian; Raney, Brian; She, Xinwei; Cox, Michael J; Demuth, Jeffery P; Dumas, Laura J; Han, Sang-Gook; Hopkins, Janet; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Kim, Young H; Pollack, Jonathan R; Vinar, Tomas; Addo-Quaye, Charles; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Denby, Alexandra; Hubisz, Melissa J; Indap, Amit; Kosiol, Carolin; Lahn, Bruce T; Lawson, Heather A; Marklein, Alison; Nielsen, Rasmus; Vallender, Eric J; Clark, Andrew G; Ferguson, Betsy; Hernandez, Ryan D; Hirani, Kashif; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard; Kolb, Jessica; Patil, Shobha; Pu, Ling-Ling; Ren, Yanru; Smith, David Glenn; Wheeler, David A; Schenck, Ian; Ball, Edward V; Chen, Rui; Cooper, David N; Giardine, Belinda; Hsu, Fan; Kent, W James; Lesk, Arthur; Nelson, David L; O'brien, William E; Prüfer, Kay; Stenson, Peter D; Wallace, James C; Ke, Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Peng; Xiang, Andy Peng; Yang, Fan; Barber, Galt P; Haussler, David; Karolchik, Donna; Kern, Andy D; Kuhn, Robert M; Smith, Kayla E; Zwieg, Ann S

    2007-04-13

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied biomedical research. We determined the genome sequence of an Indian-origin Macaca mulatta female and compared the data with chimpanzees and humans to reveal the structure of ancestral primate genomes and to identify evidence for positive selection and lineage-specific expansions and contractions of gene families. A comparison of sequences from individual animals was used to investigate their underlying genetic diversity. The complete description of the macaque genome blueprint enhances the utility of this animal model for biomedical research and improves our understanding of the basic biology of the species.

  9. Ulcerative cheilitis in a rhesus macaque.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C C; Miller, A D

    2012-03-01

    A 2-year-old, female, simian immunodeficiency virus E543-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) was presented for necropsy following euthanasia due to a history of diarrhea, weight loss, and a small, round ulcer along the left labial commissure. Histopathologic examination of the ulcer revealed infiltration by large numbers of degenerate and nondegenerate neutrophils and macrophages admixed with syncytial epithelial cells. Rare epithelial cells contained herpetic inclusion bodies. These cells stained positive for Human herpesvirus 1 via immunohistochemistry, and DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of closely related Macacine herpesvirus 1 (B virus).

  10. Developmental and Cross-Situational Stability in Infant Pigtailed Macaque Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Adrienne; Ha, James

    2011-01-01

    We assessed developmental stability and context generalizability of temperament in pigtailed macaques ("Macaca nemestrina") from the University of Washington Infant Primate Research Lab. A principal components analysis condensed 6 behavioral measures into 2 components, interpreted as reactivity and boldness. Changes in these measures over the 1st…

  11. Trisomy 16 in a Pigtailed Macaque ("M. nemestrina") with Multiple Anomalies and Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruppenthal, Gerald C.; Moore, Charleen M.; Best, Robert G.; Walker-Gelatt, Coleen G.; Delio, Patrick J.; Sackett, Gene P.

    2004-01-01

    A female pigtailed macaque ("Macaca nemestrina") with unusual physical characteristics, deficits in learning and cognitive tasks, abnormal social behavior, and abnormal reflexes and motor control was followed from birth until 3 years of age and found to have trisomy 16, which is homologous to trisomy 13 in humans. The animal described here showed…

  12. Plasticity of Ability to Form Cross-Modal Representations in Infant Japanese Macaques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi, Ikuma; Kuwahata, Hiroko; Fujita, Kazuo; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study, Adachi, Kuwahata, Fujita, Tomonaga & Matsuzawa demonstrated that infant Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) form cross-modal representations of conspecifics but not of humans. However, because the subjects in the experiment were raised in a large social group and had considerably less exposure to humans than to…

  13. Spontaneous Representations of Small Numbers of Objects by Rhesus Macaques: Examinations of Content and Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Marc D.; Carey, Susan

    2003-01-01

    The project of comparative cognition benefits from common measures across species. We report here on five experiments using the violation of expectancy looking time measure with free-ranging rhesus macaques ("Macaca mulatta"), each designed to build on current knowledge concerning spontaneous representations of number. Each subject, tested in only…

  14. Personality structure and social style in macaques.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mark James; Majolo, Bonaventura; Ostner, Julia; Schülke, Oliver; De Marco, Arianna; Thierry, Bernard; Engelhardt, Antje; Widdig, Anja; Gerald, Melissa S; Weiss, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Why regularities in personality can be described with particular dimensions is a basic question in differential psychology. Nonhuman primates can also be characterized in terms of personality structure. Comparative approaches can help reveal phylogenetic constraints and social and ecological patterns associated with the presence or absence of specific personality dimensions. We sought to determine how different personality structures are related to interspecific variation in social style. Specifically, we examined this question in 6 different species of macaques, because macaque social style is well characterized and can be categorized on a spectrum of despotic (Grade 1) versus tolerant (Grade 4) social styles. We derived personality structures from adjectival ratings of Japanese (Macaca fuscata; Grade 1), Assamese (M. assamensis; Grade 2), Barbary (M. sylvanus; Grade 3), Tonkean (M. tonkeana; Grade 4), and crested (M. nigra; Grade 4) macaques and compared these species with rhesus macaques (M. mulatta; Grade 1) whose personality was previously characterized. Using a nonparametric method, fuzzy set analysis, to identify commonalities in personality dimensions across species, we found that all but 1 species exhibited consistently defined Friendliness and Openness dimensions, but that similarities in personality dimensions capturing aggression and social competence reflect similarities in social styles. These findings suggest that social and phylogenetic relationships contribute to the origin, maintenance, and diversification of personality.

  15. Challenges in oral administration of metronidazole dissolved in drinking water to rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Labberton, Linda; Bakker, Jaco; Klomp, Rianne; Langermans, Jan A M; van Geijlswijk, Ingeborg M

    2013-06-01

    Intestinal pathogens such as Entamoeba spp. and Giardia spp. protozoans are not uncommon among rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in research facilities. These infections affect the health of the macaques, potentially causing severe diarrhea, and also pose a risk of zoonotic transmission to human caretakers. Infections must therefore be treated, but no standard treatment for intestinal protozoans in macaques has been developed. Metronidazole is commonly used to treat infections with Giardia spp. and Entamoeba spp. in veterinary medicine, but evidence-based information on effectiveness and dosages for nonhuman primates is lacking, and administration of drugs to nonhuman primates is challenging. The authors designed a study to determine whether oral administration of metronidazole dissolved in drinking water would be successful in rhesus macaques. They monitored daily fluid intake of macaques given water with or without metronidazole and with or without flavored syrup. Metronidazole addition, with or without flavored syrup, resulted in a decrease in fluid intake. Although it was possible to administer metronidazole in drinking water to some macaques, the authors conclude that this strategy is not a practical clinical method because of variation in the amount of water and metronidazole ingested by the macaques.

  16. Forest seasonality shapes diet of limestone-living rhesus macaques at Nonggang, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chuangbin; Huang, Libin; Huang, Zhonghao; Krzton, Ali; Lu, Changhu; Zhou, Qihai

    2016-01-01

    Limestone forests are an unusual habitat for primates, but little information is available for the genus Macaca in such habitats, making a comparative understanding of extant limestone primates' behavioral adaptation incomplete. We collected data on the diet of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in a limestone habitat at Nonggang Nature Reserve, southwestern Guangxi, China, and examined the effects of forest seasonality on their diet. Our results indicated that a total of 114 species of plants are consumed by macaques. Young leaves are a preferred food, accounting for 48.9 and 56.9% of the overall diets. One group significantly increased young leaf consumption in response to availability. Fruits contributed to only 27.3 and 28.7% of overall diet. The macaque diet varied according to season. They fed on more fruits in the rainy season. Consumption of mature leaves increased when the availability of young leaves and fruits declined in the dry season, indicating that mature leaves are a fallback food for macaques in a limestone habitat. Similar to sympatric Assamese macaques, Bonia saxatilis, a shrubby, karst-endemic bamboo was consumed by rhesus macaques throughout the year, and was the top food species through most of the year, suggesting that bamboo consumption represents a key factor in the macaque's dietary adaptation to limestone habitat.

  17. Enhanced immunogenicity of a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F subunit vaccine formulated with the adjuvant GLA-SE in cynomolgus macaques.

    PubMed

    Patton, Kathryn; Aslam, Shahin; Shambaugh, Cindy; Lin, Rui; Heeke, Darren; Frantz, Chris; Zuo, Fengrong; Esser, Mark T; Paliard, Xavier; Lambert, Stacie L

    2015-08-26

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes significant disease in elderly adults, but an effective vaccine is not yet available. We have previously reported that vaccines consisting of engineered respiratory syncytial virus soluble fusion protein (RSV sF) adjuvanted with glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) in an oil-in-water emulsion (stable emulsion [SE]) induce RSV F-specific T and B cell responses in mice and rats that protect from viral challenge. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity of GLA-SE adjuvanted RSV sF vs unadjuvanted RSV sF vaccines in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). RSV F-specific IgG, RSV neutralizing antibodies, and RSV F-specific T cell IFNγ ELISPOT responses induced by GLA-SE adjuvanted RSV sF peaked at week 6 at significantly higher levels than achieved by unadjuvanted RSV sF and remained detectable through week 24, demonstrating response longevity. Two weeks after a week 24 booster immunization, humoral and cellular responses reached levels similar to those seen at the earlier peak response. Importantly, the GLA-SE adjuvanted RSV sF vaccine induced cross-neutralizing antibodies to other RSV A and B strains as well as F-specific IgA and IgG memory B cells. GLA-SE adjuvanted RSV sF was also demonstrated to drive a Th1-biased response characterized by more IFNγ than IL-4. This study indicates that a GLA-SE adjuvanted RSV sF vaccine induces robust humoral and Th1-biased cellular immunity in non-human primates and may benefit human populations at risk for RSV disease.

  18. Evaluation of two monkey species (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis) as possible models for human Helicobacter pylori disease.

    PubMed Central

    Euler, A R; Zurenko, G E; Moe, J B; Ulrich, R G; Yagi, Y

    1990-01-01

    Endoscopic, histologic, and microbiologic evaluations of 21 cynomolgus and 34 rhesus monkeys for naturally occurring Helicobacter pylori infection were done. H. pylori was never isolated from any cynomolgus monkey, but was found in 12 rhesus monkeys. A general correlation existed between a positive culture and a gastric inflammatory response. Inoculation challenges were then undertaken. Four cynomolgus and five rhesus monkeys received two different H. pylori strains isolated from humans. Five rhesus monkeys received an isolate obtained from rhesus monkeys. Evaluation of the cynomolgus monkeys 7 and 14 days later revealed no H. pylori. Endoscopies of the rhesus monkeys were done 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days later. One rhesus monkey, which received the isolate from humans, became H. pylori positive at day 21 and remained positive through day 56. Restriction enzyme analysis of genomic DNA at day 56 revealed that the isolate was not identical to the challenge strain isolated from humans. All five rhesus monkeys that received the strain isolated from rhesus monkeys became H. pylori positive by day 14 and remained positive through day 56 Antral inflammation developed in all monkeys. Restriction enzyme analysis of genomic DNA on day 56 confirmed that four of five isolates were identical to the challenge strain isolated from rhesus monkeys. DNA hybridization documented homology between the challenge strains isolated from humans and rhesus monkeys plus those isolated at day 56. In this study, we showed that the rhesus monkey, if given a strain of H. pylori isolated from rhesus monkeys, develops a gastric infection with accompanying histological changes, making this model suitable for further development. Images PMID:2229353

  19. Particle-to-PFU Ratio of Ebola Virus Influences Disease Course and Survival in Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Alfson, Kendra J.; Avena, Laura E.; Beadles, Michael W.; Staples, Hilary; Nunneley, Jerritt W.; Ticer, Anysha; Dick, Edward J.; Owston, Michael A.; Reed, Christopher; Patterson, Jean L.; Carrion, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study addresses the role of Ebola virus (EBOV) specific infectivity in virulence. Filoviruses are highly lethal, enveloped, single-stranded negative-sense RNA viruses that can cause hemorrhagic fever. No approved vaccines or therapies exist for filovirus infections, and infectious virus must be handled in maximum containment. Efficacy testing of countermeasures, in addition to investigations of pathogenicity and immune response, often requires a well-characterized animal model. For EBOV, an obstacle in performing accurate disease modeling is a poor understanding of what constitutes an infectious dose in animal models. One well-recognized consequence of viral passage in cell culture is a change in specific infectivity, often measured as a particle-to-PFU ratio. Here, we report that serial passages of EBOV in cell culture resulted in a decrease in particle-to-PFU ratio. Notably, this correlated with decreased potency in a lethal cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) model of infection; animals were infected with the same viral dose as determined by plaque assay, but animals that received more virus particles exhibited increased disease. This suggests that some particles are unable to form a plaque in a cell culture assay but are able to result in lethal disease in vivo. These results have a significant impact on how future studies are designed to model EBOV disease and test countermeasures. IMPORTANCE Ebola virus (EBOV) can cause severe hemorrhagic disease with a high case-fatality rate, and there are no approved vaccines or therapies. Specific infectivity can be considered the total number of viral particles per PFU, and its impact on disease is poorly understood. In stocks of most mammalian viruses, there are particles that are unable to complete an infectious cycle or unable to cause cell pathology in cultured cells. We asked if these particles cause disease in nonhuman primates by infecting monkeys with equal infectious doses of genetically

  20. First joint record of Mesopithecus and cf. Macaca in the Miocene of Europe.

    PubMed

    Alba, David M; Delson, Eric; Carnevale, Giorgio; Colombero, Simone; Delfino, Massimo; Giuntelli, Piero; Pavia, Marco; Pavia, Giulio

    2014-02-01

    Cercopithecid fossil remains from the post-evaporitic Messinian (5.40-5.33 Ma, MN13, latest Turolian, latest Miocene) locality of Moncucco Torinese (Tertiary Piedmont Basin, NW Italy) are described. A talus is assigned to the fossil colobine Mesopithecus pentelicus, while a proximal fragment of ulna and a male lower canine are attributed to cf. Me. pentelicus. An isolated I(2) and M3 are assigned to the papionin cf. Macaca sp., and two cercopithecid phalanges are left unassigned even to the subfamily level. The record of Mesopithecus at Moncucco Torinese agrees well with the previously-known range of this species in Italy and elsewhere in Europe, whereas that of cf. Macaca constitutes only the second occurrence of macaques in the Miocene of Eurasia. Although the co-occurrence of these two genera in a single locality had been previously reported in the Pliocene, this is the first instance in which macaques are associated with the Late Miocene M. pentelicus instead of Mesopithecus monspessulanus. The record of cf. Macaca and Mesopithecus-and especially the latter's talar morphology, similar to that of extant arboreal colobines-fits well with paleoenvironmental reconstructions of Moncucco Torinese based on the associated fauna, which indicate a humid and densely-forested environment, probably with more open and drier habitats nearby. From a paleobiogeographic viewpoint, the record of Macaca at Moncucco Torinese, together with the previously reported occurrence at Almenara-Casablanca M (Spain), supports the contention that macaques dispersed from Africa into Europe during the latest Miocene (ca. 5.9-5.3 Ma) at the same time as the sea level drop associated with the Messinian Salinity Crisis.

  1. Executive-Attentional Uncertainty Responses by Rhesus Macaques ("Macaca mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Coutinho, Mariana V. C.; Church, Barbara A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty response has been influential in studies of human perception, and it is crucial in the growing research literature that explores animal metacognition. However, the uncertainty response's interpretation is still sharply debated. The authors sought to clarify this interpretation using the dissociative technique of cognitive loads…

  2. Spontaneous telangiectatic osteosarcoma in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, B; Calado, M I Z; Resende, F C; Caldas, R M; Pinto, L W; Lopes, C A A; França, F G O; Meireles, B S; Souza, I V

    2017-04-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of bone cancer, especially in young. Telangiectatic osteosarcoma (TO) is a rare variant of OS, and hence, its occurrence, presentation, and prognosis are poorly understood. A 4-year-old female rhesus monkey presenting lameness and swelling was examined for a mass on the right humerus. Radiography revealed fracture and disorganized structure of bone tissue. Histopathological examination revealed malignant neoplasm composed of anaplastic osteoblasts, which invaded the bone marrow and surrounded blood-filled cysts in the epiphysis and diaphysis forming septa. Cytogenetic analysis showed aneuploid cells, supernumerary AgNORs, and a marker fragment. The neoplasm was diagnosed as TO. To our knowledge, the occurrence of TO and its cytogenetic analysis were reported for the first time in non-human primates.

  3. Recent refinements to cranial implants for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jessica M; Cohen, Yale E; Shirley, Harry; Tsunada, Joji; Bennur, Sharath; Christison-Lagay, Kate; Veeder, Christin L

    2016-05-01

    The advent of cranial implants revolutionized primate neurophysiological research because they allow researchers to stably record neural activity from monkeys during active behavior. Cranial implants have improved over the years since their introduction, but chronic implants still increase the risk for medical complications including bacterial contamination and resultant infection, chronic inflammation, bone and tissue loss and complications related to the use of dental acrylic. These complications can lead to implant failure and early termination of study protocols. In an effort to reduce complications, we describe several refinements that have helped us improve cranial implants and the wellbeing of implanted primates.

  4. Serial Cognition and Personality in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Altschul, Drew M.; Terrace, Herbert S.; Weiss, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations between serial cognition and personality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Nine macaques were tested on a simultaneous chaining task to assess their cognitive abilities. They were also rated for personality traits and scored according to a previously extracted six component structure derived from free-ranging rhesus macaques. Friendliness and Openness were positively associated with good performance on three measures of accuracy on the serial learning task: Progress, Error, and Rewarded (i.e., correctly completed) Trials. Faster Reaction Times were associated with lower Friendliness and higher Confidence, as well as higher Openness when only correct responses were analyzed. We also used regularized exploratory factor analysis to extract two, three, four, five, and six factor structures, and found consistent associations between accuracy and single factors within each of these structures. Prior results on intelligence in other nonhuman primate species have focused on basic intelligence tests; this study demonstrates that more complex, abstract cognitive tasks can be used to assess intelligence and personality in nonhuman primates. PMID:27158661

  5. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys.

  6. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    CUI, Ding; ZHOU, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status. PMID:26646570

  7. Histopathology of Incidental Findings in Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca Fascicularis) Used in Toxicity Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Junko; Doi, Takuya; Kanno, Takeshi; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru; Narama, Isao

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our publication is to widely communicate pictures of spontaneous findings occurring in cynomolgus monkeys. Focal lymphoplasmacytic infiltration is commonly seen in the general organs. The frequency and severity of these lesions may be influenced by the administration of drugs with an effect on the immune system. Lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the lamina propria of the stomach is also frequently seen in cynomolgus monkeys, and it is caused mainly by a Helicobacter pylori infection. Various degrees of brown pigments are observed in various organs, and it is possible to distinguish the material of the pigments by its morphological features and site. A focal/segmental glomerular lesion is occasionally seen in a section of the kidney, and the minimal lesion has no influence on the urinalysis. We showed the common glomerular lesions in HE-stained sections, as well as in PAM- or PAS-stained sections, for understanding the details. Young and pubertal monkeys are usually used in toxicity studies; therefore, understanding various maturation stages of the genital system is important. In particular, the female genital system needs to be understood in the morphology, because their cyclic changes are different from other laboratory animals. Thus, we present the normal features of the cyclic changes of the female genital organs. Furthermore, we provide more information on spontaneous findings in cynomolgus monkeys for exact diagnoses in toxicity studies. PMID:22481861

  8. Structural and functional definition of the motor cortex in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Sessle, B J; Wiesendanger, M

    1982-02-01

    1. The details of the organization of the motor cortex and its anterior and posterior border were investigated in three monkeys by a combination of techniques including intracortical microstimulation (i.c.m.s.), electrophysiological recording of cutaneous and muscle afferent inputs to single cortical neurones, and electrophysiological and anatomical identification of corticospinal neurones; in addition, data from these methods were related to cortical cytoarchitecture.2. Almost 5000 individual cortical loci were tested with i.c.m.s. in the unanaesthetized monkeys. In this paper, we particularly consider the organization of the forelimb motor representation, and its relation to the representation of other parts of the body. I.c.m.s. thresholds of about 5 muA were common for evoking twitch movements and e.m.g. responses in distal forelimb and face, jaw and tongue muscles, but proximal forelimb, trunk and hind-limb movements also sometimes had such low thresholds.3. The fingers were found to be represented nearest the central sulcus, with horseshoe-shaped bands of cortical tissue representing progressively more proximal muscles situated around this central ;finger core'.4. Cytoarchitectonically, the cortex having these low-threshold motor effects was characteristic of area 4. There was also a close fit between the extent of this ;excitable cortex' and the extent of densely spaced corticospinal neurones identified electro-physiologically or with horseradish peroxidase labelling. In subsequent mapping of forelimb afferents to the cortex when the animal was deeply anaesthetized, low-threshold and short-latency responses to muscle nerve stimulation were rarely found in this ;excitable cortex'.5. The anterior border could be clearly established by i.c.m.s. and by the sharp boundary of corticospinal neurones. It was noted that the motor cortex extends rostrally beyond area 4 and its anterior border appears to reside in the posterior part of area 6aalpha (Vogt & Vogt, 1919) although it is difficult to establish the precise transition from area 4 to area 6.6. Posteriorly, the ;micro-excitable cortex' was found to be limited to regions cytoarchitectonically delineated as area 4 and did not include area 3a. On the other hand, low-threshold forelimb proprioceptive afferent inputs appeared restricted to area 3a neurones in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Corticospinal neurones were very dense in area 4, and there was a clear decrease in their occurrence in more caudal areas. However, scattered nests of corticospinal neurones were noted in areas 3a, 3b, 2, 1 and 5. It remains to be seen whether these scattered nests could be directly involved in motor control or whether they may modulate ascending somatosensory transmission, and whether they rely on sensory feed-back or inputs from other central areas for their spinal effects.

  9. Monitoring gene expression in muscle tissue of macaca fascicularis under the influence of testosterone and SARM.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Martina; Tichopad, Ales; Riedmaier, Irmgard; Pfaffl, Michael W; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to evaluate data on the gene expression profiles induced by testosterone and a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM, TAP Pharmaceutical Products Inc., Lake Forest, IL, USA) in androgen sensitive muscle tissue to obtain a better understanding on the molecular mechanisms of action and to identify biomarkers for SARM function in primate organs. A total of 24 male cyomolgus monkeys were divided into four groups: testosterone group, SARM1 group, SARM10 group, and control group, each consisting of six animals. The testosterone group was treated i.m. with 3.0 mg/kg Testostoviron®-depot-250 (Schering, Berlin, Germany) every 2 weeks, the SARM1 and SARM10 groups with 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg SARM LGD2941 daily, and the control group was not treated. Muscle biopsies from musculus quadriceps and musculus triceps were collected at three time points: baseline time point before SARM application (control), on day 16, and on day 90 of treatment. A total of 30 candidate genes were selected according to their functionality by screening the actual literature and were composed to the following functional groups: cell cycle, endocrine factors, energy metabolism, muscle fiber proteins, muscle specific transcription factors, protein metabolism, and satellite cell biology. Biomarkers were identified as genes regulated from baseline in any of the three treatment groups at day 16 or day 90 using analysis of variance with baseline defined as the contrast group. Out of 23 tested candidate genes, 3 were significantly regulated in m. quadriceps after 90 days treatment; in m. triceps no significant differences were identified. Cathepsin L, calpain 3, and insulin like growth factor binding protein 3 could be identified as first biomarkers, and first physiological differences between control and treatment samples were determined. Both testosterone and SARM LGD2941 appear to have similar effects after 90 days treatment, and thus a longer-term therapy with these substances can be recommended.

  10. Sexual dimorphism of sulcal length asymmetry in the cerebrum of adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Imai, Noritaka; Sawada, Kazuhiko; Fukunishi, Katsuhiro; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Fukui, Yoshihiro

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to quantitatively clarify the gross anatomical asymmetry and sexual dimorphism of the cerebral hemispheres of cynomolgus monkeys. While the fronto-occipital length of the right and left cerebral hemispheres was not different between sexes, a statistically significant rightward asymmetry was detected in the cerebral width at the perisylvian region in females, but not in males (narrower width of the left side in the females). An asymmetry quotient of the sulcal lengths revealed a rightward asymmetry in the inferior occipital sulcus and a leftward asymmetry in the central and intraparietal sulci in both sexes. However, the laterality of the lengths of other sulci was different for males and females. The arcuate sulcus was directed rightward in males but there was no rightward bias in females. Interestingly, the principle sulcus and lateral fissure were left-lateralized in the males, but right-lateralized in the females. The results suggest that lateralization patterns are regionally and sexually different in the cerebrum of cynomolgus monkeys. The present results provide a reference for quantitatively evaluating the normality of the cerebral cortical morphology in cynomolgus monkeys.

  11. Postnatal change in sulcal length asymmetry in cerebrum of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kazuhito; Sawada, Kazuhiko; Fukunishi, Katsuhiro; Noritaka, Imai; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Yoshihiro, Fukui

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the timing of the onset of adult-type sulcal length asymmetry during postnatal development of the male cynomolgus monkey cerebrum. The monkey brain has already reached adult size by 3 months of age, although the body weight only represents 1/8 of the adult body weight by that time. The fronto-occipital length and the cerebral width also reached adult levels by that postnatal age with no left/right bias. Consistently, lengths of the major primary sulci reached adult levels by 3 months of age, and then decreased slightly in sexually mature monkeys (4-6.5 years of age). Asymmetry quotient analysis showed that sulcal length asymmetry patterns gradually changed during postnatal development. The male adult pattern of sulcal length asymmetry was acquired after 24 months of age. In particular, age-dependent rightward lateralization of the arcuate sulcal length was revealed during cerebral maturation by three-way ANOVA. The results suggest that the regional difference in cerebral maturation from adolescence to young adulthood modifies the sulcal morphology with characteristic asymmetric patterns in male cynomolgus monkeys.

  12. Reference values of clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) used in preclinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Kyu; Cho, Jae-Woo; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Park, Heejin; Han, Ji-Seok; Yang, Mi-Jin; Im, Wan-Jung; Park, Do-Yong; Kim, Woo-Jin; Han, Su-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are increasingly used in biomedical research since they are highly homologous to humans compared to other rodent animals. However, there is limited reliable reference data of the clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys, and in particular, only some coagulation and urinalysis parameters have been reported. Here, we reported the reference data of clinical chemical, hematological, blood coagulation, and urinalysis parameters in cynomolgus monkeys. The role of sex differences was analyzed and several parameters (including hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cell, blood urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine kinase, gamma-glutamyl tranferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) significantly differed between male and female subjects. In addition, compared to previous study results, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase showed significant variation. Interstudy differences could be affected by several factors, including age, sex, geographic origin, presence/absence of anesthetics, fasting state, and the analytical methods used. Therefore, it is important to deliberate with the overall reference indices. In conclusion, the current study provides a comprehensive and updated reference data of the clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys and provides improved assessment criteria for evaluating preclinical studies or biomedical research. PMID:27382375

  13. An epizootic of lymphoplasmacytic gastritis attributed to Helicobacter pylori infection in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Reindel, J F; Fitzgerald, A L; Breider, M A; Gough, A W; Yan, C; Mysore, J V; Dubois, A

    1999-01-01

    An epizootic of subclinical lymphoplasmacytic gastritis occurred in cynomolgus monkeys maintained at our research facility. Gastric pathology data and histologic sections of 63 adolescent monkeys (2.5-3.5 years old) sacrificed during the epizootic were reviewed. Localized to multifocal reddening of the gastric mucosa was noted grossly in 7 of 44 (16%) monkeys harboring Helicobacter pylori, but not in any of 19 monkeys in which these bacteria were not seen. Gastritis, characterized by accentuation of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in antral and to a lesser degree cardiac mucosa, occurred in 42 of 63 (67%) monkeys evaluated and in 42 of 44 (93%) monkeys in which H. pylori was observed microscopically. Two monkeys with H. pylori infection had infiltrate scores that overlapped with the upper limit of scores of H. pylori-negative animals. Coincident with accentuated infiltrates were gastric gland epithelial hyperplasia, reduction in mucin content of surface and gland epithelia, and comparatively minor infiltrates of neutrophils in superficial lamina propria and gastric glands. Antral mucosa thickness often exceeded 1.5 to 2 times normal. Antral mucosal erosions occurred in 7 of 44 (16%) monkeys with H. pylori. Argyrophilic bacteria morphologically consistent with H. pylori were present in antral and less commonly cardiac mucosal glands. Intensity of bacterial colonization correlated with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates (r = 0.754) and hyperplasia (r = 0.700), although responses were quite variable. These bacteria were not detected in fundic mucosa except in instances where parietal cells were substantially depleted in glands coincident with localized increases in lamina propria inflammatory cell infiltrates. Helicobacter heilmannii-like organisms (HHLOs) were present in fundic glands of all 63 monkeys; colonization was often pronounced. Scores for fundic mucosal inflammation did not correlate with presence or intensity of colonization with HHLOs (r = 0.005). Rather, fundic inflammation scores positively correlated with the antral inflammation scores (r = 0.548). Bacteria morphologically, biochemically, and genetically consistent with H. pylori were cultured from gastric mucosal specimens confirming bacterial identification. These findings demonstrate that adolescent cynomolgus monkeys are susceptible to natural infection with H. pylori and develop many morphologic hallmarks of H. pylori-related gastritis in humans.

  14. Limited susceptibility of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) to leprosy after experimental administration of Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Gerald P; Dela Cruz, Eduardo C; Abalos, Rodolfo M; Tan, Esterlina V; Fajardo, Tranquilino T; Villahermosa, Laarni G; Cellona, Roland V; Balagon, Maria V; White, Valerie A; Saunderson, Paul R; Walsh, Douglas S

    2012-08-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are a useful model for human tuberculosis, but susceptibility to M. leprae is unknown. A cynomolgus model of leprosy could increase understanding of pathogenesis-importantly, neuritis and nerve-damaging reactions. We administered viable Mycobacterium leprae to 24 cynomolgus monkeys by three routes, with a median follow-up period of 6 years (range = 1-19 years) involving biopsies, nasal smears, antiphenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) antibody serology, and lepromin skin testing. Most developed evanescent papules at intradermal M. leprae inoculation sites that, on biopsy, showed a robust cellular immune response akin to a lepromin skin test reaction; many produced PGL-1 antibodies. At necropsy, four monkeys, without cutaneous or gross neurological signs of leprosy but with elevated PGL-1 antibodies, including three with nasal smears (+) for acid fast bacilli (AFB), showed histological features, including AFB, suggestive of leprosy at several sites. Overall, however, cynomolgus monkeys seem minimally susceptible to leprosy after experimental M. leprae administration.

  15. Antibody Responses in the Nonhuman Primate, Macaca Fascicularis, to Protein Toxins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    LITERATURE REVIEW A. General Animal models have been used in the past for investigation and manipulation of disease related parameters which cannot be... IgG4 A. The data reflect an expression of each subclass proportionally related to the total IgG response. to z z w z 01 U’) CD) C) (Ua 0s )S1A aGI 89...0, IgG2 +, IgG3 0, IgG4 A. The data reflect an expression of each subclass proportionally related to the total IgG response. 0O m z z, w U)Iz U) 2

  16. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan

    2015-11-18

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status.

  17. The cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) is the best animal model for the study of steroid glucuronidation.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Olivier; Bélanger, Alain

    2003-06-01

    Intense research efforts performed during the past decade clearly established the major role of glucuronidation and uridine-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes for steroid metabolism in humans. However, a clear understanding of the physiological importance of this metabolic process requires in vivo studies. Numerous evidences ascertain that simians are the most appropriate animal models for such studies. Indeed human and monkey have a similar pattern of steroidogenesis, unlike common laboratory mammals such as rat or mouse. Furthermore, human and monkey are unique in having high levels of circulating androsterone glucuronide and androstane-3alpha-diol glucuronide (3alpha-Diol-G). In addition, characterization of eight monkey UGT proteins demonstrated the similarity of their conjugation activity toward steroid hormones. Like human ones, monkey enzymes are expressed in steroid target tissues, where they preferentially glucuronidate androgen and estrogen metabolites. In monkey tissues, immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that UGT2B proteins are expressed in a cell-type specific manner in ovary and kidney, where they control androgens and aldosterone inactivation. These results identify the cynomolgus monkey as an appropriate animal model for the determination of cellular localization of UGT enzymes in steroid target tissues and for the identification of endogenous or exogenous stimuli affecting steroid glucuronidation.

  18. Spontaneous cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a juvenile cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Rogerson, Petrina; Blanco, Ana L; Naylor, Stuart W; Bradley, Alys

    2012-08-01

    A neoplastic mass compressing the left cerebellar hemisphere and hindbrain was observed at trimming in a 3½-year-old male cynomolgus monkey from a control dose group. Microscopically, the neoplastic mass was nonencapsulated, invasive, and showed two morphological patterns. The predominant area consisted of densely packed undifferentiated, polygonal to spindle cells arranged in vague sheets supported by a scant fibrovascular stroma. The other area was less cellular and composed of round neoplastic cells separated by eosinophilic fibrillar material. Immunohistochemical staining for vimentin, synaptophysin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, neurofilament, and S-100 confirmed the presence of primitive undifferentiated neuroectodermal cells and some cells with neuronal or glial differentiation. On the basis of histopathology and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor with neuronal and glial differentiation was made. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are rare in animals including nonhuman primates; this is the first published report in this species.

  19. Mapping of FGF1 in the Medulla Oblongata of Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Bisem, Naomi J; Takeuchi, Shigeko; Imamura, Toru; Abdelalim, Essam M; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2012-12-26

    FGF1 is highly expressed in neurons and it has been proposed to play a role in the neuroprotection and in regeneration. Low FGF1 expression in neurons has been linked to increased vulnerability in cholinergic neurons. Previous reports have shown that the expression of FGF1 in rat brain is localized to the cholinergic nuclei of the medulla oblongata, with low ratio of neurons positive for FGF1 in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV). The role of FGF1 in the primate brain has yet to be clarified. In this study, we mapped FGF1 immunoreactivity in the medulla oblongata of cynomolgus monkey brainstems. Our results demonstrated that FGF1 immunoreactivity follows the pattern of distribution of cholinergic nuclei in the medulla oblongata; with strong localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus, the facial nucleus and the nucleus ambiguus. In contrast, the DMNV shows markedly lower FGF1 immunoreactivity. Localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons was only observed in the lateral region of the DMNV, with higher immunoreactivity in the rostral ventral-lateral region of the DMNV. These findings are consistent with the distribution of FGF1 immunoreactivity in previous studies of the rat brain.

  20. Hepatitis C Virus Infects Rhesus Macaque Hepatocytes and Simianized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Scull, Margaret A.; Shi, Chao; de Jong, Ype P.; Gerold, Gisa; Ries, Moritz; von Schaewen, Markus; Donovan, Bridget M.; Labitt, Rachael N.; Horwitz, Joshua A.; Gaska, Jenna M.; Hrebikova, Gabriela; Xiao, Jing W.; Flatley, Brenna; Fung, Canny; Chiriboga, Luis; Walker, Christopher M.; Evans, David T.; Rice, Charles M.; Ploss, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    At least 170 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Due to the narrow host range of HCV and restricted use of chimpanzees, there is currently no suitable animal model for HCV pathogenesis studies or the development of a HCV vaccine. To identify cellular determinants of interspecies transmission and establish a novel immunocompetent model system, we examined the ability of HCV to infect hepatocytes from a small non-human primate, the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). We show that the rhesus orthologs of critical HCV entry factors support viral glycoprotein-dependent virion uptake. Primary hepatocytes from rhesus macaques are also permissive for HCV RNA replication and particle production, which is enhanced when antiviral signaling is suppressed. We demonstrate that this may be due to the diminished capacity of HCV to antagonize MAVS-dependent innate cellular defenses. To test the ability of HCV to establish persistent replication in vivo, we engrafted primary rhesus macaque hepatocytes into immunocompromised xenorecipients. Inoculation of resulting simian liver chimeric mice with either HCV genotype 1a or 2a resulted in HCV serum viremia for up to 10 weeks. Conclusion: Together, these data indicate that rhesus macaques may be a viable model for HCV and implicate host immunity as a potential species-specific barrier to HCV infection. We conclude that suppression of host immunity or further viral adaptation may allow robust HCV infection in rhesus macaques and creation of a new animal model for studies of HCV pathogenesis, lentivirus coinfection and vaccine development. PMID:25820364

  1. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space.

    PubMed

    Drucker, Caroline B; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2014-07-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance, location, and spacing of the vertical array. We next asked whether monkeys show a spatially-oriented number mapping by testing their responses to the same five-element stimulus array rotated ninety degrees into a horizontal line. In these horizontal probe trials, monkeys preferentially selected the fourth position from the left, but not the fourth position from the right. Our results indicate that rhesus macaques map number onto space, suggesting that the association between number and space in human cognition is not purely a result of cultural experience and instead has deep evolutionary roots.

  2. The function of Barbary macaque copulation calls.

    PubMed Central

    Semple, S

    1998-01-01

    In a wide variety of animal species, females produce vocalizations specific to mating contexts. It has been proposed that these copulation calls function to incite males to compete for access to the calling female. Two separate advantages of inciting male-male competition in this way have been put forward. The first suggests that as a result of calling, females are only mated by the highest ranking male in the vicinity (indirect mate choice hypothesis). The second proposes that copulation calling results in a female being mated by many males, thus promoting competition at the level of sperm (sperm competition hypothesis). In this paper, I give results from the first experimental study to test these hypotheses. Playback was used to examine the function of copulation calls of female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in Gibraltar. Although rank did not affect lone males' likelihood of approaching copulation calls, when playbacks were given to pairs of males only the higher ranking individual approached. Moreover, females were mated significantly sooner after playback of their copulation call than after playback of a control stimulus. These results suggest that the copulation calls of female Barbary macaques play a key role in affecting patterns of male reproductive behaviour, not only providing an indirect mechanism of female choice, but also promoting sperm competition by reducing the interval between copulations. Potential fitness benefits of inciting male-male competition at these two levels are discussed. PMID:9523431

  3. Longitudinal assessment of pigtailed macaque lower genital tract microbiota by pyrosequencing reveals dissimilarity to the genital microbiota of healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Spear, Gregory T; Kersh, Ellen; Guenthner, Patricia; Vishwanathan, Sundaram Ajay; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Landay, Alan; Zheng, Luyang; Gillevet, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Vaginal bacterial communities play an important role in human health and have been shown to influence HIV infection. Pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) are used as an animal model of HIV vaginal infection of women. Since the bacterial microbiota could influence retrovirus infection of pigtailed macaques, the genital microbiota in 10 cycling macaques was determined by pyrosequencing. The microbiota of all macaques was polymicrobial with a median of 13 distinct genera. Strikingly, the genera Sneathia and Fusobacterium, both in the phylum Fusobacteria, accounted for 18.9% and 13.3% of sequences while the next most frequent were Prevotella (5.6%), Porphyromonas (4.1%), Atopobium (3.6%), and Parvimonas (2.6%). Sequences corresponding to Lactobacillus comprised only 2.2% of sequences on average and were essentially all L. amylovorus. Longitudinal sampling of the 10 macaques over an 8-week period, which spanned at least one full ovulatory cycle, showed a generally stable presence of the major types of bacteria with some exceptions. These studies show that the microbiota of the pigtailed macaques is substantially dissimilar to that found in most healthy humans, where the genital microbiota is usually dominated by Lactobacillus sp. The polymicrobial makeup of the macaque bacterial populations, the paucity of lactobacilli, and the specific types of bacteria present suggest that the pigtailed macaque microbiota could influence vaginal retrovirus infection.

  4. Longitudinal Assessment of Pigtailed Macaque Lower Genital Tract Microbiota by Pyrosequencing Reveals Dissimilarity to the Genital Microbiota of Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kersh, Ellen; Guenthner, Patricia; Vishwanathan, Sundaram Ajay; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M. Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Landay, Alan; Zheng, Luyang; Gillevet, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vaginal bacterial communities play an important role in human health and have been shown to influence HIV infection. Pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) are used as an animal model of HIV vaginal infection of women. Since the bacterial microbiota could influence retrovirus infection of pigtailed macaques, the genital microbiota in 10 cycling macaques was determined by pyrosequencing. The microbiota of all macaques was polymicrobial with a median of 13 distinct genera. Strikingly, the genera Sneathia and Fusobacterium, both in the phylum Fusobacteria, accounted for 18.9% and 13.3% of sequences while the next most frequent were Prevotella (5.6%), Porphyromonas (4.1%), Atopobium (3.6%), and Parvimonas (2.6%). Sequences corresponding to Lactobacillus comprised only 2.2% of sequences on average and were essentially all L. amylovorus. Longitudinal sampling of the 10 macaques over an 8-week period, which spanned at least one full ovulatory cycle, showed a generally stable presence of the major types of bacteria with some exceptions. These studies show that the microbiota of the pigtailed macaques is substantially dissimilar to that found in most healthy humans, where the genital microbiota is usually dominated by Lactobacillus sp. The polymicrobial makeup of the macaque bacterial populations, the paucity of lactobacilli, and the specific types of bacteria present suggest that the pigtailed macaque microbiota could influence vaginal retrovirus infection. PMID:22264029

  5. Neisseria infection of rhesus macaques as a model to study colonization, transmission, persistence, and horizontal gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Weyand, Nathan J.; Wertheimer, Anne M.; Hobbs, Theodore R.; Sisko, Jennifer L.; Taku, Nyiawung A.; Gregston, Lindsay D.; Clary, Susan; Higashi, Dustin L.; Biais, Nicolas; Brown, Lewis M.; Planer, Shannon L.; Legasse, Alfred W.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Wong, Scott W.; So, Magdalene

    2013-01-01

    The strict tropism of many pathogens for man hampers the development of animal models that recapitulate important microbe–host interactions. We developed a rhesus macaque model for studying Neisseria–host interactions using Neisseria species indigenous to the animal. We report that Neisseria are common inhabitants of the rhesus macaque. Neisseria isolated from the rhesus macaque recolonize animals after laboratory passage, persist in the animals for at least 72 d, and are transmitted between animals. Neisseria are naturally competent and acquire genetic markers from each other in vivo, in the absence of selection, within 44 d after colonization. Neisseria macacae encodes orthologs of known or presumed virulence factors of human-adapted Neisseria, as well as current or candidate vaccine antigens. We conclude that the rhesus macaque model will allow studies of the molecular mechanisms of Neisseria colonization, transmission, persistence, and horizontal gene transfer. The model can potentially be developed further for preclinical testing of vaccine candidates. PMID:23382234

  6. Methemoglobin and sulfhemoglobin formation due to benzocaine and lidocaine in macaques

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.G.; Woodard, C.L.; Gold, M.B.; Watson, C.E.; Baskin, S.I.

    1993-05-13

    Benzocaine (BNZ) and lidocaine (LC) are commonly used topical (spray) anesthetics approved for use in humans. BNZ has structural similarities to methemoglobin (MHb) forming drugs that are current candidates for cyanide prophylaxis, while LC has been reported to increase MHb in man. We therefore, compared MHb and sulfhemoglobin (SHb) production in three groups of Macaques (Macaca mulata, Chinese rhesus and Indian rhesus, and Macaca nemistrina, Pig-tailed Macaques) after exposure to BNZ and LC. Formation of SHb, unlike MHb, is not thought to be reversible and is considered to be toxic. MHb and SHb levels were measured periodically on a CO-Oximeter. All rhesus (n=8) were dosed intratrachealy/intranasaly with 56 mg and 280 mg BNZ and with 40 mg of LC in a randomized cross-over design. Pig-tailed macaques (n=6) were dosed with BNZ intranasaly 56 mg and with 40 mg of LC. Since no differences in the peak MHb or time to peak (mean +/- SD) were observed among the three macaque subspecies, the data were pooled. LC did not cause MHb or SHb formation above baseline in any monkey.

  7. Is Diet Flexibility an Adaptive Life Trait for Relictual and Peri-Urban Populations of the Endangered Primate Macaca sylvanus?

    PubMed Central

    Maibeche, Yasmina; Moali, Aissa; Yahi, Nassima; Menard, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss, fragmentation and urban expansion may drive some species to marginal habitats while others succeed in exploiting urban areas. Species that show dietary flexibility are more able to take advantage of human activities to supplement their diet with anthropogenically abundant and accessible resources. The Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) is an endangered species due to the loss of its habitat, and human pressure. The population of Gouraya National Park (Algeria) lives in a relictual habitat that constitutes about 0.6% of the species range. In addition, this population is a unique case where urban expansion favours contact zones between Barbary macaque habitats and a big city (Bejaia). We quantified the dietary composition of Gouraya macaques over an annual cycle with the objective to understand how diet flexibility of this species may help it adapt to a relictual habitat or cope with urban expansion. We recorded the phenology of plant species every month. This study shows that Gouraya macaques, compared to those living in other forest types of the distribution area, are under lower seasonal constraints. They consume a greater amount of fruit and seeds that are available throughout much of the year, and a lesser amount of costly to find and extract subterranean foods. Therefore the Gouraya relictual habitat appears as a favourable environment compared to other major habitats of that species. This study also shows that colonizing peri-urban zones increases the availability and species richness of diet resources for Barbary macaques as they consume more human foods and exotic plants than in farther sites. Adult males eat more human foods than adult females and immatures do. The exploitation of high-energy anthropogenic food could favour macaque population growth and expansion towards the city center associated with human/macaque conflicts. We recommend applying management actions to restore macaques back to their natural habitat. PMID:25714476

  8. Characterization and distribution of Mhc-DPB1 alleles in chimpanzee and rhesus macaque populations.

    PubMed

    Otting, N; Doxiadis, G G; Versluis, L; de Groot, N G; Anholts, J; Verduin, W; Rozemuller, E; Claas, F; Tilanus, M G; Bontrop, R E

    1998-10-01

    Allelic diversity at the nonhuman primate Mhc-DPB1 locus was studied by determining exon 2 nucleotide sequences. This resulted in the detection of 17 chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), 2 orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) and 16 rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) alleles. These were compiled with primate Mhc-DPB1 nucleotide sequences that were published previously. Based upon the results, a sequence specific oligotyping method was developed allowing us to investigate the distribution of Mhc-DPB1 alleles in distinct chimpanzee and rhesus macaque colonies. Like found in humans, chimpanzee and rhesus macaque populations originating from different geographic backgrounds appear to be characterized by the presence of a few dominant Mhc-DPB1 alleles.

  9. Sleep duration is affected by social relationships among sleeping partners in wild Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Mochida, Koji; Nishikawa, Mari

    2014-03-01

    Co-sleeping behaviour, such as sharing a sleeping site or bed, should play an important role in determining sleep structure in mammals by mitigating predation pressure and harsh abiotic conditions during sleep. Although environmental factors surrounding sleeping sites have been studied, there is very little information on the effects of the social environment within the site on sleep in animals other than humans. Here, we quantified the duration of nighttime sleep of wild primates during behavioural observations. Wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) form clusters at sleeping sites, where they huddle with group members. Macaques slept for longer when huddled in sleeping clusters with natal members than in those with non-natal members. A high degree of synchronisation of wakefulness in pairs of macaques huddling in non-natal clusters suggested that their sleep was often interrupted by the wakefulness of huddling members at night. Our results suggest that familiarity and closeness to huddling partners influence sleep duration.

  10. Simian Retrovirus 4 Induces Lethal Acute Thrombocytopenia in Japanese Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Sakaguchi, Shoichi; Nakagawa, So; Miura, Tomoyuki; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2001-2002, six of seven Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) died after developing hemorrhagic syndrome at the Kyoto University Primate Research Institute (KUPRI). While the cause of death was unknown at the time, we detected simian retrovirus 4 (SRV-4) in samples obtained from a similar outbreak in 2008-2011, during which 42 of 43 Japanese macaques died after exhibiting hemorrhagic syndrome. In this study, we isolated SRV-4 strain PRI-172 from a Japanese macaque showing severe thrombocytopenia. When inoculated into four Japanese macaques, the isolate induced severe thrombocytopenia in all within 37 days. We then constructed an infectious molecular clone of strain PRI-172, termed pSR415, and inoculated the clone-derived virus into two Japanese macaques. These animals also developed severe thrombocytopenia in just 31 days after inoculation, and the virus was reisolated from blood, bone marrow, and stool. At necropsy, we observed bleeding from the gingivae and subcutaneous bleeding in all animals. SRV-4 infected a variety of tissues, especially in digestive organs, including colon and stomach, as determined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining. Furthermore, we identified the SRV-4 receptor as ASCT2, a neutral amino acid transporter. ASCT2 mRNA was expressed in a variety of tissues, and the distribution of SRV-4 proviruses in infected Japanese macaques correlated well with the expression levels of ASCT2 mRNA. From these results, we conclude that the causative agent of hemorrhagic syndrome in KUPRI Japanese macaques was SRV-4, and its receptor is ASCT2. IMPORTANCE During two separate outbreaks at the KUPRI, in 2001-2002 and 2008-2011, 96% of Japanese macaques (JM) that developed an unknown hemorrhagic syndrome died. Here, we isolated SRV-4 from a JM developing thrombocytopenia. The SRV-4 isolate and a molecularly cloned SRV-4 induced severe thrombocytopenia in virus-inoculated JMs within 37 days. At necropsy, we

  11. SPL7013 gel as a topical microbicide for prevention of vaginal transmission of SHIV89.6P in macaques.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong-Hou; Emau, Peter; Cairns, J Scott; Flanary, Leon; Morton, William R; McCarthy, Tom D; Tsai, Che-Chung

    2005-03-01

    SPL7013 is a dendrimer with a polyanionic outer surface that allows multiple interactions with target sites. It potently binds and blocks HIV-1 and chimeric simian/HIV-1 viruses (SHIVs) replication in vitro. Gels containing different concentrations of SPL7013 were used as topical microbicides in female pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) to study their ability to prevent vaginal transmission of SHIV(89,6P). On virus challenge, all untreated macaques (8/8) and seven of eight macaques treated with placebo gel were infected within 2 weeks postinfection (PI) and showed high plasma viremia and dramatic CD4(+) cell decline within 4 weeks PI. In contrast, 6/6 macaques, 5/6 macaques, and 2/6 macaques treated with 5% w/w (50 mg/ml), 3% w/w (30 mg/ml), and 1% w/w (10 mg/ml) SPL7013 gels, respectively, resisted viral challenge. The results showed that animals treated with SPL7013 showed a dose-dependent resistance to virus challenge. Neither SPL7013 nor placebo gels produced any adverse effects following the single application in the study. These results showed that 3-5% w/w SPL7013 gels were effective in blocking vaginal transmission of SHIV in macaques after single gel application followed by single virus challenge. These results suggest that SPL7013 gel may be a promising anti-HIV microbicide formulation for further evaluation.

  12. Acquisition and functional consequences of social knowledge in macaques

    PubMed Central

    di Sorrentino, Eugenia Polizzi; Fischer, Julia; Schino, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    To manoeuvre in complex societies, it is beneficial to acquire knowledge about the social relationships existing among group mates, so as to better predict their behaviour. Although such knowledge has been firmly established in a variety of animal taxa, how animals acquire such knowledge, as well as its functional significance, remains poorly understood. In order to understand how primates acquire and use their social knowledge, we studied kin-biased redirected aggression in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) relying on a large database of over 15 000 aggressive episodes. Confirming previous research, macaques redirected aggression preferentially to the kin of their aggressor. An analysis that controlled for the rate of affiliation between aggressors and targets of redirection showed that macaques identified the relatives of group mates on the basis of the frequency of their ongoing associations. By contrast, having observed group mates interact with their mother as infants did not increase the monkeys' success in correctly identifying kin relationships among third parties. Inter-individual variation in the successful identification of the kin of aggressors and in redirecting aggression accordingly translated into differences in the amount of aggression received, highlighting a selective advantage for those individuals that were better able to acquire and use social knowledge. PMID:28386423

  13. Biological variables in the hair uptake of methylmercury from blood in the Macaque monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Mottet, N.K.; Body, R.L.; Wilkens, V.; Burbacher, T.M.

    1987-04-01

    The total mercury (Hg) in hair and blood of 45 young healthy adult female Macaque fascicularis given 0, 50, 70, or 90 ..mu..g MeHg/kg body wt orally in apple juice daily revealed a close and constant ratio between blood Hg and hair. The amount of hair Hg does not increase with time (maximum period of observation 490 days) at a given dose level. Also the ratio was unchanged between background and subtoxic dose levels. Individuals at a given dose level with a higher-than-average blood level had a proportionately higher hair level. The Macaque blood/hair ratio is markedly lower than that reported for humans. Pregnancy did not have an appreciable effect on the hair mercury level. Review of the known variables in human and Macaque hair growth and structures does not provide an explanation for the difference. They suggest that an as yet unidentified biological variable(s), possibly circumfollicular blood flow, could account for the difference. This ratio difference notwithstanding, controlled studies on Macaque hair such as this add support for the validity of terminal hair as a trace metal exposure indicator.

  14. Increased sexual behavior in male Macaca arctoides monkeys produced by atipamezole, a selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Linnankoski, I; Grönroos, M; Carlson, S; Pertovaara, A

    1992-05-01

    The effect of a highly selective and potent alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, atipamezole, on sexual behavior was studied in three stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides). Following IM administration of atipamezole or saline control, the behavior of the male monkey with a female monkey was observed for 30 min. Atipamezole dose dependently (0.01-0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg) produced a significant increase in the number of ejaculations in all three monkeys, including an old one with decreased sexual activity in control conditions. Both ejaculations obtained by copulation and masturbation were increased. It is concluded that atipamezole is effective in increasing sexual behavior in male stumptail monkeys.

  15. Evidence of Placentophagia and Mother-Infant Cannibalism in Free-Ranging Macaca mulatta tcheliensis in Mount Taihangshan, Jiyuan, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jundong; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Yongman; Garber, Paul A; Guo, Weijie; Kuang, San''ao; Lu, Jiqi

    2017-02-25

    Placentophagia or the consumption of the afterbirth is reported in many primate species, whereas cannibalism is a relatively rare event. Based on our field observations over the course of 3 years, we present evidence of placentophagia and mother-infant cannibalism in a free-ranging population of the Taihangshan macaque, Macaca mulatta tcheliensis, in the Mt. Taihangshan area, Jiyuan, Henan, China. We documented 1 case in which a mother consumed the afterbirth of her infant. In a second instance, we observed a fresh placenta discarded on the ground by an unknown individual. We also present a description of the first documented instance of mother-infant cannibalism in the same group of free-ranging rhesus macaques.

  16. Training rhesus macaques for venipuncture using positive reinforcement techniques: a comparison with chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Kristine; Pranger, Lindsay; Maier, Adriane; Lambeth, Susan P; Perlman, Jaine E; Thiele, Erica; Schapiro, Steven J

    2008-01-01

    As more emphasis is placed on enhancing the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates, many research facilities have started using positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques to train primates to voluntarily participate in husbandry and research procedures. PRT increases the animal's control over its environment and desensitizes the animal to stressful stimuli. Blood draw is a common husbandry and research procedure that can be particularly stressful for nonhuman primate subjects. Although studies have demonstrated that chimpanzees can be trained for in-cage venipuncture using PRT only, fewer studies have demonstrated success using similar techniques to train macaques. It is often assumed that macaques cannot be trained in the same manner as apes. In this study, we compare PRT data from singly housed adult rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 8) with data from group-housed adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes; n = 4). All subjects were trained to place an arm in a 'blood sleeve' and remain stationary for venipuncture. Both facilities used similar PRT techniques. We were able to obtain repeated blood samples from 75% of the macaques and all of the chimpanzees. The training time did not differ significantly between the 2 species. These data demonstrate that macaques can be trained for venipuncture in a manner similar to that used for chimpanzees.

  17. Rhesus macaque IFITM3 gene polymorphisms and SIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Michael; Gärtner, Sabine; Wrensch, Florian; Krawczak, Michael; Sauermann, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) have been recognized as important antiviral effectors of the innate immune system, both in cell culture and in infected humans. In particular, polymorphisms of the human IFITM3 gene have been shown to affect disease severity and progression in influenza A virus (FLUAV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, respectively. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are commonly used to model human infections and the experimental inoculation of these animals with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is one of the best models for HIV/AIDS in humans. However, information on the role of IFITM3 in SIV infection of rhesus macaques is currently lacking. We show that rhesus macaque (rh) IFITM3 inhibits SIV and FLUAV entry in cell culture, although with moderately reduced efficiency as compared to its human counterpart. We further report the identification of 16 polymorphisms in the rhIFITM3 gene, three of which were exonic and synonymous while the remainder was located in non-coding regions. Employing previously characterized samples from two cohorts of SIV-infected rhesus macaques, we investigated the relationship between these rhIFITM3 polymorphisms and both AIDS-free survival time and virus load. In cohort 1, several intronic polymorphisms were significantly associated with virus load or survival. However, an association with both parameters was not observed and significance was lost in most cases when animals were stratified for the presence of MHC allele Mamu-A1*001. Moreover, no significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected in cohort 2. These results suggest that, although IFITM3 can inhibit SIV infection in cell culture, genetic variation in rhIFITM3 might have only a minor impact on the course of SIV infection in experimentally infected animals. PMID:28257482

  18. A potential aphrodisiac for female macaques.

    PubMed

    Pertovaara, Antti; Linnankoski, Ilkka; Artchakov, Denis; Rämä, Pia; Carlson, Synnöve

    2004-09-01

    Earlier studies suggest that alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists and dopamine receptor agonists may enhance sexual activity in human and nonhuman male primates. It is not known whether these compounds influence the sexual behavior of female primates. We determined whether the administration of a selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist (atipamezole), a dopamine receptor agonist (apomorphine), or their combination to female Macaca arctoides (stumptail macaque) monkeys produces changes in sexual behavior of the female with a male. Following the administration of drugs to the female, the behavior of the female with a male stumptail was observed for 30 min. Atipamezole dose dependently (0.03-0.3 mg/kg im) increased short-time mounting behavior of the male and the total number of copulations. Apomorphine alone (0.125-0.25 mg/kg) or in combination with atipamezole had no significant effects on sexual behavior. The result indicates that a selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist administered in the female stumptail increases sexual behavior of the male with the female. A plausible explanation for this finding is that a selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist increases sexual arousal in female stumptails and this, possibly due to a change in psychosocial behavior of the female, triggers increased sexual activity in males.

  19. Genetic origins of social networks in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Brent, Lauren J. N.; Heilbronner, Sarah R.; Horvath, Julie E.; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Robinson, Athy G.; Skene, J. H. Pate; Platt, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Sociality is believed to have evolved as a strategy for animals to cope with their environments. Yet the genetic basis of sociality remains unclear. Here we provide evidence that social network tendencies are heritable in a gregarious primate. The tendency for rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, to be tied affiliatively to others via connections mediated by their social partners - analogous to friends of friends in people - demonstrated additive genetic variance. Affiliative tendencies were predicted by genetic variation at two loci involved in serotonergic signalling, although this result did not withstand correction for multiple tests. Aggressive tendencies were also heritable and were related to reproductive output, a fitness proxy. Our findings suggest that, like humans, the skills and temperaments that shape the formation of multi-agent relationships have a genetic basis in nonhuman primates, and, as such, begin to fill the gaps in our understanding of the genetic basis of sociality. PMID:23304433

  20. Macaques Exhibit a Naturally-Occurring Depression Similar to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fan; Wu, Qingyuan; Xie, Liang; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Jianguo; Zheng, Peng; Zhou, Qinmin; Ji, Yongjia; Wang, Tao; Li, Xin; Fang, Liang; Li, Qi; Yang, Deyu; Li, Juan; Melgiri, Narayan D.; Shively, Carol; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Rodent models have dominated preclinical investigations into the mechanisms of depression. However, these models-which rely on subjecting individual rodents to physical stressors - do not realistically resemble the etiopathological development of depression, which occurs naturally in a social context. A non-human primate model that better reflects the social ethological aspects of depression would be more advantageous to investigating pathophysiological mechanisms and developing antidepressant therapeutics. Here, we describe and model a naturally-occurring depressive state in a non-human primate species, the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), in a realistic social ethological context and associate the depressed behavioral phenotype with significant serum metabolic perturbations. One to two subjects per stable social colony (17–22 subjects) manifested a depressive phenotype that may be attributed to psychosocial stress. In accordance with rodent and human studies, the serum metabolic phenotype of depressed and healthy subjects significantly differed, supporting the model's face validity. However, application of the fast-acting antidepressant ketamine failed to demonstrate predictive validity. This study proposes a non-human primate depression model in a realistic social ethological context that can better approximate the psychosocial stressors underlying depression. PMID:25783476

  1. Synaptic specializations associated with the outer hair cells of the Japanese macaque.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Henson, M M; Smith, D W

    1997-06-01

    Across species the innervation of outer hair cells (OHCs) shows a remarkable similarity. There are, however, notable differences in fine structure. The present work describes the normal synaptic morphology of OHCs in the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), as determined by examination of serial sections with transmission electron microscopy. The nerve endings at the base of OHCs were divided primarily into two groups: vesiculated (efferent) and non-vesiculated (afferent). In addition, we found supranuclear efferent nerve endings and reciprocal synapses in all three cochlear turns. We also found presynaptic bodies in OHCs at the afferent synapse, the branching of afferent nerve fibers and axodendritic synapses between afferent and efferent fibers in the outer spiral bundle and just beneath OHCs. In terms of synaptic structure, the data indicate that that the Japanese macaque is more similar to that of the human than other species examined to date.

  2. Visible Lesion Laser Thresholds in Cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) Retina with a 1064-nm, 12-ns Pulsed Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    only 20 of the planned 25 exposures. : Visible Lesion from Test Laser 40r, Marker Lesions Figure 3. Cynomolgus retinal image from fundus camera...assure co-alignment of the fundus camera with the higher-energy test beam. An 80/20 beam splitter was placed in the coincidental optical path of a... fundus camera (Topcon Model TRC 50X) with the higher-power reflected beam being directed through the dilated pupil to the retina of the monkey. The low

  3. Effect of sodium phytate on the chemical and microbial composition of dental plaque in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed

    Cole, M F; Bowen, W H

    1975-01-01

    The incorporation of 1 or 3% sodium phytate in confectioners sugar produced minimal changes in the physical,chemical, and microbial composition of dental plaque in tube-fed monkeys during a two-week period. Only a reduction in yeasts and lactobacilli could be ascribed to the presence of phytate. Other changes were attributable to the transition from conventional feeding to tube-feeding, irrespective of the presence of absence of phytate.

  4. Characterization, biomarkers, and reversibility of a monoclonal antibody-induced immune complex disease in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Heyen, Jonathan R; Rojko, Jennifer; Evans, Mark; Brown, Tom P; Bobrowski, Walter F; Vitsky, Allison; Dalton, Shana; Tripathi, Niraj; Bollini, Sangeetha Subbarao; Johnson, Theodore; Lin, John C; Khan, Nasir; Han, Bora

    2014-06-01

    Two 6-month repeat-dose toxicity studies in cynomolgus monkeys illustrated immune complex-mediated adverse findings in individual monkeys and identified parameters that potentially signal the onset of immune complex-mediated reactions following administration of RN6G, a monoclonal antibody (mAb). In the first study, 3 monkeys exhibited nondose-dependent severe clinical signs accompanied by decreased erythrocytes with increased reticulocytes, neutrophilia, monocytosis, thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, decreased albumin, azotemia, and increased serum levels of activated complement products, prompting unscheduled euthanasia. Histologically, immunohistochemical localization of RN6G was associated with monkey immunoglobulin and complement components in glomeruli and other tissues, attributable to immune complex disease (ICD). All 3 animals also had anti-RN6G antibodies and decreased plasma levels of RN6G. Subsequently, an investigational study was designed and conducted with regulatory agency input to detect early onset of ICD and assess reversibility to support further clinical development. Dosing of individual animals ceased when biomarkers of ICD indicated adverse findings. Of the 12 monkeys, 1 developed anti-RN6G antibodies and decreased RN6G exposure that preceded elevations in complement products, interleukin-6, and coagulation parameters and decreases in albumin and fibrinogen. All findings in this monkey, except for antidrug antibody (ADA), reversed after cessation of dosing without progressing to adverse sequelae typically associated with ICD.

  5. Advantages of an Improved Rhesus Macaque Genome for Evolutionary Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Gradnigo, Julien S.; Majumdar, Abhishek; Norgren, Robert B.; Moriyama, Etsuko N.

    2016-01-01

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is widely used in molecular evolutionary analyses, particularly to identify genes under adaptive or unique evolution in the human lineage. For such studies, it is necessary to align nucleotide sequences of homologous protein-coding genes among multiple species. The validity of these analyses is dependent on high quality genomic data. However, for most mammalian species (other than humans and mice), only draft genomes are available. There has been concern that some results obtained from evolutionary analyses using draft genomes may not be correct. The rhesus macaque provides a unique opportunity to determine whether an improved genome (MacaM) yields better results than a draft genome (rheMac2) for evolutionary studies. We compared protein-coding genes annotated in the rheMac2 and MacaM genomes with their human orthologs. We found many genes annotated in rheMac2 had apparently spurious sequences not present in genes derived from MacaM. The rheMac2 annotations also appeared to inflate a frequently used evolutionary index, ω (the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates). Genes with these spurious sequences must be filtered out from evolutionary analyses to obtain correct results. With the MacaM genome, improved sequence information means many more genes can be examined for indications of selection. These results indicate how upgrading genomes from draft status to a higher level of quality can improve interpretation of evolutionary patterns. PMID:27911958

  6. Growth rates in a captive population of Tonkean macaques.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Andrea; De Marco, Arianna; Thierry, Bernard; Cozzolino, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Measuring variations in body mass is necessary to gain a deeper understanding of the evolution of life-history patterns, and it provides information on the timing of sexual maturity and the development of sexual dimorphism. In this study, we collected longitudinal data on body mass from infancy to adulthood in a captive population of Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana). Tests to evaluate whether social group, maternal age, and dominance rank influenced growth rates showed that they had no significant effect. We investigated the timing and magnitude of breaking points in the growth paths of males and females, and checked whether these breaking points could correspond to specific reproductive and morphological developmental events. We found that male and female Tonkean macaques have roughly equivalent body masses until around the age of four, when males go through an adolescent growth spurt and females continue to grow at a constant rate. Males not only grow faster than females, but they also continue to grow for nearly one and a half years after females have attained their full body mass. Growth rate differences account for approximately two-thirds of the body mass sexual dimorphism; only the remaining third results from continued male growth beyond the age where full body mass is reached in females. We also discovered remarkable correspondences between the timing of testicular enlargement and the adolescent growth spurt in males, and between dental development and slowdown breaking points in both sexes.

  7. Collective arousal when reuniting after temporary separation in Tonkean macaques.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Arianna; Cozzolino, Roberto; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco; Thierry, Bernard

    2011-11-01

    Celebrations and bursts of communal joy can occur spontaneously in human communities based on mechanisms of emotional contagion. Some examples of similar collective excitement have been reported in animals when they reunite or anticipate rewards, but little is known about the processes and meaning of these multiple interactions. We experimentally studied such collective arousals in two captive groups of Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) within the context of reunions following the temporary separation of two subgroups. We compared the behaviors of individuals after separation periods of 2 and 48 h with a control period with no separation. This study showed that it is possible to reproducibly induce bursts of friendly interactions in which groupmates run around over a period of several minutes, embracing and grasping one another while displaying numerous affiliative vocalizations and facial expressions. The longer the period of separation, the higher and longer-lasting the rates of affiliative interactions were. Individuals affiliated more frequently with groupmates from a previously separated subgroup than with those having stayed in their own subgroup. Collective arousal was followed by a quieter period characterized by high rates of contact-sitting and social grooming. These results point at the role of collective arousals in social cohesion; they could resolve social tension and renew social relationships. We propose that the emotional state experienced by Tonkean macaques during such events represents a disposition similar to that giving rise to what we humans call "shared joy."

  8. Visceral and Neural Larva Migrans in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Maximova, Olga A; StClaire, Marisa C; Montali, Richard J; Ward, Jerrold M; Cheng, Lily I; Elkins, William R; Kazacos, Kevin R

    2008-01-01

    Large ascarid larvae within granulomas were noted histologically in the mesenteric and pancreatic lymph nodes of 13 of 21 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) euthanized as part of an experimental viral pathogenesis study. In addition, 7 of the 13 monkeys had cerebral granulomas, which in 4 animals contained nematode larvae similar to those within the lymph nodes. Despite the lesions, the animals did not show clinical signs associated with the parasitic infections. Characteristics of the larvae included, on cross-section, a midbody diameter of approximately 60 to 80 µm, a centrally located and slightly compressed intestine flanked on either side by large triangular excretory columns, and prominent single lateral cuticular alae. The morphology of the larvae was compatible with Baylisascaris spp. Baylisascariasis is a well-described infection of animals and humans that is caused by migrating larvae of the raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis. A similar species, B. columnaris, is found in skunks and can cause cerebrospinal nematodiasis, but most reported cases of baylisascariasis have been due to B. procyonis. Our macaques were born free-ranging on an island in the southeastern United States where raccoons, but not skunks, were found to be common inhabitants, indicating that B. procyonis was the most likely parasite involved. These cases are similar to the low-level or covert cases of Baylisascaris infection described to occur in humans and provide further evidence of the existence of this parasite in the southeastern United States. PMID:18702454

  9. Spatial relational memory in 9-month-old macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in one of two sets of three distinct locations. Monkeys were tested in two different conditions: (1) when local visual cues marked the two sets of potentially baited locations, so that monkeys could use both local and spatial information to discriminate these locations from never-baited locations; and (2) when no local visual cues marked the two sets of potentially baited locations, so that monkeys had to rely on a spatial relational representation of the environment to discriminate these locations. No 9-mo-old or adult monkey associated the presence of the proximal landmarks, at the center of the arena, with the presence of food in one set of three distinct locations. All monkeys, however, discriminated the potentially baited locations in the presence of local visual cues, thus providing evidence of visual discrimination learning. More importantly, all 9-mo-old monkeys tested discriminated the potentially baited locations in absence of the local visual cues, thus exhibiting evidence of spatial relational learning. These findings indicate that spatial memory processes characterized by a relational representation of the environment are present as early as 9 mo of age in macaque monkeys.

  10. Impact assessment of dam construction and forest management for Japanese macaque habitats in snowy areas.

    PubMed

    Enari, Hiroto; Sakamaki-Enari, Haruka

    2014-03-01

    Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in their northernmost habitats represent a keystone species and play a central role in heavy snowfall ecosystems. However, distributions have been restricted by pre-war hunting, and populations are facing issues of natural forest losses caused by new dam constructions and massive conifer plantations. In the present study, we predicted the influences of these environmental conditions on macaque habitats during each season, and evaluated the effect of natural forest restoration as a mitigation measure. We constructed multiple habitat suitability models on the basis of different forest change scenarios, by using maximum entropy modeling (Maxent). We predicted the influence of each scenario by calculating the habitat unit (habitat quality × habitat quantity). We made the following predictions: (1) the influences of environmental conditions on habitat models vary seasonally, but dam construction destroys the optimum macaque habitats in every season; (2) restoration of conifer plantations to semi-natural forests does not always contribute to the improvement of total habitat unit, except in snowy seasons; and (3) in comparison with encouraging natural forest restoration in plantation areas and maintaining the standard-rotation plantation management, the implementation of long-rotation plantation in existing plantation areas provides more suitable alternative habitats for macaques in non-snowy seasons.

  11. Female rhesus macaques discriminate unfamiliar paternal sisters in playback experiments: support for acoustic phenotype matching

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferle, Dana; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V.; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Widespread evidence exists that when relatives live together, kinship plays a central role in shaping the evolution of social behaviour. Previous studies showed that female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) recognize familiar maternal kin using vocal cues. Recognizing paternal kin might, however, be more difficult as rhesus females mate promiscuously during the possible conception period, most probably concealing paternity. Behavioural observations indicate that semi free-ranging female rhesus macaques prefer to associate with their paternal half-sisters in comparison to unrelated females within the same group, particularly when born within the same age cohort. However, the cues and mechanism/s used in paternal kin discrimination remain under debate. Here, we investigated whether female rhesus macaques use the acoustic modality to discriminate between paternal half-sisters and non-kin, and tested familiarity and phenotype matching as the underlying mechanisms. We found that test females responded more often to calls of paternal half-sisters compared with calls of unrelated females, and that this discrimination ability was independent of the level of familiarity between callers and test females, which provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence for acoustic phenotype matching. Our study strengthens the evidence that female rhesus macaques can recognize their paternal kin, and that vocalizations are used as a cue. PMID:24225452

  12. Effective spatial scales for evaluating environmental determinants of population density in Yakushima macaques.

    PubMed

    Agetsuma, Naoki; Koda, Ryosuke; Tsujino, Riyou; Agetsuma-Yanagihara, Yoshimi

    2015-02-01

    Population densities of wildlife species tend to be correlated with resource productivity of habitats. However, wildlife density has been greatly modified by increasing human influences. For effective conservation, we must first identify the significant factors that affect wildlife density, and then determine the extent of the areas in which the factors should be managed. Here, we propose a protocol that accomplishes these two tasks. The main threats to wildlife are thought to be habitat alteration and hunting, with increases in alien carnivores being a concern that has arisen recently. Here, we examined the effect of these anthropogenic disturbances, as well as natural factors, on the local density of Yakushima macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). We surveyed macaque densities at 30 sites across their habitat using data from 403 automatic cameras. We quantified the effect of natural vegetation (broad-leaved forest, mixed coniferous/broad-leaved forest, etc.), altered vegetation (forestry area and agricultural land), hunting pressure, and density of feral domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). The effect of each vegetation type was analyzed at numerous spatial scales (between 150 and 3,600-m radii from the camera locations) to determine the best scale for explaining macaque density (effective spatial scale). A model-selection procedure (generalized linear mixed model) was used to detect significant factors affecting macaque density. We detected that the most effective spatial scale was 400 m in radius, a scale that corresponded to group range size of the macaques. At this scale, the amount of broad-leaved forest was selected as a positive factor, whereas mixed forest and forestry area were selected as negative factors for macaque density. This study demonstrated the importance of the simultaneous evaluation of all possible factors of wildlife population density at the appropriate spatial scale.

  13. Laboratory rhesus macaque social housing and social changes: Implications for research.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Darcy L; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Vandeleest, Jessica; McCowan, Brenda; Capitanio, John

    2017-01-01

    Macaque species, specifically rhesus (Macaca mulatta), are the most common nonhuman primates (NHPs) used in biomedical research due to their suitability as a model of high priority diseases (e.g., HIV, obesity, cognitive aging), cost effective breeding and housing compared to most other NHPs, and close evolutionary relationship to humans. With this close evolutionary relationship, however, is a shared adaptation for a socially stimulating environment, without which both their welfare and suitability as a research model are compromised. While outdoor social group housing provides the best approximation of a social environment that matches the macaque behavioral biology in the wild, this is not always possible at all facilities, where animals may be housed indoors in small groups, in pairs, or alone. Further, animals may experience many housing changes in their lifetime depending on project needs, changes in social status, management needs, or health concerns. Here, we review the evidence for the physiological and health effects of social housing changes and the potential impacts on research outcomes for studies using macaques, particularly rhesus. We situate our review in the context of increasing regulatory pressure for research facilities to both house NHPs socially and mitigate trauma from social aggression. To meet these regulatory requirements and further refine the macaque model for research, significant advances must be made in our understanding and management of rhesus macaque social housing, particularly pair-housing since it is the most common social housing configuration for macaques while on research projects. Because most NHPs are adapted for sociality, a social context is likely important for improving repeatability, reproducibility, and external validity of primate biomedical research. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22528, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  15. Rapid Expansion of Phenylthiocarbamide Non-Tasters among Japanese Macaques.

    PubMed

    Suzuki-Hashido, Nami; Hayakawa, Takashi; Matsui, Atsushi; Go, Yasuhiro; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko; Hirai, Hirohisa; Satta, Yoko; Imai, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Bitter taste receptors (TAS2R proteins) allow mammals to detect and avoid ingestion of toxins in food. Thus, TAS2Rs play an important role in food choice and are subject to complex natural selection pressures. In our previous study, we examined nucleotide variation in TAS2R38, a gene expressing bitter taste receptor for phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), in 333 Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) from 9 local populations in Japan. We identified a PTC "non-taster" TAS2R38 allele in Japanese macaques that was caused by a loss of the start codon. This PTC non-taster allele was only found in a limited local population (the Kii area), at a frequency of 29%. In this study, we confirmed that this allele was present in only the Kii population by analyzing an additional 264 individuals from eight new populations. Using cellular and behavioral experiments, we found that this allele lost its receptor function for perceiving PTC. The nucleotide sequences of the allele including flanking regions (of about 10 kb) from 23 chromosomes were identical, suggesting that a non-taster allele arose and expanded in the Kii population during the last 13,000 years. Genetic analyses of non-coding regions in Kii individuals and neighboring populations indicated that the high allele frequency in the Kii population could not be explained by demographic history, suggesting that positive selection resulted in a rapid increase in PTC non-tasters in the Kii population. The loss-of-function that occurred at the TAS2R38 locus presumably provided a fitness advantage to Japanese macaques in the Kii population. Because TAS2R38 ligands are often found in plants, this functional change in fitness is perhaps related to feeding habit specificity. These findings should provide valuable insights for elucidating adaptive evolutionary changes with respect to various environments in wild mammals.

  16. Fatal Baylisascaris larva migrans in a colony of Japanese macaques kept by a safari-style zoo in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Une, Yumi; Kawakami, Shigehisa; Saito, Eriko; Kamiya, Haruo; Akao, Nobuaki; Furuoka, Hidefumi

    2005-06-01

    A colony of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata fuscata) kept by a safari-style zoo in Japan experienced 9 sporadic cases of fatal neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and posterior paralysis, during the 12 yr from 1989 to 2001. This macaque colony consisted of approximately 30 animals, on average, during this period, and the macaques shared their living space with II American black bears (Ursus americanus) harboring zoonotic roundworms (Baylisascaris transfuga). Close to this enclosure, a cote for 2-3 raccoons (Procyon lotor) was placed, and raw sewage from this cote ran into a shallow drain in the area for macaques and bears. However, fecal examinations in recent years did not detect the infection of raccoons with zoonotic roundworms (Baylisascaris procyonis). Postmortem histological examination of the latest 2 ill macaques detected multifocal malacia in the brain; 2 ascarid larvae of 60 microm maximum width were encapsulated in the cerebrum and lungs of 1 of the animals. To determine the causative ascarid species of the fatal larva migrans, we analyzed 2 additional encapsulated Baylisascaris larvae collected from formalin-fixed lungs by morphological and molecular approaches. This sporadic outbreak is the second record of Baylisascaris larva migrans in animals in Japan.

  17. Visual Nesting of Stimuli Affects Rhesus Monkeys' (Macaca mulatta) Quantity Judgments in a Bisection Task

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Parrish, Audrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman animals are highly proficient at judging relative quantities presented in a variety of formats including visual, auditory, and even cross modal formats. Performance typically is constrained by the ratio between sets, as would be expected under Weber's Law, and as is described in the Approximate Number System (ANS) hypothesis. In most cases, tests are designed to avoid any perceptual confusion for animals regarding the stimulus sets, but despite this, animals show some of the perceptual biases that humans show based on organization of stimuli. Here, we demonstrate an additional perceptual bias that emerges from the illusion of nested sets. When arrays of circles were presented on a computer screen and were to be classified as larger than or as smaller than an established central value, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) underestimated quantities when circles were nested within each other. This matched a previous report with adult humans (Chesney & Gelman, 2012), indicating that macaques, like humans, show the pattern of biased perception predicted by ANS estimation. Although some macaques overcame this perceptual bias demonstrating that they could come to view nested stimuli as individual elements to be included in the estimates of quantity used for classifying arrays, the majority of the monkeys showed the bias of underestimating nested arrays throughout the experiment. PMID:23709063

  18. Facial width-to-height ratio relates to dominance style in the genus Macaca

    PubMed Central

    Majolo, Bonaventura

    2016-01-01

    Background. Physical, visual, chemical, and auditory cues signalling fighting ability have independently evolved in many animal taxa as a means to resolve conflicts without escalating to physical aggression. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR, i.e., the relative width to height of the face) has been associated with dominance-related phenotypes both in humans and in other primates. In humans, faces with a larger fWHR are perceived as more aggressive. Methods. We examined fWHR variation among 11 species of the genus Macaca. Macaques have been grouped into four distinct categories, from despotic to tolerant, based on their female dominance style. Female dominance style is related to intra- and inter-sexual competition in both males and females and is the result of different evolutionary pressure across species. We used female dominance style as a proxy of intra-/inter-sexual competition to test the occurrence of correlated evolution between competitive regimes and dominance-related phenotypes. fWHR was calculated from 145 2D photographs of male and female adult macaques. Results. We found no phylogenetic signal on the differences in fWHR across species in the two sexes. However, fWHR was greater, in females and males, in species characterised by despotic female dominance style than in tolerant species. Discussion. Our results suggest that dominance-related phenotypes are related to differences in competitive regimes and intensity of inter- and intra-sexual selection across species. PMID:27019780

  19. Facial width-to-height ratio relates to dominance style in the genus Macaca.

    PubMed

    Borgi, Marta; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2016-01-01

    Background. Physical, visual, chemical, and auditory cues signalling fighting ability have independently evolved in many animal taxa as a means to resolve conflicts without escalating to physical aggression. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR, i.e., the relative width to height of the face) has been associated with dominance-related phenotypes both in humans and in other primates. In humans, faces with a larger fWHR are perceived as more aggressive. Methods. We examined fWHR variation among 11 species of the genus Macaca. Macaques have been grouped into four distinct categories, from despotic to tolerant, based on their female dominance style. Female dominance style is related to intra- and inter-sexual competition in both males and females and is the result of different evolutionary pressure across species. We used female dominance style as a proxy of intra-/inter-sexual competition to test the occurrence of correlated evolution between competitive regimes and dominance-related phenotypes. fWHR was calculated from 145 2D photographs of male and female adult macaques. Results. We found no phylogenetic signal on the differences in fWHR across species in the two sexes. However, fWHR was greater, in females and males, in species characterised by despotic female dominance style than in tolerant species. Discussion. Our results suggest that dominance-related phenotypes are related to differences in competitive regimes and intensity of inter- and intra-sexual selection across species.

  20. Noninvasive scalp recording of cortical auditory evoked potentials in the alert macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kosuke; Nejime, Masafumi; Konoike, Naho; Nakada, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Katsuki

    2015-09-01

    Scalp-recorded evoked potentials (EP) provide researchers and clinicians with irreplaceable means for recording stimulus-related neural activities in the human brain, due to its high temporal resolution, handiness, and, perhaps more importantly, non-invasiveness. This work recorded the scalp cortical auditory EP (CAEP) in unanesthetized monkeys by using methods that are essentially identical to those applied to humans. Young adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, 5-7 years old) were seated in a monkey chair, and their head movements were partially restricted by polystyrene blocks and tension poles placed around their head. Individual electrodes were fixated on their scalp using collodion according to the 10-20 system. Pure tone stimuli were presented while electroencephalograms were recorded from up to nineteen channels, including an electrooculogram channel. In all monkeys (n = 3), the recorded CAEP comprised a series of positive and negative deflections, labeled here as macaque P1 (mP1), macaque N1 (mN1), macaque P2 (mP2), and macaque N2 (mN2), and these transient responses to sound onset were followed by a sustained potential that continued for the duration of the sound, labeled the macaque sustained potential (mSP). mP1, mN2 and mSP were the prominent responses, and they had maximal amplitudes over frontal/central midline electrode sites, consistent with generators in auditory cortices. The study represents the first noninvasive scalp recording of CAEP in alert rhesus monkeys, to our knowledge.

  1. Efficient generation of monoclonal antibodies from single rhesus macaque antibody secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Weixu; Li, Leike; Xiong, Wei; Fan, Xuejun; Deng, Hui; Bett, Andrew J; Chen, Zhifeng; Tang, Aimin; Cox, Kara S; Joyce, Joseph G; Freed, Daniel C; Thoryk, Elizabeth; Fu, Tong-Ming; Casimiro, Danilo R; Zhang, Ningyan; A Vora, Kalpit; An, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are used as a preclinical model for vaccine development, and the antibody profiles to experimental vaccines in NHPs can provide critical information for both vaccine design and translation to clinical efficacy. However, an efficient protocol for generating monoclonal antibodies from single antibody secreting cells of NHPs is currently lacking. In this study we established a robust protocol for cloning immunoglobulin (IG) variable domain genes from single rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) antibody secreting cells. A sorting strategy was developed using a panel of molecular markers (CD3, CD19, CD20, surface IgG, intracellular IgG, CD27, Ki67 and CD38) to identify the kinetics of B cell response after vaccination. Specific primers for the rhesus macaque IG genes were designed and validated using cDNA isolated from macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cloning efficiency was averaged at 90% for variable heavy (VH) and light (VL) domains, and 78.5% of the clones (n = 335) were matched VH and VL pairs. Sequence analysis revealed that diverse IGHV subgroups (for VH) and IGKV and IGLV subgroups (for VL) were represented in the cloned antibodies. The protocol was tested in a study using an experimental dengue vaccine candidate. About 26.6% of the monoclonal antibodies cloned from the vaccinated rhesus macaques react with the dengue vaccine antigens. These results validate the protocol for cloning monoclonal antibodies in response to vaccination from single macaque antibody secreting cells, which have general applicability for determining monoclonal antibody profiles in response to other immunogens or vaccine studies of interest in NHPs.

  2. Tissue enzyme studies in Macaca nemestrina monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, R. W.; Hoffman, R. A.; Jenkins, D.

    1971-01-01

    Total enzyme activities in fresh tissue specimens from major organs of Macaca nemestrina were analyzed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and aldolase. The concentration of these enzymes varied among the different tissue with skeletal muscle, heart, and brain having the highest activities. LDH isozymes determinations for the various tissues were also made. The spectrum of LDH isozyme distribution appears to be quite specific and characteristic for at least some of the tissues analyzed.

  3. Background and stimulus-induced patterns of high metabolic activity in the visual cortex (area 17) of the squirrel and macaque monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, A.L.; Hendrickson, A.E.

    1983-02-01

    The authors have used 2-deoxy-D-(/sup 14/C)glucose (2-DG) autoradiography and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry to examine background and stimulus-induced patterns of metabolic activity in monkey striate cortex. In squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that binocularly or monocularly viewed diffuse white light or binocularly viewed bars of many orientations and spatial frequencies, 2-DG consumption was not uniform across the cortex but consisted of regularly spaced radial zones of high uptake. The cytochrome oxidase stain in these animals also revealed patches of high metabolism which coincided with the 2-DG patches. Squirrel monkeys binocularly viewing vertical stripes showed parallel bands of increased 2-DG uptake in the cortex, while the cytochrome label in these animals remained patchy. In macaque (Macaca nemestrina) monkeys, binocular stimulation with many orientations and spatial frequencies produced radial zones of high 2-DG uptake. When viewed tangentially, these zones formed a dots-in-rows pattern with a spacing of 350 X 500 microns; cytochrome oxidase staining produced an identical pattern. Macaca differed from Saimiri in that monocular stimulation labeled alternate rows. These results indicate that there are radial zones of high background metabolism across squirrel and macaque monkey striate cortex. In Saimiri these zones do not appear to be related to an eye dominance system, while in Macaca they do. The presence of these zones of high metabolism may complicate the interpretation of 2-DG autoradiographs that result from specific visual stimuli.

  4. Antibody-dependent enhancement of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in vitro by plasma from SIV-infected rhesus macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Montefiori, D C; Robinson, W E; Hirsch, V M; Modliszewski, A; Mitchell, W M; Johnson, P R

    1990-01-01

    Plasma from two rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) experimentally infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV; isolate SIVmac251) enhanced SIVmac infection of a human CD4+ lymphoblastoid cell line, MT-2. Prechallenge plasma samples from these animals and serum from SIV-negative macaques did not enhance infection. Compared with controls, infection enhancement was characterized by the rapid appearance of syncytium formation (3 to 4 days sooner), reverse transcriptase release (10-fold increase), and cytopathic effect (60% cell killing). Enhancement of activity was dependent on the presence of diluted, fresh SIV-negative macaque serum as a source of complement. A requirement for complement was shown by the absence of enhancement in heat-inactivated serum and by dose-dependent inhibition of enhancement in the presence of polyclonal antibody to monkey complement component C3. Monoclonal antibody to CD4 (OKT4a) blocked enhancement completely, while monoclonal antibody to the human complement component C3d receptor CR2 (OKB7) reduced enhancement by greater than 50%, indicating a requirement for CD4 and CR2 in mediating this phenomenon. SIV infection-enhancing activity appeared in macaques soon after experimental inoculation (28 days). The titer increased over time and peaked just prior to the death of both macaques from opportunistic infections and lymphoma. In vitro SIV infection enhancement is nearly identical to the in vitro complement-mediated, antibody-dependent enhancing (C'-ADE) activity observed in human immunodeficiency virus-positive human sera (Robinson et al., Lancet i:790-794, 1988; Robinson et al., J. Acq. Immun. Def. Synd. 2:33-42, 1989). These observations validate the macaque-SIV model for studies of C'-ADE. Images PMID:2152808

  5. Anomaly in aortic arch alters pathological outcome of transient global ischemia in Rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Koichi; Yasuhara, Takao; Maki, Mina; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Yu, Guolong; Xu, Lin; Tambrallo, Laura; Rodriguez, Nancy A.; Stern, David M.; Yamashima, Tetsumori; Buccafusco, Jerry J.; Kawase, Takeshi; Hess, David C.; Borlongan, Cesario V.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated a non-human primate (NHP) transient global ischemia (TGI) model which was induced by clipping the arteries originating from the aortic arch. Previously we demonstrated that our TGI model in adult Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) results in marked neuronal cell loss in the hippocampal region, specifically the cornu Ammonis (CA1) region. However, we observed varying degrees of hippocampal cell loss among animals. Here, we report for the first time an anomaly of the aortic arch in some Rhesus macaques that appears as a key surgical factor in ensuring the success of the TGI model in this particular NHP. Eleven adult Rhesus macaques underwent the TGI surgery, which involved 10-15-minute clipping of both innominate and subclavian arteries. Animals were allowed to survive between 1 day and 28 days after TGI. Because of our experience and knowledge that Japanese macaques exhibited only innominate and subclavian arteries arising from the aortic arch, macroscopic visualization of these two arteries alone in the Rhesus macaques initially assured us that clipping both arteries was sufficient to produce TGI. During the course of one TGI operation, however, we detected 3 arterial branches arising from the aortic arch, which prompted us to subsequently search for 3 branches in succeeding TGI surgeries. In addition, we performed post-mortem examination of the heart to confirm the number of arterial branches in the aortic arch. Finally, in order to reveal the pathological effect of the aortic arch anomaly, we compared the hippocampal cell loss between animals found to have 3 arterial branches but had all or only two branches clipped during TGI operation. Post-mortem examination revealed eight NHPs had the typical two arterial aortic branches, but three NHPs displayed an extra arterial aortic branch, indicating that about 30% of Rhesus macaques had 3 arterial branches arising from the aorta. Histological analyses using Nissl staining showed that in NHPs with the

  6. Mechanical properties of the cement of the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Kovalev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis secretes foam-like cement, the amount of which usually exceeds that produced by other barnacles. When Dosima settles on small objects, this adhesive is additionally used as a float which gives buoyancy to the animal. The dual use of the cement by D. fascicularis requires mechanical properties different from those of other barnacle species. In the float, two regions with different morphological structure and mechanical properties can be distinguished. The outer compact zone with small gas-filled bubbles (cells) is harder than the interior one and forms a protective rind presumably against mechanical damage. The inner region with large, gas-filled cells is soft. This study demonstrates that D. fascicularis cement is soft and visco-elastic. We show that the values of the elastic modulus, hardness and tensile stress are considerably lower than in the rigid cement of other barnacles. PMID:25657833

  7. Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943 (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa): redescription and discussion of its phylogenetic position within the genus.

    PubMed

    Miglietta, Maria Pia

    2016-03-31

    Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943 was first described off Alligator Reef, Florida, USA, at a depth of 216 m. Presumably a deep-sea species, its validity has often been questioned due to the scarcity of available records. In this paper, T. fascicularis is re-described from some mature colonies from the upper slope of the Gulf of Mexico. Furthermore, new pictures of the colony, polyps, and medusa buds, are provided. A ~600bp sequence of the large ribosomal subunit of the mitochondrial RNA (lsu-rRNA, 16S), also known as the Hydrozoan barcoding molecule, is used for the first time to confirm the validity of T. fascicularis as a species, and analyze its phylogenetic position within the genus Turritopsis.

  8. Energy metabolism of Macaca mulatta during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Stein, T. P.; Dotsenko, M. A.; Korolkov, V. I.; Fuller, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    The mean daily energy expenditure rates of two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were determined during spaceflight on the joint U.S./Russian Bion 11 mission by the doubly labeled water (DLW, 2H218O) method. Control values were obtained from two studies performed under flight-like conditions (n = 4). The mean inflight energy expenditure for the two Bion 11 monkeys was 81.3 kcal/kg/day, which was higher than that seen previously. The average energy expenditure (77.6 +/- 4.4 kcal/kg/day) for the four ground control monkeys was slightly lower than had been measured previously.

  9. Elite Control, Gut CD4 T Cell Sparing, and Enhanced Mucosal T Cell Responses in Macaca nemestrina Infected by a Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Lacking a gp41 Trafficking Motif

    PubMed Central

    Breed, Matthew W.; Elser, Samra E.; Torben, Workineh; Jordan, Andrea P. O.; Aye, Pyone P.; Midkiff, Cecily; Schiro, Faith; Sugimoto, Chie; Alvarez-Hernandez, Xavier; Blair, Robert V.; Somasunderam, Anoma; Utay, Netanya S.; Kuroda, Marcelo J.; Pahar, Bapi; Wiseman, Roger W.; O'Connor, David H.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Montefiori, David C.; Marsh, Mark; Li, Yuan; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Keele, Brandon F.; Fultz, Patricia N.; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Deletion of Gly-720 and Tyr-721 from a highly conserved GYxxØ trafficking signal in the SIVmac239 envelope glycoprotein cytoplasmic domain, producing a virus termed ΔGY, leads to a striking perturbation in pathogenesis in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Infected macaques develop immune activation and progress to AIDS, but with only limited and transient infection of intestinal CD4+ T cells and an absence of microbial translocation. Here we evaluated ΔGY in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina), a species in which SIVmac239 infection typically leads to increased immune activation and more rapid progression to AIDS than in rhesus macaques. In pig-tailed macaques, ΔGY also replicated acutely to high peak plasma RNA levels identical to those for SIVmac239 and caused only transient infection of CD4+ T cells in the gut lamina propria and no microbial translocation. However, in marked contrast to rhesus macaques, 19 of 21 pig-tailed macaques controlled ΔGY replication with plasma viral loads of <15 to 50 RNA copies/ml. CD4+ T cells were preserved in blood and gut for up to 100 weeks with no immune activation or disease progression. Robust antiviral CD4+ T cell responses were seen, particularly in the gut. Anti-CD8 antibody depletion demonstrated CD8+ cellular control of viral replication. Two pig-tailed macaques progressed to disease with persisting viremia and possible compensatory mutations in the cytoplasmic tail. These studies demonstrate a marked perturbation in pathogenesis caused by ΔGY's ablation of the GYxxØ trafficking motif and reveal, paradoxically, that viral control is enhanced in a macaque species typically predisposed to more pathogenic manifestations of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. IMPORTANCE The pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) reflects a balance between viral replication, host innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses, and sustained immune activation

  10. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) exhibit the decoy effect in a perceptual discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Audrey E; Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    The asymmetric dominance effect (or decoy effect) is a form of context-dependent choice bias in which the probability of choosing one of two options is impacted by the introduction of a third option, also known as the decoy. Decoy effects are documented widely within the human consumer choice literature, and even extend to preference testing within nonhuman animals. Here, we extended this line of research to a perceptual discrimination task with rhesus monkeys to determine whether decoy stimuli would impact size judgments of rectangular stimuli. In a computerized task, monkeys attempted to choose the larger of two rectangles that varied in size and orientation (horizontally or vertically oriented). In probe trials, a third stimulus (the decoy) was presented that was smaller than the other two rectangles but matched the orientation of one of them. On half of the probe trials, the presented decoy matched the orientation of the larger stimulus, and on the other half, the decoy matched the orientation of the smaller stimulus. Monkeys rarely selected the decoy stimulus. However, their performance (selection of the largest rectangle) increased relative to the baseline trials (with only two choices) when the decoy was congruent in its orientation with the largest rectangle, but decreased relative to baseline when the decoy was incongruent with the largest rectangle. Thus, a decoy stimulus impacted monkeys' perceptual choice behavior even when it was not a viable choice option itself. These results are explained with regard to comparative evaluation mechanisms.

  11. Early Predictors of Impaired Social Functioning in Male Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Del Rosso, Laura A.; Seil, Shannon K.; Calonder, Laura A.; Madrid, Jesus E.; Bone, Kyle J.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Garner, Joseph P.; Capitanio, John P.; Parker, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social cognition impairments but its basic disease mechanisms remain poorly understood. Progress has been impeded by the absence of animal models that manifest behavioral phenotypes relevant to ASD. Rhesus monkeys are an ideal model organism to address this barrier to progress. Like humans, rhesus monkeys are highly social, possess complex social cognition abilities, and exhibit pronounced individual differences in social functioning. Moreover, we have previously shown that Low-Social (LS) vs. High-Social (HS) adult male monkeys exhibit lower social motivation and poorer social skills. It is not known, however, when these social deficits first emerge. The goals of this study were to test whether juvenile LS and HS monkeys differed as infants in their ability to process social information, and whether infant social abilities predicted later social classification (i.e., LS vs. HS), in order to facilitate earlier identification of monkeys at risk for poor social outcomes. Social classification was determined for N = 25 LS and N = 25 HS male monkeys that were 1–4 years of age. As part of a colony-wide assessment, these monkeys had previously undergone, as infants, tests of face recognition memory and the ability to respond appropriately to conspecific social signals. Monkeys later identified as LS vs. HS showed impairments in recognizing familiar vs. novel faces and in the species-typical adaptive ability to gaze avert to scenes of conspecific aggression. Additionally, multivariate logistic regression using infant social ability measures perfectly predicted later social classification of all N = 50 monkeys. These findings suggest that an early capacity to process important social information may account for differences in rhesus monkeys’ motivation and competence to establish and maintain social relationships later in life. Further development of this model will facilitate identification of novel biological targets for intervention to improve social outcomes in at-risk young monkeys. PMID:27788195

  12. Evolutionary Relevance and Experience Contribute to Face Discrimination in Infant Macaques ("Macaca mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Paukner, Annika

    2016-01-01

    In human children and adults, familiar face types--typically own-age and own-species faces--are discriminated better than other face types; however, human infants do not appear to exhibit an own-age bias but instead better discriminate adult faces, which they see more often. There are two possible explanations for this pattern: Perceptual…

  13. Comparison of influenza and SIV specific CD8 T cell responses in macaques.

    PubMed

    Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Reece, Jeanette C; De Rose, Robert; Stambas, John; Sullivan, Lucy; Brooks, Andrew G; Kent, Stephen J; Sexton, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Macaques are a potentially useful non-human primate model to compare memory T-cell immunity to acute virus pathogens such as influenza virus and effector T-cell responses to chronic viral pathogens such as SIV. However, immunological reagents to study influenza CD8(+) T-cell responses in the macaque model are limited. We recently developed an influenza-SIV vaccination model of pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and used this to study both influenza-specific and SIV-specific CD8(+) T-cells in 39 pigtail macaques expressing the common Mane-A*10(+) (Mane-A01*084) MHC-I allele. To perform comparative studies between influenza and SIV responses a common influenza nucleoprotein-specific CD8(+) T-cell response was mapped to a minimal epitope (termed RA9), MHC-restricted to Mane-A*10 and an MHC tetramer developed to study this response. Influenza-specific memory CD8(+) T-cell response maintained a highly functional profile in terms of multitude of effector molecule expression (CD107a, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MIP-1β and IL-2) and showed high avidity even in the setting of SIV infection. In contrast, within weeks following active SIV infection, SIV-specific CD8(+) effector T-cells expressed fewer cytokines/degranulation markers and had a lower avidity compared to influenza specific CD8(+) T-cells. Further, the influenza specific memory CD8 T-cell response retained stable expression of the exhaustion marker programmed death-marker-1 (PD-1) and co-stimulatory molecule CD28 following infection with SIV. This contrasted with the effector SIV-specific CD8(+) T-cells following SIV infection which expressed significantly higher amounts of PD-1 and lower amounts of CD28. Our results suggest that strategies to maintain a more functional CD8(+) T-cell response, profile may assist in controlling HIV disease.

  14. Inter-Annual Variation in Characteristics of Endozoochory by Wild Japanese Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Yamato

    2014-01-01

    Endozoochory is important to the dynamics and regeneration of forest ecosystems. Despite the universality of inter-annual variation in fruit production, few studies have addressed the sign (seed predation versus seed dispersal) and strength (frequency and quantity) of fruit-frugivore interaction and the effectiveness of endozoochory in response to the long-term temporal context. In this study I evaluated the characteristics of endozoochorous dispersal by wild Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata inhabiting deciduous forest in northern Japan for five different years. I collected 378 fecal samples from the macaques in fall (September to November) and quantified the proportion of feces containing seeds, number of seeds per fecal sample, ratio of intact seeds, and seed diversity. The proportion of feces containing seeds of any species (five-year mean: 85.9%, range: 78–97%) did not show significant inter-annual variation, while species-level proportions did. The intact ratio of seeds (mean: 83%, range: 61–98%) varied significantly both between years and between months, and this varied among dominant plant species. The number of seeds per fecal sample (mean: 78, range: 32–102) varied monthly but did not between years, and the seed diversity (mean: 0.66, range: 0.57–0.81) did not show significant inter-annual variation, both of which were attributed to longer duration of macaques’ gastro-intestinal passage time of seeds exceed their feeding bouts. This study demonstrated that frequency and success of seed dispersal over seed predation of macaque endozoochory showed inter-annual variation, indicating low specificity across the seed–macaque network. The temporal variability in the quality of seed dispersal may provide evidence of high resilience in response to fluctuating environmental conditions in the temperate forests. PMID:25272286

  15. Hybridization and population genetics of two macaque species in Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Evans, B J; Supriatna, J; Melnick, D J

    2001-08-01

    This study investigates hybridization and population genetics of two species of macaque monkey in Sulawesi, Indonesia, using molecular markers from mitochondrial, autosomal, and Y-chromosome DNA. Hybridization is the interbreeding of individuals from different parental taxa that are distinguishable by one or more heritable characteristics. Because hybridization can affect population structure of the parental taxa, it is an important consideration for conservation management. On the Indonesian island of Sulawesi an explosive diversification of macaques has occurred; seven of 19 species in the genus Macaca live on this island. The contact zone of the subjects of this study, M. maura and M. tonkeana, is located at the base of the southwestern peninsula of Sulawesi. Land conversion in Sulawesi is occurring at an alarming pace; currently two species of Sulawesi macaque, one of which is M. maura, are classified as endangered species. Results of this study indicate that hybridization among M. maura and M. tonkeana has led to different distributions of molecular variation in mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA in the contact zone; mitochondrial DNA shows a sharp transition from M. maura to M. tonkeana haplotypes, but nuclear DNA from the parental taxa is homogenized in a narrow hybrid zone. Similarly, within M. maura divergent mitochondrial DNA haplotypes are geographically structured but population subdivision in the nuclear genome is low or absent. In M. tonkeana, mitochondrial DNA haplotypes are geographically structured and a high level of nuclear DNA population subdivision is present in this species. These results are largely consistent with a macaque behavioral paradigm of female philopatry and obligate male dispersal, suggest that introgression between M. maura and M. tonkeana is restricted to the hybrid zone, and delineate one conservation management unit in M. maura and at least two in M. tonkeana.

  16. You Mate, I Mate: Macaque Females Synchronize Sex not Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Mundry, Roger; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Extended female sexuality in species living in multimale-multifemale groups appears to enhance benefits from multiple males. Mating with many males, however, requires a low female monopolizability, which is affected by the spatiotemporal distribution of receptive females. Ovarian cycle synchrony potentially promotes overlapping receptivity if fertile and receptive periods are tightly linked. In primates, however, mating is often decoupled from hormonal control, hence reducing the need for synchronizing ovarian events. Here, we test the alternative hypothesis that females behaviorally coordinate their receptivity while simultaneously investigating ovarian cycle synchrony in wild, seasonal Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis), a promiscuous species with extremely extended female sexuality. Using fecal hormone analysis to assess ovarian activity we show that fertile phases are randomly distributed, and that dyadic spatial proximity does not affect their distribution. We present evidence for mating synchrony, i.e., the occurrence of the females' receptivity was significantly associated with the proportion of other females mating on a given day. Our results suggest social facilitation of mating synchrony, which explains (i) the high number of simultaneously receptive females, and (ii) the low male mating skew in this species. Active mating synchronization may serve to enhance the benefits of extended female sexuality, and may proximately explain its patterning and maintenance. PMID:22022541

  17. Social and ecological factors influencing offspring survival in wild macaques

    PubMed Central

    Kerhoas, Daphne; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Agil, Muhammad; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Premature loss of offspring decreases direct fitness of parents. In gregarious mammals, both ecological and social variables impact offspring survival and may interact with each other in this regard. Although a number of studies have investigated factors influencing offspring loss in mammals, we still know very little on how different factors interact with one another. We therefore investigated fetal and infant mortality in 3 large groups of wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra) over a period of up to 5 years by including potential social causes such as maternal dominance rank, male immigration, between group encounters, and ecological conditions such as rainfall in a multivariate survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards model. Infant but not fetal survival was most impaired after a recent takeover of the alpha-male position by an immigrant male. Furthermore, infant survival probability increased when there was an increase in number of group adult females and rainfall. Fetal survival probability also increased with an increase of these 2 factors, but more in high-ranking than low-ranking females. Fetal survival, unlike that of infants, was also improved by an increase of intergroup encounter rates. Our study thus stresses the importance of survival analyses using a multivariate approach and encompassing more than a single offspring stage to investigate the determinants of female direct fitness. We further provide evidence for fitness costs and benefits of group living, possibly deriving from high pressures of both within- and between-group competition, in a wild primate population. PMID:25214754

  18. Inexpensive outdoor enclosure for Japanese macaques used in biobehavioral research.

    PubMed

    Crowley, T J; Goebel, A; Nesbitt, T

    1989-09-01

    For studies of alcohol self-administration in a monkey social group, we effectively and humanely enclosed nine Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in an ellipse 32 x 40m, with a 1 m high chain-link fence surmounted by a 3 m curtain of electrically conductive nylon net. High-voltage brief-pulse charges prevent climbing on the net. Materials for this fence cost less than $14.50 per running meter. Weeds and grass grew freely within the ellipse, and seven dead trees interconnected with ropes permitted climbing and swinging. An open, roofed gazebo provided sun and rain shelter, and its single wall blocked the prevailing wind. Mouth activated drinkometer spouts in the corral supplied solutions for voluntary alcohol self-administration. Automatic counters informed an observer of exact doses consumed by each subject. Another observer recorded the frequency of occurrence of various social behaviors. A small kennel run, roofed over with chain-link fencing, connected the corral with a paddock-like, partially heated building, to and from which the monkeys usually had free access. It contained three interconnected chain-link pens. A raceway opening from the pens incorporated a squeeze cage used for weighing animals, drawing blood samples, or administering medications. This unique facility promotes the psychological well-being of research primates, which is being mandated by federal law.

  19. Seasonal changes in the structure of rhesus macaque social networks.

    PubMed

    Brent, Lauren J N; Maclarnon, Ann; Platt, Michael L; Semple, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    Social structure emerges from the patterning of interactions between individuals and plays a critical role in shaping some of the main characteristics of animal populations. The topological features of social structure, such as the extent to which individuals interact in clusters, can influence many biologically important factors, including the persistence of cooperation, and the rate of spread of disease. Yet the extent to which social structure topology fluctuates over relatively short periods of time in relation to social, demographic or environmental events remains unclear. Here, we use social network analysis to examine seasonal changes in the topology of social structures that emerge from socio-positive associations in adult female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Behavioral data for two different association types (grooming, spatial proximity) were collected for females in two free-ranging groups during two seasons: the mating and birth seasons. Stronger dyadic bonds resulted in social structures that were more tightly connected (i.e. of greater density) in the mating season compared to the birth season. Social structures were also more centralized around a subset of individuals, and were more clustered in the mating season than the birth season, although the latter differences were mostly driven by differences in density alone. Our results suggest a degree of temporal variation in the topological features of social structure in this population. Such variation may feed back on interactions, hence affecting the behaviors of individuals, and may therefore be important to take into account in studies of animal behavior.

  20. Spatial choices of macaque monkeys based on abstract visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Nekovarova, Tereza; Nedvidek, Jan; Bures, Jan

    2006-11-01

    Our study investigates whether macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are able to make spatial choices in a real space according to abstract visual stimuli presented on a computer screen. We tested whether there was a difference in the processing of stimuli reflecting the configuration of a response space ("spatial stimuli") and stimuli of simple geometrical patterns lacking implicit spatial information. We trained two monkeys to choose one of nine touch-holes on a transparent panel attached to a computer monitor according to one of four visual stimuli successively displayed on the screen. The first monkey followed the visual stimuli designed as a representation of the response space ("configurations"), the second monkey observed geometrical patterns or pictures without information about the response space. In the first phase the position or the size of the stimuli varied but the shapes remained the same. In the second phase we changed the stimuli - "configurations" represented the response space in a similar way as in the previous phase, but marked different touch-holes - the patterns were changed entirely. The comparison of these two monkeys using different stimuli was expected to reveal potential differences between pattern discrimination and using configuration information included in the stimuli. The results of this experiment showed that both monkeys were able to use visual stimuli in phase 1 effectively (independently on their position on the screen), but only the monkey that obtained configuration information learnt an effective strategy after the change of stimuli in phase 2.

  1. A multidisciplinary view on cultural primatology: behavioral innovations and traditions in Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Pelletier, Amanda N; Vasey, Paul L; Nahallage, Charmalie A D; Watanabe, Kunio; Huffman, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Cultural primatology (i.e., the study of behavioral traditions in nonhuman primates as a window into the evolution of human cultural capacities) was founded in Japan by Kinji Imanishi in the early 1950s. This relatively new research area straddles different disciplines and now benefits from collaborations between Japanese and Western primatologists. In this paper, we return to the cradle of cultural primatology by revisiting our original articles on behavioral innovations and traditions in Japanese macaques. For the past 35 years, our international team of biologists, psychologists and anthropologists from Japan, France, Sri Lanka, the USA and Canada, has been taking an integrative approach to addressing the influence of environmental, sociodemographic, developmental, cognitive and behavioral constraints on the appearance, diffusion, and maintenance of behavioral traditions in Macaca fuscata across various domains; namely, feeding innovation, tool use, object play, and non-conceptive sex.

  2. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-06-29

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  3. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA

    PubMed Central

    James, David G.; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation. PMID:27367733

  4. Clinical care and evolution of paraplegic monkeys (Macaca mulatta) over fourteen months post-lesion.

    PubMed

    Piedras, María José G M; Hernández-Laín, Aurelio; Cavada, Carmen

    2011-02-01

    We have generated a non-human primate model of complete spinal cord injury (SCI) with a protracted survival time. Two adult Macaca mulatta underwent complete spinal cord transection at T8-T9. We report the effective daily care protocol for over one year survival, the health problems we encountered and the treatments applied. The animals' cages were customized to maintain them in the best possible condition when paraplegic. Daily care, adapted from human care protocols, focused mainly on urinary bladder and skin care, and lower limb rehabilitation. The most important health problems we faced were skin lesions, in particular from self-injury to insensitive regions, and urine voiding dysfunction. Skin lesions were chronic and severe in one of the monkeys. Serious voiding dysfunction occurred temporarily in one monkey in parallel with a high dose oxcarbazepine treatment. The main musculoskeletal complications were vertebral column deformities, which appeared in both monkeys. The rich experience gathered over the lengthy survival period of the two adult paraplegic macaques, the longest to date in the literature, should be useful for other scientists willing to study the long term physiopathological changes that follow SCI as well as the effects of diverse therapeutic strategies before they are applied to humans.

  5. Determination of genetic status in a closed colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Andrade, Marcia C Ribeiro; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T; Ward, Thea; Silva, Virgilio F; Bertolini, Luciana R; Roberts, Jeffrey A; Leite, Jose Paulo G; Cabello, Pedro H

    2004-07-01

    The long-term management of breeding colonies requires some measure of genetic diversity in the animal population. For the maintenance of breeding colonies of monkeys used for biomedical research, known pedigrees supply precise data to determine the genetic status of colonies. We present data of genetic analyses in an old closed colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that was established in 1932 with 100 animals. For more than 40 years, the animals were kept on an isolated island and, in 1980, single-male breeding groups were established. A total of 333 DNA samples of these animals were typed to 20 microsatellite markers using multiplex PCR in order to verify inbreeding coefficient (alpha) and level of heterozygosity. We found an average heterozygosity of 64% and obtained alpha=-0.03293 (+/-0.00573). Our results indicate that the reproductive strategy used was effective because consanguineous breeding was avoided. A continuous genetic program must be carried out in order to obtain better quality primates for biomedical research.

  6. Ash content of bones in the pigtail monkey, Macaca nemestrina.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vose, G. P.; Roach, T. L.

    1972-01-01

    Ash analyses of skeletons of four adult primates, Macaca nemestrina, revealed some similarities and some marked contrasts when compared with published data on human skeletal ash. The skull in both Macaca nemestrina and man has the highest ash content of all bones in the skeleton. While the bones of the arms of humans have an ash content nearly identical to that of the legs (0.3% difference), in Macaca nemestrina the humeri and radii contain 5.4% more ash than the femora and tibiae. Similarly in Macaca nemestrina the bones of the hands contain 3.5% more ash than the bones of the feet, while in humans the same bones agree within 0.3% implying that adaptive use function is a factor in bone ash concentration. The ribs of Macaca nemestrina showed an unexpectedly high ash content in comparison with those of humans. In contrast with the relatively constant ash content throughout the vertebrae in humans, a conspicuous decrease axially was noted in Macaca nemestrina.

  7. The origin of projections from the posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortices to the anterior, medial dorsal and laterodorsal thalamic nuclei of macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Aggleton, John P; Saunders, Richard C; Wright, Nicholas F; Vann, Seralynne D

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between the posterior cingulate cortex (areas 23 and 31) and the retrosplenial cortex (areas 29 and 30) with the anterior, laterodorsal and dorsal medial thalamic nuclei are thought to support various aspects of cognition, including memory and spatial processing. To detail these interactions better, the present study used retrograde tracers to reveal the origins of the corticothalamic projections in two closely related monkey species (Macaca mulatta, Macaca fascicularis). The medial dorsal thalamic nucleus received only light cortical inputs, which predominantly arose from area 23. Efferents to the anterior medial thalamic nucleus also arose principally from area 23, but these projections proved more numerous than those to the medial dorsal nucleus and also involved additional inputs from areas 29 and 30. The anterior ventral and laterodorsal thalamic nuclei had similar sources of inputs from the posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortices. For both nuclei, the densest projections arose from areas 29 and 30, with numbers of thalamic inputs often decreasing when going dorsal from area 23a to 23c and to area 31. In all cases, the corticothalamic projections almost always arose from the deepest cortical layer. The different profiles of inputs to the anterior medial and anterior ventral thalamic nuclei reinforce other anatomical and electrophysiological findings suggesting that these adjacent thalamic nuclei serve different, but complementary, functions supporting memory. While the lack of retrosplenial connections singled out the medial dorsal nucleus, the very similar connection patterns shown by the anterior ventral and laterodorsal nuclei point to common roles in cognition.

  8. Female homosexual behavior and inter-sexual mate competition in Japanese macaques: possible implications for sexual selection theory.

    PubMed

    Vasey, Paul L; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; VanderLaan, Doug P

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we review research related to female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), including our 20-year program of research on this species. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in this species is sexually motivated. In contrast, many sociosexual hypotheses have been tested in relation to female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques, but none have been supported. Female Japanese macaques sometimes engage in same-sex sexual activity even when motivated opposite-sex alternatives are available. Within this context of mate choice, males compete inter-sexually for opportunities to copulate with females above and beyond any intra-sexual competition that is required. Anecdotal evidence suggests that inter-sexual competition for female sexual partners has been observed in a number of other species, including humans. At present it is unclear whether inter-sexual competition for sexual partners influences patterns of reproduction. Our understanding of sexual selection and the evolution of mating systems may be improved by investigating whether inter-sexual mate competition influences the acquisition and maintenance of reproductive partners in those species in which such interactions occur.

  9. Reciprocation and interchange of grooming, agonistic support, feeding tolerance, and aggression in semi-free-ranging Barbary macaques.

    PubMed

    Carne, Charlotte; Wiper, Sue; Semple, Stuart

    2011-11-01

    Evidence from a range of primate species indicates that grooming can be exchanged either for itself or for other rank-related "commodities," such as agonistic support, feeding tolerance, or reduced aggression. Patterns of exchange behavior have been found to vary considerably between species, and understanding the causes of this variation is central to the study of the evolution of primate social systems. It is, therefore, essential that exchange behavior is examined in a wide range of species and settings. This article is the first to explore the reciprocation and interchange of grooming in the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus). We collected focal data on semi-free-ranging adult female Barbary macaques at Trentham Monkey Forest, England, and analyzed dyadic data using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. We found evidence for the reciprocal exchange of grooming and for the interchange of grooming for agonistic support and tolerance while feeding. There was no evidence that grooming was traded for a reduction in aggression; indeed, we found a positive relationship between aggression given and grooming received. This may reflect the "extortion" of grooming from subordinates by dominant animals. These results will facilitate comparative analyses of exchange behavior by adding to the current database a new species, characterized by a different social style from those macaque species previously investigated.

  10. Interspecies sexual behaviour between a male Japanese macaque and female sika deer.

    PubMed

    Pelé, Marie; Bonnefoy, Alexandre; Shimada, Masaki; Sueur, Cédric

    2017-01-10

    Interspecies sexual behaviour or 'reproductive interference' has been reported across a wide range of animal taxa. However, most of these occurrences were observed in phylogenetically close species and were mainly discussed in terms of their effect on fitness, hybridization and species survival. The few cases of heterospecific mating in distant species occurred between animals that were bred and maintained in captivity. Only one scientific study has reported this phenomenon, describing sexual harassment of king penguins by an Antarctic fur seal. This is the first article to report mating behaviour between a male Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata yakui) and female sika deer (Cervus nippon yakushimae) on Yakushima Island, Japan. Although Japanese macaques are known to ride deer, this individual showed clearly sexual behaviour towards several female deer, some of which tried to escape whilst others accepted the mount. This male seems to belong to a group of peripheral males. Although this phenomenon may be explained as copulation learning, this is highly unlikely. The most realistic hypothesis would be that of mate deprivation, which states that males with limited access to females are more likely to display this behaviour. Whatever the cause for this event may be, the observation of highly unusual animal behaviour may be a key to understanding the evolution of heterospecific mating behaviour in the animal kingdom.

  11. Assessing the Effects of Tourist Provisioning on the Health of Wild Barbary Macaques in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Maréchal, Laëtitia; Semple, Stuart; Majolo, Bonaventura; MacLarnon, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Feeding wildlife is a very popular tourist activity, largely because it facilitates the close observation of animals in their natural habitat. Such provisioning may benefit animals by improving their survival and reproductive success, especially during periods of natural food shortage. However, provisioning by tourists may also have negative impacts on the health of the animals involved; to date such impacts are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects of tourist provisioning on the health of wild adult Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, in Morocco. We compared health measures between a heavily provisioned group and a group that received negligible food from tourists and, in the former group, we also assessed health measures in relation to the intensity of provisioning. We used a broad range of non-invasive health measures relating to birth rate and survival, disease and injury risk, body size and condition, and physiological stress. Our findings indicate that feeding by tourists may overall have negative impacts on the health of Barbary macaques, being linked in particular to larger body size, elevated stress levels and more alopecia. Finally, we propose a framework to help consider the potential costs and benefits of provisioning, which may facilitate future research and management decisions on whether—and how much—provisioning is acceptable. PMID:27203861

  12. The first observation of seasonal affective disorder symptoms in Rhesus macaque.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dongdong; Chu, Xunxun; Feng, Xiaoli; Li, Zhifei; Yang, Shangchuan; Lü, Longbao; Yang, Qing; Pan, Lei; Yin, Yong; Li, Jiali; Xu, Lin; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xintian

    2015-10-01

    Diurnal animals are a better model for seasonal affective disorder (SAD) than nocturnal ones. Previous work with diurnal rodents demonstrated that short photoperiod conditions brought about depression-like behavior. However, rodents are at a large phylogenetic distance from humans. In contrast, nonhuman primates are closely similar to humans, making them an excellent candidate for SAD model. This study made the first attempt to develop SAD in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and it was found that short photoperiod conditions could lead monkeys to display depressive-like huddling behavior, less spontaneous locomotion, as well as less reactive locomotion. In addition to these depression-related behavioral changes, the physiological abnormalities that occur in patients with SAD, such as weight loss, anhedonia and hypercortisolism, were also observed in those SAD monkeys. Moreover, antidepressant treatment could reverse all of the depression-related symptoms, including depressive-like huddling behavior, less spontaneous locomotion, less reactive locomotion, weight loss, anhedonia and hypercortisolism. For the first time, this study observed the SAD symptoms in rhesus macaque, which would provide an important platform for the understanding of the etiology of SAD as well as developing novel therapeutic interventions in the future.

  13. The evolutionary history and palaeo-ecology of primate predation: Macaca sylvanus from Plio-Pleistocene Europe as a case study.

    PubMed

    Meloro, Carlo; Elton, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    In this article we briefly review primate interactions with predators throughout their evolutionary history. Like today, predators of past primates were taxonomically diverse, including crocodilians, aquatic mammals, hyaenids, raptors and other primates. There is strong evidence for felid predation of extinct primates, with most work undertaken on the African Plio-Pleistocene fossil record. Felid predation of Plio-Pleistocene primates from other areas, including Europe, is much less well understood, so we explored co-occurrence and potential interaction between carnivorans (with particular reference to felids) and Macaca sylvanus, which was widespread and present in Europe from the late Miocene to the late Pleistocene. Over its tenure in the fossil record, M. sylvanus co-occurred with a diverse array of carnivorans, including canids and hyaenids, but medium-sized felids probably posed the most significant predation risk. It is likely, however, that human predation was a major factor contributing to macaque extinction in Europe.

  14. Reduced representation genome sequencing suggests low diversity on the sex chromosomes of tonkean macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ben J; Zeng, Kai; Esselstyn, Jacob A; Charlesworth, Brian; Melnick, Don J

    2014-09-01

    In species with separate sexes, social systems can differ in the relative variances of male versus female reproductive success. Papionin monkeys (macaques, mangabeys, mandrills, drills, baboons, and geladas) exhibit hallmarks of a high variance in male reproductive success, including a female-biased adult sex ratio and prominent sexual dimorphism. To explore the potential genomic consequences of such sex differences, we used a reduced representation genome sequencing approach to quantifying polymorphism at sites on autosomes and sex chromosomes of the tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana), a species endemic to the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. The ratio of nucleotide diversity of the X chromosome to that of the autosomes was less than the value (0.75) expected with a 1:1 sex ratio and no sex differences in the variance in reproductive success. However, the significance of this difference was dependent on which outgroup was used to standardize diversity levels. Using a new model that includes the effects of varying population size, sex differences in mutation rate between the autosomes and X chromosome, and GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) or selection on GC content, we found that the maximum-likelihood estimate of the ratio of effective population size of the X chromosome to that of the autosomes was 0.68, which did not differ significantly from 0.75. We also found evidence for 1) a higher level of purifying selection on genic than nongenic regions, 2) gBGC or natural selection favoring increased GC content, 3) a dynamic demography characterized by population growth and contraction, 4) a higher mutation rate in males than females, and 5) a very low polymorphism level on the Y chromosome. These findings shed light on the population genomic consequences of sex differences in the variance in reproductive success, which appear to be modest in the tonkean macaque; they also suggest the occurrence of hitchhiking on the Y chromosome.

  15. Activity and social factors affect cohesion among individuals in female Japanese macaques: A simultaneous focal-follow study.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Mari; Suzuki, Mariko; Sprague, David S

    2014-07-01

    Understanding cohesion among individuals within a group is necessary to reveal the social system of group-living primates. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are female-philopatric primates that reside in social groups. We investigated whether individual activity and social factors can affect spatio-temporal cohesion in wild female Japanese macaques. We conducted behavioral observation on a group, which contained 38 individuals and ranged over ca. 60 ha during the study period. Two observers carried out simultaneous focal-animal sampling of adult female pairs during full-day follows using global positioning system which enabled us to quantify interindividual distances (IIDs), group members within visual range (i.e., visual unit), and separation duration beyond visual range as indicators of cohesion among individuals. We found considerable variation in spatio-temporal group cohesion. The overall mean IID was 99.9 m (range = 0-618.2 m). The percentage of IIDs within visual range was 23.1%, within auditory range was 59.8%, and beyond auditory range was 17.1%. IIDs varied with activity; they were shorter during grooming and resting, and longer during foraging and traveling. Low-ranking females showed less cohesion than high-ranking ones. Kin females stayed nearly always within audible range. The macaques were weakly cohesive with small mean visual unit size (3.15 counting only adults, 5.99 counting all individuals). Both-sex units were the most frequently observed visual unit type when they were grooming/resting. Conversely, female units were the most frequently observed visual unit type when they were foraging. The overall mean visual separation duration was 25.7 min (range = 3-513 min). Separation duration was associated with dominance rank. These results suggest that Japanese macaques regulate cohesion among individuals depending on their activity and on social relationships; they were separated to adapt food distribution and aggregated to maintain social

  16. Muscle dimensions in the Japanese macaque hand.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Naomichi; Oishi, Motoharu

    2012-10-01

    Macaques have been used as an important paradigm for understanding the neural control mechanisms of human precision grip capabilities. Therefore, we dissected the forearms and hands of two male Japanese macaques to systematically record the muscle mass, fascicle length and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA). Comparisons of the mass fractions and PCSA fractions of the hand musculature among the Japanese macaque, chimpanzee, and human demonstrated that the sizes of the thenar and hypothenar eminence muscle groups are more balanced in the macaque and chimpanzee, but those of the thenar eminence group are much larger in the human, indicating that the capacity to generate force at the tip of the thumb is more restricted in macaques, despite their high manual dexterity. In the macaque, however, the extrinsic flexor muscles are much larger, possibly to facilitate weight bearing by the forelimbs in pronograde quadrupedal locomotion and forceful grasping of arboreal supports in gap-crossing movements such as leaping. Taking such anatomical differences imposed on the hand musculoskeletal system into consideration seems to be an important method of clarifying the mechanisms of precision grip in macaques.

  17. Using biological markets principles to examine patterns of grooming exchange in Macaca thibetana.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, K N; Berman, C M; Ogawa, H; Li, J

    2011-12-01

    Biological markets principles offer testable hypotheses to explain variation in grooming exchange patterns among nonhuman primates. They predict that when within-group contest competition (WGC) is high and dominance hierarchies steep, grooming interchange with other "commodity" behaviors (such as agonistic support) should prevail. In contrast, when WGC is low and gradients shallow, market theory predicts that grooming reciprocity should prevail. We tested these predictions in a wild, provisioned Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) group across six time periods during which the group had been subjected to varying degrees of range restriction. Data on female-female aggression, grooming, and support were collected using all-occurrences and focal animal sampling techniques, and analyzed using ANCOVA methods and correlation analyses. We found that hierarchical steepness varied significantly across periods, but did not correlate with two indirect indicators of WGC (group size and range restriction) in predicted directions. Contrary to expectations, we found a negative correlation between steepness and group size, perhaps because the responses of group members to external risks (i.e. prolonged and unavoidable exposure to humans) may have overshadowed the effects of WGC. As predicted, grooming reciprocity was significant in each period and negatively correlated with steepness, even after we controlled group size, kinship, rank differences, and proximity. In contrast, there was no evidence for grooming interchange with agonistic support or for a positive relationship between interchange and steepness. We hypothesize that stressful conditions and/or the presence of stable hierarchies during each period may have led to a greater market demand for grooming than support. We suggest that future studies testing these predictions consider more direct measures of WGC and commodities in addition to support, such as feeding tolerance and access to infants.

  18. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with B19V and hepatitis A virus: no evidence of the co-infection as a cause of acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; de Almeida, Adilson José; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; de Castro, Tatiana Xavier; do Nascimento, Jussara Pereira; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group. PMID:27074255

  19. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with B19V and hepatitis A virus: no evidence of the co-infection as a cause of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; Almeida, Adilson José de; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Castro, Tatiana Xavier de; Nascimento, Jussara Pereira do; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group.

  20. The effects of an ActRIIb receptor Fc fusion protein ligand trap in juvenile simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Karyn E.; Guo, Wen; Serra, Carlo; Beck, Matthew; Wachtman, Lynn; Hoggatt, Amber; Xia, Dongling; Pearson, Chris; Knight, Heather; O’Connell, Micheal; Miller, Andrew D.; Westmoreland, Susan V.; Bhasin, Shalender

    2015-01-01

    There are no approved therapies for muscle wasting in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which portends poor disease outcomes. To determine whether a soluble ActRIIb receptor Fc fusion protein (ActRIIB.Fc), a ligand trap for TGF-β/activin family members including myostatin, can prevent or restore loss of lean body mass and body weight in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Fourteen pair-housed, juvenile male rhesus macaques were inoculated with SIVmac239 and, 4 wk postinoculation (WPI) treated with intramuscular injections of 10 mg ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ wk−1 ActRIIB.Fc or saline placebo. Body weight, lean body mass, SIV titers, and somatometric measurements were assessed monthly for 16 wk. Age-matched SIV-infected rhesus macaques were injected with saline. Intervention groups did not differ at baseline. Gains in lean mass were significantly greater in the ActRIIB.Fc group than in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Administration of ActRIIB.Fc was associated with greater gains in body weight (P = 0.01) and upper arm circumference than placebo. Serum CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and SIV copy numbers did not differ between groups. Administration of ActRIIB.Fc was associated with higher muscle expression of myostatin than placebo. ActRIIB.Fc effectively blocked and reversed loss of body weight, lean mass, and fat mass in juvenile SIV-infected rhesus macaques.—O’Connell, K. E., Guo, W., Serra, C., Beck, M., Wachtman, L., Hoggatt, A., Xia, D., Pearson, C., Knight, H., O’Connell, M., Miller, A. D., Westmoreland, S. V., Bhasin, S. The effects of an ActRIIb receptor Fc fusion protein ligand trap in juvenile simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques. PMID:25466897