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Sample records for macaronesian islands molecular

  1. Molecular evidence for multiple origins of woodiness and a New World biogeographic connection of the Macaronesian Island endemic Pericallis (Asteraceae: Senecioneae)

    PubMed Central

    Panero, Jose L.; Francisco-Ortega, Javier; Jansen, Robert K.; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of woody species in oceanic islands has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for more than a century. We used a phylogeny based on sequences of the internal-transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA to trace the evolution of woodiness in Pericallis (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), a genus endemic to the Macaronesian archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, and Canaries. Our results show that woodiness in Pericallis originated independently at least twice in these islands, further weakening some previous hypotheses concerning the value of this character for tracing the continental ancestry of island endemics. The same data suggest that the origin of woodiness is correlated with ecological shifts from open to species-rich habitats and that the ancestor of Pericallis was an herbaceous species adapted to marginal habitats of the laurel forest. Our results also support Pericallis as closely related to New World genera of the tribe Senecioneae. PMID:10570168

  2. Panmixia and dispersal from the Mediterranean Basin to Macaronesian Islands of a macrolichen species

    PubMed Central

    Alors, David; Grande, Francesco Dal; Cubas, Paloma; Crespo, Ana; Schmitt, Imke; Molina, M. Carmen; Divakar, Pradeep K.

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean region, comprising the Mediterranean Basin and the Macaronesian Islands, represents a center of diversification for many organisms. The genetic structure and connectivity of mainland and island microbial populations has been poorly explored, in particular in the case of symbiotic fungi. Here we investigated genetic diversity and spatial structure of the obligate outcrossing lichen-forming fungus Parmelina carporrhizans in the Mediterranean region. Using eight microsatellite and mating-type markers we showed that fungal populations are highly diverse but lack spatial structure. This is likely due to high connectivity and long distance dispersal of fungal spores. Consistent with low levels of linkage disequilibrium and lack of clonality, we detected both mating-type idiomorphs in all populations. Furthermore we showed that the Macaronesian Islands are the result of colonization from the Mediterranean Basin. The unidirectional gene flow, though, seemed not to be sufficient to counterbalance the effects of drift, resulting in comparatively allelic poor peripheral populations. Our study is the first to shed light on the high connectivity and lack of population structure in natural populations of a strictly sexual lichen fungus. Our data further support the view of the Macaronesian Islands as the end of the colonization road for this symbiotic ascomycete. PMID:28102303

  3. Panmixia and dispersal from the Mediterranean Basin to Macaronesian Islands of a macrolichen species.

    PubMed

    Alors, David; Grande, Francesco Dal; Cubas, Paloma; Crespo, Ana; Schmitt, Imke; Molina, M Carmen; Divakar, Pradeep K

    2017-01-19

    The Mediterranean region, comprising the Mediterranean Basin and the Macaronesian Islands, represents a center of diversification for many organisms. The genetic structure and connectivity of mainland and island microbial populations has been poorly explored, in particular in the case of symbiotic fungi. Here we investigated genetic diversity and spatial structure of the obligate outcrossing lichen-forming fungus Parmelina carporrhizans in the Mediterranean region. Using eight microsatellite and mating-type markers we showed that fungal populations are highly diverse but lack spatial structure. This is likely due to high connectivity and long distance dispersal of fungal spores. Consistent with low levels of linkage disequilibrium and lack of clonality, we detected both mating-type idiomorphs in all populations. Furthermore we showed that the Macaronesian Islands are the result of colonization from the Mediterranean Basin. The unidirectional gene flow, though, seemed not to be sufficient to counterbalance the effects of drift, resulting in comparatively allelic poor peripheral populations. Our study is the first to shed light on the high connectivity and lack of population structure in natural populations of a strictly sexual lichen fungus. Our data further support the view of the Macaronesian Islands as the end of the colonization road for this symbiotic ascomycete.

  4. Geographical, temporal and environmental determinants of bryophyte species richness in the Macaronesian islands.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Silvia C; Gabriel, Rosalina; Borges, Paulo A V; Santos, Ana M C; de Azevedo, Eduardo Brito; Patiño, Jairo; Hortal, Joaquín; Lobo, Jorge M

    2014-01-01

    Species richness on oceanic islands has been related to a series of ecological factors including island size and isolation (i.e. the Equilibrium Model of Island Biogeography, EMIB), habitat diversity, climate (i.e., temperature and precipitation) and more recently island ontogeny (i.e. the General Dynamic Model of oceanic island biogeography, GDM). Here we evaluate the relationship of these factors with the diversity of bryophytes in the Macaronesian region (Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde). The predictive power of EMIB, habitat diversity, climate and the GDM on total bryophyte richness, as well as moss and liverwort richness (the two dominant bryophyte groups), was evaluated through ordinary least squares regressions. After choosing the best subset of variables using inference statistics, we used partial regression analyses to identify the independent and shared effects of each model. The variables included within each model were similar for mosses and liverworts, with orographic mist layer being one of the most important predictors of richness. Models combining climate with either the GDM or habitat diversity explained most of richness variation (up to 91%). There was a high portion of shared variance between all pairwise combinations of factors in mosses, while in liverworts around half of the variability in species richness was accounted for exclusively by climate. Our results suggest that the effects of climate and habitat are strong and prevalent in this region, while geographical factors have limited influence on Macaronesian bryophyte diversity. Although climate is of great importance for liverwort richness, in mosses its effect is similar to or, at least, indiscernible from the effect of habitat diversity and, strikingly, the effect of island ontogeny. These results indicate that for highly vagile taxa on oceanic islands, the dispersal process may be less important for successful colonization than the availability of suitable ecological

  5. Geographical, Temporal and Environmental Determinants of Bryophyte Species Richness in the Macaronesian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Silvia C.; Gabriel, Rosalina; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Santos, Ana M. C.; de Azevedo, Eduardo Brito; Patiño, Jairo; Hortal, Joaquín; Lobo, Jorge M.

    2014-01-01

    Species richness on oceanic islands has been related to a series of ecological factors including island size and isolation (i.e. the Equilibrium Model of Island Biogeography, EMIB), habitat diversity, climate (i.e., temperature and precipitation) and more recently island ontogeny (i.e. the General Dynamic Model of oceanic island biogeography, GDM). Here we evaluate the relationship of these factors with the diversity of bryophytes in the Macaronesian region (Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde). The predictive power of EMIB, habitat diversity, climate and the GDM on total bryophyte richness, as well as moss and liverwort richness (the two dominant bryophyte groups), was evaluated through ordinary least squares regressions. After choosing the best subset of variables using inference statistics, we used partial regression analyses to identify the independent and shared effects of each model. The variables included within each model were similar for mosses and liverworts, with orographic mist layer being one of the most important predictors of richness. Models combining climate with either the GDM or habitat diversity explained most of richness variation (up to 91%). There was a high portion of shared variance between all pairwise combinations of factors in mosses, while in liverworts around half of the variability in species richness was accounted for exclusively by climate. Our results suggest that the effects of climate and habitat are strong and prevalent in this region, while geographical factors have limited influence on Macaronesian bryophyte diversity. Although climate is of great importance for liverwort richness, in mosses its effect is similar to or, at least, indiscernible from the effect of habitat diversity and, strikingly, the effect of island ontogeny. These results indicate that for highly vagile taxa on oceanic islands, the dispersal process may be less important for successful colonization than the availability of suitable ecological

  6. Five new extinct species of rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae) from the Macaronesian Islands (North Atlantic Ocean).

    PubMed

    Alcover, Josep Antoni; Pieper, Harald; Pereira, Fernando; Rando, Juan Carlos

    2015-12-10

    Five new species of recently extinct rails from two Macaronesian archipelagoes (Madeira and Azores) are described. All the species are smaller in size than their presumed ancestor, the European rail Rallus aquaticus. Two species inhabited the Madeira archipelago: (1) Rallus lowei n. sp., the stouter of the species described herein, was a flightless rail with a robust tarsometatarsus and reduced wings that lived on Madeira Island; (2) Rallus adolfocaesaris n. sp., a flightless and more gracile species than its Madeiran counterpart, inhabited Porto Santo. So far, six Azorean islands have been paleontologically explored, and the remains of fossil rails have been found on all of them. Here we formally describe the best-preserved remains from three islands (Pico, São Miguel and São Jorge): (1) Rallus montivagorum n. sp., a rail smaller than R. aquaticus with a somewhat reduced flying capability, inhabited Pico; (2) Rallus carvaoensis n. sp., a small flightless rail with short and stout legs and a bill apparently more curved than in R. aquaticus, was restricted to São Miguel; (3) Rallus minutus n. sp., a very small (approaching Atlantisia rogersi in size) flightless rail with a shortened robust tarsometatarsus, lived in São Jorge. We note also the presence of rail fossils on three other Azorean islands (Terceira, Graciosa and Santa Maria). In addition, we describe an extraordinarily complete fossil of an unnamed Rallus preserved in silica from the locality of Algar do Carvão on Terceira.

  7. Epidemiological survey of zoonotic helminths in feral cats in Gran Canaria island (Macaronesian archipelago-Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ponce, Eligia; González, Jorge F; Conde de Felipe, Magnolia; Hernández, Julia N; Raduan Jaber, J

    2016-09-01

    The presence of zoonotic parasites in feral cats have been widely considered all over the world. In Gran Canaria (Macaronesian archipelago, Canary Islands, Spain) the number of feral cats has grown out of control in urban and rural areas. 48 of Felis catus captured in different Gran Canaria areas were studied. Animals were necropsied and several organs were systematically examined in order to collect and identify macroscopic parasites. In addition, coprological tests were done in 28 cats. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence rate among sex, age or capture area, showing an overall prevalence of helminths of 77.1%. The most common tapeworms were Dipylidium caninum (64.6%) and Taenia taeniaeformis (31.3%), followed by the nematodes Toxocara cati (20.8%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (18.8%), Aelurostrongylusabstrusus (10.4%) and Trichuris vulpis (2.08%). We also find several eggs of Alaria alata in the small intestine of one cat (2.08%), being the first description of this trematode in cats in the Canary Islands. Aproximatelly, 40% of the studied cats harboured more than one parasite. High rates of zoonotic species found in these animals suggest the need of controling parasitic infections and preventive measures against them.

  8. Evolutionary and Biogeographic Insights on the Macaronesian Beta-Patellifolia Species (Amaranthaceae) from a Time-Scaled Molecular Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Romeiras, Maria M.; Vieira, Ana; Silva, Diogo N.; Moura, Monica; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Batista, Dora; Duarte, Maria Cristina; Paulo, Octávio S.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Mediterranean Region and Macaronesian Islands are one of the top biodiversity hotspots of Europe, containing a significant native genetic diversity of global value among the Crop Wild Relatives (CWR). Sugar beet is the primary crop of the genus Beta (subfamily Betoideae, Amaranthaceae) and despite the great economic importance of this genus, and of the close relative Patellifolia species, a reconstruction of their evolutionary history is still lacking. We analyzed nrDNA (ITS) and cpDNA gene (matK, trnH-psbA, trnL intron, rbcL) sequences to: (i) investigate the phylogenetic relationships within the Betoideae subfamily, and (ii) elucidate the historical biogeography of wild beet species in the Western Mediterranean Region, including the Macaronesian Islands. The results support the Betoideae as a monophyletic group (excluding the Acroglochin genus) and provide a detailed inference of relationships within this subfamily, revealing: (i) a deep genetic differentiation between Beta and Patellifolia species, which may have occurred in Late Oligocene; and (ii) the occurrence of a West-East genetic divergence within Beta, indicating that the Mediterranean species probably differentiated by the end of the Miocene. This was interpreted as a signature of species radiation induced by dramatic habitat changes during the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.96–5.33 Mya). Moreover, colonization events during the Pleistocene also played a role in shaping the current diversity patterns among and within the Macaronesian Islands. The origin and number of these events could not be revealed due to insufficient phylogenetic resolution, suggesting that the diversification was quite recent in these archipelagos, and unravelling potential complex biogeographic patterns with hybridization and gene flow playing an important role. Finally, three evolutionary lineages were identified corresponding to major gene pools of sugar beet wild relatives, which provide useful information for

  9. A switch in the Atlantic Oscillation correlates with inter-annual changes in foraging location and food habits of Macaronesian shearwaters (Puffinus baroli) nesting on two islands of the sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Jaime A.; Isabel Fagundes, Ana; Xavier, José C.; Fidalgo, Vera; Ceia, Filipe R.; Medeiros, Renata; Paiva, Vitor H.

    2015-10-01

    Changes in oceanographic conditions, shaped by changes in large-scale atmospheric phenomena such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), alters the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. Such signals are readily captured by marine top predators, given that their use of foraging habitats and diets change when the NAO changes. In this study we assessed sexual, seasonal and annual (2010/11-2012/13) differences in diet, trophic and isotopic niche (using δ15N and δ13C values of whole blood, 1st primary, 8th secondary and breast feathers), foraging locations and oceanographic variation within foraging areas for Macaronesian shearwaters' (Puffinus baroli) during two years of contrasting NAO values, and between two sub-tropical islands 330 km apart in the North Atlantic Ocean, Cima Islet and Selvagem Grande. These two locations provide contrasting oceanographic foraging regimes for the birds, because the second colony is much closer to the African coast (375 vs 650 km), and, therefore, to the upwelling area of the Canary Current. There was a marked environmental perturbation in 2010/2011, related with a negative NAO Index and lower marine productivity (lower concentration of Chlorophyll a). This event corresponded to the Macaronesian shearwaters feeding farther north and west, which was readily seen in change of both δ15N and δ13C values, and in a higher intake of cephalopods. Diet and stable isotopes did not differ between sexes. Regurgitation analysis indicate a dominance of cephalopods in both islands, but prey fish were important for Selvagem Grande in 2012 and cephalopods for Cima Islet in 2011. Both δ15N and δ13C values were significantly higher for Cima Islet than for Selvagem Grande, irrespective of year, season and tissue sampled. SIBER analysis showed smaller isotopic niches for the breeding period. Our study suggests that during years of poor environmental conditions Macaronesian shearwaters shift their foraging location to more pelagic waters

  10. Nuclear DNA Amounts in Macaronesian Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    SUDA, JAN; KYNCL, TOMÁŠ; FREIOVÁ, RADKA

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear DNA contents for 104 Macaronesian angiosperms, with particular attention on Canary Islands endemics, were analysed using propidium iodide flow cytometry. Prime estimates for more than one‐sixth of the whole Canarian endemic flora (including representatives of 11 endemic genera) were obtained. The resulting 1C DNA values ranged from 0·19 to 7·21 pg for Descurainia bourgeauana and Argyranthemum frutescens, respectively (about 38‐fold difference). The majority of species, however, possessed (very) small genomes, with C‐values <1·6 pg. The tendency towards small nuclear DNA contents and genome sizes was confirmed by comparing average values for Macaronesian and non‐Macaronesian representatives of individual families, genera and major phylogenetic lineages. Our data support the hypothesis that the insular selection pressures in Macaronesia favour small C‐values and genome sizes. Both positive and negative correlations between infrageneric nuclear DNA amount variation and environmental conditions on Tenerife were also found in several genera. PMID:12824074

  11. Climate threat on the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora

    PubMed Central

    Patiño, Jairo; Mateo, Rubén G.; Zanatta, Florian; Marquet, Adrien; Aranda, Silvia C.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Dirkse, Gerard; Gabriel, Rosalina; Gonzalez-Mancebo, Juana M.; Guisan, Antoine; Muñoz, Jesús; Sim-Sim, Manuela; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Oceanic islands are of fundamental importance for the conservation of biodiversity because they exhibit high endemism rates coupled with fast extinction rates. Nowhere in Europe is this pattern more conspicuous than in the Macaronesian biogeographic region. A large network of protected areas within the region has been developed, but the question of whether these areas will still be climatically suitable for the globally threatened endemic element in the coming decades remains open. Here, we make predictions on the fate of the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora in the context of ongoing climate change. The potential distribution of 35 Macaronesian endemic bryophyte species was assessed under present and future climate conditions using an ensemble modelling approach. Projections of the models under different climate change scenarios predicted an average decrease of suitable areas of 62–87% per species and a significant elevational increase by 2070, so that even the commonest species were predicted to fit either the Vulnerable or Endangered IUCN categories. Complete extinctions were foreseen for six of the studied Macaronesian endemic species. Given the uncertainty regarding the capacity of endemic species to track areas of suitable climate within and outside the islands, active management associated to an effective monitoring program is suggested. PMID:27377592

  12. Climate threat on the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Jairo; Mateo, Rubén G; Zanatta, Florian; Marquet, Adrien; Aranda, Silvia C; Borges, Paulo A V; Dirkse, Gerard; Gabriel, Rosalina; Gonzalez-Mancebo, Juana M; Guisan, Antoine; Muñoz, Jesús; Sim-Sim, Manuela; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-07-05

    Oceanic islands are of fundamental importance for the conservation of biodiversity because they exhibit high endemism rates coupled with fast extinction rates. Nowhere in Europe is this pattern more conspicuous than in the Macaronesian biogeographic region. A large network of protected areas within the region has been developed, but the question of whether these areas will still be climatically suitable for the globally threatened endemic element in the coming decades remains open. Here, we make predictions on the fate of the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora in the context of ongoing climate change. The potential distribution of 35 Macaronesian endemic bryophyte species was assessed under present and future climate conditions using an ensemble modelling approach. Projections of the models under different climate change scenarios predicted an average decrease of suitable areas of 62-87% per species and a significant elevational increase by 2070, so that even the commonest species were predicted to fit either the Vulnerable or Endangered IUCN categories. Complete extinctions were foreseen for six of the studied Macaronesian endemic species. Given the uncertainty regarding the capacity of endemic species to track areas of suitable climate within and outside the islands, active management associated to an effective monitoring program is suggested.

  13. Phylogeographical history of the sponge Crambe crambe (Porifera, Poecilosclerida): range expansion and recent invasion of the Macaronesian islands from the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Duran, S; Giribet, G; Turon, X

    2004-01-01

    We studied sequence variation in the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) in 111 individuals from 11 populations/localities of the sponge Crambe crambe across the core species range in the western Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. We report the first confirmed instance of intragenomic variation in sponges. Phylogeographical, nested clade and population genetic analyses were used to elucidate the species' evolutionary history. The study revealed highly structured populations affected by restricted gene flow and isolation-by-distance. A contiguous range expansion in the whole distribution area of the sponge was inferred. Phylogenetic analyses indicate a recent origin of most sequence types that could be explained by a recent origin of the species or a by recent bottleneck event in the studied area. A recent expansion of the distribution range to the Macaronesian region from the Mediterranean Sea was also detected, suggesting that C. crambe was recently introduced from the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean via human-mediated transport, and that the pattern observed is not the result of a natural biogeographical relationship between these zones.

  14. Successful eradication of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and house mouse (Mus musculus) from the island of Selvagem Grande (Macaronesian archipelago), in the Eastern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Paulo; Menezes, Dilia; Trout, Roger; Buckle, Alan; Geraldes, Pedro; Jesus, José

    2010-03-01

    The Portuguese island of Selvagem Grande (Great Salvage) in Macaronesia is an important seabird breeding station in the eastern Atlantic. Significant populations of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea (Scopoli, 1769), Bulwer's petrel Bulweria bulweria (Jardine & Selby, 1828) and little shearwater Puffinus assimilis baroli (Bonaparte, 1857) are present, and white-faced storm-petrel Pelagodroma marina (Latham, 1790) and Madeiran storm-petrel Oceanodroma castro (Harcourt, 1851) populations are of global significance. Selvagem Grande also provides diverse habitats for an extensive flora, including 11 endemic species. The 270-ha island was also inhabited by two alien invasive mammals: the European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758) and the house mouse Mus musculus (Linnaeus, 1758). Both are known to have had adverse impacts on breeding seabirds and island vegetation. In 2002, the Natural Park of Madeira conducted a program using brodifacoum bait formulations aimed at rabbit and mouse eradication. Approximately 17 000 individual baiting points were established on a 12.5 × 12.5 m grid. Baits were also applied by hand "seeding" on steep slopes and cliffs where bait stations could not be placed. Rabbits were removed after a month. However, mice persisted for considerably longer and strategic bait applications against them continued for a further six months. Subsequent assessments by trapping, bait takes and systematic observation of signs over three years, has confirmed the removal of both alien invasive species. This paper presents information on these operations, on measures adopted to mitigate adverse impacts of the eradication program on important vertebrate non-target species, including Berthelot's pipit Anthus berthelotii Bolle, 1862 and a species of gecko Tarentola bischoffi Joger, 1984 and on the initial response of the island's ecosystem to the eradication of rabbits and mice. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  15. The origin of bird pollination in Macaronesian Lotus (Loteae, Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Isidro; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Jaén-Molina, Ruth; Oliva-Tejera, Felicia; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Cronk, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    The four red-flowered, apparently bird-pollinated Lotus species from the Canary Islands have previously been classified in their own genus, Rhyncholotus. Currently, they are considered as a separate section within genus Lotus, distinct from other herbaceous Canarian congeners which are yellow-flowered and bee-pollinated. A combined analysis of four nuclear regions (including ITS and three homologues of CYCLOIDEA) and three plastid regions (CYB6, matK and trnH-psbA) nests the four bird-pollinated species within a single extant species of bee-pollinated Lotus (L. sessilifolius), in a very extreme example of species paraphyly. Therefore, our data compellingly support the hypothesis that the Macaronesian Lotus species with a bird pollination syndrome are recently derived from entomophilous ancestors. Calibration of the phylogenetic trees using geological age estimates of the most recent islands (La Palma and El Hierro) together with oldest ages of Fuerteventura indicates that bird pollination evolved ca. 1.7 Ma in the Canarian Lotus. These four bird-pollinated species share a most recent common ancestor (MRCA) with L. sessilifolius that dates to about 2.2 Ma. Our analyses further suggest that the evolution of the bird pollination syndrome was likely triggered by the availability of new niches in La Palma and Tenerife as a result of recent volcanic activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Breeding biology of a winter-breeding procellariiform in the North Atlantic, the Macaronesian shearwater Puffinus lherminieri baroli.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Ana Isabel; Ramos, Jaime A; Ramos, Urtelinda; Medeiros, Renata; Paiva, Vitor H

    2016-10-01

    The breeding success of burrow-nesting seabirds may be influenced by both nest site characteristics and oceanographic conditions influencing food availability at sea. In this study we describe the breeding biology of the winter-breeding Macaronesian shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri baroli), including nest site characteristics and interspecific competition. We also evaluate the possible effects of changing oceanographic conditions on breeding phenology and breeding success. The study was carried out over two breeding seasons on two islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, Cima Islet and Selvagem Grande. Oceanographic characteristics differed between years. On a regional scale, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was low and negative in 2011, and on a local scale, birds used areas with significantly lower values of chlorophyll a concentration and significantly higher values of sea surface temperature anomalies. Hatching success was higher in 2012 than in 2011. At both colonies, egg cracking was the main cause of hatching failure, but in 2011 several eggs on Selvagem Grande were deserted. In 2012 birds laid earlier and chicks had longer wings and were heavier. At both colonies, nests that were deeper, were sheltered from prevailing winds and had small chambers and a soil substrate had a higher probability of being used successfully by the birds. Nests occupied solely by Macaronesian shearwaters were much deeper and had less volume than nests shared with other species. Our study suggests that the breeding success of Macaronesian shearwaters is strongly related to nest site characteristics and that at-sea environmental conditions exert a strong influence on reproductive parameters, with birds breeding in a poor year (evaluated in terms of lower marine productivity) laying much later and their chicks growing at a slower rate than in a good year. The influence of nest site characteristics and environmental conditions may be very important for understanding the breeding

  17. Molecular Evolutionary Consequences of Island Colonization.

    PubMed

    James, Jennifer E; Lanfear, Robert; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2016-07-02

    Island endemics are expected to have low effective population sizes (Ne), first because some may experience population bottlenecks when they are founded, and second because they have restricted ranges. Therefore, we expect island species to have reduced genetic diversity, inefficient selection, and reduced adaptive potential compared with their mainland counterparts. We used both polymorphism and substitution data to address these predictions, improving on the approach of recent studies that only used substitution data. This allowed us to directly test the assumption that island species have small values of Ne We found that island species had significantly less genetic diversity than mainland species; however, this pattern could be attributed to a subset of island species that appeared to have undergone a recent population bottleneck. When these species were excluded from the analysis, island and mainland species had similar levels of genetic diversity, despite island species occupying considerably smaller areas than their mainland counterparts. We also found no overall difference between island and mainland species in terms of the effectiveness of selection or the mutation rate. Our evidence suggests that island colonization has no lasting impact on molecular evolution. This surprising result highlights gaps in our knowledge of the relationship between census and effective population size.

  18. Molecular Evolutionary Consequences of Island Colonization

    PubMed Central

    James, Jennifer E.; Lanfear, Robert; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Island endemics are expected to have low effective population sizes (Ne), first because some may experience population bottlenecks when they are founded, and second because they have restricted ranges. Therefore, we expect island species to have reduced genetic diversity, inefficient selection, and reduced adaptive potential compared with their mainland counterparts. We used both polymorphism and substitution data to address these predictions, improving on the approach of recent studies that only used substitution data. This allowed us to directly test the assumption that island species have small values of Ne. We found that island species had significantly less genetic diversity than mainland species; however, this pattern could be attributed to a subset of island species that appeared to have undergone a recent population bottleneck. When these species were excluded from the analysis, island and mainland species had similar levels of genetic diversity, despite island species occupying considerably smaller areas than their mainland counterparts. We also found no overall difference between island and mainland species in terms of the effectiveness of selection or the mutation rate. Our evidence suggests that island colonization has no lasting impact on molecular evolution. This surprising result highlights gaps in our knowledge of the relationship between census and effective population size. PMID:27358424

  19. Disentangling ancient interactions: a new extinct passerine provides insights on character displacement among extinct and extant island finches.

    PubMed

    Rando, Juan Carlos; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Illera, Juan Carlos

    2010-09-23

    Evolutionary studies of insular biotas are based mainly on extant taxa, although such biotas represent artificial subsets of original faunas because of human-caused extinctions of indigenous species augmented by introduced exotic taxa. This makes it difficult to obtain a full understanding of the history of ecological interactions between extant sympatric species. Morphological bill variation of Fringilla coelebs and F. teydea (common and blue chaffinches) has been previously studied in the North Atlantic Macaronesian archipelagos. Character displacement between both species has been argued to explain bill sizes in sympatry. However, this explanation is incomplete, as similar patterns of bill size have been recorded in F. coelebs populations from islands with and without F. teydea. The discovery of a new extinct species in Tenerife (Canary Islands), here named Carduelis aurelioi n. sp. (slender-billed greenfinch), provides the opportunity to study ancient ecological interactions among Macaronesian finches. To help understand the evolutionary histories of forest granivores in space and time, we have performed a multidisciplinary study combining: (1) morphological analyses and radiocarbon dating (11,460±60 yr BP) of the new taxon and, (2) molecular divergence among the extant finch species and populations in order to infer colonization times (1.99 and 1.09 My for F. teydea and F. coelebs respectively). C. aurelioi, F. coelebs and F. teydea co-habited in Tenerife for at least one million years. The unique anatomical trends of the new species, namely chaffinch-like beak and modified hind and forelimbs, reveal that there was a process of divergence of resource competition traits among the three sympatric finches. The results of our study, combined with the presence of more extinct greenfinches in other Macaronesian islands with significant variation in their beak sizes, suggests that the character displacement has influenced patterns of divergence in bill size and

  20. Disentangling Ancient Interactions: A New Extinct Passerine Provides Insights on Character Displacement among Extinct and Extant Island Finches

    PubMed Central

    Rando, Juan Carlos; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Illera, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Background Evolutionary studies of insular biotas are based mainly on extant taxa, although such biotas represent artificial subsets of original faunas because of human-caused extinctions of indigenous species augmented by introduced exotic taxa. This makes it difficult to obtain a full understanding of the history of ecological interactions between extant sympatric species. Morphological bill variation of Fringilla coelebs and F. teydea (common and blue chaffinches) has been previously studied in the North Atlantic Macaronesian archipelagos. Character displacement between both species has been argued to explain bill sizes in sympatry. However, this explanation is incomplete, as similar patterns of bill size have been recorded in F. coelebs populations from islands with and without F. teydea. Methodology/Principal Findings The discovery of a new extinct species in Tenerife (Canary Islands), here named Carduelis aurelioi n. sp. (slender-billed greenfinch), provides the opportunity to study ancient ecological interactions among Macaronesian finches. To help understand the evolutionary histories of forest granivores in space and time, we have performed a multidisciplinary study combining: (1) morphological analyses and radiocarbon dating (11,460±60 yr BP) of the new taxon and, (2) molecular divergence among the extant finch species and populations in order to infer colonization times (1.99 and 1.09 My for F. teydea and F. coelebs respectively). Conclusion/Significance C. aurelioi, F. coelebs and F. teydea co-habited in Tenerife for at least one million years. The unique anatomical trends of the new species, namely chaffinch-like beak and modified hind and forelimbs, reveal that there was a process of divergence of resource competition traits among the three sympatric finches. The results of our study, combined with the presence of more extinct greenfinches in other Macaronesian islands with significant variation in their beak sizes, suggests that the character

  1. Transcriptome sequencing and simple sequence repeat marker development for three Macaronesian endemic plant species1

    PubMed Central

    White, Oliver W.; Doo, Bethany; Carine, Mark A.; Chapman, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Oceanic islands offer unparalleled opportunities to investigate evolutionary processes such as adaptation and speciation. However, few genomic resources are available for oceanic island endemics. In this study, we publish transcriptome sequences from three Macaronesian endemic plant species (Argyranthemum broussonetii [Asteraceae], Descurainia bourgaeana [Brassicaceae], and Echium wildpretii [Boraginaceae]) that are representative of lineages that have radiated in the region. In addition, the utility of transcriptome data for marker development is demonstrated. Methods and Results: Transcriptomes from the three plant species were sequenced, assembled, and annotated. Between 1972 and 2282 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified for each taxon. Primers were designed and tested for 30 of the candidate SSRs identified in Argyranthemum, of which 12 amplified well across three species and eight were polymorphic. Conclusions: We demonstrate here that a single transcriptome sequence is sufficient to identify hundreds of polymorphic SSR markers. The SSRs are applicable to a wide range of questions relating to the evolution of island lineages. PMID:27610280

  2. Colonization and diversification of the spider genus Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805 (Araneae, Pholcidae) in the Macaronesian archipelagos: evidence for long-term occupancy yet rapid recent speciation.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Dimitar; Arnedo, Miquel A; Ribera, Carles

    2008-08-01

    Macaronesian archipelagos stand apart from other oceanic islands reputed as laboratories for the study of evolution by their proximity to the mainland, lack of subsidence, and steep ecological gradients. The genus Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805, commonly known as daddy-long-leg spiders, is one of the most speciose arthropod groups in the region, with 25 endemic species. In the present study, we use information from four mitochondrial genes, along with morphological data, to examine the phylogenetic relationships and diversification patterns of the genus in the region. Phylogenetic analyses support monophyly of Macaronesian Pholcus including the Moroccan species Pholcus vachoni and hence a single colonization event in the archipelagos. Madeira colonizers most likely originated from the Canaries, and a back-colonization of the nearby mainland receives further support. Estimated lineage divergence times suggest a long-time presence of Pholcus in the region, but also reveal that most present-day species are the result of recent, and probably rapid, speciation events. Diagnostic characters among Macaronesian Pholcus are confined to structures involved in copulation. Coupled with the extremely high diversification rate, the highest recorded for spiders, these copulatory characters suggest that sexual selection has played a key role in the local diversification of Pholcus in Macaronesia.

  3. Latest Sea-Operations in the Macaronesian region with Unmanned Autonomous Marine Gliding Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, Carlos; Lorenzo, Alvaro; Viera, Josue; Morales, Tania; Vega, Daura; Rueda, Maria Jose; Llinas, Octavio

    2013-04-01

    Current advances on key marine technology fields provide nowadays a broad range of autonomous unmanned platforms addressed for an efficient and cost-effective ocean observation, with a suitable level of success in terms of endurance, reliability and useful gathered information. In this context, a multidisciplinary family of unmanned autonomous vehicles addressed to monitor both coastal and open-ocean areas plays a relevant role. During the last month, some of the newest unmanned gliding vehicle technologies have been tested within the context of the Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands (PLOCAN) in varied operational scenarios aiming different technical and scientific purposes, all of them joined in direct partnership with the company provider and other R&D institutions in some cases. Among others, representative examples in this way are the missions under the name Challenger One, Vulcano and SB02 through surface and underwater gliding vehicles, performed mostly in the surrounding subtropical waters of the ESTOC site observatory in the Canary Islands archipelago. The main gathered operational and scientific results from these missions are presented in this work as a sign of new ocean observing technologies within the framework of the Macaronesian Marine and Maritime Observation Strategy (R3M) and linked with the current European rules programs and projects in this field. Keywords: autonomous vehicle, gliders, R3M, ocean observatory, monitoring, marine robotics, ESTOC,

  4. Biogeography of Mediterranean Hotspot Biodiversity: Re-Evaluating the 'Tertiary Relict' Hypothesis of Macaronesian Laurel Forests

    PubMed Central

    Kondraskov, Paulina; Schütz, Nicole; Schüßler, Christina; de Sequeira, Miguel Menezes; Guerra, Arnoldo Santos; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Jaén-Molina, Ruth; Marrero-Rodríguez, Águedo; Koch, Marcus A.; Linder, Peter; Kovar-Eder, Johanna; Thiv, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The Macaronesian laurel forests (MLF) are dominated by trees with a laurophyll habit comparable to evergreen humid forests which were scattered across Europe and the Mediterranean in the Paleogene and Neogene. Therefore, MLF are traditionally regarded as an old, 'Tertiary relict' vegetation type. Here we address the question if key taxa of the MLF are relictual. We evaluated the relict hypothesis consulting fossil data and analyses based on molecular phylogenies of 18 representative species. For molecular dating we used the program BEAST, for ancestral trait reconstructions BayesTraits and Lagrange to infer ancestral areas. Our molecular dating showed that the origins of four species date back to the Upper Miocene while 14 originated in the Plio-Pleistocene. This coincides with the decline of fossil laurophyllous elements in Europe since the middle Miocene. Ancestral trait and area reconstructions indicate that MLF evolved partly from pre-adapted taxa from the Mediterranean, Macaronesia and the tropics. According to the fossil record laurophyllous taxa existed in Macaronesia since the Plio- and Pleistocene. MLF are composed of species with a heterogeneous origin. The taxa dated to the Pleistocene are likely not 'Tertiary relicts'. Some species may be interpreted as relictual. In this case, the establishment of most species in the Plio-Pleistocene suggests that there was a massive species turnover before this time. Alternatively, MLF were largely newly assembled through global recruitment rather than surviving as relicts of a once more widespread vegetation. This process may have possibly been triggered by the intensification of the trade winds at the end of the Pliocene as indicated by proxy data. PMID:26173113

  5. Key Processes for Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) Diversification on Oceanic Islands Inferred from AFLP Data

    PubMed Central

    Vitales, Daniel; García-Fernández, Alfredo; Pellicer, Jaume; Vallès, Joan; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Cowan, Robyn S.; Fay, Michael F.; Hidalgo, Oriane; Garnatje, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The radiation of the genus Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) in Macaronesia constitutes a spectacular case of rapid diversification on oceanic islands. Twenty species – nine of them included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species – have been described to date inhabiting the Madeiran and Canarian archipelagos. A previous phylogenetic study revealed that the diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia started less than 2 Ma. As a result of such an explosive speciation process, limited phylogenetic resolution was reported, mainly due to the low variability of the employed molecular markers. In the present study, we used highly polymorphic AFLP markers to i) evaluate species' boundaries, ii) infer their evolutionary relationships and iii) investigate the patterns of genetic diversity in relation to the potential processes likely involved in the radiation of Cheirolophus. One hundred and seventy-two individuals representing all Macaronesian Cheirolophus species were analysed using 249 AFLP loci. Our results suggest that geographic isolation played an important role in this radiation process. This was likely driven by the combination of poor gene flow capacity and a good ability for sporadic long-distance colonisations. In addition, we also found some traces of introgression and incipient ecological adaptation, which could have further enhanced the extraordinary diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia. Last, we hypothesize that current threat categories assigned to Macaronesian Cheirolophus species do not reflect their respective evolutionary relevance, so future evaluations of their conservation status should take into account the results presented here. PMID:25412495

  6. Colonization and diversification of aquatic insects on three Macaronesian archipelagos using 59 nuclear loci derived from a draft genome.

    PubMed

    Rutschmann, Sereina; Detering, Harald; Simon, Sabrina; Funk, David H; Gattolliat, Jean-Luc; Hughes, Samantha J; Raposeiro, Pedro M; DeSalle, Rob; Sartori, Michel; Monaghan, Michael T

    2017-02-01

    The study of processes driving diversification requires a fully sampled and well resolved phylogeny, although a lack of phylogenetic markers remains a limitation for many non-model groups. Multilocus approaches to the study of recent diversification provide a powerful means to study the evolutionary process, but their application remains restricted because multiple unlinked loci with suitable variation for phylogenetic or coalescent analysis are not available for most non-model taxa. Here we identify novel, putative single-copy nuclear DNA (nDNA) phylogenetic markers to study the colonization and diversification of an aquatic insect species complex, Cloeon dipterum L. 1761 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae), in Macaronesia. Whole-genome sequencing data from one member of the species complex were used to identify 59 nDNA loci (32,213 base pairs), followed by Sanger sequencing of 29 individuals sampled from 13 islands of three Macaronesian archipelagos. Multispecies coalescent analyses established six putative species. Three island species formed a monophyletic clade, with one species occurring on the Azores, Europe and North America. Ancestral state reconstruction indicated at least two colonization events from the mainland (to the Canaries, respectively Azores) and one within the archipelago (between Madeira and the Canaries). Random subsets of the 59 loci showed a positive linear relationship between number of loci and node support. In contrast, node support in the multispecies coalescent tree was negatively correlated with mean number of phylogenetically informative sites per locus, suggesting a complex relationship between tree resolution and marker variability. Our approach highlights the value of combining genomics, coalescent-based phylogeography, species delimitation, and phylogenetic reconstruction to resolve recent diversification events in an archipelago species complex.

  7. Phylogeny of the genus Hegeter (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera) and its colonization of the Canary Islands deduced from Cytochrome Oxidase I mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Juan, C; Oromi, P; Hewitt, G M

    1996-04-01

    The genus Hegeter comprises 23 species of darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) endemic to the Macaronesian archipelagos, with 21 of them exclusive to the Canary Islands. We have sequenced 438 bp of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene in 17 species (24 taxa) of Canarian Hegeter. Estimates of nucleotide composition, transition/transversion ratios and nucleotide change frequencies are very similar to those found in another tenebrionid Canarian genus Pimelia, indicating that similar molecular mechanisms are driving the sequence evolution. The sequence variation found allows phylogenetic analyses of the genus and the deduction of colonization patterns. These involve sequential island invasion with more rapid establishment and radiation than found in the related beetles of the genus Pimelia.

  8. Species diversity of the genus Osmundea (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in the Macaronesian region.

    PubMed

    Machín-Sánchez, María; Rousseau, Florence; Le Gall, Line; Cassano, Valéria; Neto, Ana I; Sentíes, Abel; T Fujii, Mutue; Gil-Rodríguez, María Candelaria

    2016-08-01

    Species diversity within the genus Osmundea in the Macaronesian region was explored by conducting a comprehensive sampling in the Azores, the Canary, and the Madeira archipelagos. Toward identification, all specimens were first observed alive to verify the absence of corps en cerise, a diagnostic character for the genus and morphometric data were measured (thallus length and width, first-order branches length and width, branchlets length and width, cortical cell length and width in surface view, cortical cell length and width in transverse section). Specimens were sequenced for COI-5P (39 specimens) and three species delimitation methods (Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent, Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery method, and Poisson Tree Processes) were used to assess the threshold between infra- and interspecific relationships. Subsequently, one or several sequences of plastid-encoded large subunit of RuBisCO (21 specimens) per delimited species were generated to assess the phylogenetic relationships among Macaronesian Osmundea. Moreover, for each delineated species, vegetative and reproductive anatomy was thoroughly documented and, when possible, specimens were either assigned to existing taxa or described as novel species. This integrative approach has provided data for (i) the presence of O. oederi, O. pinnatifida, and O. truncata in Macaronesia; (ii) the proposal of two novel species, O. prudhommevanreinei sp. nov. and O. silvae sp. nov.; and (iii) evidence of an additional species referred as "Osmundea sp.1," which is a sister taxon of O. hybrida.

  9. Structural and optoelectronic properties of germanium-rich islands grown on silicon using molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Nataraj, L.; Sustersic, N.; Coppinger, M.; Gerlein, L. F.; Kolodzey, J.; Cloutier, S. G.

    2010-03-22

    We report on the structural and optoelectronic properties of self-assembled germanium-rich islands grown on silicon using molecular beam epitaxy. Raman, photocurrent, photoluminescence, and transient optical spectroscopy measurements suggest significant built-in strains and a well-defined interface with little intermixing between the islands and the silicon. The shape of these islands depends on the growth conditions and includes pyramid, dome, barn-shaped, and superdome islands. Most importantly, we demonstrate that these germanium-rich islands provide efficient light emission at telecommunication wavelengths on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible platform.

  10. Ordered growth of germanium hut islands on Si (001) molecular bonded substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poydenot, V.; Dujardin, R.; Rouvière, J. L.; Barski, A.; Fournel, F.

    2004-12-01

    Ordered germanium hut islands are grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on high twist angle molecular bonded silicon (001) substrates (twist angle higher than 20°). We show that the growth organization is induced by an array of interfacial tilt dislocations. Plan-view transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy observations show that the orientation and period of the tilt dislocation array determine the orientation, period, and length of elongated germanium hut islands. The strain field generated by an array of tilt dislocations is proposed as the driving force of the reported organization.

  11. Molecular differentiation within and among island populations of the endemic plant Scalesia affinis (Asteraceae) from the Galápagos Islands.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L R

    2004-11-01

    Molecular variance was estimated in seven populations of the endemic species Scalesia affinis within and among islands of the Galapagos. The analysis, based on 157 polymorphic AFLP markers, revealed a high differentiation among populations, of which most was partitioned among islands. In addition, the information content of AFLP markers was tested with sets of discriminant analyses based on different numbers of AFLP markers. This indicated that the markers were highly informative in discriminating the populations. Although one of four populations from the island Isabela was sampled from a volcano 100 km away from the remaining populations, this population resembled the others on Isabela. The partitioning of molecular variance (AFLP) resulted in two unities, one consisting of populations from Isabela and one of populations from Santa Cruz and Floreana. The differentiation in two chloroplast microsatellites was higher than for AFLP markers and equally partitioned among populations within islands as among islands. Thus, gene flow via fruits within islands is as limited as among islands. The lower differentiation within islands in the nuclear AFLP markers may thus indicate that gene flow within islands is mostly accounted for by pollen transfer. S. affinis is the only species in the genus that is not listed in 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. However, due to prominent grazing and land exploitation, some populations have recently been reduced markedly, which was reflected in lower diversity. As inbreeding depression is present in the species, the rapid bottlenecks are threats to the populations.

  12. Molecular and mathematical modeling analyses of inter-island transmission of rabies into a previously rabies-free island in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Tohma, Kentaro; Saito, Mariko; Demetria, Catalino S; Manalo, Daria L; Quiambao, Beatriz P; Kamigaki, Taro; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    Rabies is endemic in the Philippines and dog bites are a major cause of rabies cases in humans. The rabies control program has not been successful in eliminating rabies because of low vaccination coverage among dogs. Therefore, more effective and feasible strategies for rabies control are urgently required in the country. To control rabies, it is very important to know if inter-island transmission can occur because rabies can become endemic once the virus is introduced in areas that previously had no reported cases. Our molecular epidemiological study suggests that inter-island transmission events can occur; therefore, we further investigated these inter-island transmission using phylogenetic and modeling approaches. We investigate inter-island transmission between Luzon and Tablas Islands in the Philippines. Phylogenetic analysis and mathematical modeling demonstrate that there was a time lag of several months to a year from rabies introduction to initial case detection, indicating the difficulties in recognizing the initial rabies introductory event. There had been no rabies cases reported in Tablas Island; however, transmission chain was sustained on this island after the introduction of rabies virus because of low vaccination coverage among dogs. Across the islands, a rabies control program should include control of inter-island dog transportation and rabies vaccination to avoid viral introduction from the outside and to break transmission chains after viral introduction. However, this program has not yet been completely implemented and transmission chains following inter-island virus transmission are still observed. Local government units try to control dog transport; however, it should be more strictly controlled, and a continuous rabies control program should be implemented to prevent rabies spread even in rabies-free areas.

  13. Molecular phylogeny of the Indian Ocean Terpsiphone paradise flycatchers: undetected evolutionary diversity revealed amongst island populations.

    PubMed

    Bristol, Rachel M; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Irestedt, Martin; Jønsson, Knud A; Shah, Nirmal J; Tatayah, Vikash; Warren, Ben H; Groombridge, Jim J

    2013-05-01

    We construct a molecular phylogeny of Terpsiphone flycatchers of the Indian Ocean and use this to investigate their evolutionary relationships. A total of 4.4 kb of mitochondrial (cyt-b, ND3, ND2, control region) and nuclear (G3PDH, MC1R) sequence data were obtained from all species, sub-species and island populations of the region. Colonisation of the western Indian Ocean has been within the last two million years and greatly postdates the formation of the older islands of the region. A minimum of two independent continent-island colonisation events must have taken place in order to explain the current distribution and phylogenetic placement of Terpsiphone in this region. While five well-diverged Indian Ocean clades are detected, the relationship between them is unclear. Short intermodal branches are indicative of rapid range expansion across the region, masking exact routes and chronology of colonisation. The Indian Ocean Terpsiphone taxa fall into five well supported clades, two of which (the Seychelles paradise flycatcher and the Mascarene paradise flycatcher) correspond with currently recognised species, whilst a further three (within the Madagascar paradise flycatcher) are not entirely predicted by taxonomy, and are neither consistent with distance-based nor island age-based models of colonisation. We identify the four non-Mascarene clades as Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs), while the Mascarene paradise flycatcher contains two ESUs corresponding to the Mauritius and Réunion subspecies. All six ESUs are sufficiently diverged to be worthy of management as if they were separate species. This phylogenetic reconstruction highlights the importance of sub-specific molecular phylogenetic reconstructions in complex island archipelago settings in clarifying phylogenetic history and ESUs that may otherwise be overlooked and inadvertently lost. Our phylogenetic reconstruction has identified hidden pockets of evolutionary distinctiveness, which provide a valuable

  14. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Vermamoeba vermiformis Strains from Soil Sources in El Hierro Island, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Wagner, Carolina; Zamora-Herrera, Jonadab; Vargas-Mesa, Alejandro; Sifaoui, Ines; González, Ana C; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-07-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed protozoa in the environment and have been isolated from many sources such as dust, soil and water. Furthermore, some genera/species of FLA such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba spp. are also able to cause opportunistic infections in humans and other animals. More recently, FLA have been reported to be environmental carriers of pathogenic bacteria, fungi and viruses, and thus have gained further importance from the public health point of view. Among them, Acanthamoeba spp. and Vermamoeba vermiformis have been described in many occasions as the most common carriers of pathogens of high medical relevance such as Legionella pneumophila and Mycobacterium spp. In this study, 24 soil samples were collected from the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, in order to check for the presence of V. vermiformis strains in these samples. Soil samples were cultured on 2 % non-nutrient agar plates covered with a thin layer of heat-killed E. coli and checked daily for the presence of Vermamoeba. After a week, V. vermiformis amoebae were observed in 5 of the 24 processed samples (20.8 %) incubated at room temperature and 37 °C. Molecular characterization was carried out by amplifying the 18S rDNA gene and DNA sequencing, confirming that the isolated strains belonged to Vermamoeba vermiformis species. The high percentage of V. vermiformis in the studied soil sources should raise awareness in the region since these amoebae are potential environmental carriers of pathogens of high medical relevance.

  15. Evolution of strain and composition of Ge islands on Si (001) grown by molecular beam epitaxy during postgrowth annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Singha, R. K.; Das, S.; Majumdar, S.; Das, K.; Dhar, A.; Ray, S. K.

    2008-06-01

    Self-assembled Ge islands have been grown using a Stranski-Krastanov growth mechanism on Si (001) substrates by solid source molecular beam epitaxy. We performed time varying annealing experiments at a representative temperature of 650 deg. C to study the shape and size evolution of islands for a relatively high Ge coverage. Islands are found to coarsen due to heat treatment via structural and compositional changes through continuous strain relaxation. Different island morphologies, namely, 'pyramids', 'transitional domes', and 'domes' are found during the annealing sequence. The dominant coarsening mechanisms for the temporal evolution of islands of as-grown and annealed samples are explained by the comprehensive analysis of Rutherford back scattering, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. A correlation of the morphological evolution with the composition and strain relaxation of grown islands is presented.

  16. Radiation, diversity, and host-plant interactions among island and continental legume-feeding psyllids.

    PubMed

    Percy, Diana M

    2003-11-01

    Island archipelagos and insect-plant associations have both independently provided many useful systems for evolutionary study. The arytainine psyllid (Sternorrhyncha: Hemiptera) radiation on broom (Fabaceae: Genisteae) in the Canary Island archipelago provides a discrete system for examining the speciation of highly host-specific phytophagous insects in an island context. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on three datasets (adult and nymph morphological characters, and two mitochondrial DNA regions: part of the small subunit rRNA, and part of cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome oxidase II and the intervening tRNA leucine) are generally consistent. The combined molecular tree provides a well-supported estimate of psyllid relationships and shows that there have been several colonizations of the Macaronesian islands but that only one has resulted in a significant radiation. Psyllid diversification has apparently been constrained by the presence of suitable host groups within the genistoid legumes, and the diversity, distribution, and abundance of those groups. The phylogeny, by indicating pairs of sister species, allows putative mechanisms of speciation to be assessed. The most common conditions associated with psyllid speciation are geographical allopatry with a host switch to closely related hosts (six examples), or geographical allopatry on the same host (four examples). Where allopatric speciation involves a host switch, these have all been to related hosts. There is some evidence that switches between unrelated host plants may be more likely in sympatry. Only one sister pair (Aryrtainilla cytisi and A. telonicola) and the putative host races of Arytinnis modica are sympatric but on unrelated hosts, which may be a necessary condition for sympatric speciation in these insects. Where several psyllids share the same host, resources appear to be partitioned by ecological specialization and differing psyllid phenology.

  17. Molecular analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants in the Solomon Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Hirono, A.; Ishii, A.; Hirono, K.; Miwa, S.; Kere, N.; Fujii, H.

    1995-05-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most prevalent genetic disorders, and >100 million people are considered to have mutant genes. G6PD deficiency is frequent in the area where plasmodium falciparum infection is endemic, probably because the G6PD-deficient subjects are resistant to the parasite. Falciparum and vivax malarias have been highly endemic in the Solomon Islands, and a high frequency of G6PD deficiency has also been expected. A recent investigation showed that the frequency of G6PD deficiency in the Solomon Islands was 8.4%-14.4%. Although >80 G6PD variants from various populations have been molecularly analyzed, little is known about those in Melanesians. G6PD Maewo, which was originally found in Vanuatu, has so far been the only Melanesian variant whose structural abnormality was determined. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Growth kinetics and island evolution during double-pulsed molecular beam epitaxy of InN

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, A.; Hein, C.; Bremers, H.; Rossow, U.; Hangleiter, A.

    2016-06-21

    The kinetic processes of InN growth using alternating source fluxes with sub-monolayer In pulses in plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy have been investigated. Growth at various temperatures reveals the existence of two growth regimes. While growth at low temperatures is solely governed by surface diffusion, a combination of decomposition, desorption, and diffusion becomes decisive at growth temperatures of 470 °C and above. At this critical temperature, the surface morphology changes from a grainy structure to a structure made of huge islands. The formation of those islands is attributed to the development of an indium adlayer, which can be observed via reflection high energy electron diffraction monitoring. Based on the growth experiments conducted at temperatures below T{sub Growth} = 470 °C, an activation energy for diffusion of 0.54 ± 0.02 eV has been determined from the decreasing InN island density. A comparison between growth on metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy GaN templates and pseudo bulk GaN indicates that step edges and dislocations are favorable nucleation sites. Based on the results, we developed a growth model, which describes the main mechanisms of the growth.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the United States-Affiliated Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Bamrah, Sapna; Desmond, Edward; Ghosh, Smita; France, Anne Marie; Kammerer, J Steve; Cowan, Lauren S; Heetderks, Andrew; Forbes, Alstead; Moonan, Patrick K

    2014-01-01

    The United States-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) are part of the US National Tuberculosis (TB) Surveillance System and use laboratory services contracted through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In 2004, the CDC established the National Tuberculosis Genotyping Service, a system to genotype 1 isolate from each culture-confirmed case of TB. To describe the molecular epidemiology of TB in the region, we examined all Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates submitted for genotyping from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2008. Over this time period, the USAPI jurisdictions reported 1339 verified TB cases to the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System. Among 419 (31%) reported culture-confirmed TB cases, 352 (84%) had complete genotype results. Routine TB genotyping allowed, for the first time, an exploration of the molecular epidemiology of TB in the USAPI.

  20. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Holothuria (Merthensiothuria) leucospilota and Stichopus horrens from Pangkor Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Rahim; Rehan, Maryam Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    This preliminary study aimed to identify a commercial gamat species, Stichopus horrens Selenka, 1867, and a timun laut species, Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt, 1835), from Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia, employing morphological techniques based on the shape of the ossicles and molecular techniques based on the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene. In Malaysia, a gamat is defined as a sea cucumber species of the family Stichopodidae with medicinal value, and timun laut refers to non-gamat species. S. horrens is very popular on Pangkor Island as a main ingredient in the traditional production of air gamat and minyak gamat, while H. leucospilota is the most abundant species in Malaysia. In contrast to previous studies, internal body parts (the respiratory tree and gastrointestine) were examined in this study to obtain better inferences based on morphology. The results showed that there were no ossicles present in the gastrointestine of H. leucospilota, and this characteristic is suggested as a unique diagnostic marker for the timun laut species. In addition, the presence of Y-shaped rods in the respiratory tree of S. horrens subsequently supported the potential to use internal body parts to identify the gamat species. Phylogenetic analysis of the COI mtDNA gene of the sea cucumber specimens using the neighbour-joining method and maximum likelihood methods further confirmed the species status of H. leucospilota and S. horrens from Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia. The COI mtDNA gene sequences were registered with GenBank, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), US National Library of Medicine (GenBank accession no.: KC405565-KC405568). Although additional specimens from various localities will be required to produce more conclusive results, the current findings provide better insight into the importance of complementary approaches involving morphological and molecular techniques in the identification of the two

  1. Growth and characteristics of self-assembly defect-free GaN surface islands by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kuang-Yuan; Wang, Cheng-Yu; Liu, Chuan-Pu

    2011-04-01

    GaN surface nano-islands of high crystal quality, without any dislocations or other extended defects, are grown on a c-plane sapphire substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Nano-island growth requires special conditions in terms of V/III ratio and substrate temperature, distinct from either film or nanocolumn growth. The insertion of a nitrided Ga layer can effectively improve the uniformity of the nano-islands in both shape and size. The islands are well faced truncated pyramids with island size ranged from 30 to 110 nm, and height ranged from 30 to 55 nm. On, the other hand, the density and facet of the GaN surface islands would be affected by the growth conditions. An increase of the V/III ratio from 30 to 40 led to an increase in density from 1.4 x 10(9) to 4.3 x 10(9) cm(-2) and an evolution from {1-21-1} facets to {1-21-2} facets. The GaN layers containing the surface islands can moderate the compressive strain due to the lattice and thermal mismatch between GaN and c-sapphire. Conductive atomic force microscopy shows that the off-axis sidewall facets are more electrically active than those at the island center. The formation of the GaN surface islands is strongly induced by the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier effect of preexisting islands grown in the early growth stage. GaN surface islands are ideal templates for growing nano-devices.

  2. Molecular phylogenetics of Micromeria (Lamiaceae) in the Canary Islands, diversification and inter-island colonization patterns inferred from nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Pamela; Curto, Manuel; Gusmão-Guedes, Joana; Cochofel, Jaqueline; Pérez de Paz, Pedro Luis; Bräuchler, Christian; Meimberg, Harald

    2015-08-01

    Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of Micromeria in the Canary Islands using eight nuclear markers. Our results show two centers of diversification for Micromeria, one in the eastern islands Gran Canaria and Lanzarote, the other in the western islands, Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro. Suggested directions of inter-island colonization are the following: Gran Canaria to Lanzarote and La Gomera; Tenerife to La Palma (from the paleoisland of Teno), to El Hierro (from the younger, central part), and to La Gomera and Madeira (from the paleoislands). Colonization of La Gomera probably occurred several times from Gran Canaria and Tenerife. The taxonomic implications of these results are discussed. Incongruence among the different markers was evaluated and, using next generation sequencing, we investigated if this incongruence is due to gene duplication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Contrasting selective pressures on seed traits of two congeneric species by their main native guilds of dispersers on islands.

    PubMed

    Nogales, Manuel; González-Castro, Aarón; Marrero, Patricia; Bonnaud, Elsa; Traveset, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Many fleshy-fruited plants from the Mediterranean and Macaronesian islands are dispersed through endozoochory. In mainland Mediterranean areas, reciprocal adaptations have been found between plants and animals, although evidence is scarce. On small isolated oceanic islands, such reciprocal adaptations might well be more prevalent due to intrinsic island traits. Here we evaluate the existence of selective pressures exerted by two different disperser guilds (lizards and birds) on two seed traits (seed coat thickness and seed germination pattern) of two congeneric species present on Mediterranean and Macaronesian islands. In the continental Balearic Islands, Rubia peregrina has evolved mostly with birds, although frugivorous lizards are present in some of these islands and are known to eventually consume its fruits. By contrast, R. fruticosa, endemic to the Macaronesian archipelago, has evolved mostly interacting with lizards and only recently with birds. We hypothesized that R. fruticosa would be especially adapted to saurochory, with thicker seed coats and higher germination proportion, whereas R. peregrina would be more adapted to ornithocory, with thinner seed coats and showing a lower germination percentage after being ingested by lizards. Captivity experiments of seed ingestions by natural and non-natural dispersers (i.e., frugivores that have not evolved with those plants) were conducted. Results suggest that dispersers did not exert any strong enough selective pressure to induce changes in germination patterns. We attribute this to the fact that the Rubiaceae is an ancestral family in the Mediterranean (both on continent and islands) and thus probably interacted with lizards in the past. Lastly, although we hold that the seed coat structure of R. fruticosa is probably associated with its evolutionary success after a long interaction with insular lizards, our findings support the idea that the relationship between endozoochorous plants and the guild of

  4. Contrasting Selective Pressures on Seed Traits of Two Congeneric Species by Their Main Native Guilds of Dispersers on Islands

    PubMed Central

    Nogales, Manuel; González-Castro, Aarón; Marrero, Patricia; Bonnaud, Elsa; Traveset, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Many fleshy-fruited plants from the Mediterranean and Macaronesian islands are dispersed through endozoochory. In mainland Mediterranean areas, reciprocal adaptations have been found between plants and animals, although evidence is scarce. On small isolated oceanic islands, such reciprocal adaptations might well be more prevalent due to intrinsic island traits. Here we evaluate the existence of selective pressures exerted by two different disperser guilds (lizards and birds) on two seed traits (seed coat thickness and seed germination pattern) of two congeneric species present on Mediterranean and Macaronesian islands. In the continental Balearic Islands, Rubia peregrina has evolved mostly with birds, although frugivorous lizards are present in some of these islands and are known to eventually consume its fruits. By contrast, R. fruticosa, endemic to the Macaronesian archipelago, has evolved mostly interacting with lizards and only recently with birds. We hypothesized that R. fruticosa would be especially adapted to saurochory, with thicker seed coats and higher germination proportion, whereas R. peregrina would be more adapted to ornithocory, with thinner seed coats and showing a lower germination percentage after being ingested by lizards. Captivity experiments of seed ingestions by natural and non-natural dispersers (i.e., frugivores that have not evolved with those plants) were conducted. Results suggest that dispersers did not exert any strong enough selective pressure to induce changes in germination patterns. We attribute this to the fact that the Rubiaceae is an ancestral family in the Mediterranean (both on continent and islands) and thus probably interacted with lizards in the past. Lastly, although we hold that the seed coat structure of R. fruticosa is probably associated with its evolutionary success after a long interaction with insular lizards, our findings support the idea that the relationship between endozoochorous plants and the guild of

  5. The Phage-Inducible Chromosomal Islands: A Family of Highly Evolved Molecular Parasites.

    PubMed

    Penadés, José R; Christie, Gail E

    2015-11-01

    The phage-inducible chromosomal islands (PICIs) are a family of highly mobile genetic elements that contribute substantively to horizontal gene transfer, host adaptation, and virulence. Initially identified in Staphylococcus aureus, these elements are now thought to occur widely in gram-positive bacteria. They are molecular parasites that exploit certain temperate phages as helpers, using a variety of elegant strategies to manipulate the phage life cycle and promote their own spread, both intra- and intergenerically. At the same time, these PICI-encoded mechanisms severely interfere with helper phage reproduction, thereby enhancing survival of the bacterial population. In this review we discuss the genetics and the life cycle of these elements, with special emphasis on how they interact and interfere with the helper phage machinery for their own benefit. We also analyze the role that these elements play in driving bacterial and viral evolution.

  6. Chloroplast DNA evidence of colonization, adaptive radiation, and hybridization in the evolution of the Macaronesian flora.

    PubMed Central

    Francisco-Ortega, J; Jansen, R K; Santos-Guerra, A

    1996-01-01

    Most evolutionary studies of oceanic islands have focused on the Pacific Ocean. There are very few examples from the Atlantic archipelagos, especially Macaronesia, despite their unusual combination of features, including a close proximity to the continent, a broad range of geological ages, and a biota linked to a source area that existed in the Mediterranean basin before the late Tertiary. A chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) restriction site analysis of Argyranthemum (Asteraceae: Anthemideae), the largest endemic genus of plants of any volcanic archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, was performed to examine patterns of plant evolution in Macaronesia. cpDNA data indicated that Argyranthemum is a monophyletic group that has speciated recently. The cpDNA tree showed a weak correlation with the current sectional classification and insular distribution. Two major cpDNA lineages were identified. One was restricted to northern archipelagos--e.g., Madeira, Desertas, and Selvagens--and the second comprised taxa endemic to the southern archipelago--e.g., the Canary Islands. The two major radiations identified in the Canaries are correlated with distinct ecological habitats; one is restricted to ecological zones under the influence of the northeastern trade winds and the other to regions that are not affected by these winds. The patterns of phylogenetic relationships in Argyranthemum indicate that interisland colonization between similar ecological zones is the main mechanism for establishing founder populations. This phenomenon, combined with rapid radiation into distinct ecological zones and interspecific hybridization, is the primary explanation for species diversification. Images Fig. 2 PMID:11607675

  7. Molecular and morphological characterization of Xiphinema chambersi population from live oak in Jekyll Island, Georgia, with comments on morphometric variations

    Treesearch

    Zafar A. Handoo; Lynn K. Carta; Andrea M. Skantar; Sergei A. Subbotin; Stephen Fraedrich

    2016-01-01

    A population of Xiphinema chambersi from the root zone around live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) trees on Jekyll Island, GA, is described using both morphological and molecular tools and compared with descriptions of type specimens. Initially, because of a few morphological differences, this nematode was thought to represent an undescribed species. However, on further...

  8. Zoanthid diversity (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) in the Galapagos Islands: a molecular examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, J. D.; Sinniger, F.; Hickman, C. P.

    2008-09-01

    Although the Galapagos are famous for their unique biodiversity, many groups of marine invertebrates from this isolated archipelago remain understudied or not investigated. One such group is the zoanthids (Order Zoantharia, =Zoanthidea, =Zoanthiniaria), anthozoans (Cnidaria) found in marine ecosystems worldwide. Zoanthid taxonomy has been in a state of disorganization and neglect due in large part to the morphological plasticity within species and questions about the accuracy of traditionally used morphological and ecological characteristics. However, recent studies utilizing molecular methodology combined with morphology have proven to be very useful in understanding zoanthid diversity. The results of a survey of zoanthids from the Galapagos and the east Pacific are reported in this study. Shallow water (<35 m) zoanthid specimens were identified using the molecular markers mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (mt 16S rDNA), cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, and the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA (ITS-rDNA). From the collected specimens seven putative zoanthid species-level clades from three known genera ( Zoanthus, Palythoa, Parazoanthus) were identified at the molecular level. These identifications were further supported by morphological and ecological data. While almost all specimens belonged to known zoanthid genera, based on unique molecular and ecological data one group of specimens (designated unknown zoanthid sp. “03-103”) is potentially a novel undescribed genus. Additionally, the remaining three azooxanthellate Parazoanthus clades may also be undescribed new species, but due to the overall lack of zoanthid research and descriptions from neighboring areas (East Pacific, west coast of South America) further research is needed to clearly ascertain this. Additionally, notes on the four observed nominal azooxanthellate zoanthid species and a key to all eight nominal (seven from known genera, one from a potentially new genus) shallow water

  9. DNA barcodes successfully identified Macaronesian Lotus (Leguminosae) species within early diverged lineages of Cape Verde and mainland Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Dario I.; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Oliva-Tejera, Felicia; Jaen-Molina, Ruth; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Marrero-Rodríguez, Águedo; Cronk, Quentin

    2014-01-01

    Plant DNA barcoding currently relies on the application of a two-locus combination, matK + rbcL. Despite the universality of these two gene regions across plants, it is suspected that this combination might not have sufficient variation to discriminate closely related species. In this study, we tested the performance of this two-locus plant barcode along with the additional plastid regions trnH-psbA, rpoC1 and rpoB and the nuclear region internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) in a group of 38 species of Lotus from the Macaronesian region. The group has radiated into the five archipelagos within this region from mid-Miocene to early Pleistocene, and thus provides both early divergent and recent radiations that pose a particularly difficult challenge for barcoding. The group also has 10 species considered under different levels of conservation concern. We found different levels of species discrimination depending on the age of the lineages. We obtained 100 % of the species identification from mainland Africa and Cape Verde when all six regions were combined. These lineages radiated >4.5 Mya; however, in the most recent radiations from the end of the Pliocene to the mid-Pleistocene (3.5–1.5 Mya), only 30 % of the species were identified. Of the regions examined, the intergenic region trnH-psbA was the most variable and had the greatest discriminatory power (18 %) of the plastid regions when analysed alone. The nrITS region was the best region when analysed alone with a discriminatory power of 26 % of the species. Overall, we identified 52 % of the species and 30 % of the endangered or threatened species within this group when all six regions were combined. Our results are consistent with those of other studies that indicate that additional approaches to barcoding will be needed in recently evolved groups, such as the inclusion of faster evolving regions from the nuclear genome. PMID:25147310

  10. DNA barcodes successfully identified Macaronesian Lotus (Leguminosae) species within early diverged lineages of Cape Verde and mainland Africa.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Dario I; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Oliva-Tejera, Felicia; Jaen-Molina, Ruth; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Marrero-Rodríguez, Aguedo; Cronk, Quentin

    2014-08-21

    Plant DNA barcoding currently relies on the application of a two-locus combination, matK + rbcL. Despite the universality of these two gene regions across plants, it is suspected that this combination might not have sufficient variation to discriminate closely related species. In this study, we tested the performance of this two-locus plant barcode along with the additional plastid regions trnH-psbA, rpoC1 and rpoB and the nuclear region internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) in a group of 38 species of Lotus from the Macaronesian region. The group has radiated into the five archipelagos within this region from mid-Miocene to early Pleistocene, and thus provides both early divergent and recent radiations that pose a particularly difficult challenge for barcoding. The group also has 10 species considered under different levels of conservation concern. We found different levels of species discrimination depending on the age of the lineages. We obtained 100 % of the species identification from mainland Africa and Cape Verde when all six regions were combined. These lineages radiated >4.5 Mya; however, in the most recent radiations from the end of the Pliocene to the mid-Pleistocene (3.5-1.5 Mya), only 30 % of the species were identified. Of the regions examined, the intergenic region trnH-psbA was the most variable and had the greatest discriminatory power (18 %) of the plastid regions when analysed alone. The nrITS region was the best region when analysed alone with a discriminatory power of 26 % of the species. Overall, we identified 52 % of the species and 30 % of the endangered or threatened species within this group when all six regions were combined. Our results are consistent with those of other studies that indicate that additional approaches to barcoding will be needed in recently evolved groups, such as the inclusion of faster evolving regions from the nuclear genome.

  11. Molecular characterization of trophic ecology within an island radiation of insect herbivores (Curculionidae: Entiminae: Cratopus).

    PubMed

    Kitson, James J N; Warren, Ben H; Florens, F B Vincent; Baider, Claudia; Strasberg, Dominique; Emerson, Brent C

    2013-11-01

    The phytophagous beetle family Curculionidae is the most species-rich insect family known, with much of this diversity having been attributed to both co-evolution with food plants and host shifts at key points within the early evolutionary history of the group. Less well understood is the extent to which patterns of host use vary within or among related species, largely because of the technical difficulties associated with quantifying this. Here we develop a recently characterized molecular approach to quantify diet within and between two closely related species of weevil occurring primarily within dry forests on the island of Mauritius. Our aim is to quantify dietary variation across populations and assess adaptive and nonadaptive explanations for this and to characterize the nature of a trophic shift within an ecologically distinct population within one of the species. We find that our study species are polyphagous, consuming a much wider range of plants than would be suggested by the literature. Our data suggest that local diet variation is largely explained by food availability, and locally specialist populations consume food plants that are not phylogenetically novel, but do appear to represent a novel preference. Our results demonstrate the power of molecular methods to unambiguously quantify dietary variation across populations of insect herbivores, providing a valuable approach to understanding trophic interactions within and among local plant and insect herbivore communities.

  12. Molecular Evidence that the Vancouver Island Cryptococcus gattii Outbreak has Expanded into the United States Pacific Northwest

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Edmond J.; Bildfell, Robert; Frank, Sheryl A.; Mitchell, Thomas G.; Marr, Kieren; Heitman, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans frequently causes fungal meningitis in immunocompromised patients, whereas the related species Cryptococcus gattii is restricted to tropical/subtropical regions, usually infecting immunocompetent individuals. A C. gattii outbreak that began in 1999 on Vancouver Island is now endemic, causing numerous human and veterinary infections, and has spread to mainland British Columbia. The outbreak isolates are molecular type VGIIa/major or VGIIb/minor. Since 2006, human and veterinary cases have emerged in Washington and Oregon. Multilocus sequence typing demonstrates C. gattii VGIIa and VGIIb spread from Vancouver Island to the Pacific Northwest. Clinical strains from Oregon represent a unique VGIIc genotype. PMID:19220140

  13. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the land snail family Hygromiidae (Gastropoda: Helicoidea).

    PubMed

    Neiber, Marco T; Razkin, Oihana; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2017-06-01

    The Hygromiidae is a highly diverse group of land snails with a distribution range stretching throughout the Palearctic region from the Macaronesian Islands to the Russian Far East and reaching southwards to the north-eastern Ethiopian region. So far, the classification of the family largely rested on the structure of the dart apparatus, an accessory genital organ. We used nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences of almost all genera to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Hygromiidae. Several of the clades found in the molecular phylogenetic analyses represent regional radiations that partly show a high variation in the structure of the dart apparatus. Thus, several of the currently accepted subdivisions of the family, which included taxa with similar dart apparatus from different regions, turned out to be polyphyletic. We newly delimit three subfamilies within the family, Hygromiinae, Leptaxinae and Trochulinae on the basis of our phylogenetic analyses. The Hygromiinae are further subdivided into Hygromiini and Perforatellini trib. nov. The Leptaxinae are classified in Leptaxini, Metafruticicolini and Cryptosaccini trib. nov. The Trochulinae are the most diverse group including Ciliellini, Archaicini, Ganulini trib. nov., Urticicolini trib. nov., Trochulini, Caucasigenini trib. nov., Ashfordini trib. nov., Halolimnohelcini and Monachaini. Moreover, two new genera, Coronarchaica gen. nov. from Central Asia and Noricella gen. nov. from the Alps, are described. The Hygromiidae originated in the western Palaearctic, from where the Central Asian mountain regions, the Macaronesian Islands, the Caucasus region and sub-Saharan East Africa were colonized. The radiation of the Hygromiidae as well as those of several other land snail families was dispersal limited. Because of the low dispersal abilities of land snails, the period until an isolated region is colonized by a group by chance dispersal is comparatively longer than the period necessary for morphological and ecological

  14. Localized Si enrichment in coherent self-assembled Ge islands grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (001)Si single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Valvo, M.; Bongiorno, C.; Giannazzo, F.; Terrasi, A.

    2013-01-21

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) have been used to investigate the morphology, structure, and composition of self-assembled Ge islands grown on Si (001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at different temperatures. Increasing the temperature from 550 Degree-Sign C to 700 Degree-Sign C causes progressive size and shape uniformity, accompanied by enhanced Si-Ge intermixing within the islands and their wetting layer. Elemental maps obtained by energy filtered-TEM (EF-TEM) clearly show pronounced Si concentration not only in correspondence of island base perimeters, but also along their curved surface boundaries. This phenomenon is strengthened by an increase of the growth temperature, being practically negligible at 550 Degree-Sign C, while very remarkable already at 650 Degree-Sign C. The resulting island shape is affected, since this localized Si enrichment not only provides strain relief near their highly stressed base perimeters but it also influences the cluster surface energy by effective alloying, so as to form Si-enriched SiGe interfaces. Further increase to 700 Degree-Sign C causes a shape transition where more homogenous Si-Ge concentration profiles are observed. The crucial role played by local 'flattened' alloyed clusters, similar to truncated pyramids with larger bases and enhanced Si enrichment at coherently stressed interfaces, has been further clarified by EF-TEM analysis of a multi-layered Ge/Si structure containing stacked Ge islands grown at 650 Degree-Sign C. Sharp accumulation of Si has been here observed not only in proximity of the uncapped island surface in the topmost layer but also at the buried Ge/Si interfaces and even in the core of such capped Ge islands.

  15. Molecular phylogenies of figs and fig-pollinating wasps in the Ryukyu and Bonin (Ogasawara) islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Harrison, Rhett D; Nakamura, Keiko; Su, Zhi-Hui

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between figs (Ficus, Moraceae) and fig-pollinating wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) is one of the most specific mutualisms, and thus is a model system for studying coevolution and cospeciation. In this study we focused on figs and their associated fig-wasps found in the Ryukyu and Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands, Japan, because it has been suggested that breakdown in the specificity may occur in islands or at edge of a species' distribution. We collected 136 samples of 15 native fig species and 95 samples of 13 associated fig-wasps from all major islands in the Ryukyu Islands, including two fig species and one fig-wasp species endemic to the Bonin Islands. We performed molecular phylogenetic analyses using plastid DNA and nuclear ITS sequences for the figs and nuclear 28S rRNA and mitochondrial COI genes for the fig-wasps to investigate the interspecific phylogenies and intraspecific variation within the mutualism. Our phylogenetic analyses using multiple samples per species show the single clade of each fig (except the Bonin endemic species) and fig-pollinating wasp species. Fig species belonging to the same subgenera formed well-supported clades in both plastid and ITS trees, except for the subgenus Urostigma. Likewise, fig wasps emerging from host fig species belonging to the same subgenera formed mostly well supported clades in both 28S and COI trees. Host specificity between the figs and fig-wasps functions strictly in these islands. There was very little sequence variation within species, and that no major geographic structure was found. The two Bonin endemic species (F. boninsimae and F. nishimurae) or their common ancestor and the associated fig-wasps (Blastophaga sp.) are apparently derived from F. erecta and its associated fig-wasps (B. nipponica), respectively, and probably migrated from the Ryukyu Islands.

  16. Altered molecular profile in thyroid cancers from patients affected by the Three Mile Island nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, David; Russo, Mariano; Houser, Kenneth; Crist, Henry; Derr, Jonathan B; Walter, Vonn; Warrick, Joshua I; Sheldon, Kathryn E; Broach, James; Bann, Darrin V

    2017-07-01

    In 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant experienced a partial meltdown with release of radioactive material. The effects of the accident on thyroid cancer (TC) in the surrounding population remain unclear. Radiation-induced TCs have a lower incidence of single nucleotide oncogenic driver mutations and higher incidence of gene fusions. We used next generation sequencing (NGS) to identify molecular signatures of radiation-induced TC in a cohort of TC patients residing near TMI during the time of the accident. Case series. We identified 44 patients who developed papillary thyroid carcinoma between 1974 and 2014. Patients who developed TC between 1984 and 1996 were at risk for radiation-induced TC, patients who developed TC before 1984 or after 1996 were the control group. We used targeted NGS of paired tumor and normal tissue from each patient to identify single nucleotide oncogenic driver mutations. Oncogenic gene fusions were identified using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We identified 15 patients in the at-risk group and 29 patients in the control group. BRAFV600E mutations were identified in 53% patients in the at-risk group and 83% patients in the control group. The proportion of patients with BRAF mutations in the at-risk group was significantly lower than predicted by the The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort. Gene fusion or somatic copy number alteration drivers were identified in 33% tumors in the at-risk group and 14% of tumors in the control group. Findings were consistent with observations from other radiation-exposed populations. These data raise the possibility that radiation released from TMI may have altered the molecular profile of TC in the population surrounding TMI. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:S1-S9, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Molecular Identification of Haemadipsa rjukjuana (Hirudiniformes: Haemadipsidae) in Gageo Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Won, Sohyun; Park, Bae Keun; Kim, Baek Jun; Kim, Hye Won; Kang, Jun Gu; Park, Tae Seo; Seo, Hong Yul; Eun, Ye; Kim, Ki Gyoung; Chae, Joon Seok

    2014-04-01

    There are 60 species of blood-feeding land leeches, 50 species belonging to the family Haemadipsidae and 10 species belonging to the family Xerobdellidae. Despite recent papers on the land leeches, their taxonomic identification is not fully understood, especially at a species level. In Korea, there have been no historical records of the terrestrial leeches, but recently an unrecorded blood-feeding land leech was discovered at Gageo-do (Island), Korea. Molecular analysis was used to identify the species of 29 leeches collected from Mt. Dock-Sil in Gageo-do. Conventional PCR was conducted using nuclear 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) genetic marker. The 18S rRNA sequences revealed that the leeches share 99.9% identity with Haemadipsa rjukjuana (inhabiting Taiwan), and the CO1 sequences revealed that the leeches are very close to H. rjukjuana (inhabiting Taiwan). The CO1 sequences were separated into 2 categories, 1 with 94.6% and the other with 94.3% similarity to the H. rjukjuana L00115A (inhabiting Taiwan). This new finding of the land leech is the first record in Korea. In addition, the north range of the distribution of the blood-feeding leech (Hirudiniformes: Haemadipisidae) should be reconsidered including Korea.

  18. Insertion polymorphisms of SINE200 retrotransposons within speciation islands of Anopheles gambiae molecular forms

    PubMed Central

    Santolamazza, Federica; Mancini, Emiliano; Simard, Frédéric; Qi, Yumin; Tu, Zhijian; della Torre, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    Background SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are homoplasy-free and co-dominant genetic markers which are considered to represent useful tools for population genetic studies, and could help clarifying the speciation processes ongoing within the major malaria vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Here, we report the results of the analysis of the insertion polymorphism of a nearly 200 bp-long SINE (SINE200) within genome areas of high differentiation (i.e. "speciation islands") of M and S A. gambiae molecular forms. Methods A SINE-PCR approach was carried out on thirteen SINE200 insertions in M and S females collected along the whole range of distribution of A. gambiae s.s. in sub-Saharan Africa. Ten specimens each for Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles melas, Anopheles quadriannulatus A and 15 M/S hybrids from laboratory crosses were also analysed. Results Eight loci were successfully amplified and were found to be specific for A. gambiae s.s.: 5 on 2L chromosome and one on X chromosome resulted monomorphic, while two loci positioned respectively on 2R (i.e. S200 2R12D) and X (i.e. S200 X6.1) chromosomes were found to be polymorphic. S200 2R12D was homozygote for the insertion in most S-form samples, while intermediate levels of polymorphism were shown in M-form, resulting in an overall high degree of genetic differentiation between molecular forms (Fst = 0.46 p < 0.001) and within M-form (Fst = 0.46 p < 0.001). The insertion of S200 X6.1 was found to be fixed in all M- and absent in all S-specimens. This led to develop a novel easy-to-use PCR approach to straightforwardly identify A. gambiae molecular forms. This novel approach allows to overcome the constraints associated with markers on the rDNA region commonly used for M and S identification. In fact, it is based on a single copy and irreversible SINE200 insertion and, thus, is not subjected to peculiar evolutionary patterns affecting rDNA markers, e.g. incomplete homogenization of the arrays through

  19. Molecular detection of invertebrate prey in vertebrate diets: trophic ecology of Caribbean island lizards.

    PubMed

    Kartzinel, Tyler R; Pringle, Robert M

    2015-07-01

    Understanding community assembly and population dynamics frequently requires detailed knowledge of food web structure. For many consumers, obtaining precise information about diet composition has traditionally required sacrificing animals or other highly invasive procedures, generating tension between maintaining intact study populations and knowing what they eat. We developed 16S mitochondrial DNA sequencing methods to identify arthropods in the diets of generalist vertebrate predators without requiring a blocking primer. We demonstrate the utility of these methods for a common Caribbean lizard that has been intensively studied in the context of small island food webs: Anolis sagrei (a semi-arboreal 'trunk-ground' anole ecomorph). Novel PCR primers were identified in silico and tested in vitro. Illumina sequencing successfully characterized the arthropod component of 168 faecal DNA samples collected during three field trips spanning 12 months, revealing 217 molecular operational taxonomic units (mOTUs) from at least nine arthropod orders (including Araneae, Blattodea, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera and Orthoptera). Three mOTUs (one beetle, one cockroach and one ant) were particularly frequent, occurring in ≥50% of samples, but the majority of mOTUs were infrequent (180, or 83%, occurred in ≤5% of samples). Species accumulation curves showed that dietary richness and composition were similar between size-dimorphic sexes; however, female lizards had greater per-sample dietary richness than males. Overall diet composition (but not richness) was significantly different across seasons, and we found more pronounced interindividual variation in December than in May. These methods will be generally useful in characterizing the diets of diverse insectivorous vertebrates.

  20. Deep Interisland Genetic Divergence in the Macaronesian Endemic Mosquito Ochlerotatus eatoni (Diptera: Culicidae), Indication of Cryptic Species.

    PubMed

    Khadem, Mahnaz

    2015-09-01

    Ochlerotatus eatoni (Edwards, 1916) is a species endemic to Canary and Madeira Islands that, based on morphology, is considered to be single species. Mitochondrial 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequence data demonstrate that the populations from Tenerife and Madeira Islands are highly differentiated (F(ST) = 0.93). The phylogenetic analysis also separates the two populations into two highly distinct groups. The sharp mitochondrial genetic differentiation between islands is congruent with the published nuclear (allozyme) data. However, mtDNA data did not reveal any significant genetic differentiation within islands. Extreme interisland genetic divergence, but lack of morphological variation, is indicative of the existence of cryptic species. I suggest the elevation of populations to at least incipient species status, designating the populations from Tenerife and Madeira Islands as Oc. eatoni. hewitti and Oc. eatoni. krimbasi, respectively.

  1. Molecular and ultrastructural characterization of two ascomycetes found on sunken wood off Vanuatu islands in the deep Pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Joëlle; Magnin, Sandrine; Rousseau, Florence; Zbinden, Magali; Frebourg, Ghislaine; Samadi, Sarah; de Forges, Bertrand Richer; Jones, E B Gareth

    2009-12-01

    A new genus of a deep-sea ascomycete with one new species, Alisea longicolla, is described based on analyses of 18S and 28S rDNA sequences and morphological characters. A. longicolla was found together with Oceanitis scuticella, on small twigs and sugar cane debris trawled from the bottom of the Pacific Ocean off Vanuatu Islands. Molecular and morphological characters indicate that both fungi are members of Halosphaeriaceae. Within this family, O. scuticella is phylogenetically related to Ascosalsum and shares similar ascospore morphology and appendage ontogeny. The genus Ascosalsum is considered congeneric with Oceanitis and Ascosalsum cincinnatulum, Ascosalsum unicaudatum and Ascosalsum viscidulum are transferred to Oceanitis, an earlier generic name.

  2. Morphological and molecular study of the cyanobiont-bearing dinoflagellate Sinophysis canaliculata from the Canary Islands (eastern central Atlantic).

    PubMed

    García-Portela, María; Riobó, Pilar; Rodríguez, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    The presence of the benthic dinophysoid dinoflagellate Sinophysis canaliculata has been reported in the Canary Islands (eastern central Atlantic) in live field observations and on fixed macroalgal samples from intertidal ponds (26 sampling sites from El Hierro, Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote islands). In vivo Sinophysis cells were typically pale pink colored. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed a small characteristic narrow hypothecal cut that matched the original description of S. canaliculata. SSU rRNA gene (rDNA) nuclear phylogeny showed that S. canaliculata is closely related to S. microcephalus. Sinophysis specimens displayed cyanobacterial endosymbionts with orange autofluorescence from phycoerythrins. SSU rDNA analyses of the cyanobionts nearly matched a former sequence obtained from S. canaliculata in the Pacific Ocean (Japan). S. canaliculata survived up to 5 months in the original seawater samples. During that period cyanobionts were always present and maintained their orange autofluorescence, although the pink color gradually vanished (<1 month) in most individuals. Molecular similarity of Sinophysis cyanobionts from the Canary Islands and Japanese waters suggest a deterministic relationship, likely a temporary maintenance inside their host via some specific grazing system. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  3. Identification, Rearing, and Distribution of Stick Insects of Madeira Island: An Example of Raising Biodiversity Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, António M. F.; Pombo, Dora Aguin; Gonçalves, Ysabel M.

    2014-01-01

    Two species of stick insects are currently known to be present in the Macaronesian archipelagos: Clonopsis gallica (Charpentier) (Phasmatodea: Bacillidae) on the Canary Islands and in the Azores and Carausius morosus (Sinéty) (Phasmatidae) in the Azores. Here, we provide the first reliable records of the presence and distribution of C. gallica and C. morosus on Madeira Island. Egg and adult stages are briefly described along with some notes on the life history of these species in captivity. Data on island-wide distribution are based on specimens donated by the public in response to an article published in a daily newspaper. This method of data collection raised great popular interest in stick insects. The role of newspapers as a means of communicating awareness in biodiversity issues is discussed. PMID:25373196

  4. Molecular Systematics of Threatened Seed Plant Species Endemic in the Caribbean Islands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A review of available Caribbean Island red-lists species (CR and EN categories based on the IUCN guidelines from 2001, and E category established according to the IUCN guidelines from 1980) is presented. A database of at least 1,300 endemic species that are either Critically Endangered or Endangered...

  5. Molecular evidence for sequential colonization and taxon cycling in freshwater decapod shrimps on a Caribbean island

    Treesearch

    Benjamin D. Cook; Catherine M. Pringle; Jane M. Hughes

    2008-01-01

    Taxon cycling, i.e. sequential phases of expansions and contractions in species’ distributions associated with ecological or morphological shifts, are postulated to characterize dynamic biogeographic histories in various island faunas. The Caribbean freshwater shrimp assemblage is mostly widespread and sympatric throughout the region, although one species (Atyidae:...

  6. Molecular phylogeography reveals island colonization history and diversification of western Indian Ocean sunbirds (Nectarinia: Nectariniidae).

    PubMed

    Warren, Ben H; Bermingham, Eldredge; Bowie, Rauri C K; Prys-Jones, Robert P; Thébaud, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    We constructed a phylogenetic hypothesis for western Indian Ocean sunbirds (Nectarinia) and used this to investigate the geographic pattern of their diversification among the islands of the Indian Ocean. A total of 1309 bp of mitochondrial sequence data was collected from the island sunbird taxa of the western Indian Ocean region, combined with sequence data from a selection of continental (African and Asian) sunbirds. Topological and branch length information combined with estimated divergence times are used to present hypotheses for the direction and sequence of colonization events in relation to the geological history of the Indian Ocean region. Indian Ocean sunbirds fall into two well-supported clades, consistent with two independent colonizations from Africa within the last 3.9 million years. The first clade contains island populations representing the species Nectarinia notata, while the second includes Nectarinia souimanga, Nectarinia humbloti, Nectarinia dussumieri, and Nectarinia coquereli. With respect to the latter clade, application of Bremer's [Syst. Biol. 41 (1992) 436] ancestral areas method permits us to posit the Comoros archipelago as the point of initial colonization in the Indian Ocean. The subsequent expansion of the souimanga clade across its Indian Ocean range occurred rapidly, with descendants of this early expansion remaining on the Comoros and granitic Seychelles. The data suggest that a more recent expansion from Anjouan in the Comoros group led to the colonization of Madagascar by sunbirds representing the souimanga clade. In concordance with the very young geological age of the Aldabra group, the sunbirds of this archipelago have diverged little from the Madagascar population; this is attributed to colonization of the Aldabra archipelago in recent times, in one or possibly two or more waves originating from Madagascar. The overall pattern of sunbird radiation across Indian Ocean islands indicates that these birds disperse across ocean

  7. Molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic distribution of the Escherichia coli pks genomic island.

    PubMed

    Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian; Kuskowski, Michael A; Nougayrede, Jean-Philippe; Oswald, Eric

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiological and phylogenetic associations of the pks genomic island of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), which encodes the genotoxin colibactin, are incompletely defined. clbB and clbN (as markers for the 5' and 3' regions of the pks island, respectively), clbA and clbQ (as supplemental pks island markers), and 12 other putative ExPEC virulence genes were newly sought by PCR among 131 published E. coli isolates from hospitalized veterans (62 blood isolates and 69 fecal isolates). Blood and fecal isolates and clbB-positive and -negative isolates were compared for 66 newly and previously assessed traits. Among the 14 newly sought traits, clbB and clbN (colibactin polyketide synthesis system), hra (heat-resistant agglutinin), and vat (vacuolating toxin) were significantly associated with bacteremia. clbB and clbN identified a subset within phylogenetic group B2 with extremely high virulence scores and a high proportion of blood isolates. However, by multivariable analysis, other traits were more predictive of blood source than clbB and clbN were; indeed, among the newly sought traits, only pic significantly predicted bacteremia (negative association). By correspondence analysis, clbB and clbN were closely associated with group B2 and multiple B2-associated traits; by principal coordinate analysis, clbB and clbN partitioned the data set better than did blood versus fecal source. Thus, the pks island was significantly associated with bacteremia, multiple ExPEC-associated virulence genes, and group B2, and within group B2, it identified an especially high-virulence subset. This extends previous work regarding the pks island and supports investigation of the colibactin system as a potential therapeutic target.

  8. Chromosomal islands of Streptococcus pyogenes and related streptococci: molecular switches for survival and virulence.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Scott V; McShan, William M

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a significant pathogen of humans, annually causing over 700,000,000 infections and 500,000 deaths. Virulence in S. pyogenes is closely linked to mobile genetic elements like phages and chromosomal islands (CI). S. pyogenes phage-like chromosomal islands (SpyCI) confer a complex mutator phenotype on their host. SpyCI integrate into the 5' end of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutL, which also disrupts downstream operon genes lmrP, ruvA, and tag. During early logarithmic growth, SpyCI excise from the bacterial chromosome and replicate as episomes, relieving the mutator phenotype. As growth slows and the cells enter stationary phase, SpyCI reintegrate into the chromosome, again silencing the MMR operon. This system creates a unique growth-dependent and reversible mutator phenotype. Additional CI using the identical attachment site in mutL have been identified in related species, including Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus parauberis, and Streptococcus canis. These CI have small genomes, which range from 13 to 20 kB, conserved integrase and DNA replication genes, and no identifiable genes encoding capsid proteins. SpyCI may employ a helper phage for packaging and dissemination in a fashion similar to the Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPI). Outside of the core replication and integration genes, SpyCI and related CI show considerable diversity with the presence of many indels that may contribute to the host cell phenotype or fitness. SpyCI are a subset of a larger family of streptococcal CI who potentially regulate the expression of other host genes. The biological and phylogenetic analysis of streptococcal chromosomal islands provides important clues as to how these chromosomal islands help S. pyogenes and other streptococcal species persist in human populations in spite of antibiotic therapy and immune challenges.

  9. Chromosomal islands of Streptococcus pyogenes and related streptococci: molecular switches for survival and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Scott V.; McShan, William M.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a significant pathogen of humans, annually causing over 700,000,000 infections and 500,000 deaths. Virulence in S. pyogenes is closely linked to mobile genetic elements like phages and chromosomal islands (CI). S. pyogenes phage-like chromosomal islands (SpyCI) confer a complex mutator phenotype on their host. SpyCI integrate into the 5′ end of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutL, which also disrupts downstream operon genes lmrP, ruvA, and tag. During early logarithmic growth, SpyCI excise from the bacterial chromosome and replicate as episomes, relieving the mutator phenotype. As growth slows and the cells enter stationary phase, SpyCI reintegrate into the chromosome, again silencing the MMR operon. This system creates a unique growth-dependent and reversible mutator phenotype. Additional CI using the identical attachment site in mutL have been identified in related species, including Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus parauberis, and Streptococcus canis. These CI have small genomes, which range from 13 to 20 kB, conserved integrase and DNA replication genes, and no identifiable genes encoding capsid proteins. SpyCI may employ a helper phage for packaging and dissemination in a fashion similar to the Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPI). Outside of the core replication and integration genes, SpyCI and related CI show considerable diversity with the presence of many indels that may contribute to the host cell phenotype or fitness. SpyCI are a subset of a larger family of streptococcal CI who potentially regulate the expression of other host genes. The biological and phylogenetic analysis of streptococcal chromosomal islands provides important clues as to how these chromosomal islands help S. pyogenes and other streptococcal species persist in human populations in spite of antibiotic therapy and immune challenges. PMID:25161960

  10. Will an "island" population of voles be recolonized if eradicated? Insights from molecular genetic analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.P.; Haig, S.M.; Ledig, D.B.; Vander Heyden, M. F.; Bennett, G.

    2011-01-01

    We performed genetic analyses of Microtus longicaudus populations within the Crook Point Unit of the Oregon Islands National Wildlife Refuge. A M. longicaudus population at Saddle Rock (located approx. 65 m off-shore from the Crook Point mainland) is suspected to be partially responsible for declines of a Leach's storm-petrel colony at this important nesting site. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers and mitochondrial DNA, we illustrate that Saddle Rock and Crook Point function as separate island and mainland populations despite their close proximity. In addition to genetic structure, we also observed reduced genetic diversity at Saddle Rock, suggesting that little individual movement occurs between populations. If local resource managers decide to perform an eradication at Saddle Rock, we conclude that immediate recolonization of the island by M. longicaudus would be unlikely. Because M. longicaudus is native to Oregon, we also consider the degree with which the differentiation of Saddle Rock signifies the presence of a unique entity that warrants conservation rather than eradication. ?? The Wildlife Society, 2011.

  11. Molecular identification of avian haemosporidia in wild birds and mosquitoes on Tsushima Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, Momoko; Sato, Yukita; Ejiri, Hiroko; Imura, Takayuki; Chiba, Rei; Yamamoto, Hanae; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Tsuda, Yoshio; Murata, Koichi; Yukawa, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated for the first time the prevalence of avian haemosporidia of genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon among birds and mosquitoes on Tsushima Island of Japan, which is located between Japan and the Korean Peninsula. Of 55 wild birds belonging to 33 species, 16 (29.1%) tested positive for haemosporidia as follows: Plasmodium spp. (11/55; 20.0%); Haemoproteus spp. (2/55; 3.6%); and Leucocytozoon spp. (3/55; 5.5%). A genetic lineage isolated from the Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) was identical to that of the known avian malaria parasite P. circumflexum. Several genetic lineages were identical or closely related to the parasite lineages that were previously detected in birds and mosquitoes in Japan and Korea. Another single identical genetic lineage was also detected in both migratory and resident birds. A total of 753 mosquitoes from 12 species were collected; and one fully fed Aedes albopictus was positive for avian Plasmodium(1/753; 0.13%) which is identical to a genetic lineage detected in both mosquitoes in Japan and birds in Korea. Blood-meal identifications of blood-fed mosquitoes showed direct contact between the mosquitoes and 4 species of mammals including humans, cattle, rodents and the endangered Tsushima leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilura). Migratory birds use Tsushima Island as a site for wintering, breeding and resting, and our results suggest the transmission of avian haematozoa between resident and migratory birds during their stay on Tsushima Island.

  12. Molecular genetic status of Aleutian Canada Geese from Buldir and the Semidi Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Barbara J.; Pearce, John M.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Shields, Gerald F.; Scribner, Kim T.

    2000-01-01

    We conducted genetic analyses of Aleutian Canada Geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) from Buldir Island in the western Aleutians and the Semidi Islands in the eastern portion of their breeding range. We compared data from seven microsatellite DNA loci and 143 base pairs of the control region of mitochondrial DNA from the two populations of Aleutian Canada Geese and another small-bodied subspecies, the Cackling Canada Goose (B. c. minima) which nests in western Alaska. The widely separated island-nesting Aleutian geese were genetically more closely related to each other than to mainland-nesting small-bodied geese. The populations of Aleutian geese were genetically differentiated from one another in terms of mitochondrial DNA haplotype and microsatellite allele frequencies, suggesting limited contemporary gene flow and/or major shifts in gene frequency through genetic drift. The degree of population genetic differentiation suggests that Aleutian Canada Goose populations could be considered separate management units. There was some evidence of population bottlenecks, although we found no significant genetic evidence of non-random mating or inbreeding.

  13. Radiocarbon evidence for the presence of mice on Madeira Island (North Atlantic) one millennium ago.

    PubMed

    Rando, Juan Carlos; Pieper, Harald; Alcover, Josep Antoni

    2014-04-07

    Owing to the catastrophic extinction events that occurred following the Holocene arrival of alien species, extant oceanic island biotas are a mixture of recently incorporated alien fauna and remnants of the original fauna. Knowledge of the Late Quaternary pristine island faunas and a reliable chronology of the earliest presence of alien species on each archipelago are critical in understanding the magnitude and tempo of Quaternary island extinctions. Until now, two successive waves of human arrivals have been identified in the North Atlantic Macaronesian archipelagos (Azores, Madeira, Selvagens, Canary and Cape Verde Islands): 'aboriginal', which is limited to the Canary Islands around two millennia ago, and 'colonial', from the fourteenth century onwards. New surveys in Ponta de São Lourenço (Madeira Island) have allowed us to obtain and date ancient bones of mice. The date obtained (1033 ± 28 BP) documents the earliest evidence for the presence of mice on the island. This date extends the time frame in which the most significant ecological changes occurred on the island. It also suggests that humans could have reached Madeira before 1036 cal AD, around four centuries before Portugal officially took possession of the island.

  14. Radiocarbon evidence for the presence of mice on Madeira Island (North Atlantic) one millennium ago

    PubMed Central

    Rando, Juan Carlos; Pieper, Harald; Alcover, Josep Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the catastrophic extinction events that occurred following the Holocene arrival of alien species, extant oceanic island biotas are a mixture of recently incorporated alien fauna and remnants of the original fauna. Knowledge of the Late Quaternary pristine island faunas and a reliable chronology of the earliest presence of alien species on each archipelago are critical in understanding the magnitude and tempo of Quaternary island extinctions. Until now, two successive waves of human arrivals have been identified in the North Atlantic Macaronesian archipelagos (Azores, Madeira, Selvagens, Canary and Cape Verde Islands): ‘aboriginal’, which is limited to the Canary Islands around two millennia ago, and ‘colonial’, from the fourteenth century onwards. New surveys in Ponta de São Lourenço (Madeira Island) have allowed us to obtain and date ancient bones of mice. The date obtained (1033 ± 28 BP) documents the earliest evidence for the presence of mice on the island. This date extends the time frame in which the most significant ecological changes occurred on the island. It also suggests that humans could have reached Madeira before 1036 cal AD, around four centuries before Portugal officially took possession of the island. PMID:24523273

  15. Mechanism for persistent hexagonal island formation in AlN buffer layer during growth on Si (111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.-Y.; Chung, H.-C.; Liu, C.-P.; Tu, L.-W.

    2007-05-21

    The characteristics of structure and morphology of AlN grown by a growth interruption method on Si (111) with plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy are investigated. It is found that the growth interruption method would improve the surface flatness of the AlN layer without the formation of Al droplets. However, AlN hexagonal islands were present and persistent throughout the entire growth owing to effective strain relaxation and Eherlich-Schowebel barrier effect of preexistent surface islands grown on higher terraces of the Si substrate. The density of threading dislocations underneath the hexagonal islands is much less than elsewhere in the film, which is presumably due to dislocation annihilation during the island growth process.

  16. Colonization and diversification in the African 'sky islands': insights from fossil-calibrated molecular dating of Lychnis (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Gizaw, Abel; Brochmann, Christian; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Wondimu, Tigist; Masao, Catherine Aloyce; Tusiime, Felly Mugizi; Abdi, Ahmed Abdikadir; Oxelman, Bengt; Popp, Magnus; Dimitrov, Dimitar

    2016-07-01

    The flora on the isolated high African mountains or 'sky islands' is remarkable for its peculiar adaptations, local endemism and striking biogeographical connections to remote parts of the world. Ages of the plant lineages and the timing of their radiations have frequently been debated but remain contentious as there are few estimates based on explicit models and fossil-calibrated molecular clocks. We used the plastid region maturaseK (matK) and a Caryophylloflora paleogenica fossil to infer the age of the genus Lychnis, and constructed a data set of three plastid (matK; a ribosomal protein S16 (rps16); and an intergenic spacer (psbE-petL)) and two nuclear (internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and a region spanning exon 18-24 in the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2)) loci for joint estimation of the species tree and divergence time of the African representatives. The time of divergence of the African high-altitude Lychnis was placed in the late Miocene to early Pliocene. A single speciation event was inferred in the early Pliocene; subsequent speciation took place sporadically from the late Pliocene to the middle Pleistocene. We provide further support for a Eurasian origin of the African 'sky islands' floral elements, which seem to have been recruited via dispersals at different times: some old, as in Lychnis, and others very recent. We show that dispersal and diversification within Africa play an important role in shaping these isolated plant communities.

  17. Molecular characteristics of Salmonella genomic island 1 in Proteus mirabilis isolates from poultry farms in China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Chang-Wei; Zhang, An-Yun; Liu, Bi-Hui; Wang, Hong-Ning; Guan, Zhong-Bin; Xu, Chang-Wen; Xia, Qing-Qing; Cheng, Han; Zhang, Dong-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Six out of the 64 studied Proteus mirabilis isolates from 11 poultry farms in China contained Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). PCR mapping showed that the complete nucleotide sequences of SGI1s ranged from 33.2 to 42.5 kb. Three novel variants, SGI1-W, SGI1-X, and SGI1-Y, have been characterized. Resistance genes lnuF, dfrA25, and qnrB2 were identified in SGI1 for the first time. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Molecular characterisation of anthropogenic sources of sedimentary organic matter from Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Dauner, Ana Lúcia L; Hernández, Edgardo A; MacCormack, Walter P; Martins, César C

    2015-01-01

    Although relatively recent, human activities in Antarctica, such as growing tourism, fishery activities, and scientific operations, have affected some areas of this continent. These activities eventually release pollutants, such as petroleum and its derivatives and sewage, into this environment. Located on King George Island (25 de Mayo Island), Potter Cove (62°14'S, 58°39'W) is home to the Argentine Carlini research station. To evaluate the anthropogenic impacts surrounding Potter Cove, sediment samples were collected and analysed for sewage and fuel introduction via the determination of organic markers. The highest concentrations were found in the central portion of the fjords, where fine sediments are deposited and the accumulation of organic molecules is favoured. Aliphatic hydrocarbons were mainly derived from biogenic sources, evidenced by the predominance of odd short-chain n-alkanes. Anthropogenic impacts were evidenced primarily by the presence of PAHs, which were predominantly related to petrogenic sources, such as vessel and boat traffic. Sewage marker concentrations were much lower than those found in other Antarctic regions. These results indicate that oil hydrocarbons and sewage inputs to Potter Cove may be considered low or only slightly influential.

  19. Evolution on a volcanic conveyor belt: using phylogeographic reconstructions and K-Ar-based ages of the Hawaiian Islands to estimate molecular evolutionary rates.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, R C; McIntosh, C E; Tarr, C L

    1998-04-01

    The Hawaiian Islands form as the Pacific Plate moves over a 'hot spot' in the earth's mantle where magma extrudes through the crust to build huge shield volcanos. The islands subside and erode as the plate carries them to the north-west, eventually to become coral atolls and seamounts. Thus islands are ordered linearly by age, with the oldest islands in the north-west (e.g. Kauai at 5.1 Ma) and the youngest in the south-east (e.g. Hawaii at 0.43 Ma). K-Ar estimates of the date of an island's formation provide a maximum age for the taxa inhabiting the island. These ages can be used to calibrate rates of molecular change under the following assumptions: (i) K-Ar dates are accurate; (ii) tree topologies show that derivation of taxa parallels the timing of island formation; (iii) populations do not colonize long after island emergence; (iv) the coalescent point for sister taxa does not greatly predate the formation of the colonized younger island; (v) saturation effects and (vi) among-lineage rate variation are minimal or correctable; and (vii) unbiased standard errors of distances and regressions can be estimated from multiple pairwise comparisons. We use the approach to obtain overall corrected rate calibrations for: (i) part of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in Hawaiian drepanidines (0.016 sequence divergence/Myr); (ii) the Yp1 gene in Hawaiian Drosophila (0.019/Myr Kambysellis et al. 1995); and (iii) parts of the mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA and tRNAval in Laupala crickets (0.024-0.102/Myr, Shaw 1996). We discuss the reliability of the estimates given the assumptions (i-vii) above and contrast the results with previous calibrations of Adh in Hawaiian Drosophila and chloroplast DNA in lobeliods.

  20. Molecular and morphological characterization of Xiphinema chambersi population from live oak in Jekyll Island, Georgia, with comments on morphometric variations

    Treesearch

    Zafar A Handoo; Lynn K. Carta; Andrea M. Skantar; Sergei A. Subbotin; Stephen W. Fraedrich

    2016-01-01

    A population of Xiphinema chambersi from the root zone around live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) trees on Jekyll Island, GA, is described using both morphological and molecular tools and compared with descriptions of type specimens. Initially, because of a few morphological differences, this nematode was thought to represent...

  1. Identification, rearing, and distribution of stick insects of Madeira Island: an example of raising biodiversity awareness.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, António M F; Pombo, Dora Aguin; Gonçalves, Ysabel M

    2014-04-10

    Two species of stick insects are currently known to be present in the Macaronesian archipelagos: Clonopsis gallica (Charpentier) (Phasmatodea: Bacillidae) on the Canary Islands and in the Azores and Carausius morosus (Sinéty) (Phasmatidae) in the Azores. Here, we provide the first reliable records of the presence and distribution of C. gallica and C. morosus on Madeira Island. Egg and adult stages are briefly described along with some notes on the life history of these species in captivity. Data on islandwide distribution are based on specimens donated by the public in response to an article published in a daily newspaper. This method of data collection raised great popular interest in stick insects. The role of newspapers as a means of communicating awareness in biodiversity issues is discussed. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  2. Morphology and molecular characterization of the epiphytic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum cf. rhathymum in temperate waters off Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, An Suk; Jeong, Hae Jin; Jang, Tae Young; Kang, Nam Seon; Lee, Sung Yeon; Yoo, Yeong Du; Kim, Hyung Seop

    2013-03-01

    Prorocentrum spp. are planktonic and/or benthic species. Benthic Prorocentrum species are of primary concern to scientists and the public because some of them are toxic. We established clonal cultures of 3 strains of Prorocentrum species that were collected from the thalli of a macroalga in the coastal waters off Jeju Island, located at the southern end of Korea. The Korean strains of P. cf. rhathymum, which are morphologically almost identical to the Virgin Island strain of P. rhathymum, were different from P. mexicanum because the former dinoflagellate has one simple collar-like spine in the periflagellar area, while the latter dinoflagellate has a 2- or 3-horned spine. In addition, the sequences of the small subunit (SSU) rDNA of the Korean strains were identical to those of the Malaysian and Floridian strains of P. rhathymum, while the sequences of the large subunit (LSU) rDNA of the Korean strains were 0.1-0.9% different from those of the Iranian and Malaysian strains of P. rhathymum. In phylogenetic trees based on the SSU rDNA sequences, the Korean strains of P. rhathymum formed a clade with the Malaysian and Floridian strains of P. rhathymum and the Vietnamese and Polynesian strains of P. mexicanum. However, in phylogenetic trees based on the LSU rDNA sequences, the Korean strains of P. rhathymum formed a clade with the Iranian strain of P. rhathymum and the Spanish and Mexican strains of P. mexicanum. Therefore, the molecular characterization of the Korean strains does not allow us to clearly classify them as P. rhathymum, nor P. mexicanum, although their morphology has so far been reported to be closer to that of P. rhathymum than P. mexicanum and thus we designated them as P. cf. rhathymum.

  3. G6PD Deficiency and Hemoglobinopathies: Molecular Epidemiological Characteristics and Healthy Effects on Malaria Endemic Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Min; Yang, Li Ye; Xie, Dong De; Chen, Jiang Tao; Nguba, Santiago-m Monte; Ehapo, Carlos Sala; Zhan, Xiao Fen; Eyi, Juan Urbano Monsuy; Matesa, Rocio Apicante; Obono, Maximo Miko Ondo; Yang, Hui; Yang, Hui Tian; Cheng, Ji Dong

    2015-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and hemoglobinopathies were the inherited conditions found mostly in African. However, few epidemiological data of these disorders was reported in Equatorial Guinea (EQG). This study aimed to assess the prevalence and healthy effects of G6PD deficiency and hemoglobinopathies among the people on malaria endemic Bioko Island, EQG. Materials and Methods Blood samples from 4,144 unrelated subjects were analyzed for G6PD deficieny by fluorescence spot test (FST), high-resolution melting assay and PCR-DNA sequencing. In addition, 1,186 samples were randomly selected from the 4,144 subjects for detection of hemoglobin S (HbS), HbC, and α-thalassemia deletion by complete blood count, PCR-DNA sequencing and reverse dot blot (RDB). Results The prevalence of malaria and anemia was 12.6% (522/4,144) and 32.8% (389/1,186), respectively. Overall, 8.7% subjects (359/4,144) were G6PD-deficient by FST, including 9.0% (249/2,758) males and 7.9% (110/1,386) females. Among the 359 G6PD-deficient individuals molecularly studied, the G6PD A- (G202A/A376G) were detected in 356 cases (99.2%), G6PD Betica (T968C/A376G) in 3 cases. Among the 1,186 subjects, 201 cases were HbS heterozygotes, 35 cases were HbC heterozygotes, and 2 cases were HbCS double heterozygotes; 452 cases showed heterozygous α-thalassemia 3.7 kb deletion (-α3.7 kb deletion) and 85 homozygous - α3.7 kb deletion. The overall allele frequencies were HbS 17.1% (203/1186); HbC, 3.1% (37/1186); and –α3.7 kb deletion 52.4% (622/1186), respectively. Conclusions High G6PD deficiency in this population indicate that diagnosis and management of G6PD deficiency is necessary on Bioko Island. Obligatory newborn screening, prenatal screening and counseling for these genetic disorders, especially HbS, are needed on the island. PMID:25915902

  4. Staphylococcal pathogenicity island interference with helper phage reproduction is a paradigm of molecular parasitism.

    PubMed

    Ram, Geeta; Chen, John; Kumar, Krishan; Ross, Hope F; Ubeda, Carles; Damle, Priyadarshan K; Lane, Kristin D; Penadés, José R; Christie, Gail E; Novick, Richard P

    2012-10-02

    Staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) carry superantigen and resistance genes and are extremely widespread in Staphylococcus aureus and in other Gram-positive bacteria. SaPIs represent a major source of intrageneric horizontal gene transfer and a stealth conduit for intergeneric gene transfer; they are phage satellites that exploit the life cycle of their temperate helper phages with elegant precision to enable their rapid replication and promiscuous spread. SaPIs also interfere with helper phage reproduction, blocking plaque formation, sharply reducing burst size and enhancing the survival of host cells following phage infection. Here, we show that SaPIs use several different strategies for phage interference, presumably the result of convergent evolution. One strategy, not described previously in the bacteriophage microcosm, involves a SaPI-encoded protein that directly and specifically interferes with phage DNA packaging by blocking the phage terminase small subunit. Another strategy involves interference with phage reproduction by diversion of the vast majority of virion proteins to the formation of SaPI-specific small infectious particles. Several SaPIs use both of these strategies, and at least one uses neither but possesses a third. Our studies illuminate a key feature of the evolutionary strategy of these mobile genetic elements, in addition to their carriage of important genes-interference with helper phage reproduction, which could ensure their transferability and long-term persistence.

  5. Molecular characterization of paediatric glioneuronal tumours with neuropil-like islands: a genome-wide copy number analysis

    PubMed Central

    Giunti, Laura; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Pantaleo, Marilena; Lucchesi, Maurizio; Provenzano, Aldesia; Palazzo, Viviana; Guarducci, Silvia; Guidi, Milena; Genitori, Lorenzo; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Sardi, Iacopo; Giglio, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric glioneuronal tumour with neuropil-like islands (GTNI) is a rare neoplasm of neuronal differentiation and diffusely infiltrating astroglial and oligodendrocyte-like components. The 2007 World Health Organization classification of central nervous system tumours considered it as a pattern variation of anaplastic astrocytoma. There are few data on paediatric GTNI probably both for their rarity and variable clinical aggressiveness. We studied by SNP/CGH array four tumour samples of GTNI from two males and two females (one new-born and three children aged from 4 to 8 years), in order to identify any possible common genomic alteration. All patients received chemo- and radiotherapy after their surgical treatment. No genomic instability nor recurrent alterations have been demonstrated in two of our GTNI cases. In the remaining two, we detected a mosaic trisomy 8 (15-20%) in one case, and an amplification at 5q14.1 involving DMGDH (partially), BHMT2 and BHMT genes, with the distal breakpoint falling at 23 Kbp from the 5’UTR of JMY, a p53 cofactor. Although the smallness of the sample impairs any clinical-histological correlation, GTNI appear different at the molecular level, with genomic imbalances playing a possible role in at least part of them. Our work gives an important contribution in knowledge and classification of this family of tumours. PMID:28042510

  6. Molecular characterization of the parasitic tapeworm Bertiella studeri from the island of Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Taleb-Hossenkhan, Nawsheen; Bhagwant, Suress

    2012-02-01

    Specimens of Bertiella studeri (Cyclophyllidea, Anoplocephalidae) that have been preserved in ethanol or fixed permanently in formalin for >2 years were used for DNA extraction and molecular characterization. DNA was amplified via PCR from samples collected from different monkey and human hosts using eucestoda-specific primers. Phylogenetic trees were inferred from two sets of sequence data corresponding to the first and second halves of the 18S rDNA gene using two methods (distance-based NJ and maximum parsimony). We found that the second dataset was more suited for inferring phylogeny within the Cyclophyllidea. Both trees show that taxa belonging to the Anoplocephalidae, Hymenolepididae, Davaineidae, and Mesocestoididae are clearly monophyletic within their families and demonstrate sister-group relationships between the Anoplocephalidae and Mesocestoididae, contradicting previous reports of a basal placement of the Mesocestoididae within the Cyclophyllidea. The distance-based phylogeny support a taxonomical classification that groups members of the Bertiella genus, as well as other members of the Anoplocephalidae family, as being most closely related to the Hymenolepididae family and can be used to substantiate the use of uterine morphology as a valid homologous trait for taxonomical and phylogenetic classifications. On the other hand, the parsimony-based phylogeny places the Hymenolepididae closer to the outgroup and shows a closer relationship between the Mesocestoididae and the Taeniidae. This underlies the caution with which gene trees should be interpreted for inferring phylogeny and underlies the need to integrate both morphological and molecular data to represent the actual evolutionary pathway of the species involved.

  7. Molecular evidence of cryptic speciation in the "cosmopolitan" excavating sponge Cliona celata (Porifera, Clionaidae).

    PubMed

    Xavier, J R; Rachello-Dolmen, P G; Parra-Velandia, F; Schönberg, C H L; Breeuwer, J A J; van Soest, R W M

    2010-07-01

    Over the past several decades molecular tools have shown an enormous potential to aid in the clarification of species boundaries in the marine realm, particularly in morphologically simple groups. In this paper we report a case of cryptic speciation in an allegedly cosmopolitan and ecologically important species-the excavating sponge Cliona celata (Clionaidae, Hadromerida). In the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean C. celata displays a discontinuous distribution of its putative growth stages (boring, encrusting, and massive) leading us to investigate its specific status. Phylogenetic reconstructions of mitochondrial (COI, Atp8) and nuclear (28S) gene fragments revealed levels of genetic diversity and divergence compatible with interspecific relationships. We therefore demonstrate C. celata as constituting a species complex comprised of at least four morphologically indistinct species, each showing a far more restricted distribution: two species on the Atlantic European coasts and two on the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic coasts (Macaronesian islands). Our results provide further confirmation that the different morphotypes do indeed constitute either growth stages or ecologically adapted phenotypes as boring and massive forms were found in two of the four uncovered species. We additionally provide an overview of the cases of cryptic speciation which have been reported to date within the Porifera, and highlight how taxonomic crypsis may confound scientific interpretation and hamper biotechnological advancement. Our work together with previous studies suggests that overconservative systematic traditions but also morphological stasis have led to genetic complexity going undetected and that a DNA-assisted taxonomy may play a key role in uncovering the hidden diversity in this taxonomic group. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of the colorectal CpG island methylator phenotype with molecular features, risk factors, and family history.

    PubMed

    Weisenberger, Daniel J; Levine, A Joan; Long, Tiffany I; Buchanan, Daniel D; Walters, Rhiannon; Clendenning, Mark; Rosty, Christophe; Joshi, Amit D; Stern, Mariana C; LeMarchand, Loic; Lindor, Noralane M; Daftary, Darshana; Gallinger, Steven; Selander, Teresa; Bapat, Bharati; Newcomb, Polly A; Campbell, Peter T; Casey, Graham; Ahnen, Dennis J; Baron, John A; Haile, Robert W; Hopper, John L; Young, Joanne P; Laird, Peter W; Siegmund, Kimberly D

    2015-03-01

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) represents a subset of colorectal cancers characterized by widespread aberrant DNA hypermethylation at select CpG islands. The risk factors and environmental exposures contributing to etiologic heterogeneity between CIMP and non-CIMP tumors are not known. We measured the CIMP status of 3,119 primary population-based colorectal cancer tumors from the multinational Colon Cancer Family Registry. Etiologic heterogeneity was assessed by a case-case study comparing risk factor frequency of colorectal cancer cases with CIMP and non-CIMP tumors using logistic regression to estimate the case-case odds ratio (ccOR). We found associations between tumor CIMP status and MSI-H (ccOR = 7.6), BRAF V600E mutation (ccOR = 59.8), proximal tumor site (ccOR = 9; all P < 0.0001), female sex [ccOR = 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-2.1], older age (ccOR = 4.0 comparing over 70 years vs. under 50; 95% CI, 3.0-5.5), and family history of CRC (ccOR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.5-0.7). While use of NSAIDs varied by tumor CIMP status for both males and females (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.02, respectively), use of multivitamin or calcium supplements did not. Only for female colorectal cancer was CIMP status associated with increased pack-years of smoking (Ptrend < 0.001) and body mass index (BMI; Ptrend = 0.03). The frequency of several colorectal cancer risk factors varied by CIMP status, and the associations of smoking and obesity with tumor subtype were evident only for females. Differences in the associations of a unique DNA methylation-based subgroup of colorectal cancer with important lifestyle and environmental exposures increase understanding of the molecular pathologic epidemiology of this heavily methylated subset of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(3); 512-9. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Predicting Where a Radiation Will Occur: Acoustic and Molecular Surveys Reveal Overlooked Diversity in Indian Ocean Island Crickets (Mogoplistinae: Ornebius).

    PubMed

    Warren, Ben H; Baudin, Rémy; Franck, Antoine; Hugel, Sylvain; Strasberg, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Recent theory suggests that the geographic location of island radiations (local accumulation of species diversity due to cladogenesis) can be predicted based on island area and isolation. Crickets are a suitable group for testing these predictions, as they show both the ability to reach some of the most isolated islands in the world, and to speciate at small spatial scales. Despite substantial song variation between closely related species in many island cricket lineages worldwide, to date this characteristic has not received attention in the western Indian Ocean islands; existing species descriptions are based on morphology alone. Here we use a combination of acoustics and DNA sequencing to survey these islands for Ornebius crickets. We uncover a small but previously unknown radiation in the Mascarenes, constituting a three-fold increase in the Ornebius species diversity of this archipelago (from two to six species). A further new species is detected in the Comoros. Although double archipelago colonisation is the best explanation for species diversity in the Seychelles, in situ cladogenesis is the best explanation for the six species in the Mascarenes and two species of the Comoros. Whether the radiation of Mascarene Ornebius results from intra- or purely inter- island speciation cannot be determined on the basis of the phylogenetic data alone. However, the existence of genetic, song and ecological divergence at the intra-island scale is suggestive of an intra-island speciation scenario in which ecological and mating traits diverge hand-in-hand. Our results suggest that the geographic location of Ornebius radiations is partially but not fully explained by island area and isolation. A notable anomaly is Madagascar, where our surveys are consistent with existing accounts in finding no Ornebius species present. Possible explanations are discussed, invoking ecological differences between species and differences in environmental history between islands.

  10. Predicting Where a Radiation Will Occur: Acoustic and Molecular Surveys Reveal Overlooked Diversity in Indian Ocean Island Crickets (Mogoplistinae: Ornebius)

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Ben H.; Baudin, Rémy; Franck, Antoine; Hugel, Sylvain; Strasberg, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Recent theory suggests that the geographic location of island radiations (local accumulation of species diversity due to cladogenesis) can be predicted based on island area and isolation. Crickets are a suitable group for testing these predictions, as they show both the ability to reach some of the most isolated islands in the world, and to speciate at small spatial scales. Despite substantial song variation between closely related species in many island cricket lineages worldwide, to date this characteristic has not received attention in the western Indian Ocean islands; existing species descriptions are based on morphology alone. Here we use a combination of acoustics and DNA sequencing to survey these islands for Ornebius crickets. We uncover a small but previously unknown radiation in the Mascarenes, constituting a three-fold increase in the Ornebius species diversity of this archipelago (from two to six species). A further new species is detected in the Comoros. Although double archipelago colonisation is the best explanation for species diversity in the Seychelles, in situ cladogenesis is the best explanation for the six species in the Mascarenes and two species of the Comoros. Whether the radiation of Mascarene Ornebius results from intra- or purely inter- island speciation cannot be determined on the basis of the phylogenetic data alone. However, the existence of genetic, song and ecological divergence at the intra-island scale is suggestive of an intra-island speciation scenario in which ecological and mating traits diverge hand-in-hand. Our results suggest that the geographic location of Ornebius radiations is partially but not fully explained by island area and isolation. A notable anomaly is Madagascar, where our surveys are consistent with existing accounts in finding no Ornebius species present. Possible explanations are discussed, invoking ecological differences between species and differences in environmental history between islands. PMID:26871932

  11. Highly divergent molecular variants of human T-lymphotropic virus type I from isolated populations in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed Central

    Gessian, A; Yanagihara, R; Franchini, G; Garruto, R M; Jenkins, C L; Ajdukiewicz, A B; Gallo, R C; Gajdusek, D C

    1991-01-01

    To determine the molecular genetic relationship between Melanesian strains of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) and cosmopolitan prototype HTLV-I, we amplified by PCR, then cloned, and sequenced a 522-base-pair region of the HTLV-I env gene in DNA extracted from uncultured (fresh) and cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from six seropositive Melanesian Papua New Guineans and Solomon Islanders, including a Solomon Islander with HTLV-I myeloneuropathy. Unlike isolates of HTLV-I from Japan, the West Indies, the Americas, and Africa, which share greater than or equal to 97% sequence homology, the Melanesian strains of HTLV-I were only 91.8%-92.5% identical with a prototype Japanese HTLV-IATK-1. The nucleotide sequence of proviral DNA from the Solomon Islander with HTLV-I myeloneuropathy also diverged markedly from that of HTLV-I isolated from Japanese patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy and from Jamaican patients with tropical spastic paraparesis, suggesting that these variant viruses are capable of causing disease. The HTLV-I variants from Papua New Guineans, in turn, differed by nearly 4% from the Melanesian variants from Solomon Islanders, indicating the existence of another HTLV-I quasi-species. By contrast, HTLV-I strains from two residents of Bellona Island, a Polynesian Outlier within the Solomon Islands, were closely related to cosmopolitan prototype HTLV-I (greater than or equal to 97% sequence identity), suggesting recent introduction, possibly during this century. These findings are consistent with a proto-Melanesian HTLV-I strain of archaic presence, which evolved independently of contemporary cosmopolitan strains, and pose new questions about the origin and global dissemination of HTLV-I. Images PMID:1881912

  12. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Xiphinema chambersi Population from Live Oak in Jekyll Island, Georgia, with Comments on Morphometric Variations.

    PubMed

    Handoo, Zafar A; Carta, Lynn K; Skantar, Andrea M; Subbotin, Sergei A; Fraedrich, Stephen W

    2016-03-01

    A population of Xiphinema chambersi from the root zone around live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) trees on Jekyll Island, GA, is described using both morphological and molecular tools and compared with descriptions of type specimens. Initially, because of a few morphological differences, this nematode was thought to represent an undescribed species. However, on further examination, the morphometrics of the nematodes from live oak tend to agree with most of the morphometrics in the original description and redescription of X. chambersi except for few minor differences in V% relative to body length, slightly shorter stylet length, different c value, and the number of caudal pores. We consider these differences to be part of the normal variation within this species and accordingly image this new population of X. chambersi and redescribe the species. The new population is characterized by having females with a body length of 2.1 to 2.5 mm; lip region slightly rounded and set off from head; total stylet length 170 to 193 µm; vulva at 20.4% to 21.8% of body length; a monodelphic, posterior reproductive system; elongate, conoid tail with a blunt terminus and four pairs of caudal pores, of which two pairs are subdorsal and two subventral. Sequence data from the D2-D3 region of the 28S rRNA molecule subjected to GenBank sequence comparison using BLAST showed that the sequence had 96% and 99% similarity with X. chambersi from Alabama and Florida, respectively. Phylogenetic relationships of X. chambersi with other xiphinematids based on analysis of this DNA fragment are presented. This finding represents a new location of X. chambersi in Georgia on live oak for this species.

  13. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Xiphinema chambersi Population from Live Oak in Jekyll Island, Georgia, with Comments on Morphometric Variations

    PubMed Central

    Handoo, Zafar A.; Carta, Lynn K.; Skantar, Andrea M.; Subbotin, Sergei A.; Fraedrich, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    A population of Xiphinema chambersi from the root zone around live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) trees on Jekyll Island, GA, is described using both morphological and molecular tools and compared with descriptions of type specimens. Initially, because of a few morphological differences, this nematode was thought to represent an undescribed species. However, on further examination, the morphometrics of the nematodes from live oak tend to agree with most of the morphometrics in the original description and redescription of X. chambersi except for few minor differences in V% relative to body length, slightly shorter stylet length, different c value, and the number of caudal pores. We consider these differences to be part of the normal variation within this species and accordingly image this new population of X. chambersi and redescribe the species. The new population is characterized by having females with a body length of 2.1 to 2.5 mm; lip region slightly rounded and set off from head; total stylet length 170 to 193 µm; vulva at 20.4% to 21.8% of body length; a monodelphic, posterior reproductive system; elongate, conoid tail with a blunt terminus and four pairs of caudal pores, of which two pairs are subdorsal and two subventral. Sequence data from the D2–D3 region of the 28S rRNA molecule subjected to GenBank sequence comparison using BLAST showed that the sequence had 96% and 99% similarity with X. chambersi from Alabama and Florida, respectively. Phylogenetic relationships of X. chambersi with other xiphinematids based on analysis of this DNA fragment are presented. This finding represents a new location of X. chambersi in Georgia on live oak for this species. PMID:27168649

  14. Heat Islands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  15. Isabela Island, Galapagos Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-20

    STS072-732-072 (11-20 Jan. 1996) --- Three of the nineteen Galapagos Islands are visible in this image, photographed from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. The Galapagos Islands are located 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) to the west of Ecuador. The largest of the islands, Isabela, is at center (north is toward the upper right corner). The numerous circular features on the island, highlighted by clouds, are volcanoes. The Galapagos Islands owe their existence to a hot spot, or persistent heat source in the mantle, which also is located over a rift, or place where plates are separating and new crust is being created. The rift is located between the Cocos and Nazca Plates. The dark linear features on the islands are lava flows from past eruptions. The island to the left of Isabela is Fernandina, while the island to the right is San Salvador. The Galapagos Islands were visited by the English naturalist Charles Darwin in 1835.

  16. Genealogical and molecular analysis of a family-based cohort of congenital heart disease patients from the São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Cabral, Rita; Pires, Renato; Anjos, Rui; Branco, Claudia C; Maciel, Paula; Mota-Vieira, Luisa

    2016-11-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one common birth malformation, accounting for ∼30% of total congenital abnormalities. Considering the unknown role of consanguinity in causing CHD, this study hypothesised that consanguineous unions and/or familial aggregation may be frequent in the Azorean Island of São Miguel (Portugal). To that end, a retrospective observational study was performed based on genealogical and molecular analyses. The study enrolled 112 CHD patients from São Miguel Island, which allowed the assessment of type of family (simplex or multiplex), parental consanguinity and grandparental endogamy. Based on 15 STR markers, inbreeding coefficients (FIS) in the CHD cohort and healthy control group (n = 114) were estimated. Multiplex families were 37.6% (n = 41/109), a rate considerably higher than previously described in the literature (< 15%). Moreover, 9.2% (n = 10/109) of the CHD families were consanguineous, mostly derived from third cousin unions, and 20.2% (n = 22/109) presented full grandparental endogamy. Higher FIS values were found in patients with parental consanguinity (0.0371) and patent ductus arteriosus (0.0277). This study analysed several genealogical and genetic features related with CHD, revealing the presence of parental consanguinity and extensive familial aggregation in the CHD patients from São Miguel Island.

  17. Tamarix minoa (Tamaricaceae), a new species from the island of Crete (Greece) based on morphological and plastid molecular sequence data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tamarix minoa is described from material collected on the S Aegean island of Crete (Kriti), Greece. A morphological comparison with the species considered to be closest, T. africana and T. hampeana, is provided. An original illustration showing the main morphological characters of the new species is...

  18. Molecular and biological analysis of eight genetic islands that distinguish Neisseria meningitidis from the closely related pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Klee, S R; Nassif, X; Kusecek, B; Merker, P; Beretti, J L; Achtman, M; Tinsley, C R

    2000-04-01

    The pathogenic species Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae cause dramatically different diseases despite strong relatedness at the genetic and biochemical levels. N. meningitidis can cross the blood-brain barrier to cause meningitis and has a propensity for toxic septicemia unlike N. gonorrhoeae. We previously used subtractive hybridization to identify DNA sequences which might encode functions specific to bacteremia and invasion of the meninges because they are specific to N. meningitidis and absent from N. gonorrhoeae. In this report we show that these sequences mark eight genetic islands that range in size from 1.8 to 40 kb and whose chromosomal location is constant. Five of these genetic islands were conserved within a representative set of strains and/or carried genes with homologies to known virulence factors in other species. These were deleted, and the mutants were tested for correlates of virulence in vitro and in vivo. This strategy identified one island, region 8, which is needed to induce bacteremia in an infant rat model of meningococcal infection. Region 8 encodes a putative siderophore receptor and a disulfide oxidoreductase. None of the deleted mutants was modified in its resistance to the bactericidal effect of serum. Neither were the mutant strains altered in their ability to interact with endothelial cells, suggesting that such interactions are not encoded by large genetic islands in N. meningitidis.

  19. Glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands: clinical, morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of three pediatric cases.

    PubMed

    Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Castiglione, Francesca; Degl'innocenti, Duccio Rossi; Moncini, Daniela; Paglierani, Milena; Sardi, Iacopo; Giunti, Laura; Giordano, Flavio; Sanzo, Massimiliano; Mussa, Federico; Aricò, Maurizio; Genitori, Lorenzo; Taddei, Gian Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Glioneuronal tumors with neuropil-like islands are rare. The 1st reported cases were localized in the cerebral hemispheres of adults, showed homogeneous histopathologic features (infiltrating astrocytic growth and neuropil-like islands rimmed by neuronal cells), and had an unfavorable behavior. We report 3 pediatric cases (1 boy and 2 girls, ages 4, 6, and 8 years, respectively). The boy had a cerebral tumor, and the girls had a spinal tumor. The younger girl also had multiple posterior fossa lesions. The boy and older girl underwent a gross total resection. The younger girl underwent a subtotal resection of the spinal tumor; posterior fossa lesions were not surgically treated. The boy and younger girl are in complete remission at 33 and 24 months, respectively, after surgery and subsequent high-dose chemoradiotherapy. The older girl had a recurrence that was partially resected. Afterward, she started high-dose chemoradiotherapy and had an optimal radiologic response at 4 months follow up. Microscopically, the common denominator was the presence of synaptophysin-positive neuropil-like islands. One tumor showed ependymal features (pseudorosettes and punctate epithelial membrane antigen immunopositivity). Two tumors had 1p deletion. 19q deletion, MGMT gene promoter methylation, EGFR amplifications or polysomy, and EGFR, IDH1, IDH2, and TP53 genes mutation analyses yielded negative results. In conclusion, glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands can affect children, arise in the spinal cord, and show ependymal features in its glial component. A high-dose chemoradiotherapy program is effective.

  20. Hybridization and population structure of the Culex pipiens complex in the islands of Macaronesia

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Bruno; Alves, Joana; Sousa, Carla A; Santa-Ana, Marta; Vieira, Inês; Silva, Teresa L; Almeida, António PG; Donnelly, Martin J; Pinto, João

    2012-01-01

    The Culex pipiens complex includes two widespread mosquito vector species, Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The distribution of these species varies in latitude, with the former being present in temperate regions and the latter in tropical and subtropical regions. However, their distribution range overlaps in certain areas and interspecific hybridization has been documented. Genetic introgression between these species may have epidemiological repercussions for West Nile virus (WNV) transmission. Bayesian clustering analysis based on multilocus genotypes of 12 microsatellites was used to determine levels of hybridization between these two species in Macaronesian islands, the only contact zone described in West Africa. The distribution of the two species reflects both the islands' biogeography and historical aspects of human colonization. Madeira Island displayed a homogenous population of Cx. pipiens, whereas Cape Verde showed a more intriguing scenario with extensive hybridization. In the islands of Brava and Santiago, only Cx. quinquefasciatus was found, while in Fogo and Maio high hybrid rates (∼40%) between the two species were detected. Within the admixed populations, second-generation hybrids (∼50%) were identified suggesting a lack of isolation mechanisms. The observed levels of hybridization may locally potentiate the transmission to humans of zoonotic arboviruses such as WNV. PMID:22957190

  1. Kerguelen Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows the Kerguelen Islands also known as the Desolation Islands, which are part of the French Southern and Antarctic lands. The islands are among the most isolated places on Earth.

  2. Genetic characterization and molecular identification of the bloodmeal sources of the potential bluetongue vector Culicoides obsoletus in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Martínez, Javier; Ferraguti, Martina; Morales-de la Nuez, Antonio; Castro, Noemí; Figuerola, Jordi

    2012-07-24

    Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges are vectors for a diversity of pathogens including bluetongue virus (BTV) that generate important economic losses. BTV has expanded its range in recent decades, probably due to the expansion of its main vector and the presence of other autochthonous competent vectors. Although the Canary Islands are still free of bluetongue disease (BTD), Spain and Europe have had to face up to a spread of bluetongue with disastrous consequences. Therefore, it is essential to identify the distribution of biting midges and understand their feeding patterns in areas susceptible to BTD. To that end, we captured biting midges on two farms in the Canary Islands (i) to identify the midge species in question and characterize their COI barcoding region and (ii) to ascertain the source of their bloodmeals using molecular tools. Biting midges were captured using CDC traps baited with a 4-W blacklight (UV) bulb on Gran Canaria and on Tenerife. Biting midges were quantified and identified according to their wing patterns. A 688 bp segment of the mitochondrial COI gene of 20 biting midges (11 from Gran Canaria and 9 from Tenerife) were PCR amplified using the primers LCO1490 and HCO2198. Moreover, after selected all available females showing any rest of blood in their abdomen, a nested-PCR approach was used to amplify a fragment of the COI gene from vertebrate DNA contained in bloodmeals. The origin of bloodmeals was identified by comparison with the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST). The morphological identification of 491 female biting midges revealed the presence of a single morphospecies belonging to the Obsoletus group. When sequencing the barcoding region of the 20 females used to check genetic variability, we identified two haplotypes differing in a single base. Comparison analysis using the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST) showed that both haplotypes belong to Culicoides obsoletus, a

  3. Genetic characterization and molecular identification of the bloodmeal sources of the potential bluetongue vector Culicoides obsoletus in the Canary Islands, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges are vectors for a diversity of pathogens including bluetongue virus (BTV) that generate important economic losses. BTV has expanded its range in recent decades, probably due to the expansion of its main vector and the presence of other autochthonous competent vectors. Although the Canary Islands are still free of bluetongue disease (BTD), Spain and Europe have had to face up to a spread of bluetongue with disastrous consequences. Therefore, it is essential to identify the distribution of biting midges and understand their feeding patterns in areas susceptible to BTD. To that end, we captured biting midges on two farms in the Canary Islands (i) to identify the midge species in question and characterize their COI barcoding region and (ii) to ascertain the source of their bloodmeals using molecular tools. Methods Biting midges were captured using CDC traps baited with a 4-W blacklight (UV) bulb on Gran Canaria and on Tenerife. Biting midges were quantified and identified according to their wing patterns. A 688 bp segment of the mitochondrial COI gene of 20 biting midges (11 from Gran Canaria and 9 from Tenerife) were PCR amplified using the primers LCO1490 and HCO2198. Moreover, after selected all available females showing any rest of blood in their abdomen, a nested-PCR approach was used to amplify a fragment of the COI gene from vertebrate DNA contained in bloodmeals. The origin of bloodmeals was identified by comparison with the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST). Results The morphological identification of 491 female biting midges revealed the presence of a single morphospecies belonging to the Obsoletus group. When sequencing the barcoding region of the 20 females used to check genetic variability, we identified two haplotypes differing in a single base. Comparison analysis using the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST) showed that both haplotypes belong to

  4. Plant invasion and speciation along elevational gradients on the oceanic island La Palma, Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Steinbauer, Manuel J; Irl, Severin D H; González-Mancebo, Juana María; Breiner, Frank T; Hernández-Hernández, Raquel; Hopfenmüller, Sebastian; Kidane, Yohannes; Jentsch, Anke; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystems that provide environmental opportunities but are poor in species and functional richness generally support speciation as well as invasion processes. These processes are expected not to be equally effective along elevational gradients due to specific ecological, spatial, and anthropogenic filters, thus controlling the dispersal and establishment of species. Here, we investigate speciation and invasion processes along elevational gradients. We assess the vascular plant species richness as well as the number and percentage of endemic species and non-native species systematically along three elevational gradients covering large parts of the climatic range of La Palma, Canary Islands. Species richness was negatively correlated with elevation, while the percentage of Canary endemic species showed a positive relationship. However, the percentage of Canary-Madeira endemics did not show a relationship with elevation. Non-native species richness (indicating invasion) peaked at 500 m elevation and showed a consistent decline until about 1,200 m elevation. Above that limit, no non-native species were present in the studied elevational gradients. Ecological, anthropogenic, and spatial filters control richness, diversification, and invasion with elevation. With increase in elevation, richness decreases due to species-area relationships. Ecological limitations of native ruderal species related to anthropogenic pressure are in line with the absence of non-native species from high elevations indicating directional ecological filtering. Increase in ecological isolation with elevation drives diversification and thus increased percentages of Canary endemics. The best preserved eastern transect, including mature laurel forests, is an exception. The high percentage of Canary-Madeira endemics indicates the cloud forest's environmental uniqueness-and thus ecological isolation-beyond the Macaronesian islands.

  5. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Rickettsia monacensis in dogs from Maio Island of Cape Verde archipelago.

    PubMed

    Lauzi, Stefania; Maia, João P; Epis, Sara; Marcos, Ricardo; Pereira, Cristina; Luzzago, Camilla; Santos, Marta; Puente-Payo, Pablo; Giordano, Alessia; Pajoro, Massimo; Sironi, Giuseppe; Faustino, Augusto

    2016-07-01

    Tick-borne diseases are emerging worldwide and have an important zoonotic relevance. Dogs play an important role in the epidemiology of several zoonotic tick-borne pathogens acting as sentinels and/or reservoirs. This study focused on the molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in blood samples of 153 autochthonous asymptomatic dogs in Maio Island, Cape Verde archipelago. Eighty-four (54.9%) dogs were positive for one or more pathogens. Fifty-five (35.9%) dogs were infected with Hepatozoon canis, 53 (34.6%) with Anaplasma platys, five (3.3%) with Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia monacensis, an emerging human pathogen, was also identified in a single dog (0.7%). The former three pathogens cause important canine tick-borne diseases that are transmitted or potentially transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., the only hard tick identified in Cape Verde. Furthermore, Wolbachia spp. was amplified from the blood of one dog. None of the dogs were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Midichloria mitochondrii, Bartonella spp., Babesia spp. or Theileria spp. Fifty-four (35.3%) animals showed single infections and 30 (19.6%) co-infections, with A. platys and H. canis co-infection being the most frequent (28 dogs, 18.3%). The frequency of E. canis infection was statistically different among age groups (P=0.017), being higher among dogs older than 4 years compared to younger dogs. Infection by A. platys was also statistically different among age groups (P=0.031), being higher in dogs younger than 2 years compared to older dogs. The statistical analyses showed no significant association of PCR positivity with gender or location. The frequency of tick-borne pathogens detected in dogs in Maio Island, including R. monacensis, highlights the need to improve diagnosis and control in order to prevent the risk of transmission of these pathogens among dogs and humans living in or travelling to this touristic island.

  6. Evolutionary processes in a continental island system: molecular phylogeography of the Aegean Nigella arvensis alliance (Ranunculaceae) inferred from chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Bittkau, C; Comes, H P

    2005-11-01

    Continental shelf island systems, created by rising sea levels, provide a premier setting for studying the effects of past fragmentation, dispersal, and genetic drift on taxon diversification. We used phylogeographical (nested clade) and population genetic analyses to elucidate the relative roles of these processes in the evolutionary history of the Aegean Nigella arvensis alliance (= 'coenospecies'). We surveyed chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation in 455 individuals from 47 populations (nine taxa) of the alliance throughout its core range in the Aegean Archipelago and surrounding mainland areas of Greece and Turkey. The study revealed the presence of three major lineages, with largely nonoverlapping distributions in the Western, Central, and Eastern Aegean. There is evidence supporting the idea that these major lineages evolved in situ from a widespread (pan-Aegean) ancestral stock as a result of multiple fragmentation events, possibly due to the influence of post-Messinian sea flooding, Pleistocene eustatic changes and corresponding climate fluctuations. Over-sea dispersal and founder events appear to have played a rather insignificant role in the group's history. Rather, all analytical approaches identified the alliance as an organism group with poor seed dispersal capabilities and a susceptibility to genetic drift. In particular, we inferred that the observed level of cpDNA differentiation between Kikladian island populations of Nigella degenii largely reflects population history, (viz. Holocene island fragmentation) and genetic drift in the near absence of seed flow since their time of common ancestry. Overall, our cpDNA data for the N. arvensis alliance in general, and N. degenii in particular, indicate that historical events were important in determining the phylogeographical patterns seen, and that genetic drift has historically been relatively more influential on population structure than has cytoplasmic gene flow.

  7. On the biology of Spiruroidea parasites of murine rodents on El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) with molecular characterization of Streptopharagus greenbergi Wertheim, 1993.

    PubMed

    Montoliu, Isabel; Sánchez, Santiago; Villa, Mercedes; Abreu-Acosta, Néstor; Martín-Alonso, Aarón; Fernández-Álvarez, Ángela; Foronda, Pilar

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports the role of darkling beetles Pimelia laevigata costipennis and Hegeter amaroides (Tenebrionidae) as intermediate hosts of spiruroid nematodes parasites of the black rat and house mouse of El Hierro (Canary Islands). Larvae of spiruroid species were found in the two tenebrionids (18.1% in P. l. costipennis, 7.8% in H. amaroides), Streptopharagus greenbergi being predominant in both (16.1% and 7.1%, respectively), ahead of Mastophorus muris and Gongylonema type larva. The larval stages of S. greenbergi are described for the first time, and adult worms were obtained experimentally from an infected laboratory rat, allowing the identification of the species. Morphometric measurements of experimental adults match those of adults detected in naturally infected rats on the island. Molecular data for S. greenbergi, and the ITS nucleotide sequence of the genus Streptopharagus are also provided for the first time. After the isolation of S. greenbergi DNA and amplification of the ITS region, the ITS1 of this spirocercid was sequenced and deposited in the GenBank database.

  8. Molecular phylogeny and dating of an insular endemic moth radiation inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes: the genus Galagete (Lepidoptera: Autostichidae) of the Galapagos Islands.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Patrick; Cibois, Alice; Landry, Bernard

    2007-10-01

    Galagete is a genus of microlepidoptera including 12 nominate species endemic to the Galapagos Islands. In order to better understand the diversification of this endemic insular radiation, to unravel relationships among species and populations, and to get insight into the early stages of speciation, we developed a phylogenetic reconstruction based on the combined mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (555bp) and II (453bp), and the nuclear elongation factor-1alpha (711bp) and wingless (351bp) genes. Monophyly of the genus is strongly supported in the Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses suggesting a single colonization event by a common ancestor. Two cases of paraphyly observed between species are hypothesized to represent imperfect species limits for G. espanolaensis nested within the G. turritella clade, and introgressive hybridization or lineage sorting in the case of the population of G. protozona from Santa Fe nested within the G. gnathodoxa clade. A geologically calibrated, relaxed molecular clock model was used for the first time to unravel the chronological sequence of an insular radiation. The first split occurring within the Galagete lineage on the archipelago is estimated at 3.3+/-0.4million years ago. The genus radiated relatively quickly in about 1.8million years, and gives an estimated speciation rate of 0.8 species per million years. Although the colonization scenario shows a stochastic dispersal pattern, the arrival of the ancestor and the diversification of the radiation coincide with the chronological emergence of the major islands.

  9. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  10. Shape transitions and island nucleation for Si/Ge molecular beam epitaxy on stripe-patterned Si (001) substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Sanduijav, B.; Chen, G.; Springholz, G.; Matei, D.

    2009-09-15

    Si and Ge growth on the stripe patterned Si (001) substrates is studied using scanning tunneling microscopy. During Si buffer growth, the stripe morphology rapidly evolves from multifaceted ''U'' to ''V''-shaped forms. This involves successive transitions between different low energy (11n) side facets, where n continuously decreases from n=3 to 20. Ge growth on such stripes induces the formation of a pronounced side wall ripple structure when the Ge thickness exceeds three monolayers. This ripple structure consists of alternating (105) microfacets oriented perpendicularly to the stripes. Depending of the side wall geometry, Ge nanoislands subsequently nucleate either on the side walls or at the bottom of grooves. The latter only occurs for ''V''-shaped stripes, where the side wall ripples extend all the way from the top to the bottom of the grooves, allowing efficient downward mass transport. For multifaceted ''U'' stripes, the side wall ripples are interrupted by steeper side wall segments such that mounds and subsequently, pyramids and domes grow on the side walls instead of at the bottom of the grooves. The island shapes strongly depend on their position on the pattern topography, which also affects the critical coverage for island nucleation as well as for the transition from pyramids to domes. The mechanisms for nucleation at different positions are clarified by detailed analysis and the role of kinetic as well as energetic factors identified.

  11. Molecular and Morphological Tools to Distinguish Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, 1838 (Curculionidae: Dryophthorinae): A New Weevil Pest of the Endangered Century Plant, Agave eggersiana from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Treesearch

    M. Lourdes Chamorro; Joshua Persson; Christian W. Torres-Santana; Jeff Keularts; Sonja J. Scheffer; Matthew L. Lewis

    2016-01-01

    The agave snout weevil (AGW) or sisal weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal is here reported for the first time in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) where it threatens Agave eggersiana Trel., a USVI endemic and endangered century-plant. We provide molecular, morphological, and behavioral characters to successfully distinguish the two known Scyphophorus...

  12. Molecular and morphological characterization of a Xiphinema chambersi population from live oak trees in Jekyll Island, Georgia, with a redescription of the species and comments on its morphometric variations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A population of Xiphinema chambersi from the root zone around live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) trees on Jekyll Island, Georgia, USA is described using both morphological and molecular tools and compared with descriptions of type specimens. Initially, because of a few morphological differences thi...

  13. Molecular biology, phytochemistry and bioactivity of three endemic Aloe species from Mauritius and Réunion Islands.

    PubMed

    Ranghoo-Sanmukhiya, Mala; Govinden-Soulange, Joyce; Lavergne, Christophe; Khoyratty, Shannoo; Da Silva, Denis; Frederich, Michel; Kodja, Hippolyte

    2010-01-01

    Aloe tormentorii, A. purpurea and A. macra are used as multipurpose folk medicines in Réunion and Mauritius Islands and are mistaken for the introduced Aloe vera. To compare the phytochemical, antimicrobial and DNA profiles of Aloe endemic to Mauritius and Réunion with the profiles of A. vera. Methodology - Leaf extracts of these Aloe species were analysed using standard phytochemical screening techniques, TLC and by HPLC. These extracts were also assayed for antimicrobial activity using microdilution techniques. Genetic diversity was studied using RAPD markers. Phytochemical and antimicrobial assays and RAPD analysis showed that Mascarene Aloe species were very different from A. vera. This study is the first report highlighting the differences between Aloe sp.p from Mascarene and Aloe vera at the metabolic and genomic level. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Biological and serological variability, evolution and molecular epidemiology of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Potyvirus) with special reference to Caribbean islands.

    PubMed

    Desbiez, C; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Lecoq, H

    2002-04-23

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Potyvirus) emerged as an important pathogen of cucurbits within the last 20 years. Its origins and mechanisms for evolution and worldwide spread represent important questions to understand plant virus emergence. Sequence analysis on a 250 nucleotide fragment including the N-terminal part of the coat protein coding region, revealed one major group of strains, and some highly divergent isolates from distinct origins. Within the major group, three subsets of strains were defined without correlation with geographic origin, year of collection or biological properties. ZYMV was first observed in Martinique and Guadeloupe in 1992 and 1994, respectively. We studied the evolution of ZYMV variability on both islands in the few years following the putative virus introduction. In Martinique, molecular divergence remained low even after 6 years, suggesting a lack of new introductions. Interactions between strains resulted in a stability of the high biological variability, while the serological diversity decreased and molecular divergence remained low. In Guadeloupe, as in Martinique in 1993, serological variability was high shortly after virus introduction. While the first introduction in Guadeloupe was independent from Martinique, the 'Martinique' type was detected in 1998, suggesting further introductions, maybe through viruliferous aphids or imported plant material.

  15. Molecular characterization of canine parvovirus and canine enteric coronavirus in diarrheic dogs on the island of St. Kitts: First report from the Caribbean region.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Ryan; Nair, Rajeev; Peda, Andrea; Aung, Meiji Soe; Ashwinie, G S; Gallagher, Christa A; Malik, Yashpal S; Kobayashi, Nobumichi; Ghosh, Souvik

    2017-08-15

    Although canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine enteric coronavirus (CCoV) are important enteric pathogens of dogs and have been studied extensively in different parts of the world, there are no reports on these viruses from the Caribbean region. During 2015-2016, a total of 104 diarrheic fecal samples were collected from puppies and adult dogs, with or without hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, on the Caribbean island of St. Kitts (KNA). By PCR, 25 (24%, n=104) samples tested positive for CPV. Based on analysis of the complete deduced VP2 amino acid sequences, 20 of the KNA CPV strains were assigned to new CPV-2a (also designated as CPV-2a-297A). On the other hand, the VP2 genes of the remaining 5 strains were partially characterized, or could not be sequenced. New CPV-2a was the predominant CPV variant in St. Kitts, contrasting the molecular epidemiology of CPV variants reported in most studies from nearby North and South American countries. By RT-PCR, CCoVs were detected in 5 samples (4.8%, n=104). Based on analysis of partial M-protein gene, the KNA CCoV strains were assigned to CCoV-I genotype, and were closely related to CCoV-I strains from Brazil. To our knowledge, this is the first report on detection and genetic diversity of CPV and CCoV in dogs from the Caribbean region, and underscores the importance of similar studies in the other Caribbean islands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular epidemiological survey and genetic analysis of vector-borne infections of cattle in Luzon Island, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Mingala, Claro N; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Villanueva, Marvin; Pilapil, Flor Marie Immanuelle R; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-09-15

    In the Philippines, vector-borne disease is one of the important problems in the livestock industry. To elucidate the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in cattle on Luzon Island, the Philippines, the prevalence of five protozoan agents was assessed by polymerase chain reaction. Out of the 339 samples, 324 (95.5%), 154 (45.4%), 209 (61.6%), 140 (41.3%), and 2 (0.6%) were positive for Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, Theileria spp., and Trypanosoma evansi infections, respectively. Mixed infections were detected in 290 (85.5%) samples, of which 115 (33.9%) had two pathogens, 144 (42.5%) had three pathogens, and 31 (9.1%) had four kinds of pathogens. 16S rRNA gene was 100% identical in A. marginale compared with the same lineage across the world. B. bovis RAP-1 and B. bigemina AMA-1 genes were identical with 92.27%-100% and 97.07%-100% sequences, respectively, in the database (Asian isolates). MPSP genes of Theileria spp. were 83.51%-100% identical with the one another. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they belong to the groups of T. sergenti and T. buffeli. Positive rates of the tick-borne pathogens were extremely high in this area. These findings provide vital information that can be used for the planning and execution of effective control measures for vector-borne diseases in the Philippine cattle industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular analysis of fungal diversity associated with three bryophyte species in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Xiang, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Zhao, Li-Xun; Yu, Li-Yan

    2013-09-01

    The fungal communities associated with three bryophytes species (the liverwort Barbilophozia hatcheri, the mosses Chorisodontium aciphyllum and Sanionia uncinata) in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica, were studied using clone library analysis. Fungal communities showed low diversity; the 680 clones belonged to 93 OTUs. Of these, 78 belonged to the phylum Ascomycota, 13 to the phylum Basidiomycota, 1 to the phylum Zygomycota, and 1 to an unknown phylum. Among the OTUs, the most common orders in the Ascomycota were Helotiales (42 OTUs) and Chaetothyriales (14 OTUs) and the most common orders in the Basidiomycota were Sebacinales (3 OTUs) and Platygloeales (3 OTUs). Most OTUs clustered within clades that contained phylotypes identified from samples in Antarctic or Arctic ecosystems or from bryophytes in other ecosystems. In addition, we found that host-related factor may shape the fungal communities associated with bryophytes in this region. This is the first systematic study of the fungal community in Antarctic bryophytes to be performed using culture-independent method and the results may improve understanding of the endophytic fungal evolution and ecology in the Antarctic ecosystem.

  18. Molecular diversity, geographic distribution and host range of monocot-infecting mastreviruses in Africa and surrounding islands.

    PubMed

    Kraberger, Simona; Saumtally, Salem; Pande, Daniel; Khoodoo, Michel H R; Dhayan, Sonalall; Dookun-Saumtally, Asha; Shepherd, Dionne N; Hartnady, Penelope; Atkinson, Richard; Lakay, Francisco M; Hanson, Britt; Redhi, Devasha; Monjane, Adérito L; Windram, Oliver P; Walters, Matthew; Oluwafemi, Sunday; Michel-Lett, Jean; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind

    2017-06-15

    Maize streak virus (MSV), an important pathogen of maize in Africa, is the most extensively studied member of the Mastrevirus genus in the family Geminiviridae. Comparatively little is known about other monocot-infecting African mastreviruses, most of which infect uncultivated grasses. Here we determine the complete sequences of 134 full African mastrevirus genomes from predominantly uncultivated Poaceae species. Based on established taxonomic guidelines for the genus Mastrevirus, these genomes could be classified as belonging to the species Maize streak virus, Eragrostis minor streak virus, Maize streak Reunion virus, Panicum streak virus, Sugarcane streak Reunion virus and Sugarcane streak virus. Together with all other publicly available African monocot-infecting mastreviruses, the 134 new isolates extend the known geographical distributions of many of these species, including MSV which we found infecting Digitaria sp. on the island of Grand Canaria: the first definitive discovery of any African monocot-infecting mastreviruses north-west of the Saharan desert. These new isolates also extend the known host ranges of both African mastrevirus species and the strains within these. Most notable was the discovery of MSV-C isolates infecting maize which suggests that this MSV strain, which had previously only ever been found infecting uncultivated species, may be in the process of becoming adapted to this important staple crop. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Potentially Pathogenic Free-living Amoebae from Water Sources in Kish Island, Southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Niyyati, Maryam; Lasgerdi, Zohreh; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Amoebic keratitis, a sight-threatening corneal infection, mainly occurs in contact lens wearers who wash their eyes with tap water. The present research was conducted to identify the occurrence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) in tap water sources on Kish Island, a tourist region in Iran. Amoebae were detected using a culture-enriched method and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/sequencing of the diagnostic fragment 3 region of the 18S rRNA gene of Acanthamoeba. In the case of other free-living amoebae species, PCR/sequencing analysis of the 18S rDNA was conducted. Results of this study showed the presence of Acanthamoeba belonging to T3, T4, T5, and T11 genotypes in tap water sources. Additionally, Vermamoebae vermiformis was detected in three water samples. This is the first report of the Acanthamoeba genotypes T3, T4, T5, and T11 and V. vermiformis species in tap water sources in a tourist region in Iran.

  20. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Potentially Pathogenic Free-living Amoebae from Water Sources in Kish Island, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Niyyati, Maryam; Lasgerdi, Zohreh; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Amoebic keratitis, a sight-threatening corneal infection, mainly occurs in contact lens wearers who wash their eyes with tap water. The present research was conducted to identify the occurrence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) in tap water sources on Kish Island, a tourist region in Iran. Amoebae were detected using a culture-enriched method and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/sequencing of the diagnostic fragment 3 region of the 18S rRNA gene of Acanthamoeba. In the case of other free-living amoebae species, PCR/sequencing analysis of the 18S rDNA was conducted. Results of this study showed the presence of Acanthamoeba belonging to T3, T4, T5, and T11 genotypes in tap water sources. Additionally, Vermamoebae vermiformis was detected in three water samples. This is the first report of the Acanthamoeba genotypes T3, T4, T5, and T11 and V. vermiformis species in tap water sources in a tourist region in Iran. PMID:25922581

  1. Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of pH1N1 2009 Influenza Virus in Reunion Island, South West Indian Ocean Region: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Turpin, Magali; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Dellagi, Koussay

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives Molecular epidemiology is a powerful tool to decipher the dynamics of viral transmission, quasispecies temporal evolution and origins. Little is known about the pH1N1 molecular dynamics in general population. A prospective study (CoPanFlu-RUN) was carried out in Reunion Island to characterize pH1N1 genetic variability and molecular evolution occurring in population during the pH1N1 Influenza pandemic in 2009. Methodology We directly amplified pH1N1 genomes from 28 different nasal swabs (26 individuals from 21 households). Fifteen strains were fully sequenced and 13 partially. This includes pairs of sequences from different members of 5 separate households; and two pairs from individuals, collected at different times. We assessed the molecular evolution of pH1N1 by genetic variability and phylogenetic analyses. Principal Findings We found that i) Reunion pH1N1 sequences stemmed from global “clade 7” but shaped two phylogenetic sub-clades; ii) D239E mutation was identified in the hemagglutinin protein of all Reunion sequences, a mutation which has been associated elsewhere with mild-, upper-respiratory tract pH1N1 infecting strains; iii) Date estimates from molecular phylogenies predicted clade emergence some time before the first detection of pH1N1 by the epidemiological surveillance system; iv) Phylogenetic relatedness was observed between Reunion pH1N1 viruses and those from other countries in South-western Indian Ocean area; v) Quasispecies populations were observed within households and individuals of the cohort-study. Conclusions Surveillance and/or prevention systems presently based on Influenza virus sequence variation should take into account that the majority of studies of pH1N1 Influenza generate genetic data for the HA/NA viral segments obtained from hospitalized-patients, which is potentially non-representative of the overall viral diversity within whole populations. Our observations highlight the importance of collecting

  2. First report of the epiphytic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus caribaeus in the temperate waters off Jeju Island, Korea: morphology and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Lim, An Suk; Jang, Se Hyeon; Yih, Won Ho; Kang, Nam Seon; Lee, Sung Yeon; Yoo, Yeong Du; Kim, Hyung Seop

    2012-01-01

    Gambierdiscus spp. are epiphytic, benthic dinoflagellates. Some species have been shown to be toxic and cause ciguatera fish poisoning. We report, for the first time, the occurrence of Gambierdiscus caribaeus isolated from the waters off Jeju Island in Korea. Its morphology was similar to that of the original Belize strains of G. caribaeus. Gambierdiscus caribaeus has been reported in the tropical and subtropical waters of the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, and Floridian coast. Our report extends its range to the North Pacific Ocean. The plates of the Korean strain were arranged in a Kofoidian series of Po, 3', 7'', 6c, 6s, 5''', 1p, and 2'''', morphologically closer to other strains of G. caribaeus than to G. carpenteri. When properly aligned, its small subunit (SSU) rDNA was 0.5% different from those of Gambierdiscus sp. C-1, a strain that was isolated from the waters off eastern Japan, but was 2.4-4.0% different from those of the NOAA strains of G. caribaeus and 3.1-3.4% different from those of the NOAA strains of G. carpenteri. Additionally, the D1-D3 large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequence of the Korean strain of G. caribaeus was 4.7-5.3% different from those of the NOAA strains of G. caribaeus and 7.1-7.5% different from those of all reported G. carpenteri strains, including the NOAA strains. In phylogenetic trees based on SSU and LSU rDNA sequences, our Korean strain was basal to the clade consisting of the NOAA strains of G. caribaeus, which in turn was sister clade to all reported G. carpenteri strains.

  3. Aleutian Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Remote, rugged and extraordinarily beautiful, Alaska’s Aleutian Islands are best known for wildlife reserves, military bases, fishing, furs and fog. The sprawling volcanic archipelago was brought into the spotlight by the Russian-supported expedition of Alexey Chirikov and Vitus Bering in 1741, and soon became controlled by the Russian-American Fur Company. In 1867 the United States purchased Alaska, including the Aleutian Islands, from Russia. By 1900 the port in Unalaska was well established as a shipping port for Alaska gold. The archipelago sweeps about 1,200 miles (1,800 km) from the tip of the Alaskan Peninsula to Attu, the most westward island. Four major island groups hold 14 large islands, about 55 smaller islands, and a large number of islets, adding up to roughly 150 islands/islets in total. This chain separates the Bering Sea (north) from the Pacific Ocean (south) and the islands are connected by the Marine Highway Ferry – at least as far as Unalaska. For the most remote islands, such as birding paradise of Attu, the western-most Aleutian Island, travel becomes trickier and relies primarily on custom charter. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flew over the region and captured this spectacular true-color image of the eastern Aleutian Islands on May 15, 2014. In this image, the Alaskan Peninsula protrudes from the mainland and sweeps to the southwest. The first set of islands are called the Fox Island group. Unalaska Island is part of this group and can be identified, with some imagination, as an island formed in the shape of a flying cherub, with two arms (peninsulas) outstretched towards the northeast, seemingly reaching for the round “balls” of Akutan and Akun Islands. The smallest islands in the west of the image belong to the group known as the Islands of Four Mountains. The Aleutians continue far to the west of this image. Fog surrounds the Aleutians, stretching from just off the southwestern Alaska mainland to the

  4. Plant Species Monitoring in the Canary Islands Using WORLDVIEW-2 Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Casillas, L.; Micand, F.; Somers, B.; Brito, P.; Arbelo, M.

    2012-07-01

    The physical and climatic features of a relatively small volcanic island such as Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) cause increased difficulties to vegetation monitoring by means of moderate resolution satellite data. The use of multispectral very high resolution WorldView-2 (WV2) imagery provides promising perspectives for vegetation mapping in such a heterogeneous landscape. In order to assess its potential to estimate the cover fraction of dominant plant species in endemic Macaronesian laurel forests and heathlands, a hierarchical Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) was performed within a study area where different patches from mature forest, to degraded forest and pine plantations can be found. First, a selection of pure pixels in the WV2 image for fern, Morella faya Ait., Laurus novocanariensis and the introduced species Pinus radiata were used to build a spectral library for each species. Last species Erica arborea L. was characterized in field by means of an ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer, due to the rarity of pure pixels in this case, and to the simultaneous presence of two spectral subclasses depending on its flowering onset; WV2-adjusted spectral signatures from field reflectances were estimated by empirical calibration. Preliminary results showed a good separation of degraded from mature native forests and from plantations, although pine cover fraction is, in general, underestimated. The second MESMA cycle was useful to tell between most similar species, like in case of M. faya and L. novocanariensis.

  5. Mantacaprella macaronensis, a new genus and species of Caprellidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from Canary Islands and Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Maite, Vázquez-Luis; José M, Guerra-García; Susana, Carvalho; Lydia Png-Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Mantacaprella macaronensis new genus, new species, is described based on specimens collected from Canary Islands and Cape Verde. Mantacaprella is close to the genera Parambus, Pseudolirius, Propodalirius and Paracaprella, but can be distinguished by the combination of the following characteristics: pereopods 3, 4 and 5 two-articulate; pereopods 6 and 7 six-articulate; mandibular molar present and palp absent; male abdomen with a pair of well-developed appendages. The new species has been found living in Cymodocea nodosa meadows and Caulerpa prolifera beds from 8.8 to 14.6 m depth in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands), and in natural rocky and artificial habitats (shipwrecks) at 25 m in Sal Island (Cape Verde). Even though the new species is one of the dominant amphipods inhabiting meadows of Cymodocea nodosa in Gran Canaria and in Cape Verde, it had not been described so far. This reflects the lack of knowledge on Macaronesian invertebrates, such as amphipods, and the need of further taxonomical studies to better characterise the whole biodiversity of this region and to design adequate programmes of management and conservation.

  6. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  8. Molecular phylogeny and ultrastructure of the lichen microalga Asterochloris mediterranea sp. nov. from Mediterranean and Canary Islands ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Moya, Patricia; Škaloud, Pavel; Chiva, Salvador; García-Breijo, Francisco J; Reig-Armiñana, José; Vančurová, Lucie; Barreno, Eva

    2015-06-01

    The microalgae of the genus Asterochloris are the preferential phycobionts in Cladonia, Lepraria and Stereocaulon lichens. Recent studies have highlighted the hidden diversity of the genus, even though phycobionts hosting species of the genus Cladonia in Mediterranean and Canarian ecosystems have been poorly explored. Phylogenetic analyses were made by concatenation of the sequences obtained with a plastid - LSU rDNA - and two nuclear - internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA and actin - molecular markers of the phycobionts living in several populations of the Cladonia convoluta-Cladonia foliacea complex, Cladonia rangiformis and Cladonia cervicornis s. str. widely distributed in these areas in a great variety of substrata and habitats. A new strongly supported clade was obtained in relation to the previously published Asterochloris phylogenies. Minimum genetic variation was detected between our haplotypes and other sequences available in the GenBank database. The correct identification of the fungal partners was corroborated by the ITS rDNA barcode. In this study we provide a detailed characterization comprising chloroplast morphology, and ultrastructural and phylogenetic analyses of a novel phycobiont species, here described as Asterochloris mediterranea sp. nov. Barreno, Chiva, Moya et Škaloud. A cryopreserved holotype specimen has been deposited in the Culture Collection of Algae of Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic (CAUP) as CAUP H 1015. We suggest the use of a combination of several nuclear and plastid molecular markers, as well as ultrastructural (transmission electron and confocal microscopy) techniques, both in culture and in the symbiotic state, to improve novel species delimitation of phycobionts in lichens.

  9. A range extension of a deep-sea barnacle of the genus Aurivillialepas (Cirripedia, Scalpellomorpha), a Macaronesian and amphitropical refugial genus having Mesozoic affinities.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Gianna; Geronimo, Raffaella Di; Newman, William A

    2015-06-22

    The scalpellomorph barnacle, Aurivillialepas calycula (Aurivillius, 1898), previously known only from Macaronesia, is reported from Banco de Galicia, off the NW corner of the Iberian Peninsula. One of the two specimens was attached to the scleractinian coral, Madrepora oculata Linnaeus, 1758. Since such pedunculate barnacles are little known, the potentially hermaphroditic specimens and its complemental male are illustrated photographically, and a key to the genus Aurivillialepas is provided. The genus, together with Scillaelepas Seguenza, 1876 and Gruvelialepas Newman, 1980, has long been considered to constitute a natural group of scalpellomorphs within the Calanticidae, and therefore the Scillaelepadinae subfam. nov. is proposed to accommodate them. Biogeographical aspects of these deep-sea barnacles support the hypothesis that not only the islands but the banks and guyots of Macaronesia constitute refugia for ancient as well as more recent forms, some of which may stem back to the late Mesozoic.

  10. Temporal, but not spatial, changes in expression patterns of petal identity genes are associated with loss of papillate conical cells and the shift to bird pollination in Macaronesian Lotus (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Ojeda, D I; Jaén-Molina, R; Santos-Guerra, A; Caujape-Castells, J; Cronk, Q

    2017-01-30

    In the generally bee-pollinated genus Lotus a group of four species have evolved bird-pollinated flowers. The floral changes in these species include altered petal orientation, shape and texture. In Lotus these characters are associated with dorsiventral petal identity, suggesting that shifts in the expression of dorsal identity genes may be involved in the evolution of bird pollination. Of particular interest is Lotus japonicus CYCLOIDEA 2 (LjCYC2), known to determine the presence of papillate conical cells on the dorsal petal in L. japonicus. Bird-pollinated species are unusual in not having papillate conical cells on the dorsal petal. Using RT-PCR at various stages of flower development, we determined the timing of expression in all petal types for the three putative petal identity genes (CYC-like genes) in different species with contrasting floral morphology and pollination syndromes. In bird-pollinated species the dorsal identity gene, LjCYC2, is not expressed at the floral stage when papillate conical cells are normally differentiating in bee-pollinated species. In contrast, in bee-pollinated species, LjCYC2 is expressed during conical cell development. Changes in the timing of expression of the above two genes are associated with modifications in petal growth and lateralisation of the dorsal and ventral petals in the bird-pollinated species. This study indicates that changes in the timing, rather than spatial distribution, of expression likely contribute to the modifications of petal micromorphology and petal size during the transition from bee to bird pollination in Macaronesian Lotus species.

  11. A serological and molecular study of Leishmania infantum infection in cats from the Island of Ibiza (Spain).

    PubMed

    Sherry, Kate; Miró, Guadalupe; Trotta, Michele; Miranda, Carmen; Montoya, Ana; Espinosa, Carmen; Ribas, Fernando; Furlanello, Tommaso; Solano-Gallego, Laia

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Leishmania infantum infection within a feline population by serologic and molecular methods and to identify associated risk factors. One hundred five cats living outdoors were studied. Sera were tested for IgG antibodies against L. infantum, Toxoplasma gondii, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and for the detection of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) p27 antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). L. infantum real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA extracted from blood. L. infantum and T. gondii seroprevalence rates were 13.2% and 55.2%, respectively. The prevalence of L. infantum by PCR was 8.7%. The total rate of L. infantum infection derived from seroreactivity and/or positive PCR was 15.4%. Serology and PCR results were positively associated, and moderate agreement (kappa = 0.489) was found between Leishmania ELISA and PCR. No statistical association was found between positive Leishmania PCR results and gender, clinical status, or T. gondii seropositivity. Six of the 105 cats (5.7%) displayed clinical signs compatible with feline cutaneous leishmaniosis, and 4 out of these 6 cats (66.7%) were found to have Leishmania infection by means of serology and/or PCR. Leishmania seropositivity was associated with clinical signs of feline cutaneous leishmaniosis (p = 0.029). The prevalence of FeLV p27 antigen was 16.2% (17/105) and of FIV antibody was 20.9% (22/105), with coinfection found in 9.5% (10/105) of the cats. Leishmania ELISA seroreactivity and positive PCR results were statistically associated with FeLV infection and with coinfection of both retroviruses but not with a positive FIV status. The high seroprevalence and molecular rates of Leishmania infection observed indicate that cats are frequently infected with L. infantum, and the association with FeLV suggests a potential role for this retrovirus in feline Leishmania infection in endemic areas.

  12. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  13. Two new species of Dracoderes (Kinorhyncha: Dracoderidae) from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, with a molecular phylogeny of the genus.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-06-30

    Two new species, Dracoderes snufkini sp. nov. and Dracoderes toyoshioae sp. nov., are described from Okinawa, southern Japan. Diagnostic characters of D. snufkini include: lateroventral tubules on segments 2 and 5; a thick, plump middorsal spine on segments 2 and 9; thick plump paradorsal spines on segments 3-8, alternately laterally displaced; and a ventral primary pectinate fringe on segment 1, with long, wide conspicuous tips. Diagnostic characters of Dracoderes toyoshioae include: a middorsal subcuticular structure on segment 1; paradorsal subcuticular structures on segments 2-9, alternately laterally displaced; paradorsal acicular spines arising from subcuticular structures, at least on segment 5; ventrolateral acicular spines on segment 1; lateral accessory tubules on segment 2; lateral accessory subcuticular structures on segments 2-7; lateroventral tubules on segment 5; and lateroventral subcuticular structures on segments 2-10. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and mitochondrial COI sequences indicate that D. abei and D. nidhug are more closely related to one another than either is to D. snufkini or D. toyoshioae.

  14. Outbreak of Norwalk virus in a Caribbean island resort: application of molecular diagnostics to ascertain the vehicle of infection.

    PubMed

    Brown, C M; Cann, J W; Simons, G; Fankhauser, R L; Thomas, W; Parashar, U D; Lewis, M J

    2001-06-01

    In 1998, an outbreak of gastroenteritis affected at least 448 persons including 122 staff at a resort hotel in Bermuda. A survey among staff indicated that gastroenteritis was associated with eating or drinking at the hotel (OR = 60, 95% CI = 2.4-15.1). Multiple specimens of drinking water had elevated faecal coliform levels and Escherichia coli present, suggestive of faecal contamination. Stools from 18 of the 19 persons with gastroenteritis that were tested were positive for genogroup-II Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs). RT-PCR analysis of a 31 specimen of water produced a genogroup-II NLV genome with a sequence identical to that of NLVs in the stools of three ill persons. This outbreak shows the value of new molecular diagnostics to link illness with a contaminated source through the use of sequence analysis. The risk of outbreaks such as these could be reduced in tourism dependent regions like Bermuda and the Caribbean by regular evaluation of data from the inspection and monitoring of drinking water supplies and waste water systems, by ensuring the chlorination of supplemental drinking water supplies and by establishing food-safety initiatives.

  15. Outbreak of Norwalk virus in a Caribbean island resort: application of molecular diagnostics to ascertain the vehicle of infection.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C. M.; Cann, J. W.; Simons, G.; Fankhauser, R. L.; Thomas, W.; Parashar, U. D.; Lewis, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, an outbreak of gastroenteritis affected at least 448 persons including 122 staff at a resort hotel in Bermuda. A survey among staff indicated that gastroenteritis was associated with eating or drinking at the hotel (OR = 60, 95% CI = 2.4-15.1). Multiple specimens of drinking water had elevated faecal coliform levels and Escherichia coli present, suggestive of faecal contamination. Stools from 18 of the 19 persons with gastroenteritis that were tested were positive for genogroup-II Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs). RT-PCR analysis of a 31 specimen of water produced a genogroup-II NLV genome with a sequence identical to that of NLVs in the stools of three ill persons. This outbreak shows the value of new molecular diagnostics to link illness with a contaminated source through the use of sequence analysis. The risk of outbreaks such as these could be reduced in tourism dependent regions like Bermuda and the Caribbean by regular evaluation of data from the inspection and monitoring of drinking water supplies and waste water systems, by ensuring the chlorination of supplemental drinking water supplies and by establishing food-safety initiatives. PMID:11467799

  16. Tracking the Correlation Between CpG Island Methylator Phenotype and Other Molecular Features and Clinicopathological Features in Human Colorectal Cancers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Liang; Abe, Masanobu; Ji, Jiafu; Zhu, Wei-Guo; Yu, Duonan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The controversy of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancers (CRCs) persists, despite many studies that have been conducted on its correlation with molecular and clinicopathological features. To drive a more precise estimate of the strength of this postulated relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods: A comprehensive search for studies reporting molecular and clinicopathological features of CRCs stratified by CIMP was performed within the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. CIMP was defined by either one of the three panels of gene-specific CIMP markers (Weisenberger panel, classic panel, or a mixture panel of the previous two) or the genome-wide DNA methylation profile. The associations of CIMP with outcome parameters were estimated using odds ratio (OR) or weighted mean difference (WMD) or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for each study using a fixed effects or random effects model. Results: A total of 29 studies involving 9,393 CRC patients were included for analysis. We observed more BRAF mutations (OR 34.87; 95% CI, 22.49–54.06) and microsatellite instability (MSI) (OR 12.85 95% CI, 8.84–18.68) in CIMP-positive vs. -negative CRCs, whereas KRAS mutations were less frequent (OR 0.47; 95% CI, 0.30–0.75). Subgroup analysis showed that only the genome-wide methylation profile-defined CIMP subset encompassed all BRAF-mutated CRCs. As expected, CIMP-positive CRCs displayed significant associations with female (OR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.56–0.72), older age at diagnosis (WMD 2.77; 95% CI, 1.15–4.38), proximal location (OR 6.91; 95% CI, 5.17–9.23), mucinous histology (OR 3.81; 95% CI, 2.93–4.95), and poor differentiation (OR 4.22; 95% CI, 2.52–7.08). Although CIMP did not show a correlation with tumor stage (OR 1.10; 95% CI, 0.82–1.46), it was associated with shorter overall survival (HR 1.73; 95% CI, 1.27–2.37). Conclusions: The meta-analysis highlights that CIMP-positive CRCs take their own

  17. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  18. Belcher Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Belcher Islands - September 21st, 2001 Description: Like sweeping brushstrokes of pink and green, the Belcher Islands meander across the deep blue of Canada's Hudson Bay. The islands' only inhabitants live in the small town of Sanikiluaq, near the upper end of the middle island. Despite the green hues in this image, these rocky islands are too cold to sustain more than a smattering of low-growing vegetation. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 5 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  19. Stable carbon isotope ratios of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and glyoxal in marine aerosols from the western North Pacific: Long-term trends in Chichijima Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.

    2012-12-01

    Dicarboxylic acids such as oxalic, malonic and succinic acids are the most abundant water-soluble organic compound class in aerosols. To better understand the source and photochemical processes of water-soluble organic aerosols in the remote marine aerosols, we measured stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds using a GC/IR/MS technique. The aerosol samples were collected in 2001-2011 at a remote island, Chichijima (27°04'E; 142°13'N) in the western North Pacific. Here we present decadal variations of the isotopic composition of dicarboxylic acids (C2-C9), ketoacids (C2-C8) and glyoxal in summertime aerosols (June, July and August). The molecular distributions of diacids were characterized by the predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Oxalic acid showed higher δ13C values than other species ranging from -18‰ to -2‰ with no clear decadal trend. In contrast, C3 and C4 diacids showed δ13C values of -24 to -5‰ and -40 to -12‰ with a decadal decline. Glyoxal (-60 to -10‰) and ωC7 acid (-34 to -12‰) also showed lower values toward 2011. However, azelaic acid (C9) (-32 to -24‰) stayed relatively constant throughout the observation period. We will discuss the detailed isotopic compositions of these organic species in terms of the photochemical aging and processing in the western North Pacific and the changes in the sources and source regions.

  20. Profile of the HIV Epidemic in Cape Verde: Molecular Epidemiology and Drug Resistance Mutations among HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infected Patients from Distinct Islands of the Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    de Pina-Araujo, Isabel Inês M.; Guimarães, Monick L.; Bello, Gonzalo; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Morgado, Mariza G.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been detected in Cape Verde since 1987, but little is known regarding the genetic diversity of these viruses in this archipelago, located near the West African coast. In this study, we characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 and HIV-2 and described the occurrence of drug resistance mutations (DRM) among antiretroviral therapy naïve (ARTn) patients and patients under treatment (ARTexp) from different Cape Verde islands. Blood samples, socio-demographic and clinical-laboratory data were obtained from 221 HIV-positive individuals during 2010–2011. Phylogenetic and bootscan analyses of the pol region (1300 bp) were performed for viral subtyping. HIV-1 and HIV-2 DRM were evaluated for ARTn and ARTexp patients using the Stanford HIV Database and HIV-GRADE e.V. Algorithm Homepage, respectively. Among the 221 patients (169 [76.5%] HIV-1, 43 [19.5%] HIV-2 and 9 [4.1%] HIV-1/HIV-2 co-infections), 67% were female. The median ages were 34 (IQR = 1–75) and 47 (IQR = 12–84) for HIV-1 and HIV-2, respectively. HIV-1 infections were due to subtypes G (36.6%), CRF02_AG (30.6%), F1 (9.7%), URFs (10.4%), B (5.2%), CRF05_DF (3.0%), C (2.2%), CRF06_cpx (0.7%), CRF25_cpx (0.7%) and CRF49_cpx (0.7%), whereas all HIV-2 infections belonged to group A. Transmitted DRM (TDRM) was observed in 3.4% (2/58) of ARTn HIV-1-infected patients (1.7% NRTI, 1.7% NNRTI), but not among those with HIV-2. Among ARTexp patients, DRM was observed in 47.8% (33/69) of HIV-1 (37.7% NRTI, 37.7% NNRTI, 7.4% PI, 33.3% for two classes) and 17.6% (3/17) of HIV-2-infections (17.6% NRTI, 11.8% PI, 11.8% both). This study indicates that Cape Verde has a complex and unique HIV-1 molecular epidemiological scenario dominated by HIV-1 subtypes G, CRF02_AG and F1 and HIV-2 subtype A. The occurrence of TDRM and the relatively high level of DRM among treated patients are of concern. Continuous monitoring of patients on ART, including genotyping, are public policies to be

  1. Profile of the HIV epidemic in Cape Verde: molecular epidemiology and drug resistance mutations among HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected patients from distinct islands of the archipelago.

    PubMed

    de Pina-Araujo, Isabel Inês M; Guimarães, Monick L; Bello, Gonzalo; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Morgado, Mariza G

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been detected in Cape Verde since 1987, but little is known regarding the genetic diversity of these viruses in this archipelago, located near the West African coast. In this study, we characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 and HIV-2 and described the occurrence of drug resistance mutations (DRM) among antiretroviral therapy naïve (ARTn) patients and patients under treatment (ARTexp) from different Cape Verde islands. Blood samples, socio-demographic and clinical-laboratory data were obtained from 221 HIV-positive individuals during 2010-2011. Phylogenetic and bootscan analyses of the pol region (1300 bp) were performed for viral subtyping. HIV-1 and HIV-2 DRM were evaluated for ARTn and ARTexp patients using the Stanford HIV Database and HIV-GRADE e.V. Algorithm Homepage, respectively. Among the 221 patients (169 [76.5%] HIV-1, 43 [19.5%] HIV-2 and 9 [4.1%] HIV-1/HIV-2 co-infections), 67% were female. The median ages were 34 (IQR = 1-75) and 47 (IQR = 12-84) for HIV-1 and HIV-2, respectively. HIV-1 infections were due to subtypes G (36.6%), CRF02_AG (30.6%), F1 (9.7%), URFs (10.4%), B (5.2%), CRF05_DF (3.0%), C (2.2%), CRF06_cpx (0.7%), CRF25_cpx (0.7%) and CRF49_cpx (0.7%), whereas all HIV-2 infections belonged to group A. Transmitted DRM (TDRM) was observed in 3.4% (2/58) of ARTn HIV-1-infected patients (1.7% NRTI, 1.7% NNRTI), but not among those with HIV-2. Among ARTexp patients, DRM was observed in 47.8% (33/69) of HIV-1 (37.7% NRTI, 37.7% NNRTI, 7.4% PI, 33.3% for two classes) and 17.6% (3/17) of HIV-2-infections (17.6% NRTI, 11.8% PI, 11.8% both). This study indicates that Cape Verde has a complex and unique HIV-1 molecular epidemiological scenario dominated by HIV-1 subtypes G, CRF02_AG and F1 and HIV-2 subtype A. The occurrence of TDRM and the relatively high level of DRM among treated patients are of concern. Continuous monitoring of patients on ART, including genotyping, are public policies to be implemented.

  2. Molecular genetic studies of natives on Easter Island: evidence of an early European and Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool.

    PubMed

    Lie, B A; Dupuy, B M; Spurkland, A; Fernández-Viña, M A; Hagelberg, E; Thorsby, E

    2007-01-01

    Most archaeological and linguistic evidence suggest a Polynesian origin of the population of Easter Island (Rapanui), and this view has been supported by the identification of Polynesian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms in prehistoric skeletal remains. However, some evidence of an early South American contact also exists (the sweet potato, bottle gourd etc.), but genetic studies have so far failed to show an early Amerindian contribution to the gene pool on Easter Island. To address this issue, we analyzed mtDNA and Y chromosome markers and performed high-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping of DNA harvested from previously collected sera of 48 reputedly nonadmixed native Easter Islanders. All individuals carried mtDNA types and HLA alleles previously found in Polynesia, and most men carried Y chromosome markers of Polynesian origin, providing further evidence of a Polynesian origin of the population of Easter Island. A few individuals carried HLA alleles and/or Y chromosome markers of European origin. More interestingly, some individuals carried the HLA alleles A*0212 and B*3905, which are of typical Amerindian origin. The genealogy of some of the individuals carrying these non-Polynesian HLA alleles and their haplotypic backgrounds suggest an introduction into Easter Island in the early 1800s, or earlier. Thus, there may have been an early European and Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool of Easter Island.

  3. Streamlined Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-15

    This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows a streamlined island in a broad channel in Chryse Planitia. The channel is part of the outflow region of Lobo Vallis, a northern branch of Kasei Valles.

  4. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...

  5. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  6. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogen Diversities in Ticks from Livestock and Reptiles along the Shores and Adjacent Islands of Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Omondi, David; Masiga, Daniel K; Fielding, Burtram C; Kariuki, Edward; Ajamma, Yvonne Ukamaka; Mwamuye, Micky M; Ouso, Daniel O; Villinger, Jandouwe

    2017-01-01

    Although diverse tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are endemic to East Africa, with recognized impact on human and livestock health, their diversity and specific interactions with tick and vertebrate host species remain poorly understood in the region. In particular, the role of reptiles in TBP epidemiology remains unknown, despite having been implicated with TBPs of livestock among exported tortoises and lizards. Understanding TBP ecologies, and the potential role of common reptiles, is critical for the development of targeted transmission control strategies for these neglected tropical disease agents. During the wet months (April-May; October-December) of 2012-2013, we surveyed TBP diversity among 4,126 ticks parasitizing livestock and reptiles at homesteads along the shores and islands of Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria in Kenya, regions endemic to diverse neglected tick-borne diseases. After morphological identification of 13 distinct Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma, and Hyalomma tick species, ticks were pooled (≤8 individuals) by species, host, sampling site, and collection date into 585 tick pools. By supplementing previously established molecular assays for TBP detection with high-resolution melting analysis of PCR products before sequencing, we identified high frequencies of potential disease agents of ehrlichiosis (12.48% Ehrlichia ruminantium, 9.06% Ehrlichia canis), anaplasmosis (6.32% Anaplasma ovis, 14.36% Anaplasma platys, and 3.08% Anaplasma bovis,), and rickettsiosis (6.15% Rickettsia africae, 2.22% Rickettsia aeschlimannii, 4.27% Rickettsia rhipicephali, and 4.95% Rickettsia spp.), as well as Paracoccus sp. and apicomplexan hemoparasites (0.51% Theileria sp., 2.56% Hepatozoon fitzsimonsi, and 1.37% Babesia caballi) among tick pools. Notably, we identified E. ruminantium in both Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus pools of ticks sampled from livestock in both study areas as well as in Amblyomma falsomarmoreum (66.7%) and Amblyomma nuttalli (100%) sampled from tortoises

  7. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogen Diversities in Ticks from Livestock and Reptiles along the Shores and Adjacent Islands of Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Omondi, David; Masiga, Daniel K.; Fielding, Burtram C.; Kariuki, Edward; Ajamma, Yvonne Ukamaka; Mwamuye, Micky M.; Ouso, Daniel O.; Villinger, Jandouwe

    2017-01-01

    Although diverse tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are endemic to East Africa, with recognized impact on human and livestock health, their diversity and specific interactions with tick and vertebrate host species remain poorly understood in the region. In particular, the role of reptiles in TBP epidemiology remains unknown, despite having been implicated with TBPs of livestock among exported tortoises and lizards. Understanding TBP ecologies, and the potential role of common reptiles, is critical for the development of targeted transmission control strategies for these neglected tropical disease agents. During the wet months (April–May; October–December) of 2012–2013, we surveyed TBP diversity among 4,126 ticks parasitizing livestock and reptiles at homesteads along the shores and islands of Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria in Kenya, regions endemic to diverse neglected tick-borne diseases. After morphological identification of 13 distinct Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma, and Hyalomma tick species, ticks were pooled (≤8 individuals) by species, host, sampling site, and collection date into 585 tick pools. By supplementing previously established molecular assays for TBP detection with high-resolution melting analysis of PCR products before sequencing, we identified high frequencies of potential disease agents of ehrlichiosis (12.48% Ehrlichia ruminantium, 9.06% Ehrlichia canis), anaplasmosis (6.32% Anaplasma ovis, 14.36% Anaplasma platys, and 3.08% Anaplasma bovis,), and rickettsiosis (6.15% Rickettsia africae, 2.22% Rickettsia aeschlimannii, 4.27% Rickettsia rhipicephali, and 4.95% Rickettsia spp.), as well as Paracoccus sp. and apicomplexan hemoparasites (0.51% Theileria sp., 2.56% Hepatozoon fitzsimonsi, and 1.37% Babesia caballi) among tick pools. Notably, we identified E. ruminantium in both Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus pools of ticks sampled from livestock in both study areas as well as in Amblyomma falsomarmoreum (66.7%) and Amblyomma nuttalli (100%) sampled from

  8. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-30

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede, and the eastern island Little Diomede are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite.

  9. Bahama Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-04-09

    STS006-45-097 (4-9 April 1983) --- This photograph was taken with a handheld 70mm camera aimed through the “ceiling” windows of the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Challenger during its five-day STS-6 mission. A beautiful photo shows the contrast between the islands, clouds, shallow water and deep water. Islands of the Bahamas seen are New Providence (upper left) and Eleuthera (right). Northeast Providence Channel is at the upper edge and Exuma Sound is at the lower left with the open Atlantic along the right edge. The wind, from the south, causes a long cloud to develop downwind from Eleuthera Point. Photo credit: NASA

  10. Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates Obtained from the Rikers Island Jail System from 2009 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Joshua; Lin, Ying; Kornblum, John; Herzig, Carolyn T. A.; Bystritsky, Rachel; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin

    2014-01-01

    Inmates of Rikers Island jail potentially introduce Staphylococcus aureus into New York State prisons upon transfer. In this study, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates (n = 452), collected from infected inmates (2009 to 2013), were characterized. spa type t008 was the predominant clone identified, accounting for 82.3% of the isolates, with no evidence of mupirocin or chlorhexidine resistance. PMID:24899033

  11. Shigellosis in Bay of Bengal Islands, India: clinical and seasonal patterns, surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility patterns, and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Shigella strains isolated during a 6-year period from 2006 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, D; Bhattacharya, H; Thamizhmani, R; Sayi, D S; Reesu, R; Anwesh, M; Kartick, C; Bharadwaj, A P; Singhania, M; Sugunan, A P; Roy, S

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to determine the clinical features and seasonal patterns associated with shigellosis, the antimicrobial resistance frequencies of the isolates obtained during the period 2006-2012 for 22 antibiotics, and the molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant strains isolated from endemic cases of shigellosis in the remote islands of India, with special reference to fluoroquinolone and third-generation cephalosporins resistance. During the period from January 2006 to December 2011, stool samples were obtained and processed to isolate Shigella spp. The isolates were evaluated with respect to their antibiotic resistance pattern and various multidrug resistance determinants, including resistance genes, quinolone resistance determinants, and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production. Morbidity for shigellosis was found to be 9.3 % among children in these islands. Cases of shigellosis occurred mainly during the rainy seasons and were found to be higher in the age group 2-5 years. A wide spectrum of resistance was observed among the Shigella strains, and more than 50 % of the isolates were multidrug-resistant. The development of multidrug-resistant strains was found to be associated with various drug-resistant genes, multiple mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR), and the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistant determinants and efflux pump mediators. This report represents the first presentation of the results of long-term surveillance and molecular characterization concerning antimicrobial resistances in clinical Shigella strains in these islands. Information gathered as part of the investigations will be instrumental in identifying emerging antimicrobial resistance, for developing treatment guidelines appropriate for that community, and to provide baseline data with which to compare outbreak strains in the future.

  12. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... Sea plate creates a series of island arc volcanoes and the Earth's deepest ocean trench. Anatahan had no known historical eruptions ... bomber, lies on the north side edge of the craters flat lands. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion ...

  13. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  14. Immigration history of amphidromous species on a Greater Antillean island

    Treesearch

    Benjamin D. Cook; Catherine M. Pringle; Jane M. Hughes

    2010-01-01

    Aim To use molecular data to test for dispersal structuring in the immigration history of an amphidromous community on an island. Location The Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. Methods Mitochondrial DNA sequences were obtained from 11 amphidromous species, including shrimps, fish and a gastropod, sampled from throughout the island. The timing of population expansion (TE...

  15. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  16. East African cassava mosaic-like viruses from Africa to Indian ocean islands: molecular diversity, evolutionary history and geographical dissemination of a bipartite begomovirus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food source for over 200 million sub-Saharan Africans. Unfortunately, its cultivation is severely hampered by cassava mosaic disease (CMD). Caused by a complex of bipartite cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMG) species (Family: Geminivirideae; Genus: Begomovirus) CMD has been widely described throughout Africa and it is apparent that CMG's are expanding their geographical distribution. Determining where and when CMG movements have occurred could help curtail its spread and reveal the ecological and anthropic factors associated with similar viral invasions. We applied Bayesian phylogeographic inference and recombination analyses to available and newly described CMG sequences to reconstruct a plausible history of CMG diversification and migration between Africa and South West Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands. Results The isolation and analysis of 114 DNA-A and 41 DNA-B sequences demonstrated the presence of three CMG species circulating in the Comoros and Seychelles archipelagos (East African cassava mosaic virus, EACMV; East African cassava mosaic Kenya virus, EACMKV; and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus, EACMCV). Phylogeographic analyses suggest that CMG’s presence on these SWIO islands is probably the result of at least four independent introduction events from mainland Africa occurring between 1988 and 2009. Amongst the islands of the Comoros archipelago, two major migration pathways were inferred: One from Grande Comore to Mohéli and the second from Mayotte to Anjouan. While only two recombination events characteristic of SWIO islands isolates were identified, numerous re-assortments events were detected between EACMV and EACMKV, which seem to almost freely interchange their genome components. Conclusions Rapid and extensive virus spread within the SWIO islands was demonstrated for three CMG complex species. Strong evolutionary or ecological interaction between CMG species may explain both their propensity

  17. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  18. Diversity hotspots of the laurel forest on Tenerife, Canary Islands: a phylogeographic study of Laurus and Ixanthus

    PubMed Central

    Betzin, Anja; Thiv, Mike; Koch, Marcus A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Macaronesian laurel forest is among the worldwide hotspots of threatened biodiversity. With increasing evidence that woodland composition on the Canary Islands changed dramatically during the last few thousand years, the aim of this study was to find evidence for substantial recent population dynamics of two representative species from laurel forest. Methods Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to evaluate fine-scaled genetic variation of the paradigmatic tree Laurus novocanariensis (Lauraceae) and a long-lived herbaceous gentian from core laurel forest, Ixanthus viscosus (Gentianaceae), on Tenerife. Bioclimatic variables were analysed to study the respective climate niches. A chloroplast DNA screening was performed to evaluate additional genetic variation. Key Results Genetic diversity of the laurel tree showed severe geographic partitioning. On Tenerife, fine-scaled Bayesian clustering of genetic variation revealed a western and an eastern gene pool, separated by a zone of high admixture and with a third major gene pool. Compared with genetic clusters found on the other Canary Islands, the East–West differentiation on Tenerife seems to be more recent than differentiation between islands. This is substantiated by the finding of extremly low levels of chloroplast DNA-based polymorphisms. Ixanthus showed no geographic structuring of genetic variation. Conclusions Genetic data from Tenerife indicate contemporary gene flow and dispersal on a micro/local scale rather than reflecting an old and relic woodland history. In particular for Laurus, it is shown that this species occupies a broad bioclimatic niche. This is not correlated with its respective distribution of genetic variation, therefore indicating its large potential for contemporary rapid and effective colonization. Ixanthus is more specialized to humid conditions and is mostly found in the natural Monteverde húmedo vegetation types, but even for this species indications

  19. Spatial Factors Play a Major Role as Determinants of Endemic Ground Beetle Beta Diversity of Madeira Island Laurisilva

    PubMed Central

    Boieiro, Mário; Carvalho, José C.; Cardoso, Pedro; Aguiar, Carlos A. S.; Rego, Carla; de Faria e Silva, Israel; Amorim, Isabel R.; Pereira, Fernando; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Serrano, Artur R. M.

    2013-01-01

    The development in recent years of new beta diversity analytical approaches highlighted valuable information on the different processes structuring ecological communities. A crucial development for the understanding of beta diversity patterns was also its differentiation in two components: species turnover and richness differences. In this study, we evaluate beta diversity patterns of ground beetles from 26 sites in Madeira Island distributed throughout Laurisilva – a relict forest restricted to the Macaronesian archipelagos. We assess how the two components of ground beetle beta diversity (βrepl – species turnover and βrich - species richness differences) relate with differences in climate, geography, landscape composition matrix, woody plant species richness and soil characteristics and the relative importance of the effects of these variables at different spatial scales. We sampled 1025 specimens from 31 species, most of which are endemic to Madeira Island. A spatially explicit analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of pure environmental, pure spatial and environmental spatially structured effects on variation in ground beetle species richness and composition. Variation partitioning showed that 31.9% of species turnover (βrepl) and 40.7% of species richness variation (βrich) could be explained by the environmental and spatial variables. However, different environmental variables controlled the two types of beta diversity: βrepl was influenced by climate, disturbance and soil organic matter content whilst βrich was controlled by altitude and slope. Furthermore, spatial variables, represented through Moran’s eigenvector maps, played a significant role in explaining both βrepl and βrich, suggesting that both dispersal ability and Madeira Island complex orography are crucial for the understanding of beta diversity patterns in this group of beetles. PMID:23724065

  20. Seroepidemiology, viral isolation, and molecular characterization of human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I from La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mahieux, R; Gessain, A; Truffert, A; Vitrac, D; Hubert, A; Dandelot, J; Montchamp-Moreau, C; Cnudde, F; Tekaia, F; De Thé, G

    1994-06-01

    Data indicate the presence in the Seychelles Islands of a high level of human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I (HTLV-I) endemicity as well as the presence of tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). We present here the results of an hospital survey performed since 1988 in La Réunion Island, located in the Indian Ocean southeast of the Seychelles archipelago, aimed at evaluating HTLV-I endemicity, detecting HTLV-I-associated diseases, and characterizing viral isolates. Seven individuals were found to have HTLV-I-specific antibodies in their sera. These include 3 of 257 patients from St. Pierre Hospital, 1 of them exhibiting a typical clinical feature of TSP/HAM (the first described case in this region), 1 blood donor of 3900, and 3 relatives. A further nine individuals exhibiting only "gag-encoded proteins" by Western blot (p19 and/or p24 bands) were found negative by polymerase chain reaction using LTR, pol, and tax HTLV-I specific primers. A long-term T cell line, designated Mel.J, exhibiting T cell activation markers (CD4+, CD25+, HLA-DR+), and producing HTLV-I antigens and viral particles, was established from one of the HTLV-I,-seropositive patients. The sequence of a 522-bp fragment corresponding to the carboxy terminus of gp46 and the majority of gp21 were determined for five HTLV-I-seropositive individuals, including the TSP/HAM patient. Alignment and phylogenetic comparison of these five nucleotide sequences with all the 53 other available HTLV-I env sequences demonstrated that the virus from La Réunion Island belongs to the group of the HTLV-I cosmopolitan subtype and is not related to the Melanesian HTLV-I variants.

  1. Molecular and morphological data reveal hybrid origin of wild Prunus yedoensis (Rosaceae) from Jeju Island, Korea: implications for the origin of the flowering cherry.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myong-Suk; Kim, Chan-Soo; Kim, Seon-Hee; Kim, Ted Oh; Heo, Kyoung-In; Jun, Jumin; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2014-11-01

    The subgenus Cerasus of the genus Prunus includes several popular ornamental flowering cherries. Of the hundreds of cultivars, P. ×yedoensis ('Somei-yoshino') is the most popular and familiar cultivar in Korea and Japan and is considered to be of hybrid origin. However, the hybrid origin of P. ×yedoensis and its relationship to wild P. yedoensis, naturally occurring on Jeju Island, Korea, are highly controversial. We extensively sampled wild P. yedoensis, cultivated P. ×yedoensis, and numerous individuals from other species belonging to subgenus Cerasus on Jeju Island. Samples from 71 accessions, representing 13 species and one cultivar (P. ×yedoensis), were sequenced for nrDNA ITS/ETS (952 characters) and seven noncoding cpDNA regions (5421 characters) and subjected to maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis. Additive polymorphisms in the ITS/ETS regions were confirmed by cloning amplicons from representative species. The nuclear (ITS/ETS and G3pdh) and cpDNA data, along with several morphological characteristics, provide the first convincing evidence for the hybrid origin of wild P. yedoensis. The maternal parent was determined to be P. spachiana f. ascendens, while the paternal parent was unresolved from the taxonomically complex P. serrulata/P. sargentii clade. The presence of two kinds of ribotypes was confirmed by cloning, and the possible origin of cultivated P. ×yedoensis from wild populations on Jeju Island was also suggested. Bidirectional and multiple hybridization events were responsible for the origin of wild P. yedoensis. Extensive gene flow was documented in this study, suggesting an important role of reticulate evolution in subgenus Cerasus. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  2. Molecular phylogenetics of the glass frog Hyalinobatrachium orientale (Anura: Centrolenidae): evidence for Pliocene connections between mainland Venezuela and the island of Tobago.

    PubMed

    Jowers, Michael J; Lehtinen, Richard M; Downie, Roger J; Georgiadis, Andrew P; Murphy, John C

    2015-08-01

    The presence of Hyalinobatrachium orientale in Tobago and in northeastern Venezuela is puzzling as this species is unknown from the island of Trinidad, an island often hypothesized to be a stepping-stone for the mainland fauna to colonize Tobago. A period of extended isolation on Tobago could result in the Hyalinobatrachium population becoming distinct from the mainland H. orientale. Here, we use 12S and 16S rDNA gene fragments from nine H. orientale specimens from Tobago and the mainland to assess their relationship and taxonomy, as well as the tempo and mode of speciation. The results suggest H. orientale from Venezuela and Tobago are monophyletic and the two populations diverged about 3 million years ago. This estimate corresponds with the drier climate and lower sea levels of the Pliocene glaciation periods. We hypothesize that lower sea levels resulted in land-bridge formations connecting the mainland and Tobago, with a corridor of habitat allowing H. orientale to colonize Tobago to the west of Trinidad.

  3. Descriptive analysis of the prevalence and the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium complex-infected pigs that were slaughtered on the main island of Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Hibiya, K; Kazumi, Y; Nishiuchi, Y; Sugawara, I; Miyagi, K; Oda, Y; Oda, E; Fujita, J

    2010-09-01

    Recent genetic studies have revealed that several epidemiological factors affect Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in pig populations. However, mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC infection among hog farms have not been clarified. In consideration of this situation, we cross-sectionally investigated the mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC on the island of Okinawa. Pigs slaughtered (n=706,763) and 331 hog farms on Okinawa were surveyed during the years 2002-2004. Two outbreaks of MAC infection were occurred in several farms during survey period. Bacteria were isolated from randomly selected pigs and genotype of isolates was determined by using genetic finger printing methods with the insertion sequence (IS) 1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Most isolates had large numbers of IS1245 copies, while strains with low copy numbers of IS1245 and isolates without IS1245 were seen in few farms. MACs strains were repeatedly isolated from pigs of the affected farms during the survey period. Those farms with an identical pig rearing systems showed synchronic changes in the prevalence of MAC infection. An industrial farm without an outbreak had an independent pig flow, but maintained distinct MAC strains. Multivariate analysis did not reveal independent factors for the prevalence of the MAC infection. These findings suggest that there were three clusters distinguished genetically in the main island of Okinawa, which were potentially spread by common pig flow. However, the outbreaks occurred because of unspecified conditions on each farm environment.

  4. Ogasawara Islands, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-12

    This image, acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft, is of the volcanic Ogasawara Islands. The islands were listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, in recognition of an outstanding example of ongoing evolutionary processes in oceanic island ecosystems.

  5. Age, origins and extinctions of the avifauna of Macaronesia: a synthesis of phylogenetic and fossil information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illera, Juan Carlos; Rando, Juan Carlos; Richardson, David S.; Emerson, Brent C.

    2012-09-01

    Understanding the age, origins and extinction of oceanic island biota has captivated the interest of evolutionary biologists since Darwin and Wallace. Because oceanic islands are discrete entities of small geographical size but with considerable habitat diversity, they provide ideal templates within which to study evolutionary processes. The peripheral North Atlantic islands, collectively referred to as Macaronesia, are considered a hot spot of biodiversity due to the fact that they contain a large proportion of endemic taxa (ca 25%). Recent molecular studies are providing insight into the patterns of colonization and radiation within the extant avifauna, while paleontological studies have described many extinct avian species, sometimes identifying the causes and chronology of extinction. The aim of this review is to develop an understanding of the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the macaronesian avifauna, combining information from phylogenetic and paleontological studies. We then compare patterns for Macaronesia with those of other oceanic archipelagos to evaluate to what extent patterns may be generalised across regions. Phylogenetic analyses have confirmed the close relationships between endemic macaronesian avifauna and the closest mainland areas (Europe and Africa), however, in contrast to other archipelagos of a similar age, we show that most extant birds appear to have colonized macaronesian archipelagos relatively recently, within the last four million years, despite some islands being approximately 30 million years old. Fossil records support the idea that higher species richness previously existed, with recent dating on bone collagen of selected extinct species suggesting that their extinction coincided with the arrival of aboriginal people ca 2500 years ago in the Canary Islands, or the arrival of Europeans across all the macaronesian islands in the 14th century. It is plausible that these human mediated extinctions may have selectively acted

  6. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  7. Molecular distribution, seasonal variation, chemical transformation and sources of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in atmospheric aerosols at remote marine Gosan site, Jeju Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Lee, M.

    2009-12-01

    : A homologous series of C2-C12 α, ω-dicarboxylic acids, ω-oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9), pyruvic acid and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) were detected in atmospheric aerosols collected between April 2003 and April 2004 from remote marine Gosan site (33°29‧ N, 126°16‧ E) located in Jeju Island, South Korea. They were determined using a GC-FID and GC/MS. Total diacid concentration ranged from 130 to 1911 ng m-3 (av. 642 ng m-3), whereas total oxoacid concentration ranged from 7 to 155 ng m-3 (av. 43 ng m-3), and pyruvic acid and α-dicarbonyls ranged from 0.5 to 15 ng m-3 (av. 5 ng m-3) and 2-108 ng m-3 (av. 17.3 ng m-3), respectively. Oxalic (C2) acid was the most abundant in all seasons followed by malonic (C3) or succinic (C4) acid, and phthalic (Ph) acid. The concentration of diacids decreased with an increase in carbon number except for azelaic (C9) acid, which was more abundant than suberic (C8) acid. Glyoxylic acid was predominant ω-oxoacid contributing to 92% of total ω-oxoacid. Total diacids, oxoacids and dicarbonyls showed maximum concentrations in spring and occasionally in winter, while minimum concentrations were observed in summer. Air mass trajectory analysis suggests that either spring or winter maxima can be explained by strong continental outflow associated with cold front passages, while summer minima are associated with warm southerly flows, which transport clean marine air from low latitudes to Jeju Island. The comparison between total diacid concentration level of this study and other study results of urban and remote sites of East Asia reveals that Gosan site is more heavily influenced by the continental outflow from China. The seasonal variation of malonic/succinic (C3/C4), malic/succinic (hC4/C4), fumaric/maleic (F/M), oxalic/pyruvic (C2/Py) and oxalic/Glyoxal (C2/Gly) ratios showed maxima in summer due to an enhanced photo-production and degradation of diacids and related compounds. Throughout all seasons C3/C4 ratio at Gosan site, located

  8. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  9. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  10. Incoherent Ag islands growth on Ni(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, J. B.; Braems, I.; Bellec, A.; Chacon, C.; Creuze, J.; Girard, Y.; Gueddani, S.; Lagoute, J.; Repain, V.; Rousset, S.

    2017-02-01

    Growth of two-dimensional superstructure and island morphologies of silver atoms evaporated on a nickel (100) surface are studied by scanning tunneling microscopy. Near-equilibrium islands form at moderate annealing temperature (lower than 500 K) and present two kinds of morphologies. While they share a common monolayer c(2×8) superstructure, two distinct populations of islands coexist: rounded islands grown on the surface and spindle-shaped islands grown inside the Ni surface. The latter present a clear saturation of their density with increasing coverage. These shapes are mostly dominated by boundary energies as confirmed by a simple two-dimensional Wulff model whose parameters are derived using molecular statics simulations. Further annealing to 700 K leads to long Ag strips decorating the Ni step edges.

  11. Molecular compositions and decadal trends of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, α-dicarbonyls in the marine aerosols from Chichi-Jima Island in the western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.

    2010-12-01

    A rapid industrial development in China and East Asian countries for last two decades may have seriously changed the air quality of the North Pacific. To better understand a long-term atmospheric changes of organic aerosols in the western North Pacific, we collected marine aerosol samples on weekly basis at a remote island, Chichijima (27°04'E; 142°13'N) in 2001-2010. The island is located in the boundary of westerly and easterly wind regimes. The aerosol samples were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls employing butyl ester derivatization followed by GC determination, together with total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Homologous series of saturated diacids (C2-C11) were detected with a predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Unsaturated diacids, including maleic (M), fumaric (F), phthalic, and iso-/tere-phthalic acids, were also detected together with ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls. Concentrations of total diacids fluctuated significantly in a range of 10-600 ngm-3 with winter/spring maximum and summer minimum. The maximum was explained by a combination of enhanced emissions of polluted aerosols and their precursors in Asia and enhanced atmospheric transport to the North Pacific due to the intensified westerly winds in winter/spring. Concentration ratios of C3 to C4 diacid (range 0.2-28, av. 2.8) showed a maximum during summer, indicating more oxidation of longer-chain diacids to shorter ones. Azelaic acid (C9) that is a specific photo-oxidation product of unsaturated fatty acid such as oleic acid showed a sharp increase relative to other diacids in summer, suggesting enhanced sea-to-air emission of unsaturated fatty acids followed by photochemical oxidation during summer. On the other hand, M/F ratios (range 0-8.7, av. 1.1) significantly decreased from winter to summer due to photochemical cis-to-trans isomerization. We also discuss decadal trends in the concentrations of

  12. Enterococcus species diversity and molecular characterization of biomarker genes in Enterococcus faecalis in Port Blair Bay, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

    PubMed

    Meena, Balakrishnan; Anburajan, Lawrance; Sathish, Thadikamala; Raghavan, Rangamaran Vijaya; Jha, Dilip Kumar; Venkateshwaran, Pitchiah; Das, Apurba Kumar; Dheenan, Palaiya Sukumaran; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Dharani, Gopal; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-05-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the abundance and diversity of Enterococcus sp. and the distribution of biomarker genes in Enterococcus faecalis in Port Blair Bay, Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Enterococcus sp. densities at the seven sampling stations were highly influenced by tidal fluctuations and season. The distributions and diversities of species varied in the inner and outer regions of Port Blair Bay. Among the 1816 total isolates, the occurrence of fecal Enterococcus was high (1.78×10(4) CFU/100 mL) in Phoenix Bay. Moreover, 67.76% of the isolates were identified as Enterococcus, and the most frequently identified species were E. hirae, E. avium and E. faecalis. Assessments of antibiotic resistance and biomarker genes revealed the maximum occurrence in the Aberdeen Bay isolates. The most prevalent biomarker genes observed in the E. faecalis isolates were gelE and asa1, whereas cyl was not found among the isolates. In silico sequence analysis of biomarker genes of E. faecalis also revealed that they are evolutionarily well conserved with those of earlier reports. Further, multivariate analysis distinguished the JB, PB and OS stations from the other stations according to distinctive microbial densities and compositions. In addition, the Shannon-Wiener diversity indices and box-whisker plots further facilitated and supported the multivariate results.

  13. Functional and molecular characterization of a lipopeptide surfactant from the marine sponge-associated eubacteria Bacillus licheniformis NIOT-AMKV06 of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

    PubMed

    Lawrance, Anburajan; Balakrishnan, Meena; Joseph, Toms Cheriath; Sukumaran, Dheenan Palaiya; Valsalan, Vinithkumar Nambali; Gopal, Dharani; Ramalingam, Kirubagaran

    2014-05-15

    The production of a lipopeptide surfactant from the sponge-associated eubacteria Bacillus licheniformis NIOT-AMKV06 from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands was investigated. The highest production was attained with glucose and yeast extracts as the carbon and nitrogen sources (1.789 mg mL(-1)), respectively. The surfactant was highly stable over a pH range of 5.0-10 and a temperature range of 20-70°C with high NaCl concentrations. Excellent emulsification activity was exhibited by the purified surfactant with crude oil, kerosene, and diesel. A two-fold increase in surfactant production (3.0 mg mL(-1)) was observed using the newly formulated medium in this study. The surfactant biosynthesis gene cluster (sfp, sfpO, and srfA) from B. licheniformis NIOT-AMKV06 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the production was increased three-fold (11.78 g L(-1)) over the original strain. The results confirm the potential of the surfactant for use in bioremediation of hydrocarbons in a marine environment and for enhanced oil recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the ability of a hydrocarbon degrading B. licheniformis from marine sponges for the biosynthesis of a potent lipopeptide surfactant possessing characteristics of maximum stability, outstanding surfactant activity, and exceptional emulsifying capability.

  14. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-06-24

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  15. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  16. Molecular detection of hemoplasma infection among cats from São Luís island, Maranhão, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Braga, M.S.C.O.; André, M.R.; Freschi, C.R.; Teixeira, M.C.A.; Machado, R.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Hemoplasmas are bacteria that infect erythrocytes, attaching to the red blood cell. There is a need for more reports of hemoplasma infection prevalence and molecular characterization among cats in Brazil since there are only few published reports. The present work aimed to detect and molecularly characterize the presence of hemotrophic mycoplasmas in domestic cats with outdoor access from São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. Twenty cats (10%) were positive for Candidatus M. haemominutum, five (2.5%) for M. haemofelis, and four (2.%) for M. turicensis based on 16S rRNA gene PCRs. Five cats (2.5%) were co-positive for Candidatus M. haemominutum and M. haemofelis. PCR diagnosis was confirmed by sequencing; and phylogenetic analysis was based on 16S rRNA and rnpb genes. PMID:24031865

  17. Molecular detection of Anaplasma, Bartonella, and Borrelia species in ticks collected from migratory birds from Hong-do Island, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Kim, Heung-Chul; Choi, Chang-Yong; Nam, Hyun-Young; Chae, Hee-Young; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Ko, Sungjin; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2013-04-01

    Bird migration is a recurring annual and seasonal event undertaken by more than 100 species of birds in the southeast Asian and northeast Palearctic regions that pass through or remain for short periods from April to May and September to November at Hong-do Island, Republic of Korea (ROK). A total of 212 ticks (40 Haemaphysalis flava, 12 H. longicornis, 146 Ixodes turdus, 13 I. nipponensis, and 1 I. ornithophila) were collected from 65/2,161 (3.0%) migratory birds consisting of 21 species that were captured from January, 2008, through December, 2009, as part of the Migratory Birds Center, Hong-do bird banding program for studying bird migration patterns. Adult ticks were assayed individually while larvae and nymphs were pooled (1-22 and 1-6 ticks per pool, respectively) into 31 and 65 pools, respectively. Ticks were assayed for zoonotic pathogens by PCR using 16S rRNA, heat shock protein (groEL), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene primers to amplify genera specific for Anapalsma, Bartonella, and Borrelia PCR amplicons. Using the 16S rRNA-based nested PCR, A. phagocytophilum (n=1) was detected in I. nipponensis collected from Zoothera sibirica and A. bovis (n=1) was detected in I. turdus collected from Emberiza chrysophrys. Borrelia turdi 16S rRNA genes (n=3) were detected in I. turdus and I. nipponensis collected from Turdus pallidus and Zoothera aurea. Borrelia spp. 16S rRNA genes (n=4) were detected in Ixodes ticks collected from Emberiza tristrami, T. pallidus, and Z. aurea. The Bartonella grahamii ITS gene (n=1) was detected by nested PCR assay in I. turdus collected from Z. aurea. These results provide insight into the potential role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks and associated tick-borne pathogens throughout their ranges in Asia.

  18. Molecular identification of Plasmodium spp. and blood meal sources of anophelines in environmental reserves on São Luís Island, state of Maranhão, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Mayra Araguaia Pereira; Di Santi, Silvia Maria; Manrique, Wilson Gómez; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; André, Marcos Rogério; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2017-04-26

    Considering the diversity of feeding habits that females of some species of anophelines present, it is important to understand which vertebrates are part of blood food sources and how important is the role of each in the ecoepidemiology of malaria. There are many vector species for Plasmodium spp. in the State of Maranhão, Brazil. In São Luís Island, Anopheles aquasalis is the main vector for human malaria; this species is abundant in areas with primates that are positive for Plasmodium. Anopheles aquasalis has natural exophilic and zoophilic feeding behavior, but in cases of high density and absence of animals, presents quite varied behavior, and feeds on human blood. In this context, the objective of the present study was to identify Plasmodium spp. and the blood meal sources of anophelines in two environmental reserves on São Luís Island, state of Maranhão, using molecular methods. Between June and July 2013, female anophelines were collected in the Sítio Aguahy Private Reserve, in the municipality of São José de Ribamar, and in the Sítio Mangalho Reserve, located within the Maracanã Environmental Protection Area, in the municipality of São Luís. CDC-type light traps, Shannon traps and protected human bait were used during three consecutive hours in peridomestic and wooded areas. Pools of anophelines were formed using mosquitoes of the same species that had been caught at the same site on the same date. A genus-specific amplification protocol based on the 18S rRNA gene was used for qPCR and cPCR. A total of 416 anophelines were collected, of the following species: An. aquasalis (399), An. mediopunctatus (3), An. shannoni (1), An. nuneztovari (sensu lato) (1), An. goeldii (1), An. evansae (2) and An. (Nyssorhynchus) sp. (9), comprising 54 pools. Two pools were positive for Plasmodium (2/54) based on the 18S rRNA gene. In the phylogenetic analysis using the maximum likelihood method, based on a 240 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene, it was found that

  19. Island biogeography: Taking the long view of nature's laboratories.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Robert J; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J; Borregaard, Michael K; Triantis, Kostas A

    2017-09-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits general models to be developed and modified to account for patterns of diversity, diversification, lineage development, and trait evolution within and across island archipelagos. Emergent patterns of diversity include predictable variation in island species-area relationships, progression rule colonization from older to younger land masses, and syndromes including loss of dispersability and secondary woodiness in herbaceous plant lineages. Further developments in Earth system science, molecular biology, and trait data for islands hold continued promise for unlocking many of the unresolved questions in evolutionary biology and biogeography. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  1. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     ... View an animated gif (371 kb) A large tabular iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West ...

  2. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  3. Sakhalin Island, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-09-04

    This image from NASA EarthKAM is of Sakhalin Island, located just north of Japan and east of the Khabarovski and Primorski Krai of the Russian Far East. With the Kuril Islands, it forms Sakhalin Province.

  4. Palm Islands, Dubai, UAE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-02

    The Palm Islands are artificial islands in Dubai, United Arab emirates on which major commercial and residential structures are being built. NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image on November 17 and December 10, 2008.

  5. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Canary Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This nearly vertical view of the Canary Archipelago (28.5N, 16.5W) shows five of the seven islands: Grand Canary, Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro and La Palma. The largest island in view is Tenerife. Island cloud wakes evident in this photo are the result of southerly winds giving rise to cloud banks on the lee side especially on Tenerife which has the highest volcanic peaks. Island water wakes and internal waves are also evident but not as apparent.

  7. Island of Timor, Indonesia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-11-27

    This almost totally cloud free, photo of the island of Timor, Indonesia (9.0S, 125.0E) illustrates the volcanic origin of the over 1500 islands of Indonesia. Close examination of the photo reveals several eroded volcanoes on the Island of Timor and several of the adjacent islands. The linear alignment of the volcanoes, as seen from space, indicates the edges of the tectonic plates of the Earth's crust where volcanic activity is most common.

  8. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  9. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  10. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  11. Bouvet Island near Antarctica

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the island is visible within a relatively clear area of open ocean. In the lower right image, the island is partially obscured by ... Steep cliffs surrounding most sides of the island also made access difficult, and after various attempts, a landing was made in 1822 by an ...

  12. Avifauna: Turnover on Islands.

    PubMed

    Mayr, E

    1965-12-17

    The percentage of endemic species of birds on islands increases with island area at a double logarithmic rate. This relation is apparently due to extinction, which is more rapid the smaller the island. The turnover resulting from extinction and replacement appears to be far more rapid than hitherto suspected.

  13. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  14. Strain relief and Pd island shape evolution on the palladium and palladium hydride (100) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnikov, S. V.; Klavsyuk, A. L.; Saletsky, A. M.

    2012-06-15

    The mesoscopic relaxation of small Pd islands on Pd(100) and PdH(100) surfaces is investigated on the atomic scale by performing molecular statics calculations. A strong strain and stress inhomogeneity in islands and topmost layers of the substrate is revealed. An unusual size dependence of the shape of islands is discovered.

  15. Norfolk Island, Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-13

    Situated 1670 km northeast of Sydney, Norfolk Island is an Australian Territory. It was permanently settled in 1856 by Pitcairn Islanders who were descendants of Tahitians and HMS Bounty mutineers. In 1979 Norfolk was granted limited self-government: the island elects a government that runs most of the island's affairs. In March, a local council replaced the local government, and the island was given closer financial ties to Australia. The image was acquired November 12, 2009, covers an area of 9 x 11 km, and is located at 29 degrees south, 168 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19463

  16. Christmas Island, Line Island Group, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Christmas Island (2.0N,158.0W), mid central Pacific Ocean, is considered to be the largest atoll in the world, about 25 km in diameter, and is part of the Line Island Group, a northwest-southeast trending chain of volcanic islands on some of the oldest ocean crust in the Pacific. The lagoon is nearly filled with reef growth leaving only a narrow entrance from the sea and large cocoanut groves are found along the fringes of the lagoon.

  17. Poly(ethylene glycol) self-assembled monolayer island growth.

    PubMed

    Rundqvist, Jonas; Hoh, Jan H; Haviland, David B

    2005-03-29

    Here, we report a study of the morphology and growth dynamics of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of the amide containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) thiol (CH3O(CH2CH2O)17NHCO(CH2)2SH) on atomically flat Au(111) surfaces. SAM growth from a 20 muM ethanolic solution reveals island growth through three distinct steps: island nucleation, island growth, and coalescence. The coalescence-step, filling voids in the SAM, is by far slowest. The fine structure study reveals dendritic island formation, an observation which can be explained by attractive intermolecular interactions and surface diffusion-limited aggregation. We have also observed a change in the island height, which peaks during the island growth phase. This height change can be associated with a molecular conformational transition.

  18. Marquesas Islands, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    As with most small island groups around the world, the Marquesas Island group 9.0S, 140.0W) is usually concealed by heavy cloud cover throughout the day making them very difficult to photograph in their entirety. Located in the south central Pacific Ocean, just north of the Tuamotu Archipelago, the islands partially seen in this view are: Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka and Ua Pu.

  19. Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska #1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-11-04

    This image is a perspective view acquired by NASA Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar AIRSAR in 2001, is of Umnak Island, one of Alaska Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

  20. Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska #2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-11-04

    This image is a perspective view acquired by NASA Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar AIRSAR in 2001, is of Umnak Island, one of Alaska Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

  1. Disturbed island ecology.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, R J

    1995-10-01

    The natural occurrence of significant disturbances to the operation of insular ecosystems has tended to be downplayed in the development of island ecological theory. Despite the importance of events such as Hurricane Hugo, which in 1989 affected islands in the Caribbean, islands that are disturbed tend to be viewed as deviants from the `true path' described by equilibrium models. However, particularly with organisms of long generation times, it is questionable whether such models are applicable. This may be as important for wildlife managers to take account of as for theorists. Disturbance regime should be incorporated into island ecological models alongside other ecological factors structuring colonization patterns and turnover.

  2. Bardsey Island, Wales

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-01

    Lying 3 km off the Llyn peninsula of Wales, the Bardsey Island is known as the Island of 20,000 saints. While today's permanent population numbers only four, the island was once an important religious site, with a 6th century monastery. It is the legendary burial site of King Arthur. Another legend holds that anyone who died on the island would not go to hell. The image was acquired April 4, 2006, covers an area of 6 by 10 km, and is located at 52.7 degrees north, 4.8 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21182

  3. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  4. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan, Skagit, and Whatcom Counties, WA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... plan (WSP), and environmental assessment (EA) for Protection Island and San Juan Islands National...

  5. Hydrologic data for Block Island, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Emily

    1993-01-01

    This report was compiled as part of a study to assess the hydrogeology and the quality and quantity of fresh ground water on Block Island, Rhode Island. Hydrologic data were collected on Block Island during 1988-91. The data are pre- sented in illustrations and tables. Data collec- ted include precipitation, surfae-water, ground- water, lithologic, and well-construction and dis- charge information. Precipitation data include total monthly precipitation values from 11 rain gages and water-quality analyses of 14 precipi- tation samples from one station. Surface-water data include water-level measurements at 12 ponds, water-quality data for five ponds, and field specific-conductance measurements at 56 surface- water sites (streams, ponds, and springs). Ground- water data include water-level measurements at 159 wells, water-quality data at 150 wells, and field specific-conductance data at 52 wells. Lithologic logs for 375 wells and test borings, and construc- tion and location data for 570 wells, springs, and test borings are included. In addition, the data set contains data on water quality of water samples, collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health during 1976-91, from Fresh and Sands Ponds and from wells at the Block Island Water Company well field north of Sands Pond.

  6. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-30

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite on 18 September 2006.

  7. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  8. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  9. Entire Island of Crete

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-05-364 (22 June 1973) --- Lying in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, the entire Island of Crete (35.0N, 25.0E) can be seen in great detail in this cloud free view. The volcanic origins of this island can also be observed in the many sharp and angular ridgelines and rugged coastal features. Photo credit: NASA

  10. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  11. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  12. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  13. Islands in a Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Smith Island in the Chesapeake Bay is actually a group of three islands: Ewell, Rhodes Point, and Tylerton. Dwindling enrollment jeopardizes the community's two schools that contain grades one through seven. The school board believes they can give the sixth and seventh graders at Ewell and Tylerton a better education on the mainland. (MLF)

  14. The Evolution of Volcanic Ocean Islands and Biota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, W. E.; Power, M. E.; Perron, T.

    2011-12-01

    Species or taxon abundances on ocean island archipelagoes consistently show a power law dependency on island area. Nearly 50 years ago, MacArthur and Wilson proposed a theory to explain this dependency, focusing on the equilibrium species number that arises from the balance of immigration and extinction. Subsequent studies have strongly supported this revolutionary theory, applying it to ecological islands ranging in scale from cobbles to sub-continents. The MacArthur and Wilson theory assumes speciation on islands was unimportant, yet studies of remote ocean islands, where endemics dominate many taxa, suggest that simultaneous evolution of organisms and their islands is a first order process influencing species richness. Molecular clock studies now allow tracking of species radiation events across islands, in many cases showing evidence of progression from older to younger islands. Recently efforts have been made to add speciation to the MacArthur and Wilson model (most notably by Whittaker et al., 2008, J.Biogeogr), specifically tying it to the time and physical evolution of ocean islands. This challenges evolutionary scientists, ecologists, and geoscientists to develop mutually useful understanding of how island evolution drives speciation. Volcanic ocean islands over mantle plumes (e.g. Hawaii, Society, Galapagos, Marquesas, and Samoa island chains) present the possibility of a well-defined age succession, observable physical changes, and abundant endemics. These island chains present some appealing constraints: active island construction typically is about 1 million years and in most cases the oldest island is about 5 million years. Once the islands are sufficiently tall and wide they can increase precipitation by over 3 times relative to the open ocean. But this precipitation is commonly non uniform, with windward sides much wetter, and, if islands attain sufficient height, maximum precipitation occurring below the island peak. Coarsely, islands build

  15. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  16. The imprint of geologic history on within-island diversification of woodlouse-hunter spiders (Araneae, Dysderidae) in the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Macías-Hernández, Nuria; Bidegaray-Batista, Leticia; Emerson, Brent C; Oromí, Pedro; Arnedo, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    Geological processes and ecological adaptation are major drivers of diversification on oceanic islands. Although diversification in these islands is often interpreted as resulting from dispersal or island hopping rather than vicariance, this may not be the case in islands with complex geological histories. The island of Tenerife, in the Canary Islands, emerged in the late Miocene as 3 precursor islands that were subsequently connected and reisolated by volcanic cycles. The spider Dysdera verneaui is endemic to the island of Tenerife, where it is widely distributed throughout most island habitats, providing an excellent model to investigate the role of physical barriers and ecological adaptation in shaping within-island diversity. Here, we present evidence that the phylogeographic patterns of this species trace back to the independent emergence of the protoislands. Molecular markers (mitochondrial genes cox1, 16S, and nad1 and the nuclear genes ITS-2 and 28S) analyzed from 100 specimens (including a thorough sampling of D. verneaui populations and additional outgroups) identify 2 distinct evolutionary lineages that correspond to 2 precursor islands, each with diagnostic genital characters indicative of separate species status. Episodic introgression events between these 2 main evolutionary lineages explain the observed incongruence between mitochondrial and nuclear markers, probably as a result of the homogenization of their ITS-2 sequence types. The most widespread lineage exhibits a complex population structure, which is compatible with either secondary contact, following connection of deeply divergent lineages, or alternatively, a back colonization from 1 precursor island to another.

  17. Genetic characterization, distribution and prevalence of avian pox and avian malaria in the Berthelot's pipit (Anthus berthelotii) in Macaronesia.

    PubMed

    Illera, Juan Carlos; Emerson, Brent C; Richardson, David S

    2008-11-01

    Exotic pathogens have been implicated in the decline and extinction of various native-island-bird species. Despite the fact that there is increasing concern about the introduction of diseases in island ecosystems, little is known about parasites in the islands of Macaronesia. We focus on Berthelot's pipit (Anthus berthelotii), an endemic and widespread Macaronesian bird species, using a combination of field studies and molecular techniques to determine: (1) the range and prevalence of avian pox and malaria in Berthelot's pipits throughout the species' distribution, (2) the genetic characterization of both parasites in order to ascertain the level of host specificity. We sampled 447 pipits across the 12 islands inhabited by this species. Overall, 8% of all individuals showed evidence of pox lesions and 16% were infected with avian malaria, respectively. We observed marked differences in the prevalence of parasites among islands both within and between archipelagos. Avian pox prevalence varied between 0-54% within and between archipelagos and avian malaria prevalence varied between 0-64% within and between archipelagos. The diversity of pathogens detected was low: only two genetic lineages of avian malaria and one lineage of avian pox were found to infect the pipit throughout its range. Interestingly, both avian malaria parasites found were Plasmodium spp. that had not been previously reported in the Macaronesian avifauna (but that had been observed in the lesser kestrel Falco naumannii), while the avian pox was a host specific lineage that had previously been reported on two of the Canary Islands.

  18. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  19. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  20. Small islands adrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  1. Heat Island Compendium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  2. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of ...

  3. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Kasei Valles Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-06

    There are several streamlined islands in this image of Kasei Valles. This image captured by NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft is located near the region where Kasei Valles empties into Chryse Planitia.

  5. Approaching Marquette Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity took this picture of a rock informally named Marquette Island as the rover was approaching the rock for investigations that have suggested the rock is a stony meteorite.

  6. Henderson Island, South Pacific

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-15

    Uninhabited Henderson Island is part of the United Kingdom's Pitcairn Islands group in the South Pacific. According to a study by the University of Tasmania published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, the island has the highest density of plastic waste anywhere in the world, an estimated 38 million pieces of rubbish. The island is near the center of an ocean current, so it collects rubbish from boats and South America. The image was acquired February 7, 2012, covers an area of 10.3 by 12.3 km, and is located at 24.3 degrees south, 128.3 degrees west. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21691

  7. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-10-03

    STS026-43-082 (29 Sept. - 3 Oct. 1988) --- This 70mm northerly oriented frame over the Pacific Ocean features the Hawaiian Islands chain. The islands perturb the prevailing northeasterly winds producing extensive cloud wakes in the lee of the islands. Photo experts feel that atmospheric haze in the Hawaii wake is probably a result of the continuing eruptions of Kilauea volcano on the southeast coast. From the lower right corner in a diagonal directed upward to the north are the islands of Nihau, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, Kahoolawe, and Hawaii. This photo was shown during the post-flight press conference on October 11, 1988 by the STS-26 astronauts, who at one time during the flight wore Hawaiian attire to pay tribute to the working staff of the Hawaii tracking station.

  8. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  9. "Treasure Island" and Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riach, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the sense of rupture or difference inherent in children's literature between the author or adult and the reader or child, as they concern Robert Louis Stevenson's novel "Treasure Island." (TB)

  10. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  11. The Island Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Peter C.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes the study of islands to develop a method of integrating sustainable development with sound resource management that can be extrapolated to more complex, highly populated continental coastal areas. (MDH)

  12. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  13. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing... Island. DATES: This rule will be effective and enforced from 7:50 p.m. until 8:30 p.m. on October 5, 2013...

  14. Pathogenicity Islands in Bacterial Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Herbert; Hensel, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this review, we focus on a group of mobile genetic elements designated pathogenicity islands (PAI). These elements play a pivotal role in the virulence of bacterial pathogens of humans and are also essential for virulence in pathogens of animals and plants. Characteristic molecular features of PAI of important human pathogens and their role in pathogenesis are described. The availability of a large number of genome sequences of pathogenic bacteria and their benign relatives currently offers a unique opportunity for the identification of novel pathogen-specific genomic islands. However, this knowledge has to be complemented by improved model systems for the analysis of virulence functions of bacterial pathogens. PAI apparently have been acquired during the speciation of pathogens from their nonpathogenic or environmental ancestors. The acquisition of PAI not only is an ancient evolutionary event that led to the appearance of bacterial pathogens on a timescale of millions of years but also may represent a mechanism that contributes to the appearance of new pathogens within a human life span. The acquisition of knowledge about PAI, their structure, their mobility, and the pathogenicity factors they encode not only is helpful in gaining a better understanding of bacterial evolution and interactions of pathogens with eukaryotic host cells but also may have important practical implications such as providing delivery systems for vaccination, tools for cell biology, and tools for the development of new strategies for therapy of bacterial infections. PMID:14726454

  15. Mosquito Survey, Island of Rota (Mariana Islands)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    and has also been collected from Tinfan, The adult of Aedes albopictus a severe pest and it is considered to be an important vector of dengue fever . Bionomic...evidence of local The introduction of Aedes albopictus has brought an acknowledged vector of dengue fever to the island. This is potentially...distance away from human habitation. The adults are ready biters. Medical importance: Vector of dengue fever . 2. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse

  16. Modeling Catastrophic Barrier Island Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, J. W.; McNamara, D.

    2012-12-01

    Barrier islands, thin strips of sand lying parallel to the mainland coastline, along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts appear to have maintained their form for thousands of years in the face of rising sea level. The mechanisms that allow barrier islands to remain robust are transport of sediment from the ocean side of barriers to the top and backside during storms, termed island overwash, and the growth and alongshore propagation of tidal deltas near barrier island inlets. Dynamically these processes provide the necessary feedbacks to maintain a barrier island in an attractor that withstands rising sea level within a phase space of barrier island geometrical characteristics. Current barrier island configurations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts exist among a wide range of storm climate and underlying geologic conditions and therefore the environment that forces overwash and tidal delta dynamics varies considerably. It has been suggested that barrier islands in certain locations such as those between Avon and Buxton (losing 76% of island width since 1852) and Chandeleur islands (losing 85% of its surface area since 2005) along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, respectively, may be subject to a catastrophic shift in barrier island attractor states - more numerous inlets cutting barriers in some locations and the complete disappearance of barrier islands in other locations. In contrast to common models for barrier islands that neglect storm dynamics and often only consider cross-shore response, we use an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of barrier islands to a wide range of environmental forcing. Results will be presented that show how barrier island attractor states are altered with variations in the rate of sea level rise, storminess, and underlying geology. We will

  17. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  18. Modeling of early stages of island growth during pulsed deposition: Role of closed compact islands

    SciTech Connect

    Kotrla, M.; Masin, M.

    2011-03-24

    After a brief review of recent modeling of growth during Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD), we present the study of a role of adatom interactions on growth of surface islands during PLD in submonolayer regime. We employ kinetic Monte Carlo simulation with reversible growth. Attachment of monomers to islands is irreversible at low temperatures while it becomes reversible at higher temperatures, small islands become unstable with growing temperature. In the case of real system we have to take into account not only diffusion of monomers but also diffusivity of dimers and larger clusters and theirs stability. Our new code allows us to study processes which proceed on different time scales which are typical in PLD experiments: fast deposition (on scale order of 10{sup -5} s) during individual pulses, and relaxation of a system between pulses (on scale order of 0.1 s). We calculate and compare the temperature dependence of island density for two modes pulsed deposition and continuous Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) growth. The island densities in PLD mode are substantially higher than in MBE mode, provided the temperature is sufficiently high. In the case of PLD, we observe anomalous temperature dependence of the island density in a certain temperature interval. It is due to the interplay between a cluster decay time and an interval between pulses. The cluster decay time depends not only on temperature but also on clusters size and shape. The anomalous behavior is caused by the temperature limited stability of the closed--compact clusters. This scenario was revealed for the simplified model with only nearest-neighbor interaction. Now, it is elucidated further and we also include interaction to second and third neighbors. We analyze role of the closed-compact surface island in kinetics of both growth modes. Furthermore, by varying interactions energies, diffusion barrier and parameters of deposition, we compare results of simulations with the PLD experiment for Fe/Mo system.

  19. 11. VIEW NORTH, WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND FROM 130 SOUTH ISLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW NORTH, WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND FROM 130 SOUTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  20. Habitat and environment of islands: primary and supplemental island sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, Nicholas C.; Grossling, Bernardo F.

    2002-01-01

    The original intent of the study was to develop a first-order synopsis of island hydrology with an integrated geologic basis on a global scale. As the study progressed, the aim was broadened to provide a framework for subsequent assessments on large regional or global scales of island resources and impacts on those resources that are derived from global changes. Fundamental to the study was the development of a comprehensive framework?a wide range of parameters that describe a set of 'saltwater' islands sufficiently large to Characterize the spatial distribution of the world?s islands; Account for all major archipelagos; Account for almost all oceanically isolated islands, and Account collectively for a very large proportion of the total area of the world?s islands whereby additional islands would only marginally contribute to the representativeness and accountability of the island set. The comprehensive framework, which is referred to as the ?Primary Island Set,? is built on 122 parameters that describe 1,000 islands. To complement the investigations based on the Primary Island Set, two supplemental island sets, Set A?Other Islands (not in the Primary Island Set) and Set B?Lagoonal Atolls, are included in the study. The Primary Island Set, together with the Supplemental Island Sets A and B, provides a framework that can be used in various scientific disciplines for their island-based studies on broad regional or global scales. The study uses an informal, coherent, geophysical organization of the islands that belong to the three island sets. The organization is in the form of a global island chain, which is a particular sequential ordering of the islands referred to as the 'Alisida.' The Alisida was developed through a trial-and-error procedure by seeking to strike a balance between 'minimizing the length of the global chain' and 'maximizing the chain?s geophysical coherence.' The fact that an objective function cannot be minimized and maximized simultaneously

  1. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, Ryan A.; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P.

    2016-01-01

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called ‘small-island effect’ and an overall biphasic species–area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization–extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated). PMID:27122558

  2. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P

    2016-04-27

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called 'small-island effect' and an overall biphasic species-area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization-extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated). © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-06

    Lanzarote is the easternmost of the Canary Islands, 125 km off the coast of Africa, and is the fourth largest of the archipelago, with an area of 846 square kilometers. Like all of the Canary Islands, its volcanic origin dates to about 15 million years ago. The largest historic eruption occurred in the 1730s. The island was first recorded by Pliny the Elder, though it may have been originally settled by the Phoenicians (Wikipedia). The image was acquired 12 March 2015, covers an area of 50.5 by 55.1 km, and is located near 29 degrees north, 13.6 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21284

  4. Prince Patrick Island, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-26

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows Prince Patrick Island, which is located in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and is the westernmost Elizabeth Island in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The island is underlain by sedimentary rocks, cut by still-active faults. The streams follow a dendritic drainage system: there are many contributing streams (analogous to the twigs of a tree), which are then joined together into the tributaries of the main river (the branches and the trunk of the tree, respectively). They develop where the river channel follows the slope of the terrain. The image covers an area of 22 by 27 km, was acquired July 2, 2011, and is located at 76.9 degrees north, 118.9 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19222

  5. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  6. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  7. Island of Luzon, Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In this north to south view of the Island of Luzon, Philippines (13.0N, 120.0E), the prominent Cordillera Central mountain range where gold, copper and silver are mined. The several large rivers that drain this region normally carry a heavy silt load to the sea but the absence of sediment plumes in this view is evidence of hot dry weather and lack of recent rains. Manila, the capital city is just visible at the south end of the island.

  8. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  9. Forest statistics for Rhode Island

    Treesearch

    John R. Peters; Teresa M. Bowers

    1977-01-01

    This report contains data from the second inventory of the forest resources of Rhode Island. The inventory was completed in 1971 by the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station in cooperation with the Rhode Island Department of Natural Resources.

  10. Morphology Analysis of Si Island Arrays on Si(001)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The formation of nanometer-scale islands is an important issue for bottom-up-based schemes in novel electronic, optoelectronic and magnetoelectronic devices technology. In this work, we present a detailed atomic force microscopy analysis of Si island arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Recent reports have shown that self-assembled distributions of fourfold pyramid-like islands develop in 5-nm thick Si layers grown at substrate temperatures of 650 and 750°C on HF-prepared Si(001) substrates. Looking for wielding control and understanding the phenomena involved in this surface nanostructuring, we develop and apply a formalism that allows for processing large area AFM topographic images in a shot, obtaining surface orientation maps with specific information on facets population. The procedure reveals some noticeable features of these Si island arrays, e.g. a clear anisotropy of the in-plane local slope distributions. Total island volume analysis also indicates mass transport from the substrate surface to the 3D islands, a process presumably related to the presence of trenches around some of the pyramids. Results are discussed within the framework of similar island arrays in homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial semiconductor systems. PMID:21170139

  11. Morphology Analysis of Si Island Arrays on Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-González, A.; Alonso, M.; Navarro, E.; Sacedón, J. L.; Ruiz, A.

    2010-12-01

    The formation of nanometer-scale islands is an important issue for bottom-up-based schemes in novel electronic, optoelectronic and magnetoelectronic devices technology. In this work, we present a detailed atomic force microscopy analysis of Si island arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Recent reports have shown that self-assembled distributions of fourfold pyramid-like islands develop in 5-nm thick Si layers grown at substrate temperatures of 650 and 750°C on HF-prepared Si(001) substrates. Looking for wielding control and understanding the phenomena involved in this surface nanostructuring, we develop and apply a formalism that allows for processing large area AFM topographic images in a shot, obtaining surface orientation maps with specific information on facets population. The procedure reveals some noticeable features of these Si island arrays, e.g. a clear anisotropy of the in-plane local slope distributions. Total island volume analysis also indicates mass transport from the substrate surface to the 3D islands, a process presumably related to the presence of trenches around some of the pyramids. Results are discussed within the framework of similar island arrays in homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial semiconductor systems.

  12. Morphology Analysis of Si Island Arrays on Si(001).

    PubMed

    González-González, A; Alonso, M; Navarro, E; Sacedón, J L; Ruiz, A

    2010-08-11

    The formation of nanometer-scale islands is an important issue for bottom-up-based schemes in novel electronic, optoelectronic and magnetoelectronic devices technology. In this work, we present a detailed atomic force microscopy analysis of Si island arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Recent reports have shown that self-assembled distributions of fourfold pyramid-like islands develop in 5-nm thick Si layers grown at substrate temperatures of 650 and 750°C on HF-prepared Si(001) substrates. Looking for wielding control and understanding the phenomena involved in this surface nanostructuring, we develop and apply a formalism that allows for processing large area AFM topographic images in a shot, obtaining surface orientation maps with specific information on facets population. The procedure reveals some noticeable features of these Si island arrays, e.g. a clear anisotropy of the in-plane local slope distributions. Total island volume analysis also indicates mass transport from the substrate surface to the 3D islands, a process presumably related to the presence of trenches around some of the pyramids. Results are discussed within the framework of similar island arrays in homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial semiconductor systems.

  13. Sputtering at grazing ion incidence: Influence of adatom islands

    SciTech Connect

    Rosandi, Yudi; Redinger, Alex; Michely, Thomas; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2010-09-15

    When energetic ions impinge at grazing incidence onto an atomically flat terrace, they will not sputter. However, when adatom islands (containing N atoms) are deposited on the surface, they induce sputtering. We investigate this effect for the specific case of 83 deg. -incident 5 keV Ar ions on a Pt (111) surface by means of molecular-dynamics simulation and experiment. We find that - for constant coverage {Theta} - the sputter yield has a maximum at island sizes of N congruent with 10-20. A detailed picture explaining the decline of the sputter yield toward larger and smaller island sizes is worked out. Our simulation results are compared with dedicated sputtering experiments, in which a coverage of {Theta}=0.09 of Pt adatoms are deposited onto the Pt (111) surface and form islands with a broad distribution around a most probable size of N congruent with 20.

  14. Frictional transition from superlubric islands to pinned monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierno, Matteo; Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Paolicelli, Guido; di Bona, Alessandro; Valeri, Sergio; Guerra, Roberto; Vanossi, Andrea; Tosatti, Erio

    2015-08-01

    The inertial sliding of physisorbed submonolayer islands on crystal surfaces contains unexpected information on the exceptionally smooth sliding state associated with incommensurate superlubricity and on the mechanisms of its disappearance. Here, in a joint quartz crystal microbalance and molecular dynamics simulation case study of Xe on Cu(111), we show how superlubricity emerges in the large size limit of naturally incommensurate Xe islands. As coverage approaches a full monolayer, theory also predicts an abrupt adhesion-driven two-dimensional density compression on the order of several per cent, implying a hysteretic jump from superlubric free islands to a pressurized commensurate immobile monolayer. This scenario is fully supported by the quartz crystal microbalance data, which show remarkably large slip times with increasing submonolayer coverage, signalling superlubricity, followed by a dramatic drop to zero for the dense commensurate monolayer. Careful analysis of this variety of island sliding phenomena will be essential in future applications of friction at crystal/adsorbate interfaces.

  15. Frictional transition from superlubric islands to pinned monolayers.

    PubMed

    Pierno, Matteo; Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Paolicelli, Guido; di Bona, Alessandro; Valeri, Sergio; Guerra, Roberto; Vanossi, Andrea; Tosatti, Erio

    2015-08-01

    The inertial sliding of physisorbed submonolayer islands on crystal surfaces contains unexpected information on the exceptionally smooth sliding state associated with incommensurate superlubricity and on the mechanisms of its disappearance. Here, in a joint quartz crystal microbalance and molecular dynamics simulation case study of Xe on Cu(111), we show how superlubricity emerges in the large size limit of naturally incommensurate Xe islands. As coverage approaches a full monolayer, theory also predicts an abrupt adhesion-driven two-dimensional density compression on the order of several per cent, implying a hysteretic jump from superlubric free islands to a pressurized commensurate immobile monolayer. This scenario is fully supported by the quartz crystal microbalance data, which show remarkably large slip times with increasing submonolayer coverage, signalling superlubricity, followed by a dramatic drop to zero for the dense commensurate monolayer. Careful analysis of this variety of island sliding phenomena will be essential in future applications of friction at crystal/adsorbate interfaces.

  16. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed.

  17. HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: “What is a heat island?” “What are its impacts?

  18. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  19. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  20. Prince Edward Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Vianne

    2003-01-01

    This article profiles the educational system of Prince Edward Island and discusses initiatives for students who are at-risk. It describes programs and services for students who are at-risk, relevant educational legislation, areas of strength, challenges that need to be overcome, and areas of action. (Contains references.) (CR)

  1. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  2. The Flores Island tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Harry; Imamura, Fumihiko; Synolakis, Costas; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Liu, Philip; Shi, Shaozhong

    On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On December 16, television reports broadcast in Japan via satellite reported that 1000 people had been killed in Maumere and twothirds of the population of Babi Island had been swept away by the tsunamis.The current toll of the Flores earthquake is 2080 deaths and 2144 injuries, approximately 50% of which are attributed to the tsunamis. A tsunami survey plan was initiated within 3 days of the earthquake, and a cooperative international survey team was formed with four scientists from Indonesia, nine from Japan, three from the United States, one from the United Kingdom, and one from Korea.

  3. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  4. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  5. Magnetic-island formation

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-08-01

    The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given.

  6. Island Ecology in Bermuda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulff, Barry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reports on an island ecology course offered by Eastern Connecticut State College providing opportunities for students to study the ecology and natural history of organisms found in a variety of subtropical habitats in Bermuda. Explains student selection criteria, trip preparation, evaluation criteria, daily programs, and habitats studied on the…

  7. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  8. Magnetic island induced bootstrap current on island dynamics in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Spong, D.A.

    2006-02-15

    When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)]. Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter {delta}{sup '} for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

  9. Magnetic Island Induced Bootstrap Current on Island Dynamics in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A; Shaing, K. C.

    2006-02-01

    When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)] . Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter |{Delta}{prime}| for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

  10. High genetic diversity in the offshore island populations of the tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chunyan; Zheng, Chunyan; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan

    2016-10-13

    Geographic isolation is an important factor that limit species dispersal and thereby affects genetic diversity. Because islands are often small and surrounded by a natural water barrier to dispersal, they generally form discrete isolated habitats. Therefore, islands may play a key role in the distribution of the genetic diversity of insects, including flies. To characterize the genetic structure of island populations of Bactrocera dorsalis, we analyzed a dataset containing both microsatellite and mtDNA loci of B. dorsalis samples collected from six offshore islands in Southern China. The microsatellite data revealed a high level of genetic diversity among these six island populations based on observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity (HE), Nei's standard genetic distance (D), genetic identity (I) and the percentage of polymorphic loci (PIC). These island populations had low F ST values (F ST = 0.04161), and only 4.16 % of the total genetic variation in the species was found on these islands, as determined by an analysis of molecular variance. Based on the mtDNA COI data, high nucleotide diversity (0.9655) and haplotype diversity (0.00680) were observed in all six island populations. F-statistics showed that the six island populations exhibited low or medium levels of genetic differentiation among some island populations. To investigate the population differentiation between the sampled locations, a factorial correspondence analysis and both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and Bayesian clustering methods were used to analyze the microsatellite data. The results showed that Hebao Island, Weizhou Island and Dong'ao Island were grouped together in one clade. Another clade consisted of Shangchuan Island and Naozhou Island, and a final, separate clade contained only the Wailingding Island population. Phylogenetic analysis of the mtDNA COI sequences revealed that the populations on each of these six islands were closely related to

  11. Towards a Molecular Definition of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC): Detection of Genes Located on O Island 57 as Markers To Distinguish EHEC from Closely Related Enteropathogenic E. coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Delannoy, Sabine; Beutin, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Among strains of Shiga-toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli (STEC), seven serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) are associated with severe clinical illness in humans. These strains are also called enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and the development of methods for their reliable detection from food has been challenging thus far. PCR detection of major EHEC virulence genes stx1, stx2, eae, and O-serogroup-specific genes is useful but does not identify EHEC strains specifically. Searching for the presence of additional genes issued from E. coli O157:H7 genomic islands OI-122 and OI-71 increases the specificity but does not clearly discriminate EHEC from enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains. Here, we identified two putative genes, called Z2098 and Z2099, from the genomic island OI-57 that were closely associated with EHEC and their stx-negative derivative strains (87% for Z2098 and 91% for Z2099). Z2098 and Z2099 were rarely found in EPEC (10% for Z2098 and 12% for Z2099), STEC (2 and 15%), and apathogenic E. coli (1% each) strains. Our findings indicate that Z2098 and Z2099 are useful genetic markers for a more targeted diagnosis of typical EHEC and new emerging EHEC strains. PMID:23325824

  12. Targeted Gene Deletion Demonstrates that Cell Adhesion MoleculeICAM-4 is Critical for Erythroblastic Island Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gloria; Lo, Annie; Short, Sarah A.; Mankelow, Tosti J.; Spring, Frances; Parsons, Stephen F.; Mohandas, Narla; Anstee, David J.; Chasis, Joel Anne

    2006-02-15

    Erythroid progenitors differentiate in erythroblastic islands, bone marrow niches composed of erythroblasts surrounding a central macrophage. Evidence suggests that within islands adhesive interactions regulate erythropoiesis and apoptosis. We are exploring whether erythroid intercellular adhesion molecule-4 (ICAM-4), animmunoglobulin superfamily member, participates in island formation. Earlier, we identified alpha V integrins as ICAM-4 counter receptors. Since macrophages express alpha V, ICAM-4 potentially mediates island attachments. To test this, we generated ICAM-4 knockout mice and developed quantitative, live cell techniques for harvesting intact islands and for reforming islands in vitro. We observed a 47 percent decrease in islands reconstituted from ICAM-4 null marrow compared to wild type. We also found a striking decrease in islands formed in vivo in knockout mice. Further, peptides that block ICAM-4 alpha V adhesion produced a 53-57 percent decrease in reconstituted islands, strongly suggesting that ICAM-4 binding to macrophage alpha V functions in island integrity. Importantly, we documented that alpha V integrin is expressed in macrophages isolated from erythro blastic islands. Collectively, these data provide convincing evidence that ICAM-4 is critical in erythroblastic island formation via ICAM-4/alpha V adhesion and also demonstrate that the novel experimental strategies we developed will be valuable in exploring molecular mechanisms of erythroblastic island formation and their functional role in regulating erythropoiesis.

  13. Rickettsia and Bartonella species in fleas from Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Dieme, Constentin; Parola, Philippe; Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; Le Minter, Gildas; Balleydier, Elsa; Pagès, Frederic; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, and Bartonella DNA was detected by molecular tools in 12% of Rattus rattus fleas (Xenopsylla species) collected from Reunion Island. One-third of the infested commensal rodents captured during 1 year carried at least one infected flea. As clinical signs of these zoonoses are non-specific, they are often misdiagnosed.

  14. Rickettsia and Bartonella Species in Fleas from Reunion Island

    PubMed Central

    Dieme, Constentin; Parola, Philippe; Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; Le Minter, Gildas; Balleydier, Elsa; Pagès, Frederic; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, and Bartonella DNA was detected by molecular tools in 12% of Rattus rattus fleas (Xenopsylla species) collected from Reunion Island. One-third of the infested commensal rodents captured during 1 year carried at least one infected flea. As clinical signs of these zoonoses are non-specific, they are often misdiagnosed. PMID:25646263

  15. FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  16. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  17. First report on the occurrence of the comb pen shell, Atrina pectinata (Linnaeus, 1767) (Bivalvia: Pinnidae) in Ulleungdo Island in the East Sea: Ecology and molecular identification of the species using COI gene sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyun-Sung; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Park, Heung-Sik; Noh, Choong Hwan; Jeong, Eui-Young; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2015-12-01

    Pen shell is one of the largest marine bivalves inhabiting shallow subtidal soft bottoms in the west Pacific and Indian Oceans. In Korea, the comb pen shell Atrina pectinata fisheries has been established on the south and west coasts. Recently, a pen shell population has been discovered from a subtidal sand flat (25-30 m depth) in Ulleungdo Island located in the East Sea of Korea, suggesting a potential shellfish resource in this area. In the present study, we first surveyed the population density and size of the unique pen shell using SCUBA, and identified the pen shell to species level using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) sequence. An underwater survey carried out from July to September 2013 revealed that populations of pen shell patched on subtidal sand flat at a depth of 20-25 m. Grain size analysis indicated that sand particles accounted for 99% of the 600 × 700 m sand flat. The underwater survey also indicated that density of the pen shell ranged between 6-19 ind/m2, with a mean of 11 ind/m2. Shell height (i.e. longest axis of the shell) of the pen shell on the sand flat varied between 17.2 cm to 28.8 cm, with a mean of 25.1 cm, and the age was estimated to range between 1.5-7.5 yrs, with a mean of 5 yr. COI DNA sequence obtained from the pen shell in this study showed 98.9-99.2% similarity to Atrina pectinata (Linnaeus 1767) reported from Japan. In the cluster analysis, the COI DNA sequence of the pen shells from Ulleungdo Island was grouped with A. pectinata reported from Japan and China, indicating that the pen shell discovered in this study was A. pectinata, commonly distributed on the west and south coasts of Korea.

  18. Kasei Vallis Streamlined Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-13

    Except for the loss of its ring of ejecta, the crater at the leading edge of this streamlined island in Kasei Vallis, imaged here by NASA Mars Odyssey, shows no hint of the catastrophic floods that passed by it. Kasei Vallis is one of several major outflow channel systems that were active over 3 billion years ago. The intense floods scoured the landscape, eroding craters and producing streamlined islands. But in a close-up view, the evidence for these floods is not apparent. This true of the most similar terrestrial example, the channeled scablands of eastern Washington which also were formed by a catastrophic flood. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04022

  19. Giant Magnetoresistance of ErAs Self-organized Islands in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Daniel R.; Brehmer, Daniel E.; Allen, S. J.; Ibbetson, James P.

    1997-03-01

    We have used Molecular Beam Epitaxy to directly grow two-dimensional sheets of ErAs islands within GaAs, thus forming a self-organized magnetic, semi-metal/semiconductor composite structure. The height of the islands (along the growth direction) was approximately 3 monolayers. The lateral size of the islands is controlled by the growth temperature and ranged from 10 Å - 800 ÅSince the ErAs layers are disconnected, the lateral transport in these composite films is by hopping conduction. At fixed island size the zero-field resistivity drops several orders of magnitude as the island density increases. For 10 Å islands the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) is as large as several orders of magnitude at low temperatures ((<)direction. SQUID magnetometry demonstrates that the structures are paramagnetic and that both the magnetization and GMR saturate at the same field strength. These effects are similar to those observed in granular giant magnetoresistive material.

  20. Kodiak Island, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Running vertically between Alaska on the right and Russia on the left, the Bering Strait is mostly free of ice in this true-color MODIS image acquired from data captured on May 31, 2001. To the lower right of the image, a phytoplankton bloom appears to be occurring at the mouth of Norton Sound, and is coloring the darker water a bright bluish green. At the bottom center of the image is snow-covered St. Lawrence Island.

  1. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  2. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  3. Isolation of thermotolerant Vermamoeba vermiformis strains from water sources in Lanzarote Island, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Wagner, Carolina; Zamora-Herrera, Jonadab; Vargas-Mesa, Alejandro; Sifaoui, Ines; González, Ana C; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-09-01

    In this study, twenty water samples were collected in the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain in order to check for the presence of V. vermiformis strains in these samples. Water samples were cultured on 2% Non-Nutrient Agar (NNA) plates covered with a thin layer of heat killed E. coli and checked daily for the presence of Vermamoeba. After a week, V. vermiformis amoebae were observed in 2 of the 20 processed samples (10%) incubated at room temperature and 37°C. Molecular characterization was carried out by amplifying the 18S rDNA gene and DNA sequencing in order to confirm the identity of the isolated amoebic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of FLA in environmental sources in Lanzarote Island and the first report of Vermamoeba vermiformis in water sources in this island. Furthermore, the two strains isolated in this study were collected in recreational areas with close contact with humans and thus awareness should be raised.

  4. Island-trapped Waves, Internal Waves, and Island Circulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    model of the depth-integrated flow for the world ocean allowing for island circulations . Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn., 45:89–112, 1989. J. MacKinnon...Mountain waves in the deep ocean . Nature, 501:321–322, 2013. M. Nikurashin and R. Ferrari. Overturning circulation driven by breaking internal waves...Island-trapped waves, internal waves, and island circulation T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California

  5. Island-Trapped Waves, Internal Waves, and Island Circulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Island-trapped waves, internal waves, and island circulation T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California...extent of the topography is larger or smaller than the deformation radius, the topographic effects on circulation are different. Going from large to...2011), and may be an energy sink for the geostrophic circulation (Wright et al., 2014); • Strong flow at small islands leads to persistent submesoscale

  6. Erythroblastic Islands: Specialized Mircoenvironmental Niches forErythropoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Chasis, Joel Anne

    2006-01-06

    This review focuses on current understanding of molecular mechanisms operating within erythroblastic islands including cell-cell adhesion, regulatory feedback, and central macrophage function. RECENT FINDINGS: Erythroblasts express a variety of adhesion molecules and recently two interactions have been identified that appear to be critical for island integrity. Erythroblast macrophage protein, expressed on erythroblasts and macrophages, mediates cell-cell attachments via homophilic binding. Erythroblast intercellular adhesion molecule-4 links erythroblasts to macrophages through interaction with macrophage alphav integrin. In intercellular adhesion molecule-4 knockout mice, erythroblastic islands are markedly reduced, whereas the erythroblast macrophage protein null phenotype is severely anemic and embryonic lethal. Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (Rb) protein stimulates macrophage differentiation by counteracting inhibition of Id2 on PU.1, a transcription factor that is a crucial regulator of macrophage differentiation. Rb-deficient macrophages do not bind Rb null erythroblasts and the Rb null phenotype is anemic and embryonic lethal. Lastly, extruded nuclei rapidly expose phosphatidylserine on their surface, providing a recognition signal similar to apoptotic cells. SUMMARY: Although understanding of molecular mechanisms operating within islands is at an early stage, tantalizing evidence suggests that erythroblastic islands are specialized niches where intercellular interactions in concert with cytokines play critical roles in regulating erythropoiesis.

  7. Comparative study of contaminant levels in Long Island Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Gottholm, B.W.; Turgeon, D.D.; Wolfe, D.A. )

    1991-09-01

    This paper uses results from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Status and Trends Program (NS and T) to place the environmental quality of Long Island Sound in a broader perspective. It compares levels of contaminants in blue mussels from ten Long Island Sound sites and in sediments from seven Long Island Sound sites with concentrations in the same media at 87 and 221 other sites, respectively, where comparable samples were obtained. In sediments, the levels of both trace metals and organic contaminants tend to be relatively high for Long Island sites. This is especially true for five of the twelve metals (silver, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc) and for five of six categories of organic contaminants (total chlordane, low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), high molecular weight PAHs, total polychlorinated biphenyls, and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes). In mussels, the organic contaminant categories exhibit relatively high levels, but this is not true for most of the metals. In fact, four of the metals-arsenic, mercury, selenium, and zinc - show evidence of relatively low levels in mussels from Long Island Sound compared to other NS and T locations.

  8. Nereididae (Annelida: Phyllodocida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Glasby, Christopher J

    2015-09-18

    Nereididae is one of the most ubiquitous of polychaete families, yet knowledge of their diversity in the northern Great Barrier Reef is poor; few species have been previously reported from any of the atolls or islands including Lizard Island. In this study, the diversity of the family from Lizard Island and surrounding reefs is documented based on museum collections derived from surveys conducted mostly over the last seven years. The Lizard Island nereidid fauna was found to be represented by 14 genera and 38 species/species groups, including 11 putative new species. Twelve species are newly reported from Lizard Island; four of these are also first records for Australia. For each genus and species, diagnoses and/or taxonomic remarks are provided in addition to notes on their habitat on Lizard Island, and general distribution; the existence of tissue samples tied to vouchered museum specimens is indicated. Fluorescence photography is used to help distinguish closely similar species of Nereis and Platynereis. A key is provided to facilitate identification and encourage further taxonomic, molecular and ecological studies on the group.

  9. 78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule, technical amendment. SUMMARY: This action amends the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description by amending the geographic coordinates for Bucholz Army Airfield (AAF), Kwajalein Island, Marshall...

  10. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel. The...

  11. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel. The...

  12. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel. The...

  13. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel. The...

  14. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel. The...

  15. Late colonization of Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P

    2006-03-17

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement.

  16. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) infections in invasive rodents from five islands of the Ogasawara Archipelago, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Hashimoto, Takuma; Yabe, Tatsuo; Komatsu, Noriyuki; Akao, Nobuaki; Ohta, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935) is a parasite of murid rodents and causative agent of human neuro-angiostrongyliasis. In 2011, the Ogasawara Islands in the western North Pacific were assigned a World Natural Heritage site status. The occurrence of A. cantonensis is well documented in the Chichijima, Hahajima, and Anijima Islands. However, the occurrence of A. cantonensis in the other islands of the Ogasawara Islands has not been reported. Between March 2010 and July 2011, 57 Rattus norvegicus and 79 R. rattus were collected from 9 islands (the Hahajima group: Anejima, Imoutojima, Meijima, Mukohjima, and Hirajima; Chichijima group: Minamijima; Mukojima group: Nakoudojima and Yomejima; and Iwojima group: Iwojima). Adult nematodes were found in the pulmonary artery of 46 R. norvegicus collected in the 5 islands of the Hahajima group (Anejima, Meijima, Imoutojima, Hrajima, and Mukohjima Islands). These nematodes were identified by molecular analysis as A. cantonensis. Comparison of the mitochondrial DNA sequences confirmed that all the samples from the Ogasawara Islands shared only a single lineage of A. cantonensis, which has been previously detected in the Okinawa, Hawaii, and Brazil. We describe new endemic foci of rat angiostrongyliasis in the Hahajima group (Anejima, Meijima, Imoutojima, Hirajima, and Mukohjima Islands) of the Ogasawara Islands. These findings indicate that the endemic foci of A. cantonensis are widely distributed in the Ogasawara Islands. Although human cases have not yet been reported in the Ogasawara Islands, the widespread detection of A. cantonensis could be of importance from the perspective of public health.

  17. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations.

  18. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2012-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments. We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.* PMID:22661792

  19. 76 FR 2572 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... part 71 by amending Class E airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI (75 FR 61993... Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI, as published in the Federal ] Register on October 7, 2010, FR Doc...

  20. Reunion Island Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  2. Reunion Island Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  4. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input. PMID:26913017

  5. Fire Island National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayagandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd

    2007-01-01

    These lidar-derived topographic maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. The aims of the partnership that created this product are to develop advanced survey techniques for mapping barrier island geomorphology and habitats, and to enable the monitoring of ecological and geological change within National Seashores. This product is based on data from an innovative airborne lidar instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL).

  6. Urban heat island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  7. The submental island flap.

    PubMed

    Sterne, G D; Januszkiewicz, J S; Hall, P N; Bardsley, A F

    1996-03-01

    The submental island flap is a reliable source of skin of excellent colour, contour and texture match for facial resurfacing and leaves a well hidden donor site. The flap is safe, rapid and simple to raise. We report on its use in 12 cases of facial or intraoral reconstruction. Complications were few. However, there was one case of complete flap loss following its use in a reverse flow manner, due to the presence of an unreported, but constant, valve in the venous system of the face. We believe this flap to be a worthwhile addition to the existing surgical armamentarium.

  8. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.

    To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.

    Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack

  9. Urban heat island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  10. Rain on small tropical islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobel, A. H.; Burleyson, C. D.; Yuter, S. E.

    2011-04-01

    A high-resolution rainfall climatology based on observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument is used to evaluate the influence of small tropical islands on climatological rainfall. Islands with areas between one hundred and several thousand km2 are considered in both the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent and Caribbean regions. Annual mean climatological (1997-2007) rainfall over each island is compared with that over the surrounding ocean region, and the difference is expressed as a percentage. In addition to total rainfall, rain frequency and intensity are also analyzed. Results are stratified into two 12 h halves of the diurnal cycle as well as eight 3 h periods, and also by a measure of each island's topographic relief. In both regions, there is a clear difference between larger islands (areas of a few hundred km2 or greater) and smaller ones. Both rain frequency and total rainfall are significantly enhanced over larger islands compared to the surrounding ocean. For smaller islands the enhancement is either negligibly small, statistically insignificant, or, in the case of Caribbean rain frequency, negative. The enhancement in total rainfall over larger islands is partly attributable to greater frequency and partly to greater intensity. A diurnal cycle in island enhancement is evident in frequency but not intensity, except over small Caribbean islands where the converse is true. For the larger islands, higher orography is associated with greater rainfall enhancements. The orographic effect is larger (percentagewise) in the Caribbean than in the Maritime Continent. Orographic precipitation enhancement manifests more strongly as increased frequency of precipitation rather than increased intensity and is present at night as well as during the day. The lack of a clear diurnal cycle in orographic enhancement suggests that much of the orographic rainfall enhancement is attributable to mechanically forced upslope flow

  11. Ellis Island: The Immigrants' Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Rita G.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson where the students participate in a simulation of the process at Ellis Island in order to understand the feelings people underwent during immigration. Explains that the students choose and research a character, either fictional or a relative, and act out the experience of entering Ellis Island. (CMK)

  12. Typologi of Island City in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulana, Alvaryan; Benita, Tania

    2017-07-01

    As an archipelagic country, Indonesia consist of thousands of island. Some of them are big enough to contain growth and become the center of settlement and activity in Indonesia. However, growth and habitation are not only mushrooming in main island. Several small island also experience growth and become densely population places and simply become a city within island. This study aims to identify island city in Indonesia and creating the typology of the island city. This study is using exploratory approach and heavily rely on statistical figure of every single autonomous region as data sources. Eventually, this study found twelve (12) island cities in Indonesia, and three distinctive typology of island cities.

  13. Revision of Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) in the Marquesas Islands

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Warren L.; Wagner, Anthony J.; Lorence, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands three new species of Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) have come to light and are described herein: C. uapouensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, C. uahukaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, and C. kenwoodii W. L. Wagner & A. J. Wagner. Amended descriptions of the eight previously described Marquesan species are also provided as well as a key to the species. With the description of these the new species Cyrtandra in the Marquesas Islands consists of 11 species, six of which have been included in recent molecular phylogenetic studies of Pacific Cyrtandra, and appear to have arisen from one original introduction. If the other five species are members of this Marquesas clade then Cyrtandra would represent the largest lineage of Marquesas vascular plants. Psychotria is largest genus in the Marquesas Islands with 13 species, but is thought to consist of three separate lineages. PMID:24399899

  14. Revision of cyrtandra (gesneriaceae) in the marquesas islands.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Warren L; Wagner, Anthony J; Lorence, David H

    2013-01-01

    During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands three new species of Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) have come to light and are described herein: C. uapouensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, C. uahukaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, and C. kenwoodii W. L. Wagner & A. J. Wagner. Amended descriptions of the eight previously described Marquesan species are also provided as well as a key to the species. With the description of these the new species Cyrtandra in the Marquesas Islands consists of 11 species, six of which have been included in recent molecular phylogenetic studies of Pacific Cyrtandra, and appear to have arisen from one original introduction. If the other five species are members of this Marquesas clade then Cyrtandra would represent the largest lineage of Marquesas vascular plants. Psychotria is largest genus in the Marquesas Islands with 13 species, but is thought to consist of three separate lineages.

  15. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology.

    PubMed

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A; Wilmshurst, Janet M; de Boer, Erik J; Coffey, Emily E D; Whittaker, Robert J; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Willis, Kathy J

    2017-06-22

    The discovery and colonization of islands by humans has invariably resulted in their widespread ecological transformation. The small and isolated populations of many island taxa, and their evolution in the absence of humans and their introduced taxa, mean that they are particularly vulnerable to human activities. Consequently, even the most degraded islands are a focus for restoration, eradication, and monitoring programmes to protect the remaining endemic and/or relict populations. Here, we build a framework that incorporates an assessment of the degree of change from multiple baseline reference periods using long-term ecological data. The use of multiple reference points may provide information on both the variability of natural systems and responses to successive waves of cultural transformation of island ecosystems, involving, for example, the alteration of fire and grazing regimes and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems.

  16. Island tameness: living on islands reduces flight initiation distance.

    PubMed

    Cooper, William E; Pyron, R Alexander; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-22

    One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator-prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards.

  17. 2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  18. The taxonomic position and the unexpected divergence of the Habu viper, Protobothrops among Japanese subtropical islands.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Hiroki; Chijiwa, Takahito; Hattori, Shosaku; Terada, Koki; Ohno, Motonori; Fukumaki, Yasuyuki

    2016-08-01

    There are four Habu species currently recognized in Japan: Protobothrops flavoviridis from the Amami Islands and the Okinawa Islands, P. tokarensis from the Tokara Islands, P. elegans from the Yaeyama Islands and Ovophis okinabvensis from the Amami Islands and the Okinawa Islands. To clarify their taxonomic positions, we determined the complete mitochondria genome sequence (approx. 17kb) from two specimens from two different islands each for P. flavoviridis, P. tokarensis and P. elegans as well as one specimen of O. okinavensis and reconstructed the molecular phylogeny of Protobothrops using the published sequences of related species. The maximum likelihood tree showed four major species groups within Protbothrops: Group I consisting of P. cornutus, P. dabieshanensis, P. jerdonii and P. xiangchengensis; Group II consisting of P. flavoviridis and P. tokarensis; Group III consisting of P. maolensis, P. mucrosquamatus and P. elegans; Group IV consisting of P. himalayanus and P. kaubacki. Since we observed an unexpected divergence and the paraphyly of the two samples of P. flavoviridis collected from different islands, Amami-Oshima and Okinawajima within the Group II, we expanded the analysis by increasing the number of P. flavoviridis and P. tokarensis collected from 10 islands: Amami-Oshima (5 specimens), Kakeromajima (4) and Tokunoshima (4) from the Amami Islands, Okinawajima (4), Iheyajima (4), Iejima (4), Tokashikijima (4) and Kumejima (4) from the Okinawa Islands, Kodakarajima (P. tokarensis) (4) and Takarajima (P. tokarensis) (4) from the Tokara Islands. The maximum likelihood tree of the 44 samples replicated the significant divergence of P. flavoviridis between the Amami Clade including Amami-Oshima, Kakeromajima and Tokunoshima and the Okinawa Clade including Okinawajima, Iheyajima, Iejima, Tokashikijima and Kumejima. The Amami Clade also include all specimens from the Tokara Islands currently known as an independent species, P. tokarensis, suggesting the

  19. Plant communities of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Ronilee A.; Halvorson, William L.; Sawdo, Andell A.; Danielsen, Karen C.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the plant communities on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, was conducted from January through July 1988.  Vegetation data were collected at 296 sites using a releve technique.  The plant communities described include: grassland, coastal marsh, caliche scrub, coastal sage scrub, lupine scrub, baccharis scrub, coastal bluff scrub, coastal dune scrub, mixed chaparral, mixed woodland, torrey pine woodland, closed-cone pine woodland, island oak woodland, riparian woodland, and riparian herbaceous vegetation. The areal extent of each community was mapper on USGS 7.5' topographic maps, and digitized for GIS manipulation.

  20. 'King George Island' Brushed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This mosaic was made from frames acquired by the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during Spirit's 1,031 Martian day, or sol, on the red planet (Nov. 27, 2006). It shows a rock target called 'King George Island' after the target was brushed by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The mosaic covers approximately 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across and shows the granular nature of the rock exposure. The grains are typically about 1 millimeter (.04 inches) wide. Data from the rover's Moessbauer spectrometer provides evidence that they have an enhanced amount of the mineral hematite relative to surrounding soils.

  1. Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In the early hours of February 7, ASTER captured this nighttime thermal infrared image of an eruption of Anatahan Volcano in the central Mariana Islands. The summit of the volcano is bright indicating there is a very hot area there. Streaming to the west is an ash plume, visible by the red color indicating the presence of silicate-rich particles. Dark grey areas are clouds that appear colder than the ocean. Anatahan is a stratovolcano that started erupting in May 2003, forming a new crater.

    The image covers an area of 56.3 x 41.8 km, and is located 16 degrees north latitude and 145.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    This ASTER image was acquired on December 12, 2000, and covers an area of 38 x 48 km. Pine Island Glacier has undergone a steady loss of elevation with retreat of the grounding line in recent decades. Now, space imagery has revealed a wide new crack that some scientists think will soon result in a calving event. Glaciologist Robert Bindschadler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center predicts this crack will result in the calving of a major iceberg, probably in less than 18 months. Discovery of the crack was possible due to multi-year image archives and high resolution imagery. This image is located at 74.1 degrees south latitude and 105.1 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11095

  3. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on August 1, 2013, pursuant to Rule 207...

  4. Ecological release and venom evolution of a predatory marine snail at Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Duda, Thomas F; Lee, Taehwan

    2009-05-20

    Ecological release is coupled with adaptive radiation and ecological diversification yet little is known about the molecular basis of phenotypic changes associated with this phenomenon. The venomous, predatory marine gastropod Conus miliaris has undergone ecological release and exhibits increased dietary breadth at Easter Island. We examined the extent of genetic differentiation of two genes expressed in the venom of C. miliaris among samples from Easter Island, American Samoa and Guam. The population from Easter Island exhibits unique frequencies of alleles that encode distinct peptides at both loci. Levels of divergence at these loci exceed observed levels of divergence observed at a mitochondrial gene region at Easter Island. Patterns of genetic variation at two genes expressed in the venom of this C. miliaris suggest that selection has operated at these genes and contributed to the divergence of venom composition at Easter Island. These results show that ecological release is associated with strong selection pressures that promote the evolution of new phenotypes.

  5. Further evidence of an Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool on Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Thorsby, E; Flåm, S T; Woldseth, B; Dupuy, B M; Sanchez-Mazas, A; Fernandez-Vina, M A

    2009-06-01

    Available evidence suggests a Polynesian origin of the Easter Island population. We recently found that some native Easter Islanders also carried some common American Indian (Amerindian) human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, which probably were introduced before Europeans discovered the island in 1722. In this study, we report molecular genetic investigations of 21 other selected native Easter Islanders. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome markers showed no traces of an Amerindian contribution. However, high-resolution genomic HLA typing showed that two individuals carried some other common Amerindian HLA alleles, different from those found in our previous investigations. The new data support our previous evidence of an Amerindian contribution to the gene pool on Easter Island.

  6. Groundwater vulnerability on small islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holding, S.; Allen, D. M.; Foster, S.; Hsieh, A.; Larocque, I.; Klassen, J.; van Pelt, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    The majority of naturally occurring freshwater on small islands is groundwater, which is primarily recharged by precipitation. Recharge rates are therefore likely to be impacted by climate change. Freshwater resources on small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are limited in size and easily compromised. Here we have compiled available aquifer system characteristics and water-use data for 43 small island developing states distributed worldwide, based on local expert knowledge, publications and regional data sets. Current vulnerability was assessed by evaluating the recharge volume per capita. For future vulnerability, climate change projections were used to estimate changes in aquifer recharge. We find that 44% of islands are in a state of water stress, and while recharge is projected to increase by as much as 117% on 12 islands situated in the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, recharge is projected to decrease by up to 58% on the remaining 31 islands. Of great concern is the lack of enacted groundwater protection legislation for many of the small island developing states identified as highly vulnerable to current and future conditions. Recharge indicators, shown alongside the state of legal groundwater protections, provide a global picture of groundwater supply vulnerability under current and future climate change conditions.

  7. Global Collembola on Deception Island

    PubMed Central

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  8. Global Collembola on Deception Island.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites.

  9. Speciation on Oceanic Islands: Rapid Adaptive Divergence vs. Cryptic Speciation in a Guadalupe Island Songbird (Aves: Junco)

    PubMed Central

    Aleixandre, Pau; Hernández Montoya, Julio; Milá, Borja

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary divergence of island populations, and in particular the tempo and relative importance of neutral and selective factors, is of central interest to the study of speciation. The rate of phenotypic evolution upon island colonization can vary greatly among taxa, and cases of convergent evolution can further confound the inference of correct evolutionary histories. Given the potential lability of phenotypic characters, molecular dating of insular lineages analyzed in a phylogenetic framework provides a critical tool to test hypotheses of phenotypic divergence since colonization. The Guadalupe junco is the only insular form of the polymorphic dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), and shares eye and plumage color with continental morphs, yet presents an enlarged bill and reduced body size. Here we use variation in mtDNA sequence, morphological traits and song variables to test whether the Guadalupe junco evolved rapidly following a recent colonization by a mainland form of the dark-eyed junco, or instead represents a well-differentiated “cryptic” lineage adapted to the insular environment through long-term isolation, with plumage coloration a result of evolutionary convergence. We found high mtDNA divergence of the island lineage with respect to both continental J. hyemalis and J. phaeonotus, representing a history of isolation of about 600,000 years. The island lineage was also significantly differentiated in morphological and male song variables. Moreover, and contrary to predictions regarding diversity loss on small oceanic islands, we document relatively high levels of both haplotypic and song-unit diversity on Guadalupe Island despite long-term isolation in a very small geographic area. In contrast to prevailing taxonomy, the Guadalupe junco is an old, well-differentiated evolutionary lineage, whose similarity to mainland juncos in plumage and eye color is due to evolutionary convergence. Our findings confirm the role of remote islands in driving

  10. Speciation on oceanic islands: rapid adaptive divergence vs. cryptic speciation in a Guadalupe Island songbird (Aves: Junco).

    PubMed

    Aleixandre, Pau; Hernández Montoya, Julio; Milá, Borja

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary divergence of island populations, and in particular the tempo and relative importance of neutral and selective factors, is of central interest to the study of speciation. The rate of phenotypic evolution upon island colonization can vary greatly among taxa, and cases of convergent evolution can further confound the inference of correct evolutionary histories. Given the potential lability of phenotypic characters, molecular dating of insular lineages analyzed in a phylogenetic framework provides a critical tool to test hypotheses of phenotypic divergence since colonization. The Guadalupe junco is the only insular form of the polymorphic dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), and shares eye and plumage color with continental morphs, yet presents an enlarged bill and reduced body size. Here we use variation in mtDNA sequence, morphological traits and song variables to test whether the Guadalupe junco evolved rapidly following a recent colonization by a mainland form of the dark-eyed junco, or instead represents a well-differentiated "cryptic" lineage adapted to the insular environment through long-term isolation, with plumage coloration a result of evolutionary convergence. We found high mtDNA divergence of the island lineage with respect to both continental J. hyemalis and J. phaeonotus, representing a history of isolation of about 600,000 years. The island lineage was also significantly differentiated in morphological and male song variables. Moreover, and contrary to predictions regarding diversity loss on small oceanic islands, we document relatively high levels of both haplotypic and song-unit diversity on Guadalupe Island despite long-term isolation in a very small geographic area. In contrast to prevailing taxonomy, the Guadalupe junco is an old, well-differentiated evolutionary lineage, whose similarity to mainland juncos in plumage and eye color is due to evolutionary convergence. Our findings confirm the role of remote islands in driving

  11. Island biogeography of marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Hudson T; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A

    2017-09-07

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  12. GIPSy: Genomic island prediction software.

    PubMed

    Soares, Siomar C; Geyik, Hakan; Ramos, Rommel T J; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Baumbach, Jan; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Tauch, Andreas; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria are highly diverse organisms that are able to adapt to a broad range of environments and hosts due to their high genomic plasticity. Horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in this genome plasticity and in evolution by leaps through the incorporation of large blocks of genome sequences, ordinarily known as genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs may harbor genes encoding virulence, metabolism, antibiotic resistance and symbiosis-related functions, namely pathogenicity islands (PAIs), metabolic islands (MIs), resistance islands (RIs) and symbiotic islands (SIs). Although many software for the prediction of GEIs exist, they only focus on PAI prediction and present other limitations, such as complicated installation and inconvenient user interfaces. Here, we present GIPSy, the genomic island prediction software, a standalone and user-friendly software for the prediction of GEIs, built on our previously developed pathogenicity island prediction software (PIPS). We also present four application cases in which we crosslink data from literature to PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs predicted by GIPSy. Briefly, GIPSy correctly predicted the following previously described GEIs: 13 PAIs larger than 30kb in Escherichia coli CFT073; 1 MI for Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243, which seems to be a miscellaneous island; 1 RI of Acinetobacter baumannii AYE, named AbaR1; and, 1 SI of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 presenting a mosaic structure. GIPSy is the first life-style-specific genomic island prediction software to perform analyses of PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs, opening a door for a better understanding of bacterial genome plasticity and the adaptation to new traits.

  13. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  14. The Cambrian of Bennett Island (New Siberian Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danukalova, M. K.; Kuzmichev, A. B.; Korovnikov, I. V.

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents new data on the Cambrian stratigraphy of Bennett Island, one of the least explored East Arctic islands. The section, about 500 m of total thickness, comprises four lithological units that store a record of the deposition history: (1) clastic sediments including storm sandstones; (2) shallow-marine mudstone; (3) lagoonal variegated mudstone and limestone; (4) black shale. It is suggested to classify the units as formations with their proper names. The section spans all epoches of the Cambrian stratigraphy constrained by trilobite fossils. In the Cambrian, territory of the island belonged to Siberia rather than to some exotic terrane, judging by abundant endemic Siberian trilobite species in the Bennett section. This inference is supported by synchronicity in recorded deposition events of Bennett Island and northeastern Siberia (Kharaulakh Mountains). The Cambrian sediments of the two areas were deposited in different parts of a single shallow sea which extended as far as Taimyr.

  15. Facial scarification and tattooing on Santa Catalina Island (Solomon Islands).

    PubMed

    Mammen, L; Norton, S A

    1997-10-01

    Ritual scarification is the culturally sanctioned process of incising the skin to achieve patterned scars. Scarification was practiced widely by traditional societies, but the encroachment of Western cultural expectations has made the practice increasingly uncommon. Ritual tattooing has a meaningful place in many traditional societies. Ritual scarification and tattooing are still found on Santa Catalina Island, an isolated member of the Solomon Islands in the south-west Pacific.

  16. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1, and...

  17. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1, and...

  18. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1, and...

  19. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt Island...

  20. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are...

  1. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are...

  2. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are...

  3. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt Island...

  4. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1, and...

  5. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt Island...

  6. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt Island...

  7. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are...

  8. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1, and...

  9. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt Island...

  10. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are...

  11. Oak restoration trials: Santa Catalina Island

    Treesearch

    Lisa Stratton

    2002-01-01

    Two restoration trials involving four oak species have been implemented as part of a larger restoration program for Catalina Island. In 1997 the Catalina Island Conservancy began an active program of restoration after 50 years of ranching and farming activities on the island. The restoration program includes removing feral goats and pigs island-wide and converting 80...

  12. Equilibrium theory of island biogeography: A review

    Treesearch

    Angela D. Yu; Simon A. Lei

    2001-01-01

    The topography, climatic pattern, location, and origin of islands generate unique patterns of species distribution. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography creates a general framework in which the study of taxon distribution and broad island trends may be conducted. Critical components of the equilibrium theory include the species-area relationship, island-...

  13. Montague Island vole: a conservation assessment.

    Treesearch

    Ellen Weintraub. Lance

    2002-01-01

    Montague Island tundra voles were first described in the early 1900s. Based on their large size and dark coloration relative to other island and mainland populations, tundra voles from Montague Island were classified as a distinct subspecies. Research conducted in the 1990s revealed significant differences in the size and shape of Montague Island voles, but not...

  14. 77 FR 34894 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone.... This rule is intended to restrict all vessels from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during, and...

  15. 78 FR 70854 - Amendment of Restricted Area R-7201 Farallon De Medinilla Island; Mariana Islands, GU

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... De Medinilla Island; Mariana Islands, GU AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... coordinate in the boundary of restricted area R-7201, Farallon De Medinilla Island, Mariana Islands, Guam... revised datum which resulted in a minor shift in the charted location of Farallon De Medinilla Island...

  16. [Relationships between island characteristics and arthropod diversity in Thousand-Island Lake].

    PubMed

    Ren, Li-jun; Xu, Zhi-hong; Lu, Jian-bo; Zhao, Gai; Zhang, Qun

    2009-09-01

    In April, May, August, and October 2006, grid-based sampling method was adopted to investigate the diversity and abundance of arthropods on 50 islands in the Thousand-island Lake, with the effects of island area, island altitude, island shape, inter-island distance, and island-mainland distance on arthropod species richness analyzed. With the increase of island area, the richness of total arthropod species and that of the arthropod species with high- and low- dispersal ability all increased, and the relationships between island area and arthropod species richness corresponded to the classical island biogeography model. The island area, island altitude, and island shape had comprehensive effects on the arthropod species richness, while inter-island distance and island-mainland distance had less effects. The richness of total arthropod species had a significant positive correlation with island altitude and island shape, that of the arthropod species with high- dispersal ability was significantly positively correlated with island area and island altitude, while no significant relationship was observed between the richness of arthropod species with low-dispersal ability and the island characteristics.

  17. Island wake produced by Antipodes Islands south of New Zealand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-12-16

    SL4-137-3655 (16 Dec. 1973) --- An island wake produced by the Antipodes Islands in the ocean current south of New Zealand is seen in this photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. A Skylab 4 crewmen took the picture with a hand-held 70mm Hasselblad camera. The bow wave pattern is quite evident and can be used to determine the current speed from the angle of the bow wave if the propagation speed of the surface wave is known. Also, evident is the darker band extending downstream from the island tens of miles. This is the actual wake of the island. The existence of water color differences from within to outside a turbulent island wake may indicate a temperature difference, with cooler water being stirred to the surface in the wake. This temperature difference could be used to drive a thermo-electric type generator to reduce small islands' dependence on imported oil for power generation. Photo credit: NASA

  18. Barrier-island aggradation via inlet migration: Mustang Island, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simms, Alexander R.; Anderson, John B.; Blum, Michael

    2006-05-01

    After establishing its present location around 9.5 ka, Mustang Island aggraded, stacking over 20 m of barrier-island sand in the same location. Throughout Mustang Island's history, tidal inlets shifted within nearly the same location from 7.5 ka to the present, leaving 10-15 m thick deposits of clean, well-sorted, quartz sand deposited within only a few centuries. These deposits lack some of the sedimentary features normally associated with tidal inlets, such as tidal couplets and shell hash. The lack of such features is attributed to the uniform nature of the deposits cut by the inlets during the island's relatively long period of aggradation. Mustang Island was able to maintain an aggradation character throughout most of the Holocene due to the sediment eroded from three sources: Pleistocene headlands, the transgressive Colorado River delta of Texas, and the OIS 3 shoreline of the central-Texas shelf. Each of these sources was exposed to waves and accompanying longshore drift during the island's early history when sea level rose quickly, but was flooded or capped by transgressive muds by the time sea-level rise slowed during the middle Holocene.

  19. Rapid diffusion of magic-size islands by combined glide and vacancy mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, D; Voter, A F; Uche, O U; Hamilton, J C

    2009-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics, nudged elastic band, and embedded atom methods, we show that certain 2D Ag islands undergo extremely rapid one-dimensional diffusion on Cu(001) surfaces. Indeed, below 300K, hopping rates for 'magic-size' islands are orders of magnitude faster than hopping rates for single Ag adatoms. This rapid diffusion requires both the c(10 x 2) hexagonally-packed superstructure typical of Ag on Cu(001) and appropriate 'magic-sizes' for the islands. The novel highly-cooperative diffusion mechanism presented here couples vacancy diffusion with simultaneous core glide.

  20. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  1. Opportunity at Cook Islands Stereo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity combined images into this stereo, 360-degree view of the rover surroundings on March 12, 2009. Cook Islands is visible just below center of this image. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  2. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  3. Periodic Shoreline Morphology, Fire Island, New York

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    The presence of shoreline undulations along the Atlantic coast of Fire Island , NY requires careful consideration in developing erosion control and...hurricane protection plans and design alternatives for the protection of the Fire Island barrier and the Long Island mainland. An analysis and geometric... Island shoreline their presence after project construction must be anticipated. Conclusions drawn from the analysis of the Fire Island shoreline

  4. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows the western end of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution.

    Black areas near the top of the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface at the top of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 14.02 deg. North lat., 171.52 deg. West Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

  5. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows most of the northern coast of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the line of circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution. The capital of Western Samoa, Apia, is in the lower left of the image.

    Angular black areas in the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface , along the left side of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 63 km (37.3 miles) Location: 14.16 deg. North lat., 171.75 deg. West Orientation: North towards

  6. Magnetic island formation in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1989-04-01

    The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs.

  7. Origin and post-colonization evolution of the Chatham Islands skink (Oligosoma nigriplantare nigriplantare).

    PubMed

    Liggins, Libby; Chapple, David G; Daugherty, Charles H; Ritchie, Peter A

    2008-07-01

    Island ecosystems provide an opportunity to examine a range of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Chatham Islands are an isolated archipelago situated approximately 800 km east of New Zealand. Geological evidence indicates that the Chatham Islands re-emerged within the last 1-4 million years, following a prolonged period of marine inundation, and therefore the resident flora and fauna is the result of long-distance overwater dispersal. We examine the origin and post-colonization evolution of the Chatham Islands skink, Oligosoma nigriplantare nigriplantare, the sole reptile species occurring on the archipelago. We sampled O. n. nigriplantare from across nine islands within the Chatham Islands group, and representative samples from across the range of its closest relative, the New Zealand mainland common skink (Oligosoma nigriplantare polychroma). Our mitochondrial sequence data indicate that O. n. nigriplantare diverged from O. n. polychroma 5.86-7.29 million years ago. This pre-dates the emergence date for the Chatham Islands, but indicates that O. n. nigriplantare colonized the Chatham Islands via overwater dispersal on a single occasion. Despite the substantial morphological variability evident in O. n. nigriplantare, only relatively shallow genetic divergences (maximum divergence approximately 2%) were found across the Chatham Islands. Our analyses (haplotypic diversity, Phi(ST), analysis of molecular variance, and nested clade phylogeographical analysis) indicated restricted gene flow in O. n. nigriplantare resulting in strong differentiation between islands. However, the restrictions to gene flow might have only arisen recently as there was also a significant pattern of isolation by distance, possibly from when the Chatham Islands were a single landmass during Pleistocene glacial maxima when sea levels were lower. The level of genetic and morphological divergence between O. n. nigriplantare and O. n. polychroma might warrant their recognition as

  8. Electron quantization in arbitrarily shaped gold islands on MgO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiehler, Christian; Pan, Yi; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter; Koskinen, Pekka; Häkkinen, Hannu; Nilius, Niklas; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2013-09-01

    Low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy has been employed to analyze the formation of quantum well states (QWS) in two-dimensional gold islands, containing between 50 and 200 atoms, on MgO thin films. The energy position and symmetry of the eigenstates are revealed from conductance spectroscopy and imaging. The majority of the QWS originates from overlapping Au 6p orbitals in the individual atoms and is unoccupied. Their characteristic is already reproduced with simple particle-in-a-box models that account for the symmetry of the islands (rectangular, triangular, or linear). However, better agreement is achieved when considering the true atomic structure of the aggregates via a density functional tight-binding approach. Based on a statistically relevant number of single-island data, we have established a correlation between the island geometry and the gap between the highest-occupied and the lowest-unoccupied molecular orbital in the finite-sized islands. The linear eccentricity is identified as a suitable descriptor for this relationship, as it combines information on both island size and island shape. Finally, the depth of the confinement potential is determined from the spatial extension of QWS beyond the physical boundaries of the Au islands. Our paper demonstrates how electron quantization effects can be analyzed in detail in metal nanostructures. The results may help elucidating the interplay between electronic and chemical properties of oxide-supported clusters as used in heterogeneous catalysis.

  9. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little... extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A line...

  10. Eco-geomorphic processes that maintain a small coral reef island: Ballast Island in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayanne, Hajime; Aoki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takuya; Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya; Ide, Yoichi; Iwatsuka, Yuudai; Takahashi, Kenya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sekimoto, Tsunehiro; Isobe, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    Landform changes in Ballast Island, a small coral reef island in the Ryukyu Islands, were investigated by remote sensing analysis and a field survey. The area of the island almost doubled after a mass coral bleaching event in 1998. Coral branches generated by the mass mortality and broken by waves were delivered and stocked on a reef flat and accumulated to expand the area of the island. In 2012 high waves generated by typhoons also changed the island's topography. Overall, the island moved in the downdrift direction of the higher waves. Waves impacting both sides of the island piled up a large volume of coral gravels above the high-tide level. Eco-geomorphic processes, including a supply of calcareous materials from the corals on the same reef especially during stormy wave conditions, were key factors in maintaining the dynamic topographic features of this small coral reef island.

  11. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′ N...

  12. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′ N...

  13. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′ N...

  14. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′ N...

  15. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′ N...

  16. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the Virgin Islands of the United States and the Island of Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the...

  17. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the Virgin Islands of the United States and the Island of Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the...

  18. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  19. Volcanic hazard on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, S.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.

    2014-09-01

    Deception Island is the most active volcano in the South Shetland Islands and has been the scene of more than twenty identified eruptions over the past two centuries. In this contribution we present the first comprehensive long-term volcanic hazard assessment for this volcanic island. The research is based on the use of probabilistic methods and statistical techniques to estimate volcanic susceptibility, eruption recurrence and the most likely future eruptive scenarios. We perform a statistical analysis of the time series of past eruptions and the spatial extent of their products, including lava flows, fallout, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. The Bayesian event tree statistical method HASSET is applied to calculate eruption recurrence, while the QVAST tool is used in an analysis of past activity to calculate the possibility that new vents will open (volcanic susceptibility). On the basis of these calculations, we identify a number of significant scenarios using the GIS-based VORIS 2.0.1 and LAHARZ software and evaluate the potential extent of the main volcanic hazards to be expected on the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of volcanic hazard on Deception Island and the results obtained are potentially useful for long-term emergency planning.

  20. Small population instability and island settlement patterns.

    PubMed

    Williamson, I; Sabath, M D

    1984-03-01

    This study used data from the Marshall Islands to examine the relationship between settlement pattern within an island group to the stability of potential population inhabiting those islands. It was hypothesized that extinction probability (based on island carrying capacity, frequency and amplitude of fluctuation in resources determining carrying capacity, and the net costs of contact and exchange between population units) will determine island settlement patterns, resulting in nonsettlement of islands with low carrying capacities and settlement of all islands with high carrying capacities. The Marshall Island group includes both settled and unsettled islands, and represents a homogeneous culture that has remained unchanged for many generations. The mesophytic index (rainfall x land area), used as an indicator of atoll human carrying capacity, was related to island settlement patterns. No atolls with mesophytic indices exceeding 2000 units were uninhabited, although 4 with values under 2000 units were inhabited, suggesting an overlap zone between inhabitable and uninhabitable islands. Population size and settlement existence were also related. Only 2 of 21 inhabited islands had populations below 100, and none of the uninhabited islands contained more than 78 individuals. These results may be of relevance to earlier atoll colonization patterns. The prerequisites for atoll colonization appear to have been colonizing groups exceeding 80 individuals, contact with an established population source, and a horticultural subsistence mode and maritime technology. It is concluded that small population instability should be considered in terms of the colonization process and settlement pattern of island groups.

  1. Relationships of Afroablepharus Greer, 1974 skinks from the Gulf of Guinea islands based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA: patterns of colonization and comments on taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Jesus, José; Harris, D James; Brehm, António

    2007-12-01

    Partial sequences of three mitochondrial DNA genes, 12S rDNA, 16S rDNA and cytochrome b, and one nuclear gene, c-mos, were used to assess the phylogenetic relationships of species belonging to the genus Afroablepharus from the volcanic islands of the Gulf of Guinea (West Africa) and neighboring continental Africa. Additionally, partial sequences of cytochrome b were used to compare levels of sequence divergence within populations. The three forms from São Tomé, Príncipe and Annobon (one per island) are genetically distinct, with high levels of divergence, supporting the recognition of a distinct species in each island. Populations within each island contain very low levels of genetic diversity. These three forms form a monophyletic group suggesting a single initial colonization followed by radiation to the other islands, possibly from São Tomé to Príncipe and Annobon. This is contrary to what was found in other reptiles from these islands such as Mabuya (sensu lato) and Hemidactylus, which colonized the islands multiple times. Assuming a molecular clock for cytochrome b of about 2% divergence per million years (usually applied to Sauria), the lineage on Annobon island exceeds the age of the island, thus casting further doubt on this widely used divergence estimate. Partial sequences of c-mos showed no variation within islands. Five to seven sites were variable among islands, which is a high value further supporting the treatment of each island form as a distinct species.

  2. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  3. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  4. Island morphologies in epitaxial growth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessinger, Uwe; Leskovar, M.; Rumaner, Lee; Ohuchi, Fumio; Olmstead, Marjorie A.; Ueno, Keiji; Koma, Atsushi

    1996-03-01

    Growth of epitaxial films commonly occurs through the coalescence of individual islands. The morphology of islands has therefore a key importance for the film qualities desired. A uniform layer-by-layer growth of the film is achieved when islands in the first layer coalesce to form a uniform layer before a second layer nucleates; a non-uniform multi-layer growth results from multiple layers successively nucleating on top of each other before the first layer coalesces. We developed a kinetic model based on an analytic solution of the diffusion equation between nucleation events to calculate the evolving island morphology during growth. The morphologies depend on deposition rate, substrate temperature, and activation energies for surface diffusion on the substrate and deposited material. By applying this theory to atomic force microscopy data of GaSe multi-layer islands, we extract a value for the activation energy for Ga diffusion across steps of GaSe. Supported by NSF Grant No. ECS-9209652, DOE Grant No. DE-FG06-94ER45516, and the Japanese New Energy Development Organization.

  5. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs.

  6. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia)

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo–West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

  7. Leptospira Species in Feral Cats and Black Rats from Western Australia and Christmas Island.

    PubMed

    Dybing, Narelle A; Jacobson, Caroline; Irwin, Peter; Algar, David; Adams, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected, re-emerging bacterial disease with both zoonotic and conservation implications. Rats and livestock are considered the usual sources of human infection, but all mammalian species are capable of carrying Leptospira spp. and transmitting pathogenic leptospires in their urine, and uncertainty remains about the ecology and transmission dynamics of Leptospira in different regions. In light of a recent case of human leptospirosis on tropical Christmas Island, this study aimed to investigate the role of introduced animals (feral cats and black rats) as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira spp. on Christmas Island and to compare this with two different climatic regions of Western Australia (one island and one mainland). Kidney samples were collected from black rats (n = 68) and feral cats (n = 59) from Christmas Island, as well as feral cats from Dirk Hartog Island (n = 23) and southwest Western Australia (n = 59). Molecular (PCR) screening detected pathogenic leptospires in 42.4% (95% confidence interval 29.6-55.9) of cats and 2.9% (0.4-10.2) of rats from Christmas Island. Sequencing of cat- and rat-positive samples from Christmas Island showed 100% similarity for Leptospira interrogans. Pathogenic leptospires were not detected in cats from Dirk Hartog Island or southwest Western Australia. These findings were consistent with previous reports of higher Leptospira spp. prevalence in tropical regions compared with arid and temperate regions. Despite the abundance of black rats on Christmas Island, feral cats appear to be the more important reservoir species for the persistence of pathogenic L. interrogans on the island. This research highlights the importance of disease surveillance and feral animal management to effectively control potential disease transmission.

  8. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    DOE PAGES

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-24

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. A magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration is evident in a fusion device. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Furthermore, modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturatedmore » island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. In addition destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.« less

  9. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-15

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. In a fusion device, a magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Further modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. An additional destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.

  10. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-24

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. A magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration is evident in a fusion device. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Furthermore, modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. In addition destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.

  11. Is heterostyly rare on oceanic islands?

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenta; Sugawara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Heterostyly has been considered rare or absent on oceanic islands. However, there has been no comprehensive review on this issue. Is heterostyly truly rare on oceanic islands? What makes heterostyly rare on such islands? To answer these questions, we review the reproductive studies on heterostyly on oceanic islands, with special emphasis on the heterostylous genus Psychotria in the Pacific Ocean as a model system. Overall, not many reproductive studies have been performed on heterostylous species on oceanic islands. In Hawaiian Psychotria, all 11 species are thought to have evolved dioecy from distyly. In the West Pacific, three species on the oceanic Bonin and Lanyu Islands are distylous (Psychotria homalosperma, P. boninensis and P. cephalophora), whereas three species on the continental Ryukyu Islands show various breeding systems, such as distyly (P. serpens), dioecy (P. rubra) and monoecy (P. manillensis). On some other Pacific oceanic islands, possibilities of monomorphy have been reported. For many Psychotria species, breeding systems are unknown, although recent studies indicate that heterostylous species may occur on some oceanic islands. A shift from heterostyly to other sexual systems may occur on some oceanic islands. This tendency may also contribute to the rarity of heterostyly, in addition to the difficulty in colonization/autochthonous evolution of heterostylous species on oceanic islands. Further investigation of reproductive systems of Psychotria on oceanic islands using robust phylogenetic frameworks would provide new insights into plant reproduction on oceanic islands. PMID:26199401

  12. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-07

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics.

  13. Is heterostyly rare on oceanic islands?

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kenta; Sugawara, Takashi

    2015-07-21

    Heterostyly has been considered rare or absent on oceanic islands. However, there has been no comprehensive review on this issue. Is heterostyly truly rare on oceanic islands? What makes heterostyly rare on such islands? To answer these questions, we review the reproductive studies on heterostyly on oceanic islands, with special emphasis on the heterostylous genus Psychotria in the Pacific Ocean as a model system. Overall, not many reproductive studies have been performed on heterostylous species on oceanic islands. In Hawaiian Psychotria, all 11 species are thought to have evolved dioecy from distyly. In the West Pacific, three species on the oceanic Bonin and Lanyu Islands are distylous (Psychotria homalosperma, P. boninensis and P. cephalophora), whereas three species on the continental Ryukyu Islands show various breeding systems, such as distyly (P. serpens), dioecy (P. rubra) and monoecy (P. manillensis). On some other Pacific oceanic islands, possibilities of monomorphy have been reported. For many Psychotria species, breeding systems are unknown, although recent studies indicate that heterostylous species may occur on some oceanic islands. A shift from heterostyly to other sexual systems may occur on some oceanic islands. This tendency may also contribute to the rarity of heterostyly, in addition to the difficulty in colonization/autochthonous evolution of heterostylous species on oceanic islands. Further investigation of reproductive systems of Psychotria on oceanic islands using robust phylogenetic frameworks would provide new insights into plant reproduction on oceanic islands.

  14. Showcasing bioscience in Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Spero, Denice

    2013-02-01

    There are a number of well-recognized bioscience companies located in the greater Providence area. They represent a significant and growing source of jobs and future revenue, which promises to play a role in the revitalization and expansion of Rhode Island's economy. In an effort to support these companies and to showcase their research, the Rhode Island Medical Journal is highlighting five of these innovative enterprises in this issue. The companies selected are members of the Rhode Island BioScience Leaders organization, and their research spans a wide range of science, from biologics and informatics to innovative coatings for medical devices. They include ProThera Biologics, EpiVax, Tivorsan Pharmaceuticals, BioIntraface, and VeroScience.

  15. Hawaii Island Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Hawaii Island. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume II – Island of Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.

  16. Recharge Data for Hawaii Island

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Recharge data for Hawaii Island in shapefile format. The data are from the following sources: Whittier, R.B and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human Health and Environmental Risk Ranking of On-Site Sewage Disposal systems for the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final, Prepared for Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics. Oki, D. S. 1999. Geohydrology and Numerical Simulation of the Ground-Water Flow System of Kona, Island of Hawaii. U.S. Water-Resources Investigation Report: 99-4073. Oki, D. S. 2002. Reassessment of Ground-water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation report 02-4006.

  17. 23. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. VERTICAL WESTINGHOUSE GENERATORS IN 1919 ADDITION. DATED FEBRUARY 19, 1919. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 160, Sylvan Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  18. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. LOOKING NORTH AFTER ADDITION OF CONICAL ROOF. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 53, North Avenue North of Midpoint, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. DATED OCTOBER 2, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 138, Second Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. 8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATON IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 68, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  1. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR AFTER REMODELING INTO OFFICE SPACE. DATED FEBRUARY 13, 1943. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 67, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  2. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 108, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  3. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 109, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  4. 9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED APRIL 18, 1941. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  6. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 280, Sylvan Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  7. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 61, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 103, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. 7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 62, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. 11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. BASEMENT, SHOWING ORIGINAL OPEN INTERIOR PLAN. DATED APRIL 7, 1942. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  11. 3. Light tower, view northwest, south side Ram Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Light tower, view northwest, south side - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  12. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO SCALE CENTERED ON BUILDING (12/30/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  13. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTHEAST CORNER OF LOBBY OF BUILDING (12/29/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  14. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST CORNER FROM ACROSS TARMAC (12/25/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  15. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHWEST CORNER OF WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST AT WEST FAÇADE WITH SCALE POLE (01/02/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  16. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT WEST SIDE SHOWING FLAG, GUN, ENGINES (12/29/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  17. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT SOUTHWEST CORNER FROM BEHIND CONTROL TOWER (12/28/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  18. WEST SIDE OF WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST SIDE OF WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT SOUTHWEST CORNER SHOWING OVERHANGS (01/02/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  19. The Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  20. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized

  1. Slope protection for artificial island

    SciTech Connect

    Czerniak, M.T.; Collins, J.I.; Shak, A.T.

    1981-08-01

    The technology under development to protect artificial-island production platforms from Arctic sea and ice damage involves three major considerations: (1) sea conditions during the ice-free season, (2) ice conditions during winter, and (3) construction constraints imposed by material availability, transportation problems, and length of the construction season. So far, researchers have evaluated 15 different slope-protection systems on the basis of reliability, construction-cost, and maintenance-cost factors, choosing 8 candidates for wave and ice model testing. The cases of interest involve exploration and production islands in shallow and deeper water applications.

  2. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders National data for ... very limited. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke ...

  3. Space Radar Image of Reunion Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This radar image shows the volcanic island of Reunion, about 700 km 434 miles east of Madagascar in the southwest Indian Ocean. The southern half of the island is dominated by the active volcano, Piton de la Fournaise.

  4. Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-07-03

    Devon Island is situated in an isolated part of Canada Nunavut Territory, and is usually considered to be the largest uninhabited island in the world. These images were acquired by NASA Terra satellite on June 28, 2001.

  5. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  6. Libraries in Rhode Island: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/rhodeisland.html Libraries in Rhode Island To use the sharing features ... Island Hospital / a Lifespan Partner Peters Health Sciences Library 593 Eddy Street Providence, RI 02903-4971 401- ...

  7. Biodiversity on island chains: Neutral model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Patrick B.

    2010-11-01

    A neutral ecology model is simulated on an island chain, in which neighboring islands can exchange individuals but only the first island is able to receive immigrants from a metacommunity. It is found by several measures that α -diversity decreases along the chain. Subtle changes in taxon abundance distributions can be detected when islands in the chain are compared to diversity-matched single islands. The island chain is found to have unexpectedly rich dynamics. Significant β -diversity correlations are found between islands in the chain, which are absent between diversity-matched single islands. The results potentially apply to human microbial biodiversity and biogeography and suggest that measurements of interindividual and intraindividual β -diversity may give insights into microbial community assembly mechanisms.

  8. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  9. 77 FR 51473 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity... all vessels from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during, and immediately after the...

  10. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank on...

  11. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank on...

  12. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank on...

  13. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank on...

  14. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank on...

  15. 75 FR 61993 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... (TACAN) System from the legal description of the Class E airspace areas for Kwajalein Island, Bucholz AAF, Marshall Islands, RMI. The U.S. Army notified the FAA that the Kwajalein TACAN was decommissioned. This...

  16. The status of island scrub oak (Quercus pacifica on Catalina Island, California

    Treesearch

    Denise A. Knapp

    2002-01-01

    The island scrub oak is characterized by a shrubby (to 2 meters) or arborescent (to 5 meters or taller) growth form. It is the dominant species of the scrub oak chaparral community on Catalina Island, which occupies approximately 25 percent of the 76 square-mile island, primarily on north-facing slopes. The Santa Catalina Island Conservancy, which owns and manages 88...

  17. Islands as model systems in ecology and evolution: prospects fifty years after MacArthur-Wilson.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ben H; Simberloff, Daniel; Ricklefs, Robert E; Aguilée, Robin; Condamine, Fabien L; Gravel, Dominique; Morlon, Hélène; Mouquet, Nicolas; Rosindell, James; Casquet, Juliane; Conti, Elena; Cornuault, Josselin; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Hengl, Tomislav; Norder, Sietze J; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F; Sanmartín, Isabel; Strasberg, Dominique; Triantis, Kostas A; Valente, Luis M; Whittaker, Robert J; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Emerson, Brent C; Thébaud, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The study of islands as model systems has played an important role in the development of evolutionary and ecological theory. The 50th anniversary of MacArthur and Wilson's (December 1963) article, 'An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography', was a recent milestone for this theme. Since 1963, island systems have provided new insights into the formation of ecological communities. Here, building on such developments, we highlight prospects for research on islands to improve our understanding of the ecology and evolution of communities in general. Throughout, we emphasise how attributes of islands combine to provide unusual research opportunities, the implications of which stretch far beyond islands. Molecular tools and increasing data acquisition now permit re-assessment of some fundamental issues that interested MacArthur and Wilson. These include the formation of ecological networks, species abundance distributions, and the contribution of evolution to community assembly. We also extend our prospects to other fields of ecology and evolution - understanding ecosystem functioning, speciation and diversification - frequently employing assets of oceanic islands in inferring the geographic area within which evolution has occurred, and potential barriers to gene flow. Although island-based theory is continually being enriched, incorporating non-equilibrium dynamics is identified as a major challenge for the future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Concepts for Functional Restoration of Barrier Islands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Frisian barrier islands to sea-level rise: An investigation of past and future evolution. Geomorphology 15, 57-65. Farley, P. P. 1923. Coney Island ...ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-74 September 2009 Concepts for Functional Restoration of Barrier Islands by Julie Dean Rosati PURPOSE: This Coastal and...Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) presents guid- ance for functional restoration of barrier islands . The concept of functional restoration

  19. Pearl and Hermes Reef, Hawaiian Island Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Pearl and Hermes Reef (28.0N, 176.0W) in the Hawaiian Island Chain, are seen with several small sandy islands, forming an atoll that caps a seamount on the long chain that extends some 1,500 miles northwestward from the more familiar Hawaiian Islands proper. Pearl and Hermes Reef lies about 100 miles southeast of Midway island. A reticulate network of coral patch reefs separates the lagoon into more or less isolated pools.

  20. Sediment Management Options for Galveston Island, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-15

    the potential for long-term sustainability are presented. Galveston Island is a 47 km long sand barrier island along the upper Texas coast (Figure...1 SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR GALVESTON ISLAND , TEXAS ASHLEY E. FREY1, ANDREW MORANG1, DAVID B. KING1, ROBERT C. THOMAS2 1. U.S. Army...Galveston Island is a major tourist and commercial center on the Gulf of Mexico at the mouth of Galveston Bay, Texas, USA. The shoreline along the

  1. Escape to Alcatraz: evolutionary history of slender salamanders (Batrachoseps) on the islands of San Francisco Bay

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Solano, Iñigo; Lawson, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Background Island populations are excellent model systems for studies of phenotypic, ecological and molecular evolution. In this study, molecular markers of mitochondrial and nuclear derivation were used to investigate the evolution, structure and origin of populations of the California slender salamander (Batrachoseps attenuatus) inhabiting the six major islands of San Francisco Bay, formed following the rising of sea level around 9,000 years ago. Results There was a high degree of congruence in the results of analyses of nucleotide and allozyme data, both of which strongly support the hypothesis that, for the majority of the islands, salamanders are descended from hilltop populations that became isolated with the formation of the Bay ca. 9,000 years ago. There are two exceptions (Alcatraz and Yerba Buena) where the evidence suggests that salamander populations are wholly or in part, the result of anthropogenic introductions. Comparison of the molecular data and the interpretations drawn therefrom with an earlier morphological study of many of the same salamander populations show some of the same evolutionary trends. Conclusion In spite of marked differences between the evolutionary rates of the two kinds of molecular markers, both indicate distinctive and similar patterns of population structure for B. attenuatus in the San Francisco Bay Area and its islands. With the two noted exceptions, it is clear that most island populations were established prior to the 9,000 years since the formation of the Bay. Results of coalescence-based analyses suggest that for most island populations the mtDNA lineages from which they were derived date from the Pleistocene. It can be said that, based on observed values of genetic diversity, the last 9,000 years of evolution on these islands have been characterized by relative stability, with the occasional extinction of some haplotypes or alleles that were formerly shared between island and mainland populations but overall

  2. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized

  3. Selective growth of Pb islands on graphene/SiC buffer layers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X. T.; Miao, Y. P.; Ma, D. Y.; Hu, T. W.; Ma, F. E-mail: kwxu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Chu, Paul K.; Xu, K. W. E-mail: kwxu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2015-02-14

    Graphene is fabricated by thermal decomposition of silicon carbide (SiC) and Pb islands are deposited by Pb flux in molecular beam epitaxy chamber. It is found that graphene domains and SiC buffer layer coexist. Selective growth of Pb islands on SiC buffer layer rather than on graphene domains is observed. It can be ascribed to the higher adsorption energy of Pb atoms on the 6√(3) reconstruction of SiC. However, once Pb islands nucleate on graphene domains, they will grow very large owing to the lower diffusion barrier of Pb atoms on graphene. The results are consistent with first-principle calculations. Since Pb atoms on graphene are nearly free-standing, Pb islands grow in even-number mode.

  4. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more Judges...

  5. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more Judges...

  6. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more Judges...

  7. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more Judges...

  8. Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benz, Richard

    This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme…

  9. Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

  10. MARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES OF BLOCK ISLAND WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sea has long been an integral part of Block Island's natural history, beginning when the rising sea surrounded the high spot on a Pleistocene terminal moraine that became Block Island. The southern New England continental shelf, which lies around Block Island, and the Great S...

  11. Anaglyph with Landsat Virgin Islands, Caribbean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-03

    St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda are the four main islands lower left to upper right of this map-view anaglyph of the U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. 3D glasses are necessary.

  12. SRTM Perspective with Landsat Virgin Islands, Carribean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-03

    St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda are the four main islands front to back of this east-looking view of the U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands, along the northeast perimeter of the Caribbean Sea.

  13. The island-mainland species turnover relationship.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Yoel E; Losos, Jonathan B; Algar, Adam C

    2012-10-07

    Many oceanic islands are notable for their high endemism, suggesting that islands may promote unique assembly processes. However, mainland assemblages sometimes harbour comparable levels of endemism, suggesting that island biotas may not be as unique as is often assumed. Here, we test the uniqueness of island biotic assembly by comparing the rate of species turnover among islands and the mainland, after accounting for distance decay and environmental gradients. We modelled species turnover as a function of geographical and environmental distance for mainland (M-M) communities of Anolis lizards and Terrarana frogs, two clades that have diversified extensively on Caribbean islands and the mainland Neotropics. We compared mainland-island (M-I) and island-island (I-I) species turnover with predictions of the M-M model. If island assembly is not unique, then the M-M model should successfully predict M-I and I-I turnover, given geographical and environmental distance. We found that M-I turnover and, to a lesser extent, I-I turnover were significantly higher than predicted for both clades. Thus, in the first quantitative comparison of mainland-island species turnover, we confirm the long-held but untested assumption that island assemblages accumulate biodiversity differently than their mainland counterparts.

  14. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot be classified Better than national standards Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1 X...

  15. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS ...

  16. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS ...

  17. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS ...

  18. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot be classified Better than national standards Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1 X...

  19. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS ...

  20. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS ...

  1. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot be classified Better than national standards Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1 X...

  2. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—1971 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary and Secondary) Designated area Does not meet... Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1 X Remainder of AQCR X 1 EPA designation replaces State...

  3. Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

  4. MARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES OF BLOCK ISLAND WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sea has long been an integral part of Block Island's natural history, beginning when the rising sea surrounded the high spot on a Pleistocene terminal moraine that became Block Island. The southern New England continental shelf, which lies around Block Island, and the Great S...

  5. Montague Island marmot: a conservation assessment.

    Treesearch

    Ellen Weintraub. Lance

    2002-01-01

    The hoary marmot, from Montague Island, south-central Alaska, was classified as a distinct subspecies based on smaller size and skull characteristics relative to other island and mainland populations. The taxonomic validity of the Montague Island marmot (Marmota caligata sheldoni) is questionable, as conclusions were based on the analysis of no...

  6. Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benz, Richard

    This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme…

  7. Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2006-08-08

    This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

  8. Genomic tests of the species-pump hypothesis: Recent island connectivity cycles drive population divergence but not speciation in Caribbean crickets across the Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Anna; Knowles, L Lacey

    2015-06-01

    Harnessing the power of genomic scans, we test the debated "species pump" hypothesis that implicates repeated cycles of island connectivity and isolation as drivers of divergence. This question has gone understudied given the limited resolution of past molecular markers for studying such dynamic phenomena. With an average of 32,000 SNPs from the genome of 136 individuals from 10 populations of a Caribbean flightless ground cricket species (Amphiacusta sanctaecrucis) and a complementary set of statistical approaches, we infer a stepping-stone colonization model and high levels of genetic differentiation across the Virgin Islands, which have been periodically interconnected until 8 ka. Estimates of divergence times from models based on the site frequency spectrum coincide with a period of repeated connection and fragmentation of the islands at 75-130 ka. These results are consistent with a role of island connectivity cycles in promoting genomic divergence and indicate that the genetic distinctiveness of island populations has persisted despite subsequent and extended interisland connections identified from bathymetric data. We discuss these findings in the broader context of Caribbean biogeography, and more specifically why high levels of genomic divergence across the Virgin Islands associated with repeated connectivity cycles do not actually translate into species diversification. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Birds are islands for parasites.

    PubMed

    Koop, Jennifer A H; DeMatteo, Karen E; Parker, Patricia G; Whiteman, Noah K

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the mechanisms driving the extraordinary diversification of parasites is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Co-speciation, one proposed mechanism that could contribute to this diversity is hypothesized to result from allopatric co-divergence of host-parasite populations. We found that island populations of the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) and a parasitic feather louse species (Degeeriella regalis) exhibit patterns of co-divergence across variable temporal and spatial scales. Hawks and lice showed nearly identical population genetic structure across the Galápagos Islands. Hawk population genetic structure is explained by isolation by distance among islands. Louse population structure is best explained by hawk population structure, rather than isolation by distance per se, suggesting that lice tightly track the recent population histories of their hosts. Among hawk individuals, louse populations were also highly structured, suggesting that hosts serve as islands for parasites from an evolutionary perspective. Altogether, we found that host and parasite populations may have responded in the same manner to geographical isolation across spatial scales. Allopatric co-divergence is likely one important mechanism driving the diversification of parasites.

  10. On a Crowded Desert Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

  11. Forests of Rhode Island, 2013

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of forest resources in Rhode Island based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design. Results are for the measurement years 2009-2013 with comparisons made to 2003-...

  12. The Manitoulin Island Space Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Dianna

    1991-01-01

    Describes a space education program in rural Manitoulin Island, Ontario. Reports that gifted and talented students examined space exploration, built models, met with astronauts, and designed multimedia presentations. Explains that the students also hosted a one-day conference on space for students, teachers, and parents and later visited…

  13. Chaos in easter island ecology.

    PubMed

    Sprott, J C

    2011-10-01

    This paper demonstrates that a recently proposed dynamical model for the ecology of Easter Island admits periodic and chaotic attractors, not previously reported. Such behavior may more realistically depict the population dynamics of general ecosystems and illustrates the power of simple models to produce the kind of complex behavior that is ubiquitous in such systems.

  14. Rhode Island's forest resources, 2011

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Rhode Island based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this...

  15. The Manitoulin Island Space Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Dianna

    1991-01-01

    Describes a space education program in rural Manitoulin Island, Ontario. Reports that gifted and talented students examined space exploration, built models, met with astronauts, and designed multimedia presentations. Explains that the students also hosted a one-day conference on space for students, teachers, and parents and later visited…

  16. Birds are islands for parasites

    PubMed Central

    Koop, Jennifer A. H.; DeMatteo, Karen E.; Parker, Patricia G.; Whiteman, Noah K.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms driving the extraordinary diversification of parasites is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Co-speciation, one proposed mechanism that could contribute to this diversity is hypothesized to result from allopatric co-divergence of host–parasite populations. We found that island populations of the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) and a parasitic feather louse species (Degeeriella regalis) exhibit patterns of co-divergence across variable temporal and spatial scales. Hawks and lice showed nearly identical population genetic structure across the Galápagos Islands. Hawk population genetic structure is explained by isolation by distance among islands. Louse population structure is best explained by hawk population structure, rather than isolation by distance per se, suggesting that lice tightly track the recent population histories of their hosts. Among hawk individuals, louse populations were also highly structured, suggesting that hosts serve as islands for parasites from an evolutionary perspective. Altogether, we found that host and parasite populations may have responded in the same manner to geographical isolation across spatial scales. Allopatric co-divergence is likely one important mechanism driving the diversification of parasites. PMID:25099959

  17. HISTORIC WETLANDS OF PRUDENCE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten wetland sites around Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island have been selected for a multidisciplinary study. These wetland sites are being studied to develop indicators of "wetland health." The study includes assessing the ecological conditions of the wetlands in the past, and the c...

  18. Radar Image of Galapagos Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-10-23

    This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of NASA’s space shuttle Endeavour.

  19. HISTORIC WETLANDS OF PRUDENCE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten wetland sites around Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island have been selected for a multidisciplinary study. These wetland sites are being studied to develop indicators of "wetland health." The study includes assessing the ecological conditions of the wetlands in the past, and the c...

  20. Rhode Island's Forest Resources, 2006

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; I. Ted Goodnight; Barbara O' Connell; Bruce Payton; Bryan Tirrell

    2008-01-01

    Table 1 and Figures 2 and 3 have been revised by the authors and these revisions were incorporated into the publication on May 27, 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Rhode Island based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service....

  1. Forests of Rhode Island, 2016

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an overview of forest resources in Rhode Island based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design. Results are for the measurement years 2011-2016 with comparisons made to 2007-...

  2. Rhode Island's forest resources, 2010

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Cassandra Kurtz; W. Keith Moser; Bruce. Payton

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Rhode Island based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this...

  3. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted Whistle...

  4. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management... St. Thomas/St. John island group to Point C C 18°13′59.0606″ 65°05′33.058″ D 18°01′16.9636″ 64°57′38...

  5. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little...

  6. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted Whistle...

  7. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little...

  8. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management... St. Thomas/St. John island group to Point C C 18°13′59.0606″ 65°05′33.058″ D 18°01′16.9636″ 64°57′38...

  9. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little...

  10. A nomenclator of Pacific oceanic island Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae), including Glochidion

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Warren L.; Lorence, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recent molecular phylogenetic studies and reevaluation of morphological characters have led to the inclusion of Glochidion within a broader delimitation of Phyllanthus. It is necessary for preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands to make new combinations for the Marquesan species. We also provide the relevant combinations and listing of all of the currently accepted species of Phyllanthus on Pacific oceanic islands for a total of 69 native species in oceanic Pacific islands. Glochidion tooviianum J. Florenceis here placed into synonymy of Phyllanthus marchionicus (F. Br.) W. L. Wagner & Lorence based on new assessment of recently collected specimens from Nuku Hiva. Glochidion excorticans Fosberg var. calvum Fosberg is placed into synonomy of Phyllanthus ponapense (Hosokawa) W. L. Wagner & Lorenceand Glochidion puberulum Hosokawa and Glochidion excorticans Fosberg are placed in synonymy of Phyllanthus senyavinianus (Glassman)W. L. Wagner & Lorence based on new study of all Micronesian specimens available to us. No infraspecific taxa are recognized within Phyllanthus pacificus of the Marquesas Islands. Species already with valid names in Phyllanthus are also listed for completeness and convenience. Brief distributional comments are given for each species. We propose new names for species for which a new combination is not possible: Phyllanthus florencei W. L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., Phyllanthus mariannensis W.L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., Phyllanthus otobedii W. L. Wagner & Lorence, Phyllanthus raiateaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, Phyllanthus st-johnii W. L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., and Phyllanthus vitilevuensis W.L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov. We provide information for four additional naturalized species within the region (Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus debilis, Phyllanthus tenellus, and Phyllanthus urinaria). The name Glochidion ramiflorum widely applied to Pacific island populations is here considered to be a species further

  11. A nomenclator of Pacific oceanic island Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae), including Glochidion.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Warren L; Lorence, David H

    2011-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies and reevaluation of morphological characters have led to the inclusion of Glochidion within a broader delimitation of Phyllanthus. It is necessary for preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands to make new combinations for the Marquesan species. We also provide the relevant combinations and listing of all of the currently accepted species of Phyllanthus on Pacific oceanic islands for a total of 69 native species in oceanic Pacific islands. Glochidion tooviianum J. Florenceis here placed into synonymy of Phyllanthus marchionicus (F. Br.) W. L. Wagner & Lorence based on new assessment of recently collected specimens from Nuku Hiva. Glochidion excorticans Fosberg var. calvum Fosberg is placed into synonomy of Phyllanthus ponapense (Hosokawa) W. L. Wagner & Lorenceand Glochidion puberulum Hosokawa and Glochidion excorticans Fosberg are placed in synonymy of Phyllanthus senyavinianus (Glassman)W. L. Wagner & Lorence based on new study of all Micronesian specimens available to us. No infraspecific taxa are recognized within Phyllanthus pacificus of the Marquesas Islands. Species already with valid names in Phyllanthus are also listed for completeness and convenience. Brief distributional comments are given for each species. We propose new names for species for which a new combination is not possible: Phyllanthus florencei W. L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., Phyllanthus mariannensis W.L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., Phyllanthus otobedii W. L. Wagner & Lorence, Phyllanthus raiateaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, Phyllanthus st-johnii W. L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., and Phyllanthus vitilevuensis W.L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov. We provide information for four additional naturalized species within the region (Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus debilis, Phyllanthus tenellus, and Phyllanthus urinaria). The name Glochidion ramiflorum widely applied to Pacific island populations is here considered to be a species further west in

  12. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending from...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending from...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending from...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending from...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending from...

  17. Galapagos Islands Flyby [HD Video

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Completed: 07-16-2009 Straddling the equator approximately 1000 kilometers to the west of the South American mainland, the Galapagos Islands lie within the heart of the equatorial current system. Rising from the sea floor, the volcanic islands of the Galapagos are set on top of a large submarine platform. The main portion of the Galapagos platform is relatively flat and less than 1000 meters in depth. The steepest slopes are found along the western and southern flanks of the platform with a gradual slope towards the east. The interactions of the Galapagos and the oceanic currents create vastly different environmental regimes which not only isolates one part of the Archipelago from the other but allows penguins to live along the equator on the western part of the Archipelago and tropical corals around the islands to the north. The islands are relatively new in geologic terms with the youngest islands in the west still exhibiting periodic eruptions from their massive volcanic craters. Please give credit for this item to: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, The SeaWiFS Project and GeoEye, Scientific Visualization Studio. NOTE: All SeaWiFS images and data presented on this web site are for research and educational use only. All commercial use of SeaWiFS data must be coordinated with GeoEye (http://www.geoeye.com). To download this video go to: svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/goto?3628 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

  18. Emission characteristics of self-assembled strained Ge1-xSnx islands for sources in the optical communication region.

    PubMed

    Bar, Rajshekhar; Katiyar, Ajit K; Aluguri, Rakesh; Ray, S K

    2017-07-21

    Self-assembled strained Ge1-x Sn x islands on Si (100) have been grown at a low temperature using molecular beam epitaxy. The in-built strain and fraction of Sn in the islands have been estimated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution x-ray diffraction study of grown samples. No-phonon assisted transition in the optical communication wavelength range of 1.4-1.8 μm has been observed in the Ge1-x Sn x island samples. The direct band gap transition intensity is found to increase with a growth in Sn concentration, with this increase in intensity sustained up to a temperature of 130 K in Ge1-x Sn x islands. The observed electroluminescence in p-i-n devices fabricated on Ge1-x Sn x island samples above a threshold bias of 4 V makes them attractive for future Si based optical devices.

  19. Emission characteristics of self-assembled strained Ge1-xSnx islands for sources in the optical communication region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar, Rajshekhar; Katiyar, Ajit K.; Aluguri, Rakesh; Ray, S. K.

    2017-07-01

    Self-assembled strained Ge1-x Sn x islands on Si (100) have been grown at a low temperature using molecular beam epitaxy. The in-built strain and fraction of Sn in the islands have been estimated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution x-ray diffraction study of grown samples. No-phonon assisted transition in the optical communication wavelength range of 1.4-1.8 μm has been observed in the Ge1-x Sn x island samples. The direct band gap transition intensity is found to increase with a growth in Sn concentration, with this increase in intensity sustained up to a temperature of 130 K in Ge1-x Sn x islands. The observed electroluminescence in p-i-n devices fabricated on Ge1-x Sn x island samples above a threshold bias of 4 V makes them attractive for future Si based optical devices.

  20. Barrier island bistability induced by biophysical interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán Vinent, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

    2015-02-01

    Barrier islands represent about 10% of the world’s coastline, sustain rich ecosystems, host valuable infrastructure and protect mainland coasts from storms. Future climate-change-induced increases in the intensity and frequency of major hurricanes and accelerations in sea-level rise will have a significant impact on barrier islands--leading to increased coastal hazards and flooding--yet our understanding of island response to external drivers remains limited. Here, we find that island response is intrinsically bistable and controlled by previously unrecognized dynamics: the competing, and quantifiable, effects of storm erosion, sea-level rise, and the aeolian and biological processes that enable and drive dune recovery. When the biophysical processes driving dune recovery dominate, islands tend to be high in elevation and vulnerability to storms is minimized. Alternatively, when the effects of storm erosion dominate, islands may become trapped in a perpetual state of low elevation and maximum vulnerability to storms, even under mild storm conditions. When sea-level rise dominates, islands become unstable and face possible disintegration. This quantification of barrier island dynamics is supported by data from the Virginia Barrier Islands, USA and provides a broader context for considering island response to climate change and the likelihood of potentially abrupt transitions in island state.