Science.gov

Sample records for machine aided indexing

  1. Machine-Aided Indexing for NASA STI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of machine aided indexing as part of NASA's information systems. The discussion covers reasons for incorporating machine aided indexing, the lexical dictionary used, subject switching, natural language processing, benefits to the system, and possible future developments. (CLB)

  2. Machine-Aided Indexing of Technical Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1973-01-01

    To index at the Defense Documentation Center (DDC), an automated system must choose single words or phrases rapidly and economically. Automation of DDC's indexing has been machine-aided from its inception. A machine-aided indexing system is described that indexes one million words of text per hour of CPU time. (22 references) (Author/SJ)

  3. Machine-Aided Indexing at NASA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvester, June P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lexical Dictionary (NLD), a machine-aided indexing system used online at the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI). The functions of NLD system components are described in detail, and production and quality benefits resulting from machine-aided indexing at CASI are…

  4. Machine-Aided Indexing at NASA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvester, June P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lexical Dictionary (NLD), a machine-aided indexing system used online at the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI). The functions of NLD system components are described in detail, and production and quality benefits resulting from machine-aided indexing at CASI are…

  5. NASA's online machine aided indexing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary, a machine aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for Aerospace Information (CASI). This system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, non-syntactic analysis of input text, and an extensive 'knowledge base' that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The structure and function of the various NLD system components are described in detail. Methods used for the development of the knowledge base are discussed. Particular attention is given to a statistically-based text analysis program that provides the knowledge base developer with a list of concept-specific phrases extracted from large textual corpora. Production and quality benefits resulting from the integration of machine aided indexing at CASI are discussed along with a number of secondary applications of NLD-derived systems including on-line spell checking and machine aided lexicography.

  6. A Technique for Machine-Aided Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1973-01-01

    The technique for machine-aided indexing developed at the Defense Documentation Center (DDC) is illustrated on a randomly chosen abstract. Additional text is provided in coded form so that the reader can more fully explore this technique. (2 references) (Author)

  7. A Technique for Machine-Aided Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1973-01-01

    The technique for machine-aided indexing developed at the Defense Documentation Center (DDC) is illustrated on a randomly chosen abstract. Additional text is provided in coded form so that the reader can more fully explore this technique. (2 references) (Author)

  8. Machine-aided indexing for NASA STI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John

    1987-01-01

    One of the major components of the NASA/STI processing system is machine-aided indexing (MAI). MAI is a computer process that generates a set of indexing terms selected from NASA's thesaurus, is used for indexing technical reports, is based on text, and is reviewed by indexers. This paper summarizes the MAI objectives and discusses the NASA Lexical Dictionary, subject switching, and phrase matching or natural languages. The benefits of using MAI are mentioned, and MAI production improvement and the future of MAI are briefly addressed.

  9. Machine-aided indexing for NASA STI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John

    1987-01-01

    One of the major components of the NASA/STI processing system is machine-aided indexing (MAI). MAI is a computer process that generates a set of indexing terms selected from NASA's thesaurus, is used for indexing technical reports, is based on text, and is reviewed by indexers. This paper summarizes the MAI objectives and discusses the NASA Lexical Dictionary, subject switching, and phrase matching or natural languages. The benefits of using MAI are mentioned, and MAI production improvement and the future of MAI are briefly addressed.

  10. Machine-aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary (NLD), a machine-aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI). This system automatically suggests a set of candidate terms from NASA's controlled vocabulary for any designated natural language text input. The system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, nonsyntactic analysis of input text and an extensive knowledge base that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The functions of the various NLD system components are described in detail, and production and quality benefits resulting from the implementation of machine-aided indexing at CASI are discussed.

  11. Machine aided indexing from natural language text

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lexical Dictionary (NLD) Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) system was designed to (1) reuse the indexing of the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC); (2) reuse the indexing of the Department of Energy (DOE); and (3) reduce the time required for original indexing. This was done by automatically generating appropriate NASA thesaurus terms from either the other agency's index terms, or, for original indexing, from document titles and abstracts. The NASA STI Program staff devised two different ways to generate thesaurus terms from text. The first group of programs identified noun phrases by a parsing method that allowed for conjunctions and certain prepositions, on the assumption that indexable concepts are found in such phrases. Results were not always satisfactory, and it was noted that indexable concepts often occurred outside of noun phrases. The first method also proved to be too slow for the ultimate goal of interactive (online) MAI. The second group of programs used the knowledge base (KB), word proximity, and frequency of word and phrase occurrence to identify indexable concepts. Both methods are described and illustrated. Online MAI has been achieved, as well as several spinoff benefits, which are also described.

  12. Machine Aided Indexing and the NASA Thesaurus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonOfenheim, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) is a Web-based application program for aiding the indexing of literature in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Database. MAI was designed to be a convenient, fully interactive tool for determining the subject matter of documents and identifying keywords. The heart of MAI is a natural-language processor that accepts, as input, any user-supplied text, including abstracts, full documents, and Web pages. Within seconds, the text is analyzed and a ranked list of terms is generated. The 17,800 terms of the NASA Thesaurus serve as the foundation of the knowledge base used by MAI. The NASA Thesaurus defines a standard vocabulary, the use of which enables MAI to assist in ensuring that STI documents are uniformly and consistently accessible. Of particular interest to traditional users of the NASA Thesaurus, MAI incorporates a fully searchable thesaurus display module that affords word-search and hierarchy- navigation capabilities that make it much easier and less time-consuming to look up terms and browse, relative to lookup and browsing in older print and Portable Document Format (PDF) digital versions of the Thesaurus. In addition, because MAI is centrally hosted, the Thesaurus data are always current.

  13. Machine-Aided Indexing in Practice: An Encounter with Automatic Indexing of the Third Kind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbiel, Paul H.

    This three-part report includes a brief history of the Defense Documentation Center (DDC) with a description of the collections and their accessibility; categorization of automatic indexing into three kinds with a brief description of the DDC system of machine-aided indexing; and an indication of some operational experiences with the system.…

  14. In Vitro Evaluation of a Program for Machine-Aided Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquemin, Christian; Daille, Beatrice; Royaute, Jean; Polanco, Xavier

    2002-01-01

    Presents the human evaluation of ILIAD, a program for machine-aided indexing that was designed to assist expert librarians in computer-aided indexing and document analysis. Topics include controlled indexing and free indexing; natural language and concept-based information retrieval; evaluation methodology; syntactic variations; and a comparison…

  15. In Vitro Evaluation of a Program for Machine-Aided Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquemin, Christian; Daille, Beatrice; Royaute, Jean; Polanco, Xavier

    2002-01-01

    Presents the human evaluation of ILIAD, a program for machine-aided indexing that was designed to assist expert librarians in computer-aided indexing and document analysis. Topics include controlled indexing and free indexing; natural language and concept-based information retrieval; evaluation methodology; syntactic variations; and a comparison…

  16. Machine Aids to Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkmann, Karl-Heinz

    1981-01-01

    Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…

  17. Machine Aids to Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkmann, Karl-Heinz

    1981-01-01

    Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…

  18. Computer aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    The application of computer technology to the construction of the NASA Thesaurus and in NASA Lexical Dictionary development is discussed in a brief overview. Consideration is given to the printed and online versions of the Thesaurus, retrospective indexing, the NASA RECON frequency command, demand indexing, lists of terms by category, and the STAR and IAA annual subject indexes. The evolution of computer methods in the Lexical Dictionary program is traced, from DOD and DOE subject switching to LCSH machine-aided indexing and current techniques for handling natural language (e.g., the elimination of verbs to facilitate breakdown of sentences into words and phrases).

  19. Computer aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    The application of computer technology to the construction of the NASA Thesaurus and in NASA Lexical Dictionary development is discussed in a brief overview. Consideration is given to the printed and online versions of the Thesaurus, retrospective indexing, the NASA RECON frequency command, demand indexing, lists of terms by category, and the STAR and IAA annual subject indexes. The evolution of computer methods in the Lexical Dictionary program is traced, from DOD and DOE subject switching to LCSH machine-aided indexing and current techniques for handling natural language (e.g., the elimination of verbs to facilitate breakdown of sentences into words and phrases).

  20. Machine vision based teleoperation aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, William A.; Gatrell, Lance B.; Spofford, John R.

    1991-01-01

    When teleoperating a robot using video from a remote camera, it is difficult for the operator to gauge depth and orientation from a single view. In addition, there are situations where a camera mounted for viewing by the teleoperator during a teleoperation task may not be able to see the tool tip, or the viewing angle may not be intuitive (requiring extensive training to reduce the risk of incorrect or dangerous moves by the teleoperator). A machine vision based teleoperator aid is presented which uses the operator's camera view to compute an object's pose (position and orientation), and then overlays onto the operator's screen information on the object's current and desired positions. The operator can choose to display orientation and translation information as graphics and/or text. This aid provides easily assimilated depth and relative orientation information to the teleoperator. The camera may be mounted at any known orientation relative to the tool tip. A preliminary experiment with human operators was conducted and showed that task accuracies were significantly greater with than without this aid.

  1. Machine Learning for Computer-aided Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Mitsutaka; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Nomura, Yukihiro; Hanaoka, Shohei; Miki, Soichiro; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Ootomo, Kuni

    Machine learning algorithms are to analyze any dataset to extract data-driven model, prediction rule, or decision rule from the dataset. Various machine learning algorithms are now used to develop high-performance medical image processing systems such as computer-aided detection (CADe) system which detects clinically significant objects from medical images and computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system which quantifies malignancy of manually or automatically detected clinical objects. In this paper, we introduce some applications of machine learning algorithms to the development of medical image processing system.

  2. Quality indexing with computer-aided lexicography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Indexing with computers is a far cry from indexing with the first indexing tool, the manual card sorter. With the aid of computer-aided lexicography, both indexing and indexing tools can provide standardization, consistency, and accuracy, resulting in greater quality control than ever before. A brief survey of computer activity in indexing is presented with detailed illustrations from NASA activity. Applications from techniques mentioned, such as Retrospective Indexing (RI), can be made to many indexing systems. In addition to improving the quality of indexing with computers, the improved efficiency with which certain tasks can be done is demonstrated.

  3. Quality Indexing with Computer-Aided Lexicography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchan, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of computer-aided indexing activity focuses on examples from projects at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Standardization and quality in providing subject access to databases are considered; and computer-aided lexicography, including thesaurus construction, access vocabulary, definitions preparation,…

  4. Retrospective indexing (RI) - A computer-aided indexing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    An account is given of a method for data base-updating designated 'computer-aided indexing' (CAI) which has been very efficiently implemented at NASA's Scientific and Technical Information Facility by means of retrospective indexing. Novel terms added to the NASA Thesaurus will therefore proceed directly into both the NASA-RECON aerospace information system and its portion of the ESA-Information Retrieval Service, giving users full access to material thus indexed. If a given term appears in the title of a record, it is given special weight. An illustrative graphic representation of the CAI search strategy is presented.

  5. Setup Aid for Electrical-Discharge Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lines, G.; Duca, J.

    1985-01-01

    Interlock assures that workpiece is correctly assembled in machining fixture. A Plunger in a Hollow Shaft actuates a switch, allowing a power supply to produce current for electrical-discharge machining. Plunger operates only when necessary parts are position.

  6. A COMPARISON OF SOME MACHINE-PRODUCED INDEXES. TECHNICAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ADAMS, WILLIAM MANSFIELD

    SOME MACHINE-PRODUCED INDEXES ARE COMPARED TO ASSIST IN DECIDING ON THE FORMAT FOR A PROPOSED INDEX. THE OBJECTIVES OF AN INDEX AND THE SEARCH PROCEDURE ARE ANALYZED, AND AN EXPLANATION AND A RELATIONSHIP IS GIVEN FOR KEY-WORDS-IN-TITLE AND KEY-REFERENCES OF THE SAME ARTICLE. BASED ON THE COMPARISON OF THE INDEXES, A 53- YEAR CUMULATIVE INDEX WAS…

  7. A COMPARISON OF SOME MACHINE-PRODUCED INDEXES. TECHNICAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ADAMS, WILLIAM MANSFIELD

    SOME MACHINE-PRODUCED INDEXES ARE COMPARED TO ASSIST IN DECIDING ON THE FORMAT FOR A PROPOSED INDEX. THE OBJECTIVES OF AN INDEX AND THE SEARCH PROCEDURE ARE ANALYZED, AND AN EXPLANATION AND A RELATIONSHIP IS GIVEN FOR KEY-WORDS-IN-TITLE AND KEY-REFERENCES OF THE SAME ARTICLE. BASED ON THE COMPARISON OF THE INDEXES, A 53- YEAR CUMULATIVE INDEX WAS…

  8. Knowledge-based machine indexing from natural language text: Knowledge base design, development, and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genuardi, Michael T.

    1993-01-01

    One strategy for machine-aided indexing (MAI) is to provide a concept-level analysis of the textual elements of documents or document abstracts. In such systems, natural-language phrases are analyzed in order to identify and classify concepts related to a particular subject domain. The overall performance of these MAI systems is largely dependent on the quality and comprehensiveness of their knowledge bases. These knowledge bases function to (1) define the relations between a controlled indexing vocabulary and natural language expressions; (2) provide a simple mechanism for disambiguation and the determination of relevancy; and (3) allow the extension of concept-hierarchical structure to all elements of the knowledge file. After a brief description of the NASA Machine-Aided Indexing system, concerns related to the development and maintenance of MAI knowledge bases are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to statistically-based text analysis tools designed to aid the knowledge base developer. One such tool, the Knowledge Base Building (KBB) program, presents the domain expert with a well-filtered list of synonyms and conceptually-related phrases for each thesaurus concept. Another tool, the Knowledge Base Maintenance (KBM) program, functions to identify areas of the knowledge base affected by changes in the conceptual domain (for example, the addition of a new thesaurus term). An alternate use of the KBM as an aid in thesaurus construction is also discussed.

  9. Knowledge-Based Indexing of the Medical Literature: The Indexing Aid Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Suzanne; Miller, Nancy E.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Indexing Aid Project for conducting research in knowledge representation and indexing for information retrieval, whose goal is to develop interactive knowledge-based systems for computer-assisted indexing of the periodical medical literature. Appendices include background information on NLM…

  10. Computer Aided Design Of Electrical Machines For Variable Speed Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, R.; Aravind, S.; Materu, P.

    1987-10-01

    In recent years, the product life cycle has decreased and demands for new products have emerged due to competition, modern industrial needs and rapidly changing technology. This has necessitated changes in design, development and manufacturing processes so as to improve quality and efficiency as well as reducing costs. Computer Aided Design (CAD) helps to meet this challenge in the design evaluation and final product design stages. This paper presents the development of an interactive software for the optimal design of a motor intended for variable speed applications. The use of finite element analysis methods is proposed as an indispensable part of the CAD system for electrical machine design. An illustration of the method is given for the design of a switched reluctance motor.

  11. The Hearing-Aid Audio Quality Index (HAAQI).

    PubMed

    Kates, James M; Arehart, Kathryn H

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an index designed to predict music quality for individuals listening through hearing aids. The index is "intrusive", that is, it compares the degraded signal being evaluated to a reference signal. The index is based on a model of the auditory periphery that includes the effects of hearing loss. Outputs from the auditory model are used to measure changes in the signal time-frequency envelope modulation, temporal fine structure, and long-term spectrum caused by the hearing aid processing. The index is constructed by combining a term sensitive to noise and nonlinear distortion with a second term sensitive to changes in the long-term spectrum. The index is fitted to an existing database of music quality judgments made by listeners having normal or impaired hearing. The data comprise ratings for three music excerpts (classical orchestra, jazz trio, and jazz singer), each processed through 100 conditions representative of hearing-aid processing and listening situations. The overall accuracy of the index is high, with a correlation coefficient of 0.970 when computed over all of the processing conditions and averaged over the combined groups of listeners having normal and impaired hearing.

  12. The Hearing-Aid Audio Quality Index (HAAQI)

    PubMed Central

    Kates, James M.; Arehart, Kathryn H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an index designed to predict music quality for individuals listening through hearing aids. The index is “intrusive”, that is, it compares the degraded signal being evaluated to a reference signal. The index is based on a model of the auditory periphery that includes the effects of hearing loss. Outputs from the auditory model are used to measure changes in the signal time-frequency envelope modulation, temporal fine structure, and long-term spectrum caused by the hearing aid processing. The index is constructed by combining a term sensitive to noise and nonlinear distortion with a second term sensitive to changes in the long-term spectrum. The index is fitted to an existing database of music quality judgments made by listeners having normal or impaired hearing. The data comprise ratings for three music excerpts (classical orchestra, jazz trio, and jazz singer), each processed through 100 conditions representative of hearing-aid processing and listening situations. The overall accuracy of the index is high, with a correlation coefficient of 0.970 when computed over all of the processing conditions and averaged over the combined groups of listeners having normal and impaired hearing. PMID:27135042

  13. Machine-Vision Aids for Improved Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K.; Chatterji, Gano B.

    1996-01-01

    The development of machine vision based pilot aids to help reduce night approach and landing accidents is explored. The techniques developed are motivated by the desire to use the available information sources for navigation such as the airport lighting layout, attitude sensors and Global Positioning System to derive more precise aircraft position and orientation information. The fact that airport lighting geometry is known and that images of airport lighting can be acquired by the camera, has lead to the synthesis of machine vision based algorithms for runway relative aircraft position and orientation estimation. The main contribution of this research is the synthesis of seven navigation algorithms based on two broad families of solutions. The first family of solution methods consists of techniques that reconstruct the airport lighting layout from the camera image and then estimate the aircraft position components by comparing the reconstructed lighting layout geometry with the known model of the airport lighting layout geometry. The second family of methods comprises techniques that synthesize the image of the airport lighting layout using a camera model and estimate the aircraft position and orientation by comparing this image with the actual image of the airport lighting acquired by the camera. Algorithms 1 through 4 belong to the first family of solutions while Algorithms 5 through 7 belong to the second family of solutions. Algorithms 1 and 2 are parameter optimization methods, Algorithms 3 and 4 are feature correspondence methods and Algorithms 5 through 7 are Kalman filter centered algorithms. Results of computer simulation are presented to demonstrate the performance of all the seven algorithms developed.

  14. GeneRIF indexing: sentence selection based on machine learning.

    PubMed

    Jimeno-Yepes, Antonio J; Sticco, J Caitlin; Mork, James G; Aronson, Alan R

    2013-05-31

    A Gene Reference Into Function (GeneRIF) describes novel functionality of genes. GeneRIFs are available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene database. GeneRIF indexing is performed manually, and the intention of our work is to provide methods to support creating the GeneRIF entries. The creation of GeneRIF entries involves the identification of the genes mentioned in MEDLINE®; citations and the sentences describing a novel function. We have compared several learning algorithms and several features extracted or derived from MEDLINE sentences to determine if a sentence should be selected for GeneRIF indexing. Features are derived from the sentences or using mechanisms to augment the information provided by them: assigning a discourse label using a previously trained model, for example. We show that machine learning approaches with specific feature combinations achieve results close to one of the annotators. We have evaluated different feature sets and learning algorithms. In particular, Naïve Bayes achieves better performance with a selection of features similar to one used in related work, which considers the location of the sentence, the discourse of the sentence and the functional terminology in it. The current performance is at a level similar to human annotation and it shows that machine learning can be used to automate the task of sentence selection for GeneRIF annotation. The current experiments are limited to the human species. We would like to see how the methodology can be extended to other species, specifically the normalization of gene mentions in other species.

  15. GeneRIF indexing: sentence selection based on machine learning

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A Gene Reference Into Function (GeneRIF) describes novel functionality of genes. GeneRIFs are available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene database. GeneRIF indexing is performed manually, and the intention of our work is to provide methods to support creating the GeneRIF entries. The creation of GeneRIF entries involves the identification of the genes mentioned in MEDLINE®; citations and the sentences describing a novel function. Results We have compared several learning algorithms and several features extracted or derived from MEDLINE sentences to determine if a sentence should be selected for GeneRIF indexing. Features are derived from the sentences or using mechanisms to augment the information provided by them: assigning a discourse label using a previously trained model, for example. We show that machine learning approaches with specific feature combinations achieve results close to one of the annotators. We have evaluated different feature sets and learning algorithms. In particular, Naïve Bayes achieves better performance with a selection of features similar to one used in related work, which considers the location of the sentence, the discourse of the sentence and the functional terminology in it. Conclusions The current performance is at a level similar to human annotation and it shows that machine learning can be used to automate the task of sentence selection for GeneRIF annotation. The current experiments are limited to the human species. We would like to see how the methodology can be extended to other species, specifically the normalization of gene mentions in other species. PMID:23725347

  16. [Multifunctional pneumatic breathing machine in the first-aid application experience].

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin

    2012-03-01

    In 2008, our center introduced the UK MicroVent emergency respiratory system (machine) for first-aid of breathing anomaly, which achieved good effects, including saving emergency treatment time, finding the cause of diseases and reducing complications.

  17. How a time machine concept aids dementia care.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Lorna; Smith, Karin; James, Ian

    People with Alzheimer's disease may be able to recall events from their past clearly yet unable to remember events from minutes or hours ago. They often hold outdated beliefs about themselves, which can trigger challenging behaviour. This article explains how the simple analogy of the "time machine" can help staff in all settings to understand belief systems in dementia.

  18. [2010-2011 Federal Student Aid Handbook with Active Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This publication is intended for financial aid administrators and counselors who help students begin the aid process--filing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), verifying information, and making corrections and other changes to the information reported on the FAFSA. The Federal Student Aid Handbook consists of the Application and…

  19. A critically appraised topic review of computer-aided design/computer-aided machining of removable partial denture frameworks.

    PubMed

    Lang, Lisa A; Tulunoglu, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    A critically appraised topic (CAT) review is presented about the use of computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided machining (CAM) removable partial denture (RPD) frameworks. A systematic search of the literature supporting CAD/CAM RPD systems revealed no randomized clinical trials, hence the CAT review was performed. A PubMed search yielded 9 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Each article was characterized by study design and level of evidence. No clinical outcomes research has been published on the use of CAD/CAM RPDs. Low levels of evidence were found in the available literature. Clinical research studies are needed to determine the efficacy of this treatment modality.

  20. Computer Aided Process Planning of Machined Metal Parts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    experience in metal working in addition to a large knowledge of the facility that the process planning is executed for. Many manufacturing managers ...microcomputer based variant process planning. Indeed, such a system using IBM PC XT’s (TM of International Business Machines, Inc.) is in the final...other events beyond the control of the planner (computer or human). In process planning, flexibility should be afforded the plant floor management

  1. Knowledge-based indexing of the medical literature: the Indexing Aid Project.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, S M; Miller, N E

    1987-05-01

    This article describes the Indexing Aid Project for conducting research in the areas of knowledge representation and indexing for information retrieval in order to develop interactive knowledge-based systems for computer-assisted indexing of the periodical medical literature. The system uses an experimental frame-based knowledge representation language, FrameKit, implemented in Franz Lisp. The initial prototype is designed to interact with trained MEDLINE indexers who will be prompted to enter subject terms as slot values in filling in document-specific frame data structures that are derived from the knowledge-base frames. In addition, the automatic application of rules associated with the knowledge-base frames produces a set of Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) keyword indices to the document. Important features of the system are representation of explicit relationships through slots which express the relations; slot values, restrictions, and rules made available by inheritance through "is-a" hierarchies; slot values denoted by functions that retrieve values from other slots; and restrictions on slot values displayable during data entry.

  2. Technology and Jobs: Computer-Aided Design. Numerical-Control Machine-Tool Operators. Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Michael; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Three reports on the effects of high technology on the nature of work include (1) Stanton on applications and implications of computer-aided design for engineers, drafters, and architects; (2) Nardone on the outlook and training of numerical-control machine tool operators; and (3) Austin and Drake on the future of clerical occupations in automated…

  3. Technology and Jobs: Computer-Aided Design. Numerical-Control Machine-Tool Operators. Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Michael; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Three reports on the effects of high technology on the nature of work include (1) Stanton on applications and implications of computer-aided design for engineers, drafters, and architects; (2) Nardone on the outlook and training of numerical-control machine tool operators; and (3) Austin and Drake on the future of clerical occupations in automated…

  4. Aided diagnosis methods of breast cancer based on machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yue; Wang, Nian; Cui, Xiaoyu

    2017-08-01

    In the field of medicine, quickly and accurately determining whether the patient is malignant or benign is the key to treatment. In this paper, K-Nearest Neighbor, Linear Discriminant Analysis, Logistic Regression were applied to predict the classification of thyroid,Her-2,PR,ER,Ki67,metastasis and lymph nodes in breast cancer, in order to recognize the benign and malignant breast tumors and achieve the purpose of aided diagnosis of breast cancer. The results showed that the highest classification accuracy of LDA was 88.56%, while the classification effect of KNN and Logistic Regression were better than that of LDA, the best accuracy reached 96.30%.

  5. The Nature of Indexing: How Humans and Machines Analyze Messages and Texts for Retrieval. Part II: Machine Indexing, and the Allocation of Human versus Machine Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James D.; Perez-Carballo, Jose

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of human intellectual indexing versus automatic indexing focuses on automatic indexing. Topics include keyword indexing; negative vocabulary control; counting words; comparative counting and weighting; stemming; words versus phrases; clustering; latent semantic indexing; citation indexes; bibliographic coupling; co-citation; relevance…

  6. The Nature of Indexing: How Humans and Machines Analyze Messages and Texts for Retrieval. Part II: Machine Indexing, and the Allocation of Human versus Machine Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James D.; Perez-Carballo, Jose

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of human intellectual indexing versus automatic indexing focuses on automatic indexing. Topics include keyword indexing; negative vocabulary control; counting words; comparative counting and weighting; stemming; words versus phrases; clustering; latent semantic indexing; citation indexes; bibliographic coupling; co-citation; relevance…

  7. Computer Aided Simulation Machining Programming In 5-Axis Nc Milling Of Impeller Leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huran, Liu

    At present, cad/cam (computer-aided design and manufacture) have fine wider and wider application in mechanical industry. For the complex surfaces, the traditional machine tool can no longer satisfy the requirement of such complex task. Only by the help of cad/cam can fulfill the requirement. The machining of the vane surface of the impeller leaf has been considered as the hardest challenge. Because of their complex shape, the 5-axis cnc machine tool is needed for the machining of such parts. The material is hard to cut, the requirement for the surface finish and clearance is very high, so that the manufacture quality of impeller leaf represent the level of 5-axis machining. This paper opened a new field in machining the complicated surface, based on a relatively more rigid mathematical basis. The theory presented here is relatively more systematical. Since the lack of theoretical guidance, in the former research, people have to try in machining many times. Such case will be changed. The movement of the cutter determined by this method is definite, and the residual is the smallest while the times of travel is the fewest. The criterion is simple and the calculation is easy.

  8. Machine-Assisted Indexing of Scientific Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Hunt, Bernard L.

    1975-01-01

    At the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, a computer system indexes word combinations in research summaries, according to a Classifying Dictionary, prior to review by the professional staff. (Author/PF)

  9. Machine-Assisted Indexing of Scientific Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Hunt, Bernard L.

    1975-01-01

    At the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, a computer system indexes word combinations in research summaries, according to a Classifying Dictionary, prior to review by the professional staff. (Author/PF)

  10. A Study and Model of Machine-Like Indexing Behavior by Human Indexers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Caryl

    Although a large part of a document retrieval system's resources are devoted to indexing, the question of how people do subject indexing has been the subject of much conjecture and only a little experimentation. This dissertation examines the relationships between a document being indexed and the index terms assigned to that document in an attempt…

  11. Indexing Aids at Corporate Websites: The Use of Robots.txt and META Tags.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drott, M. Carl

    2002-01-01

    This study examine 60 corporate Web sites to see if they provided support for automatic indexing, particularly use of the robots.txt and Meta tags for keywords and description. Discusses the use of Java and cookies and suggests that an increase in indexing aids would improve overall index coverage of the Web. (Author/LRW)

  12. Indexing Aids at Corporate Websites: The Use of Robots.txt and META Tags.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drott, M. Carl

    2002-01-01

    This study examine 60 corporate Web sites to see if they provided support for automatic indexing, particularly use of the robots.txt and Meta tags for keywords and description. Discusses the use of Java and cookies and suggests that an increase in indexing aids would improve overall index coverage of the Web. (Author/LRW)

  13. Machine Learning Aided Efficient and Robust Algorithms for Spectrum Knowledge Acquisition in Wideband Autonomous Cognitive Radios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2016-0096 AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2016-0096 MACHINE LEARNING AIDED EFFICIENT AND ROBUST ALGORITHMS FOR SPECTRUM KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION IN... Knowledge Acquisition in Wideband Autonomous Cognitive Radios 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 63401F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...robust spectrum knowledge acquisition in a wideband autonomous cognitive radio. The performance of this framework was evaluated based on simulations

  14. The Influence of Machined Surface Microgeometry on Mechanical Hydraulic Removal Mechanism at Ultrasonically Aided EDM Finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiculescu, D.; Marinescu, N.; Ganatsios, S.; Popa, L.; Seritan, G.

    2016-11-01

    The paper deals with Finite Element Method (FEM) of mechanical-hydraulic component of material removal mechanism at electrical discharge machining aided by ultrasonics (EDM+US) finishing. The influence of two types of crater shapes - produced by commanded and relaxation pulses - is analyzed. Based on FEM results, the ratio between depth and crater diameter is correlated with the consumed power on ultrasonic chain in order to minimize the EDMed surface roughness.

  15. Research on ultrasonic vibration aided femtosecond laser machining process of transparent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yutang; Liu, Bin; Yin, Guanglin; Li, Tao; Karanja, Joseph M.

    2015-08-01

    A new process of femtosecond laser micromachining with ultrasonic vibration aided is proposed. An ultrasonic aided device has been designed, and the laser micromachining experiments of transparent materials have been carried out. The effects of the ultrasonic vibration with different power on surface quality and the drilling depth have been investigated, and the mechanism of the ultrasonic vibration aided laser machining has been analyzed. After introducing the ultrasonic vibration device, the residue debris on surface of the ablated trench is significantly reduced, and the drilling depth is increased. These results show that, ultrasonic vibration can effectively improve the surface quality of material processing, increase the depth of the drilling hole and promote the processing efficiency of the femtosecond laser.

  16. The Use of Machine Aids in Dynamic Multi-Task Environments: A Comparison of an Optimal Model to Human Behavior.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    the model. Subject performance was found to vary with the type of decision considered. When searching for tasks to deal with, subjects employed simple ...is present to indicate whether a man or a machine is servicing a task. The case of multiple machine aids, having various abilities is a simple ...cost" in modeling man/machine systems is a simple way of representing the penalty for procrastination. Holding cost does not behave exactly like a

  17. An Application of the Articulation Index to Hearing Aid Fitting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankovic, Christine M.

    1991-01-01

    The application of the Articulation Index (AI) model to the fitting of linear amplification was evaluated for 12 subjects with sensorineural hearing loss. For all subjects, the relationship between percent-correct scores on a nonsense syllable test and AIs was monotonic, indicating that AI was effective for comparing conditions typical of those…

  18. Machine Learning-Aided, Robust Wideband Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 AFRL /RVSV...0944 Ft Belvoir, VA 22060-6218 1 cy AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 2 cys Official Record Copy AFRL /RVSV/Steven A. Lane 1 cy Approved for... AFRL -RV-PS- AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2015-0113 TR-2015-0113 MACHINE LEARNING-AIDED, ROBUST WIDEBAND SPECTRUM SENSING FOR COGNITIVE RADIOS

  19. Computer-aided diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease using support vector machines and classification trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas-Gonzalez, D.; Górriz, J. M.; Ramírez, J.; López, M.; Álvarez, I.; Segovia, F.; Chaves, R.; Puntonet, C. G.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided diagnosis technique for improving the accuracy of early diagnosis of Alzheimer-type dementia. The proposed methodology is based on the selection of voxels which present Welch's t-test between both classes, normal and Alzheimer images, greater than a given threshold. The mean and standard deviation of intensity values are calculated for selected voxels. They are chosen as feature vectors for two different classifiers: support vector machines with linear kernel and classification trees. The proposed methodology reaches greater than 95% accuracy in the classification task.

  20. Computer-aided system for morphometric mandibular index computation (Using dental panoramic radiographs)

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-López, Jose M.; Jané-Salas, Enrique; Estrugo-Devesa, Albert; Ayuso-Montero, Raul; Velasco-Ortega, Eugenio; Segura-Egea, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We propose and validate a computer—aided system to measure three different mandibular indexes: cortical width, panoramic mandibular index and, mandibular alveolar bone resorption index. Study Design: Repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements are analyzed and compared to the manual estimation of the same indexes. Results: The proposed computerized system exhibits superior repeatability and reproducibility rates compared to standard manual methods. Moreover, the time required to perform the measurements using the proposed method is negligible compared to perform the measurements manually. Conclusions: We have proposed a very user friendly computerized method to measure three different morphometric mandibular indexes. From the results we can conclude that the system provides a practical manner to perform these measurements. It does not require an expert examiner and does not take more than 16 seconds per analysis. Thus, it may be suitable to diagnose osteoporosis using dental panoramic radiographs. Key words:Osteoporosis, panoramic mandibular index, cortical width, mandibular alveolar bone resorption index. PMID:22322489

  1. An Aid for Retrieving Review Literature : An Index Journal RAMBIOS in Molecular Bioscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihara, Hiroshi; Wada, Masami; Inoue, Kumiko; Hayashi, Kenji; Go, Nobuhiro; Ushijima, Etsuko

    The necessity of a retrieval aid solely for review literature is recognized according to the former study on existing bibliographic databases. The project to compile and publish the index journal RAMBIOS : Review Articles of Molecular Bioscience as an aid for efficient retrieval of review literature is reported with its background and processes of tasks. Some findings and reaction of users are also introduced from the experience of indexing and computer-aided compilation of GRR : Guide to Recent Reviews in Biophysics, Biochemistry and Molecular Physiology, published as a preliminary edition of RAMBIOS. The on-line retrieval of RAMBIOS database now available is explained lastly, followed by remarks on encouraging researchers to utilize the journal and on the future plan of RAMBIOS.

  2. SKIMMR: facilitating knowledge discovery in life sciences by machine-aided skim reading

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Gully A.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    inter-related entities from a set of documents which a user may explore through our interface. When a particular area of the entity network looks interesting to a user, the tool displays the documents that are the most relevant to those entities of interest currently shown in the network. We present this as a methodology for browsing a collection of research articles. To illustrate the practical applicability of SKIMMR, we present examples of its use in the domains of Spinal Muscular Atrophy and Parkinson’s Disease. Finally, we report on the results of experimental evaluation using the two domains and one additional dataset based on the TREC challenge. The results show how the presented method for machine-aided skim reading outperforms tools like PubMed regarding focused browsing and informativeness of the browsing context. PMID:25097821

  3. NIST System for Measuring the Directivity Index of Hearing Aids under Simulated Real-Ear Conditions.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Randall P

    2013-01-01

    The directivity index is a parameter that is commonly used to characterize the performance of directional hearing aids, and is determined from the measured directional response. Since this response is different for a hearing aid worn on a person as compared to when it is in a free field, directivity index measurements of hearing aids are usually done under simulated real-ear conditions. Details are provided regarding the NIST system for measuring the hearing aid directivity index under these conditions and how this system is used to implement a standardized procedure for performing such measurements. This procedure involves a sampling method that utilizes sound source locations distributed in a semi-aligned zone array on an imaginary spherical surface surrounding a standardized acoustical test manikin. The capabilities of the system were demonstrated over the frequency range of one-third-octave bands with center frequencies from 200 Hz to 8000 Hz through NIST participation in an interlaboratory comparison. This comparison was conducted between eight different laboratories of members of Working Group S3/WG48, Hearing Aids, established by Accredited Standards Committee S3, Bioacoustics, which is administered by the Acoustical Society of America and accredited by the American National Standards Institute. Directivity measurements were made for a total of six programmed memories in two different hearing aids and for the unaided manikin with the manikin right pinna accompanying the aids. Omnidirectional, cardioid, and bidirectional response patterns were measured. Results are presented comparing the NIST data with the reference values calculated from the data reported by all participating laboratories.

  4. Machine Learning in Computer-aided Diagnosis of the Thorax and Colon in CT: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Computer-aided detection (CADe) and diagnosis (CAD) has been a rapidly growing, active area of research in medical imaging. Machine leaning (ML) plays an essential role in CAD, because objects such as lesions and organs may not be represented accurately by a simple equation; thus, medical pattern recognition essentially require “learning from examples.” One of the most popular uses of ML is the classification of objects such as lesion candidates into certain classes (e.g., abnormal or normal, and lesions or non-lesions) based on input features (e.g., contrast and area) obtained from segmented lesion candidates. The task of ML is to determine “optimal” boundaries for separating classes in the multidimensional feature space which is formed by the input features. ML algorithms for classification include linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), multilayer perceptrons, and support vector machines (SVM). Recently, pixel/voxel-based ML (PML) emerged in medical image processing/analysis, which uses pixel/voxel values in images directly, instead of features calculated from segmented lesions, as input information; thus, feature calculation or segmentation is not required. In this paper, ML techniques used in CAD schemes for detection and diagnosis of lung nodules in thoracic CT and for detection of polyps in CT colonography (CTC) are surveyed and reviewed. PMID:24174708

  5. Machine Learning in Computer-aided Diagnosis of the Thorax and Colon in CT: A Survey.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenji

    2013-04-01

    Computer-aided detection (CADe) and diagnosis (CAD) has been a rapidly growing, active area of research in medical imaging. Machine leaning (ML) plays an essential role in CAD, because objects such as lesions and organs may not be represented accurately by a simple equation; thus, medical pattern recognition essentially require "learning from examples." One of the most popular uses of ML is the classification of objects such as lesion candidates into certain classes (e.g., abnormal or normal, and lesions or non-lesions) based on input features (e.g., contrast and area) obtained from segmented lesion candidates. The task of ML is to determine "optimal" boundaries for separating classes in the multidimensional feature space which is formed by the input features. ML algorithms for classification include linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), multilayer perceptrons, and support vector machines (SVM). Recently, pixel/voxel-based ML (PML) emerged in medical image processing/analysis, which uses pixel/voxel values in images directly, instead of features calculated from segmented lesions, as input information; thus, feature calculation or segmentation is not required. In this paper, ML techniques used in CAD schemes for detection and diagnosis of lung nodules in thoracic CT and for detection of polyps in CT colonography (CTC) are surveyed and reviewed.

  6. Methods and Applications of the Audibility Index in Hearing Aid Selection and Fitting

    PubMed Central

    Amlani, Amyn M.; Punch, Jerry L.; Ching, Teresa Y. C.

    2002-01-01

    During the first half of the 20th century, communications engineers at Bell Telephone Laboratories developed the articulation model for predicting speech intelligibility transmitted through different telecommunication devices under varying electroacoustic conditions. The profession of audiology adopted this model and its quantitative aspects, known as the Articulation Index and Speech Intelligibility Index, and applied these indices to the prediction of unaided and aided speech intelligibility in hearing-impaired listeners. Over time, the calculation methods of these indices—referred to collectively in this paper as the Audibility Index—have been continually refined and simplified for clinical use. This article provides (1) an overview of the basic principles and the calculation methods of the Audibility Index, the Speech Transmission Index and related indices, as well as the Speech Recognition Sensitivity Model, (2) a review of the literature on using the Audibility Index to predict speech intelligibility of hearing-impaired listeners, (3) a review of the literature on the applicability of the Audibility Index to the selection and fitting of hearing aids, and (4) a discussion of future scientific needs and clinical applications of the Audibility Index. PMID:25425917

  7. A computer aided diagnosis system for thyroid disease using extreme learning machine.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Na; Ouyang, Ji-Hong; Chen, Hui-Ling; Liu, Da-You

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present an effective and efficient computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on principle component analysis (PCA) and extreme learning machine (ELM) to assist the task of thyroid disease diagnosis. The CAD system is comprised of three stages. Focusing on dimension reduction, the first stage applies PCA to construct the most discriminative new feature set. After then, the system switches to the second stage whose target is model construction. ELM classifier is explored to train an optimal predictive model whose parameters are optimized. As we known, the number of hidden neurons has an important role in the performance of ELM, so we propose an experimental method to hunt for the optimal value. Finally, the obtained optimal ELM model proceeds to perform the thyroid disease diagnosis tasks using the most discriminative new feature set and the optimal parameters. The effectiveness of the resultant CAD system (PCA-ELM) has been rigorously estimated on a thyroid disease dataset which is taken from UCI machine learning repository. We compare it with other related methods in terms of their classification accuracy. Experimental results demonstrate that PCA-ELM outperforms other ones reported so far by 10-fold cross-validation method, with the mean accuracy of 97.73% and with the maximum accuracy of 98.1%. Besides, PCA-ELM performs much faster than support vector machines (SVM) based CAD system. Consequently, the proposed method PCA-ELM can be considered as a new powerful tools for diagnosing thyroid disease with excellent performance and less time.

  8. Fabrication quality analysis of a fiber optic refractive index sensor created by CO2 laser machining.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Hsing; Yeh, Bo-Kuan; Tang, Jaw-Luen; Wu, Wei-Te

    2013-03-26

    This study investigates the CO2 laser-stripped partial cladding of silica-based optic fibers with a core diameter of 400 μm, which enables them to sense the refractive index of the surrounding environment. However, inappropriate treatments during the machining process can generate a number of defects in the optic fiber sensors. Therefore, the quality of optic fiber sensors fabricated using CO2 laser machining must be analyzed. The results show that analysis of the fiber core size after machining can provide preliminary defect detection, and qualitative analysis of the optical transmission defects can be used to identify imperfections that are difficult to observe through size analysis. To more precisely and quantitatively detect fabrication defects, we included a tensile test and numerical aperture measurements in this study. After a series of quality inspections, we proposed improvements to the existing CO2 laser machining parameters, namely, a vertical scanning pathway, 4 W of power, and a feed rate of 9.45 cm/s. Using these improved parameters, we created optical fiber sensors with a core diameter of approximately 400 μm, no obvious optical transmission defects, a numerical aperture of 0.52 ± 0.019, a 0.886 Weibull modulus, and a 1.186 Weibull-shaped parameter. Finally, we used the optical fiber sensor fabricated using the improved parameters to measure the refractive indices of various solutions. The results show that a refractive-index resolution of 1.8 × 10(-4) RIU (linear fitting R2 = 0.954) was achieved for sucrose solutions with refractive indices ranging between 1.333 and 1.383. We also adopted the particle plasmon resonance sensing scheme using the fabricated optical fibers. The results provided additional information, specifically, a superior sensor resolution of 5.73 × 10(-5) RIU, and greater linearity at R2 = 0.999.

  9. Fabrication Quality Analysis of a Fiber Optic Refractive Index Sensor Created by CO2 Laser Machining

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Hsing; Yeh, Bo-Kuan; Tang, Jaw-Luen; Wu, Wei-Te

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the CO2 laser-stripped partial cladding of silica-based optic fibers with a core diameter of 400 μm, which enables them to sense the refractive index of the surrounding environment. However, inappropriate treatments during the machining process can generate a number of defects in the optic fiber sensors. Therefore, the quality of optic fiber sensors fabricated using CO2 laser machining must be analyzed. The results show that analysis of the fiber core size after machining can provide preliminary defect detection, and qualitative analysis of the optical transmission defects can be used to identify imperfections that are difficult to observe through size analysis. To more precisely and quantitatively detect fabrication defects, we included a tensile test and numerical aperture measurements in this study. After a series of quality inspections, we proposed improvements to the existing CO2 laser machining parameters, namely, a vertical scanning pathway, 4 W of power, and a feed rate of 9.45 cm/s. Using these improved parameters, we created optical fiber sensors with a core diameter of approximately 400 μm, no obvious optical transmission defects, a numerical aperture of 0.52 ± 0.019, a 0.886 Weibull modulus, and a 1.186 Weibull-shaped parameter. Finally, we used the optical fiber sensor fabricated using the improved parameters to measure the refractive indices of various solutions. The results show that a refractive-index resolution of 1.8 × 10−4 RIU (linear fitting R2 = 0.954) was achieved for sucrose solutions with refractive indices ranging between 1.333 and 1.383. We also adopted the particle plasmon resonance sensing scheme using the fabricated optical fibers. The results provided additional information, specifically, a superior sensor resolution of 5.73 × 10−5 RIU, and greater linearity at R2 = 0.999. PMID:23535636

  10. An Effective Machine Learning Approach for Prognosis of Paraquat Poisoning Patients Using Blood Routine Indexes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huiling; Hu, Lufeng; Li, Huaizhong; Hong, Guangliang; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Jianshe; Lu, Zhongqiu

    2017-01-01

    The early identification of toxic paraquat (PQ) poisoning in patients is critical to ensure timely and accurate prognosis. Although plasma PQ concentration has been reported as a clinical indicator of PQ poisoning, it is not commonly applied in practice due to the inconvenient necessary instruments and operation. In this study, we explored the use of blood routine indexes to identify the degree of PQ toxicity and/or diagnose PQ poisoning in patients via machine learning approach. Specifically, we developed a method based on support vector machine combined with the feature selection technique to accurately predict PQ poisoning risk status, then tested the method on 79 (42 male and 37 female; 41 living and 38 deceased) patients. The detection method was rigorously evaluated against a real-world data set to determine its accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Feature selection was also applied to identify the factors correlated with risk status, and the results showed that there are significant differences in blood routine indexes between dead and living PQ-poisoned individuals (p-value < 0.01). Feature selection also showed that the most important correlated indexes are white blood cell and neutrophils. In conclusion, the toxicity or prognosis of PQ poisoning can be preliminarily ascertained by blood routine testing without PQ concentration data, representing an additional tool and innovative approach to assess the prognosis of PQ poisoning.

  11. Using Blood Indexes to Predict Overweight Statuses: An Extreme Learning Machine-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huiling; Yang, Bo; Liu, Dayou; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Yanlong; Zhang, Xiuhua; Hu, Lufeng

    2015-01-01

    The number of the overweight people continues to rise across the world. Studies have shown that being overweight can increase health risks, such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and certain forms of cancer. Therefore, identifying the overweight status in people is critical to prevent and decrease health risks. This study explores a new technique that uses blood and biochemical measurements to recognize the overweight condition. A new machine learning technique, an extreme learning machine, was developed to accurately detect the overweight status from a pool of 225 overweight and 251 healthy subjects. The group included 179 males and 297 females. The detection method was rigorously evaluated against the real-life dataset for accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve) criterion. Additionally, the feature selection was investigated to identify correlating factors for the overweight status. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in blood and biochemical indexes between healthy and overweight people (p-value < 0.01). According to the feature selection, the most important correlated indexes are creatinine, hemoglobin, hematokrit, uric Acid, red blood cells, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, triglyceride, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. These are consistent with the results of Spearman test analysis. The proposed method holds promise as a new, accurate method for identifying the overweight status in subjects.

  12. Method for calculating directivity index of a directional microphone in a hearing aid on a manikin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittberner, Andrew; Bentler, Ruth

    2005-09-01

    A method for computing a directivity index (DI) on a manikin for directional microphones in hearing aids is proposed and investigated. Test devices included first- and second-order directional microphones in hearing aids. Signal presentation involved a single noise source rotated completely around the directional microphone, in free field and on a manikin, at a defined radius. The area covered was equivalent to the approximate surface area of a sphere. It was anticipated that an equal angular resolution of 10 deg (elevation and azimuth) would effectively estimate the DI of first-, second-, and higher-order directional microphone systems located in a hearing aid on a manikin. A total of 450 spatially varied presentation points was analyzed, each weighted in reference to direction of arrival on the directional microphone. The absolute difference between the Directivity Index derived from the modified method proposed in this investigation and the conventionally derived Directivity Index on a manikin were as large as 3.8 dB in the higher frequencies, depending on the device under test. The magnitude of these differences was dependent on microphone location. In other words, the further the microphone was placed into the ear of the manikin, the larger the absolute difference.

  13. Optical dual-mode index modulation aided OFDM for visible light communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Tianqi; Jiang, Rui; Bai, Ruowen

    2017-05-01

    Dual-mode index modulation aided orthogonal frequency multiplexing (DM-OFDM) is recently proposed, where the spectral efficiency is enhanced compared with conventional OFDM schemes. In this paper, we propose two different optical DM-OFDM schemes for visible light communications, dual-mode index modulation aided DC-biased optical OFDM (DM-DCO-OFDM) and dual-mode index modulation aided unipolar OFDM (DM-U-OFDM). In the optical DM-OFDM schemes, subcarriers are partitioned into OFDM subblocks, divided into two groups within each subblock, and modulated by two different modes of constellations. Additional information bits can be transmitted implicitly by the indices of subcarriers modulated by the same constellation alphabet. In order to generate non-negative signals, the real-valued time-domain signals are DC-biased in DM-DCO-OFDM, whilst positive and negative signals are transmitted separately in DM-U-OFDM. At the receiver, both a maximum-likelihood (ML) detector and a log-likelihood ratio (LLR) detector are employed for signal demodulation. Besides, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed optical DM-OFDM schemes are capable of enhancing the spectral efficiency compared with other existing optical OFDM schemes, and DM-DCO-OFDM as well as DM-U-OFDM can achieve significant performance gains over their conventional counterparts at the same spectral efficiency, when the nonlinear transfer characteristic of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is considered.

  14. Focused particle beam nano-machining: the next evolution step towards simulation aided process prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, Harald

    2015-02-01

    During the last decade, focused ion beam processing has been developed from traditionally used Ga+ liquid ion sources towards higher resolution gas field ion sources (He+ and Ne+). Process simulations not only improve the fundamental understanding of the relevant ion-matter interactions, but also enable a certain predictive power to accelerate advances. The historic ‘gold’ standard in ion-solid simulations is the SRIM/TRIM Monte Carlo package released by Ziegler, Ziegler and Biersack 2010 Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 268 1818-23. While SRIM/TRIM is very useful for a myriad of applications, it is not applicable for the understanding of the nanoscale evolution associated with ion beam nano-machining as the substrate does not evolve with the sputtering process. As a solution for this problem, a new, adapted simulation code is briefly overviewed and finally addresses these contributions. By that, experimentally observed Ne+ beam sputter profiles can be explained from a fundamental point of view. Due to their very good agreement, these simulations contain the potential for computer aided optimization towards predictable sputter processes for different nanotechnology applications. With these benefits in mind, the discussed simulation approach represents an enormous step towards a computer based master tool for adaptable ion beam applications in the context of industrial applications.

  15. Focused particle beam nano-machining: the next evolution step towards simulation aided process prediction.

    PubMed

    Plank, Harald

    2015-02-06

    During the last decade, focused ion beam processing has been developed from traditionally used Ga(+) liquid ion sources towards higher resolution gas field ion sources (He(+) and Ne(+)). Process simulations not only improve the fundamental understanding of the relevant ion-matter interactions, but also enable a certain predictive power to accelerate advances. The historic 'gold' standard in ion-solid simulations is the SRIM/TRIM Monte Carlo package released by Ziegler, Ziegler and Biersack 2010 Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 268 1818-23. While SRIM/TRIM is very useful for a myriad of applications, it is not applicable for the understanding of the nanoscale evolution associated with ion beam nano-machining as the substrate does not evolve with the sputtering process. As a solution for this problem, a new, adapted simulation code is briefly overviewed and finally addresses these contributions. By that, experimentally observed Ne(+) beam sputter profiles can be explained from a fundamental point of view. Due to their very good agreement, these simulations contain the potential for computer aided optimization towards predictable sputter processes for different nanotechnology applications. With these benefits in mind, the discussed simulation approach represents an enormous step towards a computer based master tool for adaptable ion beam applications in the context of industrial applications.

  16. Prediction of water quality index in constructed wetlands using support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, Reza; Shaharuddin, Syafiq; Chang, Chun Kiat; Zakaria, Nor Azazi; Ab Ghani, Aminuddin; Chan, Ngai Weng

    2015-04-01

    Poor water quality is a serious problem in the world which threatens human health, ecosystems, and plant/animal life. Prediction of surface water quality is a main concern in water resource and environmental systems. In this research, the support vector machine and two methods of artificial neural networks (ANNs), namely feed forward back propagation (FFBP) and radial basis function (RBF), were used to predict the water quality index (WQI) in a free constructed wetland. Seventeen points of the wetland were monitored twice a month over a period of 14 months, and an extensive dataset was collected for 11 water quality variables. A detailed comparison of the overall performance showed that prediction of the support vector machine (SVM) model with coefficient of correlation (R(2)) = 0.9984 and mean absolute error (MAE) = 0.0052 was either better or comparable with neural networks. This research highlights that the SVM and FFBP can be successfully employed for the prediction of water quality in a free surface constructed wetland environment. These methods simplify the calculation of the WQI and reduce substantial efforts and time by optimizing the computations.

  17. A tale of two "forests": random forest machine learning AIDS tropical forest carbon mapping.

    PubMed

    Mascaro, Joseph; Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Martin, Roberta E; Anderson, Christopher; Higgins, Mark; Chadwick, K Dana

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and spatially-explicit maps of tropical forest carbon stocks are needed to implement carbon offset mechanisms such as REDD+ (Reduced Deforestation and Degradation Plus). The Random Forest machine learning algorithm may aid carbon mapping applications using remotely-sensed data. However, Random Forest has never been compared to traditional and potentially more reliable techniques such as regionally stratified sampling and upscaling, and it has rarely been employed with spatial data. Here, we evaluated the performance of Random Forest in upscaling airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)-based carbon estimates compared to the stratification approach over a 16-million hectare focal area of the Western Amazon. We considered two runs of Random Forest, both with and without spatial contextual modeling by including--in the latter case--x, and y position directly in the model. In each case, we set aside 8 million hectares (i.e., half of the focal area) for validation; this rigorous test of Random Forest went above and beyond the internal validation normally compiled by the algorithm (i.e., called "out-of-bag"), which proved insufficient for this spatial application. In this heterogeneous region of Northern Peru, the model with spatial context was the best preforming run of Random Forest, and explained 59% of LiDAR-based carbon estimates within the validation area, compared to 37% for stratification or 43% by Random Forest without spatial context. With the 60% improvement in explained variation, RMSE against validation LiDAR samples improved from 33 to 26 Mg C ha(-1) when using Random Forest with spatial context. Our results suggest that spatial context should be considered when using Random Forest, and that doing so may result in substantially improved carbon stock modeling for purposes of climate change mitigation.

  18. A Survey of British Research in Audio-Visual Aids, Supplement No. 2, 1974. (Including Cumulative Index 1945-1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodwell, Susie, Comp.

    The second supplement to the new (1972) edition of the Survey of Research in Audiovisual Aids carried out in Great Britain covers the year 1974. Ten separate sections cover the areas of projected media, non-projected media, sound media, radio, moving pictures, television, teaching machines and programed learning, computer-assisted instruction,…

  19. The Answer Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering;…

  20. Quantification of Hepatorenal Index for Computer-Aided Fatty Liver Classification with Self-Organizing Map and Fuzzy Stretching from Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Baek; Kim, Chang Won

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measures of liver fat content are essential for investigating hepatic steatosis. For a noninvasive inexpensive ultrasonographic analysis, it is necessary to validate the quantitative assessment of liver fat content so that fully automated reliable computer-aided software can assist medical practitioners without any operator subjectivity. In this study, we attempt to quantify the hepatorenal index difference between the liver and the kidney with respect to the multiple severity status of hepatic steatosis. In order to do this, a series of carefully designed image processing techniques, including fuzzy stretching and edge tracking, are applied to extract regions of interest. Then, an unsupervised neural learning algorithm, the self-organizing map, is designed to establish characteristic clusters from the image, and the distribution of the hepatorenal index values with respect to the different levels of the fatty liver status is experimentally verified to estimate the differences in the distribution of the hepatorenal index. Such findings will be useful in building reliable computer-aided diagnostic software if combined with a good set of other characteristic feature sets and powerful machine learning classifiers in the future.

  1. Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Breast Ultrasound Using Computerized BI-RADS Features and Machine Learning Methods.

    PubMed

    Shan, Juan; Alam, S Kaisar; Garra, Brian; Zhang, Yingtao; Ahmed, Tahira

    2016-04-01

    This work identifies effective computable features from the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS), to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for breast ultrasound. Computerized features corresponding to ultrasound BI-RADs categories were designed and tested using a database of 283 pathology-proven benign and malignant lesions. Features were selected based on classification performance using a "bottom-up" approach for different machine learning methods, including decision tree, artificial neural network, random forest and support vector machine. Using 10-fold cross-validation on the database of 283 cases, the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was 0.84 from a support vector machine with 77.7% overall accuracy; the highest overall accuracy, 78.5%, was from a random forest with the AUC 0.83. Lesion margin and orientation were optimum features common to all of the different machine learning methods. These features can be used in CAD systems to help distinguish benign from worrisome lesions.

  2. A New MI-Based Visualization Aided Validation Index for Mining Big Longitudinal Web Trial Data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Fang, Hua; Wang, Honggang

    Web-delivered clinical trials generate big complex data. To help untangle the heterogeneity of treatment effects, unsupervised learning methods have been widely applied. However, identifying valid patterns is a priority but challenging issue for these methods. This paper, built upon our previous research on multiple imputation (MI)-based fuzzy clustering and validation, proposes a new MI-based Visualization-aided validation index (MIVOOS) to determine the optimal number of clusters for big incomplete longitudinal Web-trial data with inflated zeros. Different from a recently developed fuzzy clustering validation index, MIVOOS uses a more suitable overlap and separation measures for Web-trial data but does not depend on the choice of fuzzifiers as the widely used Xie and Beni (XB) index. Through optimizing the view angles of 3-D projections using Sammon mapping, the optimal 2-D projection-guided MIVOOS is obtained to better visualize and verify the patterns in conjunction with trajectory patterns. Compared with XB and VOS, our newly proposed MIVOOS shows its robustness in validating big Web-trial data under different missing data mechanisms using real and simulated Web-trial data.

  3. Creation of a Machine File and Subsequent Computer-Assisted Production of Publishing Outputs, Including a Translation Journal and an Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Lawrence F.; Weaver, Vance

    Reported are the findings of the Uspekhi experiment in creating a labeled machine file, as well as sample products of this system - an article from a scientific journal and an index page. Production cost tables are presented for the machine file, primary journals, and journal indexes. Comparisons were made between the 1965 predicted costs and the…

  4. Auto-adaptive robot-aided therapy using machine learning techniques.

    PubMed

    Badesa, Francisco J; Morales, Ricardo; Garcia-Aracil, Nicolas; Sabater, J M; Casals, Alicia; Zollo, Loredana

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an application of a classification method to adaptively and dynamically modify the therapy and real-time displays of a virtual reality system in accordance with the specific state of each patient using his/her physiological reactions. First, a theoretical background about several machine learning techniques for classification is presented. Then, nine machine learning techniques are compared in order to select the best candidate in terms of accuracy. Finally, first experimental results are presented to show that the therapy can be modulated in function of the patient state using machine learning classification techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Man-Machine Communication Through a Teletypewriter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinoff, Morris

    A ten-year research study designed a mechanized information system in the information processing field. Special attention was paid to implementation criteria entering into on-line retrieval through man-machine dialog from a remote typewriter or video terminal and four major areas were investigated: search strategies, machine stored indexer aids,…

  6. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  7. Rapid prototyping of silicon structures by aid of laser and abrasive-jet machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruusing, Arvi; Leppaevuori, Seppo; Uusimaki, Antti; Uusimaki, Matti

    1999-03-01

    Rapid prototyping of silicon microstructures for fluidic devices using laser machining in water and abrasive-jet machining through mask is described. For laser machining a Q-switched 1-2 W 1 kHz pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam and 60 mJ XeCl excimer laser beam were used. The laser beam was scanned along the silicon surface at speeds 0.1-2 mm/s. Using excimer laser, the silicon nitride layer was patterned for subsequent chemical etching. Nd:YAG laser was used for fabrication of cavities and channels of depth down to 200 micrometers . Comparison of Nd:YAG laser machining of silicon in air and in water has been performed. Machining in water yields more even surfaces and there is no debris. By abrasive jet of velocity approximately 200 m/s and abrasive feed rate of 0.4 g/s, the silicon was eroded at speed of 40 micrometers /min. Several masking materials were compared, whereby a styrene based glue was found to have the best abrasion resistivity. The polymer masks were spun on the surface and patterned by excimer laser point or by knife. The described fabrication methods were used for making the fluid channels and chambers in silicon and for releasing silicon nitride and oxide films.

  8. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the SAO-HD-GC-DM cross index version 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, N. G.; Warren, W. H., Jr.; Schofield, N., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An updated and extended machine readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory star catalog (SAO) is described. A correction of all errors which were found since preparation of the original catalog which resulted from misidentifications and omissions of components in multiple star systems and missing Durchmusterung numbers (the common identifier) in the SAO Catalog are included and component identifications from the Index of Visual Double Stars (IDS) are appended to all multiple SAO entries with the same DM numbers, and lower case letter identifiers for supplemental BD stars are added. A total of 11,398 individual corrections and data additions is incorporated into the present version of the cross index.

  9. Some Principles of Learning and Learning with the Aid of Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolyatovskii, V. A.; Sotnikov, E. M.

    A translated Soviet document describes some theories of learning, and the practical problems of developing a teaching machine--as taught in an Industrial Electronics course (in the automation and telemechanics curriculum). The point is stressed that the growing number of students at institutions of higher learning in the Soviet Union, up forty…

  10. Drought index forecasting using remote sensing and long-range forecast data based on machine learning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Jinyoung; Im, Jungho

    2016-04-01

    Three machine learning models based on Decision Tree, Random Forest, and Extremely Randomized Trees were developed and compared to spatial interpolation based on multiquadric spline to forecast drought indices of the 6-month Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI6) and the 6-month Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration (SPEI6) in ungauged areas. Input variables of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), daytime Land Surface Temperature, and nighttime Land Surface Temperature were used to represent the initial condition and the Multivariate ENSO Index and the Arctic Oscillation Index were included in order to consider large-scale atmospheric circulation. Six-month accumulated precipitation and potential evapotranspiration ending the target month were also included as input variables. The long-range forecast data were used to fill the 6-month precipitation and potential evapotranspiration during future periods and compared to the cases that use climatological data as baseline results. Classification of drought categories were performed and evaluated for the locations of 61 of Automated Synoptic Observing System gauges in South Korea. In conclusion, machine learning-based methods performed better than the interpolation method, and the methods using climatology data outperformed the methods based on long-range forecast. Although the contribution of long-range forecast for drought forecasting was not yet large, the application of machine learning modelling using remote sensing data contributed to the enhancement of drought forecasting skill. Drought forecasting based on the long-range forecast is expected to outperform the performance based on climatological data as the skill of the long-range forecast improves.

  11. Aiding the Decision Maker: Perceptual and Cognitive Issues at the Human-Machine Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    documents. Use of trade names in this report does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products. mm z am...attention, because these mechanisms form the foundation of our ability to acquire relevant and timely problem data. k r. 20. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABIIUTY OF...anything, given enough time and engineers. But man has limits to his development as far as we can see it. . . . Machines that demand superhuman

  12. Computer Aided Drafting and Design, Industrial Manufacturing Technician, and Mechanical Engineering Technician and Machine Tool, Die and Moldmaking Technology. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-East Ohio Tech Prep Consortium, Zanesville.

    This document contains competency profiles in four areas: computer-aided drafting and design; industrial manufacturing technician; mechanical engineering technician; and machine tool, die, and moldmaking technology occupations. The profiles are intended for use in articulating tech prep programs from high school through associate degrees in Ohio.…

  13. Computer-Aided Drafting and Design Series. Educational Resources for the Machine Tool Industry, Course Syllabi, [and] Instructor's Handbook. Student Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll. System, Waco.

    This package consists of course syllabi, an instructor's handbook, and a student laboratory manual for a 2-year vocational training program to prepare students for entry-level employment in computer-aided drafting and design in the machine tool industry. The program was developed through a modification of the DACUM (Developing a Curriculum)…

  14. Training Developers Decision Aid for Optimizing Performance-Based Training in Machine Ascendant MOS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    the.oretical or idealized model, and (2) a procedural model based on the concepts developed in the first segment. The manual model process simply has the...third years of the project includes (1) implementation and evaluation of the model in manual and computer modes with instructional handbooks for each...1 Manual Model 3-2 Computer-Aided Model 3-4 Ref erences 3-5 x LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 2-1 Sample Training Algorithm 2-4 2-2 Stimulus Questions 2

  15. Computer Automated Structure Evaluation (CASE) of the teratogenicity of retinoids with the aid of a novel geometry index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klopman, Gilles; Dimayuga, Mario L.

    1990-06-01

    The CASE (Computer Automated Structure Evaluation) program, with the aid of a geometry index for discriminating cis and trans isomers, has been used to study a set of retinoids tested for teratogenicity in hamsters. CASE identified 8 fragments, the most important representing the non-polar terminus of a retinoid with an additional ring system which introduces some rigidity in the isoprenoid side chain. The geometry index helped to identify relevant fragments with an all- trans configuration and to distinguish them from irrelevant fragments with other configurations.

  16. Development of a Late-Life Dementia Prediction Index with Supervised Machine Learning in the Population-Based CAIDE Study.

    PubMed

    Pekkala, Timo; Hall, Anette; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Mattila, Jussi; Soininen, Hilkka; Ngandu, Tiia; Laatikainen, Tiina; Kivipelto, Miia; Solomon, Alina

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a late-life dementia prediction model using a novel validated supervised machine learning method, the Disease State Index (DSI), in the Finnish population-based CAIDE study. The CAIDE study was based on previous population-based midlife surveys. CAIDE participants were re-examined twice in late-life, and the first late-life re-examination was used as baseline for the present study. The main study population included 709 cognitively normal subjects at first re-examination who returned to the second re-examination up to 10 years later (incident dementia n = 39). An extended population (n = 1009, incident dementia 151) included non-participants/non-survivors (national registers data). DSI was used to develop a dementia index based on first re-examination assessments. Performance in predicting dementia was assessed as area under the ROC curve (AUC). AUCs for DSI were 0.79 and 0.75 for main and extended populations. Included predictors were cognition, vascular factors, age, subjective memory complaints, and APOE genotype. The supervised machine learning method performed well in identifying comprehensive profiles for predicting dementia development up to 10 years later. DSI could thus be useful for identifying individuals who are most at risk and may benefit from dementia prevention interventions.

  17. Development of a Late-Life Dementia Prediction Index with Supervised Machine Learning in the Population-Based CAIDE Study

    PubMed Central

    Pekkala, Timo; Hall, Anette; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Mattila, Jussi; Soininen, Hilkka; Ngandu, Tiia; Laatikainen, Tiina; Kivipelto, Miia; Solomon, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: This study aimed to develop a late-life dementia prediction model using a novel validated supervised machine learning method, the Disease State Index (DSI), in the Finnish population-based CAIDE study. Methods: The CAIDE study was based on previous population-based midlife surveys. CAIDE participants were re-examined twice in late-life, and the first late-life re-examination was used as baseline for the present study. The main study population included 709 cognitively normal subjects at first re-examination who returned to the second re-examination up to 10 years later (incident dementia n = 39). An extended population (n = 1009, incident dementia 151) included non-participants/non-survivors (national registers data). DSI was used to develop a dementia index based on first re-examination assessments. Performance in predicting dementia was assessed as area under the ROC curve (AUC). Results: AUCs for DSI were 0.79 and 0.75 for main and extended populations. Included predictors were cognition, vascular factors, age, subjective memory complaints, and APOE genotype. Conclusion: The supervised machine learning method performed well in identifying comprehensive profiles for predicting dementia development up to 10 years later. DSI could thus be useful for identifying individuals who are most at risk and may benefit from dementia prevention interventions. PMID:27802228

  18. Machine learning aided diagnosis of hepatic malignancies through in vivo dielectric measurements with microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Tuba; Alp Kılıç, Mahmut; Erdoğan, Melike; Çayören, Mehmet; Tunaoğlu, Doruk; Kurtoğlu, İsmail; Yaslan, Yusuf; Çayören, Hüseyin; Enes Arıkan, Akif; Teksöz, Serkan; Cancan, Gülden; Kepil, Nuray; Erdamar, Sibel; Özcan, Murat; Akduman, İbrahim; Kalkan, Tunaya

    2016-07-01

    In the past decade, extensive research on dielectric properties of biological tissues led to characterization of dielectric property discrepancy between the malignant and healthy tissues. Such discrepancy enabled the development of microwave therapeutic and diagnostic technologies. Traditionally, dielectric property measurements of biological tissues is performed with the well-known contact probe (open-ended coaxial probe) technique. However, the technique suffers from limited accuracy and low loss resolution for permittivity and conductivity measurements, respectively. Therefore, despite the inherent dielectric property discrepancy, a rigorous measurement routine with open-ended coaxial probes is required for accurate differentiation of malignant and healthy tissues. In this paper, we propose to eliminate the need for multiple measurements with open-ended coaxial probe for malignant and healthy tissue differentiation by applying support vector machine (SVM) classification algorithm to the dielectric measurement data. To do so, first, in vivo malignant and healthy rat liver tissue dielectric property measurements are collected with open-ended coaxial probe technique between 500 MHz to 6 GHz. Cole-Cole functions are fitted to the measured dielectric properties and measurement data is verified with the literature. Malign tissue classification is realized by applying SVM to the open-ended coaxial probe measurements where as high as 99.2% accuracy (F1 Score) is obtained.

  19. Machine learning aided diagnosis of hepatic malignancies through in vivo dielectric measurements with microwaves.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Tuba; Kılıç, Mahmut Alp; Erdoğan, Melike; Çayören, Mehmet; Tunaoğlu, Doruk; Kurtoğlu, İsmail; Yaslan, Yusuf; Çayören, Hüseyin; Arkan, Akif Enes; Teksöz, Serkan; Cancan, Gülden; Kepil, Nuray; Erdamar, Sibel; Özcan, Murat; Akduman, İbrahim; Kalkan, Tunaya

    2016-06-20

    In the past decade, extensive research on dielectric properties of biological tissues led to characterization of dielectric property discrepancy between the malignant and healthy tissues. Such discrepancy enabled the development of microwave therapeutic and diagnostic technologies. Traditionally, dielectric property measurements of biological tissues is performed with the well-known contact probe (open-ended coaxial probe) technique. However, the technique suffers from limited accuracy and low loss resolution for permittivity and conductivity measurements, respectively. Therefore, despite the inherent dielectric property discrepancy, a rigorous measurement routine with open-ended coaxial probes is required for accurate differentiation of malignant and healthy tissues. In this paper, we propose to eliminate the need for multiple measurements with open-ended coaxial probe for malignant and healthy tissue differentiation by applying support vector machine (SVM) classification algorithm to the dielectric measurement data. To do so, first, in vivo malignant and healthy rat liver tissue dielectric property measurements are collected with open-ended coaxial probe technique between 500 MHz to 6 GHz. Cole-Cole functions are fitted to the measured dielectric properties and measurement data is verified with the literature. Malign tissue classification is realized by applying SVM to the open-ended coaxial probe measurements where as high as 99.2% accuracy (F1 Score) is obtained.

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Retrieval Effectiveness for Three Methods of Indexing AIDS-Related Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, William R.; Hickam, David H.

    1991-01-01

    Describes SAPHIRE, an experimental information retrieval system featuring concept-based automated indexing, natural language input, and relevance-based retrieval; and compares its retrieval effectiveness with other indexing approaches in a Boolean-based searching environment. Indexing in MEDLINE is described, and a test collection of AIDS…

  1. Microcomputer-Generated Graphic Displays as an Aid in String Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Timothy C.

    1980-01-01

    Proposes that error rates in indexing using string index languages such as NEPHIS might be reduced at relatively low cost by having the indexer enter strings via a microcomputer system which could provide simple validation and feedback in the form of graphic displays of concept links. (Author/FM)

  2. Quality indexing by machine vision during fermentation in black tea manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, S.; Bhuyan, M.

    2003-04-01

    Although the organoleptic method of tea testing has been traditionally used for quality monitoring, an alternative way by machine vision may be advantageous. Although, the three main quality descriptors estimate the overall quality of made-tea, viz., strength, briskness and brightness of tea liquor, the exact colour detection in fermenting process leads to a good quality-monitoring tool. The use of digital image processing technique for this purpose is reported to play an effective role towards the production of good quality tea though it is not the only quality determining parameter. In this paper, it has been tried to compare the contribution of the chemical constituents towards the final product with the visual appearance in the processing stage by imaging. The use of machine intelligence supports the process somewhat invariantly in comparison to the human decision and colorimetric approach. The captured images are processed for colour matching with a standard image database using HSI colour model. The application of colour dissimilarity and perceptron learning for the standard images and the test images is ensured. Moreover, the performance of the system is being tried to correlate with the decision made by the organoleptic panel assigned for the tea testing and chemical test results on the final product. However, it should be noted that the optimized result could be achieved only when the other quality parameters such as withering, flavour (aroma) detection, drying status etc. are properly maintained.

  3. Computer-aided classification of Alzheimer's disease based on support vector machine with combination of cerebral image features in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jongkreangkrai, C.; Vichianin, Y.; Tocharoenchai, C.; Arimura, H.; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2016-03-01

    Several studies have differentiated Alzheimer's disease (AD) using cerebral image features derived from MR brain images. In this study, we were interested in combining hippocampus and amygdala volumes and entorhinal cortex thickness to improve the performance of AD differentiation. Thus, our objective was to investigate the useful features obtained from MRI for classification of AD patients using support vector machine (SVM). T1-weighted MR brain images of 100 AD patients and 100 normal subjects were processed using FreeSurfer software to measure hippocampus and amygdala volumes and entorhinal cortex thicknesses in both brain hemispheres. Relative volumes of hippocampus and amygdala were calculated to correct variation in individual head size. SVM was employed with five combinations of features (H: hippocampus relative volumes, A: amygdala relative volumes, E: entorhinal cortex thicknesses, HA: hippocampus and amygdala relative volumes and ALL: all features). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the method. AUC values of five combinations were 0.8575 (H), 0.8374 (A), 0.8422 (E), 0.8631 (HA) and 0.8906 (ALL). Although “ALL” provided the highest AUC, there were no statistically significant differences among them except for “A” feature. Our results showed that all suggested features may be feasible for computer-aided classification of AD patients.

  4. Independent Component Analysis-Support Vector Machine-Based Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Alzheimer's with Visual Support.

    PubMed

    Khedher, Laila; Illán, Ignacio A; Górriz, Juan M; Ramírez, Javier; Brahim, Abdelbasset; Meyer-Baese, Anke

    2017-05-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems constitute a powerful tool for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but limitations on interpretability and performance exist. In this work, a fully automatic CAD system based on supervised learning methods is proposed to be applied on segmented brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) participants for automatic classification. The proposed CAD system possesses two relevant characteristics: optimal performance and visual support for decision making. The CAD is built in two stages: a first feature extraction based on independent component analysis (ICA) on class mean images and, secondly, a support vector machine (SVM) training and classification. The obtained features for classification offer a full graphical representation of the images, giving an understandable logic in the CAD output, that can increase confidence in the CAD support. The proposed method yields classification results up to 89% of accuracy (with 92% of sensitivity and 86% of specificity) for normal controls (NC) and AD patients, 79% of accuracy (with 82% of sensitivity and 76% of specificity) for NC and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 85% of accuracy (with 85% of sensitivity and 86% of specificity) for MCI and AD patients.

  5. Computing continuous record of discharge with quantified uncertainty using index velocity observations: A probabilistic machine learning approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahmand, Touraj; Hamilton, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    uncertainty used for real-time derivation. Model uncertainty is often ignored but it is in fact an important source of uncertainty caused by building imperfect regression models due to lack of measurement and/or overfitting/under-fitting on data produced by the level of complexity of the model (number of model parameters). In this presentation we demonstrate a solution to these problems using a novel machine learning techniques to use index velocity and field measurement observations with measurement uncertainty to build a non-parametric/non-linear self-adaptive Bayesian.

  6. Automated Indexing versus KWOC: A Performance Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burress, Elaine P.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the retrieval performance of a technique for machine-aided indexing using a controlled vocabulary with that of a Key Word Out of Context Index, basing conclusions on the results of 20 subject searches of a database containing summaries of defense management data. (FM)

  7. Performance Evaluation of Machine Learning Methods for Leaf Area Index Retrieval from Time-Series MODIS Reflectance Data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tongtong; Xiao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important biophysical parameter and the retrieval of LAI from remote sensing data is the only feasible method for generating LAI products at regional and global scales. However, most LAI retrieval methods use satellite observations at a specific time to retrieve LAI. Because of the impacts of clouds and aerosols, the LAI products generated by these methods are spatially incomplete and temporally discontinuous, and thus they cannot meet the needs of practical applications. To generate high-quality LAI products, four machine learning algorithms, including back-propagation neutral network (BPNN), radial basis function networks (RBFNs), general regression neutral networks (GRNNs), and multi-output support vector regression (MSVR) are proposed to retrieve LAI from time-series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance data in this study and performance of these machine learning algorithms is evaluated. The results demonstrated that GRNNs, RBFNs, and MSVR exhibited low sensitivity to training sample size, whereas BPNN had high sensitivity. The four algorithms performed slightly better with red, near infrared (NIR), and short wave infrared (SWIR) bands than red and NIR bands, and the results were significantly better than those obtained using single band reflectance data (red or NIR). Regardless of band composition, GRNNs performed better than the other three methods. Among the four algorithms, BPNN required the least training time, whereas MSVR needed the most for any sample size.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Machine Learning Methods for Leaf Area Index Retrieval from Time-Series MODIS Reflectance Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tongtong; Xiao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important biophysical parameter and the retrieval of LAI from remote sensing data is the only feasible method for generating LAI products at regional and global scales. However, most LAI retrieval methods use satellite observations at a specific time to retrieve LAI. Because of the impacts of clouds and aerosols, the LAI products generated by these methods are spatially incomplete and temporally discontinuous, and thus they cannot meet the needs of practical applications. To generate high-quality LAI products, four machine learning algorithms, including back-propagation neutral network (BPNN), radial basis function networks (RBFNs), general regression neutral networks (GRNNs), and multi-output support vector regression (MSVR) are proposed to retrieve LAI from time-series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance data in this study and performance of these machine learning algorithms is evaluated. The results demonstrated that GRNNs, RBFNs, and MSVR exhibited low sensitivity to training sample size, whereas BPNN had high sensitivity. The four algorithms performed slightly better with red, near infrared (NIR), and short wave infrared (SWIR) bands than red and NIR bands, and the results were significantly better than those obtained using single band reflectance data (red or NIR). Regardless of band composition, GRNNs performed better than the other three methods. Among the four algorithms, BPNN required the least training time, whereas MSVR needed the most for any sample size. PMID:28045443

  9. Documentation for the machine-readable AGK3-BD and BD-AGK3 cross-index catalogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The machine-readable cross identification catalogs were prepared by extracting AGK3 and BD numbers from the magnetic tape version of the AGK3 Catalog. After preparation of the AGK3-BD file, which contains all stars in the AGK3 catalog, the file was sorted according to BD number and rearranged so that the BD number occurs at the beginning of each record. During the sorting operation, all AGK3 stars having no BD numbers were omitted. The BD-AGK3 file is especially useful for finding BD stars in the AGK3 catalog, since precession has moved stars across declination boundaries and it often was necessary to examine more than one AGK3 zone to locate a BD star in the catalog. The contents of the cross index files is described so that users can read and process the tape without problems, guesswork, or consulting the parent catalog.

  10. The Speech Intelligibility Index and the Pure-Tone Average as Predictors of Lexical Ability in Children Fit with Hearing Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Derek J.; Bentler, Ruth A.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a clinically obtainable measure of audibility, the aided Speech Intelligibility Index (SII; American National Standards Institute, 2007), is more sensitive than the pure-tone average (PTA) at predicting the lexical abilities of children who wear hearing aids (CHA). Method: School-age CHA and age-matched children with…

  11. The Speech Intelligibility Index and the Pure-Tone Average as Predictors of Lexical Ability in Children Fit with Hearing Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Derek J.; Bentler, Ruth A.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a clinically obtainable measure of audibility, the aided Speech Intelligibility Index (SII; American National Standards Institute, 2007), is more sensitive than the pure-tone average (PTA) at predicting the lexical abilities of children who wear hearing aids (CHA). Method: School-age CHA and age-matched children with…

  12. Index to selected machine-readable geohydrologic data for Precambrian through Cretaceous rocks in Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spinazola, J.M.; Hansen, C.V.; Underwood, E.J.; Kenny, J.F.; Wolf, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Machine-readable geohydrologic data for Precambrian through Cretaceous rocks in Kansas were compiled as part of the USGS Central Midwest Regional Aquifer System Analysis. The geohydrologic data include log, water quality, water level, hydraulics, and water use information. The log data consist of depths to the top of selected geologic formations determined from about 275 sites with geophysical logs and formation lithologies from about 190 sites with lithologic logs. The water quality data consist of about 10,800 analyses, of which about 1 ,200 are proprietary. The water level data consist of about 4 ,480 measured water levels and about 4,175 equivalent freshwater hydraulic heads, of which about 3,745 are proprietary. The hydraulics data consist of results from about 30 specific capacity tests and about 20 aquifer tests, and interpretations of about 285 drill stem tests (of which about 60 are proprietary) and about 75 core-sample analyses. The water use data consist of estimates of freshwater withdrawals from Precambrian through Cretaceous geohydrologic units for each of the 105 counties in Kansas. Average yearly withdrawals were estimated for each decade from 1940 to 1980. All the log and water use data and the nonproprietary parts of the water quality , water level, and hydraulics data are available on magnetic tape from the USGS office in Lawrence, Kansas. (Author 's abstract)

  13. Computer aided prognosis for cell death categorization and prediction in vivo using quantitative ultrasound and machine learning techniques.

    PubMed

    Gangeh, M J; Hashim, A; Giles, A; Sannachi, L; Czarnota, G J

    2016-12-01

    At present, a one-size-fits-all approach is typically used for cancer therapy in patients. This is mainly because there is no current imaging-based clinical standard for the early assessment and monitoring of cancer treatment response. Here, the authors have developed, for the first time, a complete computer-aided-prognosis (CAP) system based on multiparametric quantitative ultrasound (QUS) spectroscopy methods in association with texture descriptors and advanced machine learning techniques. This system was used to noninvasively categorize and predict cell death levels in fibrosarcoma mouse tumors treated using ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles as novel endothelial-cell radiosensitizers. Sarcoma xenograft tumor-bearing mice were treated using ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles, alone or in combination with x-ray radiation therapy, as a new antivascular treatment. Therapy effects were assessed at 2-3, 24, and 72 h after treatment using a high-frequency ultrasound. Two-dimensional spectral parametric maps were generated using the power spectra of the raw radiofrequency echo signal. Subsequently, the distances between "pretreatment" and "post-treatment" scans were computed as an indication of treatment efficacy, using a kernel-based metric on textural features extracted from 2D parametric maps. A supervised learning paradigm was used to either categorize cell death levels as low, medium, or high using a classifier, or to "continuously" predict the levels of cell death using a regressor. The developed CAP system performed at a high level for the classification of cell death levels. The area under curve of the receiver operating characteristic was 0.87 for the classification of cell death levels to both low/medium and medium/high levels. Moreover, the prediction of cell death levels using the proposed CAP system achieved a good correlation (r = 0.68,  p < 0.001) with histological cell death levels as the ground truth. A statistical test of significance between

  14. Application of the extreme learning machine algorithm for the prediction of monthly Effective Drought Index in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deo, Ravinesh C.; Şahin, Mehmet

    2015-02-01

    The prediction of future drought is an effective mitigation tool for assessing adverse consequences of drought events on vital water resources, agriculture, ecosystems and hydrology. Data-driven model predictions using machine learning algorithms are promising tenets for these purposes as they require less developmental time, minimal inputs and are relatively less complex than the dynamic or physical model. This paper authenticates a computationally simple, fast and efficient non-linear algorithm known as extreme learning machine (ELM) for the prediction of Effective Drought Index (EDI) in eastern Australia using input data trained from 1957-2008 and the monthly EDI predicted over the period 2009-2011. The predictive variables for the ELM model were the rainfall and mean, minimum and maximum air temperatures, supplemented by the large-scale climate mode indices of interest as regression covariates, namely the Southern Oscillation Index, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Southern Annular Mode and the Indian Ocean Dipole moment. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed data-driven model a performance comparison in terms of the prediction capabilities and learning speeds was conducted between the proposed ELM algorithm and the conventional artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm trained with Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation. The prediction metrics certified an excellent performance of the ELM over the ANN model for the overall test sites, thus yielding Mean Absolute Errors, Root-Mean Square Errors, Coefficients of Determination and Willmott's Indices of Agreement of 0.277, 0.008, 0.892 and 0.93 (for ELM) and 0.602, 0.172, 0.578 and 0.92 (for ANN) models. Moreover, the ELM model was executed with learning speed 32 times faster and training speed 6.1 times faster than the ANN model. An improvement in the prediction capability of the drought duration and severity by the ELM model was achieved. Based on these results we aver that out of the two machine learning

  15. The index line as a new aid in clinical and forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    von Clarmann, M; Mathes, G; Solfrank, G; Bystrich, E

    1978-04-27

    On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Research and Technology, we investigated the use of electronic data processing for clinical toxicological purposes. Initially, sufficient funds were available for a comprehensive approach to the problem and programs covering the following areas were established: 1. A casuistic data program; 2. an identification program for wild fruits; 3. a program for the identification of tablets by their shapes. Due to a subsequent lack of funds, it was necessary to develop a partial solution: this solution is what we call the Index Line. The Index Line--limited data on poisonings--should enable the user to receive information by telex from the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information, i.e., information on "who has what, where". As a first step the continuous Index Line registration of all cases of poisoning recorded at the poison control centers in Munich, Freiburg, Hamburg, and Nürnberg as well as at the State Institute for Food, Pharmaceutical and Forensic Chemistry in Berlin was founded in 1975. To participate in the program, complete instructions are necessary.

  16. [Research on universality of least squares support vector machine method for estimating leaf area index of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiao-Yun; Huang, Wen-Jiang; Liang, Dong; Peng, Dai-Liang; Huang, Lin-Sheng; Song, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Dong-Yan; Yang, Gui-Jun

    2014-02-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the most important parameters for evaluating winter wheat growth status and forecasting its yield. Hyperspectral remote sensing is a new technical approach that can be used to acquire the instant information of vegetation LAI at large scale. This study aims to explore the capability of least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) method to winter wheat LAI estimation with hyperspectral data. After the compression of PHI airborne data with principal component analysis (PCA), the sample set based on the measured LAI data and hyperspectral reflectance data was established. Then the method of LS-SVM was developed respectively to estimate winter wheat LAI under four different conditions, to be specific, different plant type cultivars, different periods, different nitrogenous fertilizer and water conditions. Compared with traditional NDVI model estimation results, each experiment of LS-SVM model yielded higher determination coefficient as well as lower RMSE value, which meant that the LS-SVM method performed better than the NDVI method. In addition, NDVI model was unstable for winter wheat under the condition of different plant type cultivars, different nitrogenous fertilizer and different water, while the LS-SVM model showed good stability. Therefore, LS-SVM has high accuracy for learning and considerable universality for estimation of LAI of winter wheat under different conditions using hyperspectral data.

  17. Computer-aided classification of liver tumors in 3D ultrasound images with combined deformable model segmentation and support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myungeun; Kim, Jong Hyo; Park, Moon Ho; Kim, Ye-Hoon; Seong, Yeong Kyeong; Cho, Baek Hwan; Woo, Kyoung-Gu

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we propose a computer-aided classification scheme of liver tumor in 3D ultrasound by using a combination of deformable model segmentation and support vector machine. For segmentation of tumors in 3D ultrasound images, a novel segmentation model was used which combined edge, region, and contour smoothness energies. Then four features were extracted from the segmented tumor including tumor edge, roundness, contrast, and internal texture. We used a support vector machine for the classification of features. The performance of the developed method was evaluated with a dataset of 79 cases including 20 cysts, 20 hemangiomas, and 39 hepatocellular carcinomas, as determined by the radiologist's visual scoring. Evaluation of the results showed that our proposed method produced tumor boundaries that were equal to or better than acceptable in 89.8% of cases, and achieved 93.7% accuracy in classification of cyst and hemangioma.

  18. Validation of the Missoula-Vitas Quality-of-Life Index among patients with advanced AIDS in urban Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Namisango, Eva; Katabira, Elly; Karamagi, Charles; Baguma, Peter

    2007-02-01

    The Missoula-Vitas Quality-of-Life Index (MVQOLI) is a unique tool specifically designed to measure quality of life (QOL) in advanced illness in a palliative care setting. The aim of this study was to explore its cross-cultural validity. We used a culturally adapted version in a local language, Luganda, and tested the MVQOLI-M in 200 patients with advanced AIDS in urban Kampala, Uganda. Content validity was assessed using the content validity ratio approach. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (alpha), and test-retest reliability was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient. All items and domains were rated content valid and there was good construct validity. The instrument demonstrated good internal consistency (alpha=0.83). The transcendence domain was the best predictor of overall QOL. The MVQOLI-M is an acceptable, valid, and reliable measure of QOL for people with advanced AIDS and findings demonstrate the importance of measuring the transcendence domain in QOL in advanced illness.

  19. Amniotic fluid index measured with the aid of color flow Doppler.

    PubMed

    Zlatnik, M G; Olson, G; Bukowski, R; Saade, G R

    2003-04-01

    To determine whether using color flow Doppler to identify the umbilical cord affects amniotic fluid index (AFI) measurements. A total of 2236 AFI measurements between 24 and 42 weeks in singleton gestations with no known or suspected fetal anomalies and < 14 days' discrepancy between menstrual and ultrasonographic dating were included. Color flow Doppler was used to identify loops of umbilical cord; these were excluded from the measurement. Polynomial regression was used to generate means and centiles. Data were grouped according to completed weeks of gestation and descriptive statistics were calculated. At each week of gestation, the number and percentage of pregnancies diagnosed as < or = 2.5th, < or = 5th, > or = 95th, and > or = 97.5th centile according to a 'standard' nomogram derived without using color flow Doppler were calculated. The AFI decreased significantly over gestational age, starting at 31 weeks (p < 0.05 by ANOVA). The relationship between AFI and gestational age was best modeled by a second-degree polynomial (p < 0.001). The median and range of the proportion of AFIs that fell outside the ranges of the standard nomogram at each completed gestational age was: 6.0 (2.3-35.4)% for the < or = 2.5th centile, 9.9 (3.1-37.5)% for the < or = 5th centile, 3.8 (0-30)% for the > or = 95th centile, and 1.8 (0-20)% for the > or = 97.5th centile. The 2.5th and 5th centiles using the current data were lower than those of the 'standard', and the difference increased with advancing gestation. Upper centiles were also different. The AFI measured using color flow Doppler overestimates oligohydramnios and may underestimate polyhydramnios when a standard AFI table obtained without color flow Doppler is used. Normal values specific for measurement method should be used for reference.

  20. Content-based interpretation aids for health-related quality of life measures in clinical practice. An example for the visual function index (VF-14).

    PubMed

    Valderas, J M; Alonso, J; Prieto, L; Espallargues, M; Castells, X

    2004-02-01

    In spite of a well-established development of instruments, difficulty in interpreting health related quality of life scores may limit its use in clinical practice. To develop generalizable interpretation aids for a measure of perceived functional visual status, the VF-14 index. Item Response Theory (Rasch analysis) was used to analyze the performance of VF-14 items. The 'ruler' aid was derived from the most difficult activity (item) a patient is able to do without difficulty; the 'clinical scenarios' aid, first identified all significantly different clusters of items within the index and then estimated the mean expected difficulty (responses) to perform a benchmark item in each cluster. The study was conducted in four hospitals and six ambulatory cataract surgery centers in Barcelona, Spain. One hundred and ninety-eight patients scheduled for first eye cataracts surgery. The self-reported VF-14 index and clinical measures were used. All VF-14 items were found unidimensional with three items showing only partial misfit. For a patient with a VF-14 Rasch score of 71, the 'ruler' aid indicated that 'doing fine handwork' would be the most requiring activity he/she would perform without difficulty. The 'clinical scenarios' aid estimated that such a patient would be unable to 'drive at night', would have some difficulty 'reading small print' and no difficulty 'doing fine handwork', 'watching TV' or 'recognizing people'. Concordance between modeled and observed responses was fair to substantial. Simple content-based interpretation aids for the VF-14 scores were developed that should facilitate its use in clinical practice. These aids should be easily generalizable to other quality of life instruments.

  1. Optics-based compressibility parameter for pharmaceutical tablets obtained with the aid of the terahertz refractive index.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Mousumi; Ridgway, Cathy; Bawuah, Prince; Markl, Daniel; Gane, Patrick A C; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Zeitler, J Axel; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2017-06-15

    The objective of this study is to propose a novel optical compressibility parameter for porous pharmaceutical tablets. This parameter is defined with the aid of the effective refractive index of a tablet that is obtained from non-destructive and contactless terahertz (THz) time-delay transmission measurement. The optical compressibility parameter of two training sets of pharmaceutical tablets with a priori known porosity and mass fraction of a drug was investigated. Both pharmaceutical sets were compressed with one of the most commonly used excipients, namely microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and drug Indomethacin. The optical compressibility clearly correlates with the skeletal bulk modulus determined by mercury porosimetry and the recently proposed terahertz lumped structural parameter calculated from terahertz measurements. This lumped structural parameter can be used to analyse the pattern of arrangement of excipient and drug particles in porous pharmaceutical tablets. Therefore, we propose that the optical compressibility can serve as a quality parameter of a pharmaceutical tablet corresponding with the skeletal bulk modulus of the porous tablet, which is related to structural arrangement of the powder particles in the tablet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Filter-based feature selection and support vector machine for false positive reduction in computer-aided mass detection in mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, V. D.; Nguyen, D. T.; Nguyen, T. D.; Phan, V. A.; Truong, Q. D.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a method for reducing false positive in computer-aided mass detection in screening mammograms is proposed. A set of 32 features, including First Order Statistics (FOS) features, Gray-Level Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) features, Block Difference Inverse Probability (BDIP) features, and Block Variation of Local Correlation coefficients (BVLC) are extracted from detected Regions-Of-Interest (ROIs). An optimal subset of 8 features is selected from the full feature set by mean of a filter-based Sequential Backward Selection (SBS). Then, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is utilized to classify the ROIs into massive regions or normal regions. The method's performance is evaluated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC or AZ). On a dataset consisting about 2700 ROIs detected from mini-MIAS database of mammograms, the proposed method achieves AZ=0.938.

  3. Your Sewing Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Marion E.

    The programed instruction manual is designed to aid the student in learning the parts, uses, and operation of the sewing machine. Drawings of sewing machine parts are presented, and space is provided for the student's written responses. Following an introductory section identifying sewing machine parts, the manual deals with each part and its…

  4. Document Retrieval System Operations Including the Use of Microfiche and the Formulation of a Computer Aided Indexing Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffler, F. L.; Smith, R. B.

    Part-time indexers were trained according to a previously established training program. The performance of experienced indexers was compared to the performance of these index trainees. Several makes of microfiche readers were evaluated, particularly with regard to their use by indexers. One make offered the most advantages, and a number of these…

  5. Capability index--a statistical process control tool to aid in udder health control in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Niza-Ribeiro, J; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Menezes, J C

    2004-08-01

    Bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) averages have been used to evaluate udder health both at the individual or the herd level as well as milk quality and hygiene. The authors show that the BMSCC average is not the best tool to be used in udder health control programs and that it can be replaced with advantage by the capability index (Cpk). The Cpk is a statistical process control tool traditionally used by engineers to validate, monitor, and predict the expected behavior of processes or machines. The BMSCC data of 13 consecutive months of production from 414 dairy herds as well as SCC from all cows in the DHI program from 264 herds in the same period were collected. The Cpk and the annual BMSCC average (AAVG) of all the herds were calculated. Confronting the herd's performance explained by the Cpk and AAVG with the European Union (EU) official limit for BMSCC of 400,000 cells/mL, it was noticed that the Cpk accurately classified the compliance of the 414 farms, whereas the AAVG misclassified 166 (40%) of the 414 selected farms. The annual prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SMP) of each herd was calculated with individual SCC data from the same 13-mo period. Cows with more than 200,000 SCC/mL were considered as having subclinical mastitis. A logistic regression model to relate the Cpk and the herd's subclinical mastitis prevalence was calculated. The model is: SMPe = 0.475 e(-0.5286 x Cpk). The validation of the model was carried out evaluating the relation between the observed SMP and the predicted SMPe, in terms of the linear correlation coefficient (R2) and the mean difference between SMP and SMPe (i.e., mean square error of prediction). The validation suggests that our model can be used to estimate the herd's SMP with the herd's Cpk. The Cpk equation relates the herd's BMSCC with the EU official SCC limit, thus the logistic regression model enables the adoption of critical limits for subclinical mastitis, taking into consideration the legal standard for SCC.

  6. Computer-Aided TRIZ Ideality and Level of Invention Estimation Using Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Christopher; Tate, Derrick

    Patent textual descriptions provide a wealth of information that can be used to understand the underlying design approaches that result in the generation of novel and innovative technology. This article will discuss a new approach for estimating Degree of Ideality and Level of Invention metrics from the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) using patent textual information. Patent text includes information that can be used to model both the functions performed by a design and the associated costs and problems that affect a design’s value. The motivation of this research is to use patent data with calculation of TRIZ metrics to help designers understand which combinations of system components and functions result in creative and innovative design solutions. This article will discuss in detail methods to estimate these TRIZ metrics using natural language processing and machine learning with the use of neural networks.

  7. Preset Electrodes for Electrical-Discharge Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, Bill E.

    1987-01-01

    New electrode holder for electrical-discharge machining (EDM) provides for repeatable loading and setting of many electrodes. New holder is rotating-index tool carrying six, eight, or more electrodes. Before use, all electrodes set with aid of ring surrounding tool, and locked in position with screws. When electrode replaced, EDM operator pulls spring-loaded pin on tool so it rotates about center pin. Fresh electrode then rotated into position against workpiece.

  8. Progress in development of coated indexable cemented carbide inserts for machining of iron based work piece materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czettl, C.; Pohler, M.

    2016-03-01

    Increasing demands on material properties of iron based work piece materials, e.g. for the turbine industry, complicate the machining process and reduce the lifetime of the cutting tools. Therefore, improved tool solutions, adapted to the requirements of the desired application have to be developed. Especially, the interplay of macro- and micro geometry, substrate material, coating and post treatment processes is crucial for the durability of modern high performance tool solutions. Improved and novel analytical methods allow a detailed understanding of material properties responsible for the wear behaviour of the tools. Those support the knowledge based development of tailored cutting materials for selected applications. One important factor for such a solution is the proper choice of coating material, which can be synthesized by physical or chemical vapor deposition techniques. Within this work an overview of state-of-the-art coated carbide grades is presented and application examples are shown to demonstrate their high efficiency. Machining processes for a material range from cast iron, low carbon steels to high alloyed steels are covered.

  9. Diagnosis of osteoporosis from dental panoramic radiographs using the support vector machine method in a computer-aided system.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, M S; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira; Kurita, Takio; Sanada, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-16

    Early diagnosis of osteoporosis can potentially decrease the risk of fractures and improve the quality of life. Detection of thin inferior cortices of the mandible on dental panoramic radiographs could be useful for identifying postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD) or osteoporosis. The aim of our study was to assess the diagnostic efficacy of using kernel-based support vector machine (SVM) learning regarding the cortical width of the mandible on dental panoramic radiographs to identify postmenopausal women with low BMD. We employed our newly adopted SVM method for continuous measurement of the cortical width of the mandible on dental panoramic radiographs to identify women with low BMD or osteoporosis. The original X-ray image was enhanced, cortical boundaries were determined, distances among the upper and lower boundaries were evaluated and discrimination was performed by a radial basis function. We evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of this newly developed method for identifying women with low BMD (BMD T-score of -1.0 or less) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck in 100 postmenopausal women (≥50 years old) with no previous diagnosis of osteoporosis. Sixty women were used for system training, and 40 were used in testing. The sensitivity and specificity using RBF kernel-SVM method for identifying women with low BMD were 90.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 85.3-96.5] and 83.8% (95% CI, 76.6-91.0), respectively at the lumbar spine and 90.0% (95% CI, 84.1-95.9) and 69.1% (95% CI, 60.1-78.6), respectively at the femoral neck. The sensitivity and specificity for identifying women with low BMD at either the lumbar spine or femoral neck were 90.6% (95% CI, 92.0-100) and 80.9% (95% CI, 71.0-86.9), respectively. Our results suggest that the newly developed system with the SVM method would be useful for identifying postmenopausal women with low skeletal BMD.

  10. COMPUTER-AIDED INDEXING OF A SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACTS JOURNAL BY THE UDC WITH UNIDEK--A CASE STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FREEMAN, ROBERT R.; RUSSELL, MARTIN

    THIS PAPER IS A CASE STUDY OF THE ADOPTION BY GEOSCIENCE ABSTRACTS OF UNIDEK, A COMPUTER-COMPILED SYSTEMATIC SUBJECT INDEX BASED ON THE UNIVERSAL DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION (UDC). EVENTS LEADING TO A DECISION TO ADOPT THE SYSTEM, SOME THEORY OF INDEXES, PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN CONVERSION, AND SOME OF THE RESULTS ACHIEVED ARE REVIEWED. UNIDEK MAKES…

  11. COMPUTER-AIDED INDEXING OF A SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACTS JOURNAL BY THE UDC WITH UNIDEK--A CASE STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FREEMAN, ROBERT R.; RUSSELL, MARTIN

    THIS PAPER IS A CASE STUDY OF THE ADOPTION BY GEOSCIENCE ABSTRACTS OF UNIDEK, A COMPUTER-COMPILED SYSTEMATIC SUBJECT INDEX BASED ON THE UNIVERSAL DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION (UDC). EVENTS LEADING TO A DECISION TO ADOPT THE SYSTEM, SOME THEORY OF INDEXES, PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN CONVERSION, AND SOME OF THE RESULTS ACHIEVED ARE REVIEWED. UNIDEK MAKES…

  12. WANTED: Fully Automated Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of indexing focuses on the possibilities of fully automated indexing. Topics discussed include controlled indexing languages such as subject heading lists and thesauri, free indexing languages, natural indexing languages, computer-aided indexing, expert systems, and the need for greater creativity to further advance automated indexing.…

  13. A new treadmill-type motorized walking belt machine for video recording of the rat's gait and sciatic functional index measurement. A comparative study with other methods.

    PubMed

    Monte-Raso, Vanessa Vilela; Barbieri, Giuliano; Mazzer, Nilton; Fonseca, Marisa de Cássia Registro; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique

    2010-05-30

    The sciatic functional index (SFI) is a remarkable tool to assess dysfunction and functional recovery of the sciatic nerve of rats. Usually measured on hind foot imprints on paper, a new method is now being proposed, by direct analysis of video recorded foot sole images obtained with a treadmill-type walking belt machine functioning with gait speed control (G1). Results were compared with the SFI measured on imprints on paper (G2) and on video recorded foot sole images obtained with a static see-through runway (G3). The right sciatic nerve of 19 adult female Wistar rats was crushed by the application of a controlled load. Impressions/images obtained both preoperatively and at weekly intervals for eight consecutive postoperative weeks were digitized, stored and analyzed in a computer loaded with specific software, the SFI being automatically calculated after measuring the appropriate parameters. SFI differed significantly between G1 and G2 and G1 and G3 (p<0.05), but not between G2 and G3 (p>0.05) during the first and second postoperative weeks, nonsignificant differences (p>0.05) being observed for any comparison between groups during the third through eighth postoperative weeks. We conclude that the three methods yielded equivalent results from the third week onward, but both video recording methods (G2 and G3) permitted a more adequate early evaluation (first and second weeks), since the SFI parameters were more easily identifiable. Images obtained with the walking belt machine are more uniform and sharper, thus contributing to reduce the influence of biases observed with imprints on paper.

  14. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

  15. A novel hybrid model for air quality index forecasting based on two-phase decomposition technique and modified extreme learning machine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deyun; Wei, Shuai; Luo, Hongyuan; Yue, Chenqiang; Grunder, Olivier

    2017-02-15

    The randomness, non-stationarity and irregularity of air quality index (AQI) series bring the difficulty of AQI forecasting. To enhance forecast accuracy, a novel hybrid forecasting model combining two-phase decomposition technique and extreme learning machine (ELM) optimized by differential evolution (DE) algorithm is developed for AQI forecasting in this paper. In phase I, the complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD) is utilized to decompose the AQI series into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) with different frequencies; in phase II, in order to further handle the high frequency IMFs which will increase the forecast difficulty, variational mode decomposition (VMD) is employed to decompose the high frequency IMFs into a number of variational modes (VMs). Then, the ELM model optimized by DE algorithm is applied to forecast all the IMFs and VMs. Finally, the forecast value of each high frequency IMF is obtained through adding up the forecast results of all corresponding VMs, and the forecast series of AQI is obtained by aggregating the forecast results of all IMFs. To verify and validate the proposed model, two daily AQI series from July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2016 collected from Beijing and Shanghai located in China are taken as the test cases to conduct the empirical study. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid model based on two-phase decomposition technique is remarkably superior to all other considered models for its higher forecast accuracy.

  16. Increasing the Physical Basis of Drought Characterization: Examination of a New Drought Index with the Aid of Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeChant, C. M.; Moradkhani, H.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past half century, drought monitoring has seen an array of developments. Primarily performed with indices, drought monitoring has advanced with progress in observing climate/land surface variables, and with our ability to model hydrological and climatic phenomena. Generally, these indices are based on statistical patterns in the historic record of hydrologic states and fluxes. By casting drought from this perspective, indices become more straightforward to formulate, yet carry a severe drawback in a dynamic climate. Climate is readily highlighted as non-stationary by the majority of earth scientists, which violates the key assumption of an index based on historically observed dryness. This fact necessitates the development of physically-based (not statistically-based) indices, which are more applicable in our changing climate. In this presentation, one such drought index will be proposed, and compared to the more common statistical indices. Overall, this will highlight the potential to move towards drought monitoring that can be related to environmental water supply, through a comparison with soil water storage capacity and land cover. Such an analysis requires highly accurate land surface state estimation, and for this reason, land surface states are estimated through a remote sensing data assimilation framework, which ensures accuracy and quantifies soil/snow water storage uncertainty. The applicability of this method to the upper Colorado Basin is explored, and its sensitivity to drought persistence is assessed.

  17. An exploratory survey measuring stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa: the People Living with HIV Stigma Index

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The continued presence of stigma and its persistence even in areas where HIV prevalence is high makes it an extraordinarily important, yet difficult, issue to eradicate. The study aimed to assess current and emerging HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination trends in South Africa as experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Methods The PLHIV Stigma Index, a questionnaire that measures and detects changing trends in relation to stigma and discrimination experienced by PLHIV, was used as the survey tool. The study was conducted in 10 clinics in four provinces supported by the Foundation for Professional Development (FPD), with an interview total of 486 PLHIV. A cross-sectional design was implemented in the study, and both descriptive and inferential analysis was conducted on the data. Results Findings suggest that PLHIV in this population experience significant levels of stigma and discrimination that negatively impact on their health, working and family life, as well as their access to health services. Internalised stigma was prominent, with many participants blaming themselves for their status. Conclusion The findings can be used to develop and inform programmes and interventions to reduce stigma experienced by PLHIV. The current measures for dealing with stigma should be expanded to incorporate the issues related to health, education and discrimination experienced in the workplace, that were highlighted by the study. PMID:24461042

  18. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  19. Computer Aids to Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krollmann, Friedrich

    1981-01-01

    Describes the structure and modes of operation of the Bundessprachenamt's (BSprA: Federal Office of Languages of the Federal Republic of Germany) terminology data bank as an aid to translation. Analyzes advantages and disadvantages of each user mode, and discusses probable developments in the immediate future of machine-aided translation. (MES)

  20. Machine-Learning-Based Electronic Triage More Accurately Differentiates Patients With Respect to Clinical Outcomes Compared With the Emergency Severity Index.

    PubMed

    Levin, Scott; Toerper, Matthew; Hamrock, Eric; Hinson, Jeremiah S; Barnes, Sean; Gardner, Heather; Dugas, Andrea; Linton, Bob; Kirsch, Tom; Kelen, Gabor

    2017-09-06

    Standards for emergency department (ED) triage in the United States rely heavily on subjective assessment and are limited in their ability to risk-stratify patients. This study seeks to evaluate an electronic triage system (e-triage) based on machine learning that predicts likelihood of acute outcomes enabling improved patient differentiation. A multisite, retrospective, cross-sectional study of 172,726 ED visits from urban and community EDs was conducted. E-triage is composed of a random forest model applied to triage data (vital signs, chief complaint, and active medical history) that predicts the need for critical care, an emergency procedure, and inpatient hospitalization in parallel and translates risk to triage level designations. Predicted outcomes and secondary outcomes of elevated troponin and lactate levels were evaluated and compared with the Emergency Severity Index (ESI). E-triage predictions had an area under the curve ranging from 0.73 to 0.92 and demonstrated equivalent or improved identification of clinical patient outcomes compared with ESI at both EDs. E-triage provided rationale for risk-based differentiation of the more than 65% of ED visits triaged to ESI level 3. Matching the ESI patient distribution for comparisons, e-triage identified more than 10% (14,326 patients) of ESI level 3 patients requiring up triage who had substantially increased risk of critical care or emergency procedure (1.7% ESI level 3 versus 6.2% up triaged) and hospitalization (18.9% versus 45.4%) across EDs. E-triage more accurately classifies ESI level 3 patients and highlights opportunities to use predictive analytics to support triage decisionmaking. Further prospective validation is needed. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Very short-term reactive forecasting of the solar ultraviolet index using an extreme learning machine integrated with the solar zenith angle.

    PubMed

    Deo, Ravinesh C; Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio V; Adamowski, Jan F; Quilty, John M

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to erythemally-effective solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) that contributes to malignant keratinocyte cancers and associated health-risk is best mitigated through innovative decision-support systems, with global solar UV index (UVI) forecast necessary to inform real-time sun-protection behaviour recommendations. It follows that the UVI forecasting models are useful tools for such decision-making. In this study, a model for computationally-efficient data-driven forecasting of diffuse and global very short-term reactive (VSTR) (10-min lead-time) UVI, enhanced by drawing on the solar zenith angle (θs) data, was developed using an extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm. An ELM algorithm typically serves to address complex and ill-defined forecasting problems. UV spectroradiometer situated in Toowoomba, Australia measured daily cycles (0500-1700h) of UVI over the austral summer period. After trialling activations functions based on sine, hard limit, logarithmic and tangent sigmoid and triangular and radial basis networks for best results, an optimal ELM architecture utilising logarithmic sigmoid equation in hidden layer, with lagged combinations of θs as the predictor data was developed. ELM's performance was evaluated using statistical metrics: correlation coefficient (r), Willmott's Index (WI), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (ENS), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute error (MAE) between observed and forecasted UVI. Using these metrics, the ELM model's performance was compared to that of existing methods: multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS), M5 Model Tree, and a semi-empirical (Pro6UV) clear sky model. Based on RMSE and MAE values, the ELM model (0.255, 0.346, respectively) outperformed the MARS (0.310, 0.438) and M5 Model Tree (0.346, 0.466) models. Concurring with these metrics, the Willmott's Index for the ELM, MARS and M5 Model Tree models were 0.966, 0.942 and 0.934, respectively. About 57% of the ELM model's absolute

  2. Machine Tool Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  3. Testing the Value of Silent Super 8MM Single Concept Loop Films as an Aid to the Acquisition of Manipulative Skills in the Machine Trades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, John N.; McNeill, Joseph G.

    1973-01-01

    A study, conducted to determine the effects of silent single concept loop films on student production and teacher dependency for machine trade instruction, is examined and discussed. The results showed no significant effect on student production; however, students' dependency on the teacher was reduced. (DS)

  4. Business Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pactor, Paul

    1970-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Labor has projected a 106 percent increase in the demand for office machine operators over the next 10 years. Machines with a high frequency of use include printing calculators, 10-key adding machines, and key punch machines. The 12th grade is the logical time for teaching business machines. (CH)

  5. Cybernetic anthropomorphic machine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Functional descriptions are provided for a number of cybernetic man machine systems that augment the capacity of normal human beings in the areas of strength, reach or physical size, and environmental interaction, and that are also applicable to aiding the neurologically handicapped. Teleoperators, computer control, exoskeletal devices, quadruped vehicles, space maintenance systems, and communications equipment are considered.

  6. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  7. Holding Irregularly Shaped Parts For Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, Burt W.; Wilson, Rick R.

    1988-01-01

    Part with complicated, irregular outside contours clamped for precise machining of internal passages with aid of simple method. Exterior of part cast in Rigidex, or equivalent epoxy. Forms wall to be clamped. Interior of part machined to finish of 125 microinches or finer. When machining finished, epoxy melted away by heating part to 200 degree F.

  8. Machine tools and fixtures: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    As part of NASA's Technology Utilizations Program, a compilation was made of technological developments regarding machine tools, jigs, and fixtures that have been produced, modified, or adapted to meet requirements of the aerospace program. The compilation is divided into three sections that include: (1) a variety of machine tool applications that offer easier and more efficient production techniques; (2) methods, techniques, and hardware that aid in the setup, alignment, and control of machines and machine tools to further quality assurance in finished products: and (3) jigs, fixtures, and adapters that are ancillary to basic machine tools and aid in realizing their greatest potential.

  9. Index interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludman, Jacques E.; Riccobono, Juanita R.

    1993-01-01

    The Index Interferometer is a novel instrument being developed by Northeast Photosciences. The instrument is a breakthrough in the high-accuracy measurement of the index of refraction, the dispersion, and the index profile of materials. The instrument accurately measures the index of refraction of materials to one or two more significant figures than previous instruments. Material slices polished moderately flat are sufficient, without any requirement for special or complicated material shapes, such as prisms. The index profile at any chosen wavelength can be measured using a simple color filter. No special laser sources or carefully collimated parallel beams are required. The index profile over an entire sample can be directly obtained at any desired wavelength. This instrument is remarkable in that it greatly increases the accuracy of measurement, eliminates the need for high-quality, extremely narrow sources and for fabrication of special-geometry samples, and adds additional features, such as index profile measurements. The technique compares the fringe pattern from the top surface with that from a reference mirror to determine the thickness. Then, with the aid of a filtered white light source, the interference pattern from the back surface is compared with that from the front to yield the optical thickness of the sample. The combination of the two measurements gives the index. The back surface fringe pattern itself gives the index profile.

  10. Machine Learning and Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  11. Doubly fed machine review: agenda. Conference report, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    The visual aids presented at the doubly fed machine review are presented. The doubly fed machine is a generating system either for wind turbines or hydro systems. Conceptual design and trade-offs are included, as well as testing. (LEW)

  12. Database machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiefel, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The functions and performance characteristics of data base machines (DBM), including machines currently being studied in research laboratories and those currently offered on a commerical basis are discussed. The cost/benefit considerations that must be recognized in selecting a DBM are discussed, as well as the future outlook for such machines.

  13. Computer-aided diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease based on [123I]FP-CIT SPECT binding potential images, using the voxels-as-features approach and support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Francisco P. M.; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The aim of the present study was to develop a fully-automated computational solution for computer-aided diagnosis in Parkinson syndrome based on [123I]FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Approach. A dataset of 654 [123I]FP-CIT SPECT brain images from the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative were used. Of these, 445 images were of patients with Parkinson’s disease at an early stage and the remainder formed a control group. The images were pre-processed using automated template-based registration followed by the computation of the binding potential at a voxel level. Then, the binding potential images were used for classification, based on the voxel-as-feature approach and using the support vector machines paradigm. Main results. The obtained estimated classification accuracy was 97.86%, the sensitivity was 97.75% and the specificity 98.09%. Significance. The achieved classification accuracy was very high and, in fact, higher than accuracies found in previous studies reported in the literature. In addition, results were obtained on a large dataset of early Parkinson’s disease subjects. In summation, the information provided by the developed computational solution potentially supports clinical decision-making in nuclear medicine, using important additional information beyond the commonly used uptake ratios and respective statistical comparisons. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01141023)

  14. Computer-aided manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, E. J.

    1981-11-01

    The present status and near term applications of computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is discussed. Introduction of CAM is projected to speed medium range production, for products which are batch processed, and to help ease the shortage of skilled machinists. Primary technical problems are to increase the versatility of the systems, to automate maintenance, and to automate machine component assembly. The state of the art in flexible machining systems is reviewed and flow charts are provided for interfaces between the master control, the direct numerical control, and data entry units, to allow communication between the operator and the central minicomputer. A fully automated factory is expected to be built in the mid-1980's, and the development of a metamorphic machine, consisting of a number of modules that can assemble themselves on command into a variety of machine tools, in Japan is noted.

  15. Garrett County Aids AID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Garrett County, Maryland volunteered to act as a pre-overseas learning laboratory for AID (Agency for International Development) interns who practiced data collection and planning techniques with the help of local citizenry. (JC)

  16. Increased sensitivity of femtosecond laser micro-machined in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for small-scale refractive index sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debowska, Anna K.; Koba, Marcin; Janik, Monika; Bock, Wojtek J.; Śmietana, Mateusz

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we focus on refractive index (RI) sensing properties of a micro-size In-fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (μIMZI). The μIMZI structure was fabricated as a precisely controlled side opening of a single-mode fiber using a femtosecond laser. The sensitivity to RI change in the micro-cavity has been measured and two RI sensitivity regions have been found for RI 1.33-1.36 and 1.37-1.40 RIU. The sensitivity in the first region is over 12,000 nm/RIU, and in the higher RI region is close to 50% higher. The obtained structures are an excellent solution for RI sensing with negligible temperature cross-sensitivity, especially where small amounts of liquid are available, e.g. in lab-on-chip, microfluidics.

  17. Electric machine

    DOEpatents

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  18. Machining Thin-Walled Cylindrical Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimbak, Joe; Spagnolo, Jim; Kraus, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Cylindrical walls only few thousandths of inch thick machined accurately and without tears or punctures with aid of beryllium copper mandrel. Chilled so it contracts, then inserted in cylinder. As comes to room temperature, mandrel expands and fits snugly inside cylinder. Will not allow part to slide and provides solid backup to prevent deflection when part machined by grinding wheel. When machining finished, cylinder-and-mandrel assembly inserted in dry ice, mandrel contracts and removed from part.

  19. Machining Thin-Walled Cylindrical Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimbak, Joe; Spagnolo, Jim; Kraus, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Cylindrical walls only few thousandths of inch thick machined accurately and without tears or punctures with aid of beryllium copper mandrel. Chilled so it contracts, then inserted in cylinder. As comes to room temperature, mandrel expands and fits snugly inside cylinder. Will not allow part to slide and provides solid backup to prevent deflection when part machined by grinding wheel. When machining finished, cylinder-and-mandrel assembly inserted in dry ice, mandrel contracts and removed from part.

  20. Index case finding facilitates identification and linkage to care of children and young persons living with HIV/AIDS in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Saeed; Sabelli, Rachael A; Simon, Katie; Rosenberg, Nora E; Kavuta, Elijah; Harawa, Mwelura; Dick, Spencer; Linzie, Frank; Kazembe, Peter N; Kim, Maria H

    2017-08-01

    Evaluation of a novel index case finding and linkage-to-care programme to identify and link HIV-infected children (1-15 years) and young persons (>15-24 years) to care. HIV-infected patients enrolled in HIV services were screened and those who reported untested household members (index cases) were offered home- or facility-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC) of their household by a community health worker (CHW). HIV-infected household members identified were enrolled in a follow-up programme offering home and facility-based follow-up by CHWs. Of the 1567 patients enrolled in HIV services, 1030 (65.7%) were screened and 461 (44.8%) identified as index cases; 93.5% consented to HIV testing of their households and of those, 279 (64.7%) reported an untested child or young person. CHWs tested 711 children and young persons, newly diagnosed 28 HIV-infected persons (yield 4.0%; 95% CI: 2.7-5.6), and identified an additional two HIV-infected persons not enrolled in care. Of the 30 HIV-infected persons identified, 23 (76.6%) were linked to HIV services; 18 of the 20 eligible for ART (90.0%) were initiated. Median time (IQR) from identification to enrolment into HIV services was 4 days (1-8) and from identification to ART start was 6 days (1-8). Almost half of HIV-infected patients enrolled in treatment services had untested household members, many of whom were children and young persons. Index case finding, coupled with home-based testing and tracked follow-up, is acceptable, feasible and facilitates the identification and timely linkage to care of HIV-infected children and young persons. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A Computer Calculated Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Francis J.

    The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…

  2. Laser-machined microfluidic bioreactors with printed scaffolds and integrated optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Michael N.; Fahlenkamp, Heather D.; Higbee, Russell G.; Kachurin, Anatoly M.; Church, Kenneth H.; Warren, William L.

    2004-12-01

    Laser micromachining combined with digital printing allows rapid prototyping of complex bioreactors with reduced fabrication times compared to multi-mask photolithography. Microfluidic bioreactors with integrated optical waveguides for diagnostics have been fabricated via ultrashort pulse laser micromachining and digital printing. The microfluidic channels are directly laser machined into poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) silicone elastomer. Multimode optical waveguides are formed by coating the PDMS with alternating refractive index polymer layers and laser machining to define the waveguide geometry. Tapered alignment grooves are also laser machined to aid in coupling optical fibers to the waveguides. Three-dimensional (3-D) bio-scaffold matrices comprising liquid solutions that can be selectively and rapidly gelled are digitally printed inside the bioreactors and filled with nutrient rich media and cells. This paper will describe the maskless fabrication of complex 3-D bioreactors and discuss their performance characteristics.

  3. Machine Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    DTIC i.LE COPY RADC-TR-90-25 Final Technical Report April 1990 MACHINE LEARNING The MITRE Corporation Melissa P. Chase Cs) CTIC ’- CT E 71 IN 2 11990...S. FUNDING NUMBERS MACHINE LEARNING C - F19628-89-C-0001 PE - 62702F PR - MOlE S. AUTHO(S) TA - 79 Melissa P. Chase WUT - 80 S. PERFORMING...341.280.5500 pm I " Aw Sig rill Ia 2110-01 SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND Research in machine learning has taken two directions in the problem of

  4. Machining accuracy of CAD/CAM ceramic crowns fabricated with repeated machining using the same diamond bur.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Sachiko; Shin-Ya, Akiyoshi; Gomi, Harunori; Matsuda, Tetsuji; Katagiri, Shingo; Shin-Ya, Akikazu; Suzuki, Hitosi; Yara, Atsushi; Ogura, Hideo; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Miyazaki, Takashi; Sakamoto, Yuuki

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated machining up to 51 times using the same diamond bur on machining accuracy of inner and outer surfaces of CAD/CAM (computer-aided designing and computer-aided manufacturing) machined ceramic crowns. The surface topography of machined crowns was examined using photographs. It was found that machining accuracy was not affected by the number of machining times. In all measuring points, the inner surface was machined to a dimension larger than the die model (i.e., increased gap), whereas the outer surface was machined to a dimension smaller than the crown model (i.e., smaller crown). Photo observation showed that cervical contour was machined in a clear, rounded form from 1st to 11th crowns.

  5. Monel Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Castle Industries, Inc. is a small machine shop manufacturing replacement plumbing repair parts, such as faucet, tub and ballcock seats. Therese Castley, president of Castle decided to introduce Monel because it offered a chance to improve competitiveness and expand the product line. Before expanding, Castley sought NERAC assistance on Monel technology. NERAC (New England Research Application Center) provided an information package which proved very helpful. The NASA database was included in NERAC's search and yielded a wealth of information on machining Monel.

  6. Quantum-Enhanced Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Dunjko, Vedran; Taylor, Jacob M; Briegel, Hans J

    2016-09-23

    The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.

  7. Quantum-Enhanced Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Taylor, Jacob M.; Briegel, Hans J.

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.

  8. Improvement of dietary quality with the aid of a low glycemic index diet in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Barakatun Nisak, Mohd Yusof; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Norimah, A Karim; Gilbertson, Heather; Nor Azmi, Kamaruddin

    2010-06-01

    This randomized controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of low glycemic index (GI) dietary advice on eating patterns and dietary quality in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Asian patients with T2DM (N  =  104) were randomized into 2 groups that received either low GI or conventional carbohydrate exchange (CCE) dietary advice for 12 weeks. Nutritional prescriptions were based on the medical nutrition therapy for T2DM, with the difference being in the GI component of the carbohydrates. Dietary intake and food choices were assessed with the use of a 3-day food record. At week 12, both groups achieved the recommendations for carbohydrate (52 ± 4% and 54 ± 4% of energy) and fat (30 ± 4% and 28 ± 5% of energy) intake. There were no significant differences in the reported macronutrient intake in both groups. With the low GI diet, crude fiber and dietary calcium intake increased, while the dietary GI reduced. Subjects in the lowest dietary glycemic index/glycemic load (GI/GL) quartile consumed more parboiled/basmati rice, pasta, milk/dairy products, fruits, and dough, which are foods from the low GI category. There was a significant reduction in the hemoglobin A(1c) level at week 12 for patients in the lowest GI/GL quartile (Δ  =  -0.7 ± 0.1%) compared with those in the highest GI/GL quartile (Δ  =  -0.1 ± 0.2%). These results demonstrate the ability of low GI dietary advice to improve the dietary quality of Asian patients with T2DM.

  9. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... hearing aid has three basic parts: a microphone, amplifier, and speaker. The hearing aid receives sound through ... to electrical signals and sends them to an amplifier. The amplifier increases the power of the signals ...

  10. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  11. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  12. Prognostic Evaluation of DNA Index in HIV-HPV Co-Infected Women Cervical Samples Attending in Reference Centers for HIV-AIDS in Recife

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Albert Eduardo Silva; Lucena-Silva, Norma; Garcia, Renan Gomes; Welkovic, Stefan; Barbosa, Aureliana; Menezes, Maria Luiza Bezerra; Tenório, Terezinha; Maruza, Magda; Ximenes, Ricardo A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Persistence of cervical infection caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types with high oncogenic risk may lead to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether, in HIV-positive women, the presence of aneuploidy in cervical cell samples is associated with presence and evolution of CIN. Methods The present study had two stages. In the first stage, comprising a cross-sectional study, the association between the presence of aneuploidy seen via flow cytometry and sociodemographic characteristics, habits and characteristics relating to HPV and HIV infection was analyzed. In the second stage, comprising a cohort study, it was investigated whether aneuploidy was predictive of CIN evolution. Results No association was observed between the presence of aneuploidy and HPV infection, or between its presence and alterations seen in oncotic cytological analysis. On the other hand, aneuploidy was associated with the presence of CIN (p = 0.030) in histological analysis and with nonuse of antiretroviral therapy (p = 0.001). Most of the HIV-positive women (234/272) presented normal CD4+ T lymphocyte counts (greater than 350 cells/mm3) and showed a greater aneuploidy regression rate (77.5%) than a progression rate (23.9%) over a follow-up of up to two years. Conclusion Although there was an association between the presence of cervical tissue lesions and the DNA index, the latter was not predictive of progression of the cervical lesion. This suggests that progression of the cervical lesion to cancer in HIV-positive women may also be changed through improvement of the immunological state enabled by using antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25144309

  13. Workout Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Orbotron is a tri-axle exercise machine patterned after a NASA training simulator for astronaut orientation in the microgravity of space. It has three orbiting rings corresponding to roll, pitch and yaw. The user is in the middle of the inner ring with the stomach remaining in the center of all axes, eliminating dizziness. Human power starts the rings spinning, unlike the NASA air-powered system. Marketed by Fantasy Factory (formerly Orbotron, Inc.), the machine can improve aerobic capacity, strength and endurance in five to seven minute workouts.

  14. Machine rates for selected forest harvesting machines

    Treesearch

    R.W. Brinker; J. Kinard; Robert Rummer; B. Lanford

    2002-01-01

    Very little new literature has been published on the subject of machine rates and machine cost analysis since 1989 when the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 296, Machine Rates for Selected Forest Harvesting Machines, was originally published. Many machines discussed in the original publication have undergone substantial changes in various aspects, not...

  15. Wacky Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Collectors everywhere know that local antique shops and flea markets are treasure troves just waiting to be plundered. Science teachers might take a hint from these hobbyists, for the next community yard sale might be a repository of old, quirky items that are just the things to get students thinking about simple machines. By introducing some…

  16. Wacky Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Collectors everywhere know that local antique shops and flea markets are treasure troves just waiting to be plundered. Science teachers might take a hint from these hobbyists, for the next community yard sale might be a repository of old, quirky items that are just the things to get students thinking about simple machines. By introducing some…

  17. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 10: Computer-Aided Drafting & Design, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  18. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 11: Computer-Aided Manufacturing & Advanced CNC, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  19. Operator vision aids for space teleoperation assembly and servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thurston L.; Ince, Ilhan; Lee, Greg

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates concepts for visual operator aids required for effective telerobotic control. Operator visual aids, as defined here, mean any operational enhancement that improves man-machine control through the visual system. These concepts were derived as part of a study of vision issues for space teleoperation. Extensive literature on teleoperation, robotics, and human factors was surveyed to definitively specify appropriate requirements. This paper presents these visual aids in three general categories of camera/lighting functions, display enhancements, and operator cues. In the area of camera/lighting functions concepts are discussed for: (1) automatic end effector or task tracking; (2) novel camera designs; (3) computer-generated virtual camera views; (4) computer assisted camera/lighting placement; and (5) voice control. In the technology area of display aids, concepts are presented for: (1) zone displays, such as imminent collision or indexing limits; (2) predictive displays for temporal and spatial location; (3) stimulus-response reconciliation displays; (4) graphical display of depth cues such as 2-D symbolic depth, virtual views, and perspective depth; and (5) view enhancements through image processing and symbolic representations. Finally, operator visual cues (e.g., targets) that help identify size, distance, shape, orientation and location are discussed.

  20. Drilling Machines: Vocational Machine Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John C.

    The lessons and supportive information in this field tested instructional block provide a guide for teachers in developing a machine shop course of study in drilling. The document is comprised of operation sheets, information sheets, and transparency masters for 23 lessons. Each lesson plan includes a performance objective, material and tools,…

  1. Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Achim; Mahidadia, Ashesh

    The purpose of this chapter is to present fundamental ideas and techniques of machine learning suitable for the field of this book, i.e., for automated scientific discovery. The chapter focuses on those symbolic machine learning methods, which produce results that are suitable to be interpreted and understood by humans. This is particularly important in the context of automated scientific discovery as the scientific theories to be produced by machines are usually meant to be interpreted by humans. This chapter contains some of the most influential ideas and concepts in machine learning research to give the reader a basic insight into the field. After the introduction in Sect. 1, general ideas of how learning problems can be framed are given in Sect. 2. The section provides useful perspectives to better understand what learning algorithms actually do. Section 3 presents the Version space model which is an early learning algorithm as well as a conceptual framework, that provides important insight into the general mechanisms behind most learning algorithms. In section 4, a family of learning algorithms, the AQ family for learning classification rules is presented. The AQ family belongs to the early approaches in machine learning. The next, Sect. 5 presents the basic principles of decision tree learners. Decision tree learners belong to the most influential class of inductive learning algorithms today. Finally, a more recent group of learning systems are presented in Sect. 6, which learn relational concepts within the framework of logic programming. This is a particularly interesting group of learning systems since the framework allows also to incorporate background knowledge which may assist in generalisation. Section 7 discusses Association Rules - a technique that comes from the related field of Data mining. Section 8 presents the basic idea of the Naive Bayesian Classifier. While this is a very popular learning technique, the learning result is not well suited for

  2. Teacher Aides. Bibliographies in Education, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Teachers' Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This 211-item bibliography on teacher aides covers a period of approximately 10 years and is based on the following sources: the Canadian Education Index, the Education Index, Current Index to Journals in Education, Cumulative Book Index, Research in Education, Education Studies Completed in Canadian Universities, and Research Studies in…

  3. Reading Machines for Blind People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fender, Derek H.

    1983-01-01

    Ten stages of developing reading machines for blind people are analyzed: handling of text material; optics; electro-optics; pattern recognition; character recognition; storage; speech synthesizers; browsing and place finding; computer indexing; and other sources of input. Cost considerations of the final product are emphasized. (CL)

  4. Reading Machines for Blind People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fender, Derek H.

    1983-01-01

    Ten stages of developing reading machines for blind people are analyzed: handling of text material; optics; electro-optics; pattern recognition; character recognition; storage; speech synthesizers; browsing and place finding; computer indexing; and other sources of input. Cost considerations of the final product are emphasized. (CL)

  5. Fullerene Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash

    1998-01-01

    Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically accessible and of great interest. We have computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Preliminary results suggest that these gears can be cooled by a helium atmosphere and a laser motor can power fullerene gears if a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. In addition, we have unproven concepts based on experimental and computational evidence for support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and manufacture. Combining fullerene machines with the remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, there is some reason to believe that a focused effort to develop fullerene nanotechnology could yield materials with tremendous properties.

  6. Fullerene Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Fullerenes possess remarkable properties and many investigators have examined the mechanical, electronic and other characteristics of carbon SP2 systems in some detail. In addition, C-60 can be functionalized with many classes of molecular fragments and we may expect the caps of carbon nanotubes to have a similar chemistry. Finally, carbon nanotubes have been attached to t he end of scanning probe microscope (Spill) tips. Spills can be manipulated with sub-angstrom accuracy. Together, these investigations suggest that complex molecular machines made of fullerenes may someday be created and manipulated with very high accuracy. We have studied some such systems computationally (primarily functionalized carbon nanotube gears and computer components). If such machines can be combined appropriately, a class of materials may be created that can sense their environment, calculate a response, and act. The implications of such hypothetical materials are substantial.

  7. Charging machine

    DOEpatents

    Medlin, John B.

    1976-05-25

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

  8. Induction machine

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, W.H.

    1980-10-14

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizes, a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  9. Induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Whitney H.

    1980-01-01

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  10. Machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, D.

    1989-06-01

    To keep up with the speeds of modern production lines, most machine vision applications require very powerful computers (often parallel-processing machines), which process millions of points of data in real time. The human brain performs approximately 100 billion logical floating-point operations each second. That is 400 times the speed of a Cray-1 supercomputer. The right software must be developed for parallel-processing computers. The NSF has awarded Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, N.Y.) a $2 million grant for parallel- and image-processing software research. Over the last 15 years, Rensselaer has been conducting image-processing research, including work with high-definition TV (HDTV) and image coding and understanding. A similar NSF grant has been awarded to Michigan State University (East Lansing, Mich.) Neural networks are supposed to emulate human learning patterns. These networks and their hardware implementations (neurocomputers) show a great deal of promise for machine vision systems because they allow the systems to understand the use sensory data input more effectively. Neurocomputers excel at pattern-recognition tasks when input data are fuzzy or the vision algorithm is not optimal and is difficult to ascertain.

  11. Viruses: sophisticated biological machines.

    PubMed

    Rossmann, Michael G; Rao, Venigalla B

    2012-01-01

    Virus infection involves coordination of a series of molecular machines, including entry machines, replication machines, assembly machines, and genome packaging machines, leading to the production of infectious virions. This chapter provides an introduction to various viral molecular machines described in this book.

  12. Automated synthesis of sequence invariant state machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, D.; Whitaker, S.; Canaris, J.

    1990-01-01

    A computer aided design (CAD) tool for the design of very large scale integration (VLSI) synchronous sequential controllers is presented. Both the design and layout of the state machine are automatically generated. The program is process independent allowing a choice of design rules to base generation upon. An incremental layout creation approach was implemented which makes the tool useful in a wide range of layout applications. Flow table descriptions are input to characterize the desired machine and a layout archive is output.

  13. Intelligent hearing aids: the next revolution.

    PubMed

    Tao Zhang; Mustiere, Fred; Micheyl, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    The first revolution in hearing aids came from nonlinear amplification, which allows better compensation for both soft and loud sounds. The second revolution stemmed from the introduction of digital signal processing, which allows better programmability and more sophisticated algorithms. The third revolution in hearing aids is wireless, which allows seamless connectivity between a pair of hearing aids and with more and more external devices. Each revolution has fundamentally transformed hearing aids and pushed the entire industry forward significantly. Machine learning has received significant attention in recent years and has been applied in many other industries, e.g., robotics, speech recognition, genetics, and crowdsourcing. We argue that the next revolution in hearing aids is machine intelligence. In fact, this revolution is already quietly happening. We will review the development in at least three major areas: applications of machine learning in speech enhancement; applications of machine learning in individualization and customization of signal processing algorithms; applications of machine learning in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical tests. With the advent of the internet of things, the above developments will accelerate. This revolution will bring patient satisfactions to a new level that has never been seen before.

  14. TEMPO machine

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.; Lancaster, K.T.; Lawson, R.N.

    1986-06-01

    TEMPO is a transformer powered megavolt pulse generator with an output pulse of 100 ns duration. The machine was designed for burst mode operation at pulse repetition rates up to 10 Hz with minimum pulse-to-pulse voltage variations. To meet the requirement for pulse duration a nd a 20-..omega.. output impedance within reasonable size constraints, the pulse forming transmission line was designed as two parallel water-insulated, strip-type Blumleins. Stray capacitance and electric fields along the edges of the line elements were controlled by lining the tank with plastic sheet.

  15. Hardware Index to Permutation Converter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Hardware Index to Permutation Converter J. T. Butler T. Sasao Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of Computer Science...generates a permutation in response to an index. Since there are n! n-element permutations , the index ranges from 0 to n! − 1. Such a circuit is needed...in the hardware implementation of unique- permutation hash functions to specify how parallel machines interact through a shared memory. Such a circuit

  16. Smart Test Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Vern Wedeven, president of Wedeven Associates, developed the WAM4, a computer-aided "smart" test machine for simulating stress on equipment, based on his bearing lubrication expertise gained while working for Lewis Research Center. During his NASA years from the 1970s into the early 1980s, Wedeven initiated an "Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Tribology," an effort that involved NASA, six universities, and several university professors. The NASA-sponsored work provided foundation for Wedeven in 1983 to form his own company. Several versions of the smart test machine, the WAM1, WAM2, and WAM3, have proceeded the current version, WAM4. This computer-controlled device can provide detailed glimpses at gear and bearing points of contact. WAM4 can yield a three-dimensional view of machinery as an operator adds "what-if" thermal and lubrication conditions, contact stress, and surface motion. Along with NASA, a number of firms, including Pratt & Whitney, Caterpillar Tractor, Exxon, and Chevron have approached Wedeven for help on resolving lubrication problems.

  17. Machinability of a Stainless Steel by Electrochemical Discharge Microdrilling

    SciTech Connect

    Coteata, Margareta; Pop, Nicolae; Slatineanu, Laurentiu; Schulze, Hans-Peter; Besliu, Irina

    2011-05-04

    Due to the chemical elements included in their structure for ensuring an increased resistance to the environment action, the stainless steels are characterized by a low machinability when classical machining methods are applied. For this reason, sometimes non-traditional machining methods are applied, one of these being the electrochemical discharge machining. To obtain microholes and to evaluate the machinability by electrochemical discharge microdrilling, test pieces of stainless steel were used for experimental research. The electrolyte was an aqueous solution of sodium silicate with different densities. A complete factorial plan was designed to highlight the influence of some input variables on the sizes of the considered machinability indexes (electrode tool wear, material removal rate, depth of the machined hole). By mathematically processing of experimental data, empirical functions were established both for stainless steel and carbon steel. Graphical representations were used to obtain more suggestive vision concerning the influence exerted by the considered input variables on the size of the machinability indexes.

  18. Parallel machines: Parallel machine languages

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, R.A. )

    1990-01-01

    This book presents a framework for understanding the tradeoffs between the conventional view and the dataflow view with the objective of discovering the critical hardware structures which must be present in any scalable, general-purpose parallel computer to effectively tolerate latency and synchronization costs. The author presents an approach to scalable general purpose parallel computation. Linguistic Concerns, Compiling Issues, Intermediate Language Issues, and hardware/technological constraints are presented as a combined approach to architectural Develoement. This book presents the notion of a parallel machine language.

  19. Machine perception

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The book is aimed at the level of a graduate student or the practising professional and discusses visual perception by computers. Topics covered include: pattern classification methods; polyhedra scenes; shape analysis and recognition; perception of brightness and colour; edge and curve detection; region segmentation; texture analysis; depth measurement analysis; knowledge-based systems and applications. A subject index is included.

  20. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... hair cells (outer and inner rows). When the vibrations move through this fluid, the tiny outer hair ... ear to the brain. Hearing aids intensify sound vibrations that the damaged outer hair cells have trouble ...

  1. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  2. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  3. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... case goes behind the ear that holds the electronics that make up the actual hearing aid. It's ... there's a hard plastic case that holds the electronic components, but it's joined to the earmold itself, ...

  4. Mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, H.R.

    1984-12-04

    A mining machine is disclosed comprising a mobile base and a cutting head assembly at a forward end of the mobile base having a cutter drum rotatable about an output shaft disposed along the longitudinal axis of the cutter drum. A drive system for the cutting head assembly comprises at least one motor for driving at least one toothed motor pinion and a generally cylindrical combination gear having generally circular end surfaces. A bevel or face gear is formed in at least one of the end surfaces, having teeth adapted to mate with and be driven by the toothed motor pinion. The combination gear has a worm gear formed in the outside cylindrical surface, which is disposed in driving engagement with the teeth of an output gear integrally and coaxially connected to the output shaft of the cutter drum.

  5. Computer Programmed Milling Machine Operations. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Dennis

    This learning module for a high school metals and manufacturing course is designed to introduce the concept of computer-assisted machining (CAM). Through it, students learn how to set up and put data into the controller to machine a part. They also become familiar with computer-aided manufacturing and learn the advantages of computer numerical…

  6. Document Analysis Algorithms and Machine Translation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Jacques

    1975-01-01

    Information science has in recent years developed an algorithmic procedure for content analysis of abstracts which includes setting up a metalanguage for a particular field of knowledge. Such a procedure may aid in solving problems of automatic text analysis in machine translation. (TL)

  7. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  8. HIV/AIDS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - HIV/AIDS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www. ...

  9. Machine musicianship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  10. Machine wanting.

    PubMed

    McShea, Daniel W

    2013-12-01

    Wants, preferences, and cares are physical things or events, not ideas or propositions, and therefore no chain of pure logic can conclude with a want, preference, or care. It follows that no pure-logic machine will ever want, prefer, or care. And its behavior will never be driven in the way that deliberate human behavior is driven, in other words, it will not be motivated or goal directed. Therefore, if we want to simulate human-style interactions with the world, we will need to first understand the physical structure of goal-directed systems. I argue that all such systems share a common nested structure, consisting of a smaller entity that moves within and is driven by a larger field that contains it. In such systems, the smaller contained entity is directed by the field, but also moves to some degree independently of it, allowing the entity to deviate and return, to show the plasticity and persistence that is characteristic of goal direction. If all this is right, then human want-driven behavior probably involves a behavior-generating mechanism that is contained within a neural field of some kind. In principle, for goal directedness generally, the containment can be virtual, raising the possibility that want-driven behavior could be simulated in standard computational systems. But there are also reasons to believe that goal-direction works better when containment is also physical, suggesting that a new kind of hardware may be necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Indexing Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  12. Flotation machine

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, M.N.; Permyakov, G.P.; Nemarov, A.A.; Metsik, V.M.; Medetsky, J.V.; Taraban, N.T.

    1993-08-10

    A flotation machine is described for beneficiating minerals comprising: a vertical cylindrical chamber for circulating a flotation pulp; a downwardly tapered bottom connected to said vertical cylindrical chamber; feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of fine fraction, particles of the useful ingredient of the fine fraction being capable of floating up from the volume of said aerated pulp; discharge pipe means connected to the tapered bottom near its lowest point for discharging gangue; an annular trough for collecting froth concentrate at the top of said chamber; a group of frustoconical shells each having bases of different diameters and a tapered surface secured axially in said chamber and spaced equidistantly from one another height wise of said chamber; aerator means for aerating the flotation pulp secured to the walls of said chamber and communicating therewith to provide aerated water into said chamber; means for feeding mineral particles of coarse fraction, particles of the useful ingredient of the coarse fraction being capable of floating in the froth layer of the flotation pulp, in the form of a hydrocyclone having a cylindrical casing positioned axially over said chamber and a downwardly tapering outlet directed downwardly to feed the coarse particles to said chamber; feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of coarse fraction positioned tangentially at said cylindrical casing of the hydrocyclone; and evacuation means for evacuating the liquid phase of the flotation pulp positioned tangentially at said casing of the hydrocyclone over said feed pipe means and connected to said feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of the fine fraction.

  13. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  14. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  15. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  16. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  17. Electrical-Discharge Machining With Additional Axis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malinzak, Roger M.; Booth, Gary N.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed electrical-discharge-machining (EDM) apparatus uses moveable vertical wire as electrode. Wire positionable horizontally along one axis as it slides vertically past workpiece. Workpiece indexed in rotation about horizontal axis. Because of symmetry of parts, process used to make two such parts at a time by defining boundary between them. Advantages: cost of material reduced, imparts less residual stress to workpiece, and less time spent machining each part when parts produced in such symmetrical pairs.

  18. Electrical-Discharge Machining With Additional Axis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malinzak, Roger M.; Booth, Gary N.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed electrical-discharge-machining (EDM) apparatus uses moveable vertical wire as electrode. Wire positionable horizontally along one axis as it slides vertically past workpiece. Workpiece indexed in rotation about horizontal axis. Because of symmetry of parts, process used to make two such parts at a time by defining boundary between them. Advantages: cost of material reduced, imparts less residual stress to workpiece, and less time spent machining each part when parts produced in such symmetrical pairs.

  19. Fourteenth Report of the Machinability Data Center.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    machining. The materials index has been revised and restructured to include the Unified Numbering System for alloys where possible. Chemical...compositions of alloys are listed by material group. The composition of an alloy that is new or not listed in the new handbook can be compared to those listed...to determine which material group is comparable in order to estimate the approximate machinability of the new alloy . The state-of-the-art report Low

  20. Turning assistive machines into assistive robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argall, Brenna D.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, the potential for automation in particular, in the form of smart wheelchairs to aid those with motor, or cognitive, impairments has been recognized. It is a paradox that often the more severe a person's motor impairment, the more challenging it is for them to operate the very assistive machines which might enhance their quality of life. A primary aim of my lab is to address this confound by incorporating robotics autonomy and intelligence into assistive machines turning the machine into a kind of robot, and offloading some of the control burden from the user. Robots already synthetically sense, act in and reason about the world, and these technologies can be leveraged to help bridge the gap left by sensory, motor or cognitive impairments in the users of assistive machines. This paper overviews some of the ongoing projects in my lab, which strives to advance human ability through robotics autonomy.

  1. Applied machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on robot vision. Topics considered at the conference included the link between fixed and flexible automation, general applications of machine vision, the development of a specification for a machine vision system, machine vision technology, machine vision non-contact gaging, and vision in electronics manufacturing.

  2. Machine Shop Lathes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This guide, the second in a series of five machine shop curriculum manuals, was designed for use in machine shop courses in Oklahoma. The purpose of the manual is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trade at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed so that it can be used in…

  3. Time (hole?) machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchak, John Byron

    2014-11-01

    Within the context of general relativity, we consider a type of "time machine" and introduce the related "hole machine". We review what is known about each and add results of our own. We conclude that (so far) the hole machine advocate is in a better position than the time machine advocate.

  4. Do Teacher Aides Aid American Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivero, James L.

    A far-reaching 1968 study on teacher aides revealed that very little was known about the aid that aides supposedly provide. It was found that there is some direct relationship between the use of aides and action programs to improve instruction. Some general points crop up regularly: 1) Teachers who have aides usually will not do without them. 2)…

  5. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing skull base drill.

    PubMed

    Couldwell, William T; MacDonald, Joel D; Thomas, Charles L; Hansen, Bradley C; Lapalikar, Aniruddha; Thakkar, Bharat; Balaji, Alagar K

    2017-05-01

    The authors have developed a simple device for computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) that uses an image-guided system to define a cutting tool path that is shared with a surgical machining system for drilling bone. Information from 2D images (obtained via CT and MRI) is transmitted to a processor that produces a 3D image. The processor generates code defining an optimized cutting tool path, which is sent to a surgical machining system that can drill the desired portion of bone. This tool has applications for bone removal in both cranial and spine neurosurgical approaches. Such applications have the potential to reduce surgical time and associated complications such as infection or blood loss. The device enables rapid removal of bone within 1 mm of vital structures. The validity of such a machining tool is exemplified in the rapid (< 3 minutes machining time) and accurate removal of bone for transtemporal (for example, translabyrinthine) approaches.

  6. Learning Activity Packets for Grinding Machines. Unit I--Grinding Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) is one of three that accompany the curriculum guide on grinding machines. It outlines the study activities and performance tasks for the first unit of this curriculum guide. Its purpose is to aid the student in attaining a working knowledge of this area of training and in achieving a skilled or moderately…

  7. Automatic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Harman, D.

    1992-09-01

    Automatic indexing has been a critical technology as more full-text data becomes available online. The paper discusses issues for automatic indexing of different types of full-text and also presents a survey of much of the current research into new techniques for automatic indexing.

  8. Author Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diodato, Virgil P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the effectiveness of using author-supplied indexing to increase subject control in information retrieval, and describes a study which compared author indexing for articles published in "American Mathematical Society" journals to indexing of the same articles by an editor of "Mathematical Reviews." Nine references are…

  9. Retrieval Efficiency from Titles and the Cost of Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tell, Bjorn V.

    1971-01-01

    Three experiments were made by a flexible machine search system to test the retrieval efficiency of searching free text and keywords. Results based upon relevance judgements of users indicate that titles and abstracts are good index material which can be used for machine searching without human indexing. (Author/SJ)

  10. Teaching AIDS.

    PubMed

    Short, R V

    1989-06-01

    This article reviews a peer group Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) educational program at a university in Australia. Studies in the US have shown that most adolescents, although sexually active, do not believe they are likely to become infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and therefore do not attempt to modify their sexual behavior. A 1st step in educating students is to introduce them to condoms and impress upon them the fact that condoms should be used at the beginning of all sexual relationships, whether homosexual or heterosexual. In this program 3rd year medical students were targeted, as they are effective communicators and disseminators of information to the rest of the student body. After class members blow up condoms, giving them a chance to handle various brands and observe the varying degrees of strength, statistical evidence about the contraceptive failure rate of condoms (0.6-14.7 per 100 women-years) is discussed. Spermicides, such as nonoxynol-9 used in conjunction with condoms, are also discussed, as are condoms for women, packaging and marketing of condoms, including those made from latex and from the caecum of sheep, the latter condoms being of questionable effectiveness in preventing transmission of the virus. The care of terminal AIDS cases and current global and national statistics on AIDS are presented. The program also includes cash prizes for the best student essays on condom use, the distribution of condoms, condom key rings and T-shirts, and a student-run safe sex stand during orientation week. All of these activities are intended to involve students and attract the interest of the undergraduate community. Questionnaires administered to students at the end of the course revealed that the lectures were received favorably. Questionnaires administered to new medical and English students attending orientation week revealed that 72% of students thought the stand was a good idea and 81% and 83%, respectively found it

  11. Tube Alinement for Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, J.

    1984-01-01

    Tool with stepped shoulders alines tubes for machining in preparation for welding. Alinement with machine tool axis accurate to within 5 mils (0.13mm) and completed much faster than visual setup by machinist.

  12. Women, Men, and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  13. Stirling machine operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

  14. The Iowa wave machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daffron, John D.; Greenslade, Thomas B.; Stille, Dale

    2010-03-01

    Wave machines are a staple of demonstration lectures, and a good pair of wave machines can make the idea of transverse and longitudinal waves clearly evident to students. The demonstration apparatus collection of the University of Iowa contains examples of transverse and longitudinal wave machines that will be of interest to readers of The Physics Teacher. These machines probably date from about 1925 and may have been locally produced. You too can build them.

  15. Vision-based on-machine measurement for CNC machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Ruixue; Han, Jiang; Lu, Rongsheng; Xia, Lian

    2015-02-01

    A vision-based on-machine measurement system (OMM) was developed to improve manufacturing effectiveness. It was based on a visual probe to enable the CNC machine tool itself to act as a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) to inspect a workpiece. The proposed OMM system was composed of a visual probe and two software modules: computer-aided inspection planning (CAIP) module and measurement data processing (MDP) module. The auto-focus function of the visual probe was realized by using astigmatic method. The CAIP module was developed based on a CAD development platform with Open CASCADE as its kernel. The MDP module includes some algorithms for determination of inspection parameters, for example, the chamfered hole was measured through focus variation. The entire system was consequently verified on a CNC milling machine.

  16. Automatic Inspection During Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Clyde L.

    1988-01-01

    In experimental manufacturing process, numerically-controlled machine tool temporarily converts into inspection machine by installing electronic touch probes and specially-developed numerical-control software. Software drives probes in paths to and on newly machined parts and collects data on dimensions of parts.

  17. Apprentice Machine Theory Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This volume contains outlines for 16 courses in machine theory that are designed for machine tool apprentices. Addressed in the individual course outlines are the following topics: basic concepts; lathes; milling machines; drills, saws, and shapers; heat treatment and metallurgy; grinders; quality control; hydraulics and pneumatics;…

  18. Machining lead wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Schamaun, R.T.

    1987-09-01

    Recently, MEC-6 machined some 4-inch-diameter lead wafers to precision tolerances. The tolerance on the wafer thickness was +-0.000080 inch. A diamond tool was used to machine the wafers on a Moore No. 3 lathe. This report discusses the methods used to machine the wafers, the fixtures used to hold the wafers, and the inspection methods and results.

  19. Cable-Twisting Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurnett, S.

    1982-01-01

    New cable-twisting machine is smaller and faster than many production units. Is useful mainly in production of short-run special cables. Already-twisted cable can be fed along axis of machine. Faster operation than typical industrial cable-twisting machines possible by using smaller spools of wire.

  20. Advanced machine tools, loading systems viewed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharkov, V. I.

    1986-03-01

    The machine-tooling complex built from a revolving lathe and a two-armed robot designed to machine short revolving bodies including parts with curvilinear and threaded surfaces from piece blanks in either small-series or series multiitem production is described. The complex consists of: (1) a model 1V340F30 revolving lathe with a vertical axis of rotation, 8-position revolving head on a cross carriage and an Elektronika NTs-31 on-line control system; (2) a gantry-style two-armed M20-Ts robot with a 20-kilogram (20 x 2) load capacity; and (3) an 8-position indexable blank table, one of whose positions is for initial unloading of finished parts. Subsequently, machined parts are set onto the position into which all of the blanks are unloaded. Complex enclosure allows adjustment and process correction during maintenance and convenient observation of the machining process.

  1. Machine-Tool Technology Instructor's Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tammer, Anthony M.

    This document lists and annotates commercial and noncommercial resources pertaining to machine-tool technology. Following an introduction that explains how the document came to be written, the subjects of succeeding chapters are (1) periodicals; (2) associations; (3) audiovisual resources, including a subject index; (4) publishers, including a…

  2. Teaching Machines and Programmed Instruction. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The bibliography contains annotated references to teaching machines and programed instruction as they relate to efficient learning in military and civilian training, and adaptive learning techniques. The computer generated indexes are Corporate Author Monitoring Agency and Personal Author. (Author/PT)

  3. Machine-Tool Technology Instructor's Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tammer, Anthony M.

    This document lists and annotates commercial and noncommercial resources pertaining to machine-tool technology. Following an introduction that explains how the document came to be written, the subjects of succeeding chapters are (1) periodicals; (2) associations; (3) audiovisual resources, including a subject index; (4) publishers, including a…

  4. Mobility aid for the blind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A project to develop an effective mobility aid for blind pedestrians which acquires consecutive images of the scenes before a moving pedestrian, which locates and identifies the pedestrian's path and potential obstacles in the path, which presents path and obstacle information to the pedestrian, and which operates in real-time is discussed. The mobility aid has three principal components: an image acquisition system, an image interpretation system, and an information presentation system. The image acquisition system consists of a miniature, solid-state TV camera which transforms the scene before the blind pedestrian into an image which can be received by the image interpretation system. The image interpretation system is implemented on a microprocessor which has been programmed to execute real-time feature extraction and scene analysis algorithms for locating and identifying the pedestrian's path and potential obstacles. Identity and location information is presented to the pedestrian by means of tactile coding and machine-generated speech.

  5. Computer Supported Indexing: A History and Evaluation of NASA's MAI System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.

    1997-01-01

    Computer supported or machine aided indexing (MAI) can be categorized in multiple ways. The system used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI) is described as semantic and computational. It's based on the co-occurrence of domain-specific terminology in parts of a sentence, and the probability that an indexer will assign a particular index term when a given word or phrase is encountered in text. The NASA CASI system is run on demand by the indexer and responds in 3 to 9 seconds with a list of suggested, authorized terms. The system was originally based on a syntactic system used in the late 1970's by the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC). The NASA mainframe-supported system consists of three components: two programs and a knowledge base (KB). The evolution of the system is described and flow charts illustrate the MAI procedures. Tests used to evaluate NASA's MAI system were limited to those that would not slow production. A very early test indicated that MAI saved about 3 minutes and provided several additional terms for each document indexed. It also was determined that time and other resources spent in careful construction of the KB pay off with high-quality output and indexer acceptance of MAI results.

  6. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  7. Quantum machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-01

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  8. Quantum machine learning.

    PubMed

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-13

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  9. Clamping in Boltzmann machines.

    PubMed

    Livesey, M

    1991-01-01

    A certain assumption that appears in the proof of correctness of the standard Boltzmann machine learning procedure is investigated. The assumption, called the clamping assumption, concerns the behavior of a Boltzmann machine when some of its units are clamped to a fixed state. It is argued that the clamping assumption is essentially an assertion of the time reversibility of a certain Markov chain underlying the behavior of the Boltzmann machine. As such, the clamping assumption is generally false, though it is certainly true of the Boltzmann machines themselves. The author also considers how the concept of the Boltzmann machine may be generalized while retaining the validity of the clamping assumption.

  10. Amplifying human ability through autonomics and machine learning in IMPACT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzieciuch, Iryna; Reeder, John; Gutzwiller, Robert; Gustafson, Eric; Coronado, Braulio; Martinez, Luis; Croft, Bryan; Lange, Douglas S.

    2017-05-01

    Amplifying human ability for controlling complex environments featuring autonomous units can be aided by learned models of human and system performance. In developing a command and control system that allows a small number of people to control a large number of autonomous teams, we employ an autonomics framework to manage the networks that represent mission plans and the networks that are composed of human controllers and their autonomous assistants. Machine learning allows us to build models of human and system performance useful for monitoring plans and managing human attention and task loads. Machine learning also aids in the development of tactics that human supervisors can successfully monitor through the command and control system.

  11. Perspex machine: VII. The universal perspex machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2006-01-01

    The perspex machine arose from the unification of projective geometry with the Turing machine. It uses a total arithmetic, called transreal arithmetic, that contains real arithmetic and allows division by zero. Transreal arithmetic is redefined here. The new arithmetic has both a positive and a negative infinity which lie at the extremes of the number line, and a number nullity that lies off the number line. We prove that nullity, 0/0, is a number. Hence a number may have one of four signs: negative, zero, positive, or nullity. It is, therefore, impossible to encode the sign of a number in one bit, as floating-point arithmetic attempts to do, resulting in the difficulty of having both positive and negative zeros and NaNs. Transrational arithmetic is consistent with Cantor arithmetic. In an extension to real arithmetic, the product of zero, an infinity, or nullity with its reciprocal is nullity, not unity. This avoids the usual contradictions that follow from allowing division by zero. Transreal arithmetic has a fixed algebraic structure and does not admit options as IEEE, floating-point arithmetic does. Most significantly, nullity has a simple semantics that is related to zero. Zero means "no value" and nullity means "no information." We argue that nullity is as useful to a manufactured computer as zero is to a human computer. The perspex machine is intended to offer one solution to the mind-body problem by showing how the computable aspects of mind and, perhaps, the whole of mind relates to the geometrical aspects of body and, perhaps, the whole of body. We review some of Turing's writings and show that he held the view that his machine has spatial properties. In particular, that it has the property of being a 7D lattice of compact spaces. Thus, we read Turing as believing that his machine relates computation to geometrical bodies. We simplify the perspex machine by substituting an augmented Euclidean geometry for projective geometry. This leads to a general

  12. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  13. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... CPR: A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  14. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS A A ... serious infection. continue How Many People Have HIV/AIDS? Since the discovery of the virus in 1983, ...

  15. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  16. Aides to Career Education: Instructional Aide Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    The handbook is designed for use by administrators, teachers, and instructional aides in the Aides to Career Education (ACE) Program. The program provides assistance to academically, socially, economically, and culturally disadvantaged students in secondary vocational programs by employing instructional aides who are subject field specialists to…

  17. Fault Tolerant State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary R.; Taft, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    State machines are commonly used to control sequential logic in FPGAs and ASKS. An errant state machine can cause considerable damage to the device it is controlling. For example in space applications, the FPGA might be controlling Pyros, which when fired at the wrong time will cause a mission failure. Even a well designed state machine can be subject to random errors us a result of SEUs from the radiation environment in space. There are various ways to encode the states of a state machine, and the type of encoding makes a large difference in the susceptibility of the state machine to radiation. In this paper we compare 4 methods of state machine encoding and find which method gives the best fault tolerance, as well as determining the resources needed for each method.

  18. Machine tool locator

    DOEpatents

    Hanlon, John A.; Gill, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  19. Improving air traffic control: Proving new tools or approving the joint human-machine system?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaillard, Irene; Leroux, Marcel

    1994-01-01

    From the description of a field problem (i.e., designing decision aids for air traffic controllers), this paper points out how a cognitive engineering approach provides the milestones for the evaluation of future joint human-machine systems.

  20. 49 CFR 214.507 - Required safety equipment for new on-track roadway maintenance machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... effectively controlling the movement of the machine under normal operating conditions; (6) A first-aid kit... handrails to provide the operator with a safe and secure position. (c) Each new on-track roadway...

  1. 49 CFR 214.507 - Required safety equipment for new on-track roadway maintenance machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... effectively controlling the movement of the machine under normal operating conditions; (6) A first-aid kit... handrails to provide the operator with a safe and secure position. (c) Each new on-track roadway...

  2. Ergogenic aids.

    PubMed

    Coyle, E F

    1984-07-01

    The catabolism of bodily fuels provides the energy for muscular work. Work output can be limited by the size of fuel reserves, the rate of their catabolism, the build-up of by-products, or the neurologic activation of muscle. A substance that favorably affects a step that is normally limiting, and thus increases work output, can be considered an ergogenic aid. The maximal amount of muscular force generated during brief contractions can be acutely increased during hypnosis and with the ingestion of a placebo or psychomotor stimulant. This effect is most obvious in subjects under laboratory conditions and is less evident in athletes who are highly motivated prior to competition. Fatigue is associated with acidosis in the working musculature when attempts are made to maximize work output during a 4 to 15-minute period. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion may act to buffer the acid produced, provided that blood flow to the muscle is adequate. Prolonged intense exercise can be maintained for approximately two hours before carbohydrate stores become depleted. Carbohydrate feedings delay fatigue during prolonged exercise, especially in subjects who display a decline in blood glucose during exercise in the fasting state. Caffeine ingestion prior to an endurance bout has been reported to allow an individual to exercise somewhat more intensely than he or she would otherwise. Its effect may be mediated by augmenting fat metabolism or by altering the perception of effort. Amphetamines may act in a similar manner. Water ingestion during prolonged exercise that results in dehydration and hyperthermia can offset fluid losses and allow an individual to better maintain work output while substantially reducing the risk of heat-related injuries.

  3. NGOs fight against HIV / AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mouli, V C

    1994-01-01

    Nongovernmental programs for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) care, support, and prevention emerged in many countries at an early stage of the AIDS epidemic. By 1991, more than 200 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) were working on AIDS-related programs in Africa; another 500 NGOs were active in Latin America. These organizations have a wide range of styles and missions, from family counseling services to advocacy at the national policy level. Countries with the weakest NGO response to AIDS tend to be those that score most poorly on global indexes of freedom, gender equality, and human rights rather than those with the poorest economic conditions. The flexibility of NGOs enables them to respond quickly to fill in gaps in health and social services. Their most valuable role, however, has been to experiment with innovative approaches to AIDS prevention and care and to generate a number of tested, replicable models. The challenge facing NGOs in the next decade will be to work more efficiently and cost-effectively in a climate of diminishing resources and to move from confrontation to collaboration with governments to ensure community input into the policy development process.

  4. Chaotic Boltzmann machines

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented. PMID:23558425

  5. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2004-12-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  6. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  7. Machine listening intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cella, C. E.

    2017-05-01

    This manifesto paper will introduce machine listening intelligence, an integrated research framework for acoustic and musical signals modelling, based on signal processing, deep learning and computational musicology.

  8. Progress in machine consciousness.

    PubMed

    Gamez, David

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a review of the work that has been carried out on machine consciousness. A clear overview of this diverse field is achieved by breaking machine consciousness down into four different areas, which are used to understand its aims, discuss its relationship with other subjects and outline the work that has been carried out so far. The criticisms that have been made against machine consciousness are also covered, along with its potential benefits, and the work that has been done on analysing systems for signs of consciousness. Some of the social and ethical issues raised by machine consciousness are examined at the end of the paper.

  9. Chaotic Boltzmann machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-Ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-04-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented.

  10. Chaotic Boltzmann machines.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented.

  11. Modernization of machines laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Mako, T.J.; Kasten, D.; Kent, J.C.; Turner, S.C. )

    1992-01-01

    The Ohio State University has maintained an undergraduate machinery laboratory using 10 to 15 hp AC and DC machines. a recent gift from the American Electric Power Service Corporation is being used to modernize the laboratory. This modernization includes the electrical and mechanical refurbishment of the 10 to 15 hp machines, the development of a computerized data acquisition system, and the specification and purchase of a three-machine (1 to 2 hp) table-top unit with variable speed drives. This paper will present information about the computerized data acquisition system and how it is being used by the students to investigate machine characteristics.

  12. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  13. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  14. Drum cutter mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Oberste-beulmann, K.; Schupphaus, H.

    1980-02-19

    A drum cutter mining machine includes a machine frame with a winch having a drive wheel to engage a rack or chain which extends along the path of travel by the mining machine to propel the machine along a mine face. The mining machine is made up of discrete units which include a machine body and machine housings joined to opposite sides of the machine body. The winch is either coupled through a drive train with a feed drive motor or coupled to the drive motor for cutter drums. The machine housings each support a pivot shaft coupled by an arm to a drum cutter. One of these housings includes a removable end cover and a recess adapted to receive a support housing for a spur gear system used to transmit torque from a feed drive motor to a reduction gear system which is, in turn, coupled to the drive wheel of the winch. In one embodiment, a removable end cover on the machine housing provides access to the feed drive motor. The feed drive motor is arranged so that the rotational axis of its drive output shaft extends transversely to the stow side of the machine frame. In another embodiment, the reduction gear system is arranged at one side of the pivot shaft for the cutter drum while the drive motor therefor is arranged at the other side of the pivot shaft and coupled thereto through the spur gear system. In a further embodiment, the reduction gear system is disposed between the feed motor and the pivot shaft.

  15. Diamond machine tool face lapping machine

    DOEpatents

    Yetter, H.H.

    1985-05-06

    An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

  16. Method and system for controlling a synchronous machine over full operating range

    DOEpatents

    Walters, James E.; Gunawan, Fani S.; Xue, Yanhong

    2002-01-01

    System and method for controlling a synchronous machine are provided. The method allows for calculating a stator voltage index. The method further allows for relating the magnitude of the stator voltage index against a threshold voltage value. An offset signal is generated based on the results of the relating step. A respective state of operation of the machine is determined. The offset signal is processed based on the respective state of the machine.

  17. BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE MAKES BOTH MOLD HALVES INDIVIDUALLY WHICH ARE LATER ROTATED, ASSEMBLED, AND LOWERED TO POURING CONVEYORS BY ASSISTING MACHINES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  18. BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE MAKES BOTH MOLD HALVES INDIVIDUALLY WHICH ARE LATER ROTATED, ASSEMBLED, AND LOWERED TO POURING CONVEYORS BY ASSISTING MACHINES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  19. 14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  20. THE TEACHING MACHINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLEIN, CHARLES; WAYNE, ELLIS

    THE ROLE OF THE TEACHING MACHINE IS COMPARED WITH THE ROLE OF THE PROGRAMED TEXTBOOK. THE TEACHING MACHINE IS USED FOR INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION, CONTAINS AND PRESENTS PROGRAM CONTENT IN STEPS, PROVIDES A MEANS WHEREBY THE STUDENT MAY RESPOND TO THE PROGRAM, PROVIDES THE STUDENT WITH IMMEDIATE INFORMATION OF SOME KIND CONCERNING HIS RESPONSE THAT CAN…

  1. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  2. Machining heavy plastic sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalkup, O. M.

    1967-01-01

    Machining technique produces consistently satisfactory plane-parallel optical surfaces for pressure windows, made of plexiglass, required to support a photographic study of liquid rocket combustion processes. The surfaces are machined and polished to the required tolerances and show no degradation from stress relaxation over periods as long as 6 months.

  3. Technique for Machining Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Process for machining glass with conventional carbide tools requires a small quantity of a lubricant for aluminum applied to area of glass to be machined. A carbide tool is then placed against workpiece with light pressure. Tool is raised periodically to clear work of glass dust and particles. Additional lubricant is applied as it is displaced.

  4. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  5. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  6. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  7. Machine Translation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  8. Compound taper milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  9. The Hooey Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarnati, James T.; Tice, Craig J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how students can make and use Hooey Machines to learn how mechanical energy can be transferred from one object to another within a system. The Hooey Machine is made using a pencil, eight thumbtacks, one pushpin, tape, scissors, graph paper, and a plastic lid. (PR)

  10. Semantics via Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  11. Stirling machine operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, B.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  12. An asymptotical machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristallini, Achille

    2016-07-01

    A new and intriguing machine may be obtained replacing the moving pulley of a gun tackle with a fixed point in the rope. Its most important feature is the asymptotic efficiency. Here we obtain a satisfactory description of this machine by means of vector calculus and elementary trigonometry. The mathematical model has been compared with experimental data and briefly discussed.

  13. Biological Molecular Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzyński, Michał

    2007-11-01

    Like small molecules taking part in usual chemical reactions, biological molecular machines perform their functions owing to thermal fluctuations and the only difference consists in more complex and specially organized internal dynamics. It is this dynamics that determines processes of free energy transduction in molecular machines. The case of the actomyosin motor is considered in some detail.

  14. Machine Translation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  15. Technique for Machining Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Process for machining glass with conventional carbide tools requires a small quantity of a lubricant for aluminum applied to area of glass to be machined. A carbide tool is then placed against workpiece with light pressure. Tool is raised periodically to clear work of glass dust and particles. Additional lubricant is applied as it is displaced.

  16. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  17. Study of Man-Machine Communications Systems for Disabled Persons (The Handicapped). Volume IV. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafafian, Haig

    The volume contains experimental instructional materials designed for teacher and handicapped student use with two man-machine communications systems, Cybertype and Cyber-Go-Round, developed as educational aids for the severely handicapped. Cybertype is a writing machine with various possible configurations of portable keyboards with a reduced…

  18. Teacher's Aide Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coya, Liliam

    The teacher's aide guide focuses on the various aspects of an aide's position in a migrant educational situation. Following the introduction, section 1 describes the aide's relationship with the teacher, duties of the aide, and materials that might be required; a glossary of commonly used school terms is also provided. Psychologically oriented,…

  19. INDEXING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  20. Micro-machining.

    PubMed

    Brinksmeier, Ekkard; Preuss, Werner

    2012-08-28

    Manipulating bulk material at the atomic level is considered to be the domain of physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. However, precision engineering, especially micro-machining, has become a powerful tool for controlling the surface properties and sub-surface integrity of the optical, electronic and mechanical functional parts in a regime where continuum mechanics is left behind and the quantum nature of matter comes into play. The surprising subtlety of micro-machining results from the extraordinary precision of tools, machines and controls expanding into the nanometre range-a hundred times more precise than the wavelength of light. In this paper, we will outline the development of precision engineering, highlight modern achievements of ultra-precision machining and discuss the necessity of a deeper physical understanding of micro-machining.

  1. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  2. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  3. Machine tool evaluation and machining operation development

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, T.O.; Kegg, R.

    1997-03-15

    The purpose of this CRADA was to support Cincinnati Milacron`s needs in fabricating precision components, from difficult to machine materials, while maintaining and enhancing the precision manufacturing skills of the Oak Ridge Complex. Oak Ridge and Cincinnati Milacron personnel worked in a team relationship wherein each contributed equally to the success of the program. Process characterization, control technologies, machine tool capabilities, and environmental issues were the primary focus areas. In general, Oak Ridge contributed a wider range of expertise in machine tool testing and monitoring, and environmental testing on machining fluids to the defined tasks while Cincinnati Milacron personnel provided equipment, operations-specific knowledge and shop-floor services to each task. Cincinnati Milacron was very pleased with the results of all of the CRADA tasks. However, some of the environmental tasks were not carried through to a desired completion due to an expanding realization of need as the work progressed. This expansion of the desired goals then exceeded the time length of the CRADA. Discussions are underway on continuing these tasks under either a Work for Others agreement or some alternate funding.

  4. Machine learning techniques for fault isolation and sensor placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, James R.; Fisher, Douglas H.

    1993-01-01

    Fault isolation and sensor placement are vital for monitoring and diagnosis. A sensor conveys information about a system's state that guides troubleshooting if problems arise. We are using machine learning methods to uncover behavioral patterns over snapshots of system simulations that will aid fault isolation and sensor placement, with an eye towards minimality, fault coverage, and noise tolerance.

  5. Teaching Sewing Machine Tension Concepts to Blind and Sighted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Nora M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    An experimental lesson plan on sewing machine tension was developed for blind and sighted students in an attempt to teach this concept more effectively. Tactile/verbal aids were used in the experimental lesson to increase the potential for student comprehension. The experimental lesson produced better results for both groups of students even…

  6. Forbidden Zones for Numerically-Controlled Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpot, D.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-controlled machine tool prevented from striking and damaging protruding members on workpiece by creating forbidden zone in control program. With aid of computer graphics, tool profile and coordinates of forbidden zone digitized and stored in computer memory as part of tool path.

  7. Forbidden Zones for Numerically-Controlled Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpot, D.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-controlled machine tool prevented from striking and damaging protruding members on workpiece by creating forbidden zone in control program. With aid of computer graphics, tool profile and coordinates of forbidden zone digitized and stored in computer memory as part of tool path.

  8. How to Get Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Products Hearing Aids How to get Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... my hearing aids? How do I get hearing aids? Before getting a hearing aid, you should consider ...

  9. The Basic Anaesthesia Machine

    PubMed Central

    Gurudatt, CL

    2013-01-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia. PMID:24249876

  10. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  11. Emulation of multi-axis numerically controlled machine tools

    SciTech Connect

    Burd, W.C.

    1983-04-01

    The MULTAX-PLOT program provides a method for verification of numerical control part programs. Combined with other tools, such as postprocessor listings and center line (CL) pen plots generated from the CL data files, the interactive MULTAX-PLOT program provides the machinist, the parts programmer and the postprocessor implementor a tool to visualize and troubleshoot machining commands. The MULTAX-PLOT program fills a significant void in the numerically controlled (NC) machining process. The center line pen plots are made from the CL data by one postprocessor, whereas the machine command file is generated by a different postprocessor. These two postprocessors may not produce identical results. However, the MULTAX-PLOT program displays the data from the machine tool's command file that will actually drive the machine tool. The principle benefits of the MULTAX-PLOT program are: A reduction in verification times by the system programmers, the NC parts programmers and the machnists; An early error detection method that reduces possible machine tool damage and scrapped parts; and Improved machine tool utilization. MULTAX-PLOT has been implemented and has aided in the development of two multi-axis postprocessors. It has proved to be a powerful diagnostic tool for the postprocessor implementor. The parts programmers and machinists have had favorable results with their initial use of MULTAX-PLOT for verification. However, the full potential of MULTAX-PLOT will be realized as terminals are installed at the NC machine tools.

  12. DNA-based machines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications.

  13. Inferring Mealy Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbaz, Muzammil; Groz, Roland

    Automata learning techniques are getting significant importance for their applications in a wide variety of software engineering problems, especially in the analysis and testing of complex systems. In recent studies, a previous learning approach [1] has been extended to synthesize Mealy machine models which are specifically tailored for I/O based systems. In this paper, we discuss the inference of Mealy machines and propose improvements that reduces the worst-time learning complexity of the existing algorithm. The gain over the complexity of the proposed algorithm has also been confirmed by experimentation on a large set of finite state machines.

  14. Quantum Boltzmann Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchytskyy, Bohdan; Andriyash, Evgeny; Amin, Mohammed; Melko, Roger

    The field of machine learning has been revolutionized by the recent improvements in the training of deep networks. Their architecture is based on a set of stacked layers of simpler modules. One of the most successful building blocks, known as a restricted Boltzmann machine, is an energetic model based on the classical Ising Hamiltonian. In our work, we investigate the benefits of quantum effects on the learning capacity of Boltzmann machines by extending its underlying Hamiltonian with a transverse field. For this purpose, we employ exact and stochastic training procedures on data sets with physical origins.

  15. Counter machines and crystallographic structures.

    PubMed

    Jonoska, N; Krajcevski, M; McColm, G

    2016-03-01

    One way to depict a crystallographic structure is by a periodic (di)graph, i.e., a graph whose group of automorphisms has a translational subgroup of finite index acting freely on the structure. We establish a relationship between periodic graphs representing crystallographic structures and an infinite hierarchy of intersection languages ℒ d , d = 0, 1, 2, …, within the intersection classes of deterministic context-free languages. We introduce a class of counter machines that accept these languages, where the machines with d counters recognize the class ℒ d An intersection of d languages in ℒ1 defines ℒ d . We prove that there is a one-to-one correspondence between sets of walks starting and ending in the same unit of a d-dimensional periodic (di)graph and the class of languages in ℒ d . The proof uses the following result: given a digraph Δ and a group G, there is a unique digraph Γ such that G ≤ Aut Γ, G acts freely on the structure, and Γ/G ≅ Δ.

  16. Counter machines and crystallographic structures

    PubMed Central

    Krajcevski, M.; McColm, G.

    2016-01-01

    One way to depict a crystallographic structure is by a periodic (di)graph, i.e., a graph whose group of automorphisms has a translational subgroup of finite index acting freely on the structure. We establish a relationship between periodic graphs representing crystallographic structures and an infinite hierarchy of intersection languages 𝒟𝒞ℒd, d = 0, 1, 2, …, within the intersection classes of deterministic context-free languages. We introduce a class of counter machines that accept these languages, where the machines with d counters recognize the class 𝒟𝒞ℒd An intersection of d languages in 𝒟𝒞ℒ1 defines 𝒟𝒞ℒd. We prove that there is a one-to-one correspondence between sets of walks starting and ending in the same unit of a d-dimensional periodic (di)graph and the class of languages in 𝒟𝒞ℒd. The proof uses the following result: given a digraph Δ and a group G, there is a unique digraph Γ such that G ≤ Aut Γ, G acts freely on the structure, and Γ/G ≅ Δ. PMID:27616944

  17. 16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). Note the large segmental-arched doorway to move locomotives in and out of Machine Shop. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  18. Tunnel boring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, L. L.

    1985-07-09

    A tunnel boring machine for controlled boring of a curvilinear tunnel including a rotating cutter wheel mounted on the forward end of a thrust cylinder assembly having a central longitudinal axis aligned with the cutter wheel axis of rotation; the thrust cylinder assembly comprising a cylinder barrel and an extendable and retractable thrust arm received therein. An anchoring assembly is pivotally attached to the rear end of the cylinder barrel for anchoring the machine during a cutting stroke and providing a rear end pivot axis during curved cutting strokes. A pair of laterally extending, extendable and retractable arms are fixedly mounted at a forward portion of the cylinder barrel for providing lateral displacement in a laterally curved cutting mode and for anchoring the machine between cutting strokes and during straight line boring. Forward and rear transverse displacement and support assemblies are provided to facilitate cutting in a transversely curved cutting mode and to facilitate machine movement between cutting strokes.

  19. Molecular Machines: Nanoscale gadgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A.

    2008-06-01

    Meeting their biological counterparts halfway, artificial molecular machines embedded in liquid crystals, crystalline solids and mesoporous materials are poised to meet the demands of the next generation of functional materials.

  20. The Atwood machine revisited using smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Martín; Stari, Cecilia; Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo C.

    2015-09-01

    The Atwood machine is a simple device used for centuries to demonstrate Newton's second law. It consists of two supports containing different masses joined by a string. Here we propose an experiment in which a smartphone is fixed to one support. With the aid of the built-in accelerometer of the smartphone, the vertical acceleration is registered. By redistributing the masses of the supports, a linear relationship between the mass difference and the vertical acceleration is obtained. In this experiment, the use of a smartphone contributes to enhance a classical demonstration.

  1. Nontraditional Machining Guide, 26 Newcomers for Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    Ranges 4 Material Removal Rates 4 Surface Integrity of Nontraditional Processes 6 MECHANICAL Nontraditional Machining 7 AFM - Abrasive Flow...STRESS IN AISI 4340 • • • • • X SURFACE GRINDING • • • • ZONVEr -ITIONA L • • • ,/ ^LOW STRESS 1 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 DEPTH...dressing aids productivity. A contour cut 1/ 4 inch long and Q.’ilk inch deep in Inconel 718 produced a 6 -microinch AA finish in 35 seconds of grinding

  2. Approaches to Machine Learning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-16

    The field of machine learning strives to develop methods and techniques to automatic the acquisition of new information, new skills, and new ways of organizing existing information. In this article, we review the major approaches to machine learning in symbolic domains, covering the tasks of learning concepts from examples, learning search methods, conceptual clustering, and language acquisition. We illustrate each of the basic approaches with paradigmatic examples. (Author)

  3. Sealing intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2005-06-07

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  4. Sealing intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2007-06-05

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  5. Maraging Steel Machining Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-23

    APR 2007 2. REPORT TYPE Technical, Success Story 3. DATES COVERED 01-12-2006 to 23-04-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maraging Steel Machining...consumers of cobalt-strengthened maraging steel . An increase in production requires them to reduce the machining time of certain operations producing... maraging steel ; Success Stories 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 1 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 1 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  6. Flexible machining systems described

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butters, H. J.

    1985-03-01

    The rationalization and gradual automation of short rotationally symmetric parts in the Saalfeld VEB Machine Tool Factory was carried out in three stages: (1) part-specific manufacturing; (2) automated production line for manufacturing toothed gears; and (3) automated manufacturing section for short rotationally symmetric parts. The development of numerically controlled machine tools and of industrial robot technology made possible automated manufacturing. The design of current facilities is explored, manufacturing control is examined, experience is reported.

  7. Doubly fed induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  8. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  9. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  10. 25 CFR 502.7 - Electronic, computer or other technologic aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... other technologic aid means any machine or device that: (1) Assists a player or the playing of a game... not limited to, machines or devices that: (1) Broaden the participation levels in a common game; (2) Facilitate communication between and among gaming sites; or (3) Allow a player to play a game with or...

  11. Could a machine think

    SciTech Connect

    Churchland, P.M.; Churchland, P.S. )

    1990-01-01

    There are many reasons for saying yes. One of the earliest and deepest reason lay in two important results in computational theory. The first was Church's thesis, which states that every effectively computable function is recursively computable. The second important result was Alan M. Turing's demonstration that any recursively computable function can be computed in finite time by a maximally simple sort of symbol-manipulating machine that has come to be called a universal Turing machine. This machine is guided by a set of recursively applicable rules that are sensitive to the identity, order and arrangement of the elementary symbols it encounters as input. The authors reject the Turing test as a sufficient condition for conscious intelligence. They base their position of the specific behavioral failures of the classical SM machines and on the specific virtues of machines with a more brain-like architecture. These contrasts show that certain computational strategies have vast and decisive advantages over others where typical cognitive tasks are concerned, advantages that are empirically inescapable. Clearly, the brain is making systematic use of these computational advantage. But it need not be the only physical system capable of doing so. Artificial intelligence, in a nonbiological but massively parallel machine, remain a compelling and discernible prospect.

  12. A Quaternary Decision Diagram Machine: Optimization of Its Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    machines consists of two kind of instructions : Q_Branch(ADDR0,ADDR1,ADDR2,ADDR3),INDEX Output DATA, and GOTO ADDR Figure 10 shows the format for the...expensive for embedded applications. Figure 11 shows the format for the output instruction . The left field specifies the instruction type: Output. The middle...the number of instructions . key words: quarternary decision diagram, branching program machine 1. Trends of VLSI Design 1.1 Explosion of Complexity With

  13. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    MedlinePlus

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  14. AIDS and Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Leonard H.; Kelley, Dennis

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the onset and progression of AIDS, its importance as a public health issue, and reducing the risk of AIDS transmission among athletes and those who work with them, including team physicians and athletic trainers. (IAH)

  15. HIV/AIDS Coinfection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laotian Mongolian Spanish Turkish Vietnamese Hindi Subscribe HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  16. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  17. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts HIV/AIDS Fact sheet Updated November 2016 Key facts HIV ... and 2015, new HIV infections fell by 35%, AIDS-related deaths fell by 28% with some 8 ...

  18. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partner Spotlight Awareness Days Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  19. Dislocation: First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Emergency Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Jan. 8, 2015. Jan. 20, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid- ...

  20. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  1. The Buttonhole Machine. Module 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the bottonhole machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: performing special operations on the buttonhole machine (parts and purpose) and performing special operations on the buttonhole machine (gauged buttonholes). For each topic these components are…

  2. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  3. Non-traditional machining techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Robert D; Fierro, Frank; Garcia, Felix P; Hatch, Douglass J; Randolph, Randall B; Reardon, Patrick T; Rivera, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    During the course of machining targets for various experiments it sometimes becomes necessary to adapt fixtures or machines, which are designed for one function, to another function. When adapting a machine or fixture is not adequate, it may be necessary to acquire a machine specifically designed to produce the component required. In addition to the above scenarios, the features of a component may dictate that multi-step machining processes are necessary to produce the component. This paper discusses the machining of four components where adaptation, specialized machine design, or multi-step processes were necessary to produce the components.

  4. Fabrication of titanium implant-retained restorations with nontraditional machining techniques.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, S M; Chance, D A

    1995-01-01

    Traditional laboratory techniques are being supplemented by modern precision technologies to solve complex restorative problems. Electrical discharge machining combined with laser scanning and computer aided design-computer aided manufacturing can create very precise restorations without the lost wax method. A laser scanner is used to create a three-dimensional polyline data model that can then be converted into a stereolithography file format for output to a stereolithography apparatus or other rapid prototyping device. A stereolithography-generated model is used to create an electric discharge machining electrode via copper electroforming. This electrode is used to machine dental restorations from an ingot of titanium, bypassing the conventional lost wax casting process. Retaining screw access holes are machined using conventional drilling procedures, but could be accomplished with electric discharge machining if desired. Other rapid prototyping technologies are briefly discussed.

  5. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  6. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  7. Creating Motivating Job Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilaro, Angie; Rossett, Allison

    1993-01-01

    Explains how to create job aids that employees will be motivated to use, based on a review of pertinent literature and interviews with professionals. Topics addressed include linking motivation with job aids; Keller's ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) model of motivation; and design strategies for job aids based on Keller's…

  8. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A What's in this article? ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  9. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  10. Difficult Decisions: AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1988-01-01

    Focuses on public education about the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. Discusses the problems of a second epidemic of fear and anxiety. Presents several questions for classroom discussion and analysis of the public fear of AIDS. Gives some statistics highlighting misinformation about AIDS. (CW)

  11. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  12. Black Eye: First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid Black eye: First aid Black eye: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A black eye is caused by bleeding under the skin around the eye. Most injuries that cause a black eye aren't serious. But a black eye ...

  13. AIDS awareness: Indian context.

    PubMed

    Izhar, N

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the level of public awareness of AIDS in India was conducted on 600 men and women from Aligarth town, 180 km east of Delhi, and in Srinagar City in Kashmir Valley. Subjects were chosen from illiterate and below matriculate level; matriculate to graduate level; and graduate and above. Subjects were asked if they had heard of a disease called AIDS, when they first hears about AIDS, what was their 1st source of information, what are the reasons behind the incidence of AIDS and whether they are scared of AIDS. None of the illiterate group had heard of AIDS. 24% of the men and 14% of the women in the matriculate and graduate level group (clerks, mechanics, primary school teachers, businessmen and undergraduate students) had heard of AIDS. 92% of the highest educated group (lawyers, engineers, school principals and university students or teachers) had heard of AIDS. The 8% who had not were mostly women. Most of the highly educated, but fewer of the middle group were afraid of AIDS, but most thought AIDS would not spread in India because "our life pattern is different." None was aware that AIDS can spread from unchecked blood transfusions and re-use of unsterilized needles in hospitals. The most common information sources were newspapers, radio, magazines and friends. Most had not heard of AIDS from doctors or other health workers, or from television, which could be an extremely effective medium to reach people.

  14. Creating Motivating Job Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilaro, Angie; Rossett, Allison

    1993-01-01

    Explains how to create job aids that employees will be motivated to use, based on a review of pertinent literature and interviews with professionals. Topics addressed include linking motivation with job aids; Keller's ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) model of motivation; and design strategies for job aids based on Keller's…

  15. AIDS in Rural California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Donald B.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the increase in AIDS patients in rural California, which is greater than that in urban areas, including AIDS population projections through 1991. Describes differences between AIDS populations in rural and urban areas and relates these to state expenditure patterns and differential needs. (DHP)

  16. Stroke: First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid Stroke: First aid Stroke: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A stroke occurs when there's bleeding into your brain or when blood flow to your ... cells start dying. Seek immediate medical assistance. A stroke is a true emergency. The sooner treatment is ...

  17. The Potential of Artificial Intelligence in Aids for the Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, John J.

    The paper explores the possibilities for applying the knowledge of artificial intelligence (AI) research to aids for the disabled. Following a definition of artificial intelligence, the paper reviews areas of basic AI research, such as computer vision, machine learning, and planning and problem solving. Among application areas relevant to the…

  18. The Potential of Artificial Intelligence in Aids for the Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, John J.

    The paper explores the possibilities for applying the knowledge of artificial intelligence (AI) research to aids for the disabled. Following a definition of artificial intelligence, the paper reviews areas of basic AI research, such as computer vision, machine learning, and planning and problem solving. Among application areas relevant to the…

  19. Pre-Programmed Learning Aids: An Alternative Worth Considering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Examines 14 preprogramed, microprocessor-based learning aids (Electronic Learning Machine, Digitor Skillmaster, Versator, Alphamaster, Lesson One, Speak and Spell, Quiz Wiz, Charlie, Rainbow, Children's Discovery System, System 80, Big Trak, Odyssey 2, Teach and Learn Computer), providing teacher commentary and product information (manufacturer,…

  20. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  1. Machine Learning Applications to Resting-State Functional MR Imaging Analysis.

    PubMed

    Billings, John M; Eder, Maxwell; Flood, William C; Dhami, Devendra Singh; Natarajan, Sriraam; Whitlow, Christopher T

    2017-11-01

    Machine learning is one of the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields within computer science. Academic and commercial research entities are investing in machine learning methods, especially in personalized medicine via patient-level classification. There is great promise that machine learning methods combined with resting state functional MR imaging will aid in diagnosis of disease and guide potential treatment for conditions thought to be impossible to identify based on imaging alone, such as psychiatric disorders. We discuss machine learning methods and explore recent advances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. AIDS-case surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lal, S; Khodakevich, L; Sengupta, D

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 in India, the Ministry of Health realized that the diagnostic and reporting network for AIDS cases was inadequate as AIDS cases grew and that the establishment of specialized AIDS units in hospitals was not the best strategy. It decided to integrate AIDS diagnostic and management facilities into primary health services. It would arrange training for 1 physician from each district and peripheral hospital, private hospital, and inpatient service of other medical institutions in AIDS diagnosis and management. These physicians would then train others in the clinical diagnosis and management of AIDS cases. The physicians would use the World Health Organization [WHO] case definition of AIDS supported by HIV serological test results. All AIDS cases would be transferred to the Medical College Hospitals of the States and Union Territories (UTs), regional hospitals, and perhaps some private hospitals. Between May 1986 and October 1993, India had 459 AIDS cases reported from 19 States and UTs, especially the States of Tamil Nadul and Maharashtra. This AIDS case surveillance system should motivate political will, describe the underlying and preceding HIV epidemic, and contribute to the understanding of current and future course of the epidemic. Thus, it will guide decision makers to develop sound preventive strategies, to plan health care, and to evaluate interventions. The surveillance system's target population is all outpatients and inpatients at medical institutions. During 1993-1994, 1000 hospitals should make up the network of referral institutions. AIDS case surveillance coordinators (ASCs) at each institution form the basis of the network. The individual case record of each suspected AIDS case will have details on his/her life and medical history. Records of confirmed cases will be sent to State ASCs who will compile them for the National AIDS Control Organisation. After 3-4 year of training and practice in AIDS diagnosis and reporting, AIDS reporting will be

  3. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    DOEpatents

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    2000-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  4. Organisms ≠ Machines.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Daniel J

    2013-12-01

    The machine conception of the organism (MCO) is one of the most pervasive notions in modern biology. However, it has not yet received much attention by philosophers of biology. The MCO has its origins in Cartesian natural philosophy, and it is based on the metaphorical redescription of the organism as a machine. In this paper I argue that although organisms and machines resemble each other in some basic respects, they are actually very different kinds of systems. I submit that the most significant difference between organisms and machines is that the former are intrinsically purposive whereas the latter are extrinsically purposive. Using this distinction as a starting point, I discuss a wide range of dissimilarities between organisms and machines that collectively lay bare the inadequacy of the MCO as a general theory of living systems. To account for the MCO's prevalence in biology, I distinguish between its theoretical, heuristic, and rhetorical functions. I explain why the MCO is valuable when it is employed heuristically but not theoretically, and finally I illustrate the serious problems that arise from the rhetorical appeal to the MCO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Bearingless Electrical Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bichsel, J.

    1992-01-01

    Electromagnetic bearings allow the suspension of solids. For rotary applications, the most important physical effect is the force of a magnetic circuit to a high permeable armature, called the MAXWELL force. Contrary to the commonly used MAXWELL bearings, the bearingless electrical machine will take advantage of the reaction force of a conductor carrying a current in a magnetic field. This kind of force, called Lorentz force, generates the torque in direct current, asynchronous and synchronous machines. The magnetic field, which already exists in electrical machines and helps to build up the torque, can also be used for the suspension of the rotor. Besides the normal winding of the stator, a special winding was added, which generates forces for levitation. So a radial bearing, which is integrated directly in the active part of the machine, and the motor use the laminated core simultaneously. The winding was constructed for the levitating forces in a special way so that commercially available standard ac inverters for drives can be used. Besides wholly magnetic suspended machines, there is a wide range of applications for normal drives with ball bearings. Resonances of the rotor, especially critical speeds, can be damped actively.

  6. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  7. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  8. Brown coal preparation machines

    SciTech Connect

    Bleckmann, H.; Sitte, W.; Kellerwessel, H.

    1981-05-01

    Lignite usually requires comminuting and screening before being used as a fuel in power plants. Reduction machines normally used for coarse crushing bituminous coal, such as jaw crushers, roll crushers, and impact crushers, are not generally suitable for lignite as they require a brittle feed and large grain size. In contrast to these requirements, lignite can be easily compressed and has a small grain size. Therefore, special crusher types have been developed for the coarse reduction of lignite. These machines resemble roll crushers but subject the feed to shearing and tearing forces rather than to compressive stress. It is often necessary to screen the lignite to remove the undersize or to limit the maximum particle size before the next comminution process. Screening the lignite is a particularly difficult operation due to the high water content and the presence of clay minerals which tend to clog the screening machines. These problems can be overcome with multi-roll sizers.

  9. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, N.A.; Koehler, D.R.; Liang, A.Y.; Smith, B.K.

    1993-03-30

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  10. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, Ned A.; Koehler, Dale R.; Liang, Alan Y.; Smith, Bradley K.

    1993-01-01

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  11. An Associative Index Model for the Results List Based on Vannevar Bush's Selection Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charles; Julien, Charles-Antoine; Leide, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We define the results list problem in information search and suggest the "associative index model", an ad-hoc, user-derived indexing solution based on Vannevar Bush's description of an associative indexing approach for his memex machine. We further define what selection means in indexing terms with reference to Charles…

  12. Paradigms for machine learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlimmer, Jeffrey C.; Langley, Pat

    1991-01-01

    Five paradigms are described for machine learning: connectionist (neural network) methods, genetic algorithms and classifier systems, empirical methods for inducing rules and decision trees, analytic learning methods, and case-based approaches. Some dimensions are considered along with these paradigms vary in their approach to learning, and the basic methods are reviewed that are used within each framework, together with open research issues. It is argued that the similarities among the paradigms are more important than their differences, and that future work should attempt to bridge the existing boundaries. Finally, some recent developments in the field of machine learning are discussed, and their impact on both research and applications is examined.

  13. Autonomous quantum thermodynamic machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonner, Friedemann; Mahler, Günter

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a quantum system consisting of a single spin coupled to an oscillator and sandwiched between two thermal baths at different temperatures. By means of an adequately designed Lindblad equation, it is shown that this device can function as a thermodynamic machine exhibiting Carnot-type cycles. For the present model, this means that when run as a heat engine, coherent motion of the oscillator is amplified. Contrary to the quantum computer, such a machine has a quantum as well as a classical limit. Away from the classical limit, it asymptotically approaches a stationary transport scenario.

  14. Refrigerating machine oil

    SciTech Connect

    Nozawa, K.

    1981-03-17

    Refrigerating machine oil to be filled in a sealed motorcompressor unit constituting a refrigerating cycle system including an electric refrigerator, an electric cold-storage box, a small-scaled electric refrigerating show-case, a small-scaled electric cold-storage show-case and the like, is arranged to have a specifically enhanced property, in which smaller initial driving power consumption of the sealed motor-compressor and easier supply of the predetermined amount of the refrigerating machine oil to the refrigerating system are both guaranteed even in a rather low environmental temperature condition.

  15. Intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, H. Sterling; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2007-01-16

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through meshing surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the function of one or the other of the rotors from that of "fluid moving" to that of "valving" thereby reducing the pressure loads and associated inefficiencies at the interface of the meshing surfaces. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  16. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  17. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-14

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  18. New photolithography stepping machine

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L.; Klingmann, J.; Markle, D.

    1995-03-08

    A joint development project to design a new photolithography steeping machine capable of 150 nanometer overlay accuracy was completed by Ultratech Stepper and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principal result of the project is a next-generation product that will strengthen the US position in step-and-repeat photolithography. The significant challenges addressed and solved in the project are the subject of this report. Design methods and new devices that have broader application to precision machine design are presented in greater detail while project specific information serves primarily as background and motivation.

  19. Machining in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Graylan

    2003-01-01

    A CNC mill was flown aboard NASA's KC-135 ``Weightless Wonder'' microgravity research aircraft to investigate the effect of gravity on the machining process and to demonstrate the feasibility and functionality of a CNC mill in a weightless environment, such as aboard the International Space Station. The experiment hypothesis was that the surface roughness of milling cuts made in microgravity would be of higher quality than cuts made in a gravitational environment due to increased chip removal. The technical problems associated with microgravity machining (such as the chip removal and collection process), and the engineering solutions to these problems were also evaluated in this experiment.

  20. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, Oliver T.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

  1. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

  2. Machine learning and computer vision approaches for phenotypic profiling.

    PubMed

    Grys, Ben T; Lo, Dara S; Sahin, Nil; Kraus, Oren Z; Morris, Quaid; Boone, Charles; Andrews, Brenda J

    2017-01-02

    With recent advances in high-throughput, automated microscopy, there has been an increased demand for effective computational strategies to analyze large-scale, image-based data. To this end, computer vision approaches have been applied to cell segmentation and feature extraction, whereas machine-learning approaches have been developed to aid in phenotypic classification and clustering of data acquired from biological images. Here, we provide an overview of the commonly used computer vision and machine-learning methods for generating and categorizing phenotypic profiles, highlighting the general biological utility of each approach. © 2017 Grys et al.

  3. Gelcasting compositions having improved drying characteristics and machinability

    DOEpatents

    Janney, Mark A.; Walls, Claudia A. H.

    2001-01-01

    A gelcasting composition has improved drying behavior, machinability and shelf life in the dried and unfired state. The composition includes an inorganic powder, solvent, monomer system soluble in the solvent, an initiator system for polymerizing the monomer system, and a plasticizer soluble in the solvent. Dispersants and other processing aides to control slurry properties can be added. The plasticizer imparts an ability to dry thick section parts, to store samples in the dried state without cracking under conditions of varying relative humidity, and to machine dry gelcast parts without cracking or chipping. A method of making gelcast parts is also disclosed.

  4. [HIV/AIDS infection. The Brazilian view. AIDS in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, A P; De Sa, C A; Rubini, N

    1996-01-01

    The Ministry of Health coordinates and orients in Brazil all the activities concerning the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome which is officially designated as AIDS. The first AIDS' case registered in Brazil was, by retrospective diagnosis, in 1981 but it was in 1982 that the first two diagnosis in live patients were made. The incidence is very high in this country that is among the ones where the higher number of cases are being registered. The great majority of the Brazilian cases occurs in the cities and in direct proportion to the population index. The groups of risk are the same universally known and a comparative increase of heterosexual transmission is noted, chiefly due to the use of injectable drugs and bisexuality of the male partners. Another problem that is being increased is pediatric AIDS, with raising importance of perinatal transmission as well as the use of injectable drugs and precocious prostitution in adolescence. The transfusional and haemophilic AIDS have proportionally decreased due to the control of blood products. The control and the orientation activity of the Ministry of Health is directed to varied points such as: compulsory cases notification, cooperation between public and private sectors, preventive and sexual orientation, freely delivered medication and laboratory tests including sigilous tests, lay and technical personnel preparation, diversified informative and educational campaigns. Trial tests with anti-HIV vaccines have begun to be performed. Multiple Reference Centers were officially established by the administration. Among them is to be quoted the Hospital Universitário Gaffrée Guinle of Rio de Janeiro where the authors work. It is credited for its intensive activity and pioneerism. In this Institution special attention was due against discrimination of HIV-infected patients, to diagnosis, to anonymous and sigilous tests, to medical and psychological assistance, to myocardium involvement, to the virologic study of the

  5. 14. Machine in north 1922 section of Building 59. Machine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Machine in north 1922 section of Building 59. Machine is 24' Jointer made by Oliver Machinery Co. Camera pointed E. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  6. BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES FOR VALVES AND PREPARE BRONZE VALVE BODIES FOR ASSEMBLY. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. 12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES BLOCKED OUT SECTIONS IN THE ROCK CUT IN PREPARATION FOR DRILLING AND BLASTING. (17) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  8. 42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins on the right and pipe storage racks on the left. Remains of the power drive system are suspended from the ceiling. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  9. Machine speech and speaking about machines

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, A.

    1996-12-31

    Current philosophy of language prides itself on scientific status. It boasts of being no longer contaminated with queer mental entities or idealist essences. It theorizes language as programmable variants of formal semantic systems, reimaginable either as the properly epiphenomenal machine functions of computer science or the properly material neural networks of physiology. Whether or not such models properly capture the physical workings of a living human brain is a question that scientists will have to answer. I, as a philosopher, come at the problem from another direction. Does contemporary philosophical semantics, in its dominant truth-theoretic and related versions, capture actual living human thought as it is experienced, or does it instead reflect, regardless of (perhaps dubious) scientific credentials, pathology of thought, a pathology with a disturbing social history.

  10. 5 Axes computer aided laser milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccolini, G.; Orazi, L.; Fortunato, A.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper a 5 axes CAM procedure for the laser milling of free form surfaces has been developed and experimentally verified. The laser beam is deflected by a galvanometric scanning head and is directly moved on the working surface by the CNC controlled axes of a machine center. The procedure has been implemented in a software called CALM (computer aided laser manufacturing) able to generate the laser paths and the movements of the controlled axes reducing the defects on the workpiece. The approach is based on the sequential overlapping of the scanning passes on the working area. The different working areas in every laser displacement are obtained directly from the triangulation of the whole surface to machine.

  11. Support vector machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garay, Michael J.; Mazzoni, Dominic; Davies, Roger; Wagstaff, Kiri

    2004-01-01

    Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are a type of supervised learning algorith,, other examples of which are Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Decision Trees, and Naive Bayesian Classifiers. Supervised learning algorithms are used to classify objects labled by a 'supervisor' - typically a human 'expert.'.

  12. Machine Parts as Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Gerald

    The connection between Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) and literature is discussed with examples of technical vocabulary drawn from a variety of writers, with particular attention to a sketch by the British dramatist Harold Pinter, "Trouble in the Works," which makes extensive use of the terminology of machine parts. It is noted…

  13. Laser machining of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  14. History of wood machining

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1967-01-01

    The history of wood machining is closely tied to advanced in metallurgy and power sources. It has been strongly and continuously shaped by prevailing economic forces and the rise and decline of other contemporary industries. This paper sketches a few of the highlights, with emphasis on developments in North America.

  15. Copy Machine Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Jean

    1984-01-01

    Images created with copy machines make children feel successful, as their work acquires the authority of being printed. Students can learn advanced processes like electrostatic image-making and can get involved in projects like making collages. They acquire an appreciation of design and of two-dimensional composition. (CS)

  16. Biomimetic machine vision system.

    PubMed

    Harman, William M; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Wilcox, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Real-time application of digital imaging for use in machine vision systems has proven to be prohibitive when used within control systems that employ low-power single processors without compromising the scope of vision or resolution of captured images. Development of a real-time machine analog vision system is the focus of research taking place at the University of Wyoming. This new vision system is based upon the biological vision system of the common house fly. Development of a single sensor is accomplished, representing a single facet of the fly's eye. This new sensor is then incorporated into an array of sensors capable of detecting objects and tracking motion in 2-D space. This system "preprocesses" incoming image data resulting in minimal data processing to determine the location of a target object. Due to the nature of the sensors in the array, hyperacuity is achieved thereby eliminating resolutions issues found in digital vision systems. In this paper, we will discuss the biological traits of the fly eye and the specific traits that led to the development of this machine vision system. We will also discuss the process of developing an analog based sensor that mimics the characteristics of interest in the biological vision system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of how an array of these sensors can be applied toward solving real-world machine vision issues.

  17. Working with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

  18. Protein thin film machines.

    PubMed

    Federici, Stefania; Oliviero, Giulio; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly; Bergese, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    We report the first example of microcantilever beams that are reversibly driven by protein thin film machines fueled by cycling the salt concentration of the surrounding solution. We also show that upon the same salinity stimulus the drive can be completely reversed in its direction by introducing a surface coating ligand. Experimental results are throughout discussed within a general yet simple thermodynamic model.

  19. Support vector machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garay, Michael J.; Mazzoni, Dominic; Davies, Roger; Wagstaff, Kiri

    2004-01-01

    Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are a type of supervised learning algorith,, other examples of which are Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Decision Trees, and Naive Bayesian Classifiers. Supervised learning algorithms are used to classify objects labled by a 'supervisor' - typically a human 'expert.'.

  20. The Art Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vertelney, Harry; Grossberger, Lucia

    1983-01-01

    Introduces educators to possibilities of computer graphics using an inexpensive computer system which takes advantage of existing equipment (35mm camera, super 8 movie camera, VHS video cassette recorder). The concept of the "art machine" is explained, highlighting input and output devices (X-Y plotter, graphic tablets, video…

  1. Working with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

  2. Introduction to Exploring Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early Childhood Today, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Young children are fascinated by how things "work." They are at a stage of development where they want to experiment with the many ways to use an object or take things apart and put them back together. In the process of exploring tools and machines, children use the scientific method and problem-solving skills. They observe how things work, wonder…

  3. Giving Machines the Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amherst Systems manufactures foveal machine vision technology and systems commercially available to end-users and system integrators. This technology was initially developed under NASA contracts NAS9-19335 (Johnson Space Center) and NAS1-20841 (Langley Research Center). This technology is currently being delivered to university research facilities and military sites. More information may be found in www.amherst.com.

  4. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  5. Introduction to Exploring Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early Childhood Today, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Young children are fascinated by how things "work." They are at a stage of development where they want to experiment with the many ways to use an object or take things apart and put them back together. In the process of exploring tools and machines, children use the scientific method and problem-solving skills. They observe how things work, wonder…

  6. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1983-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of utmost importance. PMID:6342737

  7. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  8. Creativity in AIDS education.

    PubMed

    Bryant, A

    1996-01-01

    AIDS is spreading rapidly through Asia. By the year 2000, India will have the largest number of HIV and AIDS cases in the world. Heterosexual contact is the most common form of transmission. With little likelihood of developing a cure in the near future, education and prevention is currently the only way to check the spread of HIV. In an effort to educate people about AIDS, the US Information Service sponsored a creative play reading, directed by Pearl Padamsee, at the American Center Library. The actors explored authors' works on AIDS. The first half of the performance featured excerpts from plays by American authors, while the second half offered Indian plays by Indian authors. The performance covered a wide range of issues, including the association of HIV/AIDS with homosexuality, politics, friendship, family secrets, and AIDS prevention.

  9. Foreign aid for education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    1988-09-01

    Education has only recently received development finances from the international donor community. This change has been more or less concurrent with the `human investment revolution in economic thought' initiated by Theodore Schultz. This paper surveys the shifting trends in educational aid, its problems and prospects. It discusses three divergent views held in developing countries: (a) that aid is beneficial to their educational development, (b) that it helps only the donor country, and (c) that despite negative experiences it has the potential of helping the recipient. The article begins by describing the complex international donor community, attempts in section 2 to answer the question why aid should be given to education in preference to other sectors, in section 3 considers trends in the growth of educational aid, and in section 4 the overall impact of aid on educational development, and concludes with some general observations on improving the effects of foreign aid on education.

  10. 8. VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP. BY 1966, THE MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP. BY 1966, THE MACHINE SHOP HANDLED PRIMARILY STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS, WHICH WERE SENT TO THE MACHINE SHOP TO BE FORMED INTO THEIR FINAL SHAPES. (7/24/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. Endemic mycoses in AIDS: a clinical review.

    PubMed Central

    Wheat, J

    1995-01-01

    Histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis are serious opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS who reside in areas of endemicity of the United States and Central and South America. Blastomycosis, although less common, also must be recognized as an opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. Prompt diagnosis requires knowledge of the clinical syndromes and diagnostic tests as well as a high index of suspicion. Histoplasmosis and blastomycosis respond well to antifungal treatment, but relapse is common without chronic suppressive therapy. Improvements in treatment are needed in coccidioidomycosis. Research is needed to identify preventive strategies for patients at risk. These strategies may include use of prophylactic antifungal therapy or vaccination. PMID:7704892

  12. Medical aid schemes respond to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G

    1999-01-01

    The insurance and medical aid industries reacted strongly in the 1980s to alarmist predictions of the likely impact of HIV upon employee benefits. Actuaries and accountants moved quickly to contain the risk, and most medical aid trustees quickly implemented a total exclusion of HIV treatment from their benefits. For more than 1 decade, it was argued that HIV/AIDS is a self-inflicted illness, often categorized with other STDs. In response, healthcare providers simply bypassed insurance restrictions and compensation limits by masking patient diagnoses to reflect pneumonia or other ambiguous, yet fully reimbursable, illnesses. Now, common sense has finally prevailed as a few managed healthcare programs are stepping forward to break the impasse. The largest such program is Aid for AIDS, run by Pharmaceutical Benefit Management Ltd. for schemes within the Medscheme Group. The Group built an entirely new, secure unit off-site from their normal branches to guarantee the confidentiality of patients' records and diagnoses, while treatment guidelines have been issued to every practicing physician in the country.

  13. Support vector machine for automatic pain recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monwar, Md Maruf; Rezaei, Siamak

    2009-02-01

    Facial expressions are a key index of emotion and the interpretation of such expressions of emotion is critical to everyday social functioning. In this paper, we present an efficient video analysis technique for recognition of a specific expression, pain, from human faces. We employ an automatic face detector which detects face from the stored video frame using skin color modeling technique. For pain recognition, location and shape features of the detected faces are computed. These features are then used as inputs to a support vector machine (SVM) for classification. We compare the results with neural network based and eigenimage based automatic pain recognition systems. The experiment results indicate that using support vector machine as classifier can certainly improve the performance of automatic pain recognition system.

  14. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  15. Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Patients with or without AIDS, France

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Antoine; Canet, Emmanuel; Valade, Sandrine; Gangneux-Robert, Florence; Hamane, Samia; Lafabrie, Ariane; Maubon, Daniéle; Debourgogne, Anne; Le Gal, Soléne; Dalle, Fréderic; Leterrier, Marion; Toubas, Dominique; Pomares, Christelle; Bellanger, Anne Pauline; Bonhomme, Julie; Berry, Antoine; Durand-Joly, Isabelle; Magne, Denis; Pons, Denis; Hennequin, Christophe; Maury, Eric; Roux, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in patients without AIDS is increasingly common. We conducted a prospective cohort study of consecutive patients with proven PCP; of 544 patients, 223 (41%) had AIDS (AIDS patients) and 321 (59%) had other immunosuppressive disorders (non-AIDS patients). Fewer AIDS than non-AIDS patients required intensive care or ventilation, and the rate of hospital deaths—17.4% overall—was significantly lower for AIDS versus non-AIDS patients (4% vs. 27%; p<0.0001). Multivariable analysis showed the odds of hospital death increased with older age, receipt of allogeneic bone marrow transplant, immediate use of oxygen, need for mechanical ventilation, and longer time to treatment; HIV-positive status or receipt of a solid organ transplant decreased odds for death. PCP is more often fatal in non-AIDS patients, but time to diagnosis affects survival and is longer for non-AIDS patients. Clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion for PCP in immunocompromised patients who do not have AIDS. PMID:25148074

  16. Tattoo machines, needles and utilities.

    PubMed

    Rosenkilde, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Starting out as a professional tattooist back in 1977 in Copenhagen, Denmark, Frank Rosenkilde has personally experienced the remarkable development of tattoo machines, needles and utilities: all the way from home-made equipment to industrial products of substantially improved quality. Machines can be constructed like the traditional dual-coil and single-coil machines or can be e-coil, rotary and hybrid machines, with the more convenient and precise rotary machines being the recent trend. This development has resulted in disposable needles and utilities. Newer machines are more easily kept clean and protected with foil to prevent crosscontaminations and infections. The machines and the tattooists' knowledge and awareness about prevention of infection have developed hand-in-hand. For decades, Frank Rosenkilde has been collecting tattoo machines. Part of his collection is presented here, supplemented by his personal notes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Hinged Shields for Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lallande, J. B.; Poland, W. W.; Tull, S.

    1985-01-01

    Flaps guard against flying chips, but fold away for tool setup. Clear plastic shield in position to intercept flying chips from machine tool and retracted to give operator access to workpiece. Machine shops readily make such shields for own use.

  18. Hinged Shields for Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lallande, J. B.; Poland, W. W.; Tull, S.

    1985-01-01

    Flaps guard against flying chips, but fold away for tool setup. Clear plastic shield in position to intercept flying chips from machine tool and retracted to give operator access to workpiece. Machine shops readily make such shields for own use.

  19. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Social work and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Furstenberg, A L; Olson, M M

    1984-01-01

    AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is a new contagious disease for which no cause or cure is known at present. The majority of people who have contracted AIDS is gay men. This paper examines individual and societal responses to this illness and to homosexuality that create issues for social work practice. These are unique to AIDS and at the same time exemplary of issues in all of health care. General principles of practice are applied to the specifics of dealing with AIDS and social work tasks with patients, families and significant others, health care staff, the community and policy makers are identified.

  1. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  2. AIDS and confidentiality.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, M B; Bell, S K

    1989-01-01

    AIDS has created many challenges for those who provide care for AIDS patients. One major challenge has been the request of many public officials for healthcare professionals to abandon the traditional view of confidentiality and to reveal AIDS patients' names. This ethical dilemma is explored and some ethical theories are presented as possible resolutions. The conclusion presented is that healthcare professionals must recognize that the power of the healthcare system over an AIDS patient is immense. Therefore, healthcare professionals must make a commitment to protect the patient's right to privacy by preventing any unauthorized disclosure at all costs.

  3. The NLM Indexing Initiative's Medical Text Indexer.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Alan R; Mork, James G; Gay, Clifford W; Humphrey, Susanne M; Rogers, Willie J

    2004-01-01

    The Medical Text Indexer (MTI) is a program for producing MeSH indexing recommendations. It is the major product of NLM's Indexing Initiative and has been used in both semi-automated and fully automated indexing environments at the Library since mid 2002. We report here on an experiment conducted with MEDLINE indexers to evaluate MTI's performance and to generate ideas for its improvement as a tool for user-assisted indexing. We also discuss some filtering techniques developed to improve MTI's accuracy for use primarily in automatically producing the indexing for several abstracts collections.

  4. A Model for Integrating a Job-Aiding, Training, and Performance Assessment System--A Preliminary Concept Paper. Final Technical Paper for Period June-August 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Charles R., Jr.; Lester, Mark

    This paper presents a model for an integrated system used for job-aiding, training, and performance assessment for persons who maintain systems of various types. The model is driven by updatable job aids, by integrated human-machine heuristics, and by an expanding matrix of maintenance activities. The model uses the job-aiding base, updated by…

  5. The Security of Machine Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-24

    Machine learning has become a fundamental tool for computer security, since it can rapidly evolve to changing and complex situations. That...adaptability is also a vulnerability: attackers can exploit machine learning systems. We present a taxonomy identifying and analyzing attacks against machine ...We use our framework to survey and analyze the literature of attacks against machine learning systems. We also illustrate our taxonomy by showing

  6. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  7. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  8. Flexible drive allows blind machining and welding in hard-to-reach areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, D. E.; Rohrberg, R. G.

    1966-01-01

    Flexible power and control unit performs welding and machining operations in confined areas. A machine/weld head is connected to the unit by a flexible transmission shaft, and a locking- indexing collar is incorporated onto the head to allow it to be placed and held in position.

  9. The Other Memex: The Tangled Career of Vannevar Bush's Information Machine, the Rapid Selector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Colin

    1992-01-01

    Presents an historical overview of Vannevar Bush's efforts to develop a machine for free-form indexing and computerized information retrieval. Descriptions of the Memex concept and two related machines--the Rapid Selector and the Comparator--are provided; and the shift in emphasis to a device for business or cryptanalytic purposes is discussed.…

  10. The Other Memex: The Tangled Career of Vannevar Bush's Information Machine, the Rapid Selector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Colin

    1992-01-01

    Presents an historical overview of Vannevar Bush's efforts to develop a machine for free-form indexing and computerized information retrieval. Descriptions of the Memex concept and two related machines--the Rapid Selector and the Comparator--are provided; and the shift in emphasis to a device for business or cryptanalytic purposes is discussed.…

  11. Machine Shop Fundamentals: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael G.; And Others

    These instructional materials were developed and designed for secondary and adult limited English proficient students enrolled in machine tool technology courses. Part 1 includes 24 lessons covering introduction, safety and shop rules, basic machine tools, basic machine operations, measurement, basic blueprint reading, layout, and bench tools.…

  12. Isomap based supporting vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, W. N.

    2015-12-01

    This research presents a new isomap based supporting vector machine method. Isomap is a dimension reduction method which is able to analyze nonlinear relationship of data on manifolds. Accordingly, support vector machine is established on the isomap manifold to classify given and predict unknown data. A case study of the isomap based supporting vector machine for environmental planning problems is conducted.

  13. The Chainstitch Machine. Module 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the chainstitch machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the chainstitch machine. These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and…

  14. Audio-Visual Teaching Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsett, Loyd G.

    An audiovisual teaching machine (AVTM) presents programed audio and visual material simultaneously to a student and accepts his response. If his response is correct, the machine proceeds with the lesson; if it is incorrect, the machine so indicates and permits another choice (linear) or automatically presents supplementary material (branching).…

  15. Interferometer systems in machine industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzepka, Janusz; Pienkowski, Janusz; Sambor, Slawomir; Budzyn, Grzegorz

    2003-10-01

    In the report the arrangements of laser interferometers for machine history are presented; the laser interferometer LSP30 for investigation of geometry of machine tools, the setup for inspection of ball screw and laser liner for CNC machine. Outstanding feature of the interferometers is the stabilization system of laser frequency using surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid cells (SSFLC).

  16. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense.

  17. Effect of Machining Velocity in Nanoscale Machining Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Sumaiya; Ibrahim, Raafat; Khondoker, Noman

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the generated forces and deformations of single crystal Cu with (100), (110) and (111) crystallographic orientations at nanoscale machining operation. A nanoindenter equipped with nanoscratching attachment was used for machining operations and in-situ observation of a nano scale groove. As a machining parameter, the machining velocity was varied to measure the normal and cutting forces. At a fixed machining velocity, different levels of normal and cutting forces were generated due to different crystallographic orientations of the specimens. Moreover, after machining operation percentage of elastic recovery was measured and it was found that both the elastic and plastic deformations were responsible for producing a nano scale groove within the range of machining velocities from 250-1000 nm/s.

  18. Stochastic subset selection for learning with kernel machines.

    PubMed

    Rhinelander, Jason; Liu, Xiaoping P

    2012-06-01

    Kernel machines have gained much popularity in applications of machine learning. Support vector machines (SVMs) are a subset of kernel machines and generalize well for classification, regression, and anomaly detection tasks. The training procedure for traditional SVMs involves solving a quadratic programming (QP) problem. The QP problem scales super linearly in computational effort with the number of training samples and is often used for the offline batch processing of data. Kernel machines operate by retaining a subset of observed data during training. The data vectors contained within this subset are referred to as support vectors (SVs). The work presented in this paper introduces a subset selection method for the use of kernel machines in online, changing environments. Our algorithm works by using a stochastic indexing technique when selecting a subset of SVs when computing the kernel expansion. The work described here is novel because it separates the selection of kernel basis functions from the training algorithm used. The subset selection algorithm presented here can be used in conjunction with any online training technique. It is important for online kernel machines to be computationally efficient due to the real-time requirements of online environments. Our algorithm is an important contribution because it scales linearly with the number of training samples and is compatible with current training techniques. Our algorithm outperforms standard techniques in terms of computational efficiency and provides increased recognition accuracy in our experiments. We provide results from experiments using both simulated and real-world data sets to verify our algorithm.

  19. A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

    1989-01-01

    In the present technological society, there is a major need to build machines that would execute intelligent tasks operating in uncertain environments with minimum interaction with a human operator. Although some designers have built smart robots, utilizing heuristic ideas, there is no systematic approach to design such machines in an engineering manner. Recently, cross-disciplinary research from the fields of computers, systems AI and information theory has served to set the foundations of the emerging area of the design of intelligent machines. Since 1977 Saridis has been developing an approach, defined as Hierarchical Intelligent Control, designed to organize, coordinate and execute anthropomorphic tasks by a machine with minimum interaction with a human operator. This approach utilizes analytical (probabilistic) models to describe and control the various functions of the intelligent machine structured by the intuitively defined principle of Increasing Precision with Decreasing Intelligence (IPDI) (Saridis 1979). This principle, even though resembles the managerial structure of organizational systems (Levis 1988), has been derived on an analytic basis by Saridis (1988). The purpose is to derive analytically a Boltzmann machine suitable for optimal connection of nodes in a neural net (Fahlman, Hinton, Sejnowski, 1985). Then this machine will serve to search for the optimal design of the organization level of an intelligent machine. In order to accomplish this, some mathematical theory of the intelligent machines will be first outlined. Then some definitions of the variables associated with the principle, like machine intelligence, machine knowledge, and precision will be made (Saridis, Valavanis 1988). Then a procedure to establish the Boltzmann machine on an analytic basis will be presented and illustrated by an example in designing the organization level of an Intelligent Machine. A new search technique, the Modified Genetic Algorithm, is presented and proved

  20. Teachers with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strope, John L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the application of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 as a legal theory available to an employee of a public school system who faces isolation, transfer, suspension, or termination because of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Addresses AIDS in the workplace and the law. (MLF)

  1. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…

  2. Trends in Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, Washington, DC. Washington Office.

    This report presents annual data on the amount of financial assistance available to postsecondary students in the form of grants, loans, and work-study. The data cover virtually all federal aid and most state and institutional assistance; not included in the study is financial aid in the form of indirect subsidies, students' wages, employer-paid…

  3. Innovative Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christner, Chris

    1988-01-01

    Describes the DACUM (Developing A CurriculUM) process and how it is used at Universal Technical Institute to determine what types of training aids to produce. Indicates that examining the employment needs of industry and educational needs of students enhances programs and promotes development of innovative aids. (JOW)

  4. Marketing Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Thomas, Jr.; Batty, Burt F.

    1978-01-01

    Student financial assistance services are becoming a major part of the institutional marketing plan as traditional college-age students decline in numbers and price competition among institutions increases. The effect of financial aid on enrollment and admissions processes is discussed along with the role of the financial aid officer. (Author/LBH)

  5. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  6. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A en español Folleto de instructiones: Caídas (Falls) With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids ...

  7. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... regimens have reduced the number of cases of wasting syndrome, but it still affects many people with AIDS. It's defined as a loss of at least 10 percent of body weight, often accompanied by diarrhea, chronic weakness and fever. Neurological complications. Although AIDS doesn' ...

  8. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  9. Aids for visual impairment.

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, N J

    1990-01-01

    This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue. Images FIG 1 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 FIG 7 FIG 8 FIG 9 FIG 10 PMID:2252929

  10. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

    THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

  11. AIDS: Children Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the many problems faced by children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who live in both developing and developed countries. Section 1 provides general information on the pandemic, defining AIDS and exploring the social aspects of the disease. It also addresses child health, child mortality, moral and…

  12. Teaching Children about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koop, C. Everett

    1987-01-01

    Calls for more education as the immediate preventative measure against acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Discusses the known ways that AIDS is transmitted and cautions that many innocent people may also contract the disease. Promotes the presentation of accurate and personally sensitive information to children. (TW)

  13. Participative AIDS Education Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    Since assuring quality health care delivery to patients suffering from Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and those who test positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a priority, development of effective staff training methods is imperative. This pilot study assessed the effect on staff attitudes of a participative AIDS/HIV staff…

  14. Inertially Aided Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-31

    0031 dis~bti:,1 is uitsnjt( Deczmllcr 31: 1989 92-05530 2:.-: 3o : T >VE?-A ~ : Inertially Aided Robotics FINAL REPORT for Contract No. DAAHO1 -88-D-0057...1 2 Advantages of Inertially Aided Robotics ...86 iii List of Figures Figure 1 - Robot Manipulator having Joint Sensor Based Control ..................... 2

  15. Hospital Nurse Aide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Coll. of Education.

    This report presents results of a project to revise the current 120-hour advanced nurse aide course to include all recommended minimum competencies. A three-page description of project objectives, activities, and outcomes is followed by a list of the competencies for the 75-hour nurse aide course for long-term care and for the 120-hour advanced…

  16. AIDS -- a modern hydra.

    PubMed

    Chen, D W

    1988-10-01

    So far, AIDS has not been a major problem in Taiwan. Only 79 people have tested HIV-seropositive, and only 6 have been stricken by the disease. The government has allocated money for AIDS research; blood screening is mandatory in all hospitals; confidential AIDS testing is widely available; and doctors are advised to administer azidothymidine to anyone who tests positive. Azidothymidine is not a cure, but it can prevent the virus from destroying more cells. Nevertheless, a climate of irrational fear of and ignorance about AIDS pervades Taiwan. Many people believe that AIDS can be transmitted by casual contact, and people who are HIV-seropositive are treated as social outcasts. One student at the University of Taipei, only a few credits from graduation, has been refused readmission to the university because he tested HIV-positive. Sex education in the schools is not a good route for AIDS education because sex and especially homosexuality are simply not mentioned in public in Taiwan. Activists, including gay-rights representative, Chi Chia-Wei, have turned to the mass media, especially television as a vehicle for AIDS education, and several programs on AIDS have been shown since 1986.

  17. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  18. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  19. AIDS as Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Liz

    1994-01-01

    Scholarly interest in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has spread throughout the humanities, attracting the attention of historians of medicine, political scientists, sociologists, public health scholars, and anthropologists. Most theorists hope their research will aid in policymaking or change understanding of the epidemic. (MSE)

  20. Detecting Student Aid Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Describes the varied kinds of student aid fraud found to be occurring within and outside colleges and universities, and examines implications for public policy on student aid programs. Discusses specific fraud cases and their outcomes, and makes suggestions for institutional action if student fraud is suspected. (MSE)

  1. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  2. The New Merit Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Merit aid, a discount to college costs contingent upon academic performance, is nothing new. Colleges and private organizations have long rewarded high-achieving, college-bound high school students with scholarships. While merit aid has a long history in the private sector, it has not played a major role in the public sector. At the state level,…

  3. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  4. THE CLASSROOM AIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FITZPATRICK, MILDRED

    TO RELIEVE THE NON-INSTRUCTIONAL BURDEN UPON THE CLASSROOM TEACHER, THE QUEMADO PUBLIC SCHOOLS EXPERIMENTED WITH A TEACHER AIDE PROGRAM, UTILIZING A SINGLE TEACHER AIDE IN ELEMENTARY LANGUAGE ARTS AND HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAMED MATHEMATICS THE FIRST YEAR OF THE PROJECT. AS A RESULT OF THE EXPERIMENT'S SUCCESS, THE FOLLOWING SCHOOL YEAR (1963-1964)…

  5. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  6. Wholly Synthetic Molecular Machines.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chuyang; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2016-06-17

    The past quarter of a century has witnessed an increasing engagement on the part of physicists and chemists in the design and synthesis of molecular machines de novo. This minireview traces the development of artificial molecular machines from their prototypes in the form of shuttles and switches to their emergence as motors and pumps where supplies of energy in the form of chemical fuel, electrochemical potential and light activation become a minimum requirement for them to function away from equilibrium. The challenge facing this rapidly growing community of scientists and engineers today is one of putting wholly synthetic molecules to work, both individually and as collections. Here, we highlight some of the recent conceptual and practical advances relating to the operation of wholly synthetic rotary and linear motors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Engineering molecular machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erman, Burak

    2016-04-01

    Biological molecular motors use chemical energy, mostly in the form of ATP hydrolysis, and convert it to mechanical energy. Correlated thermal fluctuations are essential for the function of a molecular machine and it is the hydrolysis of ATP that modifies the correlated fluctuations of the system. Correlations are consequences of the molecular architecture of the protein. The idea that synthetic molecular machines may be constructed by designing the proper molecular architecture is challenging. In their paper, Sarkar et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 043006) propose a synthetic molecular motor based on the coarse grained elastic network model of proteins and show by numerical simulations that motor function is realized, ranging from deterministic to thermal, depending on temperature. This work opens up a new range of possibilities of molecular architecture based engine design.

  8. AIDS in the pre-AIDS era.

    PubMed

    Huminer, D; Rosenfeld, J B; Pitlik, S D

    1987-01-01

    A search of the medical literature published since 1950 disclosed 19 cases of probable AIDS reported before the start of the current epidemic. These cases retrospectively met the Centers for Disease Control's surveillance definition of the syndrome and had a clinical course suggestive of AIDS. The reports originated from North America, Western Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The mean age of patients was 37 years, and the ratio of male to female patients was 1.7:1. Sixteen patients had opportunistic infections(s) without Kaposi's sarcoma. The remainder had disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma. The commonest opportunistic infection was Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Two patients were reported to be homosexual. Three others had been living in Africa, and one patient was born in Haiti. In two instances concurrent or subsequent opportunistic infection occurred in family members. All patients died 1 month to 6 years after the initial manifestation of disease. In view of the historical data, unrecognized cases of AIDS appear to have occurred sporadically in the pre-AIDS era.

  9. Classification of breast regions as mass and non-mass based on digital mammograms using taxonomic indexes and SVM.

    PubMed

    Soares Sérvulo de Oliveira, Fernando; Oseas de Carvalho Filho, Antonio; Corrêa Silva, Aristófanes; Cardoso de Paiva, Anselmo; Gattass, Marcelo

    2015-02-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the world. Several computer-aided detection and diagnosis systems have been used to assist health experts identify suspicious areas that are difficult to perceive with the human eye, thus aiding in the detection and diagnosis of cancer. This work proposes a methodology for the discrimination and classification of regions extracted from mammograms as mass and non-mass. The Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) was used in this work for the acquisition of mammograms. The taxonomic diversity index (Δ) and the taxonomic distinctness (Δ(⁎)), which were originally used in ecology, were used to describe the texture of the regions of interest. These indexes were computed based on phylogenetic trees, which were applied to describe the patterns in regions of breast images. Two approaches were used for the analysis of texture: internal and external masks. A support vector machine was used to classify the regions as mass and non-mass. The proposed methodology successfully classified the masses and non-masses, with an average accuracy of 98.88%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Safety features in anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, M; Mohan, S

    2013-09-01

    Anaesthesia is one of the few sub-specialties of medicine, which has quickly adapted technology to improve patient safety. This application of technology can be seen in patient monitoring, advances in anaesthesia machines, intubating devices, ultrasound for visualisation of nerves and vessels, etc., Anaesthesia machines have come a long way in the last 100 years, the improvements being driven both by patient safety as well as functionality and economy of use. Incorporation of safety features in anaesthesia machines and ensuring that a proper check of the machine is done before use on a patient ensures patient safety. This review will trace all the present safety features in the machine and their evolution.

  11. Machining fiber-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komanduri, Ranga

    1993-04-01

    Compared to high tool wear and high costs of tooling of fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs), noncontact material-removal processes offer attractive alternative. Noncontact machining methods can also minimize dust, noise, and extensive plastic deformation and consequent heat generation associated with conventional machining of FRCs, espacially those with an epoxy matrix. The paper describes the principles involved in and the details of machining of FRCs by laser machining, water jet-cutting and abrasive water jet-cutting, and electrical discharge machining of composites, as well as the limitations of each method.

  12. Computer-Aided Writing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    Adapter IBM ............. International Business Machines K ............... Kilo (thousand) LAN ............. Local Area Network M ............... Mega ...and Review Software ................. 18 Other ................................................ 19 Communications and Networking Systems...Defense Data Network DOS ............. Disk Operating System DTP ............. Desktop Publishing EGA ............. Enhanced Graphics

  13. Aids for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Several types of equipment are described and sources of materials given. Included are a teaching calculator, a training oscilloscope, a bench-top testing machine, an electrical machinery laboratory and a microcomputer. (RH)

  14. FMS precision machining

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    In evaluating the technical obstacles and accuracy limits to producing a Precision Flexible Manufacturing System, a current system is subjected to an error budget analysis. It is noted that to make complex part geometries with tolerances in the lower thousandths range, machining to tenths is required for process control. Actual parts made to tenths are illustrated, along with a discussion of the requirements for automation and for process control.

  15. Powerful Yet Tiny Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at JPL shows the Moessbauer spectrometer, an instrument on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit that detects iron-bearing minerals in martian rocks and soil. Located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' this machine uses two pieces of radioactive cobalt-57, each about the size of pencil erasers, to determine with a high degree of accuracy the composition and abundance of iron-bearing minerals too difficult to detect by other means.

  16. Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM)

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alexander J.

    2016-11-18

    There is a lack of state-of-the-art HPC simulation tools for simulating general quantum computing. Furthermore, there are no real software tools that integrate current quantum computers into existing classical HPC workflows. This product, the Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM), solves this problem by providing an extensible framework for pluggable virtual, or physical, quantum processing units (QPUs). It enables the execution of low level quantum assembly codes and returns the results of such executions.

  17. Swinging Atwood's Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufillaro, Nicholas B.; Abbott, Tyler A.; Griffiths, David J.

    1984-10-01

    We examine the motion of an Atwood's Machine in which one of the masses is allowed to swing in a plane. Computer studies reveal a rich variety of trajectories. The orbits are classified (bounded, periodic, singular, and terminating), and formulas for the critical mass ratios are developed. Perturbative techniques yield good approximations to the computer-generated trajectories. The model constitutes a simple example of a nonlinear dynamical system with two degrees of freedom.

  18. Making Atwood's machine ``work''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Gordon O.

    2001-03-01

    PASCO scientific's Smart Pulley™, a lightweight, low-friction pulley and a photogate, begs to be used as an Atwood's machine to determine the acceleration of gravity, g. Unfortunately ignoring the mass and friction of the pulley results in poor values of g. In this paper a procedure is outlined that includes the effects of the pulley's inertia and friction. As a result, the value of g may be determined to an accuracy of 0.1%.

  19. Impact of compression and hearing aid style on directional hearing aid benefit and performance.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, T; Lindley, G; Henry, P

    2001-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of low-threshold compression and hearing aid style (in-the-ear [ITE] versus behind-the-ear [BTE]) on the directional benefit and performance of commercially available directional hearing aids. Forty-seven adult listeners with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss were fit bilaterally with one BTE and four different ITE hearing aids. Speech recognition performance was measured through the Connected Speech Test (CST) and Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) for a simulated noisy restaurant environment. For both the HINT and CST, speech recognition performance was significantly greater for subjects fit with directional in comparison with omnidirectional microphone hearing aids. Performance was significantly poorer for the BTE instrument in comparison with the ITE hearing aids when using omnidirectional microphones. No differences were found for directional benefit between compression and linear fitting schemes. No systematic relationship was found between the relative directional benefit and hearing aid style; however, the speech recognition performance of the subjects was somewhat predictable based on Directivity Index measures of the individual hearing aid models. The fact that compression did not interact significantly with microphone type agrees well with previously reported electroacoustic data.

  20. Evolution of Replication Machines

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Nina Y.; O'Donnell, Mike E.

    2016-01-01

    The machines that decode and regulate genetic information require the translation, transcription and replication pathways essential to all living cells. Thus, it might be expected that all cells share the same basic machinery for these pathways that were inherited from the primordial ancestor cell from which they evolved. A clear example of this is found in the translation machinery that converts RNA sequence to protein. The translation process requires numerous structural and catalytic RNAs and proteins, the central factors of which are homologous in all three domains of life, bacteria, archaea and eukarya. Likewise, the central actor in transcription, RNA polymerase, shows homology among the catalytic subunits in bacteria, archaea and eukarya. In contrast, while some “gears” of the genome replication machinery are homologous in all domains of life, most components of the replication machine appear to be unrelated between bacteria and those of archaea and eukarya. This review will compare and contrast the central proteins of the “replisome” machines that duplicate DNA in bacteria, archaea and eukarya, with an eye to understanding the issues surrounding the evolution of the DNA replication apparatus. PMID:27160337

  1. Architectures for intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of intelligent machines has been recently reformulated to incorporate new architectures that are using neural and Petri nets. The analytic functions of an intelligent machine are implemented by intelligent controls, using entropy as a measure. The resulting hierarchical control structure is based on the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence. Each of the three levels of the intelligent control is using different architectures, in order to satisfy the requirements of the principle: the organization level is moduled after a Boltzmann machine for abstract reasoning, task planning and decision making; the coordination level is composed of a number of Petri net transducers supervised, for command exchange, by a dispatcher, which also serves as an interface to the organization level; the execution level, include the sensory, planning for navigation and control hardware which interacts one-to-one with the appropriate coordinators, while a VME bus provides a channel for database exchange among the several devices. This system is currently implemented on a robotic transporter, designed for space construction at the CIRSSE laboratories at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The progress of its development is reported.

  2. Universal Memcomputing Machines.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Fabio Lorenzo; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2015-11-01

    We introduce the notion of universal memcomputing machines (UMMs): a class of brain-inspired general-purpose computing machines based on systems with memory, whereby processing and storing of information occur on the same physical location. We analytically prove that the memory properties of UMMs endow them with universal computing power (they are Turing-complete), intrinsic parallelism, functional polymorphism, and information overhead, namely, their collective states can support exponential data compression directly in memory. We also demonstrate that a UMM has the same computational power as a nondeterministic Turing machine, namely, it can solve nondeterministic polynomial (NP)-complete problems in polynomial time. However, by virtue of its information overhead, a UMM needs only an amount of memory cells (memprocessors) that grows polynomially with the problem size. As an example, we provide the polynomial-time solution of the subset-sum problem and a simple hardware implementation of the same. Even though these results do not prove the statement NP = P within the Turing paradigm, the practical realization of these UMMs would represent a paradigm shift from the present von Neumann architectures, bringing us closer to brain-like neural computation.

  3. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome.

  4. Making molecular machines work.

    PubMed

    Browne, Wesley R; Feringa, Ben L

    2006-10-01

    In this review we chart recent advances in what is at once an old and very new field of endeavour--the achievement of control of motion at the molecular level including solid-state and surface-mounted rotors, and its natural progression to the development of synthetic molecular machines. Besides a discussion of design principles used to control linear and rotary motion in such molecular systems, this review will address the advances towards the construction of synthetic machines that can perform useful functions. Approaches taken by several research groups to construct wholly synthetic molecular machines and devices are compared. This will be illustrated with molecular rotors, elevators, valves, transporters, muscles and other motor functions used to develop smart materials. The demonstration of molecular machinery is highlighted through recent examples of systems capable of effecting macroscopic movement through concerted molecular motion. Several approaches to illustrate how molecular motor systems have been used to accomplish work are discussed. We will conclude with prospects for future developments in this exciting field of nanotechnology.

  5. CNC electrical discharge machining centers

    SciTech Connect

    Jaggars, S.R.

    1991-10-01

    Computer numerical control (CNC) electrical discharge machining (EDM) centers were investigated to evaluate the application and cost effectiveness of establishing this capability at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). In line with this investigation, metal samples were designed, prepared, and machined on an existing 15-year-old EDM machine and on two current technology CNC EDM machining centers at outside vendors. The results were recorded and evaluated. The study revealed that CNC EDM centers are a capability that should be established at KCD. From the information gained, a machine specification was written and a shop was purchased and installed in the Engineering Shop. The older machine was exchanged for a new model. Additional machines were installed in the Tool Design and Fabrication and Precision Microfinishing departments. The Engineering Shop machine will be principally used for the following purposes: producing deep cavities in small corner radii, machining simulated casting models, machining difficult-to-machine materials, and polishing difficult-to-hand polish mold cavities. 2 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Vending machines and the self-care concept.

    PubMed

    Steinfirst, J L; Cowell, S A; Presley, B A; Reifler, C B

    1985-08-01

    For the past 3 years (1980-83), students at the University of Rochester in Rochester, New York, have had 24-hour access to a vending machine which dispenses over the counter medicines and contraceptives. The machine is located in a small health facility near the undergraduate residence halls. The health facility is staffed by a registered nurse who provides treatment for minor illnesses, health education information, and referrals to the university's medical center. The facility stresses self-care, and a bulletin board located near the vending machine provides numerous health education brochures. The vending machine program represents a continuation of the emphasis on self-care. Instead of fostering dependency on the nursing staff the vending machine helps the students become self-reliant in reference to assessing their own health needs. Items dispensed by the machine include condoms, condoms and foam, aspirin, Sudafed, Robitussin, Acetaminiphen, Chlortrimeton, Cepacol, bandages, and thermometers. The items are sold to the students at cost. Condoms are the most popular item, and in 1982-83, 404 condom packages, priced at US$.50, were sold. Students who know what kind of medicine or health aid they want no longer are required to obtain these items by visiting the nursing staff. The image of the nurses at the facility is no longer that of a dispenser of over the counter drugs but that of someone who provides counseling, health education, and referrals. A survey conducted in 1983 revealed that the majority of the student body knew about the vending machine. This awareness reached 100% among senior class males. The purpose of the vending machine project is to make nonprescription medicines readily available to students, to make contraceptives available on a 24-hour basis, and to emphasize that the primary role of the facility's nursing staff is to provide education, counseling, and referral services.

  7. Hearing AIDS and music.

    PubMed

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues-both compression ratio and knee-points-and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a "music program,'' unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions.

  8. Solidarity and AIDS: introduction.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N

    1991-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other disease in recent history, AIDS has taught a cruel and crucial lesson: the constraints on our response to this epidemic are as deep as our denial, as entrenched as the inequities that permeate our society, as circumscribed as our knowledge, and as unlimited as our compassion and our commitment to human rights. Elaborating on these themes, the final three articles in this Special Section on AIDS consider three widely divergent yet intimately connected topics: AIDS in Cuba, AIDS in Brazil, and global AIDS prevention in the 1990s. Together, they caution that if we persist in treating AIDS as a problem only of "others," no country will be spared the social and economic devastation that promises to be the cost of our contempt and our folly. Solidarity is not an option; it is a necessity. Without conscious recognition of the worldwide relationship between health, human rights, and social inequalities, our attempts to abate the spread of AIDS--and to ease the suffering that follows in its wake--most surely will fall short of our goals. Finally, as we mourn our dead, we must take to heart the words of Mother Jones, and "fight like hell for living." This is the politics of survival.

  9. HIV / AIDS and tourism.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, S

    1999-01-01

    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways.

  10. AIDS radio triggers.

    PubMed

    Elias, A M

    1991-07-01

    In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.

  11. Hearing Aids and Music

    PubMed Central

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  12. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIAID). /* // ** // */ Prevention Research Vaccines Microbicides Related Topics on AIDS.gov Clinical Trials Immune System 101 HIV Vaccine ... Be the Generation Last revised: 12/09/2016 AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  13. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  14. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  15. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  16. Women and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS email updates Enter email Submit HIV and AIDS The human immunodeficiency (IH-myoo-noh-di-FISH- ... health Pregnancy and HIV View more HIV and AIDS resources Related information Birth control methods Sexually transmitted ...

  17. Aids to School Bus Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  18. Aids to School Bus Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  19. A Comparison of Five Physical Education Indexing/Abstracting Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingenfelter, Judith; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents an evaluative analysis of five indexing/abstracting services covering sports and physical education. Data on the scope, arrangement, indexing language, journal coverage, subject access, special features, and use aids in each of the services are presented in four tables. (JL)

  20. Political dimensions of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Blewett, N

    1988-01-01

    World political aspects and the example of Australia as a national political response to AIDS are presented. Global policy on AIDS is influenced by the fact that the AIDS epidemic is the 1st to be largely predictable, that long lag times occur between intervention and measurable events, and by the prompt, professional leadership of WHO, lead by Dr. J. Mann. WHO began a Global Programme on AIDS in 1987, modelled on the responses of Canada and Australia. A world summit of Ministers of Health was convened in January 1988. These moves generated a response qualified by openness, cooperation, hope and common sense. The AIDS epidemic calls for unprecedented involvement of politicians: they must coordinate medical knowledge with community action, deal with public fear, exert strong, rational leadership and avoid quick, appealing counterproductive responses. 3 clear directions must be taken to deal with the epidemic: 1) strong research and education campaigns; 2) close contact with political colleagues, interest groups and the community; 3) a national strategy which enjoins diverse interest groups, with courage, rationality and compassion. In Australia, the AIDS response began with the unwitting infection of 3 infants by blood transfusion. A public information campaign emphasizing a penetrating TV ad campaign was instituted in 1987. Policy discussions were held in all parliamentary bodies. The AIDS epidemic demands rapid, creative responses, a break from traditions in health bureaucracy, continual scrutiny of funding procedures and administrative arrangements. In practical terms in Australia, this meant establishing a special AIDS branch within the Health Advancement Division of the Community Health Department. AIDS issues must remain depoliticized to defuse adversary politics and keep leaders in a united front.