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Sample records for machine cooperative telerobotics

  1. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  2. Cooperative Telerobotic Retrieval system Phase 1 technology evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Croft, K.M.

    1995-03-01

    This document describes the results from the Cooperative Telerobotic Retrieval demonstration and testing conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during December 1994 and January 1995. The purpose of the demonstration was to ascertain the feasibility of the system for deploying tools both independently and cooperatively for supporting remote characterization and removal of buried waste in a safe manner and in compliance with all regulatory requirements. The procedures and goals of the demonstration were previously defined in the Cooperative Telerobotic Retrieval System Test Plan for Fiscal Year 1994, which served as a guideline for evaluating the system.

  3. Machine vision for space telerobotics and planetary rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision allows a non-contact means of determining the three-dimensional shape of objects in the environment, enabling the control of contact forces when manipulation by a telerobot or traversal by a vehicle is desired. Telerobotic manipulation in Earth orbit requires a system that can recognize known objects in spite of harsh lighting conditions and highly specular or absorptive surfaces. Planetary surface traversal requires a system that can recognize the surface shape and properties of an unknown and arbitrary terrain. Research on these two rather disparate types of vision systems is described.

  4. Hierarchical control of intelligent machines applied to space station telerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, J. S.; Lumia, R.; Mccain, H.

    1987-01-01

    A hierarchical architecture is described which supports space station telerobots in a variety of modes. The system is divided into three hierarchies: task decomposition, world model, and sensory processing. Goals at each level of the task decomposition hierarchy are divided both spatially and temporally into simpler commands for the next lower level. This decomposition is repeated until, at the lowest level, the drive signals to the robot actuators are generated. To accomplish its goals, task decomposition modules must often use information stored in the world model. The purpose of the sensory system is to update the world model as rapidly as possible to keep the model in registration with the physical world. The architecture of the entire control system hierarchy and how it can be applied to space telerobot applications are discussed.

  5. Man-machine interface issues in space telerobotics: A JPL research and development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1987-01-01

    Technology issues related to the use of robots as man-extension or telerobot systems in space are discussed and exemplified. General considerations are presentd on control and information problems in space teleoperation and on the characteristics of Earth orbital teleoperation. The JPL R and D work in the area of man-machine interface devices and techniques for sensing and computer-based control is briefly summarized. The thrust of this R and D effort is to render space teleoperation efficient and safe through the use of devices and techniques which will permit integrated and task-level (intelligent) two-way control communication between human operator and telerobot machine in Earth orbit. Specific control and information display devices and techniques are discussed and exemplified with development results obtained at JPL in recent years.

  6. Operator-coached machine vision for space telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bon, Bruce; Wilcox, Brian; Litwin, Todd; Gennery, Donald B.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype system for interactive object modeling has been developed and tested. The goal of this effort has been to create a system which would demonstrate the feasibility of high interactive operator-coached machine vision in a realistic task environment, and to provide a testbed for experimentation with various modes of operator interaction. The purpose for such a system is to use human perception where machine vision is difficult, i.e., to segment the scene into objects and to designate their features, and to use machine vision to overcome limitations of human perception, i.e., for accurate measurement of object geometry. The system captures and displays video images from a number of cameras, allows the operator to designate a polyhedral object one edge at a time by moving a 3-D cursor within these images, performs a least-squares fit of the designated edges to edge data detected with a modified Sobel operator, and combines the edges thus detected to form a wire-frame object model that matches the Sobel data.

  7. Prototyping a Hybrid Cooperative and Tele-robotic Surgical System for Retinal Microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Balicki, Marcin; Xia, Tian; Jung, Min Yang; Deguet, Anton; Vagvolgyi, Balazs; Kazanzides, Peter; Taylor, Russell

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the design of a tele-robotic microsurgical platform designed for development of cooperative and tele-operative control schemes, sensor based smart instruments, user interfaces and new surgical techniques with eye surgery as the driving application. The system is built using the distributed component-based cisst libraries and the Surgical Assistant Workstation framework. It includes a cooperatively controlled EyeRobot2, a da Vinci Master manipulator, and a remote stereo visualization system. We use constrained optimization based virtual fixture control to provide Virtual Remote-Center-of-Motion (vRCM) and haptic feedback. Such system can be used in a hybrid setup, combining local cooperative control with remote tele-operation, where an experienced surgeon can provide hand-over-hand tutoring to a novice user. In another scheme, the system can provide haptic feedback based on virtual fixtures constructed from real-time force and proximity sensor information.

  8. Prototyping a Hybrid Cooperative and Tele-robotic Surgical System for Retinal Microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    Balicki, Marcin; Xia, Tian; Jung, Min Yang; Deguet, Anton; Vagvolgyi, Balazs; Kazanzides, Peter; Taylor, Russell

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a tele-robotic microsurgical platform designed for development of cooperative and tele-operative control schemes, sensor based smart instruments, user interfaces and new surgical techniques with eye surgery as the driving application. The system is built using the distributed component-based cisst libraries and the Surgical Assistant Workstation framework. It includes a cooperatively controlled EyeRobot2, a da Vinci Master manipulator, and a remote stereo visualization system. We use constrained optimization based virtual fixture control to provide Virtual Remote-Center-of-Motion (vRCM) and haptic feedback. Such system can be used in a hybrid setup, combining local cooperative control with remote tele-operation, where an experienced surgeon can provide hand-over-hand tutoring to a novice user. In another scheme, the system can provide haptic feedback based on virtual fixtures constructed from real-time force and proximity sensor information. PMID:24398557

  9. State of the art in nuclear telerobotics: Focus on the man/machine connection

    SciTech Connect

    Greaves, E.R.

    1994-12-31

    The interface between the human controller and remote operated device is a crux of telerobotic investigation today. This human-to-machine connection is the means by which we communicate our commands to the device, as well as the medium for decision-critical feedback to the operator. The amount of information transferred through the user interface is growing. This can be seen as a direct result of our need to support added complexities, as well as a rapidly expanding domain of applications. A user interface (UI) is therefore subject to increasing demands to present information in a meaningful manner to the user. Virtual reality and multi-degree-of-freedom input devices lend us the ability to augment the man/machine interface and handle burgeoning amounts of data in a more intuitive and anthropomorphically correct manner. Along with the aid of three-dimensional input and output devices, there are several visual tools that can be employed as part of a graphical UI that enhance and accelerate our comprehension of the data being presented. Thus, an advanced UI that features these improvements would reduce the amount of fatigue on the teleoperator, increase his level of safety, facilitate learning, augment his control, and potentially reduce task time. This paper investigates the cutting edge concepts and enhancements that will lead to the next generation of telerobotic interface systems.

  10. Safety plan for the cooperative telerobotic retrieval system equipment development area

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, T.J.; Jessmore, J.J.

    1995-07-01

    This plan establishes guidelines to minimize safety risks for the cooperative telerobotic retrieval project at the North Boulevard Annex (NBA). This plan has the dual purpose of minimizing safety risks to workers and visitors and of securing sensitive equipment from inadvertent damage by nonqualified personnel. This goal will be accomplished through physical control of work zones and through assigned responsibilities for project personnel. The scope of this plan is limited to establishing the working zone boundaries and entry requirements, and assigning responsibilities for project personnel. This plan does not supersede current safety organization responsibilities for the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area Transuranic (LSFA TRU) Arid outlined in the Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality Plan for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program; Tenant Manual; Idaho Falls Building Emergency Control Plan;; applicable Company Procedures; the attached Interface Agreement (Appendix A).

  11. Trajectory generation of space telerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumia, R.; Wavering, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose is to review a variety of trajectory generation techniques which may be applied to space telerobots and to identify problems which need to be addressed in future telerobot motion control systems. As a starting point for the development of motion generation systems for space telerobots, the operation and limitations of traditional path-oriented trajectory generation approaches are discussed. This discussion leads to a description of more advanced techniques which have been demonstrated in research laboratories, and their potential applicability to space telerobots. Examples of this work include systems that incorporate sensory-interactive motion capability and optimal motion planning. Additional considerations which need to be addressed for motion control of a space telerobot are described, such as redundancy resolution and the description and generation of constrained and multi-armed cooperative motions. A task decomposition module for a hierarchical telerobot control system which will serve as a testbed for trajectory generation approaches which address these issues is also discussed briefly.

  12. Man-machine cooperation in advanced teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorini, Paolo; Das, Hari; Lee, Sukhan

    1993-01-01

    Teleoperation experiments at JPL have shown that advanced features in a telerobotic system are a necessary condition for good results, but that they are not sufficient to assure consistently good performance by the operators. Two or three operators are normally used during training and experiments to maintain the desired performance. An alternative to this multi-operator control station is a man-machine interface embedding computer programs that can perform some of the operator's functions. In this paper we present our first experiments with these concepts, in which we focused on the areas of real-time task monitoring and interactive path planning. In the first case, when performing a known task, the operator has an automatic aid for setting control parameters and camera views. In the second case, an interactive path planner will rank different path alternatives so that the operator will make the correct control decision. The monitoring function has been implemented with a neural network doing the real-time task segmentation. The interactive path planner was implemented for redundant manipulators to specify arm configurations across the desired path and satisfy geometric, task, and performance constraints.

  13. Plan recognition for space telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Bradley A.; Litman, Diane J.

    1989-01-01

    Current research on space telerobots has largely focused on two problem areas: executing remotely controlled actions (the tele part of telerobotics) or planning to execute them (the robot part). This work has largely ignored one of the key aspects of telerobots: the interaction between the machine and its operator. For this interaction to be felicitous, the machine must successfully understand what the operator is trying to accomplish with particular remote-controlled actions. Only with the understanding of the operator's purpose for performing these actions can the robot intelligently assist the operator, perhaps by warning of possible errors or taking over part of the task. There is a need for such an understanding in the telerobotics domain and an intelligent interface being developed in the chemical process design domain addresses the same issues.

  14. From human-machine interaction to human-machine cooperation.

    PubMed

    Hoc, J M

    2000-07-01

    Since the 1960s, the rapid growth of information systems has led to the wide development of research on human-computer interaction (HCI) that aims at the designing of human-computer interfaces presenting ergonomic properties, such as friendliness, usability, transparency, etc. Various work situations have been covered--clerical work, computer programming, design, etc. However, they were mainly static in the sense that the user fully controls the computer. More recently, public and private organizations have engaged themselves in the enterprise of managing more and more complex and coupled systems by the means of automation. Modern machines not only process information, but also act on dynamic situations as humans have done in the past, managing stock exchange, industrial plants, aircraft, etc. These dynamic situations are not fully controlled and are affected by uncertain factors. Hence, degrees of freedom must be maintained to allow the humans and the machine to adapt to unforeseen contingencies. A human-machine cooperation (HMC) approach is necessary to address the new stakes introduced by this trend. This paper describes the possible improvement of HCI by HMC, the need for a new conception of function allocation between humans and machines, and the main problems encountered within the new forms of human-machine relationship. It proposes a conceptual framework to study HMC from a cognitive point of view in highly dynamic situations like aircraft piloting or air-traffic control, and concludes on the design of 'cooperative' machines.

  15. Telerobotic assembly of space station truss structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Grahme

    1986-01-01

    Discussed are methods of assembling the space station's structure utilizing only telerobotic devices, i.e.: (1) an approximately anthropomorphic telerobot with two dextrous arms; (2) the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRNS); (3) various material handling machines. Timelines and task recommendations for autonomous operations are also included. Also described are some experimental results comparing two manipulator control devices.

  16. Cooperative EVA/Telerobotic Surface Operations in Support of Exploration Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, David L.

    2001-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Planetary Surface Robotics; 2) EVA Difficulties from Apollo; 3) Robotic Capabilities for EVA Support; 4) Astronaut Support Vehicle; 5) Three ASV Preliminary Designs; 6) Small Single-arm Assistant; 7) Dual-arm Assistant; 8) Large EVA Assistant; 9) Lessons Learned-Preliminary Designs; 10) Rover Design Assumptions; 11) Design Requirements-Terrain; 12) Design Requirements; 13) Science Payload; 14) Manipulator Arm; 15) EVA Multiple Robot Cooperation; 16) SSL Rover Body Concept; 17) Advanced EVA Support Rover Concept; 18) Robotic Access to Restricted Sites; 19) Robotic Rescue of EVA crew; and 19) Why Do We Need Humans? This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  17. Scaling up: Distributed machine learning with cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Provost, F.J.; Hennessy, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    Machine-learning methods are becoming increasingly popular for automated data analysis. However, standard methods do not scale up to massive scientific and business data sets without expensive hardware. This paper investigates a practical alternative for scaling up: the use of distributed processing to take advantage of the often dormant PCs and workstations available on local networks. Each workstation runs a common rule-learning program on a subset of the data. We first show that for commonly used rule-evaluation criteria, a simple form of cooperation can guarantee that a rule will look good to the set of cooperating learners if and only if it would look good to a single learner operating with the entire data set. We then show how such a system can further capitalize on different perspectives by sharing learned knowledge for significant reduction in search effort. We demonstrate the power of the method by learning from a massive data set taken from the domain of cellular fraud detection. Finally, we provide an overview of other methods for scaling up machine learning.

  18. Flight telerobotic servicer legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shattuck, Paul L.; Lowrie, James W.

    1992-11-01

    The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) was developed to enhance and provide a safe alternative to human presence in space. The first step for this system was a precursor development test flight (DTF-1) on the Space Shuttle. DTF-1 was to be a pathfinder for manned flight safety of robotic systems. The broad objectives of this mission were three-fold: flight validation of telerobotic manipulator (design, control algorithms, man/machine interfaces, safety); demonstration of dexterous manipulator capabilities on specific building block tasks; and correlation of manipulator performance in space with ground predictions. The DTF-1 system is comprised of a payload bay element (7-DOF manipulator with controllers, end-of-arm gripper and camera, telerobot body with head cameras and electronics module, task panel, and MPESS truss) and an aft flight deck element (force-reflecting hand controller, crew restraint, command and display panel and monitors). The approach used to develop the DTF-1 hardware, software and operations involved flight qualification of components from commercial, military, space, and R controller, end-of-arm tooling, force/torque transducer) and the development of the telerobotic system for space applications. The system is capable of teleoperation and autonomous control (advances state of the art); reliable (two-fault tolerance); and safe (man-rated). Benefits from the development flight included space validation of critical telerobotic technologies and resolution of significant safety issues relating to telerobotic operations in the Shuttle bay or in the vicinity of other space assets. This paper discusses the lessons learned and technology evolution that stemmed from developing and integrating a dexterous robot into a manned system, the Space Shuttle. Particular emphasis is placed on the safety and reliability requirements for a man-rated system as these are the critical factors which drive the overall system architecture. Other topics focused on include

  19. Participatory telerobotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.

  20. Telepresence and telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garin, John; Matteo, Joseph; Jennings, Von Ayre

    1988-01-01

    The capability for a single operator to simultaneously control complex remote multi degree of freedom robotic arms and associated dextrous end effectors is being developed. An optimal solution within the realm of current technology, can be achieved by recognizing that: (1) machines/computer systems are more effective than humans when the task is routine and specified, and (2) humans process complex data sets and deal with the unpredictable better than machines. These observations lead naturally to a philosophy in which the human's role becomes a higher level function associated with planning, teaching, initiating, monitoring, and intervening when the machine gets into trouble, while the machine performs the codifiable tasks with deliberate efficiency. This concept forms the basis for the integration of man and telerobotics, i.e., robotics with the operator in the control loop. The concept of integration of the human in the loop and maximizing the feed-forward and feed-back data flow is referred to as telepresence.

  1. Telerobotics for depot modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Petroski, S. B.

    1994-01-01

    Development and application of telerobotics technology for the enhancement of the quality of the Air Logistic Centers (ALC) repair and remanufacturing processes is described. Telerobotics provides the means for bridging the gap between manual operation and full automation. The Robotics and Automation Center for Excellence (RACE) initiated the Unified Telerobotics Architecture Project (UTAP) to support the development and application of telerobotics for depot operation.

  2. Proceedings of the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Editor); Seraji, Homayoun (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The theme of the Conference was man-machine collaboration in space. Topics addressed include: redundant manipulators; man-machine systems; telerobot architecture; remote sensing and planning; navigation; neural networks; fundamental AI research; and reasoning under uncertainty.

  3. The JPL telerobot operator control station: Operational experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, Edwin P.

    1990-01-01

    The Operator Control Station of the JPL/NASA Telerobot Demonstration System provides an efficient man-machine interface for the performance of telerobot tasks. Its hardware and software have been designed with high flexibility. It provides a feedback-rich interactive environment in which the Operator performs teleoperation tasks, robotic tasks, and telerobotic tasks with ease. The to-date operational experiences of this system, particularly related to the Object Designate Process and the Voice Input/Output Process are discussed.

  4. Flight telerobotic servicer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Space Station Flight Telerobotic Servicer (SSFTS) are presented. Topics covered include: SSFTS design; SSFTS elements; FTS mission requirements; FTS general requirements; flight telerobotic servicer - telerobot; FTS manipulator; force-torque transducer; end effector changeout mechanism; flight telerobotic servicer - end-of-arm tooling; user interfaces; FTS data management and processing; control subsystem; FTS vision subsystem and camera positioning assembly; FTS workstation display assembly panel; mini-master hand controller; and FTS NASREM system architecture.

  5. Flight telerobotic servicer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Space Station Flight Telerobotic Servicer (SSFTS) are presented. Topics covered include: SSFTS design; SSFTS elements; FTS mission requirements; FTS general requirements; flight telerobotic servicer - telerobot; FTS manipulator; force-torque transducer; end effector changeout mechanism; flight telerobotic servicer - end-of-arm tooling; user interfaces; FTS data management and processing; control subsystem; FTS vision subsystem and camera positioning assembly; FTS workstation display assembly panel; mini-master hand controller; and FTS NASREM system architecture.

  6. Proceedings of the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics, volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Editor); Seraji, Homayoun (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Papers presented at the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics are compiled. The theme of the conference was man-machine collaboration in space. The conference provided a forum for researchers and engineers to exchange ideas on the research and development required for the application of telerobotics technology to the space systems planned for the 1990's and beyond. Volume 5 contains papers related to the following subject areas: robot arm modeling and control, special topics in telerobotics, telerobotic space operations, manipulator control, flight experiment concepts, manipulator coordination, issues in artificial intelligence systems, and research activities at the Johnson Space Center.

  7. NASA's Telerobotics R & D Program - Status and future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, Donna Shirley; Varsi, Giulio

    1987-01-01

    NASA's telerobotics technology program is described as well as the process for the transfer of this technology to the Space Station, and some of the implications of the technology for station design and operations, including those for international cooperation. A diagram is presented of the NASREM control heirarchy with the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology telerobot testbed architecture superimposed. In telerobotics, the following areas were identified as possible subjects for developing data to support international standards: (1) task boards, (2) system performance measures on task boards, (3) human performance measures on task boards with teleoperation, and (4) autonomous-telerobotic-teleoperated performance comparisons.

  8. Cooperative human-machine fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Palmer, Everett

    1987-01-01

    Current expert system technology does not permit complete automatic fault diagnosis; significant levels of human intervention are still required. This requirement dictates a need for a division of labor that recognizes the strengths and weaknesses of both human and machine diagnostic skills. Relevant findings from the literature on human cognition are combined with the results of reviews of aircrew performance with highly automated systems to suggest how the interface of a fault diagnostic expert system can be designed to assist human operators in verifying machine diagnoses and guiding interactive fault diagnosis. It is argued that the needs of the human operator should play an important role in the design of the knowledge base.

  9. Cooperative human-machine fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Palmer, Everett

    1987-01-01

    Current expert system technology does not permit complete automatic fault diagnosis; significant levels of human intervention are still required. This requirement dictates a need for a division of labor that recognizes the strengths and weaknesses of both human and machine diagnostic skills. Relevant findings from the literature on human cognition are combined with the results of reviews of aircrew performance with highly automated systems to suggest how the interface of a fault diagnostic expert system can be designed to assist human operators in verifying machine diagnoses and guiding interactive fault diagnosis. It is argued that the needs of the human operator should play an important role in the design of the knowledge base.

  10. Cooperative Human-Machine Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remington, Roger; Palmer, Everett

    1987-02-01

    Current expert system technology does not permit complete automatic fault diagnosis; significant levels of human intervention are still required. This requirement dictates a need for a division of labor that recognizes the strengths and weaknesses of both human and machine diagnostic skills. Relevant findings from the literature on human cognition are combined with the results of reviews of aircrew performance with highly automated systems to suggest how the interface of a fault diagnostic expert system can be designed to assist human operators in verifying machine diagnoses and guiding interactive fault diagnosis. It is argued that the needs of the human operator should play an important role in the design of the knowledge base.

  11. Designing dynamic distributed cooperative Human-Machine Systems.

    PubMed

    Lüdtke, A; Javaux, D; Tango, F; Heers, R; Bengler, K; Ronfle-Nadaud, C

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a new approach to the development of cooperative human-machine systems in the Transportation domain which is currently researched in the European project D3CoS. A necessary precondition for the acceptance of cooperative human-machine systems with shared control is the confidence and trust of the user into the system. D3CoS tackles this important issue by addressing the cooperative system as the object and the target of the system development process. This new perspective, along with corresponding innovative methods, techniques and tools, shall allow the identification of optimal task and authority sharing approaches supported by intuitive human-machine interaction and user interfaces at an early stage of system development. This will support powerful teamwork between humans and machines or between machines and machines that is transparent, intuitive and easy to understand. The paper describes the research dimensions for the development of the methods, techniques and tools as well as first results.

  12. A vision-based telerobotic control station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tillotson, Brian

    1990-01-01

    A telerobotic control station is described. In it, a machine vision system measures the position, orientation, and configuration of a user's hand. A robotic manipulator mirrors the status of the hand. This concept has two benefits: control actions are intuitive and easily learned, and the workstation requires little volume or mass.

  13. Telerobotic workstation design aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, K.; Hudlicka, E.; Young, D.; Cramer, N.

    1989-01-01

    Telerobot systems are being developed to support a number of space mission applications. In low earth orbit, telerobots and teleoperated manipulators will be used in shuttle operations and space station construction/maintenance. Free flying telerobotic service vehicles will be used at low and geosynchronous orbital operations. Rovers and autonomous vehicles will be equipped with telerobotic devices in planetary exploration. In all of these systems, human operators will interact with the robot system at varied levels during the scheduled operations. The human operators may be in either orbital or ground-based control systems. To assure integrated system development and maximum utility across these systems, designers must be sensitive to the constraints and capabilities that the human brings to system operation and must be assisted in applying these human factors to system development. The simulation and analysis system is intended to serve the needs of system analysis/designers as an integrated workstation in support of telerobotic design.

  14. NASA research and development for space telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, Paul S.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this research is to explore and prove out robust concepts for telerobotic support of space servicing, assembly, maintenance, and telescience tasks. This goal is being addressed through a program of coordinated work in artificial intelligence, robotics, and human factors. The general research objective is the fusion of robot sensing and manipulation, teleoperation, and human and machine cognitive skills into an effective architecture for supervised task automation. NASA is evaluating results of this research program in a ground laboratory telerobot testbed under development at JPL. The testbed development activity includes integrated technology demonstrations. The demonstrations will show telerobot capabilities to perform tasks of increasing complexity, and duration in increasingly unstructured environments. The first such demonstration is the ground-based grappling, dockling, and servicing of a satellite taskboard.

  15. Proceedings of the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Editor); Seraji, Homayoun (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The theme of the Conference was man-machine collaboration in space. The Conference provided a forum for researchers and engineers to exchange ideas on the research and development required for application of telerobotics technology to the space systems planned for the 1990s and beyond. The Conference: (1) provided a view of current NASA telerobotic research and development; (2) stimulated technical exchange on man-machine systems, manipulator control, machine sensing, machine intelligence, concurrent computation, and system architectures; and (3) identified important unsolved problems of current interest which can be dealt with by future research.

  16. Cooperation and emergence: the missing elements of the Darwin machine.

    PubMed

    Grotuss, Jason

    2014-08-01

    The authors present a compelling argument for a science of intentional change by unifying evolutionary psychology (EP) with the standard social science model; however, since its inception, traditional EP models have not held up well to empirical scrutiny. The authors address the importance of cooperation in individuals and social systems, but the Darwin machine they propose does not adequately stress fundamental aspects of evolutionary processes.

  17. Test Bed For Telerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matijevic, Jacob R.; Zimmerman, Wayne F.; Dolinsky, Shlomo

    1990-01-01

    Assembly of electromechanical and electronic equipment (including computers) constitutes test bed for development of advanced robotic systems for remote manipulation. Combines features not found in commercial systems. Its architecture allows easy growth in complexity and level of automation. System national resource for validation of new telerobotic technology. Intended primarily for robots used in outer space, test bed adapted to development of advanced terrestrial telerobotic systems for handling radioactive materials, dangerous chemicals, and explosives.

  18. Proceedings of the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Editor); Seraji, Homayoun (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics held in Pasadena, January 31 to February 2, 1989. The theme of the Conference was man-machine collaboration in space. The Conference provided a forum for researchers and engineers to exchange ideas on the research and development required for application of telerobotics technology to the space systems planned for the 1990s and beyond. The Conference: (1) provided a view of current NASA telerobotic research and development; (2) stimulated technical exchange on man-machine systems, manipulator control, machine sensing, machine intelligence, concurrent computation, and system architectures; and (3) identified important unsolved problems of current interest which can be dealt with by future research.

  19. Proceedings of the Workshop on Space Telerobotics, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings report the results of a workshop on space telerobotics, which was held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, January 20-22, 1987. Sponsored by the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST), the Workshop reflected NASA's interest in developing new telerobotics technology for automating the space systems planned for the 1990s and beyond. The workshop provided a window into NASA telerobotics research, allowing leading researchers in telerobotics to exchange ideas on manipulation, control, system architectures, artificial intelligence, and machine sensing. One of the objectives was to identify important unsolved problems of current interest. The workshop consisted of surveys, tutorials, and contributed papers of both theoretical and practical interest. Several sessions were held on the themes of sensing and perception, control execution, operator interface, planning and reasoning, and system architecture.

  20. Diverse applications of advanced man-telerobot interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaffee, Douglas A.

    1991-01-01

    Advancements in man-machine interfaces and control technologies used in space telerobotics and teleoperators have potential application wherever human operators need to manipulate multi-dimensional spatial relationships. Bilateral six degree-of-freedom position and force cues exchanged between the user and a complex system can broaden and improve the effectiveness of several diverse man-machine interfaces.

  1. Telerobotics test bed for space structure assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitami, M.; Ogimoto, K.; Yasumoto, F.; Katsuragawa, T.; Itoko, T.; Kurosaki, Y.; Hirai, S.; Machida, K.

    1994-01-01

    A cooperative research on super long distance space telerobotics is now in progress both in Japan and USA. In this program. several key features will be tested, which can be applicable to the control of space robots as well as to terrestrial robots. Local (control) and remote (work) sites will be shared between Electrotechnical Lab (ETL) of MITI in Japan and Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) in USA. The details of a test bed for this international program are discussed in this report.

  2. Monovision techniques for telerobots

    SciTech Connect

    Goode, P.W.; Cornils, K.

    1987-01-01

    The primary task of the vision sensor in a telerobotic system is to provide information about the position of the system's effector relative to objects of interest in its environment. The subtasks required to perform the primary task include image segmentation, object recognition, and object location and orientation in some coordinate system. The accomplishment of the vision task requires the appropriate processing tools and the system methodology to effectively apply the tools to the subtasks. This paper describes the functional structure of the telerobotic vision system used in the Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Intelligent Systems Research Laboratory (ISRL) and discusses two monovision techniques for accomplishing the vision subtasks. 11 references.

  3. Compact Telerobot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosheim, Mark; Trechsel, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Anthropomorphic telerobotic hand contains actuators, joints, sensors, and complex wiring harnesses. Glove protects interior components of hand from dirt and damage. Imitates motions of human fingers and wrist in lifelike and dexterous way. Incorporates pitch/yaw joints in wrist and head knuckles. Hand modular; so fingers removable, interchangeable units. Feature simplifies servicing and maintenance, which must be done frequently in such complex mechanism.

  4. MIT research in telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, T. B.

    1987-01-01

    Ongoing MIT research in telerobotics (vehicles capable of some autonomous sensing and manipulating, having some remote supervisory control by people) and teleoperation (vehicles for sensing and manipulating which are fully controlled remotely by people) is discussed. The current efforts mix human and artificial intelligence/control. The idea of adjustable impedance at either end of pure master-slave teleoperation, and simultaneous coordinated control of teleoperator/telerobotic systems which have more than six degrees of freedom (e.g., a combined vehicle and arm, each with five or six DOF) are discussed. A new cable-controlled parallel link arm which offers many advantages over conventional arms for space is briefly described. Predictor displays to compensate for time delay in teleoperator loops, the use of state estimation to help human control decisions in space, and ongoing research in supervisory command language are covered. Finally, efforts to build a human flyable real-time dynamic computer-graphic telerobot simulator are described. These projects represent most, but not all, of the telerobotics research in our laboratory, supported by JPL, NASA Ames and NOAA.

  5. Telerobot operator control station requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, Edwin P.

    1988-01-01

    The operator control station of a telerobot system has unique functional and human factors requirements. It has to satisfy the needs of a truly interactive and user-friendly complex system, a telerobot system being a hybrid between a teleoperated and an autonomous system. These functional, hardware and software requirements are discussed, with explicit reference to the design objectives and constraints of the JPL/NASA Telerobot Demonstrator System.

  6. Acquisition of Cooperative Small Unmanned Aerial Systems for Advancing Man Machine Interface Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-24

    Systems for Advancing Man- Machine Interface Research The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not...of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Acquisition of Cooperative Small Unmanned Aerial Systems for Advancing Man- Machine ...of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems for Advancing Cooperative Man- Machine Systems Research and Education Daniel Pack, Yufei Huang, Chunjiang Qian

  7. Flocking small smart machines: An experiment in cooperative, multi-machine control

    SciTech Connect

    Klarer, P.R.

    1998-03-01

    The intent and purpose of this work was to investigate and demonstrate cooperative behavior among a group of mobile robot machines. The specific goal of this work was to build a small swarm of identical machines and control them in such a way as to show a coordinated movement of the group in a flocking manner, similar to that observed in nature. Control of the swarm`s individual members and its overall configuration is available to the human user via a graphic man-machine interface running on a base station control computer. Any robot may be designated as the nominal leader through the interface tool, which then may be commanded to proceed to a particular geographic destination. The remainder of the flock follows the leader by maintaining their relative positions in formation, as specified by the human controller through the interface. The formation`s configuration can be altered manually through an interactive graphic-based tool. An alternative mode of control allows for teleoperation of one robot, with the flock following along as described above.

  8. Telerobotic truss assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Philip L.

    1987-01-01

    The ACCESS truss was telerobotically assembled in order to gain experience with robotic assembly of hardware designed for astronaut extravehicular (EVA) assembly. Tight alignment constraints of the ACCESS hardware made telerobotic assembly difficult. A wider alignment envelope and a compliant end effector would have reduced the problem. The manipulator had no linear motion capability, but many of the assembly operations required straight line motion. The manipulator was attached to a motion table in order to provide the X, Y, and Z translations needed. A programmable robot with linear translation capability would have eliminated the need for the motion table and streamlined the assembly. Poor depth perception was a major problem. Shaded paint schemes and alignment lines were helpful in reducing this problem. The four cameras used worked well for only some operations. It was not possible to identify camera locations that worked well for all assembly steps. More cameras or movable cameras would have simplified some operations. The audio feedback system was useful.

  9. Telerobot control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G. (Inventor); Tso, Kam S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to an operator interface for controlling a telerobot to perform tasks in a poorly modeled environment and/or within unplanned scenarios. The telerobot control system includes a remote robot manipulator linked to an operator interface. The operator interface includes a setup terminal, simulation terminal, and execution terminal for the control of the graphics simulator and local robot actuator as well as the remote robot actuator. These terminals may be combined in a single terminal. Complex tasks are developed from sequential combinations of parameterized task primitives and recorded teleoperations, and are tested by execution on a graphics simulator and/or local robot actuator, together with adjustable time delays. The novel features of this invention include the shared and supervisory control of the remote robot manipulator via operator interface by pretested complex tasks sequences based on sequences of parameterized task primitives combined with further teleoperation and run-time binding of parameters based on task context.

  10. The JPL telerobot operator control station. Part 1: Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, Edwin P.; Tower, John T.; Hunka, George W.; Vansant, Glenn J.

    1989-01-01

    The Operator Control Station of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)/NASA Telerobot Demonstrator System provides the man-machine interface between the operator and the system. It provides all the hardware and software for accepting human input for the direct and indirect (supervised) manipulation of the robot arms and tools for task execution. Hardware and software are also provided for the display and feedback of information and control data for the operator's consumption and interaction with the task being executed. The hardware design, system architecture, and its integration and interface with the rest of the Telerobot Demonstrator System are discussed.

  11. Proceedings of the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Editor); Seraji, Homayoun (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Papers presented at the NASA Conference on Space Telerobotics are compiled. The theme of the conference was man-machine collaboration in space. The conference provided a forum for researchers and engineers to exchange ideas on the research and development required for the application of telerobotic technology to the space systems planned for the 1990's and beyond. Volume 4 contains papers related to the following subject areas: manipulator control; telemanipulation; flight experiments (systems and simulators); sensor-based planning; robot kinematics, dynamics, and control; robot task planning and assembly; and research activities at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  12. Human factors issues in telerobotic systems for Space Station Freedom servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Thomas B.; Permenter, Kathryn E.

    1990-01-01

    Requirements for Space Station Freedom servicing are described and the state-of-the-art for telerobotic system on-orbit servicing of spacecraft is defined. The projected requirements for the Space Station Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) are identified. Finally, the human factors issues in telerobotic servicing are discussed. The human factors issues are basically three: the definition of the role of the human versus automation in system control; the identification of operator-device interface design requirements; and the requirements for development of an operator-machine interface simulation capability.

  13. Testbed For Telerobotic Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matijevic, Jacob R.

    1991-01-01

    Telerobot testbed used to evaluate technologies for remote servicing, including assembly, maintenance, and repair. Enables study of advantages and disadvantages of modes and problems encountered in implementing them. Best technologies for implementing modes chosen. Provides delays simulating transmission delays between control stations on ground and orbiting spacecraft. Includes five major equipment subsystems, each consisting of such commercially available equipment as video cameras, computers, and robot arms. Used on Space Station and on Space Shuttle and satellites in orbit. Also used in hazardous and underwater environments on Earth.

  14. Multiscale Surgical Telerobots

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, R R; Seward, K P; Benett, W J; Tendick, F; Bentley, L; Stephan, P L

    2002-01-23

    A project was undertaken to improve robotic surgical tools for telerobotic minimally invasive surgery. The major objectives were to reduce the size of the tools to permit new surgical procedures in confined spaces such as the heart and to improve control of surgical tools by locating positional sensors and actuators at the end effector rather than external to the patient as is currently the state of the technology. A new compact end-effector with wrist-like flexibility was designed. Positional sensors based on MEMS microfabrication techniques were designed.

  15. ROTEX: space telerobotic flight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirzinger, Gerd; Landzettel, Klaus L.; Heindl, J.

    1993-12-01

    In early 1993 the space robot technology experiment ROTEX flew with the space-shuttle Columbia (spacelab mission D2 on flight STS-55 from April 26 to May 6). A multisensory robot on board the space-craft successfully worked in autonomous modes, teleoperated by astronauts, as well as in different telerobotic ground control modes. These include on-line teleoperation and tele-sensor-programming, a task-level oriented programming technique involving `learning by showing' concepts in a virtual environment. The robot's key features were its multisensory gripper and the local sensory feedback schemes which are the basis for shared autonomy. The corresponding man-machine interface concepts using a 6 dof non-force- reflecting control ball and visual feedback to the human operator are explained. Stereographic simulation on ground was used to predict not only the robot's free motion but even the sensor based path refinement on board; prototype tasks performed by this space robot were the assembly of a truss structure, connecting/disconnecting an electric plug (orbit replaceable unit exchange ORU), and grasping free-floating objects.

  16. The laboratory telerobotic manipulator program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herndon, J. N.; Babcock, S. M.; Butler, P. L.; Costello, H. M.; Glassell, R. L.; Kress, R. L.; Kuban, D. P.; Rowe, J. C.; Williams, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    New opportunities for the application of telerobotic systems to enhance human intelligence and dexterity in the hazardous environment of space are presented by the NASA Space Station Program. Because of the need for significant increases in extravehicular activity and the potential increase in hazards associated with space programs, emphasis is being heightened on telerobotic systems research and development. The Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) program is performed to develop and demonstrate ground-based telerobotic manipulator system hardware for research and demonstrations aimed at future NASA applications. The LTM incorporates traction drives, modularity, redundant kinematics, and state-of-the-art hierarchical control techniques to form a basis for merging the diverse technological domains of robust, high-dexterity teleoperations and autonomous robotic operation into common hardware to further NASA's research.

  17. Development and evaluation of a predictive algorithm for telerobotic task complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, M. L.; Hunter, R. C.; Hedgecock, J. C.; Stephenson, A. G.

    1993-01-01

    There is a wide range of complexity in the various telerobotic servicing tasks performed in subsea, space, and hazardous material handling environments. Experience with telerobotic servicing has evolved into a knowledge base used to design tasks to be 'telerobot friendly.' This knowledge base generally resides in a small group of people. Written documentation and requirements are limited in conveying this knowledge base to serviceable equipment designers and are subject to misinterpretation. A mathematical model of task complexity based on measurable task parameters and telerobot performance characteristics would be a valuable tool to designers and operational planners. Oceaneering Space Systems and TRW have performed an independent research and development project to develop such a tool for telerobotic orbital replacement unit (ORU) exchange. This algorithm was developed to predict an ORU exchange degree of difficulty rating (based on the Cooper-Harper rating used to assess piloted operations). It is based on measurable parameters of the ORU, attachment receptacle and quantifiable telerobotic performance characteristics (e.g., link length, joint ranges, positional accuracy, tool lengths, number of cameras, and locations). The resulting algorithm can be used to predict task complexity as the ORU parameters, receptacle parameters, and telerobotic characteristics are varied.

  18. Telerobotic activities at Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Charles R.

    1989-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center telerobotic efforts span three major thrusts: (1) sustaining and expanding the capability of the Shuttle manipulator; (2) developing and integrating the multiple telerobotic system of the Space Station; and (3) fostering and applying research in all areas of telerobotics technology within the government, private, and academic sectors.

  19. Rover and Telerobotics Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Rover and Telerobotics Technology Program, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), responds to opportunities presented by NASA space missions and systems, and seeds commerical applications of the emerging robotics technology. The scope of the JPL Rover and Telerobotics Technology Program comprises three major segments of activity: NASA robotic systems for planetary exploration, robotic technology and terrestrial spin-offs, and technology for non-NASA sponsors. Significant technical achievements have been reached in each of these areas, including complete telerobotic system prototypes that have built and tested in realistic scenarios relevant to prospective users. In addition, the program has conducted complementary basic research and created innovative technology and terrestrial applications, as well as enabled a variety of commercial spin-offs.

  20. High performance bilateral telerobot control.

    PubMed

    Kline-Schoder, Robert; Finger, William; Hogan, Neville

    2002-01-01

    Telerobotic systems are used when the environment that requires manipulation is not easily accessible to humans, as in space, remote, hazardous, or microscopic applications or to extend the capabilities of an operator by scaling motions and forces. The Creare control algorithm and software is an enabling technology that makes possible guaranteed stability and high performance for force-feedback telerobots. We have developed the necessary theory, structure, and software design required to implement high performance telerobot systems with time delay. This includes controllers for the master and slave manipulators, the manipulator servo levels, the communication link, and impedance shaping modules. We verified the performance using both bench top hardware as well as a commercial microsurgery system.

  1. Control strategies for a telerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John; Stasi, Bill

    1989-01-01

    One of the major issues impacting the utility of telerobotic systems for space is the development of effective control strategies. For near-term applications, telerobot control is likely to utilize teleoperation methodologies with integrated supervisory control capabilities to assist the operator. Two different approaches to telerobotic control are evaluated: bilateral force reflecting master controllers and proportional rate six degrees-of-freedom hand controllers. The controllers' performance of single manipulator arm tasks is compared. Simultaneous operation of both manipulator arms and complex multiaxis slave arm movements is investigated. Task times are significantly longer and fewer errors are committed with the hand controllers. The hand controllers are also rated significantly higher in cognitive and manual control workload on the two-arm task. The master controllers are rated significantly higher in physical workload. The implications of these findings for space teleoperations and higher levels of control are discussed.

  2. Temporal logics meet telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutten, Eric; Marce, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    The specificity of telerobotics being the presence of a human operator, decision assistance tools are necessary for the operator, especially in hostile environments. In order to reduce execution hazards due to a degraded ability for quick and efficient recovery of unexpected dangerous situations, it is of importance to have the opportunity, amongst others, to simulate the possible consequences of a plan before its actual execution, in order to detect these problematic situations. Hence the idea of providing the operator with a simulator enabling him to verify the temporal and logical coherence of his plans. Therefore, the power of logical formalisms is used for representation and deduction purposes. Starting from the class of situations that are represented, a STRIPS (the STanford Research Institute Problem Solver)-like formalism and its underlying logic are adapted to the simulation of plans of actions in time. The choice of a temporal logic enables to build a world representation, on which the effects of plans, grouping actions into control structures, will be transcribed by the simulation, resulting in a verdict and information about the plan's coherence.

  3. Achievability for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.

    2001-02-01

    Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .

  4. The NASA/OAST telerobot testbed architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matijevic, J. R.; Zimmerman, W. F.; Dolinsky, S.

    1989-01-01

    Through a phased development such as a laboratory-based research testbed, the NASA/OAST Telerobot Testbed provides an environment for system test and demonstration of the technology which will usefully complement, significantly enhance, or even replace manned space activities. By integrating advanced sensing, robotic manipulation and intelligent control under human-interactive supervision, the Testbed will ultimately demonstrate execution of a variety of generic tasks suggestive of space assembly, maintenance, repair, and telescience. The Testbed system features a hierarchical layered control structure compatible with the incorporation of evolving technologies as they become available. The Testbed system is physically implemented in a computing architecture which allows for ease of integration of these technologies while preserving the flexibility for test of a variety of man-machine modes. The development currently in progress on the functional and implementation architectures of the NASA/OAST Testbed and capabilities planned for the coming years are presented.

  5. A Cooperative Approach to Virtual Machine Based Fault Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Naughton III, Thomas J; Engelmann, Christian; Vallee, Geoffroy R; Aderholdt, William Ferrol; Scott, Stephen L

    2017-01-01

    Resilience investigations often employ fault injection (FI) tools to study the effects of simulated errors on a target system. It is important to keep the target system under test (SUT) isolated from the controlling environment in order to maintain control of the experiement. Virtual machines (VMs) have been used to aid these investigations due to the strong isolation properties of system-level virtualization. A key challenge in fault injection tools is to gain proper insight and context about the SUT. In VM-based FI tools, this challenge of target con- text is increased due to the separation between host and guest (VM). We discuss an approach to VM-based FI that leverages virtual machine introspection (VMI) methods to gain insight into the target s context running within the VM. The key to this environment is the ability to provide basic information to the FI system that can be used to create a map of the target environment. We describe a proof- of-concept implementation and a demonstration of its use to introduce simulated soft errors into an iterative solver benchmark running in user-space of a guest VM.

  6. Granting clinical privileges for telerobotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Garth H; Kelley, William E

    2002-02-01

    Surgeons can now perform operations on their patients while sitting at a remote site. During telerobotic operations, the surgeon sits at a computer console. The computer translates the motions of the surgeon's hands into motions of the robotic instruments. Introduction of telerobotics into clinical practice raises issues comparable to those generated by the rapid introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the late 1980s. As a result, we have instituted processes in our hospitals for the granting of clinical privileges for telerobotic surgery. These processes are derived from the guidelines of the Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons for granting clinical privileges for laparoscopic general surgery. Our hospitals require the following: (1) board certification or board eligibility for the appropriate surgical board; (2) clinical privileges for the open and laparoscopic operations that will be performed telerobotically; (3) satisfactory completion of the Food and Drug Administration-mandated training course in the safe use of the robotic surgical system; (4) performance of telerobotic operations in animate models; (5) observation of clinical cases of telerobotic surgery by an expert surgeon; (6) acting as bedside assistant surgeon in telerobotic operations or supervision by a preceptor during the surgeon's initial operations; (7) observation by a proctor of the surgeon's initial clinical telerobotic operations; and (8) ongoing monitoring of surgical outcomes of telerobotic operations. This process has facilitated the safe and orderly introduction of telerobotics operations into clinical practice in our hospitals.

  7. Systems simulations supporting NASA telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, F. W., Jr.; Pennington, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Two simulation and analysis environments have been developed to support telerobotics research at the Langley Research Center. One is a high-fidelity, nonreal-time, interactive model called ROBSIM, which combines user-generated models of workspace environment, robots, and loads into a working system and simulates the interaction among the system components. Models include user-specified actuator, sensor, and control parameters, as well as kinematic and dynamic characteristics. Kinematic, dynamic, and response analyses can be selected, with system configuration, task trajectories, and arm states displayed using computer graphics. The second environment is a real-time, manned Telerobotic Systems Simulation (TRSS) which uses the facilities of the Intelligent Systems Research Laboratory (ISRL). It utilizes a hierarchical structure of functionally distributed computers communicating over both parallel and high-speed serial data paths to enable studies of advanced telerobotic systems. Multiple processes perform motion planning, operator communications, forward and inverse kinematics, control/sensor fusion, and I/O processing while communicating via common memory. Both ROBSIM and TRSS, including their capability, status, and future plans are discussed. Also described is the architecture of ISRL and recent telerobotic system studies in ISRL.

  8. Multi-Sensor Inspection Telerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Hayati, S.; Volpe, R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a telerobotic multi-sensor inspection system for space platforms developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A multi-sensor inspection end-effector incorporates cameras and lighting for visual inspection, as well as temperature and gas leak-detection sensors.

  9. Telerobotics - Problems and research needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Lawrence; Tendick, Frank; Kim, Won Soo; Anderson, Russell; Hisey, Michael

    1988-01-01

    With major emphasis on simulation, a university laboratory telerobotics facility permits problems to be approached by groups of graduate students. Helmet-mounded displays provide realism; the slaving of the display to the human operator's viewpoint gives a sense of 'telepresence' that may be useful for prolonged tasks. Using top-down three-dimensional model control of distant images allows distant images to be reduced to a few parameters to update the model used for display to the human operator in a preview mode to circumvent, in part, the communication delay. Also, the model can be used as a format for supervisory control and permit short-term local autonomous operations. Image processing algorithms can be made simpler and faster without trying to construct sensible images from the bottom. Control studies of telerobots lead to preferential manual control modes and basic paradigms for human motion and thence, perhaps, to redesign of robotic control, trajectory path planning, and rehabilitation prosthetics.

  10. Telerobotics - Problems and research needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Lawrence; Tendick, Frank; Kim, Won Soo; Anderson, Russell; Hisey, Michael

    1988-01-01

    With major emphasis on simulation, a university laboratory telerobotics facility permits problems to be approached by groups of graduate students. Helmet-mounded displays provide realism; the slaving of the display to the human operator's viewpoint gives a sense of 'telepresence' that may be useful for prolonged tasks. Using top-down three-dimensional model control of distant images allows distant images to be reduced to a few parameters to update the model used for display to the human operator in a preview mode to circumvent, in part, the communication delay. Also, the model can be used as a format for supervisory control and permit short-term local autonomous operations. Image processing algorithms can be made simpler and faster without trying to construct sensible images from the bottom. Control studies of telerobots lead to preferential manual control modes and basic paradigms for human motion and thence, perhaps, to redesign of robotic control, trajectory path planning, and rehabilitation prosthetics.

  11. Analysis of human-machine cooperation when driving with different degrees of haptic shared control.

    PubMed

    Mars, Franck; Deroo, Mathieu; Hoc, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated human-machine cooperation when driving with different degrees of a shared control system. By means of a direct intervention on the steering wheel, shared control systems partially correct the vehicle's trajectory and, at the same time, provide continuous haptic guidance to the driver. A crucial point is to determine the optimal level of steering assistance for effective cooperation between the two agents. Five system settings were compared with a condition in which no assistance was present. In addition, road visibility was manipulated by means of additional fog or self-controlled visual occlusions. Several performance indicators and subjective assessments were analyzed. The results show that the best repartition of control in terms of cooperation between human and machine can be identified through an analysis of the steering wheel reversal rate, the steering effort and the mean lateral position of the vehicle. The best cooperation was achieved with systems of relatively low-level haptic authority, although more intervention may be preferable in poor visibility conditions. Increasing haptic authority did not yield higher benefits in terms of steering behavior, visual demand or subjective feeling.

  12. The JPL/KSC telerobotic inspection demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David; Bon, Bruce; Collins, Carol; Fleischer, Gerry; Litwin, Todd; Morrison, Jack; Omeara, Jacquie; Peters, Stephen; Brogdon, John; Humeniuk, Bob

    1990-01-01

    An ASEA IRB90 robotic manipulator with attached inspection cameras was moved through a Space Shuttle Payload Assist Module (PAM) Cradle under computer control. The Operator and Operator Control Station, including graphics simulation, gross-motion spatial planning, and machine vision processing, were located at JPL. The Safety and Support personnel, PAM Cradle, IRB90, and image acquisition system, were stationed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Images captured at KSC were used both for processing by a machine vision system at JPL, and for inspection by the JPL Operator. The system found collision-free paths through the PAM Cradle, demonstrated accurate knowledge of the location of both objects of interest and obstacles, and operated with a communication delay of two seconds. Safe operation of the IRB90 near Shuttle flight hardware was obtained both through the use of a gross-motion spatial planner developed at JPL using artificial intelligence techniques, and infrared beams and pressure sensitive strips mounted to the critical surfaces of the flight hardward at KSC. The Demonstration showed that telerobotics is effective for real tasks, safe for personnel and hardware, and highly productive and reliable for Shuttle payload operations and Space Station external operations.

  13. Telerobotic technology for nuclear and space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.; Hamel, W.R.

    1987-03-01

    Telerobotic development efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are extensive and relatively diverse. Current efforts include development of a prototype space telerobot system for the NASA Langley Research Center and development and large-scale demonstration of nuclear fuel cycle teleoperators in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This paper presents an overview of the efforts in these major programs. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Modular planning/control architecture for the semiautonomous control of telerobots in a hazardous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Brady, Kevin; Xi, Ning; Love, Lonnie; Lloyd, Peter; Burks, Barry; Davis, Hurley

    1997-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has demonstrated, evaluated, and deployed a telerobotic approach for the remote retrieval of hazardous and radioactive wastes from underground storage tanks. The telerobotic system, built by Spar Aerospace Ltd., is capable of dislodging and removing sludge and gravel- like wastes without endangering the human operators through contact with the environment. Working in partnership with Washington University, ORNL has implemented an Event based planner/function based sharing control (FBSC) as an integral part of their overall telerobotic architecture. These aspects of the system enable the seamless union of the human operator and an autonomous controller in such a way to emphasize safety without any loss of performance. The cooperation between ORNL, Spar, and Washington University requires an open and modular control software architecture to enable the parallel development of various components of the system. ControlShell has been used as the underlying software architecture to help meet these criteria of generality and modularity.

  15. The JPL telerobot operator control station. Part 2: Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, Edwin P.; Landell, B. Patrick; Oxenberg, Sheldon; Morimoto, Carl

    1989-01-01

    The Operator Control Station of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)/NASA Telerobot Demonstrator System provides the man-machine interface between the operator and the system. It provides all the hardware and software for accepting human input for the direct and indirect (supervised) manipulation of the robot arms and tools for task execution. Hardware and software are also provided for the display and feedback of information and control data for the operator's consumption and interaction with the task being executed. The software design of the operator control system is discussed.

  16. An operator interface design for a telerobotic inspection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Tso, Kam S.; Hayati, Samad

    1993-01-01

    The operator interface has recently emerged as an important element for efficient and safe interactions between human operators and telerobotics. Advances in graphical user interface and graphics technologies enable us to produce very efficient operator interface designs. This paper describes an efficient graphical operator interface design newly developed for remote surface inspection at NASA-JPL. The interface, designed so that remote surface inspection can be performed by a single operator with an integrated robot control and image inspection capability, supports three inspection strategies of teleoperated human visual inspection, human visual inspection with automated scanning, and machine-vision-based automated inspection.

  17. Expert system control of a six-legged walking telerobot

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, K R

    1989-01-01

    The Robotics Technology Group of the Savannah River Laboratory has implemented a three-stage expert system for a six-legged walking telerobot. Remote operation of this machine requires the knowledge of a highly skilled operator. Stability, size, and mode of operation considerations must take place continuously, in general, much more so than with a typical wheeled vehicle. The technology employed provides for quasi-real-time computer control, manual control, and an expert advisor -- all in the same package, which runs on the IBM PC/AT. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  18. A Graphical Operator Interface for a Telerobotic Inspection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W. S.; Tso, K. S.; Hayati, S.

    1993-01-01

    Operator interface has recently emerged as an important element for efficient and safe operatorinteractions with the telerobotic system. Recent advances in graphical user interface (GUI) andgraphics/video merging technologies enable development of more efficient, flexible operatorinterfaces. This paper describes an advanced graphical operator interface newly developed for aremote surface inspection system at Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The interface has been designed sothat remote surface inspection can be performed by a single operator with an integrated robot controland image inspection capability. It supports three inspection strategies of teleoperated human visual inspection, human visual inspection with automated scanning, and machine-vision-based automated inspection.

  19. An operator interface design for a telerobotic inspection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Tso, Kam S.; Hayati, Samad

    1993-01-01

    The operator interface has recently emerged as an important element for efficient and safe interactions between human operators and telerobotics. Advances in graphical user interface and graphics technologies enable us to produce very efficient operator interface designs. This paper describes an efficient graphical operator interface design newly developed for remote surface inspection at NASA-JPL. The interface, designed so that remote surface inspection can be performed by a single operator with an integrated robot control and image inspection capability, supports three inspection strategies of teleoperated human visual inspection, human visual inspection with automated scanning, and machine-vision-based automated inspection.

  20. The flight telerobotic servicer (FTS): A focus for automation and robotics on the space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkal, S. W.; Andary, J. F.; Watzin, J. G.; Provost, D. E.

    NASA has committed to the design and implementation of a robotic device to assist the astronauts in assembly, maintenance, servicing and inspection tasks in the unpressurized environment of the Space Station, substantially reducing the time required for crew extra vehicular activity (EVA). This system introduces into the Space Station program a "telerobot" adaptable to a variety of tasks and worksites. The term "telerobot" is used to indicate the combined attributes of an autonomous robot and a teleoperated manipulator. Design requirements for the telerobot are driven by a detailed analysis of the tasks which are required on the Space Station and its associated free-flying platforms. The Space Station will have several kilometers of truss structure to which are attached numerous scientific payloads, as well as functional elements and utilities of the Space Station itself. Scientific payloads require servicing of different levels of complexity. Free-flying spacecraft will be brought into the hangar-like servicing facility for repair. There will be maintenance and inspection tasks of the Space Station elements, as well as initial Space Station assembly tasks. A step-by-step analysis of candidate tasks has led to a design envelope for the telerobot. Since the telerobot is an extension or telepresence of the astronaut at the remote worksite, design of the workstation in the pressurized module has to give careful consideration to the man/machine interface, as well as the constrained volume in the pressurized modules. The flight telerobotic servicer (FTS) is designed for future growth toward more autonomy. By a careful selection of the functional architecture, and a modular approach to the hardware and software design, the FTS can accept developments in artificial intelligence and newer, more advanced sensors, such as machine vision and collision avoidance. The FTS is a focus for automation and robotics on the Space Station, as well as a baseline from which visionary

  1. The NASA telerobot technology demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, P. S.; French, R. L.; Sirota, A. R.; Matijevic, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    The ongoing development of a telerobot technology demonstrator is reported. The demonstrator is implemented as a laboratory-based research testbed, and will show proof-of-concept for supervised automation of space assembly, servicing, and repair operations. The demonstrator system features a hierarchically layered intelligent control architecture which enables automated planning and run-time sequencing of complex tasks by a supervisory human operator. The demonstrator also provides a full bilateral force-reflecting hand control teleoperations capability. The operator may switch smoothly between the automated and teleoperated tasking modes in run-time, either on a preplanned or operator-designated basis.

  2. Automated Telerobotic Inspection Of Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Prasad, K. Venkatesh

    1996-01-01

    Method of automated telerobotic inspection of surfaces undergoing development. Apparatus implementing method includes video camera that scans over surfaces to be inspected, in manner of mine detector. Images of surfaces compared with reference images to detect flaws. Developed for inspecting external structures of Space Station Freedom for damage from micrometeorites and debris from prior artificial satellites. On Earth, applied to inspection for damage, missing parts, contamination, and/or corrosion on interior surfaces of pipes or exterior surfaces of bridges, towers, aircraft, and ships.

  3. Telerobotics design issues for space construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Gyamfi, Max; Volkmer, Kent; Zimmerman, Wayne

    1988-01-01

    The use of a Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) in the construction of the Space Station is examined. A methodology is presented for evaluating possible construction tasks, telerobotic performance capabilities, development costs, and operational constraints. The use of telerobotics as a substitute for human EVA activities and the construction tasks which an FTS could perform in the next 8-10 years are considered. The cost-effectiveness of construction using the FTS is compared with that of construction using the STS. The trade-offs associated with using the FTS are discussed in detail.

  4. Telerobotic work system: Concept development and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1987-01-01

    The basic concept of a telerobotic work system (TWS) consists of two dexterous manipulator arms controlled from a remote station. The term telerobotic describes a system that is a combination of teleoperator control and robotic operation. Work represents the function of producing physical changes. System describes the integration of components and subsystems to effectively accomplish the needed mission. Telerobotics reduces exposure to hazards for flight crewmembers and increases their productivity. The requirements for the TWS are derived from both the mission needs and the functional capabilities of existing hardware and software to meet those needs. The development of the TWS is discussed.

  5. Software For Integration Of EVA And Telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, Michael L.; Smith, Jeffrey H.; Estus, Jay M.; Heneghan, Cate; Zimmerman, Wayne; Fiorini, Paolo; Schenker, Paul S.; Mcaffee, Douglas A.

    1991-01-01

    Telerobotics/EVA Joint Analysis Systems (TEJAS) computer program is hypermedia information software system using object-oriented programming to bridge gap between crew-EVA and telerobotics activities. TEJAS Version 1.0 contains 20 HyperCard stacks using visual, customizable interface of icon buttons, pop-up menus, and relational commands to store, link, and standardize related information about primitives, technologies, tasks, assumptions, and open issues involved in space-telerobot or crew-EVA tasks. Runs on any Apple MacIntosh personal computer.

  6. Task automation in a successful industrial telerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spelt, Philip F.; Jones, Sammy L.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss cooperative work by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Remotec, Inc., to automate components of the operator's workload using Remotec's Andros telerobot, thereby providing an enhanced user interface which can be retrofit to existing fielded units as well as being incorporated into new production units. Remotec's Andros robots are presently used by numerous electric utilities to perform tasks in reactors where substantial exposure to radiation exists, as well as by the armed forces and numerous law enforcement agencies. The automation of task components, as well as the video graphics display of the robot's position in the environment, will enhance all tasks performed by these users, as well as enabling performance in terrain where the robots cannot presently perform due to lack of knowledge about, for instance, the degree of tilt of the robot. Enhanced performance of a successful industrial mobile robot leads to increased safety and efficiency of performance in hazardous environments. The addition of these capabilities will greatly enhance the utility of the robot, as well as its marketability.

  7. Task automation in a successful industrial telerobot

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.; Jones, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss cooperative work by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Remotec{trademark}, Inc., to automate components of the operator`s workload using Remotec`s Andros telerobot, thereby providing an enhanced user interface which can be retroll to existing fielded units as well as being incorporated into now production units. Remotec`s Andros robots are presently used by numerous electric utilities to perform tasks in reactors where substantial exposure to radiation exists, as well as by the armed forces and numerous law enforcement agencies. The automation of task components, as well as the video graphics display of the robot`s position in the environment, will enhance all tasks performed by these users, as well as enabling performance in terrain where the robots cannot presently perform due to lack of knowledge about, for instance, the degree of tilt of the robot. Enhanced performance of a successful industrial mobile robot leads to increased safety and efficiency of performances in hazardous environments. The addition of these capabilities will greatly enhance the utility of the robot, as well as its marketability.

  8. Control enhancements in a commercial mobile telerobot

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.L.; Spelt, P.F.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the cooperative research and development agreement between Oak Ridge Naitonal Laboratory and REMOTEC to automate components of the operator`s workload using REMOTEC`s ANDROS telerobot, thereby providing an enhanced user interface that can be retrofit to existing fielded units and incorporated into new production units. REMOTECs ANDROS robots are used by numerous electric utilities to perform tasks in reactors where substantial exposure to radiation exists and by the armed forces and numerous law enforcement agencies. The automation of task components, as well as the video graphics display of the robot`s position in the environment, will enhance all tasks performed by these users and will enable performance in terrain where the robots cannot now perform due to lack of knowledge about matters such as the degree of tilt of the robot. Enhanced performance of a successful industrial mobile robot leads to increased safety and efficiency of performance in hazardous environments. The addition of these capabilities will greatly enhance the utility and marketability of the robot.

  9. Miniature Telerobots in Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venema, S. C.; Hannaford, B.

    1995-01-01

    Ground controlled telerobots can be used to reduce astronaut workload while retaining much of the human capabilities of planning, execution, and error recovery for specific tasks. Miniature robots can be used for delicate and time consuming tasks such as biological experiment servicing without incurring the significant mass and power penalties associated with larger robot systems. However, questions remain regarding the technical and economic effectiveness of such mini-telerobotic systems. This paper address some of these open issues and the details of two projects which will provide some of the needed answers. The Microtrex project is a joint University of Washington/NASA project which plans on flying a miniature robot as a Space Shuttle experiment to evaluate the effects of microgravity on ground-controlled manipulation while subject to variable time-delay communications. A related project involving the University of Washington and Boeing Defense and Space will evaluate the effectiveness f using a minirobot to service biological experiments in a space station experiment 'glove-box' rack mock-up, again while subject to realistic communications constraints.

  10. Telerobotic system performance measurement - Motivation and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondraske, George V.; Khoury, George J.

    1992-01-01

    A systems performance-based strategy for modeling and conducting experiments relevant to the design and performance characterization of telerobotic systems is described. A developmental testbed consisting of a distributed telerobotics network and initial efforts to implement the strategy described is presented. Consideration is given to the general systems performance theory (GSPT) to tackle human performance problems as a basis for: measurement of overall telerobotic system (TRS) performance; task decomposition; development of a generic TRS model; and the characterization of performance of subsystems comprising the generic model. GSPT employs a resource construct to model performance and resource economic principles to govern the interface of systems to tasks. It provides a comprehensive modeling/measurement strategy applicable to complex systems including both human and artificial components. Application is presented within the framework of a distributed telerobotics network as a testbed. Insight into the design of test protocols which elicit application-independent data is described.

  11. Computing architecture for telerobots in earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Dotson, R. S.; Szakaly, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Based on generic operational and computational requirements associated with the control of telerobots in earth orbit, a multibus-based distributed but integrated computing architecture is proposed. An experimental system of that kind under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is briefly described. It uses Intel Multibus I at both control station and remote robot (telerobot) computing nodes. An essential element within each multibus is a Unified (or Universal) Computer Control Subsystem (UCCS) for telerobot and control station motor components. The two multibus-based computing nodes can be linked by parallel or high speed serial links for real-time data transmission and for closing the real-time bilateral (force-reflecting) control loop between telerobot and control station. The experimental system is briefly commented, followed by a brief discussion of future development plans and possibilities.

  12. Technology drivers for flight telerobotic system software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labaugh, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on technology drivers for flight telerobotic system software are included. Topics covered include: flight software lines of code; flight computer architecture; system safety; safety critical parameters; system safety - software functions.

  13. Haptic device for telerobotic surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, Curt; Salisbury, Jr., J. Kenneth

    2014-12-30

    A haptic device for telerobotic surgery, including a base; a linkage system having first and second linkage members coupled to the base; a motor that provides a motor force; a transmission including first and second driving pulleys arranged such that their faces form an angle and their axes form a plane, first and second idler pulleys offset from the plane and arranged between the first and second driving pulleys such that their axes divide the angle between the first and second driving pulleys, and a cable that traverses the first and second driving pulleys and the set of idler pulleys and transfers the motor force to the linkage system; an end effector coupled to distal ends of the first and second linkage members and maneuverable relative to the base; and a controller that modulates the motor force to simulate a body part at a point portion of the end effector.

  14. Telerobotic electronic materials processing experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollendorf, Stanford

    1991-01-01

    The Office of Commercial Programs (OCP), working in conjunction with NASA engineers at the Goddard Space Flight Center, is supporting research efforts in robot technology and microelectronics materials processing that will provide many spinoffs for science and industry. The Telerobotic Materials Processing Experiment (TRMPX) is a Shuttle-launched materials processing test payload using a Get Away Special can. The objectives of the project are to define, develop, and demonstrate an automated materials processing capability under realistic flight conditions. TRMPX will provide the capability to test the production processes that are dependent on microgravity. The processes proposed for testing include the annealing of amorphous silicon to increase grain size for more efficient solar cells, thin film deposition to demonstrate the potential of fabricating solar cells in orbit, and the annealing of radiation damaged solar cells.

  15. Dexterity-Enhanced Telerobotic Microsurgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Steve; Das, Hari; Ohm, Timothy; Boswell, Curtis; Rodriguez, Guillermo; Steele, Robert; Istrate, Dan

    1997-01-01

    The work reported in this paper is the result, of a collaboration between researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Steve Charles, MD, a vitreo-retinal surgeon. The Robot Assisted MicroSurgery (RAMS) telerobotic workstation developed at JPL is a prototype of a system that will be completely under the manual control of a surgeon. The system has a slave robot that will hold surgical instruments. The slave robot motions replicate in six degrees of freedom those of tile. surgeon's hand measured using a master input device with a surgical instrument, shaped handle. The surgeon commands motions for the instrument by moving the handle in the desired trajectories. The trajectories are measured, filtered, and scaled down then used to drive the slave robot.

  16. Telerobotics in rehabilitation: Barriers to a virtual existence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifer, Larry; Vanderloos, Machiel; Michalowski, Stefan

    1991-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: the need for telerobotics in rehabilitation; barriers to telerobotics technology in rehabilitation and health care; institutional barriers; technical barriers; and a partial view of the future.

  17. A Telerobotics Architecture for Aircraft Maintenance and Remanufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, P. G.; Zimmerman, W.; Leahy, M. B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The application of telerobotics to aircraft depot maintenance and remanufacturing is described and a telerobotics architecture for the application is discussed. Telerobotics will enhance process quality and could potentially decrease turn-around time and costs while moving human operatiors from hazardous work areas to safe and comfortable operator control stations.

  18. Intelligent monitoring system applied to super long distance telerobotic tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakita, Yujin; Hirai, Shigeoki; Machida, Kazuo

    1994-01-01

    Time delay and small capacity of communication are the primary constraint in super long distance telerobotic systems such as astronautical robotic tasks. Intelligent telerobotics is thought to break this constraint. We aim to realize this super long distance telerobotic system with object handling knowledge base and intelligent monitoring. We will discuss physical and technical factors for this purpose.

  19. Cooperative optimization of reconfigurable machine tool configurations and production process plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Nan; Li, Aiping; Xue, Wei

    2012-09-01

    The production process plan design and configurations of reconfigurable machine tool (RMT) interact with each other. Reasonable process plans with suitable configurations of RMT help to improve product quality and reduce production cost. Therefore, a cooperative strategy is needed to concurrently solve the above issue. In this paper, the cooperative optimization model for RMT configurations and production process plan is presented. Its objectives take into account both impacts of process and configuration. Moreover, a novel genetic algorithm is also developed to provide optimal or near-optimal solutions: firstly, its chromosome is redesigned which is composed of three parts, operations, process plan and configurations of RMTs, respectively; secondly, its new selection, crossover and mutation operators are also developed to deal with the process constraints from operation processes (OP) graph, otherwise these operators could generate illegal solutions violating the limits; eventually the optimal configurations for RMT under optimal process plan design can be obtained. At last, a manufacturing line case is applied which is composed of three RMTs. It is shown from the case that the optimal process plan and configurations of RMT are concurrently obtained, and the production cost decreases 6.28% and nonmonetary performance increases 22%. The proposed method can figure out both RMT configurations and production process, improve production capacity, functions and equipment utilization for RMT.

  20. Human-machine cooperation: a solution for life-critical systems?

    PubMed

    Millot, Patrick; Boy, Guy A

    2012-01-01

    Decision-making plays an important role in life-critical systems. It entails cognitive functions such as monitoring, as well as fault prevention and recovery. Three kinds of objectives are typically considered: safety, efficiency and comfort. People involved in the control and management of such systems provide two kinds of contributions: positive with their unique involvement and capacity to deal with the unexpected; and negative with their ability to make errors. In the negative view, people are the problem and need to be supervised by regulatory systems in the form of operational constraints or by design. In the positive view, people are the solution and lead the game; they are decision-makers. The former view also deals with error resistance, and the latter with error tolerance, which, for example, enables cooperation between people and decision support systems (DSS). In the real life, both views should be considered with respect to appropriate situational factors, such as time constraints and very dangerous environments. This is known as function allocation between people and systems. This paper presents a possibility to reconcile both approaches into a joint human-machine organization, where the main dimensioning factors are safety and complexity. A framework for cooperative and fault tolerant systems is proposed, and illustrated by an example in Air Traffic Control.

  1. Simulation of the human-telerobot interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Smith, Randy L.

    1988-01-01

    A part of NASA's Space Station will be a Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) used to help assemble, service, and maintain the Space Station. Since the human operator will be required to control the FTS, the design of the human-telerobot interface must be optimized from a human factors perspective. Simulation has been used as an aid in the development of complex systems. Simulation has been especially useful when it has been applied to the development of complex systems. Simulation should ensure that the hardware and software components of the human-telerobot interface have been designed and selected so that the operator's capabilities and limitations have been accommodated for since this is a complex system where few direct comparisons to existent systems can be made. Three broad areas of the human-telerobot interface where simulation can be of assistance are described. The use of simulation not only can result in a well-designed human-telerobot interface, but also can be used to ensure that components have been selected to best meet system's goals, and for operator training.

  2. Integrated Design of a Telerobotic Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochlis, Jennifer L.; Clarke, John-Paul

    2001-01-01

    The experiments described in this paper are part of a larger joint MIT/NASA research effort that focuses on the development of a methodology for designing and evaluating integrated interfaces for highly dexterous and multi-functional telerobots. Specifically, a telerobotic workstation is being designed for an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) anthropomorphic space station telerobot. Previous researchers have designed telerobotic workstations based upon performance of discrete subsets of tasks (for example, peg-in-hole, tracking, etc.) without regard for transitions that operators go through between tasks performed sequentially in the context of larger integrated tasks. The exploratory research experiments presented here took an integrated approach and assessed how subjects operating a full-immersion telerobot perform during the transitions between sub-tasks of two common EVA tasks. Preliminary results show that up to 30% of total task time is spent gaining and maintaining Situation Awareness (SA) of their task space and environment during transitions. Although task performance improves over the two trial days, the percentage of time spent on SA remains the same. This method identifies areas where workstation displays and feedback mechanisms are most needed to increase operator performance and decrease operator workload - areas that previous research methods have not been able to address.

  3. Crew interface with a telerobotic control station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mok, Eva

    1987-01-01

    A method for apportioning crew-telerobot tasks has been derived to facilitate the design of a crew-friendly telerobot control station. To identify the most appropriate state-of-the-art hardware for the control station, task apportionment must first be conducted to identify if an astronaut or a telerobot is best to execute the task and which displays and controls are required for monitoring and performance. Basic steps that comprise the task analysis process are: (1) identify space station tasks; (2) define tasks; (3) define task performance criteria and perform task apportionment; (4) verify task apportionment; (5) generate control station requirements; (6) develop design concepts to meet requirements; and (7) test and verify design concepts.

  4. The flight telerobotic servicer and technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andary, James F.; Bradford, Kayland Z.

    1991-01-01

    The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) project at the Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an advanced telerobotic system to assist in and reduce crew extravehicular activity (EVA) for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The FTS will provide a telerobotic capability in the early phases of the SSF program and will be employed for assembly, maintenance, and inspection applications. The current state of space technology and the general nature of the FTS tasks dictate that the FTS be designed with sophisticated teleoperational capabilities for its internal primary operating mode. However, technologies such as advanced computer vision and autonomous planning techniques would greatly enhance the FTS capabilities to perform autonomously in less structured work environments. Another objective of the FTS program is to accelerate technology transfer from research to U.S. industry.

  5. Telerobot control mode performance assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Backes, Paul; Chirikjian, Greg

    1992-01-01

    With the maturation of various developing robot control schemes, it is becoming extremely important that the technical community evaluate the performance of these various control technologies against an established baseline to determine which technology provides the most reliable robust, and safe on-orbit robot control. The Supervisory Telerobotics Laboratory (STELER) at JPL has developed a unique robot control capability which has been evaluated by the NASA technical community and found useful for augmenting both the operator interface and control of intended robotic systems on-board the Space Station. As part of the technology development and prototyping effort, the STELER team has been evaluating the performance of different control modes; namely, teleoperation under position, or rate, control, teleoperation with force reflection and shared control. Nine trained subjects were employed in the performance evaluation involving several high fidelity servicing tasks. Four types of operator performance data were collected; task completion time, average force, peak force, and number of operator successes and errors. This paper summarizes the results of this performance evaluation.

  6. Telerobot control mode performance assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Backes, Paul; Chirikjian, Greg

    1992-01-01

    With the maturation of various developing robot control schemes, it is becoming extremely important that the technical community evaluate the performance of these various control technologies against an established baseline to determine which technology provides the most reliable robust, and safe on-orbit robot control. The Supervisory Telerobotics Laboratory (STELER) at JPL has developed a unique robot control capability which has been evaluated by the NASA technical community and found useful for augmenting both the operator interface and control of intended robotic systems on-board the Space Station. As part of the technology development and prototyping effort, the STELER team has been evaluating the performance of different control modes; namely, teleoperation under position, or rate, control, teleoperation with force reflection and shared control. Nine trained subjects were employed in the performance evaluation involving several high fidelity servicing tasks. Four types of operator performance data were collected; task completion time, average force, peak force, and number of operator successes and errors. This paper summarizes the results of this performance evaluation.

  7. Structural health monitoring for bolt loosening via a non-invasive vibro-haptics human-machine cooperative interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekedis, Mahmut; Mascerañas, David; Turan, Gursoy; Ercan, Emre; Farrar, Charles R.; Yildiz, Hasan

    2015-08-01

    For the last two decades, developments in damage detection algorithms have greatly increased the potential for autonomous decisions about structural health. However, we are still struggling to build autonomous tools that can match the ability of a human to detect and localize the quantity of damage in structures. Therefore, there is a growing interest in merging the computational and cognitive concepts to improve the solution of structural health monitoring (SHM). The main object of this research is to apply the human-machine cooperative approach on a tower structure to detect damage. The cooperation approach includes haptic tools to create an appropriate collaboration between SHM sensor networks, statistical compression techniques and humans. Damage simulation in the structure is conducted by releasing some of the bolt loads. Accelerometers are bonded to various locations of the tower members to acquire the dynamic response of the structure. The obtained accelerometer results are encoded in three different ways to represent them as a haptic stimulus for the human subjects. Then, the participants are subjected to each of these stimuli to detect the bolt loosened damage in the tower. Results obtained from the human-machine cooperation demonstrate that the human subjects were able to recognize the damage with an accuracy of 88 ± 20.21% and response time of 5.87 ± 2.33 s. As a result, it is concluded that the currently developed human-machine cooperation SHM may provide a useful framework to interact with abstract entities such as data from a sensor network.

  8. Terrestrial applications of NASA space telerobotics technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, Dave

    1994-01-01

    In 1985 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) instituted a research program in telerobotics to develop and provide the technology for applications of telerobotics to the United States space program. The activities of the program are intended to most effectively utilize limited astronaut time by facilitating tasks such as inspection, assembly, repair, and servicing, as well as providing extended capability for remotely conducting planetary surface operations. As the program matured, it also developed a strong heritage of working with government and industry to directly transfer the developed technology into industrial applications.

  9. Space Telerobotics and Rover Research at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C.; Hayati, S.; Rodriguez, G.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of our program is to develop, integrate and demonstrate the science and technology of remote telerobotics leading to increases in operational capability, safety, cost effectiveness and probability of success of NASA missions. To that end, the program fosters the development of innovative system concepts for on-orbit servicing and planetary surface missions which use telerobotic systems as an important central component. These concepts are carried forward into develoments which are used to evaluate and demonstrate technology in realistic flight and ground experiments.

  10. Space Telerobotics and Rover Research at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C.; Hayati, S.; Rodriguez, G.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of our program is to develop, integrate and demonstrate the science and technology of remote telerobotics leading to increases in operational capability, safety, cost effectiveness and probability of success of NASA missions. To that end, the program fosters the development of innovative system concepts for on-orbit servicing and planetary surface missions which use telerobotic systems as an important central component. These concepts are carried forward into develoments which are used to evaluate and demonstrate technology in realistic flight and ground experiments.

  11. Operator assistant systems - An experimental approach using a telerobotics application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy A.; Mathe, Nathalie

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a knowledge-based system methodology for developing operator assistant (OA) systems in dynamic and interactive environments. This is a problem both of training and design, which is the subject of this article. Design includes both design of the system to be controlled and design of procedures for operating this system. A specific knowledge representation is proposed for representing the corresponding system and operational knowledge. This representation is based on the situation recognition and analytical reasoning paradigm. It tries to make explicit common factors involved in both human and machine intelligence, including perception and reasoning. An OA system based on this representation has been developed for space telerobotics. Simulations have been carried out with astronauts and the resulting protocols have been analyzed. Results show the relevance of the approach and have been used for improving the knowledge representation and the OA architecture.

  12. Preshaping command inputs to reduce telerobotic system oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Neil C.; Seering, Warren P.

    1989-01-01

    The results of using a new technique for shaping inputs to a model of the space shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) are presented. The shapes inputs move the system to the same location that was originally commanded, however, the oscillations of the machine are considerably reduced. An overview of the new shaping method is presented. A description of RMS model is provided. The problem of slow joint servo rates on the RMS is accommodated with an extension of the shaping method. The results and sample data are also presented for both joint and three-dimensional cartesian motions. The results demonstrate that the new shaping method performs well on large, telerobotic systems which exhibit significant structural vibration. The new method is shown to also result in considerable energy savings during operations of the RMS manipulator.

  13. Operator assistant systems - An experimental approach using a telerobotics application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy A.; Mathe, Nathalie

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a knowledge-based system methodology for developing operator assistant (OA) systems in dynamic and interactive environments. This is a problem both of training and design, which is the subject of this article. Design includes both design of the system to be controlled and design of procedures for operating this system. A specific knowledge representation is proposed for representing the corresponding system and operational knowledge. This representation is based on the situation recognition and analytical reasoning paradigm. It tries to make explicit common factors involved in both human and machine intelligence, including perception and reasoning. An OA system based on this representation has been developed for space telerobotics. Simulations have been carried out with astronauts and the resulting protocols have been analyzed. Results show the relevance of the approach and have been used for improving the knowledge representation and the OA architecture.

  14. Real-time cooperating motion generation for man-machine systems and its application to medical technology.

    PubMed

    Seto, Fumi; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Kosuge, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a cooperating motion generation method for man-machine cooperation systems in which the machines are controlled based on the intentional force applied by a human/humans for realizing several tasks in cooperation with a human/humans. By applying this method, the systems could avoid self-collisions, collisions with obstacles and other dangerous situations during the tasks. Proposed method consists of two parts; representation method of robots' body referred to as "RoBE (Representation of Body by Elastic elements)", and cooperating motion generation method using RoBE. As the application examples of proposed method, we focused on robots cooperating with a human/humans and surgery robot tools from the aspect of medical and welfare field. We did the experiments using human-friendly robot, referred to as MR Helper, for illustrating the validity of the proposed method. We also did the computer simulation to indicate the prospects of applications of our self-collision avoidance method to surgery robot tools.

  15. Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The theme of this month's issue is "cooperation"--related to animal, personal, national, and global cooperation; rules and regulations; and team efforts. K-8 resources on the theme include World Wide Web sites, CD-ROM, software, videos, books, and others. Features include cooperative living, alliances of nations, songs of cooperation, and animals…

  16. Flight telerobot mechanism design: Problems and challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlgren, John B.; Kan, Edwin P.

    1989-01-01

    Problems and challenges of designing flight telerobot mechanisms are discussed. Specific experiences are drawn from the following system developments: (1) the Force Reflecting Hand Controller, (2) the Smart End Effector, (3) the force-torque sensor, and a generic multi-degrees-of-freedom manipulator.

  17. An Intelligent Simulator for Telerobotics Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belghith, K.; Nkambou, R.; Kabanza, F.; Hartman, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roman Tutor is a tutoring system that uses sophisticated domain knowledge to monitor the progress of students and advise them while they are learning how to operate a space telerobotic system. It is intended to help train operators of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) including astronauts, operators involved in ground-based…

  18. Planning And Reasoning For A Telerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Stephen F.; Mittman, David S.; Collins, Carol E.; O'Meara Callahan, Jacquelyn S.; Rokey, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    Document discusses research and development of Telerobot Interactive Planning System (TIPS). Goal in development of TIPS is to enable it to accept instructions from operator, then command run-time controller to execute operations to execute instructions. Challenges in transferring technology from testbed to operational system discussed.

  19. Virtual environments for telerobotic shared control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Brian K.

    1994-01-01

    The use of a virtual environment to bring about telerobotic shared control is discussed. A knowledge base, referred to as the World Model, is used to aid the system in its decision making. Information from the World Model is displayed visually in order to aid the human side of human-computer interface.

  20. Telerobotic Excavation System for Unexploded Ordnance Retrieval

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-16

    34 proceedings of the 1992 American Nuclear Society/European Nulcear Society International Conference, Chicago, Illinois, November 15- 20, 1992, pages...Killough S. M., "Remote Excavation Using the Telerobotic Small Emplacement Excavator," proceedings of the American Nulcear Society Fifth Topical

  1. An Intelligent Simulator for Telerobotics Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belghith, K.; Nkambou, R.; Kabanza, F.; Hartman, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roman Tutor is a tutoring system that uses sophisticated domain knowledge to monitor the progress of students and advise them while they are learning how to operate a space telerobotic system. It is intended to help train operators of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) including astronauts, operators involved in ground-based…

  2. Multi-level manual and autonomous control superposition for intelligent telerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirai, Shigeoki; Sato, T.

    1989-01-01

    Space telerobots are recognized to require cooperation with human operators in various ways. Multi-level manual and autonomous control superposition in telerobot task execution is described. The object model, the structured master-slave manipulation system, and the motion understanding system are proposed to realize the concept. The object model offers interfaces for task level and object level human intervention. The structured master-slave manipulation system offers interfaces for motion level human intervention. The motion understanding system maintains the consistency of the knowledge through all the levels which supports the robot autonomy while accepting the human intervention. The superposing execution of the teleoperational task at multi-levels realizes intuitive and robust task execution for wide variety of objects and in changeful environment. The performance of several examples of operating chemical apparatuses is shown.

  3. A Space Data System Standard for Telerobotic Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David S.; Martinez, Lindolfo

    2014-01-01

    The Telerobotics Working Group of the Mission Operations and Information Management Services Area of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems is drafting a document that will help bound the scope of an eventual international standard for telerobotic operations services. This paper will present the work in progress and provide background for how the international community is beginning to define standards in telerobotic operations that will help ensure the success of complex missions to explore beyond Earth orbit.

  4. A Space Data System Standard for Telerobotic Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David S.; Martinez, Lindolfo

    2014-01-01

    The Telerobotics Working Group of the Mission Operations and Information Management Services Area of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems is drafting a document that will help bound the scope of an eventual international standard for telerobotic operations services. This paper will present the work in progress and provide background for how the international community is beginning to define standards in telerobotic operations that will help ensure the success of complex missions to explore beyond Earth orbit.

  5. (abstract) An Ada Language Modular Telerobot Task Execution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul; Long, Mark; Steele, Robert

    1993-01-01

    A telerobotic task execution system is described which has been developed for space flight applications. The Modular Telerobot Task Execution System (MOTES) provides the remote site task execution capability in a local-remote telerobotic system. The system provides supervised autonomous control, shared control, and teleoperation for a redundant manipulator. The system is capable of nominal task execution as well as monitoring and reflex motion.

  6. ISS Update: SPHERES with Telerobotics Project Manager Terry Fong

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with Terry Fong, Telerobotics Project Manager, about how the Synchronized Position, Hold, Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites, or SPHERES, are ...

  7. NASREN: Standard reference model for telerobot control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, J. S.; Lumia, R.; Mccain, H.

    1987-01-01

    A hierarchical architecture is described which supports space station telerobots in a variety of modes. The system is divided into three hierarchies: task decomposition, world model, and sensory processing. Goals at each level of the task dedomposition heirarchy are divided both spatially and temporally into simpler commands for the next lower level. This decomposition is repreated until, at the lowest level, the drive signals to the robot actuators are generated. To accomplish its goals, task decomposition modules must often use information stored it the world model. The purpose of the sensory system is to update the world model as rapidly as possible to keep the model in registration with the physical world. The architecture of the entire control system hierarch is described and how it can be applied to space telerobot applications.

  8. A modular software system for distributed telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Sean; Ciscon, Larry; Wise, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe a control architecture for telerobotics research. The architecture was object-oriented and data-driven, and can be distributed over many processors on a wide-area network (WAN). The basic capabilities of this testbed have already been demonstrated in tests distributed over four cities. The data distribution techniques of this control architecture are described, as well as details of the current implementation and experimental results.

  9. Using automatic robot programming for space telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazer, E.; Jones, J.; Lanusse, A.; Lozano-Perez, T.; Odonnell, P.; Tournassoud, P.

    1987-01-01

    The interpreter of a task level robot programming system called Handey is described. Handey is a system that can recognize, manipulate and assemble polyhedral parts when given only a specification of the goal. To perform an assembly, Handey makes use of a recognition module, a gross motion planner, a grasp planner, a local approach planner and is capable of planning part re-orientation. The possibility of including these modules in a telerobotics work-station is discussed.

  10. Manipulator control and mechanization: A telerobot subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, S.; Wilcox, B.

    1987-01-01

    The short- and long-term autonomous robot control activities in the Robotics and Teleoperators Research Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are described. This group is one of several involved in robotics and is an integral part of a new NASA robotics initiative called Telerobot program. A description of the architecture, hardware and software, and the research direction in manipulator control is given.

  11. Telerobotic operation of conventional robot manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Boissiere, P.T.; Harrigan, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses a new telerobotic control concept and its implementation using a PUMA-560 robot manipulator. The control concept couples human supervisory commands with computer reasoning. The control system is responsive and accomplishes an operator's commands while providing obstacle avoidance and controlled interactions with the environment where desired. This provides a system which not only assists the operator in accomplishing tasks but modifies inappropriate operator commands which can result in safety hazards and/or equipment damage. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  12. The JAU-JPL anthropomorphic telerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.

    1989-01-01

    Work in progress on the new anthropomorphic telerobot is described. The initial robot configuration consists of a seven DOF arm and a sixteen DOF hand, having three fingers and a thumb. The robot has active compliance, enabling subsequent dual arm manipulations. To control the rather complex configuration of this robot, an exoskeleton master arm harness and a glove controller were built. The controller will be used for teleoperational tasks and as a research tool to efficiently teach the computer controller advanced manipulation techniques.

  13. Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Kennedy Space Center telerobotic inspection and manipulation demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian; Davis, Leon

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this effort is to demonstrate telerobotic inspection and mainpulation of space shuttle payloads in the presence of substantial communications time delays between the operator station and the robotic work space. The processing of space shuttle payloads provides a variety of tasks which are typical of both space shuttle ground operations and Space Station in-flight operations, and communications time delays are inevitable in space operations where the operator station will be light-seconds away from the telerobot. With this demonstration we hope to show the efficacy and safety of robotic technology for ground and space operations. Our approach is to develop an experimental telerobotic system with the remote sensing, actuation and reflex portions located at KSC in Florida, while the operator control station will be located at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in California. The JPL portion of the system includes a high-level operator interface, intelligent spatial planning and machine vision, while the KSC portion includes the robot arm, end effectors, cameras and proximity sensors, and the necessary control and communications computers and software. The communications between JPL and KSC are over a limited-bandwidth network channel (19200 baud) with unpredictable and unrepeatable time delays. In FY89 we integrated a basic version of the robotic, communications, and computer hardware, and we developed the software to perform an operator-supervised inspection of a PAM-D satellite upper stage rocket motor and its shuttle support cradle. The demonstration, though severely limited by the bulk of the available computer arm, showed the potential of telerobotics for inspection tasks. In the future, we plan to develop additional capabilities which will allow manipulation tasks to be performed, including removal of dust covers and lens caps, insertion of connectors and batteries, and installation of payload objects.

  14. Telerobotic system performance measurement: motivation and methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondraske, George V.; Khoury, George J.

    1992-11-01

    Telerobotic systems (TRSs) and shared teleautonomous systems result from the integration of multiple sophisticated modules. Procedures used in systems integration design decision-making of such systems are frequently ad hoc compared to more quantitative and systematic methods employed elsewhere in engineering. Experimental findings associated with verification and validation (V&V) are often application-specific. Furthermore, models and measurement strategies do not exist which allow prediction of overall TRS performance in a given task based on knowledge of the performance characteristics of individual subsystems. This paper introduces the use of general systems performance theory (GSPT), developed by the senior author to help resolve similar problems in human performance, as a basis for: (1) measurement of overall TRS performance (viewing all system components, including the operator, as a single entity); (2) task decomposition; (3) development of a generic TRS model; and (4) the characterization of performance of subsystems comprising the generic model. GSPT uses a resource construct to model performance and resource economic principles to govern the interface of systems to tasks. It provides a comprehensive modeling/measurement strategy applicable to complex systems including both human and artificial components. Application is presented in the context of a distributed telerobotics network (Universities Space Automation and Robotics Consortium) as a testbed. Insight into the design of test protocols which elicit application-independent data (i.e., multi-purpose or reusable) is described. Although the work is motivated by space automation and robotics challenges, it is considered to be applicable to telerobotic systems in general.

  15. Intelligent telerobotic assistant for people with disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazi, Zunaid; Beitler, Matthew; Salganicoff, Marcos; Chen, Shoupu; Chester, Daniel; Foulds, Richard

    1995-12-01

    The development of an assistive telerobotic system which integrates human-computer interaction with reactive planning is the goal of our research. The system is intended to operate in an unstructured environment, rather than in a structured workcell, allowing the user considerably freedom and flexibility in terms of control and operating ease. Our approach is based on the assumption that while the user's world is unstructured, objects within are reasonably predictable. We reflect this arrangement by providing a means of determining the superquadric shape representation of the scene, and an object-oriented knowledge base and reactive planner which superimposes information about common objects in the world. A multimodal user interface interprets deictic gesture and speech inputs with the goal of identifying the object that is of interest to the user. The multimodal interface performs a critical disambiguation function by binding the spoken words to a locus in the physical work space. The spoken input is also used to supplant the need for general purpose object recognition. Instead, 3D shape information is augmented by the users spoken word which may also invoke the appropriate inheritance of object properties using the adopted hierarchical object-oriented representation scheme. The underlying planning mechanism results in a reactive, intelligent and `instructible' telerobot. We describe our approach for an intelligent assistive telerobotic system (MUSIIC) for unstructured environments: speech-deictic gesture control integrated with a knowledge-driven reactive planner and a stereo-vision system.

  16. Challenges of Human-Robot Communication in Telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.

    1996-01-01

    Some general considerations are presented on bilateral human-telerobot control and information communication issues. Advances are reviewed related to the more conventional human-telerobot communication techniques, and some unconventional but promising communication methods are briefly discussed. Future needs and emerging application domains are briefly indicated.

  17. Challenges of Human-Robot Communication in Telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.

    1996-01-01

    Some general considerations are presented on bilateral human-telerobot control and information communication issues. Advances are reviewed related to the more conventional human-telerobot communication techniques, and some unconventional but promising communication methods are briefly discussed. Future needs and emerging application domains are briefly indicated.

  18. Design evolution of a telerobotic servicer through neutral buoyancy simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, David L.; Howard, Russell D.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Graves, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly recounts the history of telerobotic vehicles in the Space Systems Laboratory. Based on this overview, the design of two vehicles are examined in depth, and directly compared. The Beam Assembly Teleoperator was the first true telerobot designed be the Space Systems Laboratory, and has been used extensively for six years. Ranger is the newest telerobot of the SSL, and is currently under development for operational testing in the summer of 1992. The primary focus of this paper is to compare and contrast the design details of these two telerobots, and to examine in some detail the evolution of design knowledge on some telerobots gained over the years of neutral buoyancy testing in the SSL.

  19. Human-telerobot interactions - Information, control, and mental models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Randy L.; Gillan, Douglas J.

    1987-01-01

    A part of the NASA's Space Station will be a teleoperated robot (telerobot) with arms for grasping and manipulation, feet for holding onto objects, and television cameras for visual feedback. The objective of the work described in this paper is to develop the requirements and specifications for the user-telerobot interface and to determine through research and testing that the interface results in efficient system operation. The focus of the development of the user-telerobot interface is on the information required by the user, the user inputs, and the design of the control workstation. Closely related to both the information required by the user and the user's control of the telerobot is the user's mental model of the relationship between the control inputs and the telerobot's actions.

  20. Construction and demonstration of a 9-string 6 DOF force reflecting joystick for telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindemann, Randel; Tesar, Delbert

    1989-01-01

    Confrontation with difficult manipulation tasks in hostile environments such as space, has led to the development of means to transport the human's senses, skills and cognition to the remote site. The use of advanced Telerobotics to achieve this goal is examined. A novel and universal hand controller based on a fully parallel mechanical architecture is discussed. The design and implementation of this 6 DOF force reflecting joystick is shown in relationship to the general philosophy of achieving telepresence in a man-machine system.

  1. A distributed telerobotics system for space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, James D.; Ciscon, Lawrence A.; Graves, Sean

    1992-01-01

    Robotic systems for space operations will require a combination of teleoperation, closely supervised autonomy, and loosely supervised autonomy. They may involve multiple robots, multiple controlling sites, and long communication delays. We have constructed a distributed telerobotics system as a framework for studying these problems. Our system is based on a modular interconnection scheme which allows the components of either manual or autonomous control systems to communicate and share information. It uses a wide area network to connect robots and operators at several different sites. This presentation will describe the structure of our system, the components used in our configurations, and results of some of our teleoperation experiments.

  2. Telerobotics with whole arm collision avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, K.; Strenn, S.

    1993-09-01

    The complexity of teleorbotic operations in a cluttered environment is exacerbated by the need to present collision information to the operator in an understandable fashion. In addition to preventing movements which will cause collisions, a system providing some form of virtual force reflection (VFR) is desirable. With this goal in mind, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has installed a kinematically master/slave system and developed a whole arm collision avoidance system which interacts directly with the telerobotic controller. LLNL has also provided a structure to allow for automated upgrades of workcell models and provide collision avoidance even in a dynamically changing workcell.

  3. Visual Information Processing for Television and Telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O. (Editor); Park, Stephen K. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of the papers presented at the NASA conference on Visual Information Processing for Television and Telerobotics. The conference was held at the Williamsburg Hilton, Williamsburg, Virginia on May 10 to 12, 1989. The conference was sponsored jointly by NASA Offices of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) and Space Science and Applications (OSSA) and the NASA Langley Research Center. The presentations were grouped into three sessions: Image Gathering, Coding, and Advanced Concepts; Systems; and Technologies. The program was organized to provide a forum in which researchers from industry, universities, and government could be brought together to discuss the state of knowledge in image gathering, coding, and processing methods.

  4. NASA Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator control system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, J. C.; Butler, P. L.; Glassell, R. L.; Herndon, J. N.

    1992-01-01

    In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goals to increase the utilization of dexterous robotic systems in space, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) system. It is a dexterous, dual-arm, force reflecting teleoperator system with robotic features for NASA ground-based research. This paper describes the overall control system architecture, including both the hardware and software. The control system is a distributed, modular, and hierarchical design with flexible expansion capabilities for future enhancements of both the hardware and software.

  5. Dual use display systems for telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massimino, Michael J.; Meschler, Michael F.; Rodriguez, Alberto A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a telerobotics display system, the Multi-mode Manipulator Display System (MMDS), that has applications for a variety of remotely controlled tasks. Designed primarily to assist astronauts with the control of space robotics systems, the MMDS has applications for ground control of space robotics as well as for toxic waste cleanup, undersea, remotely operated vehicles, and other environments which require remote operations. The MMDS has three modes: (1) Manipulator Position Display (MPD) mode, (2) Joint Angle Display (JAD) mode, and (3) Sensory Substitution (SS) mode. These three modes are discussed in the paper.

  6. NASA Laboratory telerobotic manipulator control system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, J. C.; Butler, P. L.; Glassell, R. L.; Herndon, J. N.

    1991-01-01

    In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goals to increase the utilization of dexterous robotic systems in space, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) system. It is a dexterous, dual-arm, force reflecting teleoperator system with robotic features for NASA ground-based research. This paper describes the overall control system architecture, including both the hardware and software. The control system is a distributed, modular, and hierarchical design with flexible expansion capabilities for future enhancements of both the hardware and software.

  7. Open control/display system for a telerobotics work station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keslowitz, Saul

    1987-01-01

    A working Advanced Space Cockpit was developed that integrated advanced control and display devices into a state-of-the-art multimicroprocessor hardware configuration, using window graphics and running under an object-oriented, multitasking real-time operating system environment. This Open Control/Display System supports the idea that the operator should be able to interactively monitor, select, control, and display information about many payloads aboard the Space Station using sets of I/O devices with a single, software-reconfigurable workstation. This is done while maintaining system consistency, yet the system is completely open to accept new additions and advances in hardware and software. The Advanced Space Cockpit, linked to Grumman's Hybrid Computing Facility and Large Amplitude Space Simulator (LASS), was used to test the Open Control/Display System via full-scale simulation of the following tasks: telerobotic truss assembly, RCS and thermal bus servicing, CMG changeout, RMS constrained motion and space constructible radiator assembly, HPA coordinated control, and OMV docking and tumbling satellite retrieval. The proposed man-machine interface standard discussed has evolved through many iterations of the tasks, and is based on feedback from NASA and Air Force personnel who performed those tasks in the LASS.

  8. Comparison of two different running models for the shock wave lithotripsy machine in Taipei City Hospital: self-support versus outsourcing cooperation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Yi; Chen, Shiou-Sheng; Chen, Li-Kuei

    2009-10-01

    To compare two different running models including self-support and outsourcing cooperation for the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) machine in Taipei City Hospital, we made a retrospective study. Self-support means that the hospital has to buy an SWL machine and get all the payment from SWL. In outsourcing cooperation, the cooperative company provides an SWL machine and shares the payment with the hospital. Between January 2002 and December 2006, we used self-support for the SWL machine, and from January 2007 to December 2008, we used outsourcing cooperation. We used the method of full costing to calculate the cost of SWL, and the break-even point was the lowest number of treatment sessions of SWL to make balance of payments every month. Quality parameters including stone-free rate, retreatment rate, additional procedures and complication rate were evaluated. When outsourcing cooperation was used, there were significantly more treatment sessions of SWL every month than when utilizing self-support (36.3 +/- 5.1 vs. 48.1 +/- 8.4, P = 0.03). The cost of SWL for every treatment session was significantly higher using self-support than with outsourcing cooperation (25027.5 +/- 1789.8 NT$ vs. 21367.4 +/- 201.0 NT$). The break-even point was 28.3 (treatment sessions) for self-support, and 28.4 for outsourcing cooperation, when the hospital got 40% of the payment, which would decrease if the percentage increased. No significant differences were noticed for stone-free rate, retreatment rate, additional procedures and complication rate of SWL between the two running models. Besides, outsourcing cooperation had lower cost (every treatment session), but a greater number of treatment sessions of SWL every month than self-support.

  9. An Ada run-time control architecture for telerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Rodriguez, G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture and Ada language implementation of a process-level run-time control subystem for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) telerobot system. The concept of run-time control in a combined robot-teleoperation environment is examined and the telerobot system at JPL is described. An Ada language implementation of the JPL Telerobot Run-Time Controller (RTC) is described by highlighting the functional behavior of the subsystem, defining the internal modules, and providing a functional flow time sequence of internal module activity.

  10. Telerobotic excavation system for unexploded ordnance retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, B.L.; Killough, S.M.; Thompson, D.H.; Rossi, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The small emplacement excavator (SEE) is a ruggedized military vehicle with backhoe and front loader used by the US Army for unexploded ordnance (UXO) retrieval and general utility excavation activities. In order to evaluate the feasibility of removing personnel from the vehicle during high-risk excavation tasks a development and demonstration project was initiated to evaluate performance capabilities of the SEE under telerobotic control. A technology demonstration of the TSEE was conducted at McKinley Range, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama on 13--17 September, 1993. The primary objective of the demonstration was to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of remote UXO retrieval. During the demonstration, explosive ordnance disposal specialists were instructed on telerobotic operation of the TSEE, and then were asked to complete a simulated UXO retrieval task. Participants then submitted an evaluation of the system including human factors performance data. This presentation will describe the TSEE, retrieval demonstration, and summarize results of the performance evaluations. Some examples of the results are given below. Seventy percent of the demonstration participants found the tasks were as easy or easier to accomplish utilizing the remote system than with an unmodified system. Similarly, eighty percent of the participants found the TSEE hand controller was as easy or easier to use than the normal manual controls.

  11. Behavior-Based Assists for Telerobotic Manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, Mark W; Hamel, Dr. William R.

    2008-01-01

    Teleoperated manipulation has been a critical tool in hazardous operations where the presence of humans has been precluded since the early days of nuclear material handling. Performance levels and limitations were understood and accepted. However, in the current era of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy, there has been criticism that traditional remote systems are too expensive, too slow, and too difficult to use by cost-driven demolition companies. Previous research in telerobotics has attempted to alleviate some of these issues; however, it has been difficult to get capabilities generated in the research lab into the field. One major difficulty is the severely unstructured environments found in real D&D type environments. Behavior-based robotics (BBR) is based on concepts specifically designed to permit autonomous robots to function in unstructured environments. BBR schemes use sensor data to interact with the world directly rather than to generate models that are manipulated. Because the robot is immersed in its environment and since sensors are mounted on the robot, sensing and motion are inherently calibrated with respect to the robot. This paper presents a behavior-based approach and architecture for executing telerobotic D&D type tooling tasks.

  12. Cooperative control of visual displays for telemanipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Stark, Lawrence W.

    1989-01-01

    Two cooperative control schemes for telerobot visual displays are addressed. In the first scheme, on-the-screen visual enhancements such as reference lines indicating the vertical height of the robot hand, a stick figure model of the robot hand, and its projection on the horizontal grid plane are constructed by the interactive cooperation between the human operator and the telerobotic system, and then superimposed on the video screen. Experimental results with a five-degree-of-freedom robot and a frame grabber indicate that superimposition of visual enhancements on the video screen greatly improves telemanipulation task performance. In the second scheme, the position and orientation of an object on video screens are determined interactively; these then assist the telerobotic system in executing the human operator's task-level commands autonomously.

  13. A Telerobot to Extend the Skill of Microsurgeons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, H.; Ohm, T.; Boswell, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Steele, R.; Charles, S.

    1998-01-01

    The engineering details of the Robot Assisted MicroSurgery (RAMS) telerobotic system designed to assist microsurgeons improve the precision and dexterity with which they can position surgical instruments is described in this paper.

  14. A Telerobot to Extend the Skill of Microsurgeons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, H.; Ohm, T.; Boswell, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Steele, R.; Charles, S.

    1998-01-01

    The engineering details of the Robot Assisted MicroSurgery (RAMS) telerobotic system designed to assist microsurgeons improve the precision and dexterity with which they can position surgical instruments is described in this paper.

  15. Telerobotic manipulator developments for ground-based space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herndon, J. N.; Babcock, S. M.; Butler, P. L.; Costello, H. M.; Glassell, R. L.; Kress, Reid L.; Kuban, D. P.; Rowe, J. C.; Williams, D. M.; Meintel, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    New opportunities for the application of telerobotic systems to enhance human intelligence and dexterity in the hazardous environment of space are presented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Station Program. Because of the need for significant increases in extravehicular activity and the potential increase in hazards associated with space programs, emphasis is being heightened on telerobotic systems research and development. The Automation Technology Branch at NASA Langley Research Center currently is sponsoring the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop and demonstrate ground-based telerobotic manipulator system hardware for research and demonstrations aimed at future NASA applications. The LTM incorporates traction drives, modularity, redundant kinematics, and state-of-the-art hierarchical control techniques to form a basis for merging the diverse technological domains of robust, high-dexterity teleoperations and autonomous robotic operation into common hardware to further NASA's research.

  16. Planning and reasoning in the JPL telerobot testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Stephen; Mittman, David; Collins, Carol; Omeara, Jacquie; Rokey, Mark

    1990-01-01

    The Telerobot Interactive Planning System is developed to serve as the highest autonomous-control level of the Telerobot Testbed. A recent prototype is described which integrates an operator interface for supervisory control, a task planner supporting disassembly and re-assembly operations, and a spatial planner for collision-free manipulator motion through the workspace. Each of these components is described in detail. Descriptions of the technical problem, approach, and lessons learned are included.

  17. Telerobotic rendezvous and docking vision system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gravely, Ben; Myers, Donald; Moody, David

    1992-01-01

    This research program has successfully demonstrated a new target label architecture that allows a microcomputer to determine the position, orientation, and identity of an object. It contains a CAD-like database with specific geometric information about the object for approach, grasping, and docking maneuvers. Successful demonstrations were performed selecting and docking an ORU box with either of two ORU receptacles. Small, but significant differences were seen in the two camera types used in the program, and camera sensitive program elements have been identified. The software has been formatted into a new co-autonomy system which provides various levels of operator interaction and promises to allow effective application of telerobotic systems while code improvements are continuing.

  18. Ranger telerobotic shuttle experiment: a status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gefke, Gardell; Carignan, Craig R.; Roberts, Brian E.; Lane, J. Corde

    2002-02-01

    This paper presents an update on the Ranger Telerobotic Shuttle Experiment (RTSX) and associated key robotics technologies within the Ranger program. Ranger TSX will operate from a Spacelab logistics pallet inside the cargo bay of the shuttle and will demonstrate space station and on-orbit servicing operations including extravehicular (EVA) worksite setup, an orbital replacement unit (ORU) exchange, and various task board experiments. The flight system will be teleoperated from the middeck inside the shuttle as well as from a ground control station at NASA Johnson Space Center. This paper addresses the technical and programmatic status of the flight experiment and describes progress on the engineering test unit, Ranger Neutral Buoyancy Vehicle II (RNBVII), currently in fabrication. Also described are associated technologies, which support this effort. These include a flight robot mockup built to practice EVA stowage and Ranger NBV I, a free-flight prototype vehicle.

  19. Flight telerobotic servicer control from the Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Texas M.; Harlan, Don L.

    1989-01-01

    The research and work conducted on the development of a testbed for a display and control panel for the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) are presented. Research was conducted on both software and hardware needed to control the FTS. A breadboard was constructed and placed into a mockup of the aft station of the Orbiter spacecraft. This breadboard concept was then evaluated using a computer graphics representation of the Tinman FTS. Extensive research was conducted on the software requirements and implementation. The hardware selected for the breadboard was 'flight like' and in some cases fit and function evaluated. The breadboard team studied some of the concepts without pursuing in depth their impact on the Orbiter or other missions. Assumptions are made concerning payload integration.

  20. Micro-telerobotic surgical system for microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, D M; Morimoto, A K; Charles, S T

    1997-01-01

    Modern surgical methods which utilize microscopes have allowed medical professionals to visualize the surgical field on the order of microns. This new found visual capacity has created a performance gap between a surgeon's visual skills and manipulative skills that surgical robotics have the capability to remedy. Robotics can be used as an aid to the surgeon to help correct natural human dexterity problems such as tremor and resolution of motion. Devices that would benefit surgical dexterity at the micron scale are in development at Sandia National Laboratories. A six degree-of-freedom (DOF) force reflecting telerobotic manipulator has been designed and developed for use in microsurgical applications. The system utilizes a unique mechanical platform, actuation schemes, and controller that provides high positional precision while maintaining high frequency response for implementation of force feedback. Thus, the same device is used to form a master-slave telerobotic arrangement to assist the surgeon. This makes the system very intuitive to the surgeon and easier to implement for the engineer. The system utilizes high performance Digital Signal Processors (DSP) for control of both the master and slave platforms. Six dimensional force information is obtained from transducers located at the end effectors of both the master and slave. Two distinctly different types of motors are currently being evaluated, as well as several types of control algorithms. Position scaling, force scaling, and tremor filtering are being implemented in the DSP control software. Control parameters are based upon system frequency response testing. Results from our system identification and performance testing will be discussed.

  1. Comparison of two human-machine-interfaces for cooperative maneuver-based driving.

    PubMed

    Franz, Benjamin; Kauer, Michaela; Blanke, Anton; Schreiber, Michael; Bruder, Ralph; Geyer, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    In the project "Conduct-by-Wire" which is founded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) cooperative maneuver based driving is examined. In this paper two different input devices (gesture recognition and tactile touch display) are compared in a simulator study with 29 participants. It shows that the major advantage of the gesture recognition is that there is no need for the driver to take his gaze off the road. In contrast, the number of gazes at the tactile touch display is significantly higher. The major advantage of the tactile touch display is that no input errors occurred during the test drives. Conversely, the gesture recognition was significantly worse. Nevertheless, further work is needed to decide which input device is the best.

  2. Telerobot local-remote control architecture for space flight program applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Backes, Paul; Steele, Robert; Long, Mark; Bon, Bruce; Beahan, John

    1993-01-01

    The JPL Supervisory Telerobotics (STELER) Laboratory has developed and demonstrated a unique local-remote robot control architecture which enables management of intermittent communication bus latencies and delays such as those expected for ground-remote operation of Space Station robotic systems via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) communication platform. The current work at JPL in this area has focused on enhancing the technologies and transferring the control architecture to hardware and software environments which are more compatible with projected ground and space operational environments. At the local site, the operator updates the remote worksite model using stereo video and a model overlay/fitting algorithm which outputs the location and orientation of the object in free space. That information is relayed to the robot User Macro Interface (UMI) to enable programming of the robot control macros. This capability runs on a single Silicon Graphics Inc. machine. The operator can employ either manual teleoperation, shared control, or supervised autonomous control to manipulate the intended object. The remote site controller, called the Modular Telerobot Task Execution System (MOTES), runs in a multi-processor VME environment and performs the task sequencing, task execution, trajectory generation, closed loop force/torque control, task parameter monitoring, and reflex action. This paper describes the new STELER architecture implementation, and also documents the results of the recent autonomous docking task execution using the local site and MOTES.

  3. Telerobot local-remote control architecture for space flight program applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Backes, Paul; Steele, Robert; Long, Mark; Bon, Bruce; Beahan, John

    1993-01-01

    The JPL Supervisory Telerobotics (STELER) Laboratory has developed and demonstrated a unique local-remote robot control architecture which enables management of intermittent communication bus latencies and delays such as those expected for ground-remote operation of Space Station robotic systems via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) communication platform. The current work at JPL in this area has focused on enhancing the technologies and transferring the control architecture to hardware and software environments which are more compatible with projected ground and space operational environments. At the local site, the operator updates the remote worksite model using stereo video and a model overlay/fitting algorithm which outputs the location and orientation of the object in free space. That information is relayed to the robot User Macro Interface (UMI) to enable programming of the robot control macros. This capability runs on a single Silicon Graphics Inc. machine. The operator can employ either manual teleoperation, shared control, or supervised autonomous control to manipulate the intended object. The remote site controller, called the Modular Telerobot Task Execution System (MOTES), runs in a multi-processor VME environment and performs the task sequencing, task execution, trajectory generation, closed loop force/torque control, task parameter monitoring, and reflex action. This paper describes the new STELER architecture implementation, and also documents the results of the recent autonomous docking task execution using the local site and MOTES.

  4. An expert system for planning and scheduling in a telerobotic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ntuen, Celestine A.; Park, Eui H.

    1991-01-01

    A knowledge based approach to assigning tasks to multi-agents working cooperatively in jobs that require a telerobot in the loop was developed. The generality of the approach allows for such a concept to be applied in a nonteleoperational domain. The planning architecture known as the task oriented planner (TOP) uses the principle of flow mechanism and the concept of planning by deliberation to preserve and use knowledge about a particular task. The TOP is an open ended architecture developed with a NEXPERT expert system shell and its knowledge organization allows for indirect consultation at various levels of task abstraction. Considering that a telerobot operates in a hostile and nonstructured environment, task scheduling should respond to environmental changes. A general heuristic was developed for scheduling jobs with the TOP system. The technique is not to optimize a given scheduling criterion as in classical job and/or flow shop problems. For a teleoperation job schedule, criteria are situation dependent. A criterion selection is fuzzily embedded in the task-skill matrix computation. However, goal achievement with minimum expected risk to the human operator is emphasized.

  5. Label-free and dual-amplified detection of protein via small molecule-ligand linked DNA and a cooperative DNA machine.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Jing; Wu, Yushu; Jiang, Wei

    2015-10-15

    Sensitive detection of protein is essential for both molecular diagnostics and biomedical research. Here, taking folate receptor as the model analyte, we developed a label-free and dual-amplified strategy via small molecular-ligand linked DNA and a cooperative DNA machine which could perform primary amplification and mediate secondary amplification simultaneously. Firstly, the specific binding of folate receptor to the small-molecule folate which linked to a trigger DNA could protect the trigger DNA from exonuclease I digestion, translating folate receptor detection into trigger DNA detection. Subsequently, trigger DNA initiated the DNA machine through hybridizing with the hairpin of the DNA machine, resulting in hairpin conformational change and stem open. The open stem further hybridized with a primer which initiated circular strand-displacement polymerization reaction; meanwhile the rolling circle amplification templates which were initially blocked in the DNA machine were liberated to mediate rolling circle amplification. In such a working model, the DNA machine achieved cooperatively controlling circular strand-displacement polymerization reaction and rolling circle amplification, realizing dual-amplification. Finally, the rolling circle amplification process synthesized a long repeated G-quadruplex sequence, which strongly interacted with N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX, bringing label-free fluorescence signal. This strategy could detect folate receptor as low as 0.23 pM. A recovery over 90% was obtained when folate receptor was detected in spiked human serum, demonstrating the feasibility of this detection strategy in biological samples.

  6. Weighted feature selection criteria for visual servoing of a telerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feddema, John T.; Lee, C. S. G.; Mitchell, O. R.

    1989-01-01

    Because of the continually changing environment of a space station, visual feedback is a vital element of a telerobotic system. A real time visual servoing system would allow a telerobot to track and manipulate randomly moving objects. Methodologies for the automatic selection of image features to be used to visually control the relative position between an eye-in-hand telerobot and a known object are devised. A weighted criteria function with both image recognition and control components is used to select the combination of image features which provides the best control. Simulation and experimental results of a PUMA robot arm visually tracking a randomly moving carburetor gasket with a visual update time of 70 milliseconds are discussed.

  7. The effect of monocular target blur on simulated telerobotic manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Andrew; Stark, Lawrence

    1991-01-01

    A simulation involving three types of telerobotic tasks that require information about the spatial position of objects is reported. This is similar to the results of psychophysical experiments examining the effect of blur on stereoacuity. It is suggested that other psychophysical experimental results could be used to predict operator performance for other telerobotic tasks. It is demonstrated that refractive errors in the helmet-mounted stereo display system can affect performance in the three types of telerobotic tasks. The results of two sets of experiments indicate that monocular target blur of two diopters or more degrades stereo display performance to the level of monocular displays. This indicates that moderate levels of visual degradation that affect the operator's stereoacuity may eliminate the performance advantage of stereo displays.

  8. Ground operation of space-based telerobots will enhance productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schober, Wayne R.

    1988-01-01

    Due to the limited human resources which will be available on the U.S. Space Station, automation and robotics technologies are being developed to enhance the productivity on the Space Station. The need for space telerobots which can be operated from the ground is explored, taking into consideration the resulting time delay, the technology involved, and some currently planned experiments. The proposed experiments include a remote link with the Kennedy Space Center robotics laboratory and the Telerobot Intelligent Interface Flight Experiment (TRIIFEX). It is concluded that there is a need to develop and implement ground-remote telerobotics technology which can effectively operate in the time-delay environment. This capability will enable servicing operations in polar and geosynchronous orbits and assist EVA astronauts on the Space Station.

  9. Fuzzy logic control of telerobot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franke, Ernest A.; Nedungadi, Ashok

    1992-01-01

    Telerobot systems for advanced applications will require manipulators with redundant 'degrees of freedom' (DOF) that are capable of adapting manipulator configurations to avoid obstacles while achieving the user specified goal. Conventional methods for control of manipulators (based on solution of the inverse kinematics) cannot be easily extended to these situations. Fuzzy logic control offers a possible solution to these needs. A current research program at SRI developed a fuzzy logic controller for a redundant, 4 DOF, planar manipulator. The manipulator end point trajectory can be specified by either a computer program (robot mode) or by manual input (teleoperator). The approach used expresses end-point error and the location of manipulator joints as fuzzy variables. Joint motions are determined by a fuzzy rule set without requiring solution of the inverse kinematics. Additional rules for sensor data, obstacle avoidance and preferred manipulator configuration, e.g., 'righty' or 'lefty', are easily accommodated. The procedure used to generate the fuzzy rules can be extended to higher DOF systems.

  10. Telerobotics - Display, control, and communication problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Lawrence; Kim, Won-Soo; Tendick, Frank; Hannaford, Blake; Ellis, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    An experimental telerobotics simulation is described suitable for studying human operator (HO) performance. Simple manipulator pick-and-place and tracking tasks allowed quantitative comparison of a number of calligraphic display viewing conditions. An enhanced perspective display was effective with a reference line from target to base, with or without a complex three-dimensional grid framing the view. This was true especially if geometrical display parameters such as azimuth and elevation were arranged to be near optimal. Quantitative comparisons were made possible, utilizing control performance measures such as root mean square error. There was a distinct preference for controlling the manipulator in end-effector Cartesian space for the primitive pick-and-place task, rather than controlling joint angles and then, via direct kinematis, the end-effector position. An introduced communication delay was found to produce decrease in performance. In considerable part, this difficulty could be compensated for by preview control information. The fact that neurological control of normal human movement contains a sampled data period of 0.2 s may relate to this robustness of HO control to delay.

  11. Telerobotics: A simulation facility for university research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, L.; Kim, W.; Tendick, F.; Tyler, M.; Hannaford, B.; Barakat, W.; Bergengruen, O.; Braddi, L.; Eisenberg, J.; Ellis, S.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental telerobotics (TR) simulation suitable for studying human operator (H.O.) performance is described. Simple manipulator pick-and-place and tracking tasks allowed quantitative comparison of a number of calligraphic display viewing conditions. A number of control modes could be compared in this TR simulation, including displacement, rate and acceleratory control using position and force joysticks. A homeomorphic controller turned out to be no better than joysticks; the adaptive properties of the H.O. can apparently permit quite good control over a variety of controller configurations and control modes. Training by optimal control example seemed helpful in preliminary experiments. An introduced communication delay was found to produce decrease in performance. In considerable part, this difficulty could be compensated for by preview control information. That neurological control of normal human movement contains a data period of 0.2 second may relate to this robustness of H.O. control to delay. The Ames-Berkeley enhanced perspective display was utilized in conjunction with an experimental helmet mounted display system (HMD) that provided stereoscopic enhanced views.

  12. Telerobotic on-orbit remote fluid resupply system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The development of a telerobotic on-orbit fluid resupply demonstration system is described. A fluid transfer demonstration system was developed which functionally simulates operations required to remotely transfer fluids (liquids or gases) from a servicing spacecraft to a receiving spacecraft through the use of telerobotic manipulations. The fluid system is representative of systems used by current or planned spacecraft and propulsion stages requiring on-orbit remote resupply. The system was integrated with an existing MSFC remotely controlled manipulator arm to mate/demate couplings for demonstration and evaluation of a complete remotely operated fluid transfer system.

  13. Task oriented nonlinear control laws for telerobotic assembly operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. A.; Ward, L. S.; Elia, C. F.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of this research is to achieve very intelligent telerobotic controllers which are capable of receiving high-level commands from the human operator and implementing them in an adaptive manner in the object/task/manipulator workspace. Initiatives by the authors at Integrated Systems, Inc. to identify and develop the key technologies necessary to create such a flexible, highly programmable, telerobotic controller are presented. The focus of the discussion is on the modeling of insertion tasks in three dimensions and nonlinear implicit force feedback control laws which incorporate tool/workspace constraints. Preliminary experiments with dual arm beam assembly in 2-D are presented.

  14. Telerobotics for Human Exploration: Enhancing Crew Capabilities in Deep Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence

    2013-01-01

    Future space missions in Earth orbit, to the Moon, and to other distant destinations offer many new opportunities for exploration. But, astronaut time will always be limited and some work will not be feasible or efficient for humans to perform manually. Telerobots, however, can complement human explorers, performing work under remote control from Earth, orbit or nearby habitats. A central challenge, therefore, is to understand how humans and remotely operated robots can be jointly employed to maximize mission performance and success. This presentation provides an overview of the key issues with using telerobots for human exploration.

  15. Maximizing Performance Of A Telerobot With Minimal Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.; Long, Mark K.; Steele, Robert D.

    1994-01-01

    Control software system of seven-degree-of-freedom telerobot designed to elicit maximum performance from minimal, fixed-software computer at remote robot site. Includes multiple control modules, each providing parameter-driven control of specified aspect of behavior of telerobot. Software system runs in Ada language on multiple 68020 processors or potentially on single central processing unit. Conceived for use in outer space, also proves useful in underwater construction and inspection, handling of materials in nuclear facilities, and cleaning up hazardous materials.

  16. A new six-degree-of-freedom force-reflecting hand controller for space telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaffee, Douglas; Snow, Edward; Townsend, William; Robinson, Lee; Hanson, Joe

    1990-01-01

    A new 6 degree of freedom universal Force Reflecting Hand Controller (FRHC) was designed for use as the man-machine interface in teleoperated and telerobotic flight systems. The features of this new design include highly intuitive operation, excellent kinesthetic feedback, high fidelity force/torque feedback, a kinematically simple structure, mechanically decoupled motion in all 6 DOF, good back-drivability, and zero backlash. In addition, the new design has a much larger work envelope, smaller stowage volume, greater stiffness and responsiveness, and better overlap of the human operator's range of motion than do previous designs. The utility and basic operation of a new, flight prototype FRHC called the Model X is briefly discussed. The design heritage, general design goals, and design implementation of this advanced new generation of FRHCs are presented, followed by a discussion of basic features and the results of initial testing.

  17. Traction-drive seven degrees-of-freedom telerobot arm: A concept for manipulation in space

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.; Williams, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    As man seeks to expand his dominion into new environments, the demand increases for machines that perform useful functions in remote locations. This new concept for manipulation in space is based on knowledge and experience gained from manipulator systems developed to meet the needs of remote nuclear applications. It merges the best characteristics of teleoperation and robotic technologies. This paper summarizes the report of a study performed for NASA Langley Research Center. The design goals for the telerobot, a mechanical description, and technology areas that must be addressed for successful implementation will be presented and discussed. The concept incorporates mechanical traction drives, redundant kinematics, and modular arm subelements to provide a backlash-free manipulator capable of obstacle avoidance. Further development of this arm is in progress at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  18. Man/Machine Interaction Dynamics And Performance (MMIDAP) capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, Harold P.

    1991-01-01

    The creation of an ability to study interaction dynamics between a machine and its human operator can be approached from a myriad of directions. The Man/Machine Interaction Dynamics and Performance (MMIDAP) project seeks to create an ability to study the consequences of machine design alternatives relative to the performance of both machine and operator. The class of machines to which this study is directed includes those that require the intelligent physical exertions of a human operator. While Goddard's Flight Telerobotic's program was expected to be a major user, basic engineering design and biomedical applications reach far beyond telerobotics. Ongoing efforts are outlined of the GSFC and its University and small business collaborators to integrate both human performance and musculoskeletal data bases with analysis capabilities necessary to enable the study of dynamic actions, reactions, and performance of coupled machine/operator systems.

  19. Telerobotics Workstation (TRWS) for Deep Space Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David S.; Howe, Alan S.; Tores, Recaredo J.; Rochlis, Jennifer L.; Hambuchen, Kimberly A.; Demel, Matthew; Chapman, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    On medium- to long-duration human spaceflight missions, latency in communications from Earth could reduce efficiency or hinder local operations, control, and monitoring of the various mission vehicles and other elements. Regardless of the degree of autonomy of any one particular element, a means of monitoring and controlling the elements in real time based on mission needs would increase efficiency and response times for their operation. Since human crews would be present locally, a local means for monitoring and controlling all the various mission elements is needed, particularly for robotic elements where response to interesting scientific features in the environment might need near- instantaneous manipulation and control. One of the elements proposed for medium- and long-duration human spaceflight missions, the Deep Space Habitat (DSH), is intended to be used as a remote residence and working volume for human crews. The proposed solution for local monitoring and control would be to provide a workstation within the DSH where local crews can operate local vehicles and robotic elements with little to no latency. The Telerobotics Workstation (TRWS) is a multi-display computer workstation mounted in a dedicated location within the DSH that can be adjusted for a variety of configurations as required. From an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) location, the TRWS uses the Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate (RAPID) control environment through the local network to remotely monitor and control vehicles and robotic assets located outside the pressurized volume in the immediate vicinity or at low-latency distances from the habitat. The multiple display area of the TRWS allows the crew to have numerous windows open with live video feeds, control windows, and data browsers, as well as local monitoring and control of the DSH and associated systems.

  20. Establishment of the World's First Telerobotic Remote Surgical Service

    PubMed Central

    Anvari, Mehran; McKinley, Craig; Stein, Harvey

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To establish a telerobotic surgical service between a teaching hospital and a rural hospital for provision of telerobotic surgery and assistance to aid rural surgeons in providing a variety of advanced laparoscopic surgery to their community patients. Summary Background Data: The above service was established between St. Joseph's Hospital in Hamilton and North Bay General Hospital 400 km north of Hamilton on February 28, 2003. The service uses an IP-VPN (15 Mbps of bandwidth) commercially available network to connect the robotic console in Hamilton with 3 arms of the Zeus-TS surgical system in North Bay. Results: To date, 21 telerobotic laparoscopic surgeries have taken place between North Bay and Hamilton, including 13 fundoplications, 3 sigmoid resections, 2 right hemicolectomies, 1 anterior resection, and 2 inguinal hernia repairs. The 2 surgeons were able to operate together using the same surgical footprint and interchange roles seamlessly when desired. There have been no serious intraoperative complications and no cases have had to be converted to open surgeries. The mean hospital stays were equivalent to mean laparoscopic LOS in the tertiary institution. Conclusions: Telerobotic remote surgery is now in routine use, providing high-quality laparoscopic surgical services to patients in a rural community and providing a superior degree of collaboration between surgeons in teaching hospitals and rural hospitals. Further refinement of the robotic and telecommunication technology should ensure its wider application in the near future. PMID:15729068

  1. Mars Surface Operations via Low-Latency Telerobotics from Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael; Lupisella, Mark

    2016-01-01

    To help assess the feasibility and timing of Low-Latency Telerobotics (LLT) operations on Mars via a Phobos telecommand base, operations concepts (ops cons) and timelines for several representative sequences for Mars surface operations have been developed. A summary of these LLT sequences and timelines will be presented, along with associated assumptions, operational considerations, and challenges.

  2. Custom electronic subsystems for the laboratory telerobotic manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassell, R. L.; Butler, P. L.; Rowe, J. C.; Zimmermann, S. D.

    1990-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Station Program presents new opportunities for the application of telerobotic and robotic systems. The Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) is a highly advanced 7 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) telerobotic/robotic manipulator. It was developed and built for the Automation Technology Branch at NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) for work in research and to demonstrate ground-based telerobotic manipulator system hardware and software systems for future NASA applications in the hazardous environment of space. The LTM manipulator uses an embedded wiring design with all electronics, motor power, and control and communication cables passing through the pitch-yaw differential joints. This design requires the number of cables passing through the pitch/yaw joint to be kept to a minimum. To eliminate the cables needed to carry each pitch-yaw joint's sensor data to the VME control computers, a custom-embedded electronics package for each manipulator joint was developed. The electronics package collects and sends the joint's sensor data to the VME control computers over a fiber optic cable. The electronics package consist of five individual subsystems: the VME Link Processor, the Joint Processor and the Joint Processor power supply in the joint module, the fiber optics communications system, and the electronics and motor power cabling.

  3. Telerobotic Tending of Space Based Plant Growth Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, P. G.; Long, M. K.; Das, H.

    1994-01-01

    The kinematic design of a telerobotic mechanism for tending a plant growth space science experiment chamber is described. Ground based control of tending mechanisms internal to space science experiments will allow ground based principal investigators to interact directly with their space science experiments.

  4. Custom electronic subsystems for the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Glassell, R.L.; Butler, P.L.; Rowe, J.C. ); Zimmermann, S.D. )

    1990-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Station Program presents new opportunities for the application of telerobotic and robotic systems. The Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) is a highly advanced 7 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) telerobotic/robotic manipulator. It was developed and built for the Automation Technology Branch at NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) for work in research and to demonstrate ground-based telerobotic manipulator system hardware and software systems for future NASA applications in the hazardous environment of space. The LTM manipulator uses an embedded wiring design with all electronics, motor power, and control and communication cables passing through the pitch-yaw differential joints. This design requires the number of cables passing through the pitch/yaw joint to be kept to a minimum. To eliminate the cables needed to carry each pitch-yaw joint's sensor data to the VME control computers, a custom-embedded electronics package for each manipulator joint was developed. The electronics package collects and sends the joint's sensor data to the VME control computers over a fiber optic cable. The electronics package consist of five individual subsystems: the VME Link Processor, the Joint Processor and the Joint Processor power supply in the joint module, the fiber optics communications system, and the electronics and motor power cabling. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Medical telerobotic systems: current status and future trends.

    PubMed

    Avgousti, Sotiris; Christoforou, Eftychios G; Panayides, Andreas S; Voskarides, Sotos; Novales, Cyril; Nouaille, Laurence; Pattichis, Constantinos S; Vieyres, Pierre

    2016-08-12

    Teleoperated medical robotic systems allow procedures such as surgeries, treatments, and diagnoses to be conducted across short or long distances while utilizing wired and/or wireless communication networks. This study presents a systematic review of the relevant literature between the years 2004 and 2015, focusing on medical teleoperated robotic systems which have witnessed tremendous growth over the examined period. A thorough insight of telerobotics systems discussing design concepts, enabling technologies (namely robotic manipulation, telecommunications, and vision systems), and potential applications in clinical practice is provided, while existing limitations and future trends are also highlighted. A representative paradigm of the short-distance case is the da Vinci Surgical System which is described in order to highlight relevant issues. The long-distance telerobotics concept is exemplified through a case study on diagnostic ultrasound scanning. Moreover, the present review provides a classification into short- and long-distance telerobotic systems, depending on the distance from which they are operated. Telerobotic systems are further categorized with respect to their application field. For the reviewed systems are also examined their engineering characteristics and the employed robotics technology. The current status of the field, its significance, the potential, as well as the challenges that lie ahead are thoroughly discussed.

  6. A run-time control architecture for the JPL telerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Lokshin, A.; Kreutz, K.; Beahan, J.

    1987-01-01

    An architecture for implementing the process-level decision making for a hierarchically structured telerobot currently being implemented at the Jet Propolusion Laboratory (JPL) is described. Constraints on the architecture design, architecture partitioning concepts, and a detailed description of the existing and proposed implementations are provided.

  7. Experiences with the JPL telerobot testbed: Issues and insights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Henry W.; Balaram, Bob; Beahan, John

    1989-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Telerobot Testbed is an integrated robotic testbed used to develop, implement, and evaluate the performance of advanced concepts in autonomous, tele-autonomous, and tele-operated control of robotic manipulators. Using the Telerobot Testbed, researchers demonstrated several of the capabilities and technological advances in the control and integration of robotic systems which have been under development at JPL for several years. In particular, the Telerobot Testbed was recently employed to perform a near completely automated, end-to-end, satellite grapple and repair sequence. The task of integrating existing as well as new concepts in robot control into the Telerobot Testbed has been a very difficult and timely one. Now that researchers have completed the first major milestone (i.e., the end-to-end demonstration) it is important to reflect back upon experiences and to collect the knowledge that has been gained so that improvements can be made to the existing system. It is also believed that the experiences are of value to the others in the robotics community. Therefore, the primary objective here will be to use the Telerobot Testbed as a case study to identify real problems and technological gaps which exist in the areas of robotics and in particular systems integration. Such problems have surely hindered the development of what could be reasonably called an intelligent robot. In addition to identifying such problems, researchers briefly discuss what approaches have been taken to resolve them or, in several cases, to circumvent them until better approaches can be developed.

  8. The use of graphics in the design of the human-telerobot interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Smith, Randy L.

    1989-01-01

    The Man-Systems Telerobotics Laboratory (MSTL) of NASA's Johnson Space Center employs computer graphics tools in their design and evaluation of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) human/telerobot interface on the Shuttle and on the Space Station. It has been determined by the MSTL that the use of computer graphics can promote more expedient and less costly design endeavors. Several specific examples of computer graphics applied to the FTS user interface by the MSTL are described.

  9. Development of a low-cost free-flying telerobotic space flight vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, D.; Howard, R.; Smith, J.; Graves, J.; Gefke, G.

    1992-01-01

    Ranger, a low-cost moderate-risk high-return telerobotics flight experiment, is discussed. Range incorporates two manipulators, a grappling arm, and a camera-positioning manipulator all mounted on a free-flying base with limited orbital maneuvering capability. Ranger will provide data on neutral buoyancy simulations, advanced telerobotics control and design, remote maneuvering, human factors involved in ground-based control of space telerobotics, and advanced small spacecraft technology.

  10. NASA's Space Launch System: Positioning Assets for Tele-Robotic Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is designing and developing America's most capable launch vehicle to support high-priority human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit. The Space Launch System (SLS) will initially lift 70 metric tons (t) on its first flights, slated to begin in 2017, and will be evolved after 2021 to a full 130-t capability-larger than the Saturn V Moon rocket. This superior lift and associated volume capacity will support game-changing exploration in regions that were previously unattainable, being too costly and risky to reach. On the International Space Station, astronauts are training for long-duration missions to asteroids and cis-martian regions, but have not had transportation out of Earth's orbit - until now. Simultaneously, productive rovers are sending scientists - and space fans - unprecedented information about the composition and history of Mars, the planet thought to be most like Earth. This combination of experience and information is laying the foundation for future missions, such as those outlined in NASA's "Mars Next Decade" report, that will rely on te1e-robotic operations to take exploration to the next level. Within this paradigm, NASA's Space Launch System stands ready to manifest the unique payloads that will be required for mission success. Ultimately, the ability to position assets - ranging from orbiters, to landers, to communication satellites and surface systems - is a critical step in broadening the reach of technological innovation that will benefit all Earth's people as the Space Age unfolds. This briefing will provide an overview of how the Space Launch System will support delivery of elements for tele-robotic operations at destinations such as the Moon and Mars, which will synchronize the human-machine interface to deliver hybrid on-orbit capabilities. Ultimately, telerobotic operations will open entirely new vistas and the doors of discovery. NASA's Space Launch System will be a

  11. The telerobot testbed: An architecture for remote servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matijevic, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA/OAST Telerobot Testbed will reach its next increment in development by the end of FY-89. The testbed will have the capability for: force reflection in teleoperation, shared control, traded control, operator designate and relative update. These five capabilities will be shown in a module release and exchange operation using mockups of Orbital Replacement Units (ORU). This development of the testbed shows examples of the technologies needed for remote servicing, particularly under conditions of delay in transmissions to the servicing site. Here, the following topics are presented: the system architecture of the testbed which incorporates these telerobotic technologies for servicing, the implementation of the five capabilities and the operation of the ORU mockups.

  12. Thermal feedback in virtual reality and telerobotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerkus, Mike; Becker, Bill; Ward, Jon; Halvorsen, Lars

    1994-01-01

    A new concept has been developed that allows temperature to be part of the virtual world. The Displaced Temperature Sensing System (DTSS) can 'display' temperature in a virtual reality system.The DTSS can also serve as a feedback device for telerobotics. For virtual reality applications the virtual world software would be required to have a temperature map of its world. By whatever means (magnetic tracker, ultrasound tracker, etc.) the hand and fingers, which have been instrumented with thermodes, would be tracked. The temperature associated with the current position would be transmitted to the DRSS via a serial data link. The DTSS would provide that temperature to the fingers. For telerobotic operation the function of the DTSS is to transmit a temperature from a remote location to the fingers where the temperature can be felt.

  13. Design for a goal-oriented telerobotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, R. W.; Sliwa, N. O.

    1986-01-01

    Robotic systems will play an increasingly important role in space operations. This paper describes the objective and design of a proposed goal-oriented telerobotic system for space operations. This design effort encompasses the elements of the system executive and user interface, and the distribution and general structure of the knowledge bases, the displays, and the task sequencing. The objective of the design effort is to provide an evolutionary structure for a telerobotic system, i.e., one that can progress from strictly teleoperated through phases of serving as an assistant, a colleague, and an expert, to eventually serve as a truly autonomous unit, requiring only minimal supervision. A preliminary design for such a system involving 'mixed initiative', or the flexible shared control between the human operator and the software system, is complete and described in this paper.

  14. Remote excavation using the telerobotic small emplacement excavator

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.H.; Burks, B.L.; Killough, S.M.

    1993-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing remote excavation technologies for the Office of Technology Development, Robotics Technology Development Program. This work is being done to meet the need for remote excavation and removal of radioactive and contaminated buried waste at several DOE sites. System requirements are based on the need to uncover and remove waste from burial sites in a way that does not cause unnecessary personnel exposure or additional environmental contamination. Goals for the current project are to demonstrate dexterous control of a backhoe with force feedback and to implement robotic operations that will improve productivity. The Telerobotic Small Emplacement Excavator is a prototype system that incorporates the needed robotic and telerobotic capabilities on a commercially available platform. The ability to add remote dexterous teleoperation and robotic operating modes is intended to be adaptable to other commercially available excavator systems.

  15. Remote excavation using the telerobotic small emplacement excavator

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.H.; Burks, B.L.; Killough, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing remote excavation technologies for the Office of Technology Development, Robotics Technology Development Program. This work is being done to meet the need for remote excavation and removal of radioactive and contaminated buried waste at several DOE sites. System requirements are based on the need to uncover and remove waste from burial sites in a way that does not cause unnecessary personnel exposure or additional environmental contamination. Goals for the current project are to demonstrate dexterous control of a backhoe with force feedback and to implement robotic operations that will improve productivity. The Telerobotic Small Emplacement Excavator is a prototype system that incorporates the needed robotic and telerobotic capabilities on a commercially available platform. The ability to add remote dexterous teleoperation and robotic operating modes is intended to be adaptable to other commercially available excavator systems.

  16. The JPL telerobotic Manipulator Control and Mechanization (MCM) subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad; Lee, Thomas S.; Tso, Kam; Backes, Paul; Kan, Edwin; Lloyd, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Manipulator Control and Mechanization (MCM) subsystem of the telerobot system provides the real-time control of the robot manipulators in autonomous and teleoperated modes and real time input/output for a variety of sensors and actuators. Substantial hardware and software are included in this subsystem which interfaces in the hierarchy of the telerobot system with the other subsystems. The other subsystems are: run time control, task planning and reasoning, sensing and perception, and operator control subsystem. The architecture of the MCM subsystem, its capabilities, and details of various hardware and software elements are described. Important improvements in the MCM subsystem over the first version are: dual arm coordinated trajectory generation and control, addition of integrated teleoperation, shared control capability, replacement of the ultimate controllers with motor controllers, and substantial increase in real time processing capability.

  17. Designing minimal space telerobotics systems for maximum performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.; Long, Mark K.; Steele, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    The design of the remote site of a local-remote telerobot control system is described which addresses the constraints of limited computational power available at the remote site control system while providing a large range of control capabilities. The Modular Telerobot Task Execution System (MOTES) provides supervised autonomous control, shared control and teleoperation for a redundant manipulator. The system is capable of nominal task execution as well as monitoring and reflex motion. The MOTES system is minimized while providing a large capability by limiting its functionality to only that which is necessary at the remote site and by utilizing a unified multi-sensor based impedance control scheme. A command interpreter similar to one used on robotic spacecraft is used to interpret commands received from the local site. The system is written in Ada and runs in a VME environment on 68020 processors and initially controls a Robotics Research K1207 7 degree of freedom manipulator.

  18. A smart telerobotic system driven by monocular vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defigueiredo, R. J. P.; Maccato, A.; Wlczek, P.; Denney, B.; Scheerer, J.

    1994-01-01

    A robotic system that accepts autonomously generated motion and control commands is described. The system provides images from the monocular vision of a camera mounted on a robot's end effector, eliminating the need for traditional guidance targets that must be predetermined and specifically identified. The telerobotic vision system presents different views of the targeted object relative to the camera, based on a single camera image and knowledge of the target's solid geometry.

  19. Test bed experiments for various telerobotic system characteristics and configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffie, Neil A.; Wiker, Steven F.; Zik, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Dexterous manipulation and grasping in telerobotic systems depends on the integration of high-performance sensors, displays, actuators and controls into systems in which careful consideration has been given to human perception and tolerance. Research underway at the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) has the objective of enhancing the performance of these systems and their components, and quantifying the effects of the many electrical, mechanical, control, and human factors that affect their performance. This will lead to a fundamental understanding of performance issues which will in turn allow designers to evaluate sensor, actuator, display, and control technologies with respect to generic measures of dexterous performance. As part of this effort, an experimental test bed was developed which has telerobotic components with exceptionally high fidelity in master/slave operation. A Telerobotic Performance Analysis System has also been developed which allows performance to be determined for various system configurations and electro-mechanical characteristics. Both this performance analysis system and test bed experiments are described.

  20. Telerobotic Perception During Asteroid and Mars Regolith Operations Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddis, Steven; Zeitlin, Nancy (Compiler); Mueller, Robert (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Current space telerobotic systems are constrained to only operating in bright light and dust-free conditions. This project will study the effects of difficult lighting and dust conditions on telerobotic perception systems to better assess and refine regolith operations on other neighboring celestial bodies. In partnership with Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University and Caterpillar, Inc., optical, LiDAR and RADAR sensing equipment will be used in performing the study. This project will create a known dust environment in the Swamp Works Granular Mechanics & Regolith Operations (GMRO) Laboratory regolith test bin to characterize the behavior of the sensing equipment in various calibrated lighting and dust conditions. It will also identify potential methods for mitigating the impacts of these undesirable conditions on the performance of the sensing equipment. Enhancing the capability of telerobotic perception systems will help improve life on earth for those working in dangerous, dusty mining conditions, as well as help advance the same technologies used for safer self-driving automobiles in various lighting and weather conditions. It will also prove to be a critical skill needed for advancing robotic and human exploration throughout our solar system, for activities such as mining on an asteroid or pioneering the first colony on Mars.

  1. Real-time qualitative reasoning for telerobotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pin, Eancois G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the sensor-based telerobotic driving of a car in a-priori unknown environments using 'human-like' reasoning schemes implemented on custom-designed VLSI fuzzy inferencing boards. These boards use the Fuzzy Set theoretic framework to allow very vast (30 kHz) processing of full sets of information that are expressed in qualitative form using membership functions. The sensor-based and fuzzy inferencing system was incorporated on an outdoor test-bed platform to investigate two control modes for driving a car on the basis of very sparse and imprecise range data. In the first mode, the car navigates fully autonomously to a goal specified by the operator, while in the second mode, the system acts as a telerobotic driver's aid providing the driver with linguistic (fuzzy) commands to turn left or right, speed up, slow down, stop, or back up depending on the obstacles perceived by the sensors. Indoor and outdoor experiments with both modes of control are described in which the system uses only three acoustic range (sonar) sensor channels to perceive the environment. Sample results are presented that illustrate the feasibility of developing autonomous navigation modules and robust, safety-enhancing driver's aids for telerobotic systems using the new fuzzy inferencing VLSI hardware and 'human-like' reasoning schemes.

  2. Real-time qualitative reasoning for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pin, Eancois G.

    1993-02-01

    This paper discusses the sensor-based telerobotic driving of a car in a-priori unknown environments using 'human-like' reasoning schemes implemented on custom-designed VLSI fuzzy inferencing boards. These boards use the Fuzzy Set theoretic framework to allow very vast (30 kHz) processing of full sets of information that are expressed in qualitative form using membership functions. The sensor-based and fuzzy inferencing system was incorporated on an outdoor test-bed platform to investigate two control modes for driving a car on the basis of very sparse and imprecise range data. In the first mode, the car navigates fully autonomously to a goal specified by the operator, while in the second mode, the system acts as a telerobotic driver's aid providing the driver with linguistic (fuzzy) commands to turn left or right, speed up, slow down, stop, or back up depending on the obstacles perceived by the sensors. Indoor and outdoor experiments with both modes of control are described in which the system uses only three acoustic range (sonar) sensor channels to perceive the environment. Sample results are presented that illustrate the feasibility of developing autonomous navigation modules and robust, safety-enhancing driver's aids for telerobotic systems using the new fuzzy inferencing VLSI hardware and 'human-like' reasoning schemes.

  3. Machine Vision Tests for Spent Fuel Scrap Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    BERGER, W.W.

    2000-04-27

    The purpose of this work is to perform a feasibility test of a Machine Vision system for potential use at the Hanford K basins during spent nuclear fuel (SNF) operations. This report documents the testing performed to establish functionality of the system including quantitative assessment of results. Fauske and Associates, Inc., which has been intimately involved in development of the SNF safety basis, has teamed with Agris-Schoen Vision Systems, experts in robotics, tele-robotics, and Machine Vision, for this work.

  4. Voice control of a dual-arm telerobot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberlein, Robert Arthur

    This investigation explores voice control of a dual-arm telerobot. A literature review of voice control, voice technology and work measurements is conducted. This review includes a discussion of important voice technology topics, a survey of commercial voice equipment, and a study of industrial and vocational work measurement techniques. A voice control system is created for two Kraft GRIPS Master-Slave telerobotic manipulators. This system is based upon the concept of distributed computer control using inexpensive PC-AT computers that exchange information according to special communication and command protocols. The voice control system consists of four separate sub-systems; a Camera Sub-system that controls a motorized camera mount, a Teach Pendant Sub-system that emulates two standard Termiflex teach pendants, a Switch Sub-system that controls the Kraft Master switches, and a Voice Sub-system that accepts the operator's vocal commands and broadcasts digitally-recorded messages. The Voice Sub-system utilizes a Votan VPC-2100 recognition board and a TI-Speech synthesis board. The vocal commands are organized into a hierarchical structure based upon the fire-and-forget control scheme. A visual display of the vocal command status is also detailed. In order to measure the effect of the voice control system upon the work performance of the telerobot, a formal experimental plan is described using twenty-four untrained operators divided into a voice group and a control group. Each group performs an experimental taskset using modified peg-in-hole vocational rehabilitation assessment test equipment. The experimental taskset consists of eight separate subtasks that exercise each of the four voice control sub-systems. The times to complete the subtasks are recorded to score each group's work performance. A split-plot ANOVA of the performance scores reveals significant group improvements in both the mean performance and the performance variance for those tasks which involve

  5. Haptics-based immersive telerobotic system for improvised explosive device disposal: Are two hands better than one?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Lambert, Jason Michel; Mantegh, Iraj; Crymble, Derry; Daly, John; Zhao, Yan

    2012-06-01

    State-of-the-art robotic explosive ordnance disposal robotics have not, in general, adopted recent advances in control technology and man-machine interfaces and lag many years behind academia. This paper describes the Haptics-based Immersive Telerobotic System project investigating an immersive telepresence envrionment incorporating advanced vehicle control systems, Augmented immersive sensory feedback, dynamic 3D visual information, and haptic feedback for explosive ordnance disposal operators. The project aim is to provide operatiors a more sophisticated interface and expand sensory input to perform complex tasks to defeat improvised explosive devices successfully. The introduction of haptics and immersive teleprescence has the potential to shift the way teleprescence systems work for explosive ordnance disposal tasks or more widely for first responders scenarios involving remote unmanned ground vehicles.

  6. Telerobotics Using a Gestural Servoing Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmoumene, H.; Berrached, N. E.

    2008-06-01

    Man-Machine interaction through hand gestures is a rich, natural, and intuitive tool to control virtual and real environment. This paper proposes a vision-based hand gesture interface (VBHGI) to remotely control a robot arm through the web. A VBHGI requires real time and robust hand detection and gesture recognition. This recognition is carried out in three phases: acquisition, segmentation and identification of the hand posture. Since we are not using gloves or markers, we propose appropriate motion detection and segmentation. For the identification phase, we opted for principal component analysis in order to better represent the classes of gesture in reduced spaces. Once the gesture is recognized, it is analyzed to be used as an articulation command to remotely control a robot arm end effector.

  7. NASA/University Technology Cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA is extensively engaged in cooperative technology development efforts with the nation's research universities. An example of NASA/university cooperation is the work of the Space Technology Center at the University of Kansas (KU) and the KU Center for Research, Inc. (CRINC). Directed by Professor Bill G. Barr, the Space Technology Center is one of 27 interdisciplinary centers established as part of a NASA plan to set up a network of advanced facilities across the nation. Since 1981 CRINC has been involved in a technology transfer program supported by the NASA Technology Utilization Division and by industry. The objective of the technology transfer program is to encourage industrial innovation through utilization of NASA technology through improved industry/university cooperation. At KU, research is conducted by the Industrial Innovation Laboratory and the Computer Integrated Manufacturing Laboratory which utilize graduate students in engineering and computer science as research assistants. A new project of the Space Technology Center is one designed to advance NASA objectives in "augmented telerobotics." A telerobot is programmed to respond to commands from a human operator, or to mimic the movements of its human operator. The project is being conducted under the guidance of Langley Research Center.

  8. Universal computer control system (UCCS) for space telerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.; Szakaly, Zoltan

    1987-01-01

    A universal computer control system (UCCS) is under development for all motor elements of a space telerobot. The basic hardware architecture and software design of UCCS are described, together with the rich motor sensing, control, and self-test capabilities of this all-computerized motor control system. UCCS is integrated into a multibus computer environment with direct interface to higher level control processors, uses pulsewidth multiplier power amplifiers, and one unit can control up to sixteen different motors simultaneously at a high I/O rate. UCCS performance capabilities are illustrated by a few data.

  9. Universal computer control system (UCCS) for space telerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.; Szakaly, Zoltan

    1987-01-01

    A universal computer control system (UCCS) is under development for all motor elements of a space telerobot. The basic hardware architecture and software design of UCCS are described, together with the rich motor sensing, control, and self-test capabilities of this all-computerized motor control system. UCCS is integrated into a multibus computer environment with direct interface to higher level control processors, uses pulsewidth multiplier power amplifiers, and one unit can control up to sixteen different motors simultaneously at a high I/O rate. UCCS performance capabilities are illustrated by a few data.

  10. Optimized Resolved-Rate Control Of Telerobotic Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. Keith; Mckinney, William S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) is seven-degree-of-freedom robot arm built for evaluation in ground-based research to assess role of redundant-degree-of-freedom arms in outerspace operations. Each arm has three pitch/yaw joints: one at shoulder, another at elbow, and third at wrist. Seventh degree of freedom provided by wrist-roll joint. Offers advantages of more efficient use of workspaces and ability to reach around obstacles, redundant manipulators used in mobile robots and teleoperators for hazardous environments, automotive assembly, welding, and spray painting.

  11. Planning assembly/disassembly operations for space telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanderson, Arthur C.; Homem De Mello, Luiz

    1987-01-01

    Space telerobotic systems will perform complex tasks of assembly, disassembly, and repair of space-based equipment. Planning such tasks requires reasoning about the functional, physical, and geometrical properties of the equipment, as well as a representation of the characteristics and capabilities of the manipulators and sensors available for the task. The And/Or graph is a useful approach to representation of feasible assembly/disassembly sequences and provides the basis for search among alternative strategies. The paper describes the use of parts entropy measures as evaluation criteria for search in the And/Or graph space. This approach leads to candidate task plans which minimize the complexity of intermediate geometrical states.

  12. The sensing and perception subsystem of the NASA research telerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, B.; Gennery, D. B.; Bon, B.; Litwin, T.

    1987-01-01

    A useful space telerobot for on-orbit assembly, maintenance, and repair tasks must have a sensing and perception subsystem which can provide the locations, orientations, and velocities of all relevant objects in the work environment. This function must be accomplished with sufficient speed and accuracy to permit effective grappling and manipulation. Appropriate symbolic names must be attached to each object for use by higher-level planning algorithms. Sensor data and inferences must be presented to the remote human operator in a way that is both comprehensible in ensuring safe autonomous operation and useful for direct teleoperation. Research at JPL toward these objectives is described.

  13. The Space Station Freedom Flight Telerobotic Servicer - The design and evolution of a dexterous space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, Harry G.; Andary, James F.; Hewitt, Dennis R.; Haley, Dennis C.

    1990-01-01

    The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) will provide a telerobotic capability to the Space Station in the early assembly phases of the program and will be used for assembly, maintenance, and inspection throughout the lifetime of the Station. Here, the FTS design approach to the development of autonomous capabilities is discussed. The FTS telerobotic workstations for the Shuttle and Space Station, and facility for on-orbit storage are examined. The rationale of the FTS with regard to ease of operation, operational versatility, maintainability, safety, and control is discussed.

  14. The Space Station Freedom Flight Telerobotic Servicer - The design and evolution of a dexterous space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, Harry G.; Andary, James F.; Hewitt, Dennis R.; Haley, Dennis C.

    1990-01-01

    The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) will provide a telerobotic capability to the Space Station in the early assembly phases of the program and will be used for assembly, maintenance, and inspection throughout the lifetime of the Station. Here, the FTS design approach to the development of autonomous capabilities is discussed. The FTS telerobotic workstations for the Shuttle and Space Station, and facility for on-orbit storage are examined. The rationale of the FTS with regard to ease of operation, operational versatility, maintainability, safety, and control is discussed.

  15. Development and demonstration of a telerobotic excavation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burks, Barry L.; Thompson, David H.; Killough, Stephen M.; Dinkins, Marion A.

    1994-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing remote excavation technologies for the Department of Energy's Office (DOE) of Technology Development, Robotics Technology Development Program, and also for the Department of Defense (DOD) Project Manager for Ammunition Logistics. This work is being done to meet the need for remote excavation and removal of radioactive and contaminated buried waste at several DOE sites and unexploded ordnance at DOD sites. System requirements are based on the need to uncover and remove waste from burial sites in a way that does not cause unnecessary personnel exposure or additional environmental contamination. Goals for the current project are to demonstrate dexterous control of a backhoe with force feedback and to implement robotic operations that will improve productivity. The Telerobotic Small Emplacement Excavator is a prototype system that incorporates the needed robotic and telerobotic capabilities on a commercially available platform. The ability to add remote dexterous teleoperation and robotic operating modes is intended to be adaptable to other commercially available excavator systems.

  16. Telerobotic field geologist - Preliminary results of a feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Robert E.; Albert-Thenet, Charlotte; Taylor, G. J.; Johnson, Paul; Buzan, Forrest; Ishigo, Joy; Ikehara, Curtis

    1992-01-01

    Results of three laboratory studies conducted to explore the feasibility of developing a telerobot to perform planetary field geology are presented. A total of 72 college students attempted to match each of 15 geologic rock samples viewed either directly or on a TV screen with its matched pair contained in a matrix of 24 rocks which they viewed directly. The first study showed that rocks viewed on TV could be matched at levels well above chance, but significantly less than by direct view. Performance under remote view was improved by adding color and by magnifying the TV image. The second study showed a large decrease in performance when viewing a miniature LCK monitor as compared to a 19-in. CRT monitor of higher resolution. In the third study performance using the 2.9-in. LCK monitor showed only insignificant increases when images were presented in 3D view or when the rock was moved. It is suggested that it is feasible to conduct geologic observations with telerobots, and the critical role that image quality plays in determining performance is demonstrated.

  17. Connectionist model-based stereo vision for telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, William; Mathis, Donald

    1989-01-01

    Autonomous stereo vision for range measurement could greatly enhance the performance of telerobotic systems. Stereo vision could be a key component for autonomous object recognition and localization, thus enabling the system to perform low-level tasks, and allowing a human operator to perform a supervisory role. The central difficulty in stereo vision is the ambiguity in matching corresponding points in the left and right images. However, if one has a priori knowledge of the characteristics of the objects in the scene, as is often the case in telerobotics, a model-based approach can be taken. Researchers describe how matching ambiguities can be resolved by ensuring that the resulting three-dimensional points are consistent with surface models of the expected objects. A four-layer neural network hierarchy is used in which surface models of increasing complexity are represented in successive layers. These models are represented using a connectionist scheme called parameter networks, in which a parametrized object (for example, a planar patch p=f(h,m sub x, m sub y) is represented by a collection of processing units, each of which corresponds to a distinct combination of parameter values. The activity level of each unit in the parameter network can be thought of as representing the confidence with which the hypothesis represented by that unit is believed. Weights in the network are set so as to implement gradient descent in an energy function.

  18. Design of an adaptive controller for a telerobot manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Zhou, Zhen-Lei

    1989-01-01

    The design of a joint-space adaptive control scheme is presented for controlling the slave arm motion of a dual-arm telerobot system developed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to study telerobotic operations in space. Each slave arm of the dual-arm system is a kinematically redundant manipulator with 7 degrees of freedom (DOF). Using the concept of model reference adaptive control (MRAC) and Lyapunov direct method, an adatation algorithm is derived which adjusts the PD controller gains of the control scheme. The development of the adaptive control scheme assumes that the slave arm motion is non-compliant and slowly-varying. The implementation of the derived control scheme does not need the computation of the manipulator dynamics, which makes the control scheme sufficiently fast for real-time applications. Computer simulation study performed for the 7-DOF slave arm shows that the developed control scheme can efficiently adapt to sudden change in payloads while tracking various test trajectories such as ramp or sinusoids with negligible position errors.

  19. Clinical applications of Telerobotic ENT-Head and Neck surgery.

    PubMed

    Arora, Asit; Cunningham, Aileen; Chawdhary, Gaurav; Vicini, Claudio; Weinstein, Gregory S; Darzi, Ara; Tolley, Neil

    2011-01-01

    To review the published clinical data in Telerobotic ENT-Head and Neck surgery, evaluate the benefit of existing clinical applications and identify areas for potential development. A qualitative review was performed of publications in PubMed, Medline and the Cochrane Database identified from the following keyword searches: Telerobotic/Robotic ENT, Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck surgery, Thyroid and Parathyroid surgery. Preclinical studies and non-clinical review articles were excluded. Forty-five publications were identified including 7 review articles. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) was reported in 20 clinical studies, robotic-assisted thyroidectomy in 13 studies, parathyroidectomy in 4 studies and skull base surgery in 1 study. The majority of TORS publications relate to oropharyngeal malignancy which were Stage III and IV. Clinical benefits include avoidance or dose reduction of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and improved swallow function. The primary clinical advantage of robotic-assisted neck surgery is the avoidance of a neck scar. The learning curve for robotic thyroidectomy is 50 cases. Body habitus is an important factor for assessment of robotic feasibility in transoral and neck surgery. The application of robotic-assisted parathyroidectomy, thyroidectomy and TORS suggests promising improvements in patient care. Randomised control trials are needed to assess clinical outcome, cost effectiveness and patient benefit in the existing applications. Continued development of robotic technology will expand the viable clinical applications in this specialty. Copyright © 2011 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Telerobotic field geologist - Preliminary results of a feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Robert E.; Albert-Thenet, Charlotte; Taylor, G. J.; Johnson, Paul; Buzan, Forrest; Ishigo, Joy; Ikehara, Curtis

    1992-01-01

    Results of three laboratory studies conducted to explore the feasibility of developing a telerobot to perform planetary field geology are presented. A total of 72 college students attempted to match each of 15 geologic rock samples viewed either directly or on a TV screen with its matched pair contained in a matrix of 24 rocks which they viewed directly. The first study showed that rocks viewed on TV could be matched at levels well above chance, but significantly less than by direct view. Performance under remote view was improved by adding color and by magnifying the TV image. The second study showed a large decrease in performance when viewing a miniature LCK monitor as compared to a 19-in. CRT monitor of higher resolution. In the third study performance using the 2.9-in. LCK monitor showed only insignificant increases when images were presented in 3D view or when the rock was moved. It is suggested that it is feasible to conduct geologic observations with telerobots, and the critical role that image quality plays in determining performance is demonstrated.

  1. Projective virtual reality in space applications: a telerobotic ground station for a space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Eckhard; Rossmann, Juergen; Schluse, Michael

    2000-10-01

    Commanding complex robotic systems over long distances in an intuitive manner requires new techniques of man-machine- interaction. A first disadvantage of conventional approaches is that the user has to be a robotic expert because he directly has to command the robots. He often is part of the real-time control loop while moving the robot and thus has to cope with long delays. Experience with space robot missions showed that it is very difficult to control a robot just by camera images. At the IRF, a new approach to overcome such problems was developed. By means of Projective Virtual Reality, we introduce a new, intuitive way of man-machine communication based on a combination of action planning and Virtual Reality methods. Using data-helmet and data-glove the user can immerse into the virtual world and interact with the virtual objects as he would do in reality. The Virtual Reality System derives the user's intention from his actions and then projects the tasks in to the physical world by means of robots. The robots carry out the action physically that is equivalent to the user's action in the virtual world. The developed Projective Virtual Reality System is of especially great use for space applications. During the joint project GETEX (German ETS-VII Experiment), the IRF realized the telerobotic ground station for the free flying robot ERA on board the Japanese satellite ETS-VII. During the mission in April 1999 the Virtual Reality based command interface turned out to be an ideally suited platform for the intuitive commanding and supervision of the robot in space. During the mission, it first had to be verified that the system is fully operational, but then out Japanese colleagues allowed to take the full control over the real robot by the Projective Virtual Reality System. The final paper will describe key issues of this approach and the results and experiences gained during the GETEX mission.

  2. Simulation-modeling tool for evaluation of space telerobotic control strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin; Cramer, Michael

    1989-01-01

    An object-oriented software graphic simulation and modeling tool is developed to explore human/autonomous control allocation for varied operational scenarios. The system provides designers with LISP workstations through which to simulate telerobotic operations, model human performance in those operations, examine task performance profiles, and investigate control and diagnostic strategies. It is suggested that the provision of such analytic tools along with the presentation of performance projections can assist designers in rapidly and conveniently exploring design alternatives for telerobotic system control.

  3. Simulation-modeling tool for evaluation of space telerobotic control strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin; Cramer, Michael

    1989-01-01

    An object-oriented software graphic simulation and modeling tool is developed to explore human/autonomous control allocation for varied operational scenarios. The system provides designers with LISP workstations through which to simulate telerobotic operations, model human performance in those operations, examine task performance profiles, and investigate control and diagnostic strategies. It is suggested that the provision of such analytic tools along with the presentation of performance projections can assist designers in rapidly and conveniently exploring design alternatives for telerobotic system control.

  4. Low-Latency Lunar Surface Telerobotics from Earth-Moon Libration Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Daniel; Thronson, Harley

    2011-01-01

    Concepts for a long-duration habitat at Earth-Moon LI or L2 have been advanced for a number of purposes. We propose here that such a facility could also have an important role for low-latency telerobotic control of lunar surface equipment, both for lunar science and development. With distances of about 60,000 km from the lunar surface, such sites offer light-time limited two-way control latencies of order 400 ms, making telerobotic control for those sites close to real time as perceived by a human operator. We point out that even for transcontinental teleoperated surgical procedures, which require operational precision and highly dexterous manipulation, control latencies of this order are considered adequate. Terrestrial telerobots that are used routinely for mining and manufacturing also involve control latencies of order several hundred milliseconds. For this reason, an Earth-Moon LI or L2 control node could build on the technology and experience base of commercially proven terrestrial ventures. A lunar libration-point telerobotic node could demonstrate exploration strategies that would eventually be used on Mars, and many other less hospitable destinations in the solar system. Libration-point telepresence for the Moon contrasts with lunar telerobotic control from the Earth, for which two-way control latencies are at least six times longer. For control latencies that long, telerobotic control efforts are of the "move-and-wait" variety, which is cognitively inferior to near real-time control.

  5. Generic extravehicular (EVA) and telerobot task primitives for analysis, design, and integration. Version 1.0: Reference compilation for the EVA and telerobotics communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Drews, Michael

    1990-01-01

    The results are described of an effort to establish commonality and standardization of generic crew extravehicular (crew-EVA) and telerobotic task analysis primitives used for the study of spaceborne operations. Although direct crew-EVA plans are the most visible output of spaceborne operations, significant ongoing efforts by a wide variety of projects and organizations also require tools for estimation of crew-EVA and telerobotic times. Task analysis tools provide estimates for input to technical and cost tradeoff studies. A workshop was convened to identify the issues and needs to establish a common language and syntax for task analysis primitives. In addition, the importance of such a syntax was shown to have precedence over the level to which such a syntax is applied. The syntax, lists of crew-EVA and telerobotic primitives, and the data base in diskette form are presented.

  6. Adjustable impedance, force feedback and command language aids for telerobotics (parts 1-4 of an 8-part MIT progress report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Thomas B.; Raju, G. Jagganath; Buzan, Forrest T.; Yared, Wael; Park, Jong

    1989-01-01

    Projects recently completed or in progress at MIT Man-Machine Systems Laboratory are summarized. (1) A 2-part impedance network model of a single degree of freedom remote manipulation system is presented in which a human operator at the master port interacts with a task object at the slave port in a remote location is presented. (2) The extension of the predictor concept to include force feedback and dynamic modeling of the manipulator and the environment is addressed. (3) A system was constructed to infer intent from the operator's commands and the teleoperation context, and generalize this information to interpret future commands. (4) A command language system is being designed that is robust, easy to learn, and has more natural man-machine communication. A general telerobot problem selected as an important command language context is finding a collision-free path for a robot.

  7. Virtual reality and telerobotics applications of an Address Recalculation Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Matthew; Pose, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    The technology described in this paper was designed to reduce latency to user interactions in immersive virtual reality environments. It is also ideally suited to telerobotic applications such as interaction with remote robotic manipulators in space or in deep sea operations. in such circumstances the significant latency is observed response to user stimulus which is due to communications delays, and the disturbing jerkiness due to low and unpredictable frame rates on compressed video user feedback or computationally limited virtual worlds, can be masked by our techniques. The user is provided with highly responsive visual feedback independent of communication or computational delays in providing physical video feedback or in rendering virtual world images. Virtual and physical environments can be combined seamlessly using these techniques.

  8. Stereoscopic, Force-Feedback Trainer For Telerobot Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Schenker, Paul S.; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1994-01-01

    Computer-controlled simulator for training technicians to operate remote robots provides both visual and kinesthetic virtual reality. Used during initial stage of training; saves time and expense, increases operational safety, and prevents damage to robots by inexperienced operators. Computes virtual contact forces and torques of compliant robot in real time, providing operator with feel of forces experienced by manipulator as well as view in any of three modes: single view, two split views, or stereoscopic view. From keyboard, user specifies force-reflection gain and stiffness of manipulator hand for three translational and three rotational axes. System offers two simulated telerobotic tasks: insertion of peg in hole in three dimensions, and removal and insertion of drawer.

  9. A Modular Telerobot Control System for Accident Response

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert J.; Shirey, David L.

    1999-07-20

    The Accident Response Mobile Manipulator System (ARMMS) is a teleoperated emergency response vehicle that deploys two hydraulic manipulators, five cameras, and an array of sensors to the scene of an incident. It is operated from a remote base station that can be situated up to four kilometers away from the site. Recently, a modular telerobot control architecture called SMART (Sandia's Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) was applied to ARMMS to improve the precision, safety, and operability of the manipulators on board. Using SMART, a prototype manipulator control system was developed in a couple of days, and an integrated working system was demonstrated within a couple of months. New capabilities such as camera teleoperation, autonomous tool changeout and dual manipulator control have been incorporated. The final system incorporates twenty-two separate modules and implements eight different behavior modes. This paper describes the integration of SMART into the ARMMS system.

  10. Design concept for the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FITS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andary, J. F.; Hinkai, S. W.; Watzin, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    NASA has just completed an in-house Phase B Study (one of three studies) for the preliminary definition of a teleoperated robotic device that will be used on the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) and the Space Station to assist the astronauts in the performance of assembly, maintenance, servicing, and inspection tasks. This device, the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS), will become a permanent element on the Space Station. Although it is primarily a teleoperated device, the FTS is being designed to grow and evolve to higher states of autonomy. Eventually, it will be capable of working from the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) to service free-flying spacecraft at great distances from the Space Station. A version of the FTS could also be resident on the large space platforms that are part of the Space Station Program.

  11. Telerobotic minimally invasive procedures in urology--laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Binder, Jochen; Kramer, Wolfgang

    2002-09-01

    A telerobotic device, the daVinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Mountain View, CA) is one of the recently developed, remotely operated systems for laparoscopic surgical procedures. This telemanipulation system consists of two components: a control console operated by the surgeon, and the surgical arm cart that holds a three-dimensional (3-D) 30 degrees laparoscope and two detachable laparoscopic surgical tools. The instruments are equipped with a wrist--a unique feature that provides additional dexterity. Since its clinical introduction in Europe in early 1999, this system has opened up a new era in minimally invasive surgery enhancing endoscopic vision and anastomosis suturing. For the first time, cardiac surgeons were able to perform a totally endoscopic coronary bypass procedure on a beating heart.

  12. The flight telerobotic servicer: From functional architecture to computer architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumia, Ronald; Fiala, John

    1989-01-01

    After a brief tutorial on the NASA/National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture (NASREM) functional architecture, the approach to its implementation is shown. First, interfaces must be defined which are capable of supporting the known algorithms. This is illustrated by considering the interfaces required for the SERVO level of the NASREM functional architecture. After interface definition, the specific computer architecture for the implementation must be determined. This choice is obviously technology dependent. An example illustrating one possible mapping of the NASREM functional architecture to a particular set of computers which implements it is shown. The result of choosing the NASREM functional architecture is that it provides a technology independent paradigm which can be mapped into a technology dependent implementation capable of evolving with technology in the laboratory and in space.

  13. The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) NASA's first operational robotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andary, J.; Halterman, K.; Hewitt, D.; Sabelhaus, P.

    1990-01-01

    NASA has completed the preliminary definition phase of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) and is now preparing to begin the detailed design and fabrication phase. The FTS will be designed and built by Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver, CO, for the Goddard Space Flight Center, in support of the Space Station Freedom Program. The design concepts for the FTS are discussed, as well as operational scenarios for the assembly, maintenance, servicing and inspection tasks which are being considered for the FTS. The upcoming Development Test Flight (DTF-1) is the first of two shuttle test flights to test FTS operations in the environment of space and to demonstrate the FTS capabilities in performing tasks for Space Station Freedom. Operational planning for DTF-1 is discussed as well as development plans for the operational support of the FTS on the space station.

  14. Telerobotic management system: coordinating multiple human operators with multiple robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jamie W.; Pretty, Raymond; Brothers, Brendan; Gosine, Raymond G.

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes an application called the Tele-robotic management system (TMS) for coordinating multiple operators with multiple robots for applications such as underground mining. TMS utilizes several graphical interfaces to allow the user to define a partially ordered plan for multiple robots. This plan is then converted to a Petri net for execution and monitoring. TMS uses a distributed framework to allow robots and operators to easily integrate with the applications. This framework allows robots and operators to join the network and advertise their capabilities through services. TMS then decides whether tasks should be dispatched to a robot or a remote operator based on the services offered by the robots and operators.

  15. Technology transfer and evaluation for Space Station telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Charles R.; Stokes, Lebarian; Diftler, Myron A.

    1994-01-01

    The international space station (SS) must take advantage of advanced telerobotics in order to maximize productivity and safety and to reduce maintenance costs. The Automation and Robotics Division at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has designed, developed, and constructed the Automated Robotics Maintenance of Space Station (ARMSS) facility for the purpose of transferring and evaluating robotic technology that will reduce SS operation costs. Additionally, JSC had developed a process for expediting the transfer of technology from NASA research centers and evaluating these technologies in SS applications. Software and hardware system developed at the research centers and NASA sponsored universities are currently being transferred to JSC and integrated into the ARMSS for flight crew personnel testing. These technologies will be assessed relative to the SS baseline, and, after refinements, those technologies that provide significant performance improvements will be recommended as upgrades to the SS. Proximity sensors, vision algorithms, and manipulator controllers are among the systems scheduled for evaluation.

  16. Workspace visualization and time-delay telerobotic operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, P. S.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1990-01-01

    The paper examines the performance of telerobotic tasks where the operator and robot are physically separated, and a comunication time delay of up to several seconds between them exists. This situation is applicable to space robotic servicing-assembly-maintenance operations on low earth or geosynchronous orbits with a ground-based command station. Attention is given to two developments which address advanced time-delay teleoperations for unstructured tasks: (1) the 'phantom robot', a real-time predictive graphics simulator developed to allow teleoperator eye-to-hand coordination or robot free-space kinematics under a time delay of several seconds; and (2) shared compliance control, a modified form of automatic electromechanical impedance control employed in parallel with manual position control to permit soft contact and grasp compliance with workpiece geometry under a time delay of several seconds.

  17. TEJAS - TELEROBOTICS/EVA JOINT ANALYSIS SYSTEM VERSION 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    The primary objective of space telerobotics as a research discipline is the augmentation and/or support of extravehicular activity (EVA) with telerobotic activity; this allows increased emplacement of on-orbit assets while providing for their "in situ" management. Development of the requisite telerobot work system requires a well-understood correspondence between EVA and telerobotics that to date has been only partially established. The Telerobotics/EVA Joint Analysis Systems (TEJAS) hypermedia information system uses object-oriented programming to bridge the gap between crew-EVA and telerobotics activities. TEJAS Version 1.0 contains twenty HyperCard stacks that use a visual, customizable interface of icon buttons, pop-up menus, and relational commands to store, link, and standardize related information about the primitives, technologies, tasks, assumptions, and open issues involved in space telerobot or crew EVA tasks. These stacks are meant to be interactive and can be used with any database system running on a Macintosh, including spreadsheets, relational databases, word-processed documents, and hypermedia utilities. The software provides a means for managing volumes of data and for communicating complex ideas, relationships, and processes inherent to task planning. The stack system contains 3MB of data and utilities to aid referencing, discussion, communication, and analysis within the EVA and telerobotics communities. The six baseline analysis stacks (EVATasks, EVAAssume, EVAIssues, TeleTasks, TeleAssume, and TeleIssues) work interactively to manage and relate basic information which you enter about the crew-EVA and telerobot tasks you wish to analyze in depth. Analysis stacks draw on information in the Reference stacks as part of a rapid point-and-click utility for building scripts of specific task primitives or for any EVA or telerobotics task. Any or all of these stacks can be completely incorporated within other hypermedia applications, or they can be

  18. TEJAS - TELEROBOTICS/EVA JOINT ANALYSIS SYSTEM VERSION 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    The primary objective of space telerobotics as a research discipline is the augmentation and/or support of extravehicular activity (EVA) with telerobotic activity; this allows increased emplacement of on-orbit assets while providing for their "in situ" management. Development of the requisite telerobot work system requires a well-understood correspondence between EVA and telerobotics that to date has been only partially established. The Telerobotics/EVA Joint Analysis Systems (TEJAS) hypermedia information system uses object-oriented programming to bridge the gap between crew-EVA and telerobotics activities. TEJAS Version 1.0 contains twenty HyperCard stacks that use a visual, customizable interface of icon buttons, pop-up menus, and relational commands to store, link, and standardize related information about the primitives, technologies, tasks, assumptions, and open issues involved in space telerobot or crew EVA tasks. These stacks are meant to be interactive and can be used with any database system running on a Macintosh, including spreadsheets, relational databases, word-processed documents, and hypermedia utilities. The software provides a means for managing volumes of data and for communicating complex ideas, relationships, and processes inherent to task planning. The stack system contains 3MB of data and utilities to aid referencing, discussion, communication, and analysis within the EVA and telerobotics communities. The six baseline analysis stacks (EVATasks, EVAAssume, EVAIssues, TeleTasks, TeleAssume, and TeleIssues) work interactively to manage and relate basic information which you enter about the crew-EVA and telerobot tasks you wish to analyze in depth. Analysis stacks draw on information in the Reference stacks as part of a rapid point-and-click utility for building scripts of specific task primitives or for any EVA or telerobotics task. Any or all of these stacks can be completely incorporated within other hypermedia applications, or they can be

  19. Human Exploration Using Real-Time Robotic Operations (HERRO)- Crew Telerobotic Control Vehicle (CTCV) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Burke, Laura; Chato, David; Fincannon, James; Landis, Geoff; Sandifer, Carl; Warner, Joe; Williams, Glenn; Colozza, Tony; hide

    2010-01-01

    The HERRO concept allows real time investigation of planets and small bodies by sending astronauts to orbit these targets and telerobotically explore them using robotic systems. Several targets have been put forward by past studies including Mars, Venus, and near Earth asteroids. A conceptual design study was funded by the NASA Innovation Fund to explore what the HERRO concept and it's vehicles would look like and what technological challenges need to be met. This design study chose Mars as the target destination. In this way the HERRO studies can define the endpoint design concepts for an all-up telerobotic exploration of the number one target of interest Mars. This endpoint design will serve to help planners define combined precursor telerobotics science missions and technology development flights. A suggested set of these technologies and demonstrator missions is shown in Appendix B. The HERRO concept includes a crewed telerobotics orbit vehicle as well three Truck rovers, each supporting two teleoperated geologist robots Rockhounds (each truck/Rockhounds set is landed using a commercially launched aeroshell landing system.) Options include a sample ascent system teamed with an orbital telerobotic sample rendezvous and return spacecraft (S/C) (yet to be designed). Each truck rover would be landed in a science location with the ability to traverse a 100 km diameter area, carrying the Rockhounds to 100 m diameter science areas for several week science activities. The truck is not only responsible for transporting the Rockhounds to science areas, but also for relaying telecontrol and high-res communications to/from the Rockhound and powering/heating the Rockhound during the non-science times (including night-time). The Rockhounds take the place of human geologists by providing an agile robotic platform with real-time telerobotics control to the Rockhound from the crew telerobotics orbiter. The designs of the Truck rovers and Rockhounds will be described in other

  20. Telerobotic Laparoscopic Repair of Incisional Ventral Hernias Using Intraperitoneal Prosthetic Mesh

    PubMed Central

    Hourmont, Katherine; Wasielewski, Annette

    2003-01-01

    Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair shortens the length of hospital stay and achieves low rates of hernia recurrence. The inherent difficulties of performing advanced laparoscopy operations, however, have limited the adoption of this technique by many surgeons. We hypothesized that the virtual operative field and hand-like instruments of a telerobotic surgical system could overcome these limitations. We present herein the first 2 reported cases of telerobotic laparoscopic ventral hernia repair with mesh. The operations were accomplished with the da Vinci telerobotic surgical system. The hernia defects were repaired with dual-sided, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) mesh. The mesh was secured in place with 8 sutures that were passed through the abdominal wall, and 5-mm surgical tacks were placed around the circumference of the mesh. The 2 operations were accomplished with total operative times of 120 and 135 minutes and total operating room times of 166 and 180 minutes, respectively. The patients were discharged home on postoperative days 1 and 4. The surgeon sat in an ergonomically comfortable position at a computer console that was remote from the patient. Immersion of the surgeon within the 3-dimensional virtual operative field expedited each stage of these procedures. The articulation of the wristed telerobotic instruments greatly facilitated reaching the anterior abdominal cavity near the abdominal wall. This report indicates that telerobotic laparoscopic ventral hernia repair is feasible and suggests that telepresence technology facilitates this procedure. PMID:12722992

  1. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  2. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  3. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  4. Surface Telerobotics: Development and Testing of a Crew Controlled Planetary Rover System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bualat, Maria G.; Fong, Terrence; Allan, Mark; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Cohen, Tamar; Kobayashi, Linda

    2013-01-01

    In planning for future exploration missions, architecture and study teams have made numerous assumptions about how crew can be telepresent on a planetary surface by remotely operating surface robots from space (i.e. from a flight vehicle or deep space habitat). These assumptions include estimates of technology maturity, existing technology gaps, and operational risks. These assumptions, however, have not been grounded by experimental data. Moreover, to date, no crew-controlled surface telerobot has been fully tested in a high-fidelity manner. To address these issues, we developed the "Surface Telerobotics" tests to do three things: 1) Demonstrate interactive crew control of a mobile surface telerobot in the presence of short communications delay. 2) Characterize a concept of operations for a single astronaut remotely operating a planetary rover with limited support from ground control. 3) Characterize system utilization and operator work-load for a single astronaut remotely operating a planetary rover with limited support from ground control.

  5. Simulation of the human-telerobot interface on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Smith, Randy L.

    1993-01-01

    Many issues remain unresolved concerning the components of the human-telerobot interface presented in this work. It is critical that these components be optimally designed and arranged to ensure, not only that the overall system's goals are met, but but that the intended end-user has been optimally accommodated. With sufficient testing and evaluation throughout the development cycle, the selection of the components to use in the final telerobotic system can promote efficient, error-free performance. It is recommended that whole-system simulation with full-scale mockups be used to help design the human-telerobot interface. It is contended that the use of simulation can facilitate this design and evaluation process.

  6. Design of a structural and functional hierarchy for planning and control of telerobotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acar, Levent; Ozguner, Umit

    1989-01-01

    Hierarchical structures offer numerous advantages over conventional structures for the control of telerobotic systems. A hierarchically organized system can be controlled via undetailed task assignments and can easily adapt to changing circumstances. The distributed and modular structure of these systems also enables fast response needed in most telerobotic applications. On the other hand, most of the hierarchical structures proposed in the literature are based on functional properties of a system. These structures work best for a few given functions of a large class of systems. In telerobotic applications, all functions of a single system needed to be explored. This approach requires a hierarchical organization based on physical properties of a system and such a hierarchical organization is introduced. The decomposition, organization, and control of the hierarchical structure are considered, and a system with two robot arms and a camera is presented.

  7. Application of telerobotic control to remote processing of nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.D.; Grasz, E.L.; Herget, C.J.; Gavel, D.T.; Addis, R.B.; DeMinico, G.A.

    1991-07-08

    In processing radioactive material there are certain steps which have customarily required operators working at glove box enclosures. This can subject the operators to low level radiation dosages and the risk of accidental contamination, as well as generate significant radioactive waste to accommodate the human interaction. An automated system is being developed to replace the operator at the glove box and thus remove the human from these risks, and minimize waste. Although most of the processing can be automated with very little human operator interaction, there are some tasks where intelligent intervention is necessary to adapt to unexpected circumstances and events. These activities will require that the operator be able to interact with the process using a remote manipulator in a manner as natural as if the operator were actually in the work cell. This robot-based remote manipulation system, or telerobot, must provide the operator with an effective means of controlling the robot arm, gripper and tools. This paper describes the effort in progress in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to achieve this capability. 8 refs.

  8. Evaluation of a telerobotic system to assist surgeons in microsurgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, H.; Zak, H.; Johnson, J.; Crouch, J.; Frambach, D.

    1999-01-01

    A tool was developed that assists surgeons in manipulating surgical instruments more precisely than is possible manually. The tool is a telemanipulator that scales down the surgeon's hand motion and filters tremor in the motion. The signals measured from the surgeon's hand are transformed and used to drive a six-degrees-of-freedom robot to position the surgical instrument mounted on its tip. A pilot study comparing the performance of the telemanipulator system against manual instrument positioning was conducted at the University of Southern California School of Medicine. The results show that a telerobotic tool can improve the performance of a microsurgeon by increasing the precision with which he can position surgical instruments, but this is achieved at the cost of increased time in performing the task. We believe that this technology will extend the capabilities of microsurgeons and allow more surgeons to perform highly skilled procedures currently performed only by the best surgeons. It will also enable performance of new surgical procedures that are beyond the capabilities of even the most skilled surgeons. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. HERRO Mission to Mars Using Telerobotic Surface Exploration from Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Schmidt, George R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a concept for a human mission to Mars orbit that features direct robotic exploration of the planet s surface via teleoperation from orbit. This mission is a good example of Human Exploration using Real-time Robotic Operations (HERRO), an exploration strategy that refrains from sending humans to the surfaces of planets with large gravity wells. HERRO avoids the need for complex and expensive man-rated lander/ascent vehicles and surface systems. Additionally, the humans are close enough to the surface to effectively eliminate the two-way communication latency that constrains typical robotic space missions, thus allowing real-time command and control of surface operations and experiments by the crew. Through use of state-of-the-art telecommunications and robotics, HERRO provides the cognitive and decision-making advantages of having humans at the site of study for only a fraction of the cost of conventional human surface missions. It is very similar to how oceanographers and oil companies use telerobotic submersibles to work in inaccessible areas of the ocean, and represents a more expedient, near-term step prior to landing humans on Mars and other large planetary bodies. Results suggest that a single HERRO mission with six crew members could achieve the same exploratory and scientific return as three conventional crewed missions to the Mars surface.

  10. Evaluation of a telerobotic system to assist surgeons in microsurgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, H.; Zak, H.; Johnson, J.; Crouch, J.; Frambach, D.

    1999-01-01

    A tool was developed that assists surgeons in manipulating surgical instruments more precisely than is possible manually. The tool is a telemanipulator that scales down the surgeon's hand motion and filters tremor in the motion. The signals measured from the surgeon's hand are transformed and used to drive a six-degrees-of-freedom robot to position the surgical instrument mounted on its tip. A pilot study comparing the performance of the telemanipulator system against manual instrument positioning was conducted at the University of Southern California School of Medicine. The results show that a telerobotic tool can improve the performance of a microsurgeon by increasing the precision with which he can position surgical instruments, but this is achieved at the cost of increased time in performing the task. We believe that this technology will extend the capabilities of microsurgeons and allow more surgeons to perform highly skilled procedures currently performed only by the best surgeons. It will also enable performance of new surgical procedures that are beyond the capabilities of even the most skilled surgeons. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Development of advanced control schemes for telerobot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Zhou, Zhen-Lei

    1991-01-01

    To study space applications of telerobotics, Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA) has recently built a testbed composed mainly of a pair of redundant slave arms having seven degrees of freedom and a master hand controller system. The mathematical developments required for the computerized simulation study and motion control of the slave arms are presented. The slave arm forward kinematic transformation is presented which is derived using the D-H notation and is then reduced to its most simplified form suitable for real-time control applications. The vector cross product method is then applied to obtain the slave arm Jacobian matrix. Using the developed forward kinematic transformation and quaternions representation of the slave arm end-effector orientation, computer simulation is conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the Jacobian in converting joint velocities into Cartesian velocities and to investigate the accuracy of the Jacobian pseudo-inverse for various sampling times. In addition, the equivalence between Cartesian velocities and quaternion is also verified using computer simulation. The motion control of the slave arm is examined. Three control schemes, the joint-space adaptive control scheme, the Cartesian adaptive control scheme, and the hybrid position/force control scheme are proposed for controlling the motion of the slave arm end-effector. Development of the Cartesian adaptive control scheme is presented and some preliminary results of the remaining control schemes are presented and discussed.

  12. Computational Virtual Reality (VR) as a human-computer interface in the operation of telerobotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the application of computer graphics or 'virtual reality' (VR) techniques as a human-computer interface tool in the operation of telerobotic systems. VR techniques offer very valuable task realization aids for planning, previewing and predicting robotic actions, operator training, and for visual perception of non-visible events like contact forces in robotic tasks. The utility of computer graphics in telerobotic operation can be significantly enhanced by high-fidelity calibration of virtual reality images to actual TV camera images. This calibration will even permit the creation of artificial (synthetic) views of task scenes for which no TV camera views are available.

  13. Head-controlled assistive telerobot with extended physiological proprioception capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salganicoff, Marcos; Rahman, Tariq; Mahoney, Ricardo; Pino, D.; Jayachandran, Vijay; Kumar, Vijay; Chen, Shoupu; Harwin, William S.

    1995-12-01

    People with disabilities such as quadriplegia can use mouth-sticks and head-sticks as extension devices to perform desired manipulations. These extensions provide extended proprioception which allows users to directly feel forces and other perceptual cues such as texture present at the tip of the mouth-stick. Such devices are effective for two principle reasons: because of their close contact with the user's tactile and proprioceptive sensing abilities; and because they tend to be lightweight and very stiff, and can thus convey tactile and kinesthetic information with high-bandwidth. Unfortunately, traditional mouth-sticks and head-sticks are limited in workspace and in the mechanical power that can be transferred because of user mobility and strength limitations. We describe an alternative implementation of the head-stick device using the idea of a virtual head-stick: a head-controlled bilateral force-reflecting telerobot. In this system the end-effector of the slave robot moves as if it were at the tip of an imaginary extension of the user's head. The design goal is for the system is to have the same intuitive operation and extended proprioception as a regular mouth-stick effector but with augmentation of workspace volume and mechanical power. The input is through a specially modified six DOF master robot (a PerForceTM hand-controller) whose joints can be back-driven to apply forces at the user's head. The manipulation tasks in the environment are performed by a six degree-of-freedom slave robot (the Zebra-ZEROTM) with a built-in force sensor. We describe the prototype hardware/software implementation of the system, control system design, safety/disability issues, and initial evaluation tasks.

  14. Multimodally controlled intelligent telerobot for people with disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazi, Zunaid; Chen, Shoupu; Beitler, Matthew; Chester, Daniel; Foulds, Richard

    1996-12-01

    This paper reports on the current status of the multimodal user supervised interface and intelligent control (MUSIIC) project, which is working towards the development of an intelligent assistive telemanipulative system for people with motor disabilities. Our MUSIIC strategy overcomes the limitations of previous approaches by integrating a multimodal RUI (robot user interface) and a semi-autonomous reactive planner that will allow users with severe motor disabilities to manipulate objects in an unstructured domain. The multimodal user interface is a speech and deictic (pointing) gesture based control that guides the operation of a semi-autonomous planner controlling the assistive telerobot. MUSIIC uses a vision system to determine the three-dimensional shape, pose and color of objects and surfaces which are in the environment, and as well as an object-oriented knowledge base and planning system which superimposes information about common objects in the three-dimensional world. This approach allows the users to identify objects and tasks via a multimodal user interface which interprets their deictic gestures and a restricted natural language like speech input. The multimodal interface eliminates the need for general purpose object recognition by binding the users speech and gesture input to a locus in the domain of interest. The underlying knowledge-driven planner, combines information obtained from the user, the stereo vision mechanism as well as the knowledge bases to adapt previously learned plans to perform new tasks and also to manipulate newly introduced objects into the workspace. Therefore, what we have is a flexible and intelligent telemanipulative system that functions as an assistive robot for people with motor disabilities.

  15. Remote telerobotic replacement for master-slave manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Iverson, D.C.; LaValle, D.R.

    1997-05-01

    A remotely replaceable telerobotic manipulator (TRM) has been developed and deployed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in support of its radioactive operation. The TRM replaces a Master-Slave Manipulator (MSM). The TRM is in use for both routine and recovery operations for the radioactive waste vitrification melter, the primary production device within the DWPF. The arm was designed for deployment and operation using an existing MSM penetration. This replacement of an existing MSM with a high power robotic device demonstrates the capability to perform similar replacement in other operating facilities. The MSM`s were originally deployed in the DWPF to perform routine light capacity tasks. During the testing phase of the DWPF, prior to its radioactive startup in 5/96, the need to remove glass deposits that can form at the melter discharge during filling of glass containment canisters was identified. The combination of high radiation and contamination in the DWPF melter cell during radioactive operation eliminated personnel entry as a recovery option. Therefore remote cleaning methods had to be devised. The MSM`s had neither the reach nor the strength required for this task. It became apparent that a robust manipulator arm would be required for recovery from these potential melter discharge pluggage events. The existing wall penetrations, used for the MSM`s, could not be altered for seismic and radiological reasons. The new manipulator was required to be of considerable reach, due to existing physical layout, and strength, due to the glass removal requirement. Additionally, the device would have to compatible with high radiation and remote crane installation. The physical size of the manipulator and the weight of components must be consistent with the existing facilities. It was recognized early-on that a manipulator of sufficient strength to recover from a pluggage event would require robotic functions to constrain undesirable motions.

  16. Advanced data management design for autonomous telerobotic systems in space using spaceborne symbolic processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goforth, Andre

    1987-01-01

    The use of computers in autonomous telerobots is reaching the point where advanced distributed processing concepts and techniques are needed to support the functioning of Space Station era telerobotic systems. Three major issues that have impact on the design of data management functions in a telerobot are covered. It also presents a design concept that incorporates an intelligent systems manager (ISM) running on a spaceborne symbolic processor (SSP), to address these issues. The first issue is the support of a system-wide control architecture or control philosophy. Salient features of two candidates are presented that impose constraints on data management design. The second issue is the role of data management in terms of system integration. This referes to providing shared or coordinated data processing and storage resources to a variety of telerobotic components such as vision, mechanical sensing, real-time coordinated multiple limb and end effector control, and planning and reasoning. The third issue is hardware that supports symbolic processing in conjunction with standard data I/O and numeric processing. A SSP that currently is seen to be technologically feasible and is being developed is described and used as a baseline in the design concept.

  17. Telerobot task planning and reasoning: Introduction to JPL artificial intelligence research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    A view of the capabilities and areas of artificial intelligence research which are required for autonomous space telerobotics extending through the year 2000 is given. In the coming years, JPL will be conducting directed research to achieve these capabilities, as well as drawing heavily on collaborative efforts conducted with other research laboratories.

  18. Role of computer graphics in space telerobotics - Preview and predictive displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.; Venema, Steven; Kim, Won S.

    1991-01-01

    The application of computer graphics in space telerobotics research and development work is briefly reviewed and illustrated by specific examples implemented in real time operation. The applications are discussed under the following four major categories: preview displays, predictive displays, sensor data displays, and control system status displays.

  19. Robust telerobotics - an integrated system for waste handling, characterization and sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, S.A.; Hurd, R.L.; Wilhelmsen, K.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was designed to serve as a national testbed to demonstrate integrated technologies for the treatment of low-level organic mixed waste at a pilot-plant scale. Pilot-scale demonstration serves to bridge the gap between mature, bench-scale proven technologies and full-scale treatment facilities by providing the infrastructure needed to evaluate technologies in an integrated, front-end to back-end facility. Consistent with the intent to focus on technologies that are ready for pilot scale deployment, the front-end handling and feed preparation of incoming waste material has been designed to demonstrate the application of emerging robotic and remotely operated handling systems. The selection of telerobotics for remote handling in MWMF was made based on a number of factors - personnel protection, waste generation, maturity, cost, flexibility and extendibility. Telerobotics, or shared control of a manipulator by an operator and a computer, provides the flexibility needed to vary the amount of automation or operator intervention according to task complexity. As part of the telerobotics design effort, the technical risk of deploying the technology was reduced through focused developments and demonstrations. The work involved integrating key tools (1) to make a robust telerobotic system that operates at speeds and reliability levels acceptable to waste handling operators and, (2) to demonstrate an efficient operator interface that minimizes the amount of special training and skills needed by the operator. This paper describes the design and operation of the prototype telerobotic waste handling and sorting system that was developed for MWMF.

  20. Robotic surgery, telerobotic surgery, telepresence, and telementoring. Review of early clinical results.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, G H

    2002-10-01

    Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy rapidly became the standard of care for the surgical treatment of cholelithiasis, very few other abdominal or cardiac operations are currently performed using minimally invasive surgical techniques. The inherent limitations of traditional laparoscopic surgery make it difficult to perform these operations. We, and others, have attempted to use robotic technology to (a) provide a stable camera platform, (b) replace two-dimensional with three-dimensional (3-D) imaging, (c) simulate the fluid motions of a surgeon's wrist to overcome the motion limitations of straight laparoscopic instruments, and (d) offer the surgeon a comfortable, ergonomically optimal operating position. In this article, we review the early published clinical experience with surgical robotic and telerobotic systems and assess their current limitations. The voice-controlled AESOP robot replaces the cameraperson and facilitates the performance of solo-surgeon laparoscopic operations. AESOP provides a stable camera platform and avoids motion sickness in the operative team. The telerobotic Zeus and da Vinci surgical systems permit solo surgery by a surgeon from a remote sight. These telerobots hold the camera, replace the surgeon's two hands with robotic instruments, and serve in a master-slave relationship for the surgeon. Their robotic instruments simulate the motions of the surgeon's wrist, facilitating dissection. Both telerobots use 3-D imaging to immerse the surgeon in a three-dimensional video operating field. These robots also provide operating positions for the surgeon console that are ergonomically superior to those required by traditional laparoscopy. The technological advances of these telerobots now permit telepresence surgery from remote locations, even locations thousands of miles away. In addition, telepresence permits the telementoring of novice surgeons who are performing new procedures by expert surgeons in remote locations. The studies reviewed

  1. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  2. Beginnings of open-heart surgery in Gdansk – double role of the Pemco heart-lung machine and new facts about Dutch-Polish cooperation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The first open-heart surgery in Gdansk took place in 1975. It was possible thanks to the gift of a Pemco extracorporeal circulation machine from the Netherlands to the Surgery Institute of the Medical Academy of Gdansk. The article presents additional, unpublished informations which enable a new interpretation of the previously known facts. PMID:27516801

  3. Low-Latency Telerobotics from Mars Orbit: The Case for Synergy Between Science and Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valinia, A.; Garvin, J. B.; Vondrak, R.; Thronson, H.; Lester, D.; Schmidt, G.; Fong, T.; Wilcox, B.; Sellers, P.; White, N.

    2012-01-01

    Initial, science-directed human exploration of Mars will benefit from capabilities in which human explorers remain in orbit to control telerobotic systems on the surface (Figure 1). Low-latency, high-bandwidth telerobotics (LLT) from Mars orbit offers opportunities for what the terrestrial robotics community considers to be high-quality telepresence. Such telepresence would provide high quality sensory perception and situation awareness, and even capabilities for dexterous manipulation as required for adaptive, informed selection of scientific samples [1]. Astronauts on orbit in close communication proximity to a surface exploration site (in order to minimize communication latency) represent a capability that would extend human cognition to Mars (and potentially for other bodies such as asteroids, Venus, the Moon, etc.) without the challenges, expense, and risk of putting those humans on hazardous surfaces or within deep gravity wells. Such a strategy may be consistent with goals for a human space flight program that, are currently being developed within NASA.

  4. Issues, concerns, and initial implementation results for space based telerobotic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, D. A.; Chapel, J. D.; Depkovich, T. M.

    1987-01-01

    Telerobotic control for space based assembly and servicing tasks presents many problems in system design. Traditional force reflection teleoperation schemes are not well suited to this application, and the approaches to compliance control via computer algorithms have yet to see significant testing and comparison. These observations are discussed in detail, as well as the concerns they raise for imminent design and testing of space robotic systems. As an example of the detailed technical work yet to be done before such systems can be specified, a particular approach to providing manipulator compliance is examined experimentally and through modeling and analysis. This yields some initial insight into the limitations and design trade-offs for this class of manipulator control schemes. Implications of this investigation for space based telerobots are discussed in detail.

  5. Redundancy in sensors, control and planning of a robotic system for space telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rovetta, A.; Vodret, S.; Bianchini, M.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis and development of a manipulator redundant in structure and sensor devices controlled by a distributed multiprocessor architecture are discussed. The goal has been the realization of a modular structure of the manipulator with evident aspects of flexibility and transportability. The distributed control structure, thanks to his modularity and flexibility could be integrated in the future into an operative structure aimed to space telerobotics. The architecture is applied to the 6 DOF manipulator Gilberto.

  6. Telerobotic hand controller study of force reflection with position control mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, Kelli F.; Hankins, Walter W.; Morris, A. Terry; Mixon, Randolph W.

    1992-01-01

    To gain further information about the effectiveness of kinesthetic force feedback or force reflection in position control mode for a telerobot, two Space Station related tasks were performed by eight subjects with and without the use of force reflection. Both time and subjective responses were measured. No differences due to force were found, however, other differences were found, e.g., gender. Comparisons of these results with other studies are discussed.

  7. Design and Integration of a Telerobotic System for Minimally Invasive Surgery of the Throat

    PubMed Central

    Simaan, Nabil; Xu, Kai; Kapoor, Ankur; Wei, Wei; Kazanzides, Peter; Flint, Paul; Taylor, Russell

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the clinical motivation, design specifications, kinematics, statics, and actuation compensation for a newly constructed telerobotic system for Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) of the throat. A hybrid dual-arm telesurgical slave, with twenty joint-space Degrees of Freedom (DoF), is used in this telerobotic system to provide the necessary dexterity in deep surgical fields such as the throat. The telerobotic slave uses novel continuum robots that use multiple super-elastic backbones for actuation and structural integrity. The paper presents the kinematics of the telesurgical slave and methods for actuation compensation to cancel the effects of backlash, friction, and flexibility of the actuation lines. A method for actuation compensation is presented in order to overcome uncertainties of modeling, friction, and backlash. This method uses a tiered hierarchy of two novel approaches of actuation compensation for remotely actuated snake-like robots. The tiered approach for actuation compensation uses compensation in both joint space and configuration space of the continuum robots. These actuation hybrid compensation schemes use intrinsic model information and external data through a recursive linear estimation algorithm and involve compensation using configuration space and joint space variables. Experimental results validate the ability of our integrated telemanipulation system through experiments of suturing and knot tying in confined spaces. PMID:20160881

  8. A methodology for automation and robotics evaluation applied to the space station telerobotic servicer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Gyanfi, Max; Volkmer, Kent; Zimmerman, Wayne

    1988-01-01

    The efforts of a recent study aimed at identifying key issues and trade-offs associated with using a Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) to aid in Space Station assembly-phase tasks is described. The use of automation and robotic (A and R) technologies for large space systems would involve a substitution of automation capabilities for human extravehicular or intravehicular activities (EVA, IVA). A methodology is presented that incorporates assessment of candidate assembly-phase tasks, telerobotic performance capabilities, development costs, and effect of operational constraints (space transportation system (STS), attached payload, and proximity operations). Changes in the region of cost-effectiveness are examined under a variety of systems design assumptions. A discussion of issues is presented with focus on three roles the FTS might serve: (1) as a research-oriented testbed to learn more about space usage of telerobotics; (2) as a research based testbed having an experimental demonstration orientation with limited assembly and servicing applications; or (3) as an operational system to augment EVA and to aid the construction of the Space Station and to reduce the programmatic (schedule) risk by increasing the flexibility of mission operations.

  9. Explosive ordinance disposal technology demonstration using the telerobotic small emplacement excavator

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, B.L.; Killough, S.M.; Thompson, D.H.; Dinkins, M.A.

    1994-06-01

    The small emplacement excavator (SEE) is a ruggedized military vehicle with backhoe and front loader used by the US Army for explosive ordinance disposal (EOD), combat engineer, and general utility excavation activities. In order to evaluate the feasibility of removing personnel from the vehicle during the high risk EOD excavation tasks a development and demonstration project was initiated to evaluate performance capabilities of the SEE under telerobotic control. This feasibility study was performed at the request of the Ordinance Missile and Munitions Center and School (OMMCS) at the Redstone Arsenal to help define requirements for further joint service development activities. Development of a telerobotic SEE (TSEE) was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a project funded jointly by the US Army Project Manager for Ammunition Logistics (PM-AMMOLOG) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP). A technology demonstration of the TSEE was conducted at McKinley Range, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama, on September 13--17, 1993. The primary objective of the demonstration was to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of remote EOD. During the demonstration, approximately 40 EOD specialists were instructed on telerobotic operation of the TSEE and then were asked to complete a series of simulated EOD tasks. Upon completion of the tasks, participants completed an evaluation of the system including human factors performance data.

  10. The flight telerobotic servicer Tinman concept: System design drivers and task analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andary, J. F.; Hewitt, D. R.; Hinkal, S. W.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop a preliminary definition of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) that could be used to understand the operational concepts and scenarios for the FTS. Called the Tinman, this design concept was also used to begin the process of establishing resources and interfaces for the FTS on Space Station Freedom, the National Space Transportation System shuttle orbiter, and the Orbital Maneuvering vehicle. Starting with an analysis of the requirements and task capabilities as stated in the Phase B study requirements document, the study identified eight major design drivers for the FTS. Each of these design drivers and their impacts on the Tinman design concept are described. Next, the planning that is currently underway for providing resources for the FTS on Space Station Freedom is discussed, including up to 2000 W of peak power, up to four color video channels, and command and data rates up to 500 kbps between the telerobot and the control station. Finally, an example is presented to show how the Tinman design concept was used to analyze task scenarios and explore the operational capabilities of the FTS. A structured methodology using a standard terminology consistent with the NASA/National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture (NASREM) was developed for this analysis.

  11. Design, development and evaluation of a compact telerobotic catheter navigation system.

    PubMed

    Tavallaei, Mohammad Ali; Gelman, Daniel; Lavdas, Michael Konstantine; Skanes, Allan C; Jones, Douglas L; Bax, Jeffrey S; Drangova, Maria

    2016-09-01

    Remote catheter navigation systems protect interventionalists from scattered ionizing radiation. However, these systems typically require specialized catheters and extensive operator training. A new compact and sterilizable telerobotic system is described, which allows remote navigation of conventional tip-steerable catheters, with three degrees of freedom, using an interface that takes advantage of the interventionalist's existing dexterity skills. The performance of the system is evaluated ex vivo and in vivo for remote catheter navigation and ablation delivery. The system has absolute errors of 0.1 ± 0.1 mm and 7 ± 6° over 100 mm of axial motion and 360° of catheter rotation, respectively. In vivo experiments proved the safety of the proposed telerobotic system and demonstrated the feasibility of remote navigation and delivery of ablation. The proposed telerobotic system allows the interventionalist to use conventional steerable catheters; while maintaining a safe distance from the radiation source, he/she can remotely navigate the catheter and deliver ablation lesions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of a Telerobotic System for Transnasal Surgery of the Larynx and Airways in Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Dharamsi, Latif M; Bajo, Andrea; Netterville, James L; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Simaan, Nabil

    2014-07-01

    Minimally invasive, transnasal endoscopic approaches to the larynx have been utilized but are limited by the precision and accuracy afforded to the surgeon. The objective of this study is to analyze the feasibility of a rapidly deployable telerobotic system for enabling transnasal microsurgery of the larynx and upper airways, specifically injection laryngoplasty. This is a feasibility study. This study was conducted at a laboratory in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Vanderbilt University. A feasibility study was conducted in which a telerobotic system was transnasally inserted in both a human intubation trainer mannequin and a cadaver. A flexible needle was passed through an instrumentation port and targeted specific areas of the vocal folds of our models to simulate injection laryngoplasty. The experiments were recorded with both still and video photography. Average forces exerted on surrounding tissue and times of deployment were measured. Our robot was able to expeditiously gain access to the glottis with an average manual insertion time of 5.87 seconds while exerting minimal forces on the surrounding tissues with an average force of 4.45 Newtons. The onboard fiberoptic endoscope conveyed images of adequate quality for the completion of a simulated injection medialization laryngoplasty. The experiment was successfully completed in both mannequin and cadaveric models. This telerobotic system proved to be capable of being rapidly deployed to the upper airways while exerting minimal forces to the surrounding structures and successfully simulated injection medialization laryngoplasty. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  13. Software architecture for a distributed real-time system in Ada, with application to telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Douglas R.; Messiora, Steve; Leake, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    The architecture structure and software design methodology presented is described in the context of telerobotic application in Ada, specifically the Engineering Test Bed (ETB), which was developed to support the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) Program at GSFC. However, the nature of the architecture is such that it has applications to any multiprocessor distributed real-time system. The ETB architecture, which is a derivation of the NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model (NASREM), defines a hierarchy for representing a telerobot system. Within this hierarchy, a module is a logical entity consisting of the software associated with a set of related hardware components in the robot system. A module is comprised of submodules, which are cyclically executing processes that each perform a specific set of functions. The submodules in a module can run on separate processors. The submodules in the system communicate via command/status (C/S) interface channels, which are used to send commands down and relay status back up the system hierarchy. Submodules also communicate via setpoint data links, which are used to transfer control data from one submodule to another. A submodule invokes submodule algorithms (SMA's) to perform algorithmic operations. Data that describe or models a physical component of the system are stored as objects in the World Model (WM). The WM is a system-wide distributed database that is accessible to submodules in all modules of the system for creating, reading, and writing objects.

  14. NASA/NBS (National Aeronautics and Space Administration/National Bureau of Standards) standard reference model for telerobot control system architecture (NASREM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, James S.; Mccain, Harry G.; Lumia, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    The document describes the NASA Standard Reference Model (NASREM) Architecture for the Space Station Telerobot Control System. It defines the functional requirements and high level specifications of the control system for the NASA space Station document for the functional specification, and a guideline for the development of the control system architecture, of the 10C Flight Telerobot Servicer. The NASREM telerobot control system architecture defines a set of standard modules and interfaces which facilitates software design, development, validation, and test, and make possible the integration of telerobotics software from a wide variety of sources. Standard interfaces also provide the software hooks necessary to incrementally upgrade future Flight Telerobot Systems as new capabilities develop in computer science, robotics, and autonomous system control.

  15. Business Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pactor, Paul

    1970-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Labor has projected a 106 percent increase in the demand for office machine operators over the next 10 years. Machines with a high frequency of use include printing calculators, 10-key adding machines, and key punch machines. The 12th grade is the logical time for teaching business machines. (CH)

  16. Mechanisms and economy of molecular machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    Cells contain millions of biomolecules that function as molecular machines. This paper reviews aspects of the mechanisms of these machines (alternative pathways and cooperativity) as well as the economic principles of their use in cells. The focus is on the machines that process the genetic information, in particular RNA polymerases.

  17. Hierarchical Ada robot programming system (HARPS)- A complete and working telerobot control system based on the NASREM model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, Stephen; Green, Tom; Cofer, Sue; Sauerwein, Tim

    1989-01-01

    HARPS is a telerobot control system that can perform some simple but useful tasks. This capability is demonstrated by performing the ORU exchange demonstration. HARPS is based on NASREM (NASA Standard Reference Model). All software is developed in Ada, and the project incorporates a number of different CASE (computer-aided software engineering) tools. NASREM was found to be a valid and useful model for building a telerobot control system. Its hierarchical and distributed structure creates a natural and logical flow for implementing large complex robust control systems. The ability of Ada to create and enforce abstraction enhanced the implementation of such control systems.

  18. The Space Station Freedom Flight Telerobotic Servicer: the design and evolution of a dexterous space robot.

    PubMed

    McCain, H G; Andary, J F; Hewitt, D R; Haley, D C

    1991-01-01

    The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an advanced telerobotic system to assist in and reduce crew extravehicular activity (EVA) for Space Station) Freedom (SSF). The FTS will provide a telerobotic capability to the Freedom Station in the early assembly phases of the program and will be employed for assembly, maintenance, and inspection applications throughout the lifetime of the space station. Appropriately configured elements of the FTS will also be employed for robotic manipulation in remote satellite servicing applications and possibly the Lunar/Mars Program. In mid-1989, the FTS entered the flight system design and implementation phase (Phase C/D) of development with the signing of the FTS prime contract with Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver, Colorado. The basic FTS design is now established and can be reported on in some detail. This paper will describe the FTS flight system design and the rationale for the specific design approaches and component selections. The current state of space technology and the nature of the FTS task dictate that the FTS be designed with sophisticated teleoperation capabilities for its initial primary operating mode. However, there are technologies, such as advanced computer vision and autonomous planning techniques currently in research and advanced development phases which would greatly enhance the FTS capabilities to perform autonomously in less structured work environments. Therefore, a specific requirement on the initial FTS design is that it has the capability to evolve as new technology becomes available. This paper will describe the FTS design approach for evolution to more autonomous capabilities. Some specific task applications of the FTS and partial automation approaches of these tasks will also be discussed in this paper.

  19. The Space Station Freedom Flight Telerobotic Servicer: the design and evolution of a dexterous space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCain, H. G.; Andary, J. F.; Hewitt, D. R.; Haley, D. C.

    1991-01-01

    The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an advanced telerobotic system to assist in and reduce crew extravehicular activity (EVA) for Space Station) Freedom (SSF). The FTS will provide a telerobotic capability to the Freedom Station in the early assembly phases of the program and will be employed for assembly, maintenance, and inspection applications throughout the lifetime of the space station. Appropriately configured elements of the FTS will also be employed for robotic manipulation in remote satellite servicing applications and possibly the Lunar/Mars Program. In mid-1989, the FTS entered the flight system design and implementation phase (Phase C/D) of development with the signing of the FTS prime contract with Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver, Colorado. The basic FTS design is now established and can be reported on in some detail. This paper will describe the FTS flight system design and the rationale for the specific design approaches and component selections. The current state of space technology and the nature of the FTS task dictate that the FTS be designed with sophisticated teleoperation capabilities for its initial primary operating mode. However, there are technologies, such as advanced computer vision and autonomous planning techniques currently in research and advanced development phases which would greatly enhance the FTS capabilities to perform autonomously in less structured work environments. Therefore, a specific requirement on the initial FTS design is that it has the capability to evolve as new technology becomes available. This paper will describe the FTS design approach for evolution to more autonomous capabilities. Some specific task applications of the FTS and partial automation approaches of these tasks will also be discussed in this paper.

  20. The Space Station Freedom Flight Telerobotic Servicer: the design and evolution of a dexterous space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCain, H. G.; Andary, J. F.; Hewitt, D. R.; Haley, D. C.

    1991-01-01

    The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an advanced telerobotic system to assist in and reduce crew extravehicular activity (EVA) for Space Station) Freedom (SSF). The FTS will provide a telerobotic capability to the Freedom Station in the early assembly phases of the program and will be employed for assembly, maintenance, and inspection applications throughout the lifetime of the space station. Appropriately configured elements of the FTS will also be employed for robotic manipulation in remote satellite servicing applications and possibly the Lunar/Mars Program. In mid-1989, the FTS entered the flight system design and implementation phase (Phase C/D) of development with the signing of the FTS prime contract with Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver, Colorado. The basic FTS design is now established and can be reported on in some detail. This paper will describe the FTS flight system design and the rationale for the specific design approaches and component selections. The current state of space technology and the nature of the FTS task dictate that the FTS be designed with sophisticated teleoperation capabilities for its initial primary operating mode. However, there are technologies, such as advanced computer vision and autonomous planning techniques currently in research and advanced development phases which would greatly enhance the FTS capabilities to perform autonomously in less structured work environments. Therefore, a specific requirement on the initial FTS design is that it has the capability to evolve as new technology becomes available. This paper will describe the FTS design approach for evolution to more autonomous capabilities. Some specific task applications of the FTS and partial automation approaches of these tasks will also be discussed in this paper.

  1. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  2. The space station assembly phase: Flight telerobotic servicer feasibility. Volume 2: Methodology and case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Gyamfi, Max A.; Volkmer, Kent; Zimmerman, Wayne F.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology is described for examining the feasibility of a Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) using two assembly scenarios, defined at the EVA task level, for the 30 shuttle flights (beginning with MB-1) over a four-year period. Performing all EVA tasks by crew only is compared to a scenario in which crew EVA is augmented by FTS. A reference FTS concept is used as a technology baseline and life-cycle cost analysis is performed to highlight cost tradeoffs. The methodology, procedure, and data used to complete the analysis are documented in detail.

  3. Semi-autonomous telerobotic manipulation : a viable approach for space structure deployment and maintenance.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y. S.; Kang, H.; Ewing, T. F.; Colgate, J. E.; Peshkin, M. A.; DeJong, B. P.; Faurling, E. L.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Northwestern Univ.

    2005-01-01

    Future space explorations necessitate manipulation of space structures in support of extra vehicular activities or extraterrestrial resource exploitation. In these tasks robots are expected to assist or replace human crew to alleviate human risk and enhance task performance. However due to the vastly unstructured and unpredictable environmental conditions, automation of robotic task is virtually impossible and thus teleoperation is expected to be employed. However teleoperation is extremely slow and inefficient. To improve task efficiency of teleoperation, this work introduces semi-autonomous telerobotic operation technology. Key technological innovations include implementation of reactive agent based robotic architecture and enhanced operator interface that renders virtual fixture.

  4. DaVinci canvas: a telerobotic surgical system with integrated, robot-assisted, laparoscopic ultrasound capability.

    PubMed

    Leven, Joshua; Burschka, Darius; Kumar, Rajesh; Zhang, Gary; Blumenkranz, Steve; Dai, Xiangtian Donald; Awad, Mike; Hager, Gregory D; Marohn, Mike; Choti, Mike; Hasser, Chris; Taylor, Russell H

    2005-01-01

    We present daVinci Canvas: a telerobotic surgical system with integrated robot-assisted laparoscopic ultrasound capability. DaVinci Canvas consists of the integration of a rigid laparoscopic ultrasound probe with the daVinci robot, video tracking of ultrasound probe motions, endoscope and ultrasound calibration and registration, autonomous robot motions, and the display of registered 2D and 3D ultrasound images. Although we used laparoscopic liver cancer surgery as a focusing application, our broader aim was the development of a versatile system that would be useful for many procedures.

  5. A helmet mounted display to adapt the telerobotic environment to human vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tharp, Gregory; Liu, Andrew; Yamashita, Hitomi; Stark, Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    A Helmet Mounted Display system has been developed. It provides the capability to display stereo images with the viewpoint tied to subjects' head orientation. The type of display might be useful in a telerobotic environment provided the correct operating parameters are known. The effects of update frequency were tested using a 3D tracking task. The effects of blur were tested using both tracking and pick-and-place tasks. For both, researchers found that operator performance can be degraded if the correct parameters are not used. Researchers are also using the display to explore the use of head movements as part of gaze as subjects search their visual field for target objects.

  6. Telerobotic control of the seven-degree-of-freedom CESAR manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, S.M.; Dubey, R.V.; Euler, J.A.; Glassell, R.L.; Kress, R.L.; Hamel, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    The application of a computationally efficient kinematic control scheme for manipulators with redundant degrees of freedom to the unilateral telerobotic control of seven-degree-of-freedom manipulator (CESARM) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research is presented. The kinematic control scheme uses a gradient projection optimization method, which eliminates that need to determine the generalized inverse of the Jacobian when solving for joint velocities, given Cartesian end-effector velocities. A six-degree-of-freedom (nonreplica) master controller is used. Performance indices for redundancy resolution are discussed. 5 ref., 6 figs.

  7. The NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator control system architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, J.C.; Butler, P.L.; Glassell, R.L.; Herndon, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goals to increase the utilization of dexterous robotic systems in space, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) system. It is a dexterous, dual-arm, force reflecting teleoperator system with robotic features for NASA ground-based research. This paper describes the overall control system architecture, including both the hardware and software. The control system is a distributed, modular, and hierarchical design with flexible expansion capabilities for future enhancements of both the hardware and software. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Semi-autonomous Telerobotic Manipulation: A Viable Approach for Space Structure Deployment and Maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young S.; Kang, Hyosig; Ewing, Thomas F.; Faulring, Eric L.; DeJong, Brian P.; Peshkin, Michael A.; Colgate, J. Edward

    2005-02-01

    Future space explorations necessitate manipulation of space structures in support of extra vehicular activities or extraterrestrial resource exploitation. In these tasks robots are expected to assist or replace human crew to alleviate human risk and enhance task performance. However due to the vastly unstructured and unpredictable environmental conditions, automation of robotic task is virtually impossible and thus teleoperation is expected to be employed. However teleoperation is extremely slow and inefficient. To improve task efficiency of teleoperation, this work introduces semi-autonomous telerobotic operation technology. Key technological innovations include implementation of reactive agent based robotic architecture and enhanced operator interface that renders virtual fixture.

  9. Establishment of the world's first telerobotic remote surgical service: for provision of advanced laparoscopic surgery in a rural community.

    PubMed

    Anvari, Mehran; McKinley, Craig; Stein, Harvey

    2005-03-01

    To establish a telerobotic surgical service between a teaching hospital and a rural hospital for provision of telerobotic surgery and assistance to aid rural surgeons in providing a variety of advanced laparoscopic surgery to their community patients. The above service was established between St. Joseph's Hospital in Hamilton and North Bay General Hospital 400 km north of Hamilton on February 28, 2003. The service uses an IP-VPN (15 Mbps of bandwidth) commercially available network to connect the robotic console in Hamilton with 3 arms of the Zeus-TS surgical system in North Bay. To date, 21 telerobotic laparoscopic surgeries have taken place between North Bay and Hamilton, including 13 fundoplications, 3 sigmoid resections, 2 right hemicolectomies, 1 anterior resection, and 2 inguinal hernia repairs. The 2 surgeons were able to operate together using the same surgical footprint and interchange roles seamlessly when desired. There have been no serious intraoperative complications and no cases have had to be converted to open surgeries. The mean hospital stays were equivalent to mean laparoscopic LOS in the tertiary institution. Telerobotic remote surgery is now in routine use, providing high-quality laparoscopic surgical services to patients in a rural community and providing a superior degree of collaboration between surgeons in teaching hospitals and rural hospitals. Further refinement of the robotic and telecommunication technology should ensure its wider application in the near future.

  10. Graphical Programming: A systems approach for telerobotic servicing of space assets

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkerton, J.T.; McDonald, M.J.; Palmquist, R.D.; Patten, R.

    1993-08-01

    Satellite servicing is in many ways analogous to subsea robotic servicing in the late 1970`s. A cost effective, reliable, telerobotic capability had to be demonstrated before the oil companies invested money in deep water robot serviceable production facilities. In the same sense, aeronautic engineers will not design satellites for telerobotic servicing until such a quantifiable capability has been demonstrated. New space servicing systems will be markedly different than existing space robot systems. Past space manipulator systems, including the Space Shuttle`s robot arm, have used master/slave technologies with poor fidelity, slow operating speeds and most importantly, in-orbit human operators. In contrast, new systems will be capable of precision operations, conducted at higher rates of speed, and be commanded via ground-control communication links. Challenges presented by this environment include achieving a mandated level of robustness and dependability, radiation hardening, minimum weight and power consumption, and a system which accommodates the inherent communication delay between the ground station and the satellite. There is also a need for a user interface which is easy to use, ensures collision free motions, and is capable of adjusting to an unknown workcell (for repair operations the condition of the satellite may not be known in advance). This paper describes the novel technologies required to deliver such a capability.

  11. Graphical programming: A systems approach for telerobotic servicing of space assets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkerton, James T.; Mcdonald, Michael J.; Palmquist, Robert D.; Patten, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Satellite servicing is in many ways analogous to subsea robotic servicing in the late 1970's. A cost effective, reliable, telerobotic capability had to be demonstrated before the oil companies invested money in deep water robot serviceable production facilities. In the same sense, aeronautic engineers will not design satellites for telerobotic servicing until such a quantifiable capability has been demonstrated. New space servicing systems will be markedly different than existing space robot systems. Past space manipulator systems, including the Space Shuttle's robot arm, have used master/slave technologies with poor fidelity, slow operating speeds and most importantly, in-orbit human operators. In contrast, new systems will be capable of precision operations, conducted at higher rates of speed, and be commanded via ground-control communication links. Challenge presented by this environment include achieving a mandated level of robustness and dependability, radiation hardening, minimum weight and power consumption, and a system which accommodates the inherent communication delay between the ground station and the satellite. There is also a need for a user interface which is easy to use, ensures collision free motions, and is capable of adjusting to an unknown workcell (for repair operations the condition of the satellite may not be known in advance). This paper describes the novel technologies required to deliver such a capability.

  12. Use of control umbilicals as a deployment mode for free flying telerobotic work systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehn, J. S.; Selle, E. D.

    1987-01-01

    Work to date on telerobotic work systems for use in space generally consider two deployment modes, free flying, or fixed within a limited work envelope. Control tethers may be employed to obtain a number of operational advantages and added flexibility in the basing and deployment of telerobotic work systems. Use of a tether allows the work system to be separated into two major modules, the remote work package and the control module. The Remote Work Package (RWP) comprises the free flying portion of the work system while the Control Module (CM) remains at the work system base. The chief advantage of this configuration is that only the components required for completion of the work task must be located at the work site. Reaction mass used in free flight is stored at the Control module and supplied to the RWP through the tether, eliminating the need for the RWP to carry it. The RWP can be made less massive than a self contained free flying work system. As a result, reaction mass required for free flight is lower than for a self contained free flyer.

  13. Joint-space Lyapunov-based direct adaptive control of a kinematically redundant telerobot manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Zhou, Zhen-Lei; Mosier, Gary E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a joint-space adaptive control scheme for controlling the slave arm motion of a dual-arm telerobot system developed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to study telerobotic operations in space. Each slave arm of the dual-arm system is a kinematically redundant manipulator with seven degrees of freedom (DOF). Using the concept of model reference adaptive control (MRAC) and Liupunov direct method, we derive an adaptation algorithm that adjusts the PD controller gains of the control scheme. The development of the adaptive control scheme assumes that the slave arm motion is non-compliant and slowly varying. The implementation of the derived control scheme does not require the computation of manipulator dynamics which makes the control scheme sufficiently fast for real-time applications. Computer simulation study performed for the 7-DOF slave arm shows that the developed control scheme can efficiently adapt to sudden change in payload while tracking various test trajectories such as ramp or sinusoids with negligible position errors.

  14. Design of the human computer interface on the telerobotic small emplacement excavator

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.H.; Killough, S.M.; Burks, B.L.; Draper, J.V.

    1995-12-31

    The small emplacement excavator (SEE) is a ruggedized military vehicle with backhoe and front loader used by the U.S. Army for explosive ordinance disposal (EOD) and general utility excavation activities. This project resulted from a joint need in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for a remote controlled excavator for buried waste operations and the U.S. Department of Defense for remote EOD operations. To evaluate the feasibility of removing personnel from the SEE vehicle during high-risk excavation tasks, a development and demonstration project was initiated. Development of a telerobotic SEE (TSEE) was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a project funded jointly by the U.S. Army and the DOE. The TSEE features teleoperated driving, a telerobotic backhoe with four degrees of freedom, and a teleoperated front loader with two degrees of freedom on the bucket. Remote capabilities include driving (forward, reverse, brake, steering), power takeoff shifting to enable digging modes, deploying stabilizers, excavation, and computer system booting.

  15. Performance benefits of telerobotics and teleoperation - enhancements for an arm-based tank waste retrieval system

    SciTech Connect

    Horschel, D.S.; Gibbons, P.W.; Draper, J.V.

    1995-06-01

    This report evaluates telerobotic and teleoperational arm-based retrieval systems that require advanced robotic controls. These systems will be deployed in waste retrieval activities in Hanford`s Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). The report assumes that arm-based, retrieval systems will combine a teleoperational arm and control system enhanced by a number of advanced and telerobotic controls. The report describes many possible enhancements, spanning the full range of the control spectrum with the potential for technical maturation. The enhancements considered present a variety of choices and factors including: the enhancements to be included in the actual control system, safety, detailed task analyses, human factors, cost-benefit ratios, and availability and maturity of technology. Because the actual system will be designed by an offsite vendor, the procurement specifications must have the flexibility to allow bidders to propose a broad range of ideas, yet build in enough restrictions to filter out infeasible and undesirable approaches. At the same time they must allow selection of a technically promising proposal. Based on a preliminary analysis of the waste retrieval task, and considering factors such as operator limitations and the current state of robotics technology, the authors recommend a set of enhancements that will (1) allow the system to complete its waste retrieval mission, and (2) enable future upgrades in response to changing mission needs and technological advances.

  16. Applying Behavior-Based Robotics Concepts to Telerobotic Use of Power Tooling

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, Mark W; Hamel, Dr. William R.

    2011-01-01

    While it has long been recognized that telerobotics has potential advantages to reduce operator fatigue, to permit lower skilled operators to function as if they had higher skill levels, and to protect tools and manipulators from excessive forces during operation, relatively little laboratory research in telerobotics has actually been implemented in fielded systems. Much of this has to do with the complexity of the implementation and its lack of ability to operate in complex unstructured remote systems environments. One possible solution is to approach the tooling task using an adaptation of behavior-based techniques to facilitate task decomposition to a simpler perspective and to provide sensor registration to the task target object in the field. An approach derived from behavior-based concepts has been implemented to provide automated tool operation for a teleoperated manipulator system. The generic approach is adaptable to a wide range of typical remote tools used in hot-cell and decontamination and dismantlement-type operations. Two tasks are used in this work to test the validity of the concept. First, a reciprocating saw is used to cut a pipe. The second task is bolt removal from mockup process equipment. This paper explains the technique, its implementation, and covers experimental data, analysis of results, and suggestions for implementation on fielded systems.

  17. Database machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiefel, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The functions and performance characteristics of data base machines (DBM), including machines currently being studied in research laboratories and those currently offered on a commerical basis are discussed. The cost/benefit considerations that must be recognized in selecting a DBM are discussed, as well as the future outlook for such machines.

  18. Plan recognition and generalization in command languages with application to telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yared, Wael I.; Sheridan, Thomas B.

    1991-01-01

    A method for pragmatic inference as a necessary accompaniment to command languages is proposed. The approach taken focuses on the modeling and recognition of the human operator's intent, which relates sequences of domain actions ('plans') to changes in some model of the task environment. The salient feature of this module is that it captures some of the physical and linguistic contextual aspects of an instruction. This provides a basis for generalization and reinterpretation of the instruction in different task environments. The theoretical development is founded on previous work in computational linguistics and some recent models in the theory of action and intention. To illustrate these ideas, an experimental command language to a telerobot is implemented. The program consists of three different components: a robot graphic simulation, the command language itself, and the domain-independent pragmatic inference module. Examples of task instruction processes are provided to demonstrate the benefits of this approach.

  19. System engineering techniques for establishing balanced design and performance guidelines for the advanced telerobotic testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Matijevic, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Novel system engineering techniques have been developed and applied to establishing structured design and performance objectives for the Telerobotics Testbed that reduce technical risk while still allowing the testbed to demonstrate an advancement in state-of-the-art robotic technologies. To estblish the appropriate tradeoff structure and balance of technology performance against technical risk, an analytical data base was developed which drew on: (1) automation/robot-technology availability projections, (2) typical or potential application mission task sets, (3) performance simulations, (4) project schedule constraints, and (5) project funding constraints. Design tradeoffs and configuration/performance iterations were conducted by comparing feasible technology/task set configurations against schedule/budget constraints as well as original program target technology objectives. The final system configuration, task set, and technology set reflected a balanced advancement in state-of-the-art robotic technologies, while meeting programmatic objectives and schedule/cost constraints.

  20. Space Station Freedom coupling tasks: An evaluation of their telerobotic and EVA compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampaio, Carlos E.; Bierschwale, John M.; Fleming, Terence F.; Stuart, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    Of the couplings included in this study, several design components were found to be of interest. With respect to the operation of the couplings, the various concepts resulted in differing reactions from the four subjects who participated in this study. The purpose of this study was not to conceive the final coupling design. Rather, it was intended as a step along an interactive process. The newly modified coupling will be included in a series of further controlled, as well as subjective, evaluations. This part of the ongoing work in the Remote Operator Interaction Laboratory (ROIL) designed to enhance the overall interface by improving design at both the teleoperator and telerobot ends of the system.

  1. Dual Arm Work Package performance estimates and telerobot task network simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Blair, L.M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the methodology and results of a network simulation study of the Dual Arm Work Package (DAWP), to be employed for dismantling the Argonne National Laboratory CP-5 reactor. The development of the simulation model was based upon the results of a task analysis for the same system. This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in the Robotics and Process Systems Division. Funding was provided the US Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development, Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP). The RTDP is developing methods of computer simulation to estimate telerobotic system performance. Data were collected to provide point estimates to be used in a task network simulation model. Three skilled operators performed six repetitions of a pipe cutting task representative of typical teleoperation cutting operations.

  2. Wrist Camera Orientation for Effective Telerobotic Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) Changeout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Aldridge, Hal A.; Vazquez, Sixto L.

    1997-01-01

    The Hydraulic Manipulator Testbed (HMTB) is the kinematic replica of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS). One use of the HMTB is to evaluate advanced control techniques for accomplishing robotic maintenance tasks on board the Space Station. Most maintenance tasks involve the direct manipulation of the robot by a human operator when high-quality visual feedback is important for precise control. An experiment was conducted in the Systems Integration Branch at the Langley Research Center to compare several configurations of the manipulator wrist camera for providing visual feedback during an Orbital Replaceable Unit changeout task. Several variables were considered such as wrist camera angle, camera focal length, target location, lighting. Each study participant performed the maintenance task by using eight combinations of the variables based on a Latin square design. The results of this experiment and conclusions based on data collected are presented.

  3. Robotic control of the seven-degree-of-freedom NASA laboratory telerobotic manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubey, R. V.; Euler, J. A.; Magness, R. B.; Babcock, S. M.; Herndon, J. N.

    1989-01-01

    A computationally efficient robotic control scheme for the NASA Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) is presented. This scheme utilizes the redundancy of the seven-degree-of-freedom LTM to avoid joint limits and singularities. An analysis to determine singular configurations is presented. Performance criteria are determined based on the joint limits and singularity analysis. The control scheme is developed in the framework of resolved rate control using the gradient projection method, and it does not require the generalized inverse of the Jacobian. An efficient formulation for determining the joint velocities of the LTM is obtained. This control scheme is well suited for real-time implementation, which is essential if the end-effector trajectory is continuously modified based on sensory feedback. Implementation of this scheme on a Motorola 68020 VME bus-based controller of the LTM is in progress. Simulation results demonstrating the redundancy utilization in the robotic mode are presented.

  4. Plan recognition and generalization in command languages with application to telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yared, Wael I.; Sheridan, Thomas B.

    1991-01-01

    A method for pragmatic inference as a necessary accompaniment to command languages is proposed. The approach taken focuses on the modeling and recognition of the human operator's intent, which relates sequences of domain actions ('plans') to changes in some model of the task environment. The salient feature of this module is that it captures some of the physical and linguistic contextual aspects of an instruction. This provides a basis for generalization and reinterpretation of the instruction in different task environments. The theoretical development is founded on previous work in computational linguistics and some recent models in the theory of action and intention. To illustrate these ideas, an experimental command language to a telerobot is implemented. The program consists of three different components: a robot graphic simulation, the command language itself, and the domain-independent pragmatic inference module. Examples of task instruction processes are provided to demonstrate the benefits of this approach.

  5. Space robotics--DLR's telerobotic concepts, lightweight arms and articulated hands.

    PubMed

    Hirzinger, G; Brunner, B; Landzettel, K; Sporer, N; Butterfass, J; Schedl, M

    2003-01-01

    The paper briefly outlines DLR's experience with real space robot missions (ROTEX and ETS VII). It then discusses forthcoming projects, e.g., free-flying systems in low or geostationary orbit and robot systems around the space station ISS, where the telerobotic system MARCO might represent a common baseline. Finally it describes our efforts in developing a new generation of "mechatronic" ultra-light weight arms with multifingered hands. The third arm generation is operable now (approaching present-day technical limits). In a similar way DLR's four-fingered hand II was a big step towards higher reliability and yet better performance. Artificial robonauts for space are a central goal now for the Europeans as well as for NASA, and the first verification tests of DLR's joint components are supposed to fly already end of 93 on the space station.

  6. Ground-remote control for space station telerobotics with time delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    The study proposes a ground-remote telerobot control architecture which could be used for control of Space Station Freedom manipulators. The architecture provides two local-site operator control stations representing potential earth-based and remote Space Station-based operator control stations. A unified control system at the remote site provides autonomous, shared, and teleoperation control for single-and dual-arm task execution. An operational laboratory system which demonstrates the feasibility of various technologies in the proposed architecture, including teleoperation, shared control, and supervised autonomy, is described. Enhancements to the system currently under development, including remote site implementation in Ada, integration and control of a redundant 7-DOF manipulator, and local site advanced operator aids, are also described.

  7. Development and verification of ground-based tele-robotics operations concept for Dextre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Sarmad

    2013-05-01

    The Special Purpose Dextreous Manipulator (Dextre) is the latest addition to the on-orbit segment of the Mobile Servicing System (MSS); Canada's contribution to the International Space Station (ISS). Launched in March 2008, the advanced two-armed robot is designed to perform various ISS maintenance tasks on robotically compatible elements and on-orbit replaceable units using a wide variety of tools and interfaces. The addition of Dextre has increased the capabilities of the MSS, and has introduced significant complexity to ISS robotics operations. While the initial operations concept for Dextre was based on human-in-the-loop control by the on-orbit astronauts, the complexities of robotic maintenance and the associated costs of training and maintaining the operator skills required for Dextre operations demanded a reexamination of the old concepts. A new approach to ISS robotic maintenance was developed in order to utilize the capabilities of Dextre safely and efficiently, while at the same time reducing the costs of on-orbit operations. This paper will describe the development, validation, and on-orbit demonstration of the operations concept for ground-based tele-robotics control of Dextre. It will describe the evolution of the new concepts from the experience gained from the development and implementation of the ground control capability for the Space Station Remote Manipulator System; Canadarm 2. It will discuss the various technical challenges faced during the development effort, such as requirements for high positioning accuracy, force/moment sensing and accommodation, failure tolerance, complex tool operations, and the novel operational tools and techniques developed to overcome them. The paper will also describe the work performed to validate the new concepts on orbit and will discuss the results and lessons learned from the on-orbit checkout and commissioning of Dextre using the newly developed tele-robotics techniques and capabilities.

  8. Robotic technologies of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) including fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chladek, John T.; Craver, William M.

    1994-01-01

    The original FTS concept for Space Station Freedom (SSF) was to provide telerobotic assistance to enhance crew activity and safety and to reduce crew EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) activity. The first flight of the FTS manipulator systems would demonstrate several candidate tasks and would verify manipulator performance parameters. These first flight tasks included unlocking a SSF Truss Joint, mating/demating a fluid coupling, contact following of a contour board, demonstrating peg-in-hole assembly, and grasping and moving a mass. Future tasks foreseen for the FTS system included ORU (Orbit Replaceable Unit) change-out, Hubble Space Telescope Servicing, Gamma Ray Observatory refueling, and several in-situ SSF servicing and maintenance tasks. Operation of the FTS was planned to evolve from teleoperation to fully autonomous execution of many tasks. This wide range of mission tasks combined with the desire to evolve toward fully autonomy forced several requirements which may seen extremely demanding to the telerobotics community. The FTS requirements appear to have been created to accommodate the open-ended evolution plan such that operational evolution would not be impeded by function limitations. A recommendation arising from the FTS program to remedy the possible impacts from such ambitious requirements is to analyze candidate robotic tasks. Based on these task analyses, operational impacts against development impacts were weighed prior to requirements definition. Many of the FTS requirements discussed in the following sections greatly influenced the development cost and schedule of the FTS manipulator. The FTS manipulator has been assembled at Martin Marietta and is currently in testing. Successful component tests indicate a manipulator which achieves unprecedented performance specifications.

  9. Human factors requirements for telerobotic command and control: The European Space Agency experimental programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Space Telerobotics research, performed under contract to the European Space Agency (ESA), concerning the execution of human factors experiments, and ultimately leading to the development of a telerobotics test bed, has been carried out since 1985 by a British Consortium consisting of British Aerospace, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and, more recently, the UK National Advanced Robotics Research Centre. The principal aim of the first study of the series was to derive preliminary requirements for a teleoperation servicing system, with reference to two mission model scenarios. The first scenario introduced the problem of communications time delays, and their likely effect on the ground-based operator in control of a manipulator system on board an unmanned servicing vehicle in Low Earth Orbit. In the second scenario, the operator was located on the NASA Orbiter aft flight deck, supervising the control of a prototype manipulator in the 'servicing' of an experimental payload in the cargo bay area. Human factors analyses centered on defining the requirements for the teleoperator workstation, such as identifying basic ergonomic requirements for workstation and panel layouts, defining teleoperation strategies, developing alphanumeric and graphic screen formats for the supervision or direct control of the manipulator, and the potential applications of expert system technology. The second study for ESA involved an experimental appraisal of some of the important issues highlighted in the first study, for which relevant human factors data did not exist. Of central importance during the second study was the issue of communications time delays and their effect on the manual control of a teleoperated manipulator from a ground-based command and control station.

  10. Man-Machine Communication Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    communication difficulty for the computer-naive; discovery of major communication structures in human communication that have been left out of man-machine...processes; creation of a new overview of how human communication functions in cooperative task-oriented activity; and assistance in ARPA policy formation on CAI equipment development.

  11. USSR Report Machine Tools and Metalworking Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-24

    Zhukov, et al.: MEKHANIZATISYA I AVTOMATIZATSIYA PROIZVODSTVA, No 10, Oct 85) 51 -a - [ III - USSR - 36b] METAL-CUTTING AND METAL-FORMING MACHINE...machine. The development of cooperation is also retarded by a large number of unsolved problems in the typicalization and standardization of machines...equipped with polycrystalline superhard materials such as cubic boron nitride of the "belbor" type and "elbor-RM." However, one of the difficult

  12. Perceptual telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ligomenides, Panos A.

    1989-01-01

    A sensory world modeling system, congruent with a human expert's perception, is proposed. The Experiential Knowledge Base (EKB) system can provide a highly intelligible communication interface for telemonitoring and telecontrol of a real time robotic system operating in space. Paradigmatic acquisition of empirical perceptual knowledge, and real time experiential pattern recognition and knowledge integration are reviewed. The cellular architecture and operation of the EKB system are also examined.

  13. Electric machine

    DOEpatents

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  14. Cooperative intelligent robotics in space III; Proceedings of the Meeting, Boston, MA, Nov. 16-18, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on cooperative intelligent robotics in space discusses sensing and perception, Space Station Freedom robotics, cooperative human/intelligent robot teams, and intelligent space robotics. Attention is given to space robotics reasoning and control, ground-based space applications, intelligent space robotics architectures, free-flying orbital space robotics, and cooperative intelligent robotics in space exploration. Topics addressed include proportional proximity sensing for telerobots using coherent lasar radar, ground operation of the mobile servicing system on Space Station Freedom, teleprogramming a cooperative space robotic workcell for space stations, and knowledge-based task planning for the special-purpose dextrous manipulator. Also discussed are dimensions of complexity in learning from interactive instruction, an overview of the dynamic predictive architecture for robotic assistants, recent developments at the Goddard engineering testbed, and parallel fault-tolerant robot control.

  15. Machine Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    DTIC i.LE COPY RADC-TR-90-25 Final Technical Report April 1990 MACHINE LEARNING The MITRE Corporation Melissa P. Chase Cs) CTIC ’- CT E 71 IN 2 11990...S. FUNDING NUMBERS MACHINE LEARNING C - F19628-89-C-0001 PE - 62702F PR - MOlE S. AUTHO(S) TA - 79 Melissa P. Chase WUT - 80 S. PERFORMING...341.280.5500 pm I " Aw Sig rill Ia 2110-01 SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND Research in machine learning has taken two directions in the problem of

  16. Monel Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Castle Industries, Inc. is a small machine shop manufacturing replacement plumbing repair parts, such as faucet, tub and ballcock seats. Therese Castley, president of Castle decided to introduce Monel because it offered a chance to improve competitiveness and expand the product line. Before expanding, Castley sought NERAC assistance on Monel technology. NERAC (New England Research Application Center) provided an information package which proved very helpful. The NASA database was included in NERAC's search and yielded a wealth of information on machining Monel.

  17. An opposition class piloted mission to Mars using telerobotics for landing site reconnaissance and exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, Philip J.; Fredrickson, Steven E.; Magruder, Darby F.; Rask, John D.

    2001-02-01

    The authors propose a new architecture for a first piloted mission to Mars. A crew travels to and from Mars in the same type of vehicle as will be used for the first piloted landing mission. Two or three surface rovers travel to Mars separately. The rovers land at widely separated potential human landing sites within a single hemisphere. The piloted vehicle (orbiter) achieves an orbit around Mars with a period equal to one Martian day (sol), so that continuous line-of-sight communications exists between the orbiter and the rovers. The crew operates the rovers from orbit using telerobotics and telepresence technology. The rovers, which have traverse ranges measured in kilometers per day, perform extensive landing site reconnaissance, weather observations, and geological sample collection and analysis, including water detection experiments. The mission lasts approximately 40 days in Mars orbit. Major objectives include rigorous flight test of the piloted vehicle, precision landing site characterization and selection at a level of detail unattainable from orbit, and predeployment of the teleoperated rovers for later use as robotic assistants during human surface missions. All of these objectives can reduce the risk to the first crew to land on Mars. Such a mission could be launched at least one synodic period ahead of the earliest planned piloted landing. .

  18. Marginal Probabilistic Modeling of the Delays in the Sensory Data Transmission of Networked Telerobots

    PubMed Central

    Gago-Benítez, Ana; Fernández-Madrigal, Juan-Antonio; Cruz-Martín, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Networked telerobots are remotely controlled through general purpose networks and components, which are highly heterogeneous and exhibit stochastic response times; however their correct teleoperation requires a timely flow of information from sensors to remote stations. In order to guarantee these time requirements, a good on-line probabilistic estimation of the sensory transmission delays is needed. In many modern applications this estimation must be computationally highly efficient, e.g., when the system includes a web-based client interface. This paper studies marginal probability distributions that, under mild assumptions, can be a good approximation of the real distribution of the delays without using knowledge of their dynamics, are efficient to compute, and need minor modifications on the networked robot. Since sequences of delays exhibit strong non-linearities in these networked applications, to satisfy the iid hypothesis required by the marginal approach we apply a change detection method. The results reported here indicate that some parametrical models explain well many more real scenarios when using this change detection method, while some non-parametrical distributions have a very good rate of successful modeling in the case that non-linearity detection is not possible and that we split the total delay into its three basic terms: server, network and client times. PMID:24481232

  19. Marginal probabilistic modeling of the delays in the sensory data transmission of networked telerobots.

    PubMed

    Gago-Benítez, Ana; Fernández-Madrigal, Juan-Antonio; Cruz-Martín, Ana

    2014-01-29

    Networked telerobots are remotely controlled through general purpose networks and components, which are highly heterogeneous and exhibit stochastic response times; however their correct teleoperation requires a timely flow of information from sensors to remote stations. In order to guarantee these time requirements, a good on-line probabilistic estimation of the sensory transmission delays is needed. In many modern applications this estimation must be computationally highly efficient, e.g., when the system includes a web-based client interface. This paper studies marginal probability distributions that, under mild assumptions, can be a good approximation of the real distribution of the delays without using knowledge of their dynamics, are efficient to compute, and need minor modifications on the networked robot. Since sequences of delays exhibit strong non-linearities in these networked applications, to satisfy the iid hypothesis required by the marginal approach we apply a change detection method. The results reported here indicate that some parametrical models explain well many more real scenarios when using this change detection method, while some non-parametrical distributions have a very good rate of successful modeling in the case that non-linearity detection is not possible and that we split the total delay into its three basic terms: server, network and client times.

  20. Light-Directed Ranging System Implementing Single Camera System for Telerobotics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Dennis L. (Inventor); Li, Larry C. (Inventor); Cox, Brian J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A laser-directed ranging system has utility for use in various fields, such as telerobotics applications and other applications involving physically handicapped individuals. The ranging system includes a single video camera and a directional light source such as a laser mounted on a camera platform, and a remotely positioned operator. In one embodiment, the position of the camera platform is controlled by three servo motors to orient the roll axis, pitch axis and yaw axis of the video cameras, based upon an operator input such as head motion. The laser is offset vertically and horizontally from the camera, and the laser/camera platform is directed by the user to point the laser and the camera toward a target device. The image produced by the video camera is processed to eliminate all background images except for the spot created by the laser. This processing is performed by creating a digital image of the target prior to illumination by the laser, and then eliminating common pixels from the subsequent digital image which includes the laser spot. A reference point is defined at a point in the video frame, which may be located outside of the image area of the camera. The disparity between the digital image of the laser spot and the reference point is calculated for use in a ranging analysis to determine range to the target.

  1. Telerobotic control of a mobile coordinated robotic server. M.S. Thesis Annual Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Gordon

    1993-01-01

    The annual report on telerobotic control of a mobile coordinated robotic server is presented. The goal of this effort is to develop advanced control methods for flexible space manipulator systems. As such, an adaptive fuzzy logic controller was developed in which model structure as well as parameter constraints are not required for compensation. The work builds upon previous work on fuzzy logic controllers. Fuzzy logic controllers have been growing in importance in the field of automatic feedback control. Hardware controllers using fuzzy logic have become available as an alternative to the traditional PID controllers. Software has also been introduced to aid in the development of fuzzy logic rule-bases. The advantages of using fuzzy logic controllers include the ability to merge the experience and intuition of expert operators into the rule-base and that a model of the system is not required to construct the controller. A drawback of the classical fuzzy logic controller, however, is the many parameters needed to be turned off-line prior to application in the closed-loop. In this report, an adaptive fuzzy logic controller is developed requiring no system model or model structure. The rule-base is defined to approximate a state-feedback controller while a second fuzzy logic algorithm varies, on-line, parameters of the defining controller. Results indicate the approach is viable for on-line adaptive control of systems when the model is too complex or uncertain for application of other more classical control techniques.

  2. Space flight manipulator technologies and requirements for the NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chladek, John T.; Craver, William M.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Headquarters' Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) joined efforts with Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Automation and Robotics Division and Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Information Systems Division to capture the technologies developed during the cancelled NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) program planned for use on Space Station Freedom. The recent FTS technology capture effort completed the build and testing of one flight qualifiable FTS manipulator, deliverable to JSC's Automation & Robotics Division for environmental testing. The many robotic technologies developed to meet the 30 year space environment design requirements are discussed in this paper. The manipulator properties were to allow positioning control to one thousandths of an inch, with zero actuator backlash over a temperature range of -50 to +95 C, and were to include impedance control and inertial decoupling. Safety and reliability requirements are discussed that were developed to allow a thirty year life in space with minimum maintenance. The system had to meet the safety requirements for hazardous payloads for operation in the shuttle payload bay during demonstration test flights prior to station use. A brief description is contained on an orbiter based robotic experiment and operational application using the dexterous FTS manipulator operating on the end of the shuttle remote manipulator systems (SRMS) from ground control.

  3. Development of a semi-autonomous service robot with telerobotic capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. E.; White, D. R.

    1987-01-01

    The importance to the United States of semi-autonomous systems for application to a large number of manufacturing and service processes is very clear. Two principal reasons emerge as the primary driving forces for development of such systems: enhanced national productivity and operation in environments whch are hazardous to humans. Completely autonomous systems may not currently be economically feasible. However, autonomous systems that operate in a limited operation domain or that are supervised by humans are within the technology capability of this decade and will likely provide reasonable return on investment. The two research and development efforts of autonomy and telerobotics are distinctly different, yet interconnected. The first addresses the communication of an intelligent electronic system with a robot while the second requires human communication and ergonomic consideration. Discussed here are work in robotic control, human/robot team implementation, expert system robot operation, and sensor development by the American Welding Institute, MTS Systems Corporation, and the Colorado School of Mines--Center for Welding Research.

  4. Demonstration of surgical telerobotics and virtual telepresence by Internet + ISDN from Monterey (USA) to Milan (Italy).

    PubMed

    Rovetta, A; Sala, R; Bressanelli, M; Garavaldi, M E; Lorini, F; Pegoraro, R; Canina, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the connection which has been held on 8th July 1997 in collaboration with the JPL of the NASA, Pasadena, California, between the Eighth International Conference on the Advanced Robotics (ICAR '97) in course at Monterey, California and the Telerobotics Laboratory of Politecnico di Milano connected in a multipoint teleconference through the MCU of Rome with the Aula Magna of the same Politecnico and the Palace Business of the Giureconsulti of the Chamber of Commerce of Milan. The demonstration has allowed to telecontrol a scara robot of the Sankyo and an ABB robot, which have affected simulations of operations of biopsy to the prostate, to the liver and to the breast, a mechanical hand and a model of a car, disposed in a space destined to reproduce the Martian ground, from Monterey to Milan by means of the INTERNET+ISDN connection from. In fact the event has taken place four days after the landing on Mars happily successful of the spatial probe Pathfinder from which it has gone out the "Sojourner" robot, telecontrolled from the JPL of the NASA, which has begun to take photos of the Martian ground and also some of these images have been transmitted in the course of the connection.

  5. Speech versus manual control of camera functions during a telerobotic task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierschwale, John M.; Sampaio, Carlos E.; Stuart, Mark A.; Smith, Randy L.

    1989-01-01

    Voice input for control of camera functions was investigated in this study. Objective were to (1) assess the feasibility of a voice-commanded camera control system, and (2) identify factors that differ between voice and manual control of camera functions. Subjects participated in a remote manipulation task that required extensive camera-aided viewing. Each subject was exposed to two conditions, voice and manual input, with a counterbalanced administration order. Voice input was found to be significantly slower than manual input for this task. However, in terms of remote manipulator performance errors and subject preference, there was no difference between modalities. Voice control of continuous camera functions is not recommended. It is believed that the use of voice input for discrete functions, such as multiplexing or camera switching, could aid performance. Hybrid mixes of voice and manual input may provide the best use of both modalities. This report contributes to a better understanding of the issues that affect the design of an efficient human/telerobot interface.

  6. Controlling telerobots with video data and compensating for time-delayed video using Omniview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuban, Dan; Zimmerman, Steve; Martin, Lee

    1994-01-01

    Remote viewing is critical for teleoperations, but the inherent limitations of standard video reduce the operator's effectiveness. These limitations have been compensated for in many ways, from using the operator's adaptability, to augmenting his capability with feedback from a variety of sensors and simulations. Omniview can overcome some of these limitations and improve the operator's efficiency without adding additional sensors or computational burden. It can minimize the potential collisions with facility equipment, provide peripheral vision, and display multiple images simultaneously from a single input device. The Omniview technology provides electronic pan, tilt, magnify, and rotational orientation within a hemispherical field-of-view without any moving parts. Image sizes, viewing directions, scale, offset, etc., may be adjusted to fit operator needs. This paper discusses the derivation of the image transformation, the design of the electronics, and two applications to telepresence that are under development. These are Video Emulated Tweening (VET), and Manipulator Guidance and Positioning (ManGAP). The VET effort uses Omniview to compensate for time-delayed video in teleoperation of remote vehicles. In ManGAP two Omniview systems are used to provide two sets of orientation vectors to points in the field-of-view (FOV). These vectors then provide absolute position information to both control the position of the telerobot, and to avoid collisions with the work sight equipment.

  7. Baseline tests of an autonomous telerobotic system for assembly of space truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Marvin D.; Will, Ralph W.; Quach, Coung

    1994-01-01

    Several proposed space missions include precision reflectors that are larger in diameter than any current or proposed launch vehicle. Most of these reflectors will require a truss structure to accurately position the reflector panels and these reflectors will likely require assembly in orbit. A research program has been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to develop the technology required for the robotic assembly of truss structures. The focus of this research has been on hardware concepts, computer software control systems, and operator interfaces necessary to perform supervised autonomous assembly. A special facility was developed and four assembly and disassembly tests of a 102-strut tetrahedral truss have been conducted. The test procedures were developed around traditional 'pick-and-place' robotic techniques that rely on positioning repeatability for successful operation. The data from two of the four tests were evaluated and are presented in this report. All operations in the tests were controlled by predefined sequences stored in a command file, and the operator intervened only when the system paused because of the failure of an actuator command. The tests were successful in identifying potential pitfalls in a telerobotic system, many of which would not have been readily anticipated or incurred through simulation studies. Addressing the total integrated task, instead of bench testing the component parts, forced all aspects of the task to be evaluated. Although the test results indicate that additional developments should be pursued, no problems were encountered that would preclude automated assembly in space as a viable construction method.

  8. Evaluation of inertial devices for the control of large, flexible, space-based telerobotic arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Kenny, Sean P.; Ghosh, Dave; Shenhar, Joram

    1993-01-01

    Inertial devices, including sensors and actuators, offer the potential of improving the tracking of telerobotic commands for space-based robots by smoothing payload motions and suppressing vibrations. In this paper, inertial actuators (specifically, torque-wheels and reaction-masses) are studied for that potential application. Batch simulation studies are presented which show that torque-wheels can reduce the overshoot in abrupt stop commands by 82 percent for a two-link arm. For man-in-the-loop evaluation, a real-time simulator has been developed which samples a hand-controller, solves the nonlinear equations of motion, and graphically displays the resulting motion on a computer workstation. Currently, two manipulator models, a two-link, rigid arm and a single-link, flexible arm, have been studied. Results are presented which show that, for a single-link arm, a reaction-mass/torque-wheel combination at the payload end can yield a settling time of 3 s for disturbances in the first flexible mode as opposed to 10 s using only a hub motor. A hardware apparatus, which consists of a single-link, highly flexible arm with a hub motor and a torque-wheel, has been assembled to evaluate the concept and is described herein.

  9. Evaluation of inertial devices for the control of large, flexible, space-based telerobotic arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Kenny, Sean P.; Ghosh, Dave; Shenhar, Joram

    1993-02-01

    Inertial devices, including sensors and actuators, offer the potential of improving the tracking of telerobotic commands for space-based robots by smoothing payload motions and suppressing vibrations. In this paper, inertial actuators (specifically, torque-wheels and reaction-masses) are studied for that potential application. Batch simulation studies are presented which show that torque-wheels can reduce the overshoot in abrupt stop commands by 82 percent for a two-link arm. For man-in-the-loop evaluation, a real-time simulator has been developed which samples a hand-controller, solves the nonlinear equations of motion, and graphically displays the resulting motion on a computer workstation. Currently, two manipulator models, a two-link, rigid arm and a single-link, flexible arm, have been studied. Results are presented which show that, for a single-link arm, a reaction-mass/torque-wheel combination at the payload end can yield a settling time of 3 s for disturbances in the first flexible mode as opposed to 10 s using only a hub motor. A hardware apparatus, which consists of a single-link, highly flexible arm with a hub motor and a torque-wheel, has been assembled to evaluate the concept and is described herein.

  10. Design and performance evaluation of a minimally invasive telerobotic platform for transurethral surveillance and intervention.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Roger E; Bajo, Andrea; MacLachlan, Lara S; Pickens, Ryan; Herrell, S Duke; Simaan, Nabil

    2013-04-01

    Bladder cancer, a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, presents a unique opportunity for aggressive treatment due to the ease of transurethral accessibility. While the location affords advantages, transurethral resection of bladder tumors can pose a difficult challenge for surgeons encumbered by current instrumentation or difficult anatomic tumor locations. This paper presents the design and evaluation of a telerobotic system for transurethral surveillance and surgical intervention. The implementation seeks to improve current procedures and enable development of new surgical techniques by providing a platform for intravesicular dexterity and integration of novel imaging and interventional instrumentation. The system includes a dexterous continuum robot with access channels for the parallel deployment of multiple visualization and surgical instruments. This paper first presents the clinical conditions imposed by transurethral access and the limitations of the current state-of-the-art instrumentation. Motivated by the clinical requirements, the design considerations for this system are discussed and the prototype system is presented. Telemanipulation evaluation demonstrates submillimetric RMS positioning accuracy and intravesicular dexterity suitable for improving transurethral surveillance and intervention.

  11. Testing of FTS fingers and interface using a passive compliant robot manipulator. [flight telerobot servicer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Antrazi, Sami S.

    1992-01-01

    This report deals with testing of a pair of robot fingers designed for the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) to grasp a cylinder type of Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) interface. The report first describes the objectives of the study and then the testbed consisting of a Stewart Platform-based manipulator equipped with a passive compliant platform which also serves as a force/torque sensor. Kinematic analysis is then performed to provide a closed-form solution for the force inverse kinematics and iterative solution for the force forward kinematics using the Newton's Raphson Method. Mathematical expressions are then derived to compute force/torques applied to the FTS fingers during the mating/demating with the interface. The report then presents the three parts of the experimental study on the feasibility and characteristics of the fingers. The first part obtains data of forces applied by the fingers to the interface under various misalignments, the second part determines the maximum allowable capture angles for mating, and the third part processes and interprets the obtained force/torque data.

  12. Research and development activities at the Goddard Space Flight Center for the flight telerobotic servicer project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollendorf, Stanford

    1989-01-01

    The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) is being developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for performing a variety of assembly, servicing, inspection and maintenance tasks on the Space Station. The Project Office at GSFC has tasked the Engineering Directorate to assemble a robotics research and development program which will support the FTS project. The activities center around support for the Development Test Flight (DTF) on the Space Shuttle and investigations of operational problems associated with the FTS on Space Station Freedom. For the DTF, areas such as control algorithms, safety systems, and end-effectors will be developed. For FTS operations, the emphasis will be to develop a dual-arm bi-lateral force-reflecting teleoperator and use it as an FTS Operational Simulator (FTSOS). The simulator will be used to investigate operational techniques, camera configurations, operator interfacing, orbital replacement unit (ORU) designs, end-effector designs, and training techniques. After a series of test activities, reports will be generated for input to the DTF and FTS designs.

  13. Speech versus manual control of camera functions during a telerobotic task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierschwale, John M.; Sampaio, Carlos E.; Stuart, Mark A.; Smith, Randy L.

    1989-01-01

    Voice input for control of camera functions was investigated in this study. Objective were to (1) assess the feasibility of a voice-commanded camera control system, and (2) identify factors that differ between voice and manual control of camera functions. Subjects participated in a remote manipulation task that required extensive camera-aided viewing. Each subject was exposed to two conditions, voice and manual input, with a counterbalanced administration order. Voice input was found to be significantly slower than manual input for this task. However, in terms of remote manipulator performance errors and subject preference, there was no difference between modalities. Voice control of continuous camera functions is not recommended. It is believed that the use of voice input for discrete functions, such as multiplexing or camera switching, could aid performance. Hybrid mixes of voice and manual input may provide the best use of both modalities. This report contributes to a better understanding of the issues that affect the design of an efficient human/telerobot interface.

  14. Development of a vision non-contact sensing system for telerobotic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkoub, M.; Her, M.-G.; Ho, M.-I.; Huang, C.-C.

    2013-08-01

    The study presented here describes a novel vision-based motion detection system for telerobotic operations such as distant surgical procedures. The system uses a CCD camera and image processing to detect the motion of a master robot or operator. Colour tags are placed on the arm and head of a human operator to detect the up/down, right/left motion of the head as well as the right/left motion of the arm. The motion of the colour tags are used to actuate a slave robot or a remote system. The determination of the colour tags' motion is achieved through image processing using eigenvectors and colour system morphology and the relative head, shoulder and wrist rotation angles through inverse dynamics and coordinate transformation. A program is used to transform this motion data into motor control commands and transmit them to a slave robot or remote system through wireless internet. The system performed well even in complex environments with errors that did not exceed 2 pixels with a response time of about 0.1 s. The results of the experiments are available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yFxLaVWE3f8 and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_nvRcOzlWHw

  15. Demonstration of a High-Fidelity Predictive/Preview Display Technique for Telerobotic Servicing in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1993-01-01

    A highly effective predictive/preview display technique for telerobotic servicing in space under several seconds communication time delay has been demonstrated on a large laboratory scale in May 1993, involving the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as the simulated ground control station and, 2500 miles away, the Goddard Space Flight Center as the simulated satellite servicing set-up. The technique is based on a high-fidelity calibration procedure that enables a high-fidelity overlay of 3-D graphics robot arm and object models over given 2-D TV camera images of robot arm and objects. To generate robot arm motions, the operator can confidently interact in real time with the graphics models of the robot arm and objects overlaid on an actual camera view of the remote work site. The technique also enables the operator to generate high-fidelity synthetic TV camera views showing motion events that are hidden in a given TV camera view or for which no TV camera views are available. The positioning accuracy achieved by this technique for a zoomed-in camera setting was about +/-5 mm, well within the allowable +/-12 mm error margin at the insertion of a 45 cm long tool in the servicing task.

  16. Cooperative Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-23

    than the traditional direct transmission and full cooperation schemes. B. OFDM-Based Cooperation Relay and Subchannel Assignment and Combining We... subchannel assignment and combining schemes. Based on the amount of CSI, resources, such as subchannels , can be allocated to relays to improve the end-to-end...relay node uses the same subchannel to relay the information transmitted by the source node. To further improve the performance gain, subchannel

  17. The telerobot workstation testbed for the shuttle aft flight deck: A project plan for integrating human factors into system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauerwein, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    The human factors design process in developing a shuttle orbiter aft flight deck workstation testbed is described. In developing an operator workstation to control various laboratory telerobots, strong elements of human factors engineering and ergonomics are integrated into the design process. The integration of human factors is performed by incorporating user feedback at key stages in the project life-cycle. An operator centered design approach helps insure the system users are working with the system designer in the design and operation of the system. The design methodology is presented along with the results of the design and the solutions regarding human factors design principles.

  18. Dynamic analysis of a 6 DOF CKCM robot end-effector for dual-arm telerobot systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Pooran, Farhad J.

    1989-01-01

    A dynamical analysis is performed for a six DOF robot end-effector built to study telerobotic service and maintenance of NASA hardwares in space. The design of the end-effector is based on the concept of closed-kinematic chain mechanism capable of performing precise motion in a small workspace. After presenting a closed-form solution for the inverse kinematic problem, the Lagrangian approach is used to derive a set of equations of motion for the end-effector where the generalized coordinates are selected to be the Cartesian coordinates. A computer simulation study shows that the centrifugal and Coriolis terms can be neglected for slow motion.

  19. The use of computer graphic simulation in the development of on-orbit tele-robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Ken; Hinman, Elaine

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the use of computer graphic simulation techniques to resolve critical design and operational issues for robotic systems used for on-orbit operations. These issues are robot motion control, robot path-planning/verification, and robot dynamics. The major design issues in developing effective telerobotic systems are discussed, and the use of ROBOSIM, a NASA-developed computer graphic simulation tool, to address these issues is presented. Simulation plans for the Space Station and the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle are presented and discussed.

  20. The use of computer graphic simulation in the development of on-orbit tele-robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Ken; Hinman, Elaine

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the use of computer graphic simulation techniques to resolve critical design and operational issues for robotic systems used for on-orbit operations. These issues are robot motion control, robot path-planning/verification, and robot dynamics. The major design issues in developing effective telerobotic systems are discussed, and the use of ROBOSIM, a NASA-developed computer graphic simulation tool, to address these issues is presented. Simulation plans for the Space Station and the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle are presented and discussed.

  1. Safety improvements in high pressure thermal machines

    SciTech Connect

    Otters, J.L.

    1988-02-09

    In a thermal machine of the type including a machine body having a main axis extending between a thermal end and a work end, a working fluid at relatively high pressure in a working fluid chamber defined in the body and a displacer element reciprocable within the chamber for subjecting the fluid to a thermodynamic cycle in cooperation with a reciprocable work piston, the improvement is described comprising outer shell means enclosing the machine body for maintaining a substantially sealed atmosphere about the machine body, and diffuser means arranged between the machine body and the outer shell means for diffusing a shock wave traveling towards the outer shell means resulting from explosive failure of the machine body and for shielding the outer shell means against fragments projected upon such failure.

  2. Workout Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Orbotron is a tri-axle exercise machine patterned after a NASA training simulator for astronaut orientation in the microgravity of space. It has three orbiting rings corresponding to roll, pitch and yaw. The user is in the middle of the inner ring with the stomach remaining in the center of all axes, eliminating dizziness. Human power starts the rings spinning, unlike the NASA air-powered system. Marketed by Fantasy Factory (formerly Orbotron, Inc.), the machine can improve aerobic capacity, strength and endurance in five to seven minute workouts.

  3. Machine rates for selected forest harvesting machines

    Treesearch

    R.W. Brinker; J. Kinard; Robert Rummer; B. Lanford

    2002-01-01

    Very little new literature has been published on the subject of machine rates and machine cost analysis since 1989 when the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 296, Machine Rates for Selected Forest Harvesting Machines, was originally published. Many machines discussed in the original publication have undergone substantial changes in various aspects, not...

  4. Robotic Technology Development at Ames: The Intelligent Robotics Group and Surface Telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bualat, Maria; Fong, Terrence

    2013-01-01

    Future human missions to the Moon, Mars, and other destinations offer many new opportunities for exploration. But, astronaut time will always be limited and some work will not be feasible for humans to do manually. Robots, however, can complement human explorers, performing work autonomously or under remote supervision from Earth. Since 2004, the Intelligent Robotics Group has been working to make human-robot interaction efficient and effective for space exploration. A central focus of our research has been to develop and field test robots that benefit human exploration. Our approach is inspired by lessons learned from the Mars Exploration Rovers, as well as human spaceflight programs, including Apollo, the Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station. We conduct applied research in computer vision, geospatial data systems, human-robot interaction, planetary mapping and robot software. In planning for future exploration missions, architecture and study teams have made numerous assumptions about how crew can be telepresent on a planetary surface by remotely operating surface robots from space (i.e. from a flight vehicle or deep space habitat). These assumptions include estimates of technology maturity, existing technology gaps, and likely operational and functional risks. These assumptions, however, are not grounded by actual experimental data. Moreover, no crew-controlled surface telerobotic system has yet been fully tested, or rigorously validated, through flight testing. During Summer 2013, we conducted a series of tests to examine how astronauts in the International Space Station (ISS) can remotely operate a planetary rover across short time delays. The tests simulated portions of a proposed human-robotic Lunar Waypoint mission, in which astronauts in lunar orbit remotely operate a planetary rover on the lunar Farside to deploy a radio telescope array. We used these tests to obtain baseline-engineering data.

  5. Wacky Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Collectors everywhere know that local antique shops and flea markets are treasure troves just waiting to be plundered. Science teachers might take a hint from these hobbyists, for the next community yard sale might be a repository of old, quirky items that are just the things to get students thinking about simple machines. By introducing some…

  6. Wacky Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Collectors everywhere know that local antique shops and flea markets are treasure troves just waiting to be plundered. Science teachers might take a hint from these hobbyists, for the next community yard sale might be a repository of old, quirky items that are just the things to get students thinking about simple machines. By introducing some…

  7. Making Cooperative Learning Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of cooperative learning, focusing on what is and is not a cooperative effort; types of cooperative learning; an example of integrated use of cooperative learning; cooperative schools; basic elements of cooperation; and what is known about cooperative efforts (related to achievement, interpersonal relationship, and…

  8. Telerobotic-assisted bone-drilling system using bilateral control with feed operation scaling and cutting force scaling

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Yusuke; Kawana, Hiromasa; Usuda, Shin; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    2012-01-01

    Background Drilling is used in the medical field, especially in oral surgery and orthopaedics. In recent years, oral surgery involving dental implants has become more common. However, the risky drilling process causes serious accidents. To prevent these accidents, supporting systems such as robotic drilling systems are required. Methods A telerobotic-assisted drilling system is proposed. An acceleration-based four-channel bilateral control system is implemented in linear actuators in a master–slave system for drill feeding. A reaction force observer is used instead of a force sensor for measuring cutting force. Cutting force transmits from a cutting material to a surgeon, who may feel a static cutting resistance force and vigorous cutting vibrations, via the master–slave system. Moreover, position scaling and force scaling are achieved. Scaling functions are used to achieve precise drilling and hazard detection via force sensation. Results Cutting accuracy and reproducibility of the cutting force were evaluated by angular velocity/position error and frequency analysis of the cutting force, respectively, and errors were > 2.0 rpm and > 0.2 mm, respectively. Spectrum peaks of the cutting vibration were at the theoretical vibration frequencies of 30, 60 and 90 Hz. Conclusions The proposed telerobotic-assisted drilling system achieved precise manipulation of the drill feed and vivid feedback from the cutting force. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22271710

  9. Telerobotic-assisted bone-drilling system using bilateral control with feed operation scaling and cutting force scaling.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Yusuke; Kawana, Hiromasa; Usuda, Shin; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    2012-06-01

    Drilling is used in the medical field, especially in oral surgery and orthopaedics. In recent years, oral surgery involving dental implants has become more common. However, the risky drilling process causes serious accidents. To prevent these accidents, supporting systems such as robotic drilling systems are required. A telerobotic-assisted drilling system is proposed. An acceleration-based four-channel bilateral control system is implemented in linear actuators in a master-slave system for drill feeding. A reaction force observer is used instead of a force sensor for measuring cutting force. Cutting force transmits from a cutting material to a surgeon, who may feel a static cutting resistance force and vigorous cutting vibrations, via the master-slave system. Moreover, position scaling and force scaling are achieved. Scaling functions are used to achieve precise drilling and hazard detection via force sensation. Cutting accuracy and reproducibility of the cutting force were evaluated by angular velocity/position error and frequency analysis of the cutting force, respectively, and errors were > 2.0 rpm and > 0.2 mm, respectively. Spectrum peaks of the cutting vibration were at the theoretical vibration frequencies of 30, 60 and 90 Hz. The proposed telerobotic-assisted drilling system achieved precise manipulation of the drill feed and vivid feedback from the cutting force. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Teacher Cooperatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Twenty years ago, when the late Albert Shanker endorsed the notion of innovative schools operating outside conventional district bureaucracies, his aim was to put teachers at the helm. Today there are nearly 80 teacher-governed charter schools around the country. Although most are legally constituted as worker cooperatives, they better resemble…

  11. Teacher Cooperatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Twenty years ago, when the late Albert Shanker endorsed the notion of innovative schools operating outside conventional district bureaucracies, his aim was to put teachers at the helm. Today there are nearly 80 teacher-governed charter schools around the country. Although most are legally constituted as worker cooperatives, they better resemble…

  12. Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert L.

    Cooperative education involves on-campus instruction and off-campus work experience. These programs can be referred to as work study, field work, or work experience. The student has the advantage of applying his knowledge in a work situation; the college gains financial benefits; and the employer has the opportunity to influence the student to…

  13. Drilling Machines: Vocational Machine Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John C.

    The lessons and supportive information in this field tested instructional block provide a guide for teachers in developing a machine shop course of study in drilling. The document is comprised of operation sheets, information sheets, and transparency masters for 23 lessons. Each lesson plan includes a performance objective, material and tools,…

  14. Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Achim; Mahidadia, Ashesh

    The purpose of this chapter is to present fundamental ideas and techniques of machine learning suitable for the field of this book, i.e., for automated scientific discovery. The chapter focuses on those symbolic machine learning methods, which produce results that are suitable to be interpreted and understood by humans. This is particularly important in the context of automated scientific discovery as the scientific theories to be produced by machines are usually meant to be interpreted by humans. This chapter contains some of the most influential ideas and concepts in machine learning research to give the reader a basic insight into the field. After the introduction in Sect. 1, general ideas of how learning problems can be framed are given in Sect. 2. The section provides useful perspectives to better understand what learning algorithms actually do. Section 3 presents the Version space model which is an early learning algorithm as well as a conceptual framework, that provides important insight into the general mechanisms behind most learning algorithms. In section 4, a family of learning algorithms, the AQ family for learning classification rules is presented. The AQ family belongs to the early approaches in machine learning. The next, Sect. 5 presents the basic principles of decision tree learners. Decision tree learners belong to the most influential class of inductive learning algorithms today. Finally, a more recent group of learning systems are presented in Sect. 6, which learn relational concepts within the framework of logic programming. This is a particularly interesting group of learning systems since the framework allows also to incorporate background knowledge which may assist in generalisation. Section 7 discusses Association Rules - a technique that comes from the related field of Data mining. Section 8 presents the basic idea of the Naive Bayesian Classifier. While this is a very popular learning technique, the learning result is not well suited for

  15. Fullerene Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash

    1998-01-01

    Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically accessible and of great interest. We have computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Preliminary results suggest that these gears can be cooled by a helium atmosphere and a laser motor can power fullerene gears if a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. In addition, we have unproven concepts based on experimental and computational evidence for support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and manufacture. Combining fullerene machines with the remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, there is some reason to believe that a focused effort to develop fullerene nanotechnology could yield materials with tremendous properties.

  16. Fullerene Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Fullerenes possess remarkable properties and many investigators have examined the mechanical, electronic and other characteristics of carbon SP2 systems in some detail. In addition, C-60 can be functionalized with many classes of molecular fragments and we may expect the caps of carbon nanotubes to have a similar chemistry. Finally, carbon nanotubes have been attached to t he end of scanning probe microscope (Spill) tips. Spills can be manipulated with sub-angstrom accuracy. Together, these investigations suggest that complex molecular machines made of fullerenes may someday be created and manipulated with very high accuracy. We have studied some such systems computationally (primarily functionalized carbon nanotube gears and computer components). If such machines can be combined appropriately, a class of materials may be created that can sense their environment, calculate a response, and act. The implications of such hypothetical materials are substantial.

  17. Charging machine

    DOEpatents

    Medlin, John B.

    1976-05-25

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

  18. Three-dimensional sensing, graphics, and interactive control in a human-machine system for decontamination and decommissioning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, Scott M.; Gourley, Christopher S.; Butler, Philip L.; Costello, Hugh; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Chen, ChuXin; Marapane, Suresh B.

    1992-11-01

    Decontamination and Decommissioning (D important requirement of the U.S. Department of Energy''s Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. Means need to be devised to minimize radiation exposure to humans involved in the D research presented in this paper describes a human-machine system which can be employed for performing radiation scan and pipe cutting operations in a typical D Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), we have designed a hybrid telerobotic pipe-cutting module. The module, when fully integrated, will allow users of the ASM to exploit the original functionality of the telerobot when our pipe cutting system is not in use. Comprising the pipe-cutting system are interactive three- dimensional object localization, graphical task modeler, arm control, human-machine interface, radiation sensor, and cut-tool sub-systems. Only the task modeler and interactive object localization modules are discussed in this paper. The goal of these modules is to interactively localize an object, usually a pipe, and display it in a three-dimensional rendering of the work space. Through interaction with these modules, the supervisor coordinates a task- specific sequence of actions that the lower-level sub-systems will perform.

  19. Induction machine

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, W.H.

    1980-10-14

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizes, a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  20. Induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Whitney H.

    1980-01-01

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  1. Machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, D.

    1989-06-01

    To keep up with the speeds of modern production lines, most machine vision applications require very powerful computers (often parallel-processing machines), which process millions of points of data in real time. The human brain performs approximately 100 billion logical floating-point operations each second. That is 400 times the speed of a Cray-1 supercomputer. The right software must be developed for parallel-processing computers. The NSF has awarded Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, N.Y.) a $2 million grant for parallel- and image-processing software research. Over the last 15 years, Rensselaer has been conducting image-processing research, including work with high-definition TV (HDTV) and image coding and understanding. A similar NSF grant has been awarded to Michigan State University (East Lansing, Mich.) Neural networks are supposed to emulate human learning patterns. These networks and their hardware implementations (neurocomputers) show a great deal of promise for machine vision systems because they allow the systems to understand the use sensory data input more effectively. Neurocomputers excel at pattern-recognition tasks when input data are fuzzy or the vision algorithm is not optimal and is difficult to ascertain.

  2. Viruses: sophisticated biological machines.

    PubMed

    Rossmann, Michael G; Rao, Venigalla B

    2012-01-01

    Virus infection involves coordination of a series of molecular machines, including entry machines, replication machines, assembly machines, and genome packaging machines, leading to the production of infectious virions. This chapter provides an introduction to various viral molecular machines described in this book.

  3. Recovery- Cooper

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-05-16

    S63-07853 (16 May 1963) --- Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 9 (MA-9) mission, stands supported by strong hands after climbing out of his spacecraft "Faith 7" after a 600,000-mile, 22-orbit journey around Earth. He elected to remain in the spacecraft until it was hoisted to the deck of the USS Kearsarge, as did astronaut Walter Schirra during the previous mission. Photo credit: NASA

  4. Laser-Directed Ranging System Implementing Single Camera System for Telerobotics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Dennis L. (Inventor); Li, Larry C. (Inventor); Cox, Brian J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates generally to systems for determining the range of an object from a reference point and, in one embodiment, to laser-directed ranging systems useful in telerobotics applications. Digital processing techniques are employed which minimize the complexity and cost of the hardware and software for processing range calculations, thereby enhancing the commercial attractiveness of the system for use in relatively low-cost robotic systems. The system includes a video camera for generating images of the target, image digitizing circuitry, and an associated frame grabber circuit. The circuit first captures one of the pairs of stereo video images of the target, and then captures a second video image of the target as it is partly illuminated by the light beam, suitably generated by a laser. The two video images, taken sufficiently close together in time to minimize camera and scene motion, are converted to digital images and then compared. Common pixels are eliminated, leaving only a digital image of the laser-illuminated spot on the target. Mw centroid of the laser illuminated spot is dm obtained and compared with a predetermined reference point, predetermined by design or calibration, which represents the coordinate at the focal plane of the laser illumination at infinite range. Preferably, the laser and camera are mounted on a servo-driven platform which can be oriented to direct the camera and the laser toward the target. In one embodiment the platform is positioned in response to movement of the operator's head. Position and orientation sensors are used to monitor head movement. The disparity between the digital image of the laser spot and the reference point is calculated for determining range to the target. Commercial applications for the system relate to active range-determination systems, such as those used with robotic systems in which it is necessary to determine the, range to a workpiece or object to be grasped or acted upon by a robot arm end

  5. Telerobotic system concept for real-time soft-tissue imaging during radiotherapy beam delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Schlosser, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Kenneth; Hristov, Dimitre

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: The curative potential of external beam radiation therapy is critically dependent on having the ability to accurately aim radiation beams at intended targets while avoiding surrounding healthy tissues. However, existing technologies are incapable of real-time, volumetric, soft-tissue imaging during radiation beam delivery, when accurate target tracking is most critical. The authors address this challenge in the development and evaluation of a novel, minimally interfering, telerobotic ultrasound (U.S.) imaging system that can be integrated with existing medical linear accelerators (LINACs) for therapy guidance. Methods: A customized human-safe robotic manipulator was designed and built to control the pressure and pitch of an abdominal U.S. transducer while avoiding LINAC gantry collisions. A haptic device was integrated to remotely control the robotic manipulator motion and U.S. image acquisition outside the LINAC room. The ability of the system to continuously maintain high quality prostate images was evaluated in volunteers over extended time periods. Treatment feasibility was assessed by comparing a clinically deployed prostate treatment plan to an alternative plan in which beam directions were restricted to sectors that did not interfere with the transabdominal U.S. transducer. To demonstrate imaging capability concurrent with delivery, robot performance and U.S. target tracking in a phantom were tested with a 15 MV radiation beam active. Results: Remote image acquisition and maintenance of image quality with the haptic interface was successfully demonstrated over 10 min periods in representative treatment setups of volunteers. Furthermore, the robot's ability to maintain a constant probe force and desired pitch angle was unaffected by the LINAC beam. For a representative prostate patient, the dose-volume histogram (DVH) for a plan with restricted sectors remained virtually identical to the DVH of a clinically deployed plan. With reduced margins, as

  6. TEMPO machine

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.; Lancaster, K.T.; Lawson, R.N.

    1986-06-01

    TEMPO is a transformer powered megavolt pulse generator with an output pulse of 100 ns duration. The machine was designed for burst mode operation at pulse repetition rates up to 10 Hz with minimum pulse-to-pulse voltage variations. To meet the requirement for pulse duration a nd a 20-..omega.. output impedance within reasonable size constraints, the pulse forming transmission line was designed as two parallel water-insulated, strip-type Blumleins. Stray capacitance and electric fields along the edges of the line elements were controlled by lining the tank with plastic sheet.

  7. Parallel machines: Parallel machine languages

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, R.A. )

    1990-01-01

    This book presents a framework for understanding the tradeoffs between the conventional view and the dataflow view with the objective of discovering the critical hardware structures which must be present in any scalable, general-purpose parallel computer to effectively tolerate latency and synchronization costs. The author presents an approach to scalable general purpose parallel computation. Linguistic Concerns, Compiling Issues, Intermediate Language Issues, and hardware/technological constraints are presented as a combined approach to architectural Develoement. This book presents the notion of a parallel machine language.

  8. Mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, H.R.

    1984-12-04

    A mining machine is disclosed comprising a mobile base and a cutting head assembly at a forward end of the mobile base having a cutter drum rotatable about an output shaft disposed along the longitudinal axis of the cutter drum. A drive system for the cutting head assembly comprises at least one motor for driving at least one toothed motor pinion and a generally cylindrical combination gear having generally circular end surfaces. A bevel or face gear is formed in at least one of the end surfaces, having teeth adapted to mate with and be driven by the toothed motor pinion. The combination gear has a worm gear formed in the outside cylindrical surface, which is disposed in driving engagement with the teeth of an output gear integrally and coaxially connected to the output shaft of the cutter drum.

  9. Interactive and cooperative sensing and control for advanced teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the paradigm of interactive and cooperative sensing and control as a fundamental mechanism of integrating and fusing the strengths of man and machine for advanced teleoperation. The interactive and cooperative sensing and control is considered as an extended and generalized form of traded and shared control. The emphasis of interactive and cooperative sensing and control is given to the distribution of mutually nonexclusive subtasks to man and machine, the interactive invocation of subtasks under the man/machine symbiotic relationship, and the fusion of information and decisionmaking between man and machine according to their confidence measures. The proposed interactive and cooperative sensing and control system is composed of such major functional blocks as the logical sensor system, the sensor-based local autonomy, the virtual environment formation, and the cooperative decision-making between man and machine. The Sensing-Knowledge-Command (SKC) fusion network is proposed as a fundamental architecture for implementing cooperative and interactive sensing and control. Simulation results are shown.

  10. Machine musicianship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  11. Machine wanting.

    PubMed

    McShea, Daniel W

    2013-12-01

    Wants, preferences, and cares are physical things or events, not ideas or propositions, and therefore no chain of pure logic can conclude with a want, preference, or care. It follows that no pure-logic machine will ever want, prefer, or care. And its behavior will never be driven in the way that deliberate human behavior is driven, in other words, it will not be motivated or goal directed. Therefore, if we want to simulate human-style interactions with the world, we will need to first understand the physical structure of goal-directed systems. I argue that all such systems share a common nested structure, consisting of a smaller entity that moves within and is driven by a larger field that contains it. In such systems, the smaller contained entity is directed by the field, but also moves to some degree independently of it, allowing the entity to deviate and return, to show the plasticity and persistence that is characteristic of goal direction. If all this is right, then human want-driven behavior probably involves a behavior-generating mechanism that is contained within a neural field of some kind. In principle, for goal directedness generally, the containment can be virtual, raising the possibility that want-driven behavior could be simulated in standard computational systems. But there are also reasons to believe that goal-direction works better when containment is also physical, suggesting that a new kind of hardware may be necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolutionary explanations for cooperation.

    PubMed

    West, Stuart A; Griffin, Ashleigh S; Gardner, Andy

    2007-08-21

    Natural selection favours genes that increase an organism's ability to survive and reproduce. This would appear to lead to a world dominated by selfish behaviour. However, cooperation can be found at all levels of biological organisation: genes cooperate in genomes, organelles cooperate to form eukaryotic cells, cells cooperate to make multicellular organisms, bacterial parasites cooperate to overcome host defences, animals breed cooperatively, and humans and insects cooperate to build societies. Over the last 40 years, biologists have developed a theoretical framework that can explain cooperation at all these levels. Here, we summarise this theory, illustrate how it may be applied to real organisms and discuss future directions.

  13. Flotation machine

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, M.N.; Permyakov, G.P.; Nemarov, A.A.; Metsik, V.M.; Medetsky, J.V.; Taraban, N.T.

    1993-08-10

    A flotation machine is described for beneficiating minerals comprising: a vertical cylindrical chamber for circulating a flotation pulp; a downwardly tapered bottom connected to said vertical cylindrical chamber; feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of fine fraction, particles of the useful ingredient of the fine fraction being capable of floating up from the volume of said aerated pulp; discharge pipe means connected to the tapered bottom near its lowest point for discharging gangue; an annular trough for collecting froth concentrate at the top of said chamber; a group of frustoconical shells each having bases of different diameters and a tapered surface secured axially in said chamber and spaced equidistantly from one another height wise of said chamber; aerator means for aerating the flotation pulp secured to the walls of said chamber and communicating therewith to provide aerated water into said chamber; means for feeding mineral particles of coarse fraction, particles of the useful ingredient of the coarse fraction being capable of floating in the froth layer of the flotation pulp, in the form of a hydrocyclone having a cylindrical casing positioned axially over said chamber and a downwardly tapering outlet directed downwardly to feed the coarse particles to said chamber; feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of coarse fraction positioned tangentially at said cylindrical casing of the hydrocyclone; and evacuation means for evacuating the liquid phase of the flotation pulp positioned tangentially at said casing of the hydrocyclone over said feed pipe means and connected to said feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of the fine fraction.

  14. Applied machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on robot vision. Topics considered at the conference included the link between fixed and flexible automation, general applications of machine vision, the development of a specification for a machine vision system, machine vision technology, machine vision non-contact gaging, and vision in electronics manufacturing.

  15. Machine Shop Lathes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This guide, the second in a series of five machine shop curriculum manuals, was designed for use in machine shop courses in Oklahoma. The purpose of the manual is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trade at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed so that it can be used in…

  16. Time (hole?) machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchak, John Byron

    2014-11-01

    Within the context of general relativity, we consider a type of "time machine" and introduce the related "hole machine". We review what is known about each and add results of our own. We conclude that (so far) the hole machine advocate is in a better position than the time machine advocate.

  17. Plant cooperation.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Susan A

    2015-09-25

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours.

  18. Plant cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours

  19. The Evolution of Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugatkin, Lee Alan

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the four paths to the evolution and maintenance of cooperative behavior and provides two stories highlighting each path. Discusses reciprocity, byproduct mutualism, kin-selected cooperation, and group-selected cooperation. Presents some thoughts on where the study of animal cooperation might head in the future. Contains 67 references.…

  20. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  1. ROTEX-TRIIFEX: Proposal for a joint FRG-USA telerobotic flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirzinger, G.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    The concepts and main elements of a RObot Technology EXperiment (ROTEX) proposed to fly with the next German spacelab mission, D2, are presented. It provides a 1 meter size, six axis robot inside a spacelab rack, equipped with a multisensory gripper (force-torque sensors, an array of range finders, and mini stereo cameras). The robot will perform assembly and servicing tasks in a generic way, and will grasp a floating object. The man machine and supervisory control concepts for teleoperation from the spacelab and from ground are discussed. The predictive estimation schemes for an extensive use of time-delay compensating 3D computer graphics are explained.

  2. Development of a machine vision system for automated structural assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydow, P. Daniel; Cooper, Eric G.

    1992-01-01

    Research is being conducted at the LaRC to develop a telerobotic assembly system designed to construct large space truss structures. This research program was initiated within the past several years, and a ground-based test-bed was developed to evaluate and expand the state of the art. Test-bed operations currently use predetermined ('taught') points for truss structural assembly. Total dependence on the use of taught points for joint receptacle capture and strut installation is neither robust nor reliable enough for space operations. Therefore, a machine vision sensor guidance system is being developed to locate and guide the robot to a passive target mounted on the truss joint receptacle. The vision system hardware includes a miniature video camera, passive targets mounted on the joint receptacles, target illumination hardware, and an image processing system. Discrimination of the target from background clutter is accomplished through standard digital processing techniques. Once the target is identified, a pose estimation algorithm is invoked to determine the location, in three-dimensional space, of the target relative to the robots end-effector. Preliminary test results of the vision system in the Automated Structural Assembly Laboratory with a range of lighting and background conditions indicate that it is fully capable of successfully identifying joint receptacle targets throughout the required operational range. Controlled optical bench test results indicate that the system can also provide the pose estimation accuracy to define the target position.

  3. Control of man-machine system for dexterous manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Fujisawa, Yoshio; Fukuda, Toshio

    1993-12-01

    With the development of robotic technology, many robots have been applied to various fields, such as factories, construction sites, and so on. However, most of the robots have been applied to tasks which require them to repeat the same operation for the known environment automatically. Execution of tasks with unknown environments is still a difficult problem for today's autonomous robot. A robotic system which cooperates with a human operator seems to be an effective approach to solve the problem. In this paper, we are going to discuss a control strategy for a robotic system directly maneuvered by an operator like a human amplifier. The results in this paper could be applied to a telerobotic system. We propose an alternative control algorithm based on `virtual tool' dynamics for the mechanical system. The control algorithm is designed without explicit models of the environment and the human operator. By controlling the mechanical system so as to imitate the dynamics of a tool, the algorithm specifies both the human force amplification ratio and the maneuverability of the system.

  4. Multi-arm multilateral haptics-based immersive tele-robotic system (HITS) for improvised explosive device disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Lai, Gilbert; Haddadi, Amir

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the latest advancements of the Haptics-based Immersive Tele-robotic System (HITS) project, a next generation Improvised Explosive Device (IED) disposal (IEDD) robotic interface containing an immersive telepresence environment for a remotely-controlled three-articulated-robotic-arm system. While the haptic feedback enhances the operator's perception of the remote environment, a third teleoperated dexterous arm, equipped with multiple vision sensors and cameras, provides stereo vision with proper visual cues, and a 3D photo-realistic model of the potential IED. This decentralized system combines various capabilities including stable and scaled motion, singularity avoidance, cross-coupled hybrid control, active collision detection and avoidance, compliance control and constrained motion to provide a safe and intuitive control environment for the operators. Experimental results and validation of the current system are presented through various essential IEDD tasks. This project demonstrates that a two-armed anthropomorphic Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) robot interface can achieve complex neutralization techniques against realistic IEDs without the operator approaching at any time.

  5. Recommended fine positioning test for the Development Test Flight (DTF-1) of the NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagalakis, N.; Wavering, A. J.; Spidaliere, P.

    1991-01-01

    Test procedures are proposed for the NASA DTF (Development Test Flight)-1 positioning tests of the FTS (Flight Telerobotic Servicer). The unique problems associated with the DTF-1 mission are discussed, standard robot performance tests and terminology are reviewed and a very detailed description of flight-like testing and analysis is presented. The major technical problem associated with DTF-1 is that only one position sensor can be used, which will be fixed at one location, with a working volume which is probably smaller than some of the robot errors to be measured. Radiation heating of the arm and the sensor could also cause distortions that would interfere with the test. Two robot performance testing committees have established standard testing procedures relevant to the DTF-1. Due to the technical problems associated with DTF-1, these procedures cannot be applied directly. These standard tests call for the use of several test positions at specific locations. Only one position, that of the position sensor, can be used by DTF-1. Off-line programming accuracy might be impossible to measure and in that case it will have to be replaced by forward kinetics accuracy.

  6. Tube Alinement for Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, J.

    1984-01-01

    Tool with stepped shoulders alines tubes for machining in preparation for welding. Alinement with machine tool axis accurate to within 5 mils (0.13mm) and completed much faster than visual setup by machinist.

  7. Women, Men, and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  8. Stirling machine operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

  9. The Iowa wave machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daffron, John D.; Greenslade, Thomas B.; Stille, Dale

    2010-03-01

    Wave machines are a staple of demonstration lectures, and a good pair of wave machines can make the idea of transverse and longitudinal waves clearly evident to students. The demonstration apparatus collection of the University of Iowa contains examples of transverse and longitudinal wave machines that will be of interest to readers of The Physics Teacher. These machines probably date from about 1925 and may have been locally produced. You too can build them.

  10. Duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Dharan, Nadiv; Farago, Oded

    2012-02-01

    Molecular motors are found throughout the cells of the human body and have many different and important roles. These micromachines move along filament tracks and have the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical work that powers cellular motility. Different types of motors are characterized by different duty ratios, which is the fraction of time that a motor is attached to its filament. In the case of myosin II (a nonprocessive molecular machine with a low duty ratio), cooperativity between several motors is essential to induce motion along its actin filament track. In this work we use statistical mechanical tools to calculate the duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors. The model suggests that the effective duty ratio of nonprocessive motors that work in cooperation is lower than the duty ratio of the individual motors. The origin of this effect is the elastic tension that develops in the filament which is relieved when motors detach from the track. © 2012 American Physical Society

  11. Duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharan, Nadiv; Farago, Oded

    2012-02-01

    Molecular motors are found throughout the cells of the human body and have many different and important roles. These micromachines move along filament tracks and have the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical work that powers cellular motility. Different types of motors are characterized by different duty ratios, which is the fraction of time that a motor is attached to its filament. In the case of myosin II (a nonprocessive molecular machine with a low duty ratio), cooperativity between several motors is essential to induce motion along its actin filament track. In this work we use statistical mechanical tools to calculate the duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors. The model suggests that the effective duty ratio of nonprocessive motors that work in cooperation is lower than the duty ratio of the individual motors. The origin of this effect is the elastic tension that develops in the filament which is relieved when motors detach from the track.

  12. Your Sewing Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Marion E.

    The programed instruction manual is designed to aid the student in learning the parts, uses, and operation of the sewing machine. Drawings of sewing machine parts are presented, and space is provided for the student's written responses. Following an introductory section identifying sewing machine parts, the manual deals with each part and its…

  13. Automatic Inspection During Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Clyde L.

    1988-01-01

    In experimental manufacturing process, numerically-controlled machine tool temporarily converts into inspection machine by installing electronic touch probes and specially-developed numerical-control software. Software drives probes in paths to and on newly machined parts and collects data on dimensions of parts.

  14. Apprentice Machine Theory Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This volume contains outlines for 16 courses in machine theory that are designed for machine tool apprentices. Addressed in the individual course outlines are the following topics: basic concepts; lathes; milling machines; drills, saws, and shapers; heat treatment and metallurgy; grinders; quality control; hydraulics and pneumatics;…

  15. Machining lead wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Schamaun, R.T.

    1987-09-01

    Recently, MEC-6 machined some 4-inch-diameter lead wafers to precision tolerances. The tolerance on the wafer thickness was +-0.000080 inch. A diamond tool was used to machine the wafers on a Moore No. 3 lathe. This report discusses the methods used to machine the wafers, the fixtures used to hold the wafers, and the inspection methods and results.

  16. Cable-Twisting Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurnett, S.

    1982-01-01

    New cable-twisting machine is smaller and faster than many production units. Is useful mainly in production of short-run special cables. Already-twisted cable can be fed along axis of machine. Faster operation than typical industrial cable-twisting machines possible by using smaller spools of wire.

  17. Choosing the cooperative option

    SciTech Connect

    English, G. )

    1999-06-01

    Cooperatives do not ask to be exempted from the law. They do ask that laws and regulations be designed to allow them to meet the needs of their consumer-owners in accordance with cooperative principles, at a time that the marginal consumers being abandoned by for-profit utilities may be ready to gravitate toward cooperatives. The cooperative principles are worth reviewing because they explain the focus on the consumer and the cooperative concept of service: cooperatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership; cooperatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting policies and making decisions, the elected representatives are accountable to the membership; members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their cooperative; cooperatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members, if they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their cooperative autonomy; cooperatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperatives, they inform the general public, particularly young people and opinion leaders, about the nature and benefits of cooperation; cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strength the cooperative movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures; and while focusing on member needs, cooperatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies accepted by their members.

  18. Quantum machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-01

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  19. Quantum machine learning.

    PubMed

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-13

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  20. Clamping in Boltzmann machines.

    PubMed

    Livesey, M

    1991-01-01

    A certain assumption that appears in the proof of correctness of the standard Boltzmann machine learning procedure is investigated. The assumption, called the clamping assumption, concerns the behavior of a Boltzmann machine when some of its units are clamped to a fixed state. It is argued that the clamping assumption is essentially an assertion of the time reversibility of a certain Markov chain underlying the behavior of the Boltzmann machine. As such, the clamping assumption is generally false, though it is certainly true of the Boltzmann machines themselves. The author also considers how the concept of the Boltzmann machine may be generalized while retaining the validity of the clamping assumption.

  1. What is a cooperative?

    Treesearch

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Groups of individuals throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. The earliest forms of hunting and agriculture required a great deal of cooperation among humans. Although the word "cooperative" can be applied to many different types of group activities, in this publication it refers to a formal business model. Cooperative businesses are...

  2. Cooperative Learning: Professional's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, Dana L.; Molinelli, Paul M.

    Noting that since the 1970s cooperative learning has been widely investigated regarding its implementation and efficacy, this booklet is designed to introduce the teaching strategy of cooperative learning to classroom teachers. The booklet first provides an overview and supplies a context for cooperative learning and then defines cooperative…

  3. Learning to Learn Cooperatively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Anne Hammond

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative learning, put quite simply, is a type of instruction whereby students work together in small groups to achieve a common goal. Cooperative learning has become increasingly popular as a feature of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) with benefits that include increased student interest due to the quick pace of cooperative tasks,…

  4. Advising People about Cooperatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, C. H., Jr.; Mohn, Paul O.

    This document provides background and references for educational programs on cooperatives. Seven major topics are covered: Cooperatives Are Distinctive Business Corporations, Types of Cooperatives (such as agricultural, credit, housing, crafts, health, memorial association, fishing, forestry, recreation, labor, buying clubs, consumer, student, and…

  5. Interlibrary Cooperation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Edwin E.

    The major dimensions of interlibrary cooperation which have implications for manpower development in librarianship are identified, categorized and described. These dimensions include: (1) the "power budget" of a cooperative; that is, the capability of a cooperative as represented by its structure, resources, and decision-making processes to…

  6. Cooperation Among State Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenbarger, James L.; Hansen, Dean M.

    1975-01-01

    Most states have separate agencies to deal with vocational education, adult education, and community colleges. Because current procedures for interagency cooperation are inadequate and often nonproductive, there is a need for a national or extra-state catalyst to encourage cooperation in a positive way. Five strategies for cooperation are…

  7. Perspex machine: VII. The universal perspex machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2006-01-01

    The perspex machine arose from the unification of projective geometry with the Turing machine. It uses a total arithmetic, called transreal arithmetic, that contains real arithmetic and allows division by zero. Transreal arithmetic is redefined here. The new arithmetic has both a positive and a negative infinity which lie at the extremes of the number line, and a number nullity that lies off the number line. We prove that nullity, 0/0, is a number. Hence a number may have one of four signs: negative, zero, positive, or nullity. It is, therefore, impossible to encode the sign of a number in one bit, as floating-point arithmetic attempts to do, resulting in the difficulty of having both positive and negative zeros and NaNs. Transrational arithmetic is consistent with Cantor arithmetic. In an extension to real arithmetic, the product of zero, an infinity, or nullity with its reciprocal is nullity, not unity. This avoids the usual contradictions that follow from allowing division by zero. Transreal arithmetic has a fixed algebraic structure and does not admit options as IEEE, floating-point arithmetic does. Most significantly, nullity has a simple semantics that is related to zero. Zero means "no value" and nullity means "no information." We argue that nullity is as useful to a manufactured computer as zero is to a human computer. The perspex machine is intended to offer one solution to the mind-body problem by showing how the computable aspects of mind and, perhaps, the whole of mind relates to the geometrical aspects of body and, perhaps, the whole of body. We review some of Turing's writings and show that he held the view that his machine has spatial properties. In particular, that it has the property of being a 7D lattice of compact spaces. Thus, we read Turing as believing that his machine relates computation to geometrical bodies. We simplify the perspex machine by substituting an augmented Euclidean geometry for projective geometry. This leads to a general

  8. Dilemmas of partial cooperation.

    PubMed

    Stark, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Related to the often applied cooperation models of social dilemmas, we deal with scenarios in which defection dominates cooperation, but an intermediate fraction of cooperators, that is, "partial cooperation," would maximize the overall performance of a group of individuals. Of course, such a solution comes at the expense of cooperators that do not profit from the overall maximum. However, because there are mechanisms accounting for mutual benefits after repeated interactions or through evolutionary mechanisms, such situations can constitute "dilemmas" of partial cooperation. Among the 12 ordinally distinct, symmetrical 2 x 2 games, three (barely considered) variants are correspondents of such dilemmas. Whereas some previous studies investigated particular instances of such games, we here provide the unifying framework and concisely relate it to the broad literature on cooperation in social dilemmas. Complementing our argumentation, we study the evolution of partial cooperation by deriving the respective conditions under which coexistence of cooperators and defectors, that is, partial cooperation, can be a stable outcome of evolutionary dynamics in these scenarios. Finally, we discuss the relevance of such models for research on the large biodiversity and variation in cooperative efforts both in biological and social systems.

  9. Milling Machine Operator. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide. General Metal Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, James W.

    This guide provides information to enable coordinators to direct learning activities for students using an individualized study guide on operating a milling machine. The study material is designed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed, or desiring to be employed, as milling machine operators. Contents include a…

  10. Milling Machine Operator. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide. General Metal Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, James W.

    This guide provides information to enable coordinators to direct learning activities for students using an individualized study guide on operating a milling machine. The study material is designed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed, or desiring to be employed, as milling machine operators. Contents include a…

  11. Machine Vision Systems for Processing Hardwood Lumber and Logs

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Tai-Hoon Cho; Dongping Zhu; Richard W. Conners; D. Earl Kline

    1992-01-01

    Machine vision and automated processing systems are under development at Virginia Tech University with support and cooperation from the USDA Forest Service. Our goals are to help U.S. hardwood producers automate, reduce costs, increase product volume and value recovery, and market higher value, more accurately graded and described products. Any vision system is...

  12. Telerobotic Surgery: An Intelligent Systems Approach to Mitigate the Adverse Effects of Communication Delay. Chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardullo, Frank M.; Lewis, Harold W., III; Panfilov, Peter B.

    2007-01-01

    An extremely innovative approach has been presented, which is to have the surgeon operate through a simulator running in real-time enhanced with an intelligent controller component to enhance the safety and efficiency of a remotely conducted operation. The use of a simulator enables the surgeon to operate in a virtual environment free from the impediments of telecommunication delay. The simulator functions as a predictor and periodically the simulator state is corrected with truth data. Three major research areas must be explored in order to ensure achieving the objectives. They are: simulator as predictor, image processing, and intelligent control. Each is equally necessary for success of the project and each of these involves a significant intelligent component in it. These are diverse, interdisciplinary areas of investigation, thereby requiring a highly coordinated effort by all the members of our team, to ensure an integrated system. The following is a brief discussion of those areas. Simulator as a predictor: The delays encountered in remote robotic surgery will be greater than any encountered in human-machine systems analysis, with the possible exception of remote operations in space. Therefore, novel compensation techniques will be developed. Included will be the development of the real-time simulator, which is at the heart of our approach. The simulator will present real-time, stereoscopic images and artificial haptic stimuli to the surgeon. Image processing: Because of the delay and the possibility of insufficient bandwidth a high level of novel image processing is necessary. This image processing will include several innovative aspects, including image interpretation, video to graphical conversion, texture extraction, geometric processing, image compression and image generation at the surgeon station. Intelligent control: Since the approach we propose is in a sense predictor based, albeit a very sophisticated predictor, a controller, which not only

  13. Fault Tolerant State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary R.; Taft, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    State machines are commonly used to control sequential logic in FPGAs and ASKS. An errant state machine can cause considerable damage to the device it is controlling. For example in space applications, the FPGA might be controlling Pyros, which when fired at the wrong time will cause a mission failure. Even a well designed state machine can be subject to random errors us a result of SEUs from the radiation environment in space. There are various ways to encode the states of a state machine, and the type of encoding makes a large difference in the susceptibility of the state machine to radiation. In this paper we compare 4 methods of state machine encoding and find which method gives the best fault tolerance, as well as determining the resources needed for each method.

  14. Machine tool locator

    DOEpatents

    Hanlon, John A.; Gill, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  15. Chaotic Boltzmann machines

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented. PMID:23558425

  16. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2004-12-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  17. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  18. Machine listening intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cella, C. E.

    2017-05-01

    This manifesto paper will introduce machine listening intelligence, an integrated research framework for acoustic and musical signals modelling, based on signal processing, deep learning and computational musicology.

  19. Progress in machine consciousness.

    PubMed

    Gamez, David

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a review of the work that has been carried out on machine consciousness. A clear overview of this diverse field is achieved by breaking machine consciousness down into four different areas, which are used to understand its aims, discuss its relationship with other subjects and outline the work that has been carried out so far. The criticisms that have been made against machine consciousness are also covered, along with its potential benefits, and the work that has been done on analysing systems for signs of consciousness. Some of the social and ethical issues raised by machine consciousness are examined at the end of the paper.

  20. Chaotic Boltzmann machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-Ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-04-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented.

  1. Chaotic Boltzmann machines.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented.

  2. Modernization of machines laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Mako, T.J.; Kasten, D.; Kent, J.C.; Turner, S.C. )

    1992-01-01

    The Ohio State University has maintained an undergraduate machinery laboratory using 10 to 15 hp AC and DC machines. a recent gift from the American Electric Power Service Corporation is being used to modernize the laboratory. This modernization includes the electrical and mechanical refurbishment of the 10 to 15 hp machines, the development of a computerized data acquisition system, and the specification and purchase of a three-machine (1 to 2 hp) table-top unit with variable speed drives. This paper will present information about the computerized data acquisition system and how it is being used by the students to investigate machine characteristics.

  3. Drum cutter mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Oberste-beulmann, K.; Schupphaus, H.

    1980-02-19

    A drum cutter mining machine includes a machine frame with a winch having a drive wheel to engage a rack or chain which extends along the path of travel by the mining machine to propel the machine along a mine face. The mining machine is made up of discrete units which include a machine body and machine housings joined to opposite sides of the machine body. The winch is either coupled through a drive train with a feed drive motor or coupled to the drive motor for cutter drums. The machine housings each support a pivot shaft coupled by an arm to a drum cutter. One of these housings includes a removable end cover and a recess adapted to receive a support housing for a spur gear system used to transmit torque from a feed drive motor to a reduction gear system which is, in turn, coupled to the drive wheel of the winch. In one embodiment, a removable end cover on the machine housing provides access to the feed drive motor. The feed drive motor is arranged so that the rotational axis of its drive output shaft extends transversely to the stow side of the machine frame. In another embodiment, the reduction gear system is arranged at one side of the pivot shaft for the cutter drum while the drive motor therefor is arranged at the other side of the pivot shaft and coupled thereto through the spur gear system. In a further embodiment, the reduction gear system is disposed between the feed motor and the pivot shaft.

  4. Diamond machine tool face lapping machine

    DOEpatents

    Yetter, H.H.

    1985-05-06

    An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

  5. Synthetic Yeast Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Wenying; Burton, Justin

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation is wide-spread and has been postulated to drive major transitions in evolution. However, Darwinian selection favors ``cheaters'' that consume benefits without paying a fair cost. How did cooperation evolve against the threat of cheaters? To investigate the evolutionary trajectories of cooperation, we created a genetically tractable system that can be observed as it evolves from inception. The system consists of two engineered yeast strains -- a red-fluorescent strain that requires adenine and releases lysine and a yellow-fluorescent strain that requires lysine and releases adenine. Cells that consume but not supply metabolites would be cheaters. From the properties of two cooperating strains, we calculated and experimentally verified the minimal initial cell densities required for the viability of the cooperative system in the absence of exogenously added adenine and lysine. Strikingly, evolved cooperative systems were viable at 100-fold lower initial cell densities than their ancestors. We are investigating the nature and diversity of pro-cooperation changes, the dynamics of cooperator-cheater cocultures, and the effects of spatial environment on cooperation and cheating.

  6. Futures for energy cooperatives

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    A listing of Federal agencies and programs with potential funding for community-scale cooperatives using conservation measures and solar technologies is presented in Section 1. Section 2 presents profiles of existing community energy cooperatives describing their location, history, membership, services, sources of finance and technical assistance. A condensed summary from a recent conference on Energy Cooperatives featuring notes on co-op members' experiences, problems, and opportunities is presented in Section 3. Section 4 lists contacts for additional information. A National Consumer Cooperative Bank Load Application is shown in the appendix.

  7. BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE MAKES BOTH MOLD HALVES INDIVIDUALLY WHICH ARE LATER ROTATED, ASSEMBLED, AND LOWERED TO POURING CONVEYORS BY ASSISTING MACHINES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  8. BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE MAKES BOTH MOLD HALVES INDIVIDUALLY WHICH ARE LATER ROTATED, ASSEMBLED, AND LOWERED TO POURING CONVEYORS BY ASSISTING MACHINES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  9. 14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  10. THE TEACHING MACHINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLEIN, CHARLES; WAYNE, ELLIS

    THE ROLE OF THE TEACHING MACHINE IS COMPARED WITH THE ROLE OF THE PROGRAMED TEXTBOOK. THE TEACHING MACHINE IS USED FOR INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION, CONTAINS AND PRESENTS PROGRAM CONTENT IN STEPS, PROVIDES A MEANS WHEREBY THE STUDENT MAY RESPOND TO THE PROGRAM, PROVIDES THE STUDENT WITH IMMEDIATE INFORMATION OF SOME KIND CONCERNING HIS RESPONSE THAT CAN…

  11. Machining heavy plastic sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalkup, O. M.

    1967-01-01

    Machining technique produces consistently satisfactory plane-parallel optical surfaces for pressure windows, made of plexiglass, required to support a photographic study of liquid rocket combustion processes. The surfaces are machined and polished to the required tolerances and show no degradation from stress relaxation over periods as long as 6 months.

  12. Technique for Machining Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Process for machining glass with conventional carbide tools requires a small quantity of a lubricant for aluminum applied to area of glass to be machined. A carbide tool is then placed against workpiece with light pressure. Tool is raised periodically to clear work of glass dust and particles. Additional lubricant is applied as it is displaced.

  13. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  14. Machine Translation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  15. Compound taper milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  16. The Hooey Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarnati, James T.; Tice, Craig J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how students can make and use Hooey Machines to learn how mechanical energy can be transferred from one object to another within a system. The Hooey Machine is made using a pencil, eight thumbtacks, one pushpin, tape, scissors, graph paper, and a plastic lid. (PR)

  17. Semantics via Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  18. Stirling machine operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, B.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  19. An asymptotical machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristallini, Achille

    2016-07-01

    A new and intriguing machine may be obtained replacing the moving pulley of a gun tackle with a fixed point in the rope. Its most important feature is the asymptotic efficiency. Here we obtain a satisfactory description of this machine by means of vector calculus and elementary trigonometry. The mathematical model has been compared with experimental data and briefly discussed.

  20. Biological Molecular Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzyński, Michał

    2007-11-01

    Like small molecules taking part in usual chemical reactions, biological molecular machines perform their functions owing to thermal fluctuations and the only difference consists in more complex and specially organized internal dynamics. It is this dynamics that determines processes of free energy transduction in molecular machines. The case of the actomyosin motor is considered in some detail.

  1. Machine Translation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  2. Technique for Machining Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Process for machining glass with conventional carbide tools requires a small quantity of a lubricant for aluminum applied to area of glass to be machined. A carbide tool is then placed against workpiece with light pressure. Tool is raised periodically to clear work of glass dust and particles. Additional lubricant is applied as it is displaced.

  3. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  4. Micro-machining.

    PubMed

    Brinksmeier, Ekkard; Preuss, Werner

    2012-08-28

    Manipulating bulk material at the atomic level is considered to be the domain of physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. However, precision engineering, especially micro-machining, has become a powerful tool for controlling the surface properties and sub-surface integrity of the optical, electronic and mechanical functional parts in a regime where continuum mechanics is left behind and the quantum nature of matter comes into play. The surprising subtlety of micro-machining results from the extraordinary precision of tools, machines and controls expanding into the nanometre range-a hundred times more precise than the wavelength of light. In this paper, we will outline the development of precision engineering, highlight modern achievements of ultra-precision machining and discuss the necessity of a deeper physical understanding of micro-machining.

  5. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  6. Machine tool evaluation and machining operation development

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, T.O.; Kegg, R.

    1997-03-15

    The purpose of this CRADA was to support Cincinnati Milacron`s needs in fabricating precision components, from difficult to machine materials, while maintaining and enhancing the precision manufacturing skills of the Oak Ridge Complex. Oak Ridge and Cincinnati Milacron personnel worked in a team relationship wherein each contributed equally to the success of the program. Process characterization, control technologies, machine tool capabilities, and environmental issues were the primary focus areas. In general, Oak Ridge contributed a wider range of expertise in machine tool testing and monitoring, and environmental testing on machining fluids to the defined tasks while Cincinnati Milacron personnel provided equipment, operations-specific knowledge and shop-floor services to each task. Cincinnati Milacron was very pleased with the results of all of the CRADA tasks. However, some of the environmental tasks were not carried through to a desired completion due to an expanding realization of need as the work progressed. This expansion of the desired goals then exceeded the time length of the CRADA. Discussions are underway on continuing these tasks under either a Work for Others agreement or some alternate funding.

  7. Cellular cooperation: insights from microbes.

    PubMed

    Celiker, Hasan; Gore, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation between cells is a widespread phenomenon in nature, found across diverse systems ranging from microbial populations to multicellular organisms. For cooperation to evolve and be maintained within a population of cells, costs due to competition have to be outweighed by the benefits gained through cooperative actions. Because cooperation generally confers a cost to the cooperating cells, defector cells that do not cooperate but reap the benefits of cooperation can thrive and eventually drive the cooperating phenotypes to extinction. Here we summarize recent advances made in understanding how cooperation and multicellularity can evolve in microbial populations in the face of such conflicts and discuss parallels with cell populations within multicellular organisms.

  8. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Buckley; O'Farrell, Gail

    1990-01-01

    Presents essential characteristics and types of cooperative learning strategies for use in elementary social studies. Outlines exercises for forming teams and building team spirit. Points out such methods promote group interdependence and student responsibility for learning and teaching others. Highlights two cooperative group strategies, Jigsaw…

  9. Helping Children Cooperate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2011-01-01

    There are occasions in life when the competitive process is appropriate. But when people consider the relationships in their lives--with friends, family members, coworkers, and the larger community--they realize the value of cooperation. When adults give children the chance to cooperate, to work together toward a solution or a common goal like…

  10. Educational Cooperatives. PREP-23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Communication (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    Dr. Larry W. Hughes and Dr. C. M. Achilles of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, conducted a national survey for the Office of Education on educational cooperatives--studying and reporting on the nature and kind of cooperative endeavors, their organization, governance, financial arrangements, services, and personnel. Their study focused upon…

  11. Cooperative Learning and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Rebecca; Smith, Philip J.

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative learning has been used as an educational technique for some time, and recently researchers have been exploring technology as a mechanism to further this educational method. Presents several examples of the use of technology to support cooperative learning episodes and examines the underlying design concepts and principles embedded in…

  12. Testimony: Writing Cooperatively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasser, Linda; Cromwell, Carole

    A lesson plan and supportive materials for an exercise in reading comprehension and cooperative writing are presented. The exercise is based on a story entitled "Testimony," in which a writer expresses feelings about a boxing match. The lesson plan outlines procedures for presentation of the exercise to the class, for the cooperative teams to…

  13. Achieving cooperative success

    Treesearch

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Success of a cooperative depends on the foundation built during its organization. Successful businesses are not started overnight. Careful and deliberate planning must be started long before the co-op opens its doors. This chapter begins with an outline of six fundamental steps that should be followed when organizing any cooperative. From initial concept to the start...

  14. Making Cooperative Learning Powerful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Just about everyone loves the "idea" of cooperative learning, children working productively and excitedly in groups, everyone getting along and enthusiastically helping one another learn. This article presents five strategies that teachers can use to get the greatest benefit possible from cooperative learning and ensure that…

  15. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Buckley; O'Farrell, Gail

    1990-01-01

    Presents essential characteristics and types of cooperative learning strategies for use in elementary social studies. Outlines exercises for forming teams and building team spirit. Points out such methods promote group interdependence and student responsibility for learning and teaching others. Highlights two cooperative group strategies, Jigsaw…

  16. Cooperative Vocational Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    Cooperative education, said to be a "sleeping giant" in vocational education, received special authorization in Public Law 90 576 and was made a priority in vocational education. This publication summarizes information to assist the states in planning development of cooperative vocational education: definitions, funding sources, program…

  17. Montana Cooperative Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ron, Ed.

    This revised handbook was developed to help teachers and administrators in Montana conduct cooperative education programs. The handbook is organized in 13 sections. In narrative style, the first 11 sections cover the following topics: introduction to cooperative education, advisory committees, related instruction, coordination of activities,…

  18. Cooperative Science Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperative Learning, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Offers several elementary level cooperative science lesson plans. The article includes a recipe for cooperative class learning, instructions for making a compost pile, directions for finding evidence of energy, experiments in math and science using oranges to test density, and discussions of buoyancy using eggs. (SM)

  19. Distinguished Cooperating Teacher Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago State Univ., IL.

    The Distinguished Cooperating Teacher Program at Chicago State University was developed to train cooperating teachers to supervise student teachers. The program departs from traditional practice by changing the roles of the classroom teacher and the university field supervisor. The supervisor's role becomes that of coordinator while the teacher…

  20. Cooperative Science Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperative Learning, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Offers several elementary level cooperative science lesson plans. The article includes a recipe for cooperative class learning, instructions for making a compost pile, directions for finding evidence of energy, experiments in math and science using oranges to test density, and discussions of buoyancy using eggs. (SM)

  1. Making Cooperative Learning Powerful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Just about everyone loves the "idea" of cooperative learning, children working productively and excitedly in groups, everyone getting along and enthusiastically helping one another learn. This article presents five strategies that teachers can use to get the greatest benefit possible from cooperative learning and ensure that…

  2. A Cooperative Hypertext Interface to Relational Databases

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Thierry; Wiederhold, Gio

    1989-01-01

    Biomedical information systems demand cooperative interfaces that maximize the flow of information between machine and user. Within the framework of the PENGUIN project—an object-oriented architecture for expert database systems—, we describe the use of hypertext tools for designing sophisticated interfaces to the relational-database component of PENGUIN. The interface designer employs HyperCard to construct a visual representation of the underlying database that requires the user to recognize rather than to recall the appropriate command name. We show that the resulting direct-manipulation style of interaction facilitates greatly information retrieval and presentation.

  3. Culture and cooperation.

    PubMed

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-09-12

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities.

  4. Culture and cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities. PMID:20679109

  5. Experiments in cooperative manipulation: A system perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Stanley A.; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    In addition to cooperative dynamic control, the system incorporates real time vision feedback, a novel programming technique, and a graphical high level user interface. By focusing on the vertical integration problem, not only these subsystems are examined, but also their interfaces and interactions. The control system implements a multi-level hierarchical structure; the techniques developed for operator input, strategic command, and cooperative dynamic control are presented. At the highest level, a mouse-based graphical user interface allows an operator to direct the activities of the system. Strategic command is provided by a table-driven finite state machine; this methodology provides a powerful yet flexible technique for managing the concurrent system interactions. The dynamic controller implements object impedance control; an extension of Nevill Hogan's impedance control concept to cooperative arm manipulation of a single object. Experimental results are presented, showing the system locating and identifying a moving object catching it, and performing a simple cooperative assembly. Results from dynamic control experiments are also presented, showing the controller's excellent dynamic trajectory tracking performance, while also permitting control of environmental contact force.

  6. Optimized resolved rate control of seven-degree-of-freedom Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) with application to three-dimensional graphics simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. Keith; Mckinney, William S., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) is a seven-degree-of-freedom robot arm. Two of the arms were delivered to Langley Research Center for ground-based research to assess the use of redundant degree-of-freedom robot arms in space operations. Resolved-rate control equations for the LTM are derived. The equations are based on a scheme developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for computing optimized joint angle rates in real time. The optimized joint angle rates actually represent a trade-off, as the hand moves, between small rates (least-squares solution) and those rates which work toward satisfying a specified performance criterion of joint angles. In singularities where the optimization scheme cannot be applied, alternate control equations are devised. The equations developed were evaluated using a real-time computer simulation to control a 3-D graphics model of the LTM.

  7. Telerobotic control of a dextrous manipulator using master and six-DOF hand-controllers for space assembly and servicing tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Hara, John M.

    1987-01-01

    Two studies were conducted evaluating methods of controlling a telerobot; bilateral force reflecting master controllers and proportional rate six degrees of freedom (DOF) hand controllers. The first study compared the controllers on performance of single manipulator arm tasks, a peg-in-the-hole task, and simulated satellite orbital replacement unit changeout. The second study, a Space Station truss assembly task, required simultaneous operation of both manipulator arms (all 12 DOFs) and complex multiaxis slave arm movements. Task times were significantly longer and fewer errors were committed with the hand controllers. The hand controllers were also rated significantly higher in cognitive and manual control workload on the two-arm task. The master controllers were rated significantly higher in physical workload. There were no significant differences in ratings of manipulator control quality.

  8. Machine Learning and Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  9. The Basic Anaesthesia Machine

    PubMed Central

    Gurudatt, CL

    2013-01-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia. PMID:24249876

  10. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  11. Refractory insulation of hot end in stirling type thermal machines

    SciTech Connect

    Otters, J.L.

    1988-02-02

    A thermal machine is described comprising: a machine body comprised of axial body sections, the body having two opposite ends; means compressing the body between the opposite ends for holding the body sections in axially assembled relationship; a cylindrical displacer chamber in the body having a hot end and a cold end and containing a working fluid, a displacer reciprocable within the displacer chamber for displacing the fluid between the hot and cold ends thereby to subject the fluid to a thermodynamic cycle in cooperation with a compressor piston; refractory insulation means at least partly defining the displacer chamber and held in axial compression between a upper body sections associated with a thermal end of the machine body and lower body sections associated with a work end of the machine body, and means radially compressing the refractory insulation for pre-loading the refractory insulation means against tensile force exerted thereon by the working fluid.

  12. Machining of beryllium with the LLNL Precision Engineering Research Lathe

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.J.

    1985-04-01

    In August 1984, six flat samples of beryllium, which were prepared by Brush-Wellmen Corp. using various pressing and sintering processes, were machined at LLNL on the recently completed Precision Engineering Research Lathe (PERL). The purpose of this study, which was conducted in cooperation with the Hughes Aircraft Corporation and partially funded by that organization, was to determine the optical properties of machined beryllium surfaces when prepared under highly controlled conditions using high quality machine tools and CBN (cubic boron nitrite) cutting tools. This report will summarize the materials properties, the machining conditions used on the PERL and a comparison of the completed samples using optical measuring techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mirror surface reflecting measurements in the IR region are to be made by the group at Hughes Aircraft and will be exchanged with LLNL as a part of this joint technical effort. 3 refs., 14 figs.

  13. DNA-based machines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications.

  14. The Essential Elements of Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Scott B.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses four elements of cooperative learning in science classrooms: cooperative task structures; cooperative incentive structures; individual accountability; and heterogeneous grouping. Presents and describes seven cooperative learning methods. (MDH)

  15. Inferring Mealy Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbaz, Muzammil; Groz, Roland

    Automata learning techniques are getting significant importance for their applications in a wide variety of software engineering problems, especially in the analysis and testing of complex systems. In recent studies, a previous learning approach [1] has been extended to synthesize Mealy machine models which are specifically tailored for I/O based systems. In this paper, we discuss the inference of Mealy machines and propose improvements that reduces the worst-time learning complexity of the existing algorithm. The gain over the complexity of the proposed algorithm has also been confirmed by experimentation on a large set of finite state machines.

  16. Machine Tool Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  17. Quantum Boltzmann Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchytskyy, Bohdan; Andriyash, Evgeny; Amin, Mohammed; Melko, Roger

    The field of machine learning has been revolutionized by the recent improvements in the training of deep networks. Their architecture is based on a set of stacked layers of simpler modules. One of the most successful building blocks, known as a restricted Boltzmann machine, is an energetic model based on the classical Ising Hamiltonian. In our work, we investigate the benefits of quantum effects on the learning capacity of Boltzmann machines by extending its underlying Hamiltonian with a transverse field. For this purpose, we employ exact and stochastic training procedures on data sets with physical origins.

  18. What drives cooperative breeding?

    PubMed

    Koenig, Walter D

    2017-06-01

    Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  19. Globalization and human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods.

  20. Globalization and human cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Nancy R.; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, “globalized” individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods. PMID:19255433

  1. 16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). Note the large segmental-arched doorway to move locomotives in and out of Machine Shop. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  2. Tunnel boring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, L. L.

    1985-07-09

    A tunnel boring machine for controlled boring of a curvilinear tunnel including a rotating cutter wheel mounted on the forward end of a thrust cylinder assembly having a central longitudinal axis aligned with the cutter wheel axis of rotation; the thrust cylinder assembly comprising a cylinder barrel and an extendable and retractable thrust arm received therein. An anchoring assembly is pivotally attached to the rear end of the cylinder barrel for anchoring the machine during a cutting stroke and providing a rear end pivot axis during curved cutting strokes. A pair of laterally extending, extendable and retractable arms are fixedly mounted at a forward portion of the cylinder barrel for providing lateral displacement in a laterally curved cutting mode and for anchoring the machine between cutting strokes and during straight line boring. Forward and rear transverse displacement and support assemblies are provided to facilitate cutting in a transversely curved cutting mode and to facilitate machine movement between cutting strokes.

  3. Molecular Machines: Nanoscale gadgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A.

    2008-06-01

    Meeting their biological counterparts halfway, artificial molecular machines embedded in liquid crystals, crystalline solids and mesoporous materials are poised to meet the demands of the next generation of functional materials.

  4. Approaches to Machine Learning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-16

    The field of machine learning strives to develop methods and techniques to automatic the acquisition of new information, new skills, and new ways of organizing existing information. In this article, we review the major approaches to machine learning in symbolic domains, covering the tasks of learning concepts from examples, learning search methods, conceptual clustering, and language acquisition. We illustrate each of the basic approaches with paradigmatic examples. (Author)

  5. Sealing intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2005-06-07

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  6. Sealing intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2007-06-05

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  7. Maraging Steel Machining Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-23

    APR 2007 2. REPORT TYPE Technical, Success Story 3. DATES COVERED 01-12-2006 to 23-04-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maraging Steel Machining...consumers of cobalt-strengthened maraging steel . An increase in production requires them to reduce the machining time of certain operations producing... maraging steel ; Success Stories 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 1 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 1 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  8. Flexible machining systems described

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butters, H. J.

    1985-03-01

    The rationalization and gradual automation of short rotationally symmetric parts in the Saalfeld VEB Machine Tool Factory was carried out in three stages: (1) part-specific manufacturing; (2) automated production line for manufacturing toothed gears; and (3) automated manufacturing section for short rotationally symmetric parts. The development of numerically controlled machine tools and of industrial robot technology made possible automated manufacturing. The design of current facilities is explored, manufacturing control is examined, experience is reported.

  9. Doubly fed induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  10. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  11. Could a machine think

    SciTech Connect

    Churchland, P.M.; Churchland, P.S. )

    1990-01-01

    There are many reasons for saying yes. One of the earliest and deepest reason lay in two important results in computational theory. The first was Church's thesis, which states that every effectively computable function is recursively computable. The second important result was Alan M. Turing's demonstration that any recursively computable function can be computed in finite time by a maximally simple sort of symbol-manipulating machine that has come to be called a universal Turing machine. This machine is guided by a set of recursively applicable rules that are sensitive to the identity, order and arrangement of the elementary symbols it encounters as input. The authors reject the Turing test as a sufficient condition for conscious intelligence. They base their position of the specific behavioral failures of the classical SM machines and on the specific virtues of machines with a more brain-like architecture. These contrasts show that certain computational strategies have vast and decisive advantages over others where typical cognitive tasks are concerned, advantages that are empirically inescapable. Clearly, the brain is making systematic use of these computational advantage. But it need not be the only physical system capable of doing so. Artificial intelligence, in a nonbiological but massively parallel machine, remain a compelling and discernible prospect.

  12. Use of graphics in decision aids for telerobotic control: (Parts 5-8 of an 8-part MIT progress report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Thomas B.; Roseborough, James B.; Das, Hari; Chin, Kan-Ping; Inoue, Seiichi

    1989-01-01

    Four separate projects recently completed or in progress at the MIT Man-Machine Systems Laboratory are summarized. They are: a decision aid for retrieving a tumbling satellite in space; kinematic control and graphic display of redundant teleoperators; real time terrain/object generation: a quad-tree approach; and two dimensional control for three dimensional obstacle avoidance.

  13. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  14. The Buttonhole Machine. Module 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the bottonhole machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: performing special operations on the buttonhole machine (parts and purpose) and performing special operations on the buttonhole machine (gauged buttonholes). For each topic these components are…

  15. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  16. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effectiveness of cooperative learning on discipline problems, interdependence between students, and teacher-student interactions. Explains how to group students and introduces a laboratory activity on covalent and ionic bonds. (YDS)

  17. Cooperative processing data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  18. How Myxobacteria Cooperate.

    PubMed

    Cao, Pengbo; Dey, Arup; Vassallo, Christopher N; Wall, Daniel

    2015-11-20

    Prokaryotes often reside in groups where a high degree of relatedness has allowed the evolution of cooperative behaviors. However, very few bacteria or archaea have made the successful transition from unicellular to obligate multicellular life. A notable exception is the myxobacteria, in which cells cooperate to perform group functions highlighted by fruiting body development, an obligate multicellular function. Like all multicellular organisms, myxobacteria face challenges in how to organize and maintain multicellularity. These challenges include maintaining population homeostasis, carrying out tissue repair and regulating the behavior of non-cooperators. Here, we describe the major cooperative behaviors that myxobacteria use: motility, predation and development. In addition, this review emphasizes recent discoveries in the social behavior of outer membrane exchange, wherein kin share outer membrane contents. Finally, we review evidence that outer membrane exchange may be involved in regulating population homeostasis, thus serving as a social tool for myxobacteria to make the cyclic transitions from unicellular to multicellular states.

  19. Cooperative Learning in Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Carolyn M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Formal use of cooperative learning techniques proved effective in improving student performance and retention in a freshman level statistics course. Lectures interspersed with group activities proved effective in increasing conceptual understanding and overall class performance. (11 references) (Author)

  20. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effectiveness of cooperative learning on discipline problems, interdependence between students, and teacher-student interactions. Explains how to group students and introduces a laboratory activity on covalent and ionic bonds. (YDS)