Science.gov

Sample records for machine translations

  1. Machine Translation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  2. Semantics via Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  3. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  4. Machine Translation from Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  5. Progress in Documentation: Machine Translation and Machine-Aided Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the prospects for fully automatic machine translation of good quality. Sections include history and background, operational and experimental machine translation systems of recent years, descriptions of interactive systems and machine-assisted translation, and a general survey of present problems and future possibilities. (VT)

  6. Machine Translation for Academic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Grace Hui-chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

    2009-01-01

    Due to the globalization trend and knowledge boost in the second millennium, multi-lingual translation has become a noteworthy issue. For the purposes of learning knowledge in academic fields, Machine Translation (MT) should be noticed not only academically but also practically. MT should be informed to the translating learners because it is a…

  7. Machine Translation from Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Richard; Olive, Joseph; McCary, John; Christianson, Caitlin

    This chapter describes approaches for translation from speech. Translation from speech presents two new issues. First, of course, we must recognize the speech in the source language. Although speech recognition has improved considerably over the last three decades, it is still far from being a solved problem. In the best of conditions, when the speech comes from high quality, carefully enunciated speech, on common topics (such as speech read by a trained news broadcaster), the word error rate is typically on the order of 5%. Humans can typically transcribe speech like this with less than 1% disagreement between annotators, so even this best number is still far worse than human performance. However, the task gets much harder when anything changes from this ideal condition. Some of the conditions that cause higher error rate are, if the topic is somewhat unusual, or the speakers are not reading so that their speech is more spontaneous, or if the speakers have an accent or are speaking a dialect, or if there is any acoustic degradation, such as noise or reverberation. In these cases, the word error can increase significantly to 20%, 30%, or higher. Accordingly, most of this chapter discusses techniques for improving speech recognition accuracy, while one section discusses techniques for integrating speech recognition with translation.

  8. Machine translation project alternatives analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Catherine J.; Bedford, Denise A. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Machine Translation Project consists of several components, two of which, the Project Plan and the Requirements Analysis, have already been delivered. The Project Plan details the overall rationale, objectives and time-table for the project as a whole. The Requirements Analysis compares a number of available machine translation systems, their capabilities, possible configurations, and costs. The Alternatives Analysis has resulted in a number of conclusions and recommendations to the NASA STI program concerning the acquisition of specific MT systems and related hardware and software.

  9. Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skorokhodko, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    In many cases machine-translation does not produce satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis, particularly, in the case of syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorithm for syntaxic-semantic analysis is proposed, and its principles of operation are described. The syntaxico-semantic structure is…

  10. Machine Translation Evaluation and Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorr, Bonnie; Olive, Joseph; McCary, John; Christianson, Caitlin

    The evaluation of machine translation (MT) systems is a vital field of research, both for determining the effectiveness of existing MT systems and for optimizing the performance of MT systems. This part describes a range of different evaluation approaches used in the GALE community and introduces evaluation protocols and methodologies used in the program. We discuss the development and use of automatic, human, task-based and semi-automatic (human-in-the-loop) methods of evaluating machine translation, focusing on the use of a human-mediated translation error rate HTER as the evaluation standard used in GALE. We discuss the workflow associated with the use of this measure, including post editing, quality control, and scoring. We document the evaluation tasks, data, protocols, and results of recent GALE MT Evaluations. In addition, we present a range of different approaches for optimizing MT systems on the basis of different measures. We outline the requirements and specific problems when using different optimization approaches and describe how the characteristics of different MT metrics affect the optimization. Finally, we describe novel recent and ongoing work on the development of fully automatic MT evaluation metrics that have the potential to substantially improve the effectiveness of evaluation and optimization of MT systems.

  11. Machine Translation in Post-Contemporary Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2010-01-01

    This article focusing on translating techniques via personal computer or laptop reports updated artificial intelligence progresses before 2010. Based on interpretations and information for field of MT [Machine Translation] by Yorick Wilks' book, "Machine Translation, Its scope and limits," this paper displays understandable theoretical frameworks…

  12. Interlingual Machine Translation: Prospects and Setbacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acikgoz, Firat; Sert, Olcay

    2006-01-01

    This study, in an attempt to rise above the intricacy of "being informed on the verge of globalization," is founded on the premise that Machine Translation (MT) applications searching for an ideal key to find a universal foundation for all natural languages have a restricted say over the translation process at various discourse levels. Our paper…

  13. MSD Recombination Method in Statistical Machine Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, Jerneja Žganec

    2008-11-01

    Freely available tools and language resources were used to build the VoiceTRAN statistical machine translation (SMT) system. Various configuration variations of the system are presented and evaluated. The VoiceTRAN SMT system outperformed the baseline conventional rule-based MT system in all English-Slovenian in-domain test setups. To further increase the generalization capability of the translation model for lower-coverage out-of-domain test sentences, an "MSD-recombination" approach was proposed. This approach not only allows a better exploitation of conventional translation models, but also performs well in the more demanding translation direction; that is, into a highly inflectional language. Using this approach in the out-of-domain setup of the English-Slovenian JRC-ACQUIS task, we have achieved significant improvements in translation quality.

  14. A MOOC on Approaches to Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-jussà, Mart R.; Formiga, Lluís; Torrillas, Oriol; Petit, Jordi; Fonollosa, José A. R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design, development, and analysis of a MOOC entitled "Approaches to Machine Translation: Rule-based, statistical and hybrid", and provides lessons learned and conclusions to be taken into account in the future. The course was developed within the Canvas platform, used by recognized European universities. It…

  15. Machine Translation in China--A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yong-quan, Liu

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the history of machine translation (MT) research in China. Describes Chinese MT techniques as based on syntactic analysis, full use of fixed phrases, the key role of funtion words, and emphasis on formal analysis without neglecting meaning. (Available from ALLC, Dr. Rex Last, German Dept., Univ. of Hull, Hull HU57RX, England.) (Author/MES)

  16. Chinese-English Machine Translation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, William S-Y; And Others

    The report documents results of a two-year R&D effort directed at the completion of a prototype system for Chinese-English machine translation of S&T literature. The system, designated QUINCE, accepts Chinese input exactly as printed, with no pre-editing of any kind, and produces English output on experimental basis. Coding of Chinese text via…

  17. Machine translation from Japanese into English

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, M.; Tsujii, J.I.; Nakamura, J.I.

    1986-07-01

    This paper describes the outline of our Japanese to English machine translation system, which is supported by the Agency of Science and Technology of the Japanese Government. Many new methodologies are introduced to obtain high-quality translation results. The analysis is based on case grammar, which is suitable for a word-order-free language such as Japanese. The dictionary is rich enough to handle many specific expressions. It contains not only case frame information, but also semantic information, idiomatic expressions, and many others. In the transfer phase, the system applies many structural transformations, so that the structural difference of the same contents in Japanese and English can be relieved. In the generation phase, many structural transformations are again applied so that the ellipsis problems can be avoided, and that better stylistic expressions can be obtained. The system is running mainly for the abstracts of scientific and technical papers. The evaluation method of the translated results is also discussed, with many example translations.

  18. A Review of the State of Machine Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henisz-Thompson, Bozena

    A review of the state of machine translation considers the historical development of the process, how it works, and results of users' evaluations. Machine translation is the process of translating one language into another through the use of the computer, following the linguistic and computational instructions supplied to it by human researchers…

  19. Traduction automatique et style (Machine Translation and Style).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loffler-Laurian, Anne-Marie

    1985-01-01

    Machine translation has been criticized for its inability to provide language style, but for specialized or technical texts, of which there are increasing numbers, machine translation with its obligatory post-editing may be effective, and the "style" of these translations may be a reflection of the error patterns caught in post-editing. (MSE)

  20. Parameterizing Phrase Based Statistical Machine Translation Models: An Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cer, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to determine the best way to train a statistical machine translation system. I first develop a state-of-the-art machine translation system called Phrasal and then use it to examine a wide variety of potential learning algorithms and optimization criteria and arrive at two very surprising results. First, despite the…

  1. The evolution and practical application of machine translation system (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Isao; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Hideko; Sato, Masayuki

    This paper described development and practical application J-E machine translation system in JICST. The relation between machine translation system and JICST File Compiling & Editing System, practice of pre-editing and post-editing, performance and evaluation of system, the cost etc. were introduced. In comparison with the human translation, the benefit is not recognized as turnaround time. However, it is about a half as the cost. If translation accuracy improves, turnaround time and the cost will be improved further. This paper described translation service of full paper, construction of a translation network as a conception in future of machine translation system. This English abstract was made using Mu system. Pre-editing and post-editing is not used.

  2. Machine Translation in the German Classroom: Detection, Reaction, Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steding, Soren

    2009-01-01

    There are many websites today that offer free machine translations and although beginning students of German are not always proficient enough to judge the quality of these translations or to fully understand certain translation results, they use these services nonetheless for their assignments. The problem for the educator is to distinguish…

  3. Quantum neural network based machine translator for Hindi to English.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Ravi; Singh, V P; Chakraverty, S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the machine learning based machine translation system for Hindi to English, which learns the semantically correct corpus. The quantum neural based pattern recognizer is used to recognize and learn the pattern of corpus, using the information of part of speech of individual word in the corpus, like a human. The system performs the machine translation using its knowledge gained during the learning by inputting the pair of sentences of Devnagri-Hindi and English. To analyze the effectiveness of the proposed approach, 2600 sentences have been evaluated during simulation and evaluation. The accuracy achieved on BLEU score is 0.7502, on NIST score is 6.5773, on ROUGE-L score is 0.9233, and on METEOR score is 0.5456, which is significantly higher in comparison with Google Translation and Bing Translation for Hindi to English Machine Translation. PMID:24977198

  4. Syntactic Reordering for Arabic- English Phrase-Based Machine Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatem, Arwa; Omar, Nazlia

    Machine Translation (MT) refers to the use of a machine for performing translation task which converts text or speech in one Natural Language (Source Language (SL)) into another Natural Language (Target Language (TL)). The translation from Arabic to English is difficult task due to the Arabic languages are highly inflectional, rich morphology and relatively free word order. Word ordering plays an important part in the translation process. The paper proposes a transfer-based approach in Arabic to English MT to handle the word ordering problem. Preliminary tested indicate that our system, AE-TBMT is competitive when compared against other approaches from the literature.

  5. Bean Soup Translation: Flexible, Linguistically-Motivated Syntax for Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehay, Dennis Nolan

    2012-01-01

    Machine translation (MT) systems attempt to translate texts from one language into another by translating words from a "source language" and rearranging them into fluent utterances in a "target language." When the two languages organize concepts in very different ways, knowledge of their general sentence structure, or…

  6. Telemedicine as a special case of machine translation.

    PubMed

    Wołk, Krzysztof; Marasek, Krzysztof; Glinkowski, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Machine translation is evolving quite rapidly in terms of quality. Nowadays, we have several machine translation systems available in the web, which provide reasonable translations. However, these systems are not perfect, and their quality may decrease in some specific domains. This paper examines the effects of different training methods when it comes to Polish-English Statistical Machine Translation system used for the medical data. Numerous elements of the EMEA parallel text corpora and not related OPUS Open Subtitles project were used as the ground for creation of phrase tables and different language models including the development, tuning and testing of these translation systems. The BLEU, NIST, METEOR, and TER metrics have been used in order to evaluate the results of various systems. Our experiments deal with the systems that include POS tagging, factored phrase models, hierarchical models, syntactic taggers, and other alignment methods. We also executed a deep analysis of Polish data as preparatory work before automatized data processing such as true casing or punctuation normalization phase. Normalized metrics was used to compare results. Scores lower than 15% mean that Machine Translation engine is unable to provide satisfying quality, scores greater than 30% mean that translations should be understandable without problems and scores over 50 reflect adequate translations. The average results of Polish to English translations scores for BLEU, NIST, METEOR, and TER were relatively high and ranged from 7058 to 8272. The lowest score was 6438. The average results ranges for English to Polish translations were little lower (6758-7897). The real-life implementations of presented high quality Machine Translation Systems are anticipated in general medical practice and telemedicine.

  7. Telemedicine as a special case of machine translation.

    PubMed

    Wołk, Krzysztof; Marasek, Krzysztof; Glinkowski, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Machine translation is evolving quite rapidly in terms of quality. Nowadays, we have several machine translation systems available in the web, which provide reasonable translations. However, these systems are not perfect, and their quality may decrease in some specific domains. This paper examines the effects of different training methods when it comes to Polish-English Statistical Machine Translation system used for the medical data. Numerous elements of the EMEA parallel text corpora and not related OPUS Open Subtitles project were used as the ground for creation of phrase tables and different language models including the development, tuning and testing of these translation systems. The BLEU, NIST, METEOR, and TER metrics have been used in order to evaluate the results of various systems. Our experiments deal with the systems that include POS tagging, factored phrase models, hierarchical models, syntactic taggers, and other alignment methods. We also executed a deep analysis of Polish data as preparatory work before automatized data processing such as true casing or punctuation normalization phase. Normalized metrics was used to compare results. Scores lower than 15% mean that Machine Translation engine is unable to provide satisfying quality, scores greater than 30% mean that translations should be understandable without problems and scores over 50 reflect adequate translations. The average results of Polish to English translations scores for BLEU, NIST, METEOR, and TER were relatively high and ranged from 7058 to 8272. The lowest score was 6438. The average results ranges for English to Polish translations were little lower (6758-7897). The real-life implementations of presented high quality Machine Translation Systems are anticipated in general medical practice and telemedicine. PMID:26617328

  8. Machine Translation-Assisted Language Learning: Writing for Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Ignacio; Pena, Maria Isabel

    2011-01-01

    The few studies that deal with machine translation (MT) as a language learning tool focus on its use by advanced learners, never by beginners. Yet, freely available MT engines (i.e. Google Translate) and MT-related web initiatives (i.e. Gabble-on.com) position themselves to cater precisely to the needs of learners with a limited command of a…

  9. Chunk Alignment for Corpus-Based Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jae Dong

    2011-01-01

    Since sub-sentential alignment is critically important to the translation quality of an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) system, which operates by finding and combining phrase-level matches against the training examples, we developed a new alignment algorithm for the purpose of improving the EBMT system's performance. This new…

  10. Evaluation of online machine translation by nursing users.

    PubMed

    Anazawa, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Hirono; Takahiro, Kiuchi

    2013-08-01

    Nurses whose native language is not English may face a language barrier when they read nursing literature published internationally. Freely accessible online machine translation could be one possible solution to reduce their burden. In the present study, English-Japanese translations of nursing article abstracts from the major online machine translation system, Google Translate, were evaluated by 250 nursing faculty members across Japan using a previously verified method for evaluating intelligibility. The abstracts were evaluated according to sections typically classified in structured abstracts: title, background, aim, method, result, discussion, conclusion, and relevance to clinical practice. We also asked for respondents' impressions on the perceived usefulness of the translated abstract as a whole. The results indicated that Google Translate had minimally acceptable quality and identified the word count and the existence of unidentifiable words of source texts as factors contributing to translation quality. Nurses may benefit from Google Translate when reading the professional literature. However, our results suggest that more effort should be made to improve online machine translation performance, and emphasize the importance of providing training and education for nursing professionals to utilize this technology. PMID:23851708

  11. The evolution and practical application of machine translation system (1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Isao; Sato, Masayuki

    This paper describes a development, practical applicatioin, problem of a system, evaluation of practical system, and development trend of machine translation. Most recent system contains next four problems. 1) the vagueness of a text, 2) a difference of the definition of the terminology between different language, 3) the preparing of a large-scale translation dictionary, 4) the development of a software for the logical inference. Machine translation system is already used practically in many industry fields. However, many problems are not solved. The implementation of an ideal system will be after 15 years. Also, this paper described seven evaluation items detailedly. This English abstract was made by Mu system.

  12. English to Sanskrit Machine Translation Using Transfer Based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Ganesh R.; Godse, Sachin P.

    2010-11-01

    Translation is one of the needs of global society for communicating thoughts and ideas of one country with other country. Translation is the process of interpretation of text meaning and subsequent production of equivalent text, also called as communicating same meaning (message) in another language. In this paper we gave detail information on how to convert source language text in to target language text using Transfer Based Approach for machine translation. Here we implemented English to Sanskrit machine translator using transfer based approach. English is global language used for business and communication but large amount of population in India is not using and understand the English. Sanskrit is ancient language of India most of the languages in India are derived from Sanskrit. Sanskrit can be act as an intermediate language for multilingual translation.

  13. Bilingual Cluster Based Models for Statistical Machine Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Sumita, Eiichiro

    We propose a domain specific model for statistical machine translation. It is well-known that domain specific language models perform well in automatic speech recognition. We show that domain specific language and translation models also benefit statistical machine translation. However, there are two problems with using domain specific models. The first is the data sparseness problem. We employ an adaptation technique to overcome this problem. The second issue is domain prediction. In order to perform adaptation, the domain must be provided, however in many cases, the domain is not known or changes dynamically. For these cases, not only the translation target sentence but also the domain must be predicted. This paper focuses on the domain prediction problem for statistical machine translation. In the proposed method, a bilingual training corpus, is automatically clustered into sub-corpora. Each sub-corpus is deemed to be a domain. The domain of a source sentence is predicted by using its similarity to the sub-corpora. The predicted domain (sub-corpus) specific language and translation models are then used for the translation decoding. This approach gave an improvement of 2.7 in BLEU score on the IWSLT05 Japanese to English evaluation corpus (improving the score from 52.4 to 55.1). This is a substantial gain and indicates the validity of the proposed bilingual cluster based models.

  14. A translator and simulator for the Burroughs D machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J.

    1972-01-01

    The D Machine is described as a small user microprogrammable computer designed to be a versatile building block for such diverse functions as: disk file controllers, I/O controllers, and emulators. TRANSLANG is an ALGOL-like language, which allows D Machine users to write microprograms in an English-like format as opposed to creating binary bit pattern maps. The TRANSLANG translator parses TRANSLANG programs into D Machine microinstruction bit patterns which can be executed on the D Machine simulator. In addition to simulation and translation, the two programs also offer several debugging tools, such as: a full set of diagnostic error messages, register dumps, simulated memory dumps, traces on instructions and groups of instructions, and breakpoints.

  15. Complex Networks Analysis of Manual and Machine Translations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amancio, Diego R.; Antiqueira, Lucas; Pardo, Thiago A. S.; da F. Costa, Luciano; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Nunes, Maria G. V.

    Complex networks have been increasingly used in text analysis, including in connection with natural language processing tools, as important text features appear to be captured by the topology and dynamics of the networks. Following previous works that apply complex networks concepts to text quality measurement, summary evaluation, and author characterization, we now focus on machine translation (MT). In this paper we assess the possible representation of texts as complex networks to evaluate cross-linguistic issues inherent in manual and machine translation. We show that different quality translations generated by MT tools can be distinguished from their manual counterparts by means of metrics such as in- (ID) and out-degrees (OD), clustering coefficient (CC), and shortest paths (SP). For instance, we demonstrate that the average OD in networks of automatic translations consistently exceeds the values obtained for manual ones, and that the CC values of source texts are not preserved for manual translations, but are for good automatic translations. This probably reflects the text rearrangements humans perform during manual translation. We envisage that such findings could lead to better MT tools and automatic evaluation metrics.

  16. An Approach to Verbalization and Translation by Machine. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafe, Wallace L.

    The report documents performance on a 24-month R&D effort oriented toward the development of a computerized model for machine translation of natural languages. The model is built around a set of procedures called verbalization, intended to stimulate the processes employed by a speaker or writer in turning stored information into words.…

  17. JTEC panel report on machine translation in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbonell, Jaime; Rich, Elaine; Johnson, David; Tomita, Masaru; Vasconcellos, Muriel; Wilks, Yorick

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the art of machine translation (MT) in Japan and to provide a comparison between Japanese and Western technology in this area. The term 'machine translation' as used here, includes both the science and technology required for automating the translation of text from one human language to another. Machine translation is viewed in Japan as an important strategic technology that is expected to play a key role in Japan's increasing participation in the world economy. MT is seen in Japan as important both for assimilating information into Japanese as well as for disseminating Japanese information throughout the world. Most of the MT systems now available in Japan are transfer-based systems. The majority of them exploit a case-frame representation of the source text as the basis of the transfer process. There is a gradual movement toward the use of deeper semantic representations, and some groups are beginning to look at interlingua-based systems.

  18. Abstract of the Development of a Theoretical Basis for Machine Aids for Translation from Hebrew to English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James D.

    1969-01-01

    Chapter I, an introduction to machine translation of languages, contains a simplified description of electronic computing machines, and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of machine translation research. A historical background of machine translation of languages is given, together with a description of various machine translation…

  19. Exploring the Further Integration of Machine Translation in English-Chinese Cross Language Information Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Dan; He, Daqing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the further integration of machine translation technologies with cross language information access in providing web users the capabilities of accessing information beyond language barriers. Machine translation and cross language information access are related technologies, and yet they have their own unique…

  20. Research on the Machine Translation System of Scientific and Technological Documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Makoto; Tsujii, Jun'ichi; Nakamura, Jun'ichi

    The authors outline present situation of development on machine translation system which has been executed under the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology (STA). This project called Research on the Machine Translation System of Scientific and Technological Documents develops Japanese-English and English-Japanese translation system of abstract text. The reason why it has to be developed as a national project, the detailed outline on how Japanese-English translation system has been developed, and evaluation method of the translation are described. Particularly technical device to manipulate Japanese and English which have basically different language structure each other is described in detail.

  1. Quantifying the Efficiency of a Translator: The Effect of Syntactical and Literal Written Translations on Language Comprehension Using the Machine Translation System FALCon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloh, Ian A.; Morton, Jillian; Jantzi, Jennifer K.; Rodriguez, Amy M.; Graham, John

    2008-01-01

    This study introduces a new method of evaluating human comprehension in the context of machine translation using a language translation program known as the FALCon (Forward Area Language Converter). The participants include 48 freshmen from the United States Military Academy enrolled in the General Psychology course, PL100. Results of this study…

  2. Quantifying the Efficiency of a Translator: The Effect of Syntactical and Literal Written Translations on Language Comprehension Using the Machine Translation System FALCon (Foreign Area Language Converter)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloh, Ian A.; Morton, Jillian; Jantzi, Jennifer K.; Rodriguez, Amy M.; Graham, John

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce a new method of evaluating human comprehension in the context of machine translation using a language translation program known as the FALCon (Forward Area Language Converter). The FALCon works by converting documents into digital images via scanner, and then converting those images to electronic text by…

  3. Machine Translation of Public Health Materials From English to Chinese: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Loma

    2015-01-01

    Background Chinese is the second most common language spoken by limited English proficiency individuals in the United States, yet there are few public health materials available in Chinese. Previous studies have indicated that use of machine translation plus postediting by bilingual translators generated quality translations in a lower time and at a lower cost than human translations. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using machine translation (MT) tools (eg, Google Translate) followed by human postediting (PE) to produce quality Chinese translations of public health materials. Methods From state and national public health websites, we collected 60 health promotion documents that had been translated from English to Chinese through human translation. The English version of the documents were then translated to Chinese using Google Translate. The MTs were analyzed for translation errors. A subset of the MT documents was postedited by native Chinese speakers with health backgrounds. Postediting time was measured. Postedited versions were then blindly compared against human translations by bilingual native Chinese quality raters. Results The most common machine translation errors were errors of word sense (40%) and word order (22%). Posteditors corrected the MTs at a rate of approximately 41 characters per minute. Raters, blinded to the source of translation, consistently selected the human translation over the MT+PE. Initial investigation to determine the reasons for the lower quality of MT+PE indicate that poor MT quality, lack of posteditor expertise, and insufficient posteditor instructions can be barriers to producing quality Chinese translations. Conclusions Our results revealed problems with using MT tools plus human postediting for translating public health materials from English to Chinese. Additional work is needed to improve MT and to carefully design postediting processes before the MT+PE approach can be used

  4. Translation of Untranslatable Words — Integration of Lexical Approximation and Phrase-Table Extension Techniques into Statistical Machine Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Michael; Arora, Karunesh; Sumita, Eiichiro

    This paper proposes a method for handling out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words that cannot be translated using conventional phrase-based statistical machine translation (SMT) systems. For a given OOV word, lexical approximation techniques are utilized to identify spelling and inflectional word variants that occur in the training data. All OOV words in the source sentence are then replaced with appropriate word variants found in the training corpus, thus reducing the number of OOV words in the input. Moreover, in order to increase the coverage of such word translations, the SMT translation model is extended by adding new phrase translations for all source language words that do not have a single-word entry in the original phrase-table but only appear in the context of larger phrases. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is investigated for the translation of Hindi to English, Chinese, and Japanese.

  5. An Evaluation of Online Machine Translation of Arabic into English News Headlines: Implications on Students' Learning Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadhim, Kais A.; Habeeb, Luwaytha S.; Sapar, Ahmad Arifin; Hussin, Zaharah; Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, online Machine Translation (MT) is used widely with translation software, such as Google and Babylon, being easily available and downloadable. This study aims to test the translation quality of these two machine systems in translating Arabic news headlines into English. 40 Arabic news headlines were selected from three online sources,…

  6. The Dostoevsky Machine in Georgetown: scientific translation in the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Gordin, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Machine Translation (MT) is now ubiquitous in discussions of translation. The roots of this phenomenon - first publicly unveiled in the so-called 'Georgetown-IBM Experiment' on 9 January 1954 - displayed not only the technological utopianism still associated with dreams of a universal computer translator, but was deeply enmeshed in the political pressures of the Cold War and a dominating conception of scientific writing as both the goal of machine translation as well as its method. Machine translation was created, in part, as a solution to a perceived crisis sparked by the massive expansion of Soviet science. Scientific prose was also perceived as linguistically simpler, and so served as the model for how to turn a language into a series of algorithms. This paper follows the rise of the Georgetown program - the largest single program in the world - from 1954 to the (as it turns out, temporary) collapse of MT in 1964. PMID:27391670

  7. The Dostoevsky Machine in Georgetown: scientific translation in the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Gordin, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Machine Translation (MT) is now ubiquitous in discussions of translation. The roots of this phenomenon - first publicly unveiled in the so-called 'Georgetown-IBM Experiment' on 9 January 1954 - displayed not only the technological utopianism still associated with dreams of a universal computer translator, but was deeply enmeshed in the political pressures of the Cold War and a dominating conception of scientific writing as both the goal of machine translation as well as its method. Machine translation was created, in part, as a solution to a perceived crisis sparked by the massive expansion of Soviet science. Scientific prose was also perceived as linguistically simpler, and so served as the model for how to turn a language into a series of algorithms. This paper follows the rise of the Georgetown program - the largest single program in the world - from 1954 to the (as it turns out, temporary) collapse of MT in 1964.

  8. Machine-Aided Translation: From Terminology Banks to Interactive Translation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Concetta C.; Serain, Daniel

    The rapid growth of the need for technical translations in recent years has led specialists to utilize computer technology to improve the efficiency and quality of translation. The two approaches considered were automatic translation and terminology banks. Since the results of fully automatic translation were considered unsatisfactory by various…

  9. The Integration of Project-Based Methodology into Teaching in Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madkour, Magda

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative-qualitative analytical research aimed at investigating the effect of integrating project-based teaching methodology into teaching machine translation on students' performance. Data was collected from the graduate students in the College of Languages and Translation, at Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi…

  10. Evaluating the Use of Machine Translation Post-Editing in the Foreign Language Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nino, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Generalised access to the Internet and globalisation has led to increased demand for translation services and a resurgence in the use of machine translation (MT) systems. MT post-editing or the correction of MT output to an acceptable standard is known to be one of the ways to face the huge demand on multilingual communication. Given that the use…

  11. Advancement in Productivity of Arabic into English Machine Translation Systems from 2008 to 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Al-Sha'r, Awatif M.; AbuSeileek, Ali F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare between the advancements in the productivity of Arabic into English Machine Translation Systems between two years, 2008 and 2013. It also aims to evaluate the progress achieved by various systems of Arabic into English electronic translation between the two years. For tracing such advancement, a comparative analysis…

  12. A Character Level Based and Word Level Based Approach for Chinese-Vietnamese Machine Translation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Chinese and Vietnamese have the same isolated language; that is, the words are not delimited by spaces. In machine translation, word segmentation is often done first when translating from Chinese or Vietnamese into different languages (typically English) and vice versa. However, it is a matter for consideration that words may or may not be segmented when translating between two languages in which spaces are not used between words, such as Chinese and Vietnamese. Since Chinese-Vietnamese is a low-resource language pair, the sparse data problem is evident in the translation system of this language pair. Therefore, while translating, whether it should be segmented or not becomes more important. In this paper, we propose a new method for translating Chinese to Vietnamese based on a combination of the advantages of character level and word level translation. In addition, a hybrid approach that combines statistics and rules is used to translate on the word level. And at the character level, a statistical translation is used. The experimental results showed that our method improved the performance of machine translation over that of character or word level translation. PMID:27446207

  13. Technology: English Learners and Machine Translation, Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author touches on the ways that technology can come to the aid of teachers with students who don't speak English. He discusses different word processors that successfully translate foreign text.

  14. Modeling workflow to design machine translation applications for public health practice

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Anne M.; Brownstein, Megumu K.; Cole, Kate; Karasz, Hilary; Kirchhoff, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Provide a detailed understanding of the information workflow processes related to translating health promotion materials for limited English proficiency individuals in order to inform the design of context-driven machine translation (MT) tools for public health (PH). Materials and Methods We applied a cognitive work analysis framework to investigate the translation information workflow processes of two large health departments in Washington State. Researchers conducted interviews, performed a task analysis, and validated results with PH professionals to model translation workflow and identify functional requirements for a translation system for PH. Results The study resulted in a detailed description of work related to translation of PH materials, an information workflow diagram, and a description of attitudes towards MT technology. We identified a number of themes that hold design implications for incorporating MT in PH translation practice. A PH translation tool prototype was designed based on these findings. Discussion This study underscores the importance of understanding the work context and information workflow for which systems will be designed. Based on themes and translation information workflow processes, we identified key design guidelines for incorporating MT into PH translation work. Primary amongst these is that MT should be followed by human review for translations to be of high quality and for the technology to be adopted into practice. Counclusion The time and costs of creating multilingual health promotion materials are barriers to translation. PH personnel were interested in MT's potential to improve access to low-cost translated PH materials, but expressed concerns about ensuring quality. We outline design considerations and a potential machine translation tool to best fit MT systems into PH practice. PMID:25445922

  15. Bombsights and Adding Machines: Translating Wartime Technology into Peacetime Sales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Michael

    2010-01-01

    On 10 February 1947, A.C. Buehler, the president of the Victor Adding Machine Company presented Norden Bombsight #4120 to the Smithsonian Institute. This sight was in service on board the Enola Gay when it dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Through this public presentation, Buehler forever linked his company to the Norden Bombsight, the…

  16. Y-a-t-il toujours une machine a traduire (Does the Translation Machine Still Exist)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pare, Marcel

    1980-01-01

    Outlines the evolution of automatic translation research during the last 25 years and describes the systems developed by the University of Montreal group. Defines the applicability of these systems as limited to technical texts with restricted terminology and simple grammar, their product still requiring a translator's correction and revision.…

  17. Four Generations of Machine Translation Research and Prospects for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Yorick

    This paper begins with a description of four generations of research in machine translation: the original efforts of 1957 to 1965 and three types of surviving and sometimes competing present projects. The three types of present projects include those relying on "brute force" methods involving larger and faster computers; those based on a…

  18. Real English: A Translator to Enable Natural Language Man-Machine Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gautin, Harvey

    This dissertation presents a pragmatic interpreter/translator called Real English to serve as a natural language man-machine communication interface in a multi-mode on-line information retrieval system. This multi-mode feature affords the user a library-like searching tool by giving him access to a dictionary, lexicon, thesaurus, synonym table,…

  19. Machine Translation in Foreign Language Learning: Language Learners' and Tutors' Perceptions of Its Advantages and Disadvantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nino, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a snapshot of what has been investigated in terms of the relationship between machine translation (MT) and foreign language (FL) teaching and learning. For this purpose four different roles of MT in the language class have been identified: MT as a bad model, MT as a good model, MT as a vocational training tool (especially in…

  20. Japanese Argument Reordering Based on Dependency Structure for Statistical Machine Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Chooi-Ling; Watanabe, Taro; Sumita, Eiichiro

    While phrase-based statistical machine translation systems prefer to translate with longer phrases, this may cause errors in a free word order language, such as Japanese, in which the order of the arguments of the predicates is not solely determined by the predicates and the arguments can be placed quite freely in the text. In this paper, we propose to reorder the arguments but not the predicates in Japanese using a dependency structure as a kind of reordering. Instead of a single deterministically given permutation, we generate multiple reordered phrases for each sentence and translate them independently. Then we apply a re-ranking method using a discriminative approach by Ranking Support Vector Machines (SVM) to re-score the multiple reordered phrase translations. In our experiment with the travel domain corpus BTEC, we gain a 1.22% BLEU score improvement when only 1-best is used for re-ranking and 4.12% BLEU score improvement when n-best is used for Japanese-English translation.

  1. PHAST: A Collaborative Machine Translation and Post-Editing Tool for Public Health.

    PubMed

    Dew, Kristin; Turner, Anne M; Desai, Loma; Martin, Nathalie; Laurenzi, Adrian; Kirchhoff, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel collaborative machine translation (MT) plus post-editing system called PHAST (Public Health Automatic System for Translation, phastsystem.org), tailored for use in producing multilingual education materials for public health. Its collaborative features highlight a new approach in public health informatics: sharing limited bilingual translation resources via a groupware system. We report here on the design methods and requirements used to develop PHAST and on its evaluation with potential public health users. Our results indicate such a system could be a feasible means of increasing the production of multilingual public health materials by reducing the barriers of time and cost. PHAST's design can serve as a model for other communities interested in assuring the accuracy of MT through shared language expertise. PMID:26958182

  2. PHAST: A Collaborative Machine Translation and Post-Editing Tool for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Dew, Kristin; Turner, Anne M.; Desai, Loma; Martin, Nathalie; Laurenzi, Adrian; Kirchhoff, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel collaborative machine translation (MT) plus post-editing system called PHAST (Public Health Automatic System for Translation, phastsystem.org), tailored for use in producing multilingual education materials for public health. Its collaborative features highlight a new approach in public health informatics: sharing limited bilingual translation resources via a groupware system. We report here on the design methods and requirements used to develop PHAST and on its evaluation with potential public health users. Our results indicate such a system could be a feasible means of increasing the production of multilingual public health materials by reducing the barriers of time and cost. PHAST’s design can serve as a model for other communities interested in assuring the accuracy of MT through shared language expertise. PMID:26958182

  3. PHAST: A Collaborative Machine Translation and Post-Editing Tool for Public Health.

    PubMed

    Dew, Kristin; Turner, Anne M; Desai, Loma; Martin, Nathalie; Laurenzi, Adrian; Kirchhoff, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel collaborative machine translation (MT) plus post-editing system called PHAST (Public Health Automatic System for Translation, phastsystem.org), tailored for use in producing multilingual education materials for public health. Its collaborative features highlight a new approach in public health informatics: sharing limited bilingual translation resources via a groupware system. We report here on the design methods and requirements used to develop PHAST and on its evaluation with potential public health users. Our results indicate such a system could be a feasible means of increasing the production of multilingual public health materials by reducing the barriers of time and cost. PHAST's design can serve as a model for other communities interested in assuring the accuracy of MT through shared language expertise.

  4. Our Policies, Their Text: German Language Students' Strategies with and Beliefs about Web-Based Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kelsey D.; Heidrich, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Most educators are aware that some students utilize web-based machine translators for foreign language assignments, however, little research has been done to determine how and why students utilize these programs, or what the implications are for language learning and teaching. In this mixed-methods study we utilized surveys, a translation task,…

  5. Discriminative feature-rich models for syntax-based machine translation.

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Kevin R.

    2012-12-01

    This report describes the campus executive LDRD %E2%80%9CDiscriminative Feature-Rich Models for Syntax-Based Machine Translation,%E2%80%9D which was an effort to foster a better relationship between Sandia and Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). The primary purpose of the LDRD was to fund the research of a promising graduate student at CMU; in this case, Kevin Gimpel was selected from the pool of candidates. This report gives a brief overview of Kevin Gimpel's research.

  6. A Conjoint Analysis Framework for Evaluating User Preferences in Machine Translation.

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, Katrin; Capurro, Daniel; Turner, Anne M

    2014-03-01

    Despite much research on machine translation (MT) evaluation, there is surprisingly little work that directly measures users' intuitive or emotional preferences regarding different types of MT errors. However, the elicitation and modeling of user preferences is an important prerequisite for research on user adaptation and customization of MT engines. In this paper we explore the use of conjoint analysis as a formal quantitative framework to assess users' relative preferences for different types of translation errors. We apply our approach to the analysis of MT output from translating public health documents from English into Spanish. Our results indicate that word order errors are clearly the most dispreferred error type, followed by word sense, morphological, and function word errors. The conjoint analysis-based model is able to predict user preferences more accurately than a baseline model that chooses the translation with the fewest errors overall. Additionally we analyze the effect of using a crowd-sourced respondent population versus a sample of domain experts and observe that main preference effects are remarkably stable across the two samples.

  7. A Conjoint Analysis Framework for Evaluating User Preferences in Machine Translation

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhoff, Katrin; Capurro, Daniel; Turner, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite much research on machine translation (MT) evaluation, there is surprisingly little work that directly measures users’ intuitive or emotional preferences regarding different types of MT errors. However, the elicitation and modeling of user preferences is an important prerequisite for research on user adaptation and customization of MT engines. In this paper we explore the use of conjoint analysis as a formal quantitative framework to assess users’ relative preferences for different types of translation errors. We apply our approach to the analysis of MT output from translating public health documents from English into Spanish. Our results indicate that word order errors are clearly the most dispreferred error type, followed by word sense, morphological, and function word errors. The conjoint analysis-based model is able to predict user preferences more accurately than a baseline model that chooses the translation with the fewest errors overall. Additionally we analyze the effect of using a crowd-sourced respondent population versus a sample of domain experts and observe that main preference effects are remarkably stable across the two samples. PMID:24683295

  8. Extracting Date/Time Expressions in Super-Function Based Japanese-English Machine Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasayama, Manabu; Kuroiwa, Shingo; Ren, Fuji

    Super-Function Based Machine Translation(SFBMT) which is a type of Example-Based Machine Translation has a feature which makes it possible to expand the coverage of examples by changing nouns into variables, however, there were problems extracting entire date/time expressions containing parts-of-speech other than nouns, because only nouns/numbers were changed into variables. We describe a method for extracting date/time expressions for SFBMT. SFBMT uses noun determination rules to extract nouns and a bilingual dictionary to obtain correspondence of the extracted nouns between the source and the target languages. In this method, we add a rule to extract date/time expressions and then extract date/time expressions from a Japanese-English bilingual corpus. The evaluation results shows that the precision of this method for Japanese sentences is 96.7%, with a recall of 98.2% and the precision for English sentences is 94.7%, with a recall of 92.7%.

  9. Clinical utility of machine-learning approaches in schizophrenia: improving diagnostic confidence for translational neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Sarina J; Liddle, Peter F; Palaniyappan, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Machine-learning approaches are becoming commonplace in the neuroimaging literature as potential diagnostic and prognostic tools for the study of clinical populations. However, very few studies provide clinically informative measures to aid in decision-making and resource allocation. Head-to-head comparison of neuroimaging-based multivariate classifiers is an essential first step to promote translation of these tools to clinical practice. We systematically evaluated the classifier performance using back-to-back structural MRI in two field strengths (3- and 7-T) to discriminate patients with schizophrenia (n = 19) from healthy controls (n = 20). Gray matter (GM) and white matter images were used as inputs into a support vector machine to classify patients and control subjects. Seven Tesla classifiers outperformed the 3-T classifiers with accuracy reaching as high as 77% for the 7-T GM classifier compared to 66.6% for the 3-T GM classifier. Furthermore, diagnostic odds ratio (a measure that is not affected by variations in sample characteristics) and number needed to predict (a measure based on Bayesian certainty of a test result) indicated superior performance of the 7-T classifiers, whereby for each correct diagnosis made, the number of patients that need to be examined using the 7-T GM classifier was one less than the number that need to be examined if a different classifier was used. Using a hypothetical example, we highlight how these findings could have significant implications for clinical decision-making. We encourage the reporting of measures proposed here in future studies utilizing machine-learning approaches. This will not only promote the search for an optimum diagnostic tool but also aid in the translation of neuroimaging to clinical use. PMID:24009589

  10. Clinical Utility of Machine-Learning Approaches in Schizophrenia: Improving Diagnostic Confidence for Translational Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Iwabuchi, Sarina J.; Liddle, Peter F.; Palaniyappan, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Machine-learning approaches are becoming commonplace in the neuroimaging literature as potential diagnostic and prognostic tools for the study of clinical populations. However, very few studies provide clinically informative measures to aid in decision-making and resource allocation. Head-to-head comparison of neuroimaging-based multivariate classifiers is an essential first step to promote translation of these tools to clinical practice. We systematically evaluated the classifier performance using back-to-back structural MRI in two field strengths (3- and 7-T) to discriminate patients with schizophrenia (n = 19) from healthy controls (n = 20). Gray matter (GM) and white matter images were used as inputs into a support vector machine to classify patients and control subjects. Seven Tesla classifiers outperformed the 3-T classifiers with accuracy reaching as high as 77% for the 7-T GM classifier compared to 66.6% for the 3-T GM classifier. Furthermore, diagnostic odds ratio (a measure that is not affected by variations in sample characteristics) and number needed to predict (a measure based on Bayesian certainty of a test result) indicated superior performance of the 7-T classifiers, whereby for each correct diagnosis made, the number of patients that need to be examined using the 7-T GM classifier was one less than the number that need to be examined if a different classifier was used. Using a hypothetical example, we highlight how these findings could have significant implications for clinical decision-making. We encourage the reporting of measures proposed here in future studies utilizing machine-learning approaches. This will not only promote the search for an optimum diagnostic tool but also aid in the translation of neuroimaging to clinical use. PMID:24009589

  11. Clinical utility of machine-learning approaches in schizophrenia: improving diagnostic confidence for translational neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Sarina J; Liddle, Peter F; Palaniyappan, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Machine-learning approaches are becoming commonplace in the neuroimaging literature as potential diagnostic and prognostic tools for the study of clinical populations. However, very few studies provide clinically informative measures to aid in decision-making and resource allocation. Head-to-head comparison of neuroimaging-based multivariate classifiers is an essential first step to promote translation of these tools to clinical practice. We systematically evaluated the classifier performance using back-to-back structural MRI in two field strengths (3- and 7-T) to discriminate patients with schizophrenia (n = 19) from healthy controls (n = 20). Gray matter (GM) and white matter images were used as inputs into a support vector machine to classify patients and control subjects. Seven Tesla classifiers outperformed the 3-T classifiers with accuracy reaching as high as 77% for the 7-T GM classifier compared to 66.6% for the 3-T GM classifier. Furthermore, diagnostic odds ratio (a measure that is not affected by variations in sample characteristics) and number needed to predict (a measure based on Bayesian certainty of a test result) indicated superior performance of the 7-T classifiers, whereby for each correct diagnosis made, the number of patients that need to be examined using the 7-T GM classifier was one less than the number that need to be examined if a different classifier was used. Using a hypothetical example, we highlight how these findings could have significant implications for clinical decision-making. We encourage the reporting of measures proposed here in future studies utilizing machine-learning approaches. This will not only promote the search for an optimum diagnostic tool but also aid in the translation of neuroimaging to clinical use.

  12. Current challenges to the clinical translation of brain machine interface technology.

    PubMed

    Lu, Charles W; Patil, Parag G; Chestek, Cynthia A

    2012-01-01

    Development of neural prostheses over the past few decades has produced a number of clinically relevant brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), such as the cochlear prostheses and deep brain stimulators. Current research pursues the restoration of communication or motor function to individuals with neurological disorders. Efforts in the field, such as the BrainGate trials, have already demonstrated that such interfaces can enable humans to effectively control external devices with neural signals. However, a number of significant issues regarding BMI performance, device capabilities, and surgery must be resolved before clinical use of BMI technology can become widespread. This chapter reviews challenges to clinical translation and discusses potential solutions that have been reported in recent literature, with focuses on hardware reliability, state-of-the-art decoding algorithms, and surgical considerations during implantation. PMID:23206681

  13. Large facilities and the evolving ribosome, the cellular machine for genetic-code translation.

    PubMed

    Yonath, Ada

    2009-10-01

    Well-focused X-ray beams, generated by advanced synchrotron radiation facilities, yielded high-resolution diffraction data from crystals of ribosomes, the cellular nano-machines that translate the genetic code into proteins. These structures revealed the decoding mechanism, localized the mRNA path and the positions of the tRNA molecules in the ribosome and illuminated the interactions of the ribosome with initiation, release and recycling factors. They also showed that the ribosome is a ribozyme whose active site is situated within a universal symmetrical region that is embedded in the otherwise asymmetric ribosome structure. As this highly conserved region provides the machinery required for peptide bond formation and for ribosome polymerase activity, it may be the remnant of the proto-ribosome, a dimeric pre-biotic machine that formed peptide bonds and non-coded polypeptide chains. Synchrotron radiation also enabled the determination of structures of complexes of ribosomes with antibiotics targeting them, which revealed the principles allowing for their clinical use, revealed resistance mechanisms and showed the bases for discriminating pathogens from hosts, hence providing valuable structural information for antibiotics improvement.

  14. A Reordering Model Using a Source-Side Parse-Tree for Statistical Machine Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Kei; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Okuma, Hideo; Sumita, Eiichiro; Tokuda, Keiichi

    This paper presents a reordering model using a source-side parse-tree for phrase-based statistical machine translation. The proposed model is an extension of IST-ITG (imposing source tree on inversion transduction grammar) constraints. In the proposed method, the target-side word order is obtained by rotating nodes of the source-side parse-tree. We modeled the node rotation, monotone or swap, using word alignments based on a training parallel corpus and source-side parse-trees. The model efficiently suppresses erroneous target word orderings, especially global orderings. Furthermore, the proposed method conducts a probabilistic evaluation of target word reorderings. In English-to-Japanese and English-to-Chinese translation experiments, the proposed method resulted in a 0.49-point improvement (29.31 to 29.80) and a 0.33-point improvement (18.60 to 18.93) in word BLEU-4 compared with IST-ITG constraints, respectively. This indicates the validity of the proposed reordering model.

  15. Comparison of parallel kinematic machines with three translational degrees of freedom and linear actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prause, Isabel; Charaf Eddine, Sami; Corves, Burkhard

    2015-07-01

    The development of new robot structures, in particular of parallel kinematic machines(PKM), is widely systematized by different structure synthesis methods. Recent research increasingly focuses on PKM with less than six degrees of freedom(DOF). However, an overall comparison and evaluation of these structures is missing. In order to compare symmetrical PKM with three translational DOF, different evaluation criteria are used. Workspace, maximum actuation forces and velocities, power, actuator stiffness, accuracy and transmission behavior are taken into account to investigate strengths and weaknesses of the PKMs. A selection scheme based on possible configurations of translational PKM including different frame configurations is presented. Moreover, an optimization method based on a genetic algorithm is described to determine the geometric parameters of the selected PKM for an exemplary load case and a prescribed workspace. The values of the mentioned criteria are determined for all considered PKM with respect to certain boundary conditions. The distribution and spreading of these values within the prescribed workspace is presented by using box plots for each criterion. Thereby, the performance characteristics of the different structures can be compared directly. The results show that there is no "best" PKM. Further inquiries such as dynamic or stiffness analysis are necessary to extend the comparison and to finally select a PKM.

  16. Use of Online Machine Translation for Nursing Literature: A Questionnaire-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Anazawa, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Hirono; Takahiro, Kiuchi

    2013-01-01

    Background: The language barrier is a significant obstacle for nurses who are not native English speakers to obtain information from international journals. Freely accessible online machine translation (MT) offers a possible solution to this problem. Aim: To explore how Japanese nursing professionals use online MT and perceive its usability in reading English articles and to discuss what should be considered for better utilisation of online MT lessening the language barrier. Method: In total, 250 randomly selected assistants and research associates at nursing colleges across Japan answered a questionnaire examining the current use of online MT and perceived usability among Japanese nurses, along with the number of articles read in English and the perceived language barrier. The items were rated on Likert scales, and t-test, ANOVA, chi-square test, and Spearman’s correlation were used for analyses. Results: Of the participants, 73.8% had used online MT. More than half of them felt it was usable. The language barrier was strongly felt, and academic degrees and English proficiency level were associated factors. The perceived language barrier was related to the frequency of online MT use. No associated factor was found for the perceived usability of online MT. Conclusion: Language proficiency is an important factor for optimum utilisation of MT. A need for education in the English language, reading scientific papers, and online MT training was indicated. Cooperation with developers and providers of MT for the improvement of their systems is required. PMID:23459140

  17. Conception d'une methodologie generale d'evaluation de la traduction automatique (Conception of a General Methodology for Evaluating Machine Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Slype, Georges

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that assessment of human translation versus machine translation programs use methods and criteria that measure efficiency and cost effectiveness and are efficient and cost-effective in themselves. A variety of methods and criteria are evaluated and discussed. (MSE)

  18. Reading Strategies in a L2: A Study on Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnal, Adriana Riess; Pereira, Vera Vanmacher

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at understanding cognitive strategies which are involved in reading academic texts in English as a L2/FL. Specifically, we focus on reading comprehension when a text is read either using Google translator or not. From this perspective we must consider the reading process in its complexity not only as a decoding process. We follow…

  19. PARSING BY MATRIX--A DEVELOPMENT IN SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN. RESEARCH IN MACHINE TRANSLATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEIGER, AMELIA JANIOTIS

    RESEARCH IN SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN, WHICH WAS DEVELOPED IN A PROGRAM FOR COMPUTER-AIDED RUSSIAN-ENGLISH TRANSLATION, IS DESCRIBED. THE CORPUS CONSISTED OF 15 RUSSIAN MATHEMATICAL ARTICLES. THE THEORY USED IS THE "FULCRUM" APPROACH OF BUNKER-RAMO, BUT THE COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATION HAS DEVELOPED ALONG DISTINCT LINES. THREE TYPES OF SYNTACTIC…

  20. Man-machine analysis of translation and work tasks of Skylab films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosler, W. W.; Boelter, J. G.; Morrow, J. R., Jr.; Jackson, J. T.

    1979-01-01

    An objective approach to determine the concurrent validity of computer-graphic models is real time film analysis. This technique was illustrated through the procedures and results obtained in an evaluation of translation of Skylab mission astronauts. The quantitative analysis was facilitated by the use of an electronic film analyzer, minicomputer, and specifically supportive software. The uses of this technique for human factors research are: (1) validation of theoretical operator models; (2) biokinetic analysis; (3) objective data evaluation; (4) dynamic anthropometry; (5) empirical time-line analysis; and (6) consideration of human variability. Computer assisted techniques for interface design and evaluation have the potential for improving the capability for human factors engineering.

  1. Evaluation du systeme de traduction automatique SYSTRAN anglais-Francais, version 1978, de la Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Evaluation of the English-French SYSTRAN Machine Translation System, 19 version, of the Commission of European Communities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Slype, Georges

    1979-01-01

    Describes the French-English version of the SYSTRAN machine translation system, used by the Commission of European Communities, and an evaluation study which examined the quality, cost, and weaknesses of the system. The study concluded that this type of system is useful for "pretranslation" and "rough" translation only. (AM)

  2. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  3. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-02-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  4. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  5. Analysis of the whole mitochondrial genome: translation of the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine system to the diagnostic bench?

    PubMed

    Seneca, Sara; Vancampenhout, Kim; Van Coster, Rudy; Smet, Joél; Lissens, Willy; Vanlander, Arnaud; De Paepe, Boel; Jonckheere, An; Stouffs, Katrien; De Meirleir, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS), an innovative sequencing technology that enables the successful analysis of numerous gene sequences in a massive parallel sequencing approach, has revolutionized the field of molecular biology. Although NGS was introduced in a rather recent past, the technology has already demonstrated its potential and effectiveness in many research projects, and is now on the verge of being introduced into the diagnostic setting of routine laboratories to delineate the molecular basis of genetic disease in undiagnosed patient samples. We tested a benchtop device on retrospective genomic DNA (gDNA) samples of controls and patients with a clinical suspicion of a mitochondrial DNA disorder. This Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine platform is a high-throughput sequencer with a fast turnaround time and reasonable running costs. We challenged the chemistry and technology with the analysis and processing of a mutational spectrum composed of samples with single-nucleotide substitutions, indels (insertions and deletions) and large single or multiple deletions, occasionally in heteroplasmy. The output data were compared with previously obtained conventional dideoxy sequencing results and the mitochondrial revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS). We were able to identify the majority of all nucleotide alterations, but three false-negative results were also encountered in the data set. At the same time, the poor performance of the PGM instrument in regions associated with homopolymeric stretches generated many false-positive miscalls demanding additional manual curation of the data.

  6. Second Evaluation of the SYSTRAN Automatic Translation System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Slype, Georges

    The machine translation system SYSTRAN was assessed for translation quality and system productivity. The test was carried out on translations from English to French dealing with food science and technology. Machine translations were compared to manual translations of the same texts. SYSTRAN was found to be a useful system of information…

  7. Creation of a Machine File and Subsequent Computer-Assisted Production of Publishing Outputs, Including a Translation Journal and an Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Lawrence F.; Weaver, Vance

    Reported are the findings of the Uspekhi experiment in creating a labeled machine file, as well as sample products of this system - an article from a scientific journal and an index page. Production cost tables are presented for the machine file, primary journals, and journal indexes. Comparisons were made between the 1965 predicted costs and the…

  8. A Comparative Study of "Google Translate" Translations: An Error Analysis of English-to-Persian and Persian-to-English Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghasemi, Hadis; Hashemian, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Both lack of time and the need to translate texts for numerous reasons brought about an increase in studying machine translation with a history spanning over 65 years. During the last decades, Google Translate, as a statistical machine translation (SMT), was in the center of attention for supporting 90 languages. Although there are many studies on…

  9. Table ronde sur l'evolution de la traduction (Round Table on the Evolution of Translation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coty, Jean-Paul; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This is a discussion of the future of translation as a profession. The following are discussed: the quantitative growth of translation; the growth of translation as a technical profession; the influence of this growth on the future of translation training; the influence of translation on Canadian French; machine translation; and the future role of…

  10. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  11. Machine learning and radiology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers.

  12. Machine Learning and Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  13. Automatically structuring and translating CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geissman, James R.

    1990-01-01

    Expert systems become more valuable when they can be integrated into production environments. Code that is written for easy maintainability and that can be ported to different machines can be easily integrated. This paper discusses two ports of CLIPS, implemented using the Metapack translation system developed by Abacus Programming Corporation. One translation converts positional form CLIPS into 'structured' or 'template' CLIPS, a form that is more easily maintained. The other translation converts either form of CLIPS into OPS83, a semantically similar forward-chaining language that has somewhat higher performance resulting from its being compiled.

  14. Dependency Structures for Statistical Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Dependency structures represent a sentence as a set of dependency relations. Normally the dependency structures from a tree connect all the words in a sentence. One of the most defining characters of dependency structures is the ability to bring long distance dependency between words to local dependency structures. Another the main attraction of…

  15. Understanding and Writing G & M Code for CNC Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In modern CAD and CAM manufacturing companies, engineers design parts for machines and consumable goods. Many of these parts are cut on CNC machines. Whether using a CNC lathe, milling machine, or router, the ideas and designs of engineers must be translated into a machine-readable form called G & M Code that can be used to cut parts to precise…

  16. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    DOEpatents

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  17. Precision translator

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, R.P.; Crawford, D.W.

    1982-03-09

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  18. Precision translator

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  19. Research on machining error compensation in high-precision surface grinding machine for optical aspheric elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Xiaolong; Guo, Yinbiao; Zhang, Shihan; Huang, Hao

    2010-10-01

    Using aspheric component in optical system can correct optical aberration, acquire high imaging quality, improve the optical characteristic, simplify system structure, and reduce system volume. Nowadays, high-precision surface grinding machine is an important approach to processing optical aspheric elements. However, because of the characteristics of optical aspheric elements, the processing method makes a higher demand to whole performance of surface grinding machine, and hardly to achieve ideal machining effect. Taking high generality and efficiency into account, this paper presents a compensation method for machining errors of high-precision surface grinding machine, which bases on optical aspheric elements, to achieve high-precision machining for all kinds of optical aspheric elements. After compensation, the machining accuracy of grinding machine could reach 2um/200×200mm. The research bases on NC surface grinding machine which is self developed. First of all, this paper introduces machining principle for optical aspheric elements on the grinding machine. And then error sources which producing errors are analyzed. By contacting and non-contacting measurement sensors, measurement software which is self designed realizes on-position measure for grinded workpiece, then fits surface precision and machining errors. Through compensation software for machining error which is self designed, compensation algorithm is designed and translated compensation data into G-code for the high-precision grinding machine to achieve compensation machining. Finally, by comparison between machining error compensation before and after processing, the experiments for this purpose are done to validate the compensation machining accuracy.

  20. Simple Machines Curriculum. [Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Independent School District No. 11, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This manual provides suggestions for investigating simple machines and the teaching of certain basic concepts which pertain to them. Many of the lessons are designed to be used with the commercially available LEGO kits, in an effort to teach concepts in a way in which students must translate pictures shown in two dimension into three-dimensional…

  1. PC-assisted translation of photogrammetric papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güthner, Karlheinz; Peipe, Jürgen

    A PC-based system for machine translation of photogrammetric papers from the English into the German language and vice versa is described. The computer-assisted translating process is not intended to create a perfect interpretation of a text but to produce a rough rendering of the content of a paper. Starting with the original text, a continuous data flow is effected into the translated version by means of hardware (scanner, personal computer, printer) and software (OCR, translation, word processing, DTP). An essential component of the system is a photogrammetric microdictionary which is being established at present. It is based on several sources, including e.g. the ISPRS Multilingual Dictionary.

  2. Digital Signal Processing and Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanqing; Ang, Kai Keng; Guan, Cuntai

    Any brain-computer interface (BCI) system must translate signals from the users brain into messages or commands (see Fig. 1). Many signal processing and machine learning techniques have been developed for this signal translation, and this chapter reviews the most common ones. Although these techniques are often illustrated using electroencephalography (EEG) signals in this chapter, they are also suitable for other brain signals.

  3. Electric machine

    SciTech Connect

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  4. Nonplanar machines

    SciTech Connect

    Ritson, D. )

    1989-05-01

    This talk examines methods available to minimize, but never entirely eliminate, degradation of machine performance caused by terrain following. Breaking of planar machine symmetry for engineering convenience and/or monetary savings must be balanced against small performance degradation, and can only be decided on a case-by-case basis. 5 refs.

  5. Permutation Machines.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Swapnil; LaBoda, Craig; Yanez, Vanessa; Haddock-Angelli, Traci; Densmore, Douglas

    2016-08-19

    We define a new inversion-based machine called a permuton of n genetic elements, which allows the n elements to be rearranged in any of the n·(n - 1)·(n - 2)···2 = n! distinct orderings. We present two design algorithms for architecting such a machine. We define a notion of a feasible design and use the framework to discuss the feasibility of the permuton architectures. We have implemented our design algorithms in a freely usable web-accessible software for exploration of these machines. Permutation machines could be used as memory elements or state machines and explicitly illustrate a rational approach to designing biological systems.

  6. Permutation Machines.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Swapnil; LaBoda, Craig; Yanez, Vanessa; Haddock-Angelli, Traci; Densmore, Douglas

    2016-08-19

    We define a new inversion-based machine called a permuton of n genetic elements, which allows the n elements to be rearranged in any of the n·(n - 1)·(n - 2)···2 = n! distinct orderings. We present two design algorithms for architecting such a machine. We define a notion of a feasible design and use the framework to discuss the feasibility of the permuton architectures. We have implemented our design algorithms in a freely usable web-accessible software for exploration of these machines. Permutation machines could be used as memory elements or state machines and explicitly illustrate a rational approach to designing biological systems. PMID:27383067

  7. Monel Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Castle Industries, Inc. is a small machine shop manufacturing replacement plumbing repair parts, such as faucet, tub and ballcock seats. Therese Castley, president of Castle decided to introduce Monel because it offered a chance to improve competitiveness and expand the product line. Before expanding, Castley sought NERAC assistance on Monel technology. NERAC (New England Research Application Center) provided an information package which proved very helpful. The NASA database was included in NERAC's search and yielded a wealth of information on machining Monel.

  8. Searching to Translate and Translating to Search: When Information Retrieval Meets Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ture, Ferhan

    2013-01-01

    With the adoption of web services in daily life, people have access to tremendous amounts of information, beyond any human's reading and comprehension capabilities. As a result, search technologies have become a fundamental tool for accessing information. Furthermore, the web contains information in multiple languages, introducing another barrier…

  9. Workout Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Orbotron is a tri-axle exercise machine patterned after a NASA training simulator for astronaut orientation in the microgravity of space. It has three orbiting rings corresponding to roll, pitch and yaw. The user is in the middle of the inner ring with the stomach remaining in the center of all axes, eliminating dizziness. Human power starts the rings spinning, unlike the NASA air-powered system. Marketed by Fantasy Factory (formerly Orbotron, Inc.), the machine can improve aerobic capacity, strength and endurance in five to seven minute workouts.

  10. Narcissism lost: on translating and being translated.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Maria Inês N E; Brakel, Arthur

    2010-08-01

    The authors present a detailed account of the experiences shared in translating and having one's work translated. Carneiro maintains that, in order to communicate with their readers, writers should relinquish the narcissistic satisfaction they derive from their texts in the original. Beyond this, she feels that, owing to a good understanding between her and her translator, the creativity in her original text persists in the translation. Brakel introduces himself to the IJPA readership and shows how he works when translating the cultural and linguistic nuances and peculiarities of Brazilian Portuguese. He concludes with some thoughts about the affect he experiences from his original work and the work he has translated. PMID:20840638

  11. Wacky Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Collectors everywhere know that local antique shops and flea markets are treasure troves just waiting to be plundered. Science teachers might take a hint from these hobbyists, for the next community yard sale might be a repository of old, quirky items that are just the things to get students thinking about simple machines. By introducing some…

  12. Traduccion automatica mediante el ordenador (Automatic Translation Using a Computer).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bueno, Julian L.

    This report on machine translation contains a brief history of the field; a description of the processes involved; a discussion of systems currently in use, including three software packages on the market (Teaching Assistant, Translate, and Globalink); reflections on implications for teaching; observations of results obtained when elements of…

  13. A double-sided linear primary permanent magnet vernier machine.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Zou, Chunhua; Liu, Xianxing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new double-sided linear primary permanent magnet (PM) vernier (DSLPPMV) machine, which can offer high thrust force, low detent force, and improved power factor. Both PMs and windings of the proposed machine are on the short translator, while the long stator is designed as a double-sided simple iron core with salient teeth so that it is very robust to transmit high thrust force. The key of this new machine is the introduction of double stator and the elimination of translator yoke, so that the inductance and the volume of the machine can be reduced. Hence, the proposed machine offers improved power factor and thrust force density. The electromagnetic performances of the proposed machine are analyzed including flux, no-load EMF, thrust force density, and inductance. Based on using the finite element analysis, the characteristics and performances of the proposed machine are assessed.

  14. A double-sided linear primary permanent magnet vernier machine.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Zou, Chunhua; Liu, Xianxing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new double-sided linear primary permanent magnet (PM) vernier (DSLPPMV) machine, which can offer high thrust force, low detent force, and improved power factor. Both PMs and windings of the proposed machine are on the short translator, while the long stator is designed as a double-sided simple iron core with salient teeth so that it is very robust to transmit high thrust force. The key of this new machine is the introduction of double stator and the elimination of translator yoke, so that the inductance and the volume of the machine can be reduced. Hence, the proposed machine offers improved power factor and thrust force density. The electromagnetic performances of the proposed machine are analyzed including flux, no-load EMF, thrust force density, and inductance. Based on using the finite element analysis, the characteristics and performances of the proposed machine are assessed. PMID:25874250

  15. A Double-Sided Linear Primary Permanent Magnet Vernier Machine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new double-sided linear primary permanent magnet (PM) vernier (DSLPPMV) machine, which can offer high thrust force, low detent force, and improved power factor. Both PMs and windings of the proposed machine are on the short translator, while the long stator is designed as a double-sided simple iron core with salient teeth so that it is very robust to transmit high thrust force. The key of this new machine is the introduction of double stator and the elimination of translator yoke, so that the inductance and the volume of the machine can be reduced. Hence, the proposed machine offers improved power factor and thrust force density. The electromagnetic performances of the proposed machine are analyzed including flux, no-load EMF, thrust force density, and inductance. Based on using the finite element analysis, the characteristics and performances of the proposed machine are assessed. PMID:25874250

  16. Can Computer Translation Replace Human Translation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schairer, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates three commercial computer-based language translation programs' translation of a university social sciences telephone survey from English to Spanish. The three programs, "Spanish Scholar,""Spanish Assistant," and "Spanish Amigo," were rated as unacceptable in their quality of translations by native and near-native Spanish speakers. (nine…

  17. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  18. Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Achim; Mahidadia, Ashesh

    The purpose of this chapter is to present fundamental ideas and techniques of machine learning suitable for the field of this book, i.e., for automated scientific discovery. The chapter focuses on those symbolic machine learning methods, which produce results that are suitable to be interpreted and understood by humans. This is particularly important in the context of automated scientific discovery as the scientific theories to be produced by machines are usually meant to be interpreted by humans. This chapter contains some of the most influential ideas and concepts in machine learning research to give the reader a basic insight into the field. After the introduction in Sect. 1, general ideas of how learning problems can be framed are given in Sect. 2. The section provides useful perspectives to better understand what learning algorithms actually do. Section 3 presents the Version space model which is an early learning algorithm as well as a conceptual framework, that provides important insight into the general mechanisms behind most learning algorithms. In section 4, a family of learning algorithms, the AQ family for learning classification rules is presented. The AQ family belongs to the early approaches in machine learning. The next, Sect. 5 presents the basic principles of decision tree learners. Decision tree learners belong to the most influential class of inductive learning algorithms today. Finally, a more recent group of learning systems are presented in Sect. 6, which learn relational concepts within the framework of logic programming. This is a particularly interesting group of learning systems since the framework allows also to incorporate background knowledge which may assist in generalisation. Section 7 discusses Association Rules - a technique that comes from the related field of Data mining. Section 8 presents the basic idea of the Naive Bayesian Classifier. While this is a very popular learning technique, the learning result is not well suited for

  19. Charging machine

    DOEpatents

    Medlin, John B.

    1976-05-25

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

  20. Fullerene Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash

    1998-01-01

    Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically accessible and of great interest. We have computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Preliminary results suggest that these gears can be cooled by a helium atmosphere and a laser motor can power fullerene gears if a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. In addition, we have unproven concepts based on experimental and computational evidence for support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and manufacture. Combining fullerene machines with the remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, there is some reason to believe that a focused effort to develop fullerene nanotechnology could yield materials with tremendous properties.

  1. Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelto, E. V.

    1967-01-01

    Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.

  2. Induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Whitney H.

    1980-01-01

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  3. Electrical machine

    DOEpatents

    De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Gerstler, William Dwight; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2016-06-21

    An apparatus, such as an electrical machine, is provided. The apparatus can include a rotor defining a rotor bore and a conduit disposed in and extending axially along the rotor bore. The conduit can have an annular conduit body defining a plurality of orifices disposed axially along the conduit and extending through the conduit body. The rotor can have an inner wall that at least partially defines the rotor bore. The orifices can extend through the conduit body along respective orifice directions, and the rotor and conduit can be configured to provide a line of sight along the orifice direction from the respective orifices to the inner wall.

  4. TEMPO machine

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.; Lancaster, K.T.; Lawson, R.N.

    1986-06-01

    TEMPO is a transformer powered megavolt pulse generator with an output pulse of 100 ns duration. The machine was designed for burst mode operation at pulse repetition rates up to 10 Hz with minimum pulse-to-pulse voltage variations. To meet the requirement for pulse duration a nd a 20-..omega.. output impedance within reasonable size constraints, the pulse forming transmission line was designed as two parallel water-insulated, strip-type Blumleins. Stray capacitance and electric fields along the edges of the line elements were controlled by lining the tank with plastic sheet.

  5. Learning Machine, Vietnamese Based Human-Computer Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    The sixth session of IT@EDU98 consisted of seven papers on the topic of the learning machine--Vietnamese based human-computer interface, and was chaired by Phan Viet Hoang (Informatics College, Singapore). "Knowledge Based Approach for English Vietnamese Machine Translation" (Hoang Kiem, Dinh Dien) presents the knowledge base approach, which…

  6. Translation-coupling systems

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  7. Translation-coupling systems

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2015-05-19

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  8. Chapter 16: text mining for translational bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2013-04-01

    Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing.

  9. Chapter 16: Text Mining for Translational Bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, K. Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence E.

    2013-01-01

    Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research—translating basic science results into new interventions—and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing. PMID:23633944

  10. Translation lexicon acquisition from bilingual dictionaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doermann, David S.; Ma, Huanfeng; Karagol-Ayan, Burcu; Oard, Douglas W.

    2001-12-01

    Bilingual dictionaries hold great potential as a source of lexical resources for training automated systems for optical character recognition, machine translation and cross-language information retrieval. In this work we describe a system for extracting term lexicons from printed copies of bilingual dictionaries. We describe our approach to page and definition segmentation and entry parsing. We have used the approach to parse a number of dictionaries and demonstrate the results for retrieval using a French-English Dictionary to generate a translation lexicon and a corpus of English queries applied to French documents to evaluation cross-language IR.

  11. Mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, H.R.

    1984-12-04

    A mining machine is disclosed comprising a mobile base and a cutting head assembly at a forward end of the mobile base having a cutter drum rotatable about an output shaft disposed along the longitudinal axis of the cutter drum. A drive system for the cutting head assembly comprises at least one motor for driving at least one toothed motor pinion and a generally cylindrical combination gear having generally circular end surfaces. A bevel or face gear is formed in at least one of the end surfaces, having teeth adapted to mate with and be driven by the toothed motor pinion. The combination gear has a worm gear formed in the outside cylindrical surface, which is disposed in driving engagement with the teeth of an output gear integrally and coaxially connected to the output shaft of the cutter drum.

  12. National machine guarding program: Part 1. Machine safeguarding practices in small metal fabrication businesses

    PubMed Central

    Yamin, Samuel C.; Brosseau, Lisa M.; Xi, Min; Gordon, Robert; Most, Ivan G.; Stanley, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Background Metal fabrication workers experience high rates of traumatic occupational injuries. Machine operators in particular face high risks, often stemming from the absence or improper use of machine safeguarding or the failure to implement lockout procedures. Methods The National Machine Guarding Program (NMGP) was a translational research initiative implemented in conjunction with two workers' compensation insures. Insurance safety consultants trained in machine guarding used standardized checklists to conduct a baseline inspection of machine‐related hazards in 221 business. Results Safeguards at the point of operation were missing or inadequate on 33% of machines. Safeguards for other mechanical hazards were missing on 28% of machines. Older machines were both widely used and less likely than newer machines to be properly guarded. Lockout/tagout procedures were posted at only 9% of machine workstations. Conclusions The NMGP demonstrates a need for improvement in many aspects of machine safety and lockout in small metal fabrication businesses. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:1174–1183, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26332060

  13. Translation between representation languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  14. Structural snapshots of actively translating human ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Elmar; Loerke, Justus; Budkevich, Tatyana V; Yamamoto, Kaori; Schmidt, Andrea; Penczek, Pawel A; Vos, Matthijn R; Bürger, Jörg; Mielke, Thorsten; Scheerer, Patrick; Spahn, Christian M T

    2015-05-01

    Macromolecular machines, such as the ribosome, undergo large-scale conformational changes during their functional cycles. Although their mode of action is often compared to that of mechanical machines, a crucial difference is that, at the molecular dimension, thermodynamic effects dominate functional cycles, with proteins fluctuating stochastically between functional states defined by energetic minima on an energy landscape. Here, we have used cryo-electron microscopy to image ex-vivo-derived human polysomes as a source of actively translating ribosomes. Multiparticle refinement and 3D variability analysis allowed us to visualize a variety of native translation intermediates. Significantly populated states include not only elongation cycle intermediates in pre- and post-translocational states, but also eEF1A-containing decoding and termination/recycling complexes. Focusing on the post-translocational state, we extended this assessment to the single-residue level, uncovering striking details of ribosome-ligand interactions and identifying both static and functionally important dynamic elements.

  15. Accommodating Translational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This is an article in a series illustrating the way scholars in communication have pursued translating their research into practice. The translational nature of communication accommodation theory and examples of its application are the focus of this contribution.

  16. For "Translation and Theories"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni, Lili

    2009-01-01

    Translation studies stem from comparative literature and contrastive analysis. It involves the transfer of messages between two different language systems and cultures, and Munday (2001, p.1) notes that translation "by its nature" "is multilingual and also interdisciplinary". Translation subjects are the texts in various…

  17. Machine wanting.

    PubMed

    McShea, Daniel W

    2013-12-01

    Wants, preferences, and cares are physical things or events, not ideas or propositions, and therefore no chain of pure logic can conclude with a want, preference, or care. It follows that no pure-logic machine will ever want, prefer, or care. And its behavior will never be driven in the way that deliberate human behavior is driven, in other words, it will not be motivated or goal directed. Therefore, if we want to simulate human-style interactions with the world, we will need to first understand the physical structure of goal-directed systems. I argue that all such systems share a common nested structure, consisting of a smaller entity that moves within and is driven by a larger field that contains it. In such systems, the smaller contained entity is directed by the field, but also moves to some degree independently of it, allowing the entity to deviate and return, to show the plasticity and persistence that is characteristic of goal direction. If all this is right, then human want-driven behavior probably involves a behavior-generating mechanism that is contained within a neural field of some kind. In principle, for goal directedness generally, the containment can be virtual, raising the possibility that want-driven behavior could be simulated in standard computational systems. But there are also reasons to believe that goal-direction works better when containment is also physical, suggesting that a new kind of hardware may be necessary. PMID:23792091

  18. Machine wanting.

    PubMed

    McShea, Daniel W

    2013-12-01

    Wants, preferences, and cares are physical things or events, not ideas or propositions, and therefore no chain of pure logic can conclude with a want, preference, or care. It follows that no pure-logic machine will ever want, prefer, or care. And its behavior will never be driven in the way that deliberate human behavior is driven, in other words, it will not be motivated or goal directed. Therefore, if we want to simulate human-style interactions with the world, we will need to first understand the physical structure of goal-directed systems. I argue that all such systems share a common nested structure, consisting of a smaller entity that moves within and is driven by a larger field that contains it. In such systems, the smaller contained entity is directed by the field, but also moves to some degree independently of it, allowing the entity to deviate and return, to show the plasticity and persistence that is characteristic of goal direction. If all this is right, then human want-driven behavior probably involves a behavior-generating mechanism that is contained within a neural field of some kind. In principle, for goal directedness generally, the containment can be virtual, raising the possibility that want-driven behavior could be simulated in standard computational systems. But there are also reasons to believe that goal-direction works better when containment is also physical, suggesting that a new kind of hardware may be necessary.

  19. Virtual Machine Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasso, Christopher; Page, Dennis; O'Reilly, Taifun; Fteichert, Ralph; Lock, Patricia; Lin, Imin; Naviaux, Keith; Sisino, John

    2005-01-01

    Virtual Machine Language (VML) is a mission-independent, reusable software system for programming for spacecraft operations. Features of VML include a rich set of data types, named functions, parameters, IF and WHILE control structures, polymorphism, and on-the-fly creation of spacecraft commands from calculated values. Spacecraft functions can be abstracted into named blocks that reside in files aboard the spacecraft. These named blocks accept parameters and execute in a repeatable fashion. The sizes of uplink products are minimized by the ability to call blocks that implement most of the command steps. This block approach also enables some autonomous operations aboard the spacecraft, such as aerobraking, telemetry conditional monitoring, and anomaly response, without developing autonomous flight software. Operators on the ground write blocks and command sequences in a concise, high-level, human-readable programming language (also called VML ). A compiler translates the human-readable blocks and command sequences into binary files (the operations products). The flight portion of VML interprets the uplinked binary files. The ground subsystem of VML also includes an interactive sequence- execution tool hosted on workstations, which runs sequences at several thousand times real-time speed, affords debugging, and generates reports. This tool enables iterative development of blocks and sequences within times of the order of seconds.

  20. Exploring local public health workflow in the context of automated translation technologies.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Hannah; Turner, Anne M

    2013-01-01

    Despite the growing limited English proficiency (LEP) population in the US, and federal regulations requiring multilingual health information be available for LEP individuals, there is a lack of available high quality multilingual health promotion materials. The costs and personnel time associated with creating high quality translations serve as barriers to their creation, especially in resource limited public health settings. To explore the potential adoption of novel machine translation and document dissemination technologies for improving the creation and sharing of translated public health materials, we interviewed key health department personnel in Washington State. We analyzed translation workflow, elucidated key themes regarding public health translation work, and assessed attitudes towards electronic document exchange and machine translation. Public health personnel expressed the need for human quality assurance and oversight, but appreciated the potential of novel information technologies to assist in the production and dissemination of translated materials for public health practice. PMID:24551385

  1. Exploring local public health workflow in the context of automated translation technologies.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Hannah; Turner, Anne M

    2013-01-01

    Despite the growing limited English proficiency (LEP) population in the US, and federal regulations requiring multilingual health information be available for LEP individuals, there is a lack of available high quality multilingual health promotion materials. The costs and personnel time associated with creating high quality translations serve as barriers to their creation, especially in resource limited public health settings. To explore the potential adoption of novel machine translation and document dissemination technologies for improving the creation and sharing of translated public health materials, we interviewed key health department personnel in Washington State. We analyzed translation workflow, elucidated key themes regarding public health translation work, and assessed attitudes towards electronic document exchange and machine translation. Public health personnel expressed the need for human quality assurance and oversight, but appreciated the potential of novel information technologies to assist in the production and dissemination of translated materials for public health practice.

  2. Translation of Japanese Noun Compounds at Super-Function Based MT System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    Noun compounds are frequently encountered construction in nature language processing (NLP), consisting of a sequence of two or more nouns which functions syntactically as one noun. The translation of noun compounds has become a major issue in Machine Translation (MT) due to their frequency of occurrence and high productivity. In our previous studies on Super-Function Based Machine Translation (SFBMT), we have found that noun compounds are very frequently used and difficult to be translated correctly, the overgeneration of noun compounds can be dangerous as it may introduce ambiguity in the translation. In this paper, we discuss the challenges in handling Japanese noun compounds in an SFBMT system, we present a shallow method for translating noun compounds by using a word level translation dictionary and target language monolingual corpus.

  3. The cancerous translation apparatus.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, Craig R; Ruggero, Davide

    2011-08-01

    Deregulations in translational control are critical features of cancer initiation and progression. Activation of key oncogenic pathways promotes rapid and dramatic translational reprogramming, not simply by increasing overall protein synthesis, but also by modulating specific mRNA networks that promote cellular transformation. Additionally, ribosomopathies caused by mutations in ribosome components alter translational regulation leading to specific pathological features, including cancer susceptibility. Exciting advances in our understanding of translational control in cancer have illuminated a striking specificity innate to the translational apparatus. Characterizing this specificity will provide novel insights into how cells normally utilize translational control to modulate gene expression, how it is deregulated in cancer, and how these processes can be targeted to develop new cancer therapies. PMID:21543223

  4. Trusted Translation Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, Yacine; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Campbell, Piers; Mathew, Sujith Samuel

    Administering multilingual Web sites and applications reliably, involves interconnected and multipart tasks, where trust in the involved parties and content translation sources is paramount. Published Web sites may reflect content from databases, content management systems and other repositories to manage related Web content. But a Web site mirrored wholly or selectively onto a target language version requires streamlined trusted processes. Traditionally, files are translated and transferred via FTP, e-mail, or other communication means. Similarly, translation instructions are communicated between involved parties through verbal instruction, e-mail, and instruction files lead to a variety of inconsistencies and lack of trust in the translation process. This paper proposes a Web service approach to streamline the translation processes and an integration of trust properties in the proposed translation Web services. Web Services have been instrumental in handling problems inherent to systems integration, allowing web-based systems to converse and communicate data automatically. The OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee has released a standard way for Web Services to serve the translation and localization business. This article proposes a framework to centralize translation services at a reputable source providing a workflow and a mechanism to quantify service trust. An implementation of the framework is also described in the context of a localization case study.

  5. Text Coherence in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  6. Translations toward Connected Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Mark; Leikin, Roza

    2010-01-01

    The translation principle allows students to solve problems in different branches of mathematics and thus to develop connectedness in their mathematical knowledge. Successful application of the translation principle depends on the classroom mathematical norms for the development of discussions and the comparison of different solutions to one…

  7. Science Explorers Translation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Dolores

    This paper describes a pilot project of Los Alamos National Laboratory (New Mexico) to translate a science education curriculum for junior and senior high school students into Navajo. The project consisted of translating a video, a teacher's guide, and an interactive multimedia product on the 1993 hantavirus outbreak in the Four Corners area…

  8. Translation as Literary Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Stefano, B. Follkart

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that literary translation is intrinsically an act of literary criticism. This theory is illustrated by discussion of specific problems in translating Sartre's "La Nausee" and Leonard Forest's "Le pays de la Sagouine," especially the use of verb tense. (MSE)

  9. The Problems of Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntsman, Jeffrey F.

    The problems confronting the translator of American Indian literature are immense. The history of European Indian relations has obscured many original Indian values and attitudes and has substituted a set of simplistic and unreal Anglo attitudes that translators must transcend. Unlike most Western literature, Indian literature does not instruct,…

  10. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  11. Universal Semantics in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenying

    2009-01-01

    What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which…

  12. Translation as (Global) Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  13. Idioms and Back Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…

  14. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  15. The Circle of Meaning: From Translation to Paraphrasing and Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madnani, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    The preservation of meaning between inputs and outputs is perhaps the most ambitious and, often, the most elusive goal of systems that attempt to process natural language. Nowhere is this goal of more obvious importance than for the tasks of machine translation and paraphrase generation. Preserving meaning between the input and the output is…

  16. Tube Alinement for Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, J.

    1984-01-01

    Tool with stepped shoulders alines tubes for machining in preparation for welding. Alinement with machine tool axis accurate to within 5 mils (0.13mm) and completed much faster than visual setup by machinist.

  17. Stirling machine operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

  18. Women, Men, and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  19. Theory of Test Translation Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  20. NASA's online machine aided indexing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary, a machine aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for Aerospace Information (CASI). This system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, non-syntactic analysis of input text, and an extensive 'knowledge base' that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The structure and function of the various NLD system components are described in detail. Methods used for the development of the knowledge base are discussed. Particular attention is given to a statistically-based text analysis program that provides the knowledge base developer with a list of concept-specific phrases extracted from large textual corpora. Production and quality benefits resulting from the integration of machine aided indexing at CASI are discussed along with a number of secondary applications of NLD-derived systems including on-line spell checking and machine aided lexicography.

  1. An introduction to quantum machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuld, Maria; Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Machine learning algorithms learn a desired input-output relation from examples in order to interpret new inputs. This is important for tasks such as image and speech recognition or strategy optimisation, with growing applications in the IT industry. In the last couple of years, researchers investigated if quantum computing can help to improve classical machine learning algorithms. Ideas range from running computationally costly algorithms or their subroutines efficiently on a quantum computer to the translation of stochastic methods into the language of quantum theory. This contribution gives a systematic overview of the emerging field of quantum machine learning. It presents the approaches as well as technical details in an accessible way, and discusses the potential of a future theory of quantum learning.

  2. Cable-Twisting Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurnett, S.

    1982-01-01

    New cable-twisting machine is smaller and faster than many production units. Is useful mainly in production of short-run special cables. Already-twisted cable can be fed along axis of machine. Faster operation than typical industrial cable-twisting machines possible by using smaller spools of wire.

  3. Your Sewing Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Marion E.

    The programed instruction manual is designed to aid the student in learning the parts, uses, and operation of the sewing machine. Drawings of sewing machine parts are presented, and space is provided for the student's written responses. Following an introductory section identifying sewing machine parts, the manual deals with each part and its…

  4. Automatic Inspection During Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Clyde L.

    1988-01-01

    In experimental manufacturing process, numerically-controlled machine tool temporarily converts into inspection machine by installing electronic touch probes and specially-developed numerical-control software. Software drives probes in paths to and on newly machined parts and collects data on dimensions of parts.

  5. Apprentice Machine Theory Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This volume contains outlines for 16 courses in machine theory that are designed for machine tool apprentices. Addressed in the individual course outlines are the following topics: basic concepts; lathes; milling machines; drills, saws, and shapers; heat treatment and metallurgy; grinders; quality control; hydraulics and pneumatics;…

  6. Continuous mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, H.E.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a continuous mining machine for excavating a longitudinal shaft or tunnel underneath the surface of the earth, the mining machine. It comprises: transport means for moving the machine over a floor of the shaft or tunnel that is being excavated; a working platform having forward and trailing ends.

  7. Training the translational scientist.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Rebecca D; Gabriel, Sherine; Pariser, Anne; Feig, Peter

    2010-12-22

    A Clinical and Translational Science Awards Industry Forum titled "Promoting Efficient and Effective Collaborations Among Academia, Government, and Industry" was held in February 2010. A session at this forum was organized to address the training and skills needed to develop a biomedical scientific workforce that interfaces academia, government agencies, and industry to support the process of translating science into applicable means to improve health. By examining the requisite competencies and training resources for scientists in each of these sectors, opportunities for collaboration and adoption of new educational strategies were identified that could help to address barriers to translational research education and career development.

  8. Cyclodextrin-based molecular machines.

    PubMed

    Hashidzume, Akihito; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Harada, Akira

    2014-01-01

    This chapter overviews molecular machines based on cyclodextrins (CDs). The categories of CD-based molecular machines, external stimuli for CD-based molecular machines, and typical examples of CD-based molecular machines are briefly described.

  9. On Translating Aristotle's Poetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, George

    1970-01-01

    Traces translated editions of Aristotle's "Poetics. Comments on the inflectional differences between the Attic Greek of the original and English, and the acroamatic nature of the work. Compares Aristotelian, Platonic, and Socratic interpretations of key words. (DS)

  10. Subtitling: Diagonal Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Henrik

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the effects of translating televised foreign language materials, including changes in mode and timing. Outlines the necessary skills by which successful subtitlers overcome these complexities. Suggests nine basic fields to consider when creating and evaluating interlingual subtitles. (HB)

  11. Lost in Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  12. IN THE TRANSLATOR'S WORKSHOP.

    PubMed

    Vagelpohl, Uwe

    2011-09-01

    Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq's Arabic translation of Galen's commentary on the Hippocratic Epidemics is an invaluable source for our knowledge of Galenic medicine and its transmission history, not least because much of it is extant only in Arabic. Its importance for the Arabic medical tradition is amply attested in the later medical literature. It also tells us much about the methods and self-image of contemporary translators. Throughout the translation, we find remarks by Ḥunayn discussing the quality of his source text, his own interpretation and also his attempts to reconstruct problematic or damaged passages. Based on an edition of these notes, their analysis and comparison to similar texts and Galen's own thought on editing and interpreting difficult medical texts, this article aims to situate Ḥunayn's methods in the context of the Greek-Arabic translation movement. It argues that his approach differs in important respects from that of preceding Greek-Arabic and Greek-Syriac translators and that he was indebted to Galen not just as a physician, but also as a translator and exegete. PMID:24077025

  13. Translating Alcohol Research

    PubMed Central

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  14. Translation readthrough mitigation.

    PubMed

    Arribere, Joshua A; Cenik, Elif S; Jain, Nimit; Hess, Gaelen T; Lee, Cameron H; Bassik, Michael C; Fire, Andrew Z

    2016-06-30

    A fraction of ribosomes engaged in translation will fail to terminate when reaching a stop codon, yielding nascent proteins inappropriately extended on their C termini. Although such extended proteins can interfere with normal cellular processes, known mechanisms of translational surveillance are insufficient to protect cells from potential dominant consequences. Here, through a combination of transgenics and CRISPR–Cas9 gene editing in Caenorhabditis elegans, we demonstrate a consistent ability of cells to block accumulation of C-terminal-extended proteins that result from failure to terminate at stop codons. Sequences encoded by the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) were sufficient to lower protein levels. Measurements of mRNA levels and translation suggested a co- or post-translational mechanism of action for these sequences in C. elegans. Similar mechanisms evidently operate in human cells, in which we observed a comparable tendency for translated human 3′ UTR sequences to reduce mature protein expression in tissue culture assays, including 3′ UTR sequences from the hypomorphic ‘Constant Spring’ haemoglobin stop codon variant. We suggest that 3′ UTRs may encode peptide sequences that destabilize the attached protein, providing mitigation of unwelcome and varied translation errors. PMID:27281202

  15. The Impact of Translators' Academic Experience on Their Translation Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge and professional conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' academic experience on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study", a sample of 100 male and…

  16. The Effect of Translators' Emotional Intelligence on Their Translation Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…

  17. Translating Classical Literature Into Swahili.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harries, Lyndon

    1970-01-01

    Translations generally result from two general situations: (1) where translation is the only means of understanding what has been written in another language, and (2) where a translation is an alternative and preferable means of understanding what has been written in a foreign language. In East Africa, so far as translations from English are…

  18. The Translation Profession. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Deanna Lindberg

    The demand for competent translators is at an all-time high. Translators work with written language, and generally work either in-house for a business, translation agency, or other institution, or as free-lancers. Leading employers of translators in the United States are the federal government, domestic and multinational corporations and…

  19. Translation: Elements of a Craft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiderson, Mazin A.

    An overview of the skills, techniques, tools, and compensation of language translators and interpreters is offered. It begins with a definition of translation and a brief history of translation in the western world. Basic principles of translation dating back to Roman writers are also outlined. A five-step process in producing a good translation…

  20. Machine tool locator

    DOEpatents

    Hanlon, John A.; Gill, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  1. Fault Tolerant State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary R.; Taft, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    State machines are commonly used to control sequential logic in FPGAs and ASKS. An errant state machine can cause considerable damage to the device it is controlling. For example in space applications, the FPGA might be controlling Pyros, which when fired at the wrong time will cause a mission failure. Even a well designed state machine can be subject to random errors us a result of SEUs from the radiation environment in space. There are various ways to encode the states of a state machine, and the type of encoding makes a large difference in the susceptibility of the state machine to radiation. In this paper we compare 4 methods of state machine encoding and find which method gives the best fault tolerance, as well as determining the resources needed for each method.

  2. Ultra precision machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debra, Daniel B.; Hesselink, Lambertus; Binford, Thomas

    1990-05-01

    There are a number of fields that require or can use to advantage very high precision in machining. For example, further development of high energy lasers and x ray astronomy depend critically on the manufacture of light weight reflecting metal optical components. To fabricate these optical components with machine tools they will be made of metal with mirror quality surface finish. By mirror quality surface finish, it is meant that the dimensions tolerances on the order of 0.02 microns and surface roughness of 0.07. These accuracy targets fall in the category of ultra precision machining. They cannot be achieved by a simple extension of conventional machining processes and techniques. They require single crystal diamond tools, special attention to vibration isolation, special isolation of machine metrology, and on line correction of imperfection in the motion of the machine carriages on their way.

  3. The Fortran-P Translator: Towards Automatic Translation of Fortran 77 Programs for Massively Parallel Processors

    DOE PAGES

    O'keefe, Matthew; Parr, Terence; Edgar, B. Kevin; Anderson, Steve; Woodward, Paul; Dietz, Hank

    1995-01-01

    Massively parallel processors (MPPs) hold the promise of extremely high performance that, if realized, could be used to study problems of unprecedented size and complexity. One of the primary stumbling blocks to this promise has been the lack of tools to translate application codes to MPP form. In this article we show how applications codes written in a subset of Fortran 77, called Fortran-P, can be translated to achieve good performance on several massively parallel machines. This subset can express codes that are self-similar, where the algorithm applied to the global data domain is also applied to each subdomain. Wemore » have found many codes that match the Fortran-P programming style and have converted them using our tools. We believe a self-similar coding style will accomplish what a vectorizable style has accomplished for vector machines by allowing the construction of robust, user-friendly, automatic translation systems that increase programmer productivity and generate fast, efficient code for MPPs.« less

  4. EXPERIMENTAL USE OF MACHINES IN THE TRAINING OF INTERPRETERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WHITING, C.

    AN EXPERIMENT TO IMPROVE THE METHOD OF TRAINING INTERPRETERS TO INCREASE SPEED OF TRANSLATION FROM ONE LANGUAGE TO ANOTHER, ONCE THE VOCABULARY BUILDUP HAS BEEN ACCOMPLISHED, INVOLVED THE USE OF THE TACHISTOSCOPE AND THE CONTROLLED READER, MACHINES USED IN SPEEDREADING COURSES. THIS INNOVATIVE PRACTICE HELPED TRAIN THE INTERPRETERS TO INCREASE…

  5. Structural snapshots of actively translating human ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Behrmann, Elmar; Loerke, Justus; Budkevich, Tatyana V.; Yamamoto, Kaori; Schmidt, Andrea; Penczek, Pawel A.; Vos, Matthijn R.; Bürger, Jörg; Mielke, Thorsten; Scheerer, Patrick; Spahn, Christian M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Macromolecular machines, such as the ribosome, undergo large-scale conformational changes during their functional cycles. While their mode of action is often compared to that of mechanical machines, a crucial difference is that at the molecular dimension, thermodynamic effects dominate functional cycles, with proteins fluctuating stochastically between functional states defined by energetic minima on an energy landscape. Here, we have used cryo-electron microscopy to image ex vivo-derived human polysomes as a source of actively translating ribosomes. Multiparticle refinement and three-dimensional variability analysis allowed us to visualize a variety of native translation intermediates. Significantly populated states include not only elongation cycle intermediates in pre- and post-translocational states, but also eEF1A-containing decoding and termination/recycling complexes. Focusing on the post-translocational state, we extended this assessment to the single-residue level, uncovering striking details of ribosome-ligand interactions and identifying both static and functionally important dynamic elements. PMID:25957688

  6. Translating and Transforming Care

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Alex; Moore, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how the Disability Living Allowance claim form, used in the United Kingdom to allocate £13 billion of disability benefits, translates and transforms disability and care. Twenty-two people with acquired brain injury and their main informal caregivers (n = 44) were video-recorded filling in the disability claim form. Participants disagreed on 26% of the questions, revealing two types of problems. Translation problems arose as participants struggled to provide categorical responses to ambiguous questions and were unable to report contextual variability in care needs or divergences of perception. Transformation problems arose as participants resisted the way in which the form positioned them, forcing them to conceptualize their relationship in terms of dependency and burden. The disability claim form co-opts claimants to translate care and disability into bureaucratically predefined categories, and it transforms the care relationship that it purports to document. PMID:25792487

  7. Eyes on Translation.

    PubMed

    Chekulaeva, Marina; Landthaler, Markus

    2016-09-15

    Translation is a fundamental biological process by which ribosomes decode genetic information into proteins. The regulation of this process plays a key role in tuning protein levels, allowing cells to respond rapidly to changes in the environment and to synthesize proteins with precise timing and at specific subcellular locations. Despite detailed biochemical and structural insight into the mechanism of protein synthesis, translational dynamics and localization in a cellular context are less well understood. Here, we summarize recent efforts to quantify and visualize translation, focusing on four publications (Morisaki et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2016; Wu et al., 2016; Yan et al., 2016) describing novel approaches to imaging in real time the synthesis of nascent peptides from individual mRNAs in living cells. PMID:27635758

  8. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  9. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2004-12-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  10. Parallel Kinematic Machines (PKM)

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.S.

    2000-03-17

    The purpose of this 3-year cooperative research project was to develop a parallel kinematic machining (PKM) capability for complex parts that normally require expensive multiple setups on conventional orthogonal machine tools. This non-conventional, non-orthogonal machining approach is based on a 6-axis positioning system commonly referred to as a hexapod. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) was the lead site responsible for a multitude of projects that defined the machining parameters and detailed the metrology of the hexapod. The role of the Kansas City Plant (KCP) in this project was limited to evaluating the application of this unique technology to production applications.

  11. On-Machine Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, K.F.

    2000-02-14

    Probing processes are used intermittently and not effectively as an on-line measurement device. This project was needed to evolve machine probing from merely a setup aid to an on-the-machine inspection system. Use of probing for on-machine inspection would significantly decrease cycle time by elimination of the need for first-piece inspection (at a remote location). Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) had the manufacturing facility and the ability to integrate the system into production. The Contractor had a system that could optimize the machine tool to compensate for thermal growth and related error.

  12. Diamond machine tool face lapping machine

    DOEpatents

    Yetter, H.H.

    1985-05-06

    An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

  13. Cultural Knowledge in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olk, Harald

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study exploring the influence of cultural knowledge on the translation performance of German students of English. Found that the students often lacked sufficient knowledge about British culture to deal with widely-used cultural concepts. Findings suggest that factual reference sources have an important role to play in translation…

  14. Grammatical Gender in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments native speakers of Czech translated bare nouns and gender-marked adjective + noun phrases into German, their second language (L2). In Experiments 1-3 we explored the so-called gender interference effect from first language (L1) as observed in previous picture naming studies (naming latencies were longer when the L1 noun and…

  15. Ethylene prunes translation.

    PubMed

    Salehin, Mohammad; Estelle, Mark

    2015-10-22

    Ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. In the presence of ethylene, the C terminus of EIN2 (EIN2C) translocates into the nucleus and activates transcription. Li et al. and Merchante et al. show that EIN2C also regulates translation through an interaction with the 3' UTRs of transcripts. PMID:26496600

  16. Style Shift in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qinai, Jamal

    2009-01-01

    The phenomenon of style shift in translated texts is ascribed mainly to textual incompatibility in terms of rhetorical asymmetry and divergence at the formality level. Mandatory shifts result from a systematic dissimilarity between the source language and the target language in terms of the underlying system of syntax, semantics and rhetorical…

  17. Translational research in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ray, Madhury; Farma, Jeffrey M; Hsu, Cary

    2013-10-01

    Recent breakthroughs in the fundamental understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of melanoma have culminated in new therapies with unquestionable efficacy. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy strategies have completely transformed the contemporary management of advanced melanoma. The translational research behind these developments is discussed, with an emphasis on immune checkpoint blockade and inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

  18. "Rose Blanche" in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stan, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This comparative study focuses on three editions of "Rose Blanche," Roberto Innocenti's picturebook portrayal of a young girl who discovers a Nazi concentration camp on the outskirts of her German city. The original text, written in French by Christophe Gallaz to accompany Innocenti's illustrations, was translated into English and published in the…

  19. UHV piezoelectric translator

    SciTech Connect

    Oversluizen, T.; Watson, G.

    1985-01-01

    A UHV compatible piezoelectric translator has been developed to correct for angular misalignments in the crysals of a UHV x-ray monochromator. The unit is small, bakeable to 150/sup 0/C, and uses only ceramic materials for insulation. We report on the construction details, vacuum compatibility, mechanical properties, and uses of the device.

  20. Rhythm in Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Renlun

    2008-01-01

    This research is an attempt at the elucidation of the significance of rhythmic in translations. According to Eugene A. Nada's functional equivalence, the comprehensive effect which the receptors of the versions get should be the same as the one the readers of the original get, and since rhythm is an integral part of the style, rhythm should be…

  1. [Topics for translational research].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    This report focused on translational research presented in ASBMR 2015 held in Seattle, WA in October 2015. Comorbidity with chronic diseases such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease and the relationship between skeletal and extraskeltal tissues give us more complexed pathophysiological issues to be clarified in superaged society.

  2. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  3. An asymptotical machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristallini, Achille

    2016-07-01

    A new and intriguing machine may be obtained replacing the moving pulley of a gun tackle with a fixed point in the rope. Its most important feature is the asymptotic efficiency. Here we obtain a satisfactory description of this machine by means of vector calculus and elementary trigonometry. The mathematical model has been compared with experimental data and briefly discussed.

  4. Technique for Machining Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Process for machining glass with conventional carbide tools requires a small quantity of a lubricant for aluminum applied to area of glass to be machined. A carbide tool is then placed against workpiece with light pressure. Tool is raised periodically to clear work of glass dust and particles. Additional lubricant is applied as it is displaced.

  5. Compound taper milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  6. Stirling machine operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, B.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  7. Machining heavy plastic sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalkup, O. M.

    1967-01-01

    Machining technique produces consistently satisfactory plane-parallel optical surfaces for pressure windows, made of plexiglass, required to support a photographic study of liquid rocket combustion processes. The surfaces are machined and polished to the required tolerances and show no degradation from stress relaxation over periods as long as 6 months.

  8. THE TEACHING MACHINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLEIN, CHARLES; WAYNE, ELLIS

    THE ROLE OF THE TEACHING MACHINE IS COMPARED WITH THE ROLE OF THE PROGRAMED TEXTBOOK. THE TEACHING MACHINE IS USED FOR INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION, CONTAINS AND PRESENTS PROGRAM CONTENT IN STEPS, PROVIDES A MEANS WHEREBY THE STUDENT MAY RESPOND TO THE PROGRAM, PROVIDES THE STUDENT WITH IMMEDIATE INFORMATION OF SOME KIND CONCERNING HIS RESPONSE THAT CAN…

  9. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  10. 14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  11. BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE MAKES BOTH MOLD HALVES INDIVIDUALLY WHICH ARE LATER ROTATED, ASSEMBLED, AND LOWERED TO POURING CONVEYORS BY ASSISTING MACHINES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  12. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods. PMID:24272434

  13. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  14. Micro-machining.

    PubMed

    Brinksmeier, Ekkard; Preuss, Werner

    2012-08-28

    Manipulating bulk material at the atomic level is considered to be the domain of physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. However, precision engineering, especially micro-machining, has become a powerful tool for controlling the surface properties and sub-surface integrity of the optical, electronic and mechanical functional parts in a regime where continuum mechanics is left behind and the quantum nature of matter comes into play. The surprising subtlety of micro-machining results from the extraordinary precision of tools, machines and controls expanding into the nanometre range-a hundred times more precise than the wavelength of light. In this paper, we will outline the development of precision engineering, highlight modern achievements of ultra-precision machining and discuss the necessity of a deeper physical understanding of micro-machining.

  15. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... machinery and hammers Gear cutting and finishing machines Grinding machines Hydraulic and pneumatic presses, power driven Machining centers and way-type machines Manual presses Mechanical presses, power...

  16. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... machinery and hammers Gear cutting and finishing machines Grinding machines Hydraulic and pneumatic presses, power driven Machining centers and way-type machines Manual presses Mechanical presses, power...

  17. Machine-aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary (NLD), a machine-aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI). This system automatically suggests a set of candidate terms from NASA's controlled vocabulary for any designated natural language text input. The system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, nonsyntactic analysis of input text and an extensive knowledge base that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The functions of the various NLD system components are described in detail, and production and quality benefits resulting from the implementation of machine-aided indexing at CASI are discussed.

  18. Water lubricates hydrogen-bonded molecular machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panman, Matthijs R.; Bakker, Bert H.; den Uyl, David; Kay, Euan R.; Leigh, David A.; Buma, Wybren Jan; Brouwer, Albert M.; Geenevasen, Jan A. J.; Woutersen, Sander

    2013-11-01

    The mechanical behaviour of molecular machines differs greatly from that of their macroscopic counterparts. This applies particularly when considering concepts such as friction and lubrication, which are key to optimizing the operation of macroscopic machinery. Here, using time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy and NMR-lineshape analysis, we show that for molecular machinery consisting of hydrogen-bonded components the relative motion of the components is accelerated strongly by adding small amounts of water. The translation of a macrocycle along a thread and the rotation of a molecular wheel around an axle both accelerate significantly on the addition of water, whereas other protic liquids have much weaker or opposite effects. We tentatively assign the superior accelerating effect of water to its ability to form a three-dimensional hydrogen-bond network between the moving parts of the molecular machine. These results may indicate a more general phenomenon that helps explain the function of water as the ‘lubricant of life’.

  19. Water lubricates hydrogen-bonded molecular machines.

    PubMed

    Panman, Matthijs R; Bakker, Bert H; den Uyl, David; Kay, Euan R; Leigh, David A; Buma, Wybren Jan; Brouwer, Albert M; Geenevasen, Jan A J; Woutersen, Sander

    2013-11-01

    The mechanical behaviour of molecular machines differs greatly from that of their macroscopic counterparts. This applies particularly when considering concepts such as friction and lubrication, which are key to optimizing the operation of macroscopic machinery. Here, using time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy and NMR-lineshape analysis, we show that for molecular machinery consisting of hydrogen-bonded components the relative motion of the components is accelerated strongly by adding small amounts of water. The translation of a macrocycle along a thread and the rotation of a molecular wheel around an axle both accelerate significantly on the addition of water, whereas other protic liquids have much weaker or opposite effects. We tentatively assign the superior accelerating effect of water to its ability to form a three-dimensional hydrogen-bond network between the moving parts of the molecular machine. These results may indicate a more general phenomenon that helps explain the function of water as the 'lubricant of life'.

  20. Translation in Language Teaching: Insights from Professional Translator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in…

  1. Lost in Translation: Examining Translation Errors Associated with Mathematical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Stiff, Lee V.; Bosse, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Translation errors and conceptual misunderstandings made by students translating among graphical, tabular, and symbolic representations of linear functions were examined. The study situated student errors in the context of the "Translation-Verification Model" developed specifically for the purpose of explaining student behavior during the process…

  2. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  3. The Basic Anaesthesia Machine

    PubMed Central

    Gurudatt, CL

    2013-01-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia. PMID:24249876

  4. DNA-based machines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications.

  5. DNA-based machines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications. PMID:24647836

  6. Translational Research in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyengar, M. Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's role in medical translational research, and the importance in research for space exploration. The application of medical research for space exploration translates to health care in space medicine, and on earth.

  7. CADAT network translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    Program converts cell-net data into logic-gate models for use in test and simulation programs. Input consists of either Place, Route, and Fold (PRF) or Place-and-Route-in-Two-Dimensions (PR2D) layout data deck. Output consists of either Test Pattern Generator (TPG) or Logic-Simulation (LOGSIM) logic circuitry data deck. Designer needs to build only logic-gate-model circuit description since program acts as translator. Language is FORTRAN IV.

  8. Quantum Boltzmann Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchytskyy, Bohdan; Andriyash, Evgeny; Amin, Mohammed; Melko, Roger

    The field of machine learning has been revolutionized by the recent improvements in the training of deep networks. Their architecture is based on a set of stacked layers of simpler modules. One of the most successful building blocks, known as a restricted Boltzmann machine, is an energetic model based on the classical Ising Hamiltonian. In our work, we investigate the benefits of quantum effects on the learning capacity of Boltzmann machines by extending its underlying Hamiltonian with a transverse field. For this purpose, we employ exact and stochastic training procedures on data sets with physical origins.

  9. Machine Tool Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  10. Wind motor machine

    SciTech Connect

    Goedecke, A.

    1984-12-25

    An improved wind motor machine having a wind rotor rotatable about a vertical axis. The rotor core body of the machine is provided with convexly curved wind application surfaces and coacting outer wing bodies having load supporting airplane wing-shaped cross-sections. The efficiency of the machine is improved by means of stream guiding bodies disposed in the intermediate space between the rotor core body and the wing bodies. These stream guiding bodies extend in a desired streaming direction, that is normal to the rotational axis of the wind body, which insures substantially laminar air streaming within the intermediate space.

  11. OPTICAM machine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedes, Jyrki T.

    1992-01-01

    Rank Pneumo has worked with the Center of Optics Manufacturing to design a multiple-axis flexible machining center for spherical lens fabrication. The OPTICAM/SM prototype machine has been developed in cooperation with the Center's Manufacturing Advisory Board. The SM will generate, fine grind, pre-polish, and center a spherical lens surface in one setup sequence. Unique features of the design incorporate machine resident metrology to provide RQM (Real-time Quality Management) and closed-loop feedback control that corrects for lens thickness, diameter, and centering error. SPC (Statistical Process Control) software can compensate for process drift and QA data collection is provided without additional labor.

  12. Machine tools get smarter

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1995-11-01

    This article describes how, using software, sensors, and controllers, a new generation of intelligent machine tools are optimizing grinding, milling, and molding processes. A paradox of manufacturing parts is that the faster the parts are made, the less accurate they are--and vice versa. However, a combination of software, sensors, controllers, and mechanical innovations are being used to create a new generation of intelligent machine tools capable of optimizing their own grinding, milling, and molding processes. These brainy tools are allowing manufacturers to machine more-complex, higher-quality parts in shorter cycle times. The technology also lowers scrap rates and reduces or eliminates the need for polishing inadequately finished parts.

  13. On Literal Translation of English Idioms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linli

    2009-01-01

    There are six translation tactics in translating English idioms into Chinese: literal translation, compensatory translation, free translation, explanational translation, borrowing, integrated approach. Each tactic should be reasonably employed in the process of translating, so as to keep the flavor of the original English idioms as well as to…

  14. Combining MEDLINE and publisher data to create parallel corpora for the automatic translation of biomedical text

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most of the institutional and research information in the biomedical domain is available in the form of English text. Even in countries where English is an official language, such as the United States, language can be a barrier for accessing biomedical information for non-native speakers. Recent progress in machine translation suggests that this technique could help make English texts accessible to speakers of other languages. However, the lack of adequate specialized corpora needed to train statistical models currently limits the quality of automatic translations in the biomedical domain. Results We show how a large-sized parallel corpus can automatically be obtained for the biomedical domain, using the MEDLINE database. The corpus generated in this work comprises article titles obtained from MEDLINE and abstract text automatically retrieved from journal websites, which substantially extends the corpora used in previous work. After assessing the quality of the corpus for two language pairs (English/French and English/Spanish) we use the Moses package to train a statistical machine translation model that outperforms previous models for automatic translation of biomedical text. Conclusions We have built translation data sets in the biomedical domain that can easily be extended to other languages available in MEDLINE. These sets can successfully be applied to train statistical machine translation models. While further progress should be made by incorporating out-of-domain corpora and domain-specific lexicons, we believe that this work improves the automatic translation of biomedical texts. PMID:23631733

  15. An object-oriented extension for debugging the virtual machine

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzi, R.G. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    A computer is nothing more then a virtual machine programmed by source code to perform a task. The program`s source code expresses abstract constructs which are compiled into some lower level target language. When a virtual machine breaks, it can be very difficult to debug because typical debuggers provide only low-level target implementation information to the software engineer. We believe that the debugging task can be simplified by introducing aspects of the abstract design and data into the source code. We introduce OODIE, an object-oriented extension to programming languages that allows programmers to specify a virtual environment by describing the meaning of the design and data of a virtual machine. This specification is translated into symbolic information such that an augmented debugger can present engineers with a programmable debugging environment specifically tailored for the virtual machine that is to be debugged.

  16. Translational Implications of Tamil "Hamlets."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanakaraj, S.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of translation when teaching English as a Second Language in a Tamil context. Singles out the fencing episode in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" to illustrate the difficulties of translating cultural aspects. Concludes that successful translations of Shakespeare into Indian languages should involve collaboration between Shakespeare…

  17. Discourse Analysis and the Translator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Margaret

    Discourse analysis, as an approach to text, provides the teacher, student, and professional translator with resources for achieving objectivity and for making and justifying translation decisions. It offers a strategy for relating the problems and processes and discourse and the specific concerns to the objectives of the translator. It can be…

  18. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  19. La traduction poetique (Poetic Translation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Albert

    1978-01-01

    A personalized account of methods, difficulties, successes and failures encountered in the translation of poetry. Some rules are given: distinguish kinds of translation, simple or artistic; neither systematically stick to nor avoid rhyme. Several French-German translations illustrate the points discussed. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  20. The Measurement of Translation Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Variables that constitute translation ability are discussed, based on a two-year development and validation study of job-related tests of translation ability for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The project involved the development of two parallel forms of the Spanish into English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE). (five references) (LB)

  1. Literary Translation: A Personal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincotta, Madeleine Strong

    The nature of literary translation and ways in which it differs from other forms of translation are examined, looking at practical difficulties, challenges, and satisfaction in the profession of literary translation. The difficulties discussed include suggestions about how to get started, legal questions of copyright, and choice of text.…

  2. Data Machine Independence

    1994-12-30

    Data-machine independence achieved by using four technologies (ASN.1, XDR, SDS, and ZEBRA) has been evaluated by encoding two different applications in each of the above; and their results compared against the standard programming method using C.

  3. The TUM walking machines.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Friedrich

    2007-01-15

    This paper presents some aspects of walking machine design with a special emphasis on the three machines MAX, MORITZ and JOHNNIE, having been developed at the Technical University of Munich within the last 20 years. The design of such machines is discussed as an iterative process improving the layout with every iteration. The control concepts are event-driven and follow logical rules, which have largely been transferred from neurobiological findings. At least for the six-legged machine MAX, a nearly perfect autonomy could be achieved, whereas for the biped JOHNNIE, a certain degree of autonomy could be realized by a vision system with appropriate decision algorithms. This vision system was developed by the group of Prof. G. Schmidt, TU-München. A more detailed description of the design and realization is presented for the biped JOHNNIE.

  4. Laser machining of ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Laudel, A.

    1980-01-01

    The Kansas City Division of The Bendix Corporation manufactures hybrid microcircuits (HMCs) using both thin film and thick film technologies. Laser machining is used to contour the ceramic substrates and to drill holes in the ceramic for frontside-backside interconnections (vias) and holes for mounting components. A 1000 W CO/sub 2/ type laser is used. The laser machining process, and methods used for removing protruding debris and debris from holes, for cleaning the machined surfaces, and for refiring are described. The laser machining process described consistently produces vias, component holes and contours with acceptable surface quality, hole locations, diameter, flatness and metallization adhesion. There are no cracks indicated by dipping in fluorescent dye penetrant and the substances are resistant to repeated thermal shock.

  5. 16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). Note the large segmental-arched doorway to move locomotives in and out of Machine Shop. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  6. Doubly fed induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  7. Flexible machining systems described

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butters, H. J.

    1985-03-01

    The rationalization and gradual automation of short rotationally symmetric parts in the Saalfeld VEB Machine Tool Factory was carried out in three stages: (1) part-specific manufacturing; (2) automated production line for manufacturing toothed gears; and (3) automated manufacturing section for short rotationally symmetric parts. The development of numerically controlled machine tools and of industrial robot technology made possible automated manufacturing. The design of current facilities is explored, manufacturing control is examined, experience is reported.

  8. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  9. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  10. Sealing intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2007-06-05

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  11. Sealing intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2005-06-07

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  12. A Function Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lesson he observed involving a function machine. This function machine was a box with a slot at the top of one side and a large cut-out hole at the bottom of the opposite side. A card with a number written on it (the input) was pushed into the slot and the teacher put their hand through the hole of the other…

  13. Opticam PM machine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedes, Jyrki T.

    1992-12-01

    Rank Pneumo has worked with the Center for Optics Manufacturing and the Center's Manufacturing Advisory Board to design a multi-axis prism grinding machine. The Opticam PM is a three axis, high precision CNC reciprocating grinder. It is designed for the automated manufacturing of glass prisms. Unique features of the design incorporate electrolytic in- process dressing of the finishing wheel, nested grinding wheels and machine resident metrology to provide RQM (Real-time Quality Management).

  14. Could a machine think

    SciTech Connect

    Churchland, P.M.; Churchland, P.S. )

    1990-01-01

    There are many reasons for saying yes. One of the earliest and deepest reason lay in two important results in computational theory. The first was Church's thesis, which states that every effectively computable function is recursively computable. The second important result was Alan M. Turing's demonstration that any recursively computable function can be computed in finite time by a maximally simple sort of symbol-manipulating machine that has come to be called a universal Turing machine. This machine is guided by a set of recursively applicable rules that are sensitive to the identity, order and arrangement of the elementary symbols it encounters as input. The authors reject the Turing test as a sufficient condition for conscious intelligence. They base their position of the specific behavioral failures of the classical SM machines and on the specific virtues of machines with a more brain-like architecture. These contrasts show that certain computational strategies have vast and decisive advantages over others where typical cognitive tasks are concerned, advantages that are empirically inescapable. Clearly, the brain is making systematic use of these computational advantage. But it need not be the only physical system capable of doing so. Artificial intelligence, in a nonbiological but massively parallel machine, remain a compelling and discernible prospect.

  15. Translational research: Whither the ORS?

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Joshua J

    2008-05-01

    There is a hue and cry from the public, policy makers and funding agencies about the primacy of research translation. The federal government has responded with the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research initiative. It is proposed that the Orthopaedic Research Society (ORS) initiate its own translational roadmap along themes that parallel the NIH Roadmap: the formation of interdisciplinary teams; the focus on specific musculoskeletal diseases; cross disciplinary education in essential translational research skills; fostering translational career pathways; and providing critical fora for translational research interactions--a "translational interface." By its very structure, the ORS is an organization that is uniquely poised to help its members respond to the demands for research translation. The roadmap outlined around these five themes is intended to make the ORS even more relevant in our professional lives and to transform the ORS into an organization that is a true catalyst for improving the musculoskeletal health of the public.

  16. Ebola: translational science considerations.

    PubMed

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Bakhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Manfrini, Ercolano; Piva, Francesco; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Maida, Carl A

    2015-01-01

    We are currently in the midst of the most aggressive and fulminating outbreak of Ebola-related disease, commonly referred to as "Ebola", ever recorded. In less than a year, the Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire ebolavirus species) has infected over 10,000 people, indiscriminately of gender or age, with a fatality rate of about 50%. Whereas at its onset this Ebola outbreak was limited to three countries in West Africa (Guinea, where it was first reported in late March 2014, Liberia, where it has been most rampant in its capital city, Monrovia and other metropolitan cities, and Sierra Leone), cases were later reported in Nigeria, Mali and Senegal, as well as in Western Europe (i.e., Madrid, Spain) and the US (i.e., Dallas, Texas; New York City) by late October 2014. World and US health agencies declared that the current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has a strong likelihood of growing exponentially across the world before an effective vaccine, treatment or cure can be developed, tested, validated and distributed widely. In the meantime, the spread of the disease may rapidly evolve from an epidemics to a full-blown pandemic. The scientific and healthcare communities actively research and define an emerging kaleidoscope of knowledge about critical translational research parameters, including the virology of EBOV, the molecular biomarkers of the pathological manifestations of EVD, putative central nervous system involvement in EVD, and the cellular immune surveillance to EBOV, patient-centered anthropological and societal parameters of EVD, as well as translational effectiveness about novel putative patient-targeted vaccine and pharmaceutical interventions, which hold strong promise, if not hope, to curb this and future Ebola outbreaks. This work reviews and discusses the principal known facts about EBOV and EVD, and certain among the most interesting ongoing or future avenues of research in the field, including vaccination programs for the wild animal vectors of the virus

  17. Ebola: translational science considerations.

    PubMed

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Bakhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Manfrini, Ercolano; Piva, Francesco; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Maida, Carl A

    2015-01-16

    We are currently in the midst of the most aggressive and fulminating outbreak of Ebola-related disease, commonly referred to as "Ebola", ever recorded. In less than a year, the Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire ebolavirus species) has infected over 10,000 people, indiscriminately of gender or age, with a fatality rate of about 50%. Whereas at its onset this Ebola outbreak was limited to three countries in West Africa (Guinea, where it was first reported in late March 2014, Liberia, where it has been most rampant in its capital city, Monrovia and other metropolitan cities, and Sierra Leone), cases were later reported in Nigeria, Mali and Senegal, as well as in Western Europe (i.e., Madrid, Spain) and the US (i.e., Dallas, Texas; New York City) by late October 2014. World and US health agencies declared that the current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has a strong likelihood of growing exponentially across the world before an effective vaccine, treatment or cure can be developed, tested, validated and distributed widely. In the meantime, the spread of the disease may rapidly evolve from an epidemics to a full-blown pandemic. The scientific and healthcare communities actively research and define an emerging kaleidoscope of knowledge about critical translational research parameters, including the virology of EBOV, the molecular biomarkers of the pathological manifestations of EVD, putative central nervous system involvement in EVD, and the cellular immune surveillance to EBOV, patient-centered anthropological and societal parameters of EVD, as well as translational effectiveness about novel putative patient-targeted vaccine and pharmaceutical interventions, which hold strong promise, if not hope, to curb this and future Ebola outbreaks. This work reviews and discusses the principal known facts about EBOV and EVD, and certain among the most interesting ongoing or future avenues of research in the field, including vaccination programs for the wild animal vectors of the virus

  18. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  19. Feedback in sequential machine realizations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, C. A.; Coates, C. L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A method is described for determining the realizability of a sequential machine with trigger or set-reset flip-flop memory elements when the feedback of the machine is given by a Boolean function. Feedbacks in several types of sequential machines with different memory elements are compared, showing the memory specifications allowing the realization of such machines.

  20. Non-traditional machining techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Robert D; Fierro, Frank; Garcia, Felix P; Hatch, Douglass J; Randolph, Randall B; Reardon, Patrick T; Rivera, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    During the course of machining targets for various experiments it sometimes becomes necessary to adapt fixtures or machines, which are designed for one function, to another function. When adapting a machine or fixture is not adequate, it may be necessary to acquire a machine specifically designed to produce the component required. In addition to the above scenarios, the features of a component may dictate that multi-step machining processes are necessary to produce the component. This paper discusses the machining of four components where adaptation, specialized machine design, or multi-step processes were necessary to produce the components.

  1. Machine vision based teleoperation aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, William A.; Gatrell, Lance B.; Spofford, John R.

    1991-01-01

    When teleoperating a robot using video from a remote camera, it is difficult for the operator to gauge depth and orientation from a single view. In addition, there are situations where a camera mounted for viewing by the teleoperator during a teleoperation task may not be able to see the tool tip, or the viewing angle may not be intuitive (requiring extensive training to reduce the risk of incorrect or dangerous moves by the teleoperator). A machine vision based teleoperator aid is presented which uses the operator's camera view to compute an object's pose (position and orientation), and then overlays onto the operator's screen information on the object's current and desired positions. The operator can choose to display orientation and translation information as graphics and/or text. This aid provides easily assimilated depth and relative orientation information to the teleoperator. The camera may be mounted at any known orientation relative to the tool tip. A preliminary experiment with human operators was conducted and showed that task accuracies were significantly greater with than without this aid.

  2. Magnetic translator bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.

  3. The Bearingless Electrical Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bichsel, J.

    1992-01-01

    Electromagnetic bearings allow the suspension of solids. For rotary applications, the most important physical effect is the force of a magnetic circuit to a high permeable armature, called the MAXWELL force. Contrary to the commonly used MAXWELL bearings, the bearingless electrical machine will take advantage of the reaction force of a conductor carrying a current in a magnetic field. This kind of force, called Lorentz force, generates the torque in direct current, asynchronous and synchronous machines. The magnetic field, which already exists in electrical machines and helps to build up the torque, can also be used for the suspension of the rotor. Besides the normal winding of the stator, a special winding was added, which generates forces for levitation. So a radial bearing, which is integrated directly in the active part of the machine, and the motor use the laminated core simultaneously. The winding was constructed for the levitating forces in a special way so that commercially available standard ac inverters for drives can be used. Besides wholly magnetic suspended machines, there is a wide range of applications for normal drives with ball bearings. Resonances of the rotor, especially critical speeds, can be damped actively.

  4. Non Contact Measuring Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Fernando D.; Sebastiao, Pedro; Henriques, Bernardo G.

    1989-01-01

    One of the problems of the production of cables is the measurement of the thickness plastic cover at the production line. If for some reason the thickness of the plastic is smaller than the minimum necessary several meters of cable may be lost. If the problem exists in the middle of a long cable and the default is not detected in time, the loss will be significant. To solve this problem it is possible to use automatic measuring machines which may detect a default as soon as it happens. It is also possible to interact with the production line in order to avoid any losses. In this paper it is presented a non contact measuring machine, developed for this purpose. The machine uses a laser which is scanned through a field of 80 mm. The interruption of the beam gives information about the external dimension of the object. The technical study of the resolution, sensitivity and precision are presented on the paper. Also the hardware solution and the software are presented. The machine has an interface which allows communication with a PC. The PC may receive information from several measuring units and to interact with machines installed at the production line. The prototype is finished and is going to be tested in the industry.

  5. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, D.A.; Kubiak, G.D.; Haney, S.J.; Sweeney, D.W.

    2000-02-29

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system is disclosed for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10--14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  6. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    DOEpatents

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    2000-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  7. Meso-Machining Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    BENAVIDES,GILBERT L.; ADAMS,DAVID P.; YANG,PIN

    2001-06-01

    Meso-scale manufacturing processes are bridging the gap between silicon-based MEMS processes and conventional miniature machining. These processes can fabricate two and three-dimensional parts having micron size features in traditional materials such as stainless steels, rare earth magnets, ceramics, and glass. Meso-scale processes that are currently available include, focused ion beam sputtering, micro-milling, micro-turning, excimer laser ablation, femtosecond laser ablation, and micro electro discharge machining. These meso-scale processes employ subtractive machining technologies (i.e., material removal), unlike LIGA, which is an additive meso-scale process. Meso-scale processes have different material capabilities and machining performance specifications. Machining performance specifications of interest include minimum feature size, feature tolerance, feature location accuracy, surface finish, and material removal rate. Sandia National Laboratories is developing meso-scale mechanical components and actuators which require meso-scale parts fabricated in a variety of materials. Subtractive meso-scale manufacturing processes expand the functionality of meso-scale components and complement silicon based MEMS and LIGA technologies.

  8. Machinable oxide ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Rayne, R.J.; Toth, L.E.; Jones, L.D.; Soulen, R.J. Jr.; Bender, B.A.

    1993-06-01

    A method of forming a machinable bulk superconductor by melt-casting the described comprising the steps of: weighing out amounts of powdered SrCO[sub 3], CuO, CaCO[sub 3], and Bi[sub 2]O[sub 3] for the desired stoichiometry of the superconductor; combining the amounts of Bi[sub 2]O[sub 3], SrCO[sub 3], CuO and CaCO[sub 3] to form a mixture of uniform color; removing the carbonates in the mixture; heating the mixture until the mixture melts completely, to form a melt; pouring the melt into a preheated, non-reactive mold; cooling the melted mixture in the mold to room temperature, to form a casting; inducing a superconducting phase having randomly oriented platelets within the casting; and machining, by a metal cutting technique, said casting having said induced superconducting phase; wherein said machining step is performed with a steel tool.

  9. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, Ned A.; Koehler, Dale R.; Liang, Alan Y.; Smith, Bradley K.

    1993-01-01

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  10. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, N.A.; Koehler, D.R.; Liang, A.Y.; Smith, B.K.

    1993-03-30

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  11. Of Models and Machines: Implementing Bounded Rationality.

    PubMed

    Dick, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    This essay explores the early history of Herbert Simon's principle of bounded rationality in the context of his Artificial Intelligence research in the mid 1950s. It focuses in particular on how Simon and his colleagues at the RAND Corporation translated a model of human reasoning into a computer program, the Logic Theory Machine. They were motivated by a belief that computers and minds were the same kind of thing--namely, information-processing systems. The Logic Theory Machine program was a model of how people solved problems in elementary mathematical logic. However, in making this model actually run on their 1950s computer, the JOHNNIAC, Simon and his colleagues had to navigate many obstacles and material constraints quite foreign to the human experience of logic. They crafted new tools and engaged in new practices that accommodated the affordances of their machine, rather than reflecting the character of human cognition and its bounds. The essay argues that tracking this implementation effort shows that "internal" cognitive practices and "external" tools and materials are not so easily separated as they are in Simon's principle of bounded rationality--the latter often shaping the dynamics of the former. PMID:26685521

  12. Of Models and Machines: Implementing Bounded Rationality.

    PubMed

    Dick, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    This essay explores the early history of Herbert Simon's principle of bounded rationality in the context of his Artificial Intelligence research in the mid 1950s. It focuses in particular on how Simon and his colleagues at the RAND Corporation translated a model of human reasoning into a computer program, the Logic Theory Machine. They were motivated by a belief that computers and minds were the same kind of thing--namely, information-processing systems. The Logic Theory Machine program was a model of how people solved problems in elementary mathematical logic. However, in making this model actually run on their 1950s computer, the JOHNNIAC, Simon and his colleagues had to navigate many obstacles and material constraints quite foreign to the human experience of logic. They crafted new tools and engaged in new practices that accommodated the affordances of their machine, rather than reflecting the character of human cognition and its bounds. The essay argues that tracking this implementation effort shows that "internal" cognitive practices and "external" tools and materials are not so easily separated as they are in Simon's principle of bounded rationality--the latter often shaping the dynamics of the former.

  13. Translational Selection Is Ubiquitous in Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Supek, Fran; Škunca, Nives; Repar, Jelena; Vlahoviček, Kristian; Šmuc, Tomislav

    2010-01-01

    Codon usage bias in prokaryotic genomes is largely a consequence of background substitution patterns in DNA, but highly expressed genes may show a preference towards codons that enable more efficient and/or accurate translation. We introduce a novel approach based on supervised machine learning that detects effects of translational selection on genes, while controlling for local variation in nucleotide substitution patterns represented as sequence composition of intergenic DNA. A cornerstone of our method is a Random Forest classifier that outperformed previous distance measure-based approaches, such as the codon adaptation index, in the task of discerning the (highly expressed) ribosomal protein genes by their codon frequencies. Unlike previous reports, we show evidence that translational selection in prokaryotes is practically universal: in 460 of 461 examined microbial genomes, we find that a subset of genes shows a higher codon usage similarity to the ribosomal proteins than would be expected from the local sequence composition. These genes constitute a substantial part of the genome—between 5% and 33%, depending on genome size—while also exhibiting higher experimentally measured mRNA abundances and tending toward codons that match tRNA anticodons by canonical base pairing. Certain gene functional categories are generally enriched with, or depleted of codon-optimized genes, the trends of enrichment/depletion being conserved between Archaea and Bacteria. Prominent exceptions from these trends might indicate genes with alternative physiological roles; we speculate on specific examples related to detoxication of oxygen radicals and ammonia and to possible misannotations of asparaginyl–tRNA synthetases. Since the presence of codon optimizations on genes is a valid proxy for expression levels in fully sequenced genomes, we provide an example of an “adaptome” by highlighting gene functions with expression levels elevated specifically in thermophilic

  14. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

  15. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, Oliver T.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

  16. New photolithography stepping machine

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L.; Klingmann, J.; Markle, D.

    1995-03-08

    A joint development project to design a new photolithography steeping machine capable of 150 nanometer overlay accuracy was completed by Ultratech Stepper and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principal result of the project is a next-generation product that will strengthen the US position in step-and-repeat photolithography. The significant challenges addressed and solved in the project are the subject of this report. Design methods and new devices that have broader application to precision machine design are presented in greater detail while project specific information serves primarily as background and motivation.

  17. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  18. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-14

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  19. Intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, H. Sterling; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2007-01-16

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through meshing surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the function of one or the other of the rotors from that of "fluid moving" to that of "valving" thereby reducing the pressure loads and associated inefficiencies at the interface of the meshing surfaces. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  20. Paradigms for machine learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlimmer, Jeffrey C.; Langley, Pat

    1991-01-01

    Five paradigms are described for machine learning: connectionist (neural network) methods, genetic algorithms and classifier systems, empirical methods for inducing rules and decision trees, analytic learning methods, and case-based approaches. Some dimensions are considered along with these paradigms vary in their approach to learning, and the basic methods are reviewed that are used within each framework, together with open research issues. It is argued that the similarities among the paradigms are more important than their differences, and that future work should attempt to bridge the existing boundaries. Finally, some recent developments in the field of machine learning are discussed, and their impact on both research and applications is examined.

  1. Translated chemical reaction networks.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Matthew D

    2014-05-01

    Many biochemical and industrial applications involve complicated networks of simultaneously occurring chemical reactions. Under the assumption of mass action kinetics, the dynamics of these chemical reaction networks are governed by systems of polynomial ordinary differential equations. The steady states of these mass action systems have been analyzed via a variety of techniques, including stoichiometric network analysis, deficiency theory, and algebraic techniques (e.g., Gröbner bases). In this paper, we present a novel method for characterizing the steady states of mass action systems. Our method explicitly links a network's capacity to permit a particular class of steady states, called toric steady states, to topological properties of a generalized network called a translated chemical reaction network. These networks share their reaction vectors with their source network but are permitted to have different complex stoichiometries and different network topologies. We apply the results to examples drawn from the biochemical literature.

  2. The Translation and the Translator of the Peshitta of Hosea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive examination of the Syriac Peshitta of Hosea (P-Hosea) is the first study of the Peshitta conducted via insights and methods from the discipline of Translation Studies. It uses in particular Andrew Chesterman's Causal Model and Gideon Toury's descriptive approach. Every translator leaves residue of his or her…

  3. Machine speech and speaking about machines

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, A.

    1996-12-31

    Current philosophy of language prides itself on scientific status. It boasts of being no longer contaminated with queer mental entities or idealist essences. It theorizes language as programmable variants of formal semantic systems, reimaginable either as the properly epiphenomenal machine functions of computer science or the properly material neural networks of physiology. Whether or not such models properly capture the physical workings of a living human brain is a question that scientists will have to answer. I, as a philosopher, come at the problem from another direction. Does contemporary philosophical semantics, in its dominant truth-theoretic and related versions, capture actual living human thought as it is experienced, or does it instead reflect, regardless of (perhaps dubious) scientific credentials, pathology of thought, a pathology with a disturbing social history.

  4. 12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES BLOCKED OUT SECTIONS IN THE ROCK CUT IN PREPARATION FOR DRILLING AND BLASTING. (17) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  5. BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES FOR VALVES AND PREPARE BRONZE VALVE BODIES FOR ASSEMBLY. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. 14. Machine in north 1922 section of Building 59. Machine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Machine in north 1922 section of Building 59. Machine is 24' Jointer made by Oliver Machinery Co. Camera pointed E. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  7. Software issues involved in code translation of C to Ada programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooi, Robert; Giarratano, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    It is often thought that translation of one programming language to another is a simple solution that can be used to extend the software life span or in rehosting software to another environment. The possible problems are examined as are the advantages and disadvantages of direct machine or human code translation versus that of redesign and rewrite of the software. The translation of the expert system language called C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) which is written in C, to Ada, will be used as a case study of the problems that are encountered.

  8. A Turing Machine Simulator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Aaron B.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a program in Level II BASIC for a TRS-80 computer that simulates a Turing machine and discusses the nature of the device. The program is run interactively and is designed to be used as an educational tool by computer science or mathematics students studying computational or automata theory. (MP)

  9. Support vector machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garay, Michael J.; Mazzoni, Dominic; Davies, Roger; Wagstaff, Kiri

    2004-01-01

    Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are a type of supervised learning algorith,, other examples of which are Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Decision Trees, and Naive Bayesian Classifiers. Supervised learning algorithms are used to classify objects labled by a 'supervisor' - typically a human 'expert.'.

  10. Electrical discharge machining.

    PubMed

    LaBarge, K W

    1997-11-01

    This article describes a laboratory technique of achieving the highest degree of passive fit of an implant-retained restoration using electric discharge machining (EDM). This process can save time by eliminating the need for conventional soldering procedures, increase the longevity of the restoration, and when used along with the clinical technique of fabricating a verification index, eliminate the clinical try-in phase.

  11. Laser machining of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  12. Cybernetic anthropomorphic machine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Functional descriptions are provided for a number of cybernetic man machine systems that augment the capacity of normal human beings in the areas of strength, reach or physical size, and environmental interaction, and that are also applicable to aiding the neurologically handicapped. Teleoperators, computer control, exoskeletal devices, quadruped vehicles, space maintenance systems, and communications equipment are considered.

  13. Working with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

  14. Biomimetic machine vision system.

    PubMed

    Harman, William M; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Wilcox, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Real-time application of digital imaging for use in machine vision systems has proven to be prohibitive when used within control systems that employ low-power single processors without compromising the scope of vision or resolution of captured images. Development of a real-time machine analog vision system is the focus of research taking place at the University of Wyoming. This new vision system is based upon the biological vision system of the common house fly. Development of a single sensor is accomplished, representing a single facet of the fly's eye. This new sensor is then incorporated into an array of sensors capable of detecting objects and tracking motion in 2-D space. This system "preprocesses" incoming image data resulting in minimal data processing to determine the location of a target object. Due to the nature of the sensors in the array, hyperacuity is achieved thereby eliminating resolutions issues found in digital vision systems. In this paper, we will discuss the biological traits of the fly eye and the specific traits that led to the development of this machine vision system. We will also discuss the process of developing an analog based sensor that mimics the characteristics of interest in the biological vision system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of how an array of these sensors can be applied toward solving real-world machine vision issues.

  15. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  16. Machine-Aided Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charles R.

    Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntatic analysis technique for indexing text. A new indexing subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) are discussed. (ED 069 290 is a related document) (Author)

  17. The Art Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vertelney, Harry; Grossberger, Lucia

    1983-01-01

    Introduces educators to possibilities of computer graphics using an inexpensive computer system which takes advantage of existing equipment (35mm camera, super 8 movie camera, VHS video cassette recorder). The concept of the "art machine" is explained, highlighting input and output devices (X-Y plotter, graphic tablets, video digitizers). (EJS)

  18. The Answer Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering;…

  19. Giving Machines the Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amherst Systems manufactures foveal machine vision technology and systems commercially available to end-users and system integrators. This technology was initially developed under NASA contracts NAS9-19335 (Johnson Space Center) and NAS1-20841 (Langley Research Center). This technology is currently being delivered to university research facilities and military sites. More information may be found in www.amherst.com.

  20. 8. VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP. BY 1966, THE MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP. BY 1966, THE MACHINE SHOP HANDLED PRIMARILY STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS, WHICH WERE SENT TO THE MACHINE SHOP TO BE FORMED INTO THEIR FINAL SHAPES. (7/24/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. PATRAN-STAGS translator (PATSTAGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otte, Neil

    1990-01-01

    A a computer program used to translate PATRAN finite element model data into Structural Analysis of General Shells (STAGS) input data is presented. The program supports translation of nodal, nodal constraints, element, force, and pressure data. The subroutine UPRESS required for the readings of live pressure data into STAGS is also presented.

  2. Translation: in retrospect and prospect.

    PubMed Central

    Woese, C R

    2001-01-01

    This review is occasioned by the fact that the problem of translation, which has simmered on the biological sidelines for the last 40 years, is about to erupt center stage--thanks to the recent spectacular advances in ribosome structure. This most complex, beautiful, and fascinating of cellular mechanisms, the translation apparatus, is also the most important. Translation not only defines gene expression, but it is the sine qua non without which modern (protein-based) cells would not have come into existence. Yet from the start, the problem of translation has been misunderstood--a reflection of the molecular perspective that dominated Biology of the last century. In that the our conception of translation will play a significant role in creating the structure that is 21st century Biology, it is critical that our current (and fundamentally flawed) view of translation be understood for what it is and be reformulated to become an all-embracing perspective about which 21st century Biology can develop. Therefore, the present review is both a retrospective and a plea to biologists to establish a new evolutionary, RNA-World-centered concept of translation. What is needed is an evolutionarily oriented perspective that, first and foremost, focuses on the nature (and origin) of a primitive translation apparatus, the apparatus that transformed an ancient evolutionary era of nucleic acid life, the RNA World, into the world of modern cells. PMID:11497425

  3. Translational control in cancer etiology.

    PubMed

    Ruggero, Davide

    2013-02-01

    The link between perturbations in translational control and cancer etiology is becoming a primary focus in cancer research. It has now been established that genetic alterations in several components of the translational apparatus underlie spontaneous cancers as well as an entire class of inherited syndromes known as "ribosomopathies" associated with increased cancer susceptibility. These discoveries have illuminated the importance of deregulations in translational control to very specific cellular processes that contribute to cancer etiology. In addition, a growing body of evidence supports the view that deregulation of translational control is a common mechanism by which diverse oncogenic pathways promote cellular transformation and tumor development. Indeed, activation of these key oncogenic pathways induces rapid and dramatic translational reprogramming both by increasing overall protein synthesis and by modulating specific mRNA networks. These translational changes promote cellular transformation, impacting almost every phase of tumor development. This paradigm represents a new frontier in the multihit model of cancer formation and offers significant promise for innovative cancer therapies. Current research, in conjunction with cutting edge technologies, will further enable us to explore novel mechanisms of translational control, functionally identify translationally controlled mRNA groups, and unravel their impact on cellular transformation and tumorigenesis.

  4. Translation as a Teaching Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Klaus

    This paper describes and explains a classroom exercise in French translation, with a view to promoting translation as an integral part of language instruction, particularly at the third-year college level when the student can be expected to have acquired an advanced knowledge of the parts of speech, of the grammatical distribution and their…

  5. Translational control in cancer etiology.

    PubMed

    Ruggero, Davide

    2013-02-01

    The link between perturbations in translational control and cancer etiology is becoming a primary focus in cancer research. It has now been established that genetic alterations in several components of the translational apparatus underlie spontaneous cancers as well as an entire class of inherited syndromes known as "ribosomopathies" associated with increased cancer susceptibility. These discoveries have illuminated the importance of deregulations in translational control to very specific cellular processes that contribute to cancer etiology. In addition, a growing body of evidence supports the view that deregulation of translational control is a common mechanism by which diverse oncogenic pathways promote cellular transformation and tumor development. Indeed, activation of these key oncogenic pathways induces rapid and dramatic translational reprogramming both by increasing overall protein synthesis and by modulating specific mRNA networks. These translational changes promote cellular transformation, impacting almost every phase of tumor development. This paradigm represents a new frontier in the multihit model of cancer formation and offers significant promise for innovative cancer therapies. Current research, in conjunction with cutting edge technologies, will further enable us to explore novel mechanisms of translational control, functionally identify translationally controlled mRNA groups, and unravel their impact on cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. PMID:22767671

  6. Translation as a Psycholinguistic Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zasyekin, Serhiy

    2010-01-01

    The article sketches the outlines of a theoretical framework for the analysis of translation of literary texts, viewed as psycho-semiotic phenomenon and based on evaluation of earlier attempts in this direction, and on the results of a psycholinguistic empirical study of translations. Central to this framework is the recent insight that the human…

  7. Rescuing the Lost in Translation.

    PubMed

    Gehr, Sinje; Garner, Craig C

    2016-05-01

    The translation of medically relevant academic inventions that could transform public health has been notoriously difficult, stemming largely from cultural differences been academia and industry. New initiatives to kindle academic entrepreneurship and establish stronger public/private partnerships are helping to align these differences and accelerating the translation of promising new therapies. PMID:27153487

  8. Tattoo machines, needles and utilities.

    PubMed

    Rosenkilde, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Starting out as a professional tattooist back in 1977 in Copenhagen, Denmark, Frank Rosenkilde has personally experienced the remarkable development of tattoo machines, needles and utilities: all the way from home-made equipment to industrial products of substantially improved quality. Machines can be constructed like the traditional dual-coil and single-coil machines or can be e-coil, rotary and hybrid machines, with the more convenient and precise rotary machines being the recent trend. This development has resulted in disposable needles and utilities. Newer machines are more easily kept clean and protected with foil to prevent crosscontaminations and infections. The machines and the tattooists' knowledge and awareness about prevention of infection have developed hand-in-hand. For decades, Frank Rosenkilde has been collecting tattoo machines. Part of his collection is presented here, supplemented by his personal notes. PMID:25833620

  9. Engineered Protein Machines: Emergent Tools for Synthetic Biology.

    PubMed

    Glasscock, Cameron J; Lucks, Julius B; DeLisa, Matthew P

    2016-01-21

    Nature has evolved an array of intricate protein assemblies that work together to perform the chemistry that maintains life. These protein machines function with exquisite specificity and coordination to accomplish their tasks, from DNA and RNA synthesis to protein folding and post-translational modifications. Despite their complexity, synthetic biologists have succeeded in redesigning many aspects of these molecular machines. For example, natural DNA polymerases have now been engineered to catalyze the synthesis of alternative genetic polymers called XNAs, orthogonal RNA polymerases and ribosomes have been engineered to enable the construction of genetic logic gates, and protein biogenesis machinery such as chaperonins and protein translocons have been repurposed to improve folding and expression of recombinant proteins. In this Review, we highlight the progress made in understanding, engineering, and repurposing bacterial protein machines for use in synthetic biology and biotechnology.

  10. Visualizing Cellular Machines with Colocalization Single Molecule Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Joshua D.; Rodgers, Margaret L.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the cell's macromolecular machines contain multiple components that transiently associate with one another. This compositional and dynamic complexity presents a challenge for understanding how these machines are constructed and function. Colocalization single molecule spectroscopy enables simultaneous observation of individual components of these machines in real-time and grants a unique window into processes that are typically obscured in ensemble assays. Colocalization experiments can yield valuable information about assembly pathways, compositional heterogeneity, and kinetics that together contribute to the development of richly detailed reaction mechanisms. This review focuses on recent advances in colocalization single molecule spectroscopy and how this technique has been applied to enhance our understanding of transcription, RNA splicing, and translation. PMID:23970346

  11. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams. PMID:20187952

  12. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams. PMID:20187952

  13. Subminiature infrared detector translation stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Alan D.

    1989-11-01

    This paper describes a precision subminiature three-axis translation stage used in the GOES Sounder to provide positional adjustment of 12 cooled infrared detectors. Four separate translation stages and detectors are packaged into a detector mechanism which has an overall size of 0.850 x 1.230 x 0.600 inches. Each translation stage is capable of + or - 0.015 inch motion in the X and Y axes and +0.050/-0.025 inch motion in the Z axis with a sensitivity of 0.0002 inches. The function of the detector translation stage allows real time detector signal peaking during Sounder alignment. The translation stage operates in a cryogenic environment under a 10 to the -6th torr vacuum.

  14. Subminiature infrared detector translation stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Alan D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a precision subminiature three-axis translation stage used in the GOES Sounder to provide positional adjustment of 12 cooled infrared detectors. Four separate translation stages and detectors are packaged into a detector mechanism which has an overall size of 0.850 x 1.230 x 0.600 inches. Each translation stage is capable of + or - 0.015 inch motion in the X and Y axes and +0.050/-0.025 inch motion in the Z axis with a sensitivity of 0.0002 inches. The function of the detector translation stage allows real time detector signal peaking during Sounder alignment. The translation stage operates in a cryogenic environment under a 10 to the -6th torr vacuum.

  15. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  16. Knowledge Translation in Audiology

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Anita; Bagatto, Marlene P.; Seewald, Richard; Miller, Linda T.; Scollie, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    The impetus for evidence-based practice (EBP) has grown out of widespread concern with the quality, effectiveness (including cost-effectiveness), and efficiency of medical care received by the public. Although initially focused on medicine, EBP principles have been adopted by many of the health care professions and are often represented in practice through the development and use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Audiology has been working on incorporating EBP principles into its mandate for professional practice since the mid-1990s. Despite widespread efforts to implement EBP and guidelines into audiology practice, gaps still exist between the best evidence based on research and what is being done in clinical practice. A collaborative dynamic and iterative integrated knowledge translation (KT) framework rather than a researcher-driven hierarchical approach to EBP and the development of CPGs has been shown to reduce the knowledge-to-clinical action gaps. This article provides a brief overview of EBP and CPGs, including a discussion of the barriers to implementing CPGs into clinical practice. It then offers a discussion of how an integrated KT process combined with a community of practice (CoP) might facilitate the development and dissemination of evidence for clinical audiology practice. Finally, a project that uses the knowledge-to-action (KTA) framework for the development of outcome measures in pediatric audiology is introduced. PMID:22194314

  17. [Translational research: an interpretation].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2013-06-01

    Translational Research (TR) appears to be developing into the key health research issue of the beginning of this century. Initially proposed in the United States, TR is spread rapidly throughout both the developed and the developing world. This article discusses the main topics it covers, such as its definition and scope and the reasons why it has emerged in the USA and in this century. It examines the relationship between TR and the basic principles of US scientific policy established at the end of World War II. It sees the demands of a mighty pharmaceutical industry, currently facing a major crisis, linked to scientific genomic and post-genomic output impairments in terms of real innovative products and processes as being the explanation for US government intervention in biomedical research via the NIH. It realizes that it is not easy to predict the future of TR and suggests that it is not sustained by a solid conceptual and theoretical framework. It also discusses the opportunities and possibilities of TR in countries with nascent national innovative systems, such as Brazil. Lastly, it suggests that the existence of a universal health system can be an important tool to provide potential research answers tin health for the demands of innovation on the part of society. PMID:23752539

  18. Micro-machining workstation for a diode pumped Nd:YAG high-brightness laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleijhorst, R. A.; Offerhaus, H. L.; Bant, P.

    1998-05-01

    A Nd:YAG micro-machining workstation that allows cutting on a scale of a few microns has been developed and operated. The system incorporates a telescope viewing system that allows control during the work and a software interface to translate AutoCad files. Some examples of the performance are given. With this setup we demonstrate the possibility of machining within a few microns with a Nd:YAG laser.

  19. Research in Computer-Aided Translation, Russian to English. Eleventh Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josselson, Harry H.; And Others

    At Wayne State University research activity in the Department of Slavic Languages during the reporting period was concentrated on linguistic analysis, documentation, and on revising existing programs to run on new hardware. A survey was made of activities in the field of machine translation during the 1960's. Two studies were conducted by members…

  20. Towards Automatically Aligning German Compounds with English Word Groups in an Example-Based Translation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Daniel; Alexa, Melina

    As part of the development of a completely sub-symbolic machine translation system, a method for automatically identifying German compounds was developed. Given a parallel bilingual corpus, German compounds are identified along with their English word groupings by statistical processing alone. The underlying principles and the design process are…

  1. HiVy automated translation of stateflow designs for model checking verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula

    2003-01-01

    tool set enables model checking of finite state machines designs. This is acheived by translating state-chart specifications into the input language of the Spin model checker. An abstract syntax of hierarchical sequential automata (HSA) is provided as an intermediate format tool set.

  2. Machine Shop Fundamentals: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael G.; And Others

    These instructional materials were developed and designed for secondary and adult limited English proficient students enrolled in machine tool technology courses. Part 1 includes 24 lessons covering introduction, safety and shop rules, basic machine tools, basic machine operations, measurement, basic blueprint reading, layout, and bench tools.…

  3. Hydraulic Fatigue-Testing Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodo, James D.; Moore, Dennis R.; Morris, Thomas F.; Tiller, Newton G.

    1987-01-01

    Fatigue-testing machine applies fluctuating tension to number of specimens at same time. When sample breaks, machine continues to test remaining specimens. Series of tensile tests needed to determine fatigue properties of materials performed more rapidly than in conventional fatigue-testing machine.

  4. Association installs condom machine.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    On the occasion of World Population Day (11 July), India installed its first condom vending machine. The machine was inaugurated by Mr. Eruch Lala, an official of the Family Planning Association of India, as part of the association's campaign to help the country curb its rapid population growth rate and stem the spread of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). Each condom, called sangam ("union" in English) costs Rupees 2 (about 6.5 US cents). The machine is located at a textile mill in Bombay. The Association said it would install at least 60 such machines in Bombay over the coming months. "A psychological advantage of the machine is that the user need not personally meet the dispenser and can collect a condom without any embarrassment," Mr. Lala said. "The machine is expected to promote efforts at curbing population growth and prevent the spread of AIDS," he said. In a separate report, AIDS has been found to be racing through India just eight years after the first case was detected. Prostitutes, drug addicts and untested blood supplies are the conduits. More than half of the prostitutes in cities such as Bombay have HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which causes AIDS. The truck drivers and itinerant workers they serve carry it to their own villages, according to the report by Mr. Thomas Wagner writing for the Associated Press. There are 43 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases reported each year in the country, according to the report. The HIV virus has been reported in all 25 states of India. Although the AIDS pandemic came to India later than most large countries, the National AIDS Control Organization estimates there are 1.62 million cases in the population, up 60% from 1993, according to the report. "AIDS is no longer just a problem of high-risk groups; it has spread to every area of India," Dr. P.R. Das Gupta of the national AIDS agency said in an interview. "So many people are migrating from their villages in search of jobs that this

  5. Prediction of Machine Tool Condition Using Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peigong; Meng, Qingfeng; Zhao, Jian; Li, Junjie; Wang, Xiufeng

    2011-07-01

    Condition monitoring and predicting of CNC machine tools are investigated in this paper. Considering the CNC machine tools are often small numbers of samples, a condition predicting method for CNC machine tools based on support vector machines (SVMs) is proposed, then one-step and multi-step condition prediction models are constructed. The support vector machines prediction models are used to predict the trends of working condition of a certain type of CNC worm wheel and gear grinding machine by applying sequence data of vibration signal, which is collected during machine processing. And the relationship between different eigenvalue in CNC vibration signal and machining quality is discussed. The test result shows that the trend of vibration signal Peak-to-peak value in surface normal direction is most relevant to the trend of surface roughness value. In trends prediction of working condition, support vector machine has higher prediction accuracy both in the short term ('One-step') and long term (multi-step) prediction compared to autoregressive (AR) model and the RBF neural network. Experimental results show that it is feasible to apply support vector machine to CNC machine tool condition prediction.

  6. Knowledge translation of research findings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by

  7. Effect of Machining Velocity in Nanoscale Machining Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Sumaiya; Ibrahim, Raafat; Khondoker, Noman

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the generated forces and deformations of single crystal Cu with (100), (110) and (111) crystallographic orientations at nanoscale machining operation. A nanoindenter equipped with nanoscratching attachment was used for machining operations and in-situ observation of a nano scale groove. As a machining parameter, the machining velocity was varied to measure the normal and cutting forces. At a fixed machining velocity, different levels of normal and cutting forces were generated due to different crystallographic orientations of the specimens. Moreover, after machining operation percentage of elastic recovery was measured and it was found that both the elastic and plastic deformations were responsible for producing a nano scale groove within the range of machining velocities from 250-1000 nm/s.

  8. The "Pedagogue as Translator" in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Translation theory has faced criticism from professional translators for adopting an ivory tower stance to the "real world" challenges of translation. This article argues that a case can be made for considering the challenges of translation as it takes place in the school classroom. In support of such an argument the pedagogue as translator is…

  9. Engineering molecular machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erman, Burak

    2016-04-01

    Biological molecular motors use chemical energy, mostly in the form of ATP hydrolysis, and convert it to mechanical energy. Correlated thermal fluctuations are essential for the function of a molecular machine and it is the hydrolysis of ATP that modifies the correlated fluctuations of the system. Correlations are consequences of the molecular architecture of the protein. The idea that synthetic molecular machines may be constructed by designing the proper molecular architecture is challenging. In their paper, Sarkar et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 043006) propose a synthetic molecular motor based on the coarse grained elastic network model of proteins and show by numerical simulations that motor function is realized, ranging from deterministic to thermal, depending on temperature. This work opens up a new range of possibilities of molecular architecture based engine design.

  10. Wholly Synthetic Molecular Machines.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chuyang; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2016-06-17

    The past quarter of a century has witnessed an increasing engagement on the part of physicists and chemists in the design and synthesis of molecular machines de novo. This minireview traces the development of artificial molecular machines from their prototypes in the form of shuttles and switches to their emergence as motors and pumps where supplies of energy in the form of chemical fuel, electrochemical potential and light activation become a minimum requirement for them to function away from equilibrium. The challenge facing this rapidly growing community of scientists and engineers today is one of putting wholly synthetic molecules to work, both individually and as collections. Here, we highlight some of the recent conceptual and practical advances relating to the operation of wholly synthetic rotary and linear motors.

  11. Machinations of thought

    SciTech Connect

    Waldrop, M.M.

    1985-03-01

    After three decades of frustrating work, artificial intelligence is coming of age--moving out of the laboratories and into the marketplace. Expert systems, computer programs that give advice like a human specialist, are pinpointing mineral deposits and diagnosing diseases. Programs are taking shape that can do a pretty fair job of understanding plain English or French. Robotics will soon benefit from computer vision systems able to store a digitized photograph of an object or scene and recognize a good bit of what is there. As the more exuberant enthusiasts see it, we might soon have machines to advise us about our income taxes or the baby's fever; silicon tutors could help a child master the enthralling possibilities of geometry and numbers; trucks might drive themselves through the night and unload themselves at their destination. In short, we could one day have machines to do almost anything that now requires intelligence in a human.

  12. A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

    1989-01-01

    In the present technological society, there is a major need to build machines that would execute intelligent tasks operating in uncertain environments with minimum interaction with a human operator. Although some designers have built smart robots, utilizing heuristic ideas, there is no systematic approach to design such machines in an engineering manner. Recently, cross-disciplinary research from the fields of computers, systems AI and information theory has served to set the foundations of the emerging area of the design of intelligent machines. Since 1977 Saridis has been developing an approach, defined as Hierarchical Intelligent Control, designed to organize, coordinate and execute anthropomorphic tasks by a machine with minimum interaction with a human operator. This approach utilizes analytical (probabilistic) models to describe and control the various functions of the intelligent machine structured by the intuitively defined principle of Increasing Precision with Decreasing Intelligence (IPDI) (Saridis 1979). This principle, even though resembles the managerial structure of organizational systems (Levis 1988), has been derived on an analytic basis by Saridis (1988). The purpose is to derive analytically a Boltzmann machine suitable for optimal connection of nodes in a neural net (Fahlman, Hinton, Sejnowski, 1985). Then this machine will serve to search for the optimal design of the organization level of an intelligent machine. In order to accomplish this, some mathematical theory of the intelligent machines will be first outlined. Then some definitions of the variables associated with the principle, like machine intelligence, machine knowledge, and precision will be made (Saridis, Valavanis 1988). Then a procedure to establish the Boltzmann machine on an analytic basis will be presented and illustrated by an example in designing the organization level of an Intelligent Machine. A new search technique, the Modified Genetic Algorithm, is presented and proved

  13. Translating What Works

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Lawrence S.; Barb, Diana; Yong, Chun; Tomolo, Anne M.; Jackson, Sandra L.; Olson, Darin E.; Rhee, Mary K.; Duva, Ingrid M.; He, Qing; Long, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most efficacious strategies to improve diabetes control include case management, health care team changes, patient education, and facilitated transmission of patient data to clinicians (“facilitated relay”), but these strategies have not been translated to permit general use in clinical practice. Methods: A web-based decision support program was developed to include these features, and assessed in patients who had A1c ≥7.0% despite using metformin with/without sulfonylureas or insulin. Staff entered patients’ glucose data, obtained management recommendations, reviewed the plan with a clinician, and discussed the new plan with patients. Results: 113 subjects were 96% male and 32% black, with average age 65.6 years and BMI 32.8. During prior primary care, A1c averaged 8.32 ± 0.16% (SEM). In all patients, baseline A1c was 8.18 ± 0.11%, and decreased to 7.54 ± 0.12%, 7.16 ± 0.13%, and 7.54 ± 0.16% at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively, all P < .001. In 42 subjects who provided glucose data and made requested changes in medications, A1c was 8.12 ± 0.09% at baseline and fell to 7.29 ± 0.11%, 6.98 ± 0.10%, and 7.05 ± 0.10% at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively, all P < .001. Chart review of 16 subjects followed for 12 months demonstrated that hypoglycemia (symptoms and/or glucose <70 mg/dl) averaged less than 1 episode/patient/month, and there was no severe hypoglycemia. Conclusions: A novel decision support program improved A1c with little hypoglycemia. Use of this approach should allow primary care teams to keep patients well controlled, and reduce the need for specialist referrals. PMID:25759182

  14. Copying Machine Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Manufacturer of the Model 2210 copying machine was looking for a plastic valve bushing material that could be produced by a low-cost injection molding process to replace the unsuitable valve bushing they were using. NERAC conducted a computer search of the NASA database and was able to supply Nashua Corporation with several technical reports in their area of interest. Information aided the company's development of a urethane valve bushing which solved the problem and created a dramatic reduction in unit cost.

  15. Austempered Ductile Iron Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilc, Jozef; Šajgalík, Michal; Holubják, Jozef; Piešová, Marianna; Zaušková, Lucia; Babík, Ondrej; Kuždák, Viktor; Rákoci, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    This article deals with the machining of cast iron. In industrial practice, Austempered Ductile Iron began to be used relatively recently. ADI is ductile iron that has gone through austempering to get improved properties, among which we can include strength, wear resistance or noise damping. This specific material is defined also by other properties, such as high elasticity, ductility and endurance against tenigue, which are the properties, that considerably make the tooling characteristic worse.

  16. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome. PMID:26572668

  17. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome.

  18. Architectures for intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of intelligent machines has been recently reformulated to incorporate new architectures that are using neural and Petri nets. The analytic functions of an intelligent machine are implemented by intelligent controls, using entropy as a measure. The resulting hierarchical control structure is based on the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence. Each of the three levels of the intelligent control is using different architectures, in order to satisfy the requirements of the principle: the organization level is moduled after a Boltzmann machine for abstract reasoning, task planning and decision making; the coordination level is composed of a number of Petri net transducers supervised, for command exchange, by a dispatcher, which also serves as an interface to the organization level; the execution level, include the sensory, planning for navigation and control hardware which interacts one-to-one with the appropriate coordinators, while a VME bus provides a channel for database exchange among the several devices. This system is currently implemented on a robotic transporter, designed for space construction at the CIRSSE laboratories at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The progress of its development is reported.

  19. Teaching Translation and Interpreting 2: Insights, Aims, Visions. [Selection of] Papers from the Second Language International Conference (Elsinore, Denmark, June 4-6, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollerup, Cay, Ed.; Lindegaard, Annette, Ed.

    This selection of papers starts with insights into multi- and plurilingual settings, then proceeds to discussions of aims for practical work with students, and ends with visions of future developments within translation for the mass media and the impact of machine translation. Papers are: "Interpreting at the European Commission"; "Language Status…

  20. Laser machining - Theory and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Chryssolouris, G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments and the state of the art in the field of laser machining are reviewed with emphasis on practical applications. First, an overview of conventional material removing processes is presented. Laser machining systems are then described, and an overview is provided of the necessary knowledge from heat transfer and fluid mechanics required in order to understand the physical mechanisms and thermal processes associated with laser machining. The applications of laser machining discussed include drilling, cutting, marking, and three-dimensional machining of metals, ceramics, plastics, composites, and other materials, and micromachining. 209 refs.

  1. Literary Translation: The Experience of Translating Chinua Achebe's "Arrow of God" into French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Almeida, Irene

    1981-01-01

    Uses Achebe's "Arrow of God" as example of difficulty in translating English into French when author and translators are not native speakers of these languages. Suggests inventing French gibberish or use of translator's notes to translate Pidgin English. (BK)

  2. Translating the covenant: The behavior analyst as ambassador and translator

    PubMed Central

    Foxx, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    Behavior analysts should be sensitive to how others react to and interpret our language because it is inextricably related to our image. Our use of conceptual revision, with such terms as punishment, has created communicative confusion and hostility on the part of general and professional audiences we have attempted to influence. We must, therefore, adopt the role of ambassador and translator in the nonbehavioral world. A number of recommendations are offered for promoting, translating, and disseminating behavior analysis. PMID:22478256

  3. Population genetics of translational robustness.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Claus O; Drummond, D Allan

    2006-05-01

    Recent work has shown that expression level is the main predictor of a gene's evolutionary rate and that more highly expressed genes evolve slower. A possible explanation for this observation is selection for proteins that fold properly despite mistranslation, in short selection for translational robustness. Translational robustness leads to the somewhat paradoxical prediction that highly expressed genes are extremely tolerant to missense substitutions but nevertheless evolve very slowly. Here, we study a simple theoretical model of translational robustness that allows us to gain analytic insight into how this paradoxical behavior arises.

  4. Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, William E.

    1982-01-01

    Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine. A mobile housing has an opening large enough to encircle the access hole and has a shielding door, with a door opening and closing mechanism, for uncovering and covering the opening. The housing contains a shaft which has an apparatus for rotating the shaft and a device for independently translating the shaft from the housing through the opening and access hole into the hot cell chamber. A properly sized cylindrical pig containing wire brushes and cloth or other disks, with an arrangement for releasably attaching it to the end of the shaft, circumferentially cleans the access hole wall of radioactive contamination and thereafter detaches from the shaft to fall into the hot cell chamber.

  5. Experiences in Pattern Recognition for Machine Olfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessant, C.

    2011-09-01

    Pattern recognition is essential for translating complex olfactory sensor responses into simple outputs that are relevant to users. Many approaches to pattern recognition have been applied in this field, including multivariate statistics (e.g. discriminant analysis), artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machines (SVMs). Reviewing our experience of using these techniques with many different sensor systems reveals some useful insights. Most importantly, it is clear beyond any doubt that the quantity and selection of samples used to train and test a pattern recognition system are by far the most important factors in ensuring it performs as accurately and reliably as possible. Here we present evidence for this assertion and make suggestions for best practice based on these findings.

  6. The Bilingual Edition in Translation Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, Lance

    1993-01-01

    Looks closely at the nature of the bilingual edition and the specific problems that it presents to the translation theorist. Examines publishers' strategies, the translator's introduction and notes, and reading strategies. Comments on the importance of the translation process. (SR)

  7. Co-translational protein targeting to the bacterial membrane

    PubMed Central

    Saraogi, Ishu; Shan, Shu-ou

    2013-01-01

    Co-translational protein targeting by the Signal Recognition Particle (SRP) is an essential cellular pathway that couples the synthesis of nascent proteins to their proper cellular localization. The bacterial SRP, which contains the minimal ribonucleoprotein core of this universally conserved targeting machine, has served as a paradigm for understanding the molecular basis of protein localization in all cells. In this review, we highlight recent biochemical and structural insights into the molecular mechanisms by which fundamental challenges faced by protein targeting machineries are met in the SRP pathway. Collectively, these studies elucidate how an essential SRP RNA and two regulatory GTPases in the SRP and SRP receptor (SR) enable this targeting machinery to recognize, sense and respond to its biological effectors, i.e. the cargo protein, the target membrane and the translocation machinery, thus driving efficient and faithful co-translational protein targeting. PMID:24513458

  8. Translation techniques for distributed-shared memory programming models

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Douglas James

    2005-01-01

    The high performance computing community has experienced an explosive improvement in distributed-shared memory hardware. Driven by increasing real-world problem complexity, this explosion has ushered in vast numbers of new systems. Each new system presents new challenges to programmers and application developers. Part of the challenge is adapting to new architectures with new performance characteristics. Different vendors release systems with widely varying architectures that perform differently in different situations. Furthermore, since vendors need only provide a single performance number (total MFLOPS, typically for a single benchmark), they only have strong incentive initially to optimize the API of their choice. Consequently, only a fraction of the available APIs are well optimized on most systems. This causes issues porting and writing maintainable software, let alone issues for programmers burdened with mastering each new API as it is released. Also, programmers wishing to use a certain machine must choose their API based on the underlying hardware instead of the application. This thesis argues that a flexible, extensible translator for distributed-shared memory APIs can help address some of these issues. For example, a translator might take as input code in one API and output an equivalent program in another. Such a translator could provide instant porting for applications to new systems that do not support the application's library or language natively. While open-source APIs are abundant, they do not perform optimally everywhere. A translator would also allow performance testing using a single base code translated to a number of different APIs. Most significantly, this type of translator frees programmers to select the most appropriate API for a given application based on the application (and developer) itself instead of the underlying hardware.

  9. William Heberden and reverse translation.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Elazer R; LaMarco, Kelly

    2015-05-13

    Beginning with the 18th-century physician-scientist William Heberden, the elder, Science Translational Medicine introduces a new article series about historical figures whose transformational contributions to science, medicine, and society remain relevant today. PMID:25972000

  10. Charting the dynamics of translation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dominique; Thompson, James; von der Haar, Tobias

    2014-05-01

    Codon usage bias (CUB) is the well-known phenomenon that the frequency of synonymous codons is unequal. This is presumably the result of adaptive pressures favouring some codons over others. The underlying reason for this pressure is unknown, although a large number of possible driver mechanisms have been proposed. According to one hypothesis, the decoding time could be such a driver. A tacit assumption of this hypothesis is that faster codons lead to a higher translation rate which in turn is more resource efficient. While it is generally assumed that there is such a link, there are no rigorous studies to establish under which conditions the link between translation speed and rate actually exists. Using a computational simulation model and explicitly calculated codon decoding times, this contribution maps the entire range of dynamical regimes of translation. These simulations make it possible to understand precisely under which conditions translation speed and rate are linked. PMID:24631460

  11. Are Human Translated Pseudogenes Functional?

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinrui; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2016-03-01

    By definition, pseudogenes are relics of former genes that no longer possess biological functions. Operationally, they are identified based on disruptions of open reading frames (ORFs) or presumed losses of promoter activities. Intriguingly, a recent human proteomic study reported peptides encoded by 107 pseudogenes. These peptides may play currently unrecognized physiological roles. Alternatively, they may have resulted from accidental translations of pseudogene transcripts and possess no function. Comparing between human and macaque orthologs, we show that the nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratio (ω) is significantly smaller for translated pseudogenes than other pseudogenes. In particular, five of 34 translated pseudogenes amenable to evolutionary analysis have ω values significantly lower than 1, indicative of the action of purifying selection. This and other findings demonstrate that some but not all translated pseudogenes have selected functions at the protein level. Hence, neither ORF disruption nor presence of protein product disproves or proves gene functionality at the protein level.

  12. Translational progress on tumor biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongwei; Zhou, Xiaolin; Lu, Yi; Xie, Liye; Chen, Qian; Keller, Evan T; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Qinghua; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to apply basic research achievements to the clinic. In particular, mechanistic studies should be developed by bench researchers, depending upon clinical demands, in order to improve the survival and quality of life of cancer patients. To date, translational medicine has been addressed in cancer biology, particularly in the identification and characterization of novel tumor biomarkers. This review focuses on the recent achievements and clinical application prospects in tumor biomarkers based on translational medicine. PMID:26557902

  13. 15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northeast (90mm lens). The arched cutouts in the bottom chords of the roof trusses were necessary to provide clearance for the smokestacks of steam locomotives, and also mark the location of the former inspection pit in the floor (now filled in and covered by a new concrete floor). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  14. A coordination theory for intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Fei-Yue; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    A formal model for the coordination level of intelligent machines is established. The framework of the coordination level investigated consists of one dispatcher and a number of coordinators. The model called coordination structure has been used to describe analytically the information structure and information flow for the coordination activities in the coordination level. Specifically, the coordination structure offers a formalism to (1) describe the task translation of the dispatcher and coordinators; (2) represent the individual process within the dispatcher and coordinators; (3) specify the cooperation and connection among the dispatcher and coordinators; (4) perform the process analysis and evaluation; and (5) provide a control and communication mechanism for the real-time monitor or simulation of the coordination process. A simple procedure for the task scheduling in the coordination structure is presented. The task translation is achieved by a stochastic learning algorithm. The learning process is measured with entropy and its convergence is guaranteed. Finally, a case study of the coordination structure with three coordinators and one dispatcher for a simple intelligent manipulator system illustrates the proposed model and the simulation of the task processes performed on the model verifies the soundness of the theory.

  15. Diamond Measuring Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Krstulic, J.F.

    2000-01-27

    The fundamental goal of this project was to develop additional capabilities to the diamond measuring prototype, work out technical difficulties associated with the original device, and perform automated measurements which are accurate and repeatable. For this project, FM and T was responsible for the overall system design, edge extraction, and defect extraction and identification. AccuGem provided a lab and computer equipment in Lawrence, 3D modeling, industry expertise, and sets of diamonds for testing. The system executive software which controls stone positioning, lighting, focusing, report generation, and data acquisition was written in Microsoft Visual Basic 6, while data analysis and modeling were compiled in C/C++ DLLs. All scanning parameters and extracted data are stored in a central database and available for automated analysis and reporting. The Phase 1 study showed that data can be extracted and measured from diamond scans, but most of the information had to be manually extracted. In this Phase 2 project, all data required for geometric modeling and defect identification were automatically extracted and passed to a 3D modeling module for analysis. Algorithms were developed which automatically adjusted both light levels and stone focus positioning for each diamond-under-test. After a diamond is analyzed and measurements are completed, a report is printed for the customer which shows carat weight, summarizes stone geometry information, lists defects and their size, displays a picture of the diamond, and shows a plot of defects on a top view drawing of the stone. Initial emphasis of defect extraction was on identification of feathers, pinpoints, and crystals. Defects were plotted color-coded by industry standards for inclusions (red), blemishes (green), and unknown defects (blue). Diamonds with a wide variety of cut quality, size, and number of defects were tested in the machine. Edge extraction, defect extraction, and modeling code were tested for

  16. Will machines ever think

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence research has come under fire for failing to fulfill its promises. A growing number of AI researchers are reexamining the bases of AI research and are challenging the assumption that intelligent behavior can be fully explained as manipulation of symbols by algorithms. Three recent books -- Mind over Machine (H. Dreyfus and S. Dreyfus), Understanding Computers and Cognition (T. Winograd and F. Flores), and Brains, Behavior, and Robots (J. Albus) -- explore alternatives and open the door to new architectures that may be able to learn skills.

  17. CENTRIFUGAL CASTING MACHINE

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, A.B.

    1958-04-01

    A device is described that is specifically designed to cast uraniumn fuel rods in a vacuunn, in order to obtain flawless, nonoxidized castings which subsequently require a maximum of machining or wastage of the expensive processed material. A chamber surrounded with heating elements is connected to the molds, and the entire apparatus is housed in an airtight container. A charge of uranium is placed in the chamber, heated, then is allowed to flow into the molds While being rotated. Water circulating through passages in the molds chills the casting to form a fine grained fuel rod in nearly finished form.

  18. Formal modeling of virtual machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cremers, A. B.; Hibbard, T. N.

    1978-01-01

    Systematic software design can be based on the development of a 'hierarchy of virtual machines', each representing a 'level of abstraction' of the design process. The reported investigation presents the concept of 'data space' as a formal model for virtual machines. The presented model of a data space combines the notions of data type and mathematical machine to express the close interaction between data and control structures which takes place in a virtual machine. One of the main objectives of the investigation is to show that control-independent data type implementation is only of limited usefulness as an isolated tool of program development, and that the representation of data is generally dictated by the control context of a virtual machine. As a second objective, a better understanding is to be developed of virtual machine state structures than was heretofore provided by the view of the state space as a Cartesian product.

  19. The ribosomal protein Asc1/RACK1 is required for efficient translation of short mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Mary K; Rojas-Duran, Maria F; Gangaramani, Paritosh; Gilbert, Wendy V

    2016-01-01

    Translation is a core cellular process carried out by a highly conserved macromolecular machine, the ribosome. There has been remarkable evolutionary adaptation of this machine through the addition of eukaryote-specific ribosomal proteins whose individual effects on ribosome function are largely unknown. Here we show that eukaryote-specific Asc1/RACK1 is required for efficient translation of mRNAs with short open reading frames that show greater than average translational efficiency in diverse eukaryotes. ASC1 mutants in S. cerevisiae display compromised translation of specific functional groups, including cytoplasmic and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, and display cellular phenotypes consistent with their gene-specific translation defects. Asc1-sensitive mRNAs are preferentially associated with the translational ‘closed loop’ complex comprised of eIF4E, eIF4G, and Pab1, and depletion of eIF4G mimics the translational defects of ASC1 mutants. Together our results reveal a role for Asc1/RACK1 in a length-dependent initiation mechanism optimized for efficient translation of genes with important housekeeping functions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11154.001 PMID:27117520

  20. Interaction with Machine Improvisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo

    We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

  1. Smart Test Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Vern Wedeven, president of Wedeven Associates, developed the WAM4, a computer-aided "smart" test machine for simulating stress on equipment, based on his bearing lubrication expertise gained while working for Lewis Research Center. During his NASA years from the 1970s into the early 1980s, Wedeven initiated an "Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Tribology," an effort that involved NASA, six universities, and several university professors. The NASA-sponsored work provided foundation for Wedeven in 1983 to form his own company. Several versions of the smart test machine, the WAM1, WAM2, and WAM3, have proceeded the current version, WAM4. This computer-controlled device can provide detailed glimpses at gear and bearing points of contact. WAM4 can yield a three-dimensional view of machinery as an operator adds "what-if" thermal and lubrication conditions, contact stress, and surface motion. Along with NASA, a number of firms, including Pratt & Whitney, Caterpillar Tractor, Exxon, and Chevron have approached Wedeven for help on resolving lubrication problems.

  2. Neural network machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.O.; Czerniejewski, F.; Fluet, F.; Mitchell, E.

    1988-09-01

    Gould, Inc. and Nestor, Inc. cooperated on a joint development project to combine machine vision technology with neural network technology. The result is a machine vision system which can be trained by an inexperienced operator to perform qualitative classification. The hardware preprocessor reduces the information in the 2D camera image from 122,880 (i.e. 512 x 240) bytes to several hundred bytes in 64 milliseconds. The output of the preprocessor, which is in the format of connected lines, is fed to the first neural network. This neural network performs feature recognition. The output of the first neural network is a probability map. This map is fed to the input of the second neural network which performs object verification. The output of the second neural network is the object location and classification in the field of view. This information can optionally be fed into a third neural network which analyzes spatial relationships of objects in the field of view. The final output is a classification, by quality level, or by style. The system has been tested on applications ranging from the grading of plywood and the grading of paper to the sorting of fabricated metal parts. Specific application examples are presented.

  3. Large Surface Measuring Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egdall, Mark; Breidenthal, Robert S.

    1983-09-01

    A new surface measuring concept developed under government contract at Itek Optical Systems has been previously reported by Allen Greenleaf. The method uses four steerable distance-measuring interferometers at the corners of a tetrahedron to determine the posi-tions of a retroreflecting target at various locations on the surface being measured. A small wooden breadboard had been built and tested, demonstrating the feasibility of the concept. This paper reports the building of a scaled-up prototype surface measuring machine to allow the measurement of large aspheric surfaces. A major advantage of the device is that, unlike conventional interferometry, it provides surface measurement in absolute coordinates, thus allowing direct determination of radius of curvature. In addition, the device is self-calibrating. Measurements of a 24-inch mirror have been made with the new machine, giving repeatability of 4 µ m peak sag in the curvature and accuracy of 0.7 μm rms in the surface figure at best focus. The device is currently being used in the production grinding of large aspheric mirrors at Itek. The device is potentially scalable to other industries where highly accurate measurement of unusual surfaces is required.

  4. Multiple man-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, L.; Cook, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The multiple man machine interfaces inherent in military pilot training, their social implications, and the issue of possible negative feedback were explored. Modern technology has produced machines which can see, hear, and touch with greater accuracy and precision than human beings. Consequently, the military pilot is more a systems manager, often doing battle against a target he never sees. It is concluded that unquantifiable human activity requires motivation that is not intrinsic in a machine.

  5. Diamond Machining Applications And Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Roland J.

    1983-12-01

    Aspheric surface generation and precision machining have been important technologies at Hughes Optical Products, Inc. (formerly Optical Division, Bell & Howell Company) for over twenty years. Present machining capabilities and supporting services which are available on a custom basis are described. A variety of applications of diamond machining are illustrated, involving not only the usual reflective materials such as aluminum, copper, and electroless nickel but also such IR refractive materials as germanium, silicon, and chalcogenide glasses.

  6. Some Principles of Learning and Learning with the Aid of Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolyatovskii, V. A.; Sotnikov, E. M.

    A translated Soviet document describes some theories of learning, and the practical problems of developing a teaching machine--as taught in an Industrial Electronics course (in the automation and telemechanics curriculum). The point is stressed that the growing number of students at institutions of higher learning in the Soviet Union, up forty…

  7. Views of Translational Research from a Somewhat Translational Scientist

    PubMed Central

    Talman, William T.

    2013-01-01

    This review arose from a talk entitled “Identifying Targets” and given by the author at EB2011 at the invitation of the American Federation for Medical Research (AFMR). The presentation was part of the AFMR workshop entitled “Keys for Translation: Science and Strategy” and focused on identifying clinically relevant targets as a result of observations made during basic scientific studies. The review emphasizes that targets do not have to be the aim that drives basic discovery, but communication between the basic scientist and clinical investigators may aid recognition of such targets and their translation to clinical applications. Using one line of investigator-initiated research from his own laboratory as an example, the author emphasizes that basic discovery must be hypothesis driven and allowed to follow its logical sequence. Finding treatments, while always an aim of biomedical research, may arise as a result of basic studies that were not originally aimed at a target of translational research. PMID:22781556

  8. An Efficient Modified Interpolation Technique for the Translation Operators in MLFMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jun; Nie, Zaiping; Zou, Guangxian

    2005-01-01

    Based on multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA), large target-scale problems can be solved efficiently now. The translation operators are amenable for the efficiency of MLFMA. In this paper, an efficient modified interpolation technique is developed for fast evaluation of translation operators. Different form other efficient techniques for translation operators in which only the evaluation of multiple angles is performed, the space-distance interpolation is implemented by introducing a modified factor. Two-dimensional Lagrange interpolation technique is used to realize fast computation of the operators in case of multiple space-distance and angles at a given level. Low computer storage for translation operators is required. The present technique is suitable for distributed memory machines.

  9. Translation Ambiguity in and out of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Anat; Wintner, Shuly; MacWhinney, Brian; Lavie, Alon

    2011-01-01

    We compare translations of single words, made by bilingual speakers in a laboratory setting, with contextualized translation choices of the same items, made by professional translators and extracted from parallel language corpora. The translation choices in both cases show moderate convergence, demonstrating that decontextualized translation…

  10. Daisaku Ikeda and the Culture of Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebert, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Although not functionally multilingual or a translator himself, Daisaku Ikeda has been deeply involved in translation processes, both as a reader and as someone who has produced texts for translation into various languages. This article examines two sources of influence shaping Ikeda's attitude toward translation culture: the flourishing culture…

  11. Power Relations and Translational Inequality in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xianbin, He

    2007-01-01

    Chinese translation to and from Japanese and English verifies the hypothesis that power differentials influence the flow and reception of translations. The Chinese tradition of translation has been characterised by fluency, but some scholars have recently advocated foreignisation for English to Chinese translation, and domestication for Chinese to…

  12. Barriers vs Creativity in Translator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazici, Mine

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses translation problems awaiting Turkish students as well as the creative solutions they develop in overcoming them. It consists of two parts; The first part studies the barriers concerning translation procedures from the perspective of translation theory and Turkish translation history; The second parts analyses the impact of…

  13. Niveaux de la traduction (Levels of Translation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darbelnet, Jean

    1977-01-01

    In the hope of throwing some light on the process of translation, and within the framework of a specific definition of translation, nine levels of literary and general translation are identified. The responsibilities of the translator are discussed. French is used in the examples. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  14. The Role of Semantics in Translation Recognition: Effects of Number of Translations, Dominance of Translations and Semantic Relatedness of Multiple Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laxen, Jannika; Lavaur, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of multiple translations of a word on bilingual processing in three translation recognition experiments during which French-English bilinguals had to decide whether two words were translations of each other or not. In the first experiment, words with only one translation were recognized as translations…

  15. Standardized Curriculum for Machine Tool Operation/Machine Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: machine tool operation/machine shop I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation; (2) shop safety; (3) shop math; (4) measuring tools and instruments; (5) hand and bench tools; (6) blueprint reading; (7)…

  16. Machine Shop Milling Machines. Oklahoma Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trades at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes and part-time adult classes. It can also be adapted to open-entry,…

  17. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Four: The Milling Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the fourth of four topic areas: the milling machine. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish competency for…

  18. A Wavelet Bicoherence-Based Quadratic Nonlinearity Feature for Translational Axis Condition Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Wang, Xiufeng; Lin, Jing; Shi, Shengyu

    2014-01-01

    The translational axis is one of the most important subsystems in modern machine tools, as its degradation may result in the loss of the product qualification and lower the control precision. Condition-based maintenance (CBM) has been considered as one of the advanced maintenance schemes to achieve effective, reliable and cost-effective operation of machine systems, however, current vibration-based maintenance schemes cannot be employed directly in the translational axis system, due to its complex structure and the inefficiency of commonly used condition monitoring features. In this paper, a wavelet bicoherence-based quadratic nonlinearity feature is proposed for translational axis condition monitoring by using the torque signature of the drive servomotor. Firstly, the quadratic nonlinearity of the servomotor torque signature is discussed, and then, a biphase randomization wavelet bicoherence is introduced for its quadratic nonlinear detection. On this basis, a quadratic nonlinearity feature is proposed for condition monitoring of the translational axis. The properties of the proposed quadratic nonlinearity feature are investigated by simulations. Subsequently, this feature is applied to the real-world servomotor torque data collected from the X-axis on a high precision vertical machining centre. All the results show that the performance of the proposed feature is much better than that of original condition monitoring features. PMID:24473281

  19. The Potential to Machine Superconductors with Electrochemical Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leese, Rebecca J.; Ivanov, Atanas; Babu-Nadendla, Hari

    2016-01-01

    Superconductors (SCs), such as gadolinium barium copper oxide, are brittle ceramics which are very difficult to machine conventionally due to the easy propagation of cracks. The cracks formed during conventional machining destroy the superconductive properties of the material. As a result a new method to machine ceramic SCs is needed. In this paper, polarization experiments were conducted in various nonaqueous salt electrolytes to determine whether electrochemical machining (ECM) is a suitable method for machining gadolinium barium copper oxide with silver inclusions (GdBCO-Ag) for the first time. Sodium chloride in formic acid proved to be the best electrolyte for this application with higher dissolution rates and achieving a better surface finish. It was noted that GdBCO-Ag dissolved at higher rates in NaCl in formic acid than in other salt-solvent systems.

  20. Extremal quantum cloning machines

    SciTech Connect

    Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.; Cerf, N.J.

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the problem of cloning a set of states that is invariant under the action of an irreducible group representation. We then characterize the cloners that are extremal in the convex set of group covariant cloning machines, among which one can restrict the search for optimal cloners. For a set of states that is invariant under the discrete Weyl-Heisenberg group, we show that all extremal cloners can be unitarily realized using the so-called double-Bell states, whence providing a general proof of the popular ansatz used in the literature for finding optimal cloners in a variety of settings. Our result can also be generalized to continuous-variable optimal cloning in infinite dimensions, where the covariance group is the customary Weyl-Heisenberg group of displacement000.

  1. Electropulse chemical machining

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.A.; Rospopo, S.D.

    1984-08-01

    Electropulse Chemical Machining is a new technique in chemical milling, and we have applied it to the photoforming of molybdenum. We apply direct current in short pulses at current densities of thousands of amperes per square foot with little thermal degradation of resists or workpieces. We have achieved etch rates an order of magnitude faster than those of existing methods, with a corresponding improvement in surface finish. Equipment designed for pulse plating can be used and is readily available from plating suppliers. Chemicals are commercially available and may be diluted to levels that protect resist images, reduce hazards to personnel, and simplify disposal. We speculate that this process can be applied to other refractory metals and noble metals.

  2. The Pragmatics of Translation. Topics in Translation 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Leo, Ed.

    Pragmatics, often defined as the study of language use and language users, sets out to explain what people wish to achieve and how they go about achieving it using language. The thirteen chapters in this volume show how translation (skill, art, process, and product) is affected by pragmatic factors such as the acts performed by people when they…

  3. JavaScript DNA translator: DNA-aligned protein translations.

    PubMed

    Perry, William L

    2002-12-01

    There are many instances in molecular biology when it is necessary to identify ORFs in a DNA sequence. While programs exist for displaying protein translations in multiple ORFs in alignment with a DNA sequence, they are often expensive, exist as add-ons to software that must be purchased, or are only compatible with a particular operating system. JavaScript DNA Translator is a shareware application written in JavaScript, a scripting language interpreted by the Netscape Communicator and Internet Explorer Web browsers, which makes it compatible with several different operating systems. While the program uses a familiar Web page interface, it requires no connection to the Internet since calculations are performed on the user's own computer. The program analyzes one or multiple DNA sequences and generates translations in up to six reading frames aligned to a DNA sequence, in addition to displaying translations as separate sequences in FASTA format. ORFs within a reading frame can also be displayed as separate sequences. Flexible formatting options are provided, including the ability to hide ORFs below a minimum size specified by the user. The program is available free of charge at the BioTechniques Software Library (www.Biotechniques.com).

  4. Nurturing and Testing Translation Competence for Text-Translating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubakirova, Karlygash Adilkhanovna

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the problems of contemporary professional education. As its instance, we examine the developmental scheme for training professional translators. Optimal ways of organizing the learning process are suggested from the point of view of the competence approach, which is widely recognized for training a modern specialist. The…

  5. Diglossia in Literary Translation: Accommodation into Translation Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zughoul, Muhammad Raji; El-Badarien, Mohammed Nasser

    Sociolinguistic research on varieties of language and language variation, along with the necessity for meeting "equivalence" in terms of the appropriateness of the variety to the context have been well recognized in the formulation of a translation theory. However, the treatment of variation has always been restricted to dialect and has not…

  6. Immunocapture strategies in translational proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Fredolini, Claudia; Byström, Sanna; Pin, Elisa; Edfors, Fredrik; Tamburro, Davide; Iglesias, Maria Jesus; Häggmark, Anna; Hong, Mun-Gwan; Uhlen, Mathias; Nilsson, Peter; Schwenk, Jochen M

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at clinical studies of human diseases, antibody-assisted assays have been applied to biomarker discovery and toward a streamlined translation from patient profiling to assays supporting personalized treatments. In recent years, integrated strategies to couple and combine antibodies with mass spectrometry-based proteomic efforts have emerged, allowing for novel possibilities in basic and clinical research. Described in this review are some of the field’s current and emerging immunocapture approaches from an affinity proteomics perspective. Discussed are some of their advantages, pitfalls and opportunities for the next phase in clinical and translational proteomics. PMID:26558424

  7. Translational control of synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joel D

    2010-12-01

    Synapses, points of contact between axons and dendrites, are conduits for the flow of information in the circuitry of the central nervous system. The strength of synaptic transmission reflects the interconnectedness of the axons and dendrites at synapses; synaptic strength in turn is modified by the frequency with which the synapses are stimulated. This modulation of synaptic strength, or synaptic plasticity, probably forms the cellular basis for learning and memory. RNA metabolism, particularly translational control at or near the synapse, is one process that controls long-lasting synaptic plasticity and, by extension, memory formation and consolidation. In the present paper, I review some salient features of translational control of synaptic plasticity.

  8. Techniques for Screening Translation Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Osterman, Ilya A.; Bogdanov, Alexey A.; Dontsova, Olga A.; Sergiev, Petr V.

    2016-01-01

    The machinery of translation is one of the most common targets of antibiotics. The development and screening of new antibiotics usually proceeds by testing antimicrobial activity followed by laborious studies of the mechanism of action. High-throughput methods for new antibiotic screening based on antimicrobial activity have become routine; however, identification of molecular targets is usually a challenge. Therefore, it is highly beneficial to combine primary screening with the identification of the mechanism of action. In this review, we describe a collection of methods for screening translation inhibitors, with a special emphasis on methods which can be performed in a high-throughput manner. PMID:27348012

  9. Machining of uranium and uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, T.O.

    1981-12-14

    Uranium and uranium alloys can be readily machined by conventional methods in the standard machine shop when proper safety and operating techniques are used. Material properties that affect machining processes and recommended machining parameters are discussed. Safety procedures and precautions necessary in machining uranium and uranium alloys are also covered. 30 figures.

  10. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  11. Cleaning of Free Machining Brass

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, T

    2005-12-29

    We have investigated four brightening treatments proposed by two cleaning vendors for cleaning free machining brass. The experimental results showed that none of the proposed brightening treatments passed the swipe test. Thus, we maintain the recommendation of not using the brightening process in the cleaning of free machining brass for NIF application.

  12. Self-Adjusting Teaching Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovgyallo, A. M.

    A study was made on the synthesis of teaching machine elements to ensure the stabilization of the chi indicator of the teaching process of each student. At first, a procedure was developed for calculating the chi indicator for the case when the teaching machine predicts the magnitude of this indicator based on probabilities derived from an…

  13. Contraction-Only Exercise Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerr, Donald F.; Maples, Arthur B.; Campbell, Craig M.

    1992-01-01

    Standard knee-extension machine modified so subject experiences force only when lifting leg against stack of weights. Exerts little force on leg while being lowered. Hydraulic cylinder and reservoir mounted on frame of exercise machine. Fluid flows freely from cylinder to reservoir during contraction (lifting) but in constricted fashion from reservoir to cylinder during extension (lowering).

  14. The Machine Intelligence Hex Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalup, Stephan K.; Mellor, Drew; Rosamond, Fran

    2005-01-01

    Hex is a challenging strategy board game for two players. To enhance students' progress in acquiring understanding and practical experience with complex machine intelligence and programming concepts we developed the Machine Intelligence Hex (MIHex) project. The associated undergraduate student assignment is about designing and implementing Hex…

  15. Machine Trades Lab Management Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This manual was developed to guide machine trades instructors and vocational supervisors in sequencing laboratory instruction and controlling the flow of work for a 2-year machine trades training program. The first part of the guide provides information on program management (program description, safety concerns, academic issues, implementation…

  16. Man and Machines: Three Criticisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Edward F.

    As machines have become a more common part of daily life through the passage of time, the idea that the line separating man and machine is slowly fading has become more popular as well. This paper examines three critics of change through their most famous works. One of the most popular views of Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein" is that it is a…

  17. TEACHING MACHINES AND PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNSON, HERBERT; AND OTHERS

    THE TEACHING MACHINE AND PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION ARE EXPLAINED ANALYTICALLY IN TERMS OF LABORATORY PROCEDURES. AN EXPLANATION IS GIVEN OF THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE STUDENT. TEACHING MACHINES ALLEVIATE SOME PROBLEMS OF STUDENT-TEACHER RELATIONSHIPS, SUCH AS APATHY, STUBBORNNESS, AND RESENTMENT. HIGHER LEVELS OF CONCENTRATION ARE MAINTAINED. SOME…

  18. TEACHING MACHINE STUDY. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EVCO, Albuquerque, NM.

    IN AN INVESTIGATION OF THE POTENTIAL OF TEACHING MACHINES IN THE JOB CORPS MATHEMATICS PROGRAM, EXISTING JOB CORPS ARITHMETIC MATERIAL WAS PREPARED FOR INSTRUCTION BY MACHINE AND PROGRAMED TEXT, AND THEN FIELD TESTED. REVISIONS WERE MADE, AND A PROGRAMED MANUAL FOR INSTRUCTORS WRITTEN, AFTER WHICH A NEW FIELD TEST WAS RUN. IN THE INITIAL FIELD…

  19. Machine Shop: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    Intended for use by all machine shop instructors in the Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools, this guide provides a sequential listing of course content and scope. A course description provides a brief overview of the content of the courses offered in the machine shop program. General course objectives are then listed. Outlines of the course…

  20. Man Machine Systems in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sall, Malkit S.

    This review of the research literature on the interaction between humans and computers discusses how man machine systems can be utilized effectively in the learning-teaching process, especially in secondary education. Beginning with a definition of man machine systems and comments on the poor quality of much of the computer-based learning material…

  1. Recent Discoveries and Bible Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Discusses recent discoveries for "Bible" translation with a focus on the "Dead Sea Scrolls." Examines recent discoveries that provide direct support for alternative reading of biblical passages and those discoveries that have contributed additional insight to knowledge of cultural practices, especially legal and religious practices. (DB)

  2. Advancing neurosurgery through translational research.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Claire; Sutherland, Garnette

    2013-01-01

    Every year, the number of published research articles increases significantly. However, many potentially useful ideas are lost in this flood of data. Translational research provides a framework through which investigators or laboratories can maximize the likelihood that the product of their research will be adopted in medical practice. There are 2 recognizable models of translation appropriate for the majority of research: investigator driven and industry enabled. Investigator-driven research has more range because it does not have to consider the profit margin of research, but it is a slow process. The industry-enabled model accelerates the translational research process through the power of industry funding but is interested primarily in products with potential for profit. Two cases are examined to illustrate different methods of partnering with industry. IMRIS is a company founded by investigators to distribute intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging technology based on a movable high-field magnet. It took 7 years for IMRIS to make its first sale, but it is now a successful company. With neuroArm, a surgical robot, investigators decided to sell the intellectual property to an established company to ensure successful global commercialization. Translational research advances medicine by creating and distributing effective solutions to contemporary problems. PMID:23254806

  3. Translational Research and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Borrowing the term "translational research" (TR) from medicine, along with some of the ideas and practices that define it, holds promise as a way of linking research more closely to the practice of youth development. However, doing so entails substantial adaptation. TR is more than a new name for applied research. It comprehends the…

  4. Knowledge Translation in Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kurt; Brown, Pat; Harniss, Mark; Schomer, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The process and importance of Knowledge Translation (KT) for the field of rehabilitation counseling is described. One element of the KT process, systematic reviews of the literature, is described along with several strategies for grading evidence. Practicing clinicians, as do consumers, encounter a number of barriers to using primary source…

  5. Livestock models in translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Roth, James A; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on livestock models in translational medicine. Livestock models of selected human diseases present important advantages as compared with rodent models for translating fundamental breakthroughs in biology to useful preventatives and therapeutics for humans. Livestock reflect the complexity of applying medical advances in an outbred species. In many cases, the pathogenesis of infectious, metabolic, genetic, and neoplastic diseases in livestock species more closely resembles that in humans than does the pathogenesis of rodent models. Livestock models also provide the advantage of similar organ size and function and the ability to serially sample an animal throughout the study period. Research using livestock models for human disease often benefits not only human health but animal health and food production as well. This issue of the ILAR Journal presents information on translational research using livestock models in two broad areas: microbiology and infectious disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, mycobacterial infections, influenza A virus infection, vaccine development and testing, the human microbiota) and metabolic, neoplastic, and genetic disorders (stem cell therapy, male germ line cell biology, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, muscular dystrophy, wound healing). In addition, there is a manuscript devoted to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees' responsibilities for reviewing research using livestock models. Conducting translational research using livestock models requires special facilities and researchers with expertise in livestock. There are many institutions in the world with experienced researchers and facilities designed for livestock research; primarily associated with colleges of agriculture and veterinary medicine or government laboratories.

  6. Time Translation of Quantum Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laura, Roberto; Vanni, Leonardo

    2009-02-01

    Based on the notion of time translation, we develop a formalism to deal with the logic of quantum properties at different times. In our formalism it is possible to enlarge the usual notion of context to include composed properties involving properties at different times. We compare our results with the theory of consistent histories.

  7. Stroke-Related Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Louis R.; Arenillas, Juan; Cramer, Steven C.; Joutel, Anne; Lo, Eng H.; Meschia, James; Savitz, Sean; Tournier-Lasserve, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Stroke-related translational research is multifaceted. Herein, we highlight genome-wide association studies and genetic studies of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, COL4A1 mutations, and cerebral cavernous malformations; advances in molecular biology and biomarkers; newer brain imaging research; and recovery from stroke emphasizing cell-based and other rehabilitative modalities. PMID:21555605

  8. Translations That You Can Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attwood, Peter

    An approach to text translation that focuses on understanding the original text and the writer's intentions is outlined. The approach uses a sequence of steps including: studying the text carefully, knowing the writer's background, analyzing the text, understanding the writer's use of words, normalizing the text's grammatical form, composing the…

  9. Semiotic web for translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Ramaprasad, Arkalgud; Kashyap, Vipul

    2008-11-06

    The semiotic web for translational medicine generalizes the concept of the semantic web. We present the functions of the semiotic web as a simple ontology with three dimensions, namely: (a) the four steps of semiotics, (b) the two processes in semiotics, and (c) the four types of research. The resulting 32 combinations represent all its functions.

  10. Synaptic Plasticity and Translation Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klann, Eric; Antion, Marcia D.; Banko, Jessica L.; Hou, Lingfei

    2004-01-01

    It is widely accepted that protein synthesis, including local protein synthesis at synapses, is required for several forms of synaptic plasticity. Local protein synthesis enables synapses to control synaptic strength independent of the cell body via rapid protein production from pre-existing mRNA. Therefore, regulation of translation initiation is…

  11. Unsupervised Quality Estimation Model for English to German Translation and Its Application in Extensive Supervised Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Aaron L.-F.; Wong, Derek F.; Chao, Lidia S.; He, Liangye; Lu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of machine translation (MT), the MT evaluation becomes very important to timely tell us whether the MT system makes any progress. The conventional MT evaluation methods tend to calculate the similarity between hypothesis translations offered by automatic translation systems and reference translations offered by professional translators. There are several weaknesses in existing evaluation metrics. Firstly, the designed incomprehensive factors result in language-bias problem, which means they perform well on some special language pairs but weak on other language pairs. Secondly, they tend to use no linguistic features or too many linguistic features, of which no usage of linguistic feature draws a lot of criticism from the linguists and too many linguistic features make the model weak in repeatability. Thirdly, the employed reference translations are very expensive and sometimes not available in the practice. In this paper, the authors propose an unsupervised MT evaluation metric using universal part-of-speech tagset without relying on reference translations. The authors also explore the performances of the designed metric on traditional supervised evaluation tasks. Both the supervised and unsupervised experiments show that the designed methods yield higher correlation scores with human judgments. PMID:24892086

  12. Nanomedicine: Tiny Particles and Machines Give Huge Gains

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Sheng; Fine, Eli J.; Lin, Yanni; Cradick, Thomas J.; Bao, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Nanomedicine is an emerging field that integrates nanotechnology, biomolecular engineering, life sciences and medicine; it is expected to produce major breakthroughs in medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Nano-scale structures and devices are compatible in size with proteins and nucleic acids in living cells. Therefore, the design, characterization and application of nano-scale probes, carriers and machines may provide unprecedented opportunities for achieving a better control of biological processes, and drastic improvements in disease detection, therapy, and prevention. Recent advances in nanomedicine include the development of nanoparticle-based probes for molecular imaging, nano-carriers for drug/gene delivery, multi-functional nanoparticles for theranostics, and molecular machines for biological and medical studies. This article provides an overview of the nanomedicine field, with an emphasis on nanoparticles for imaging and therapy, as well as engineered nucleases for genome editing. The challenges in translating nanomedicine approaches to clinical applications are discussed. PMID:24297494

  13. The Central Dogma Decentralized: New Perspectives on RNA Function and Local Translation in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Christine E.; Schuman, Erin M.

    2013-01-01

    The elaborate morphology of neurons together with the information processing that occurs in remote dendritic and axonal compartments makes the use of decentralized cell biological machines necessary. Recent years have witnessed a revolution in our understanding of signaling in neuronal compartments and the manifold functions of a variety of RNA molecules that regulate protein translation and other cellular functions. Here we discuss the view that mRNA localization and RNA-regulated and localized translation underlie many fundamental neuronal processes and highlight key issues for future experiments. PMID:24183017

  14. Thermal analog device reduces machining errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Thermal analog devices predict thermal expansion and contraction of machine structures subjected to various heat inputs. Analog devices correct positioning of machine tools to compensate for distortion of machine frame.

  15. Genetic Analysis of Chloroplast Translation

    SciTech Connect

    Barkan, Alice

    2005-08-15

    The assembly of the photosynthetic apparatus requires the concerted action of hundreds of genes distributed between the two physically separate genomes in the nucleus and chloroplast. Nuclear genes coordinate this process by controlling the expression of chloroplast genes in response to developmental and environmental cues. However, few regulatory factors have been identified. We used mutant phenotypes to identify nuclear genes in maize that modulate chloroplast translation, a key control point in chloroplast gene expression. This project focused on the nuclear gene crp1, required for the translation of two chloroplast mRNAs. CRP1 is related to fungal proteins involved in the translation of mitochondrial mRNAs, and is the founding member of a large gene family in plants, with {approx}450 members. Members of the CRP1 family are defined by a repeated 35 amino acid motif called a ''PPR'' motif. The PPR motif is closely related to the TPR motif, which mediates protein-protein interactions. We and others have speculated that PPR tracts adopt a structure similar to that of TPR tracts, but with a substrate binding surface adapted to bind RNA instead of protein. To understand how CRP1 influences the translation of specific chloroplast mRNAs, we sought proteins that interact with CRP1, and identified the RNAs associated with CRP1 in vivo. We showed that CRP1 is associated in vivo with the mRNAs whose translation it activates. To explore the functions of PPR proteins more generally, we sought mutations in other PPR-encoding genes: mutations in the maize PPR2 and PPR4 were shown to disrupt chloroplast ribosome biogenesis and chloroplast trans-splicing, respectively. These and other results suggest that the nuclear-encoded PPR family plays a major role in modulating the expression of the chloroplast genome in higher plants.

  16. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  17. Machine and process characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Love, L.W.

    1992-12-01

    A study was conducted to statistically characterize 11 precision machining centers to determine their operating characteristics and process capabilities. Measurement probes and a ball plate were used for measurement analysis. A generic test part designed with geometric features that the department typically manufactures was machined using various machining processes. A better understanding of each machine`s characteristics and process capability was realized through repeating these methods on each machine.

  18. Machine vision for digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2010-01-01

    Machine vision is widely used in an industrial environment today. It can perform various tasks, such as inspecting and controlling production processes, that may require humanlike intelligence. The importance of imaging technology for biological research or medical diagnosis is greater than ever. For example, fluorescent reporter imaging enables scientists to study the dynamics of gene networks with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such high-throughput imaging is increasingly demanding the use of machine vision for real-time analysis and control. Digital microfluidics is a relatively new technology with expectations of becoming a true lab-on-a-chip platform. Utilizing digital microfluidics, only small amounts of biological samples are required and the experimental procedures can be automatically controlled. There is a strong need for the development of a digital microfluidics system integrated with machine vision for innovative biological research today. In this paper, we show how machine vision can be applied to digital microfluidics by demonstrating two applications: machine vision-based measurement of the kinetics of biomolecular interactions and machine vision-based droplet motion control. It is expected that digital microfluidics-based machine vision system will add intelligence and automation to high-throughput biological imaging in the future.

  19. Machine vision for digital microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2010-01-01

    Machine vision is widely used in an industrial environment today. It can perform various tasks, such as inspecting and controlling production processes, that may require humanlike intelligence. The importance of imaging technology for biological research or medical diagnosis is greater than ever. For example, fluorescent reporter imaging enables scientists to study the dynamics of gene networks with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such high-throughput imaging is increasingly demanding the use of machine vision for real-time analysis and control. Digital microfluidics is a relatively new technology with expectations of becoming a true lab-on-a-chip platform. Utilizing digital microfluidics, only small amounts of biological samples are required and the experimental procedures can be automatically controlled. There is a strong need for the development of a digital microfluidics system integrated with machine vision for innovative biological research today. In this paper, we show how machine vision can be applied to digital microfluidics by demonstrating two applications: machine vision-based measurement of the kinetics of biomolecular interactions and machine vision-based droplet motion control. It is expected that digital microfluidics-based machine vision system will add intelligence and automation to high-throughput biological imaging in the future.

  20. Applications of the connection machine

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Connection Machine development effort was initiated in the belief that parallel processing and artificial intelligence could together accelerate the rate of progress toward truly intelligent machines. This progress is the result of the ease with which the machine can be programmed and the dramatic increase in compute power that the machine can bring to bear. The authors have been able to run many trials of experiments in instances where previously, running just one would have been considered an achievement and no further experimentation would have been done. This has enabled exploring a great many more hypotheses and to work on much larger problems that had been possible on previous-generation artificial intelligence workstations. The ease of programming is in part the result of a decision to use existing serial machines (the Symbolics 3600 or Digital Equipment Corporation VAX), thus leaving unchanged the operating systems, editors, file systems, debuggers, network communications systems, and so on, so as to provide familiar programming environments. The Connection Machine is programmed in conservative extensions of Common Lisp and C. Users familiar with these languages and with front-end computer systems have been able to produce results on the Connection Machine on the first day that they use it.

  1. Frozen beverage machine

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.

    1988-04-12

    A frozen beverage machine is described, comprising: a. a frame having an exterior, an interior, a front and a back; b. a cylinder, having an interior and an exterior as well as first and second ends and further having an opening in each of the ends, the cylinder being horizontally and fixedly positioned within the interior of the frame with the second end facing the front of the frame; c. a means, sealingly attached to the opening in the second end of the cylinder, for emptying the cylinder; d. a means, positioned within the frame and communicating with the exterior of the cylinder, for removing heat from the cylinder; e. at least one support bracket; f. a shaft, rotatably attached within the opening in the support bracket and rotatably and sealingly attached within the opening in the first end of the cylinder and extending to the interior of the cylinder; g. a motor assembly, operatively connected to a portion of the shaft exterior to the cylinder and suspended from the shaft such that the weight of the motor assembly is supported only by the shaft; h. a contact switch; and i. a resilient means, connected to the frame and the motor assembly, for maintaining the position of the motor assembly relative to the shaft until a desired threshold resistance to rotation of the shaft within the cylinder occur, and then allowing the motor assembly to rotate to a desired position relative to the shaft.

  2. Video Time Encoding Machines

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Aurel A.; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate architectures for time encoding and time decoding of visual stimuli such as natural and synthetic video streams (movies, animation). The architecture for time encoding is akin to models of the early visual system. It consists of a bank of filters in cascade with single-input multi-output neural circuits. Neuron firing is based on either a threshold-and-fire or an integrate-and-fire spiking mechanism with feedback. We show that analog information is represented by the neural circuits as projections on a set of band-limited functions determined by the spike sequence. Under Nyquist-type and frame conditions, the encoded signal can be recovered from these projections with arbitrary precision. For the video time encoding machine architecture, we demonstrate that band-limited video streams of finite energy can be faithfully recovered from the spike trains and provide a stable algorithm for perfect recovery. The key condition for recovery calls for the number of neurons in the population to be above a threshold value. PMID:21296708

  3. Video time encoding machines.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Aurel A; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A

    2011-03-01

    We investigate architectures for time encoding and time decoding of visual stimuli such as natural and synthetic video streams (movies, animation). The architecture for time encoding is akin to models of the early visual system. It consists of a bank of filters in cascade with single-input multi-output neural circuits. Neuron firing is based on either a threshold-and-fire or an integrate-and-fire spiking mechanism with feedback. We show that analog information is represented by the neural circuits as projections on a set of band-limited functions determined by the spike sequence. Under Nyquist-type and frame conditions, the encoded signal can be recovered from these projections with arbitrary precision. For the video time encoding machine architecture, we demonstrate that band-limited video streams of finite energy can be faithfully recovered from the spike trains and provide a stable algorithm for perfect recovery. The key condition for recovery calls for the number of neurons in the population to be above a threshold value.

  4. Size reduction machine

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, V.

    1999-12-15

    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users.

  5. Lubrication of Machine Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    The understanding of hydrodynamic lubrication began with the classical experiments of Tower and Petrov. Reynolds used a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation to generate a second order differential equation for the pressure in the narrow, converging gap of a bearing contact. Such a pressure enables a load to be transmitted between the surfaces with very low friction since the surfaces are completely separated by a film of fluid. In such a situation it is the physical properties of the lubricant, notably the dynamic viscosity, that dictate the behavior of the contact. The understanding of boundary lubrication is normally attributed to Hardy and Doubleday. In boundary lubrication it is the physical and chemical properties of thin films of molecular proportions and the surfaces to which they are attached that determine contact behavior. The lubricant viscosity is not an influential parameter. Research is devoted to a better understanding and more precise definition of other lubrication regimes between these extremes. One such regime, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, occurs in nonconformal contacts, where the pressures are high and the bearing surfaces deform elastically. In this situation the viscosity of the lubricant may raise considerably, and this further assists the formation of an effective fluid film. The science of these three lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary) are described and the manner in which this science is used in the design of machine elements is examined.

  6. A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    A three-tier structure consisting of organization, coordination, and execution levels forms the architecture of an intelligent machine using the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence from a hierarchically intelligent control. This system has been formulated as a probabilistic model, where uncertainty and imprecision can be expressed in terms of entropies. The optimal strategy for decision planning and task execution can be found by minimizing the total entropy in the system. The focus is on the design of the organization level as a Boltzmann machine. Since this level is responsible for planning the actions of the machine, the Boltzmann machine is reformulated to use entropy as the cost function to be minimized. Simulated annealing, expanding subinterval random search, and the genetic algorithm are presented as search techniques to efficiently find the desired action sequence and illustrated with numerical examples.

  7. A MEMS Micro-Translation Stage with Long Linear Translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Cynthia K.; English, J. M.; Nordin, G. P.; Ashley, P. R.; Abushagur, M. A. G.

    2004-01-01

    A MEMS Micro-Translation Stage (MTS) actuator concept has been developed that is capable of traveling long distances, while maintaining low power, low voltage, and accuracy as required by many applications, including optical coupling. The Micro-Translation Stage (MTS) uses capacitive electrostatic forces in a linear motor application, with stationary stators arranged linearly on both sides of a channel, and matching rotors on a moveable shuttle. This creates a force that allows the shuttle to be pulled along the channel. It is designed to carry 100 micron-sized elements on the top surface, and can travel back and forth in the channel, either in a stepping fashion allowing many interim stops, or it can maintain constant adjustable speeds for a controlled scanning motion. The MTS travel range is limited only by the size of the fabrication wafer. Analytical modeling and simulations were performed based on the fabrication process, to assure the stresses, friction and electrostatic forces were acceptable to allow successful operation of this device. The translation forces were analyzed to be near 0.5 micron N, with a 300 micron N stop-to-stop time of 11.8 ms.

  8. Slide system for machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Douglass, Spivey S.; Green, Walter L.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention relates to a machine tool which permits the machining of nonaxisymmetric surfaces on a workpiece while rotating the workpiece about a central axis of rotation. The machine tool comprises a conventional two-slide system (X-Y) with one of these slides being provided with a relatively short travel high-speed auxiliary slide which carries the material-removing tool. The auxiliary slide is synchronized with the spindle speed and the position of the other two slides and provides a high-speed reciprocating motion required for the displacement of the cutting tool for generating a nonaxisymmetric surface at a selected location on the workpiece.

  9. Slide system for machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Douglass, S.S.; Green, W.L.

    1980-06-12

    The present invention relates to a machine tool which permits the machining of nonaxisymmetric surfaces on a workpiece while rotating the workpiece about a central axis of rotation. The machine tool comprises a conventional two-slide system (X-Y) with one of these slides being provided with a relatively short travel high-speed auxiliary slide which carries the material-removing tool. The auxiliary slide is synchronized with the spindle speed and the position of the other two slides and provides a high-speed reciprocating motion required for the displacement of the cutting tool for generating a nonaxisymmetric surface at a selected location on the workpiece.

  10. Gloved Human-Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard (Inventor); Olowin, Aaron (Inventor); Hannaford, Blake (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Certain exemplary embodiments can provide a system, machine, device, manufacture, circuit, composition of matter, and/or user interface adapted for and/or resulting from, and/or a method and/or machine-readable medium comprising machine-implementable instructions for, activities that can comprise and/or relate to: tracking movement of a gloved hand of a human; interpreting a gloved finger movement of the human; and/or in response to interpreting the gloved finger movement, providing feedback to the human.

  11. Gradient boosting machines, a tutorial

    PubMed Central

    Natekin, Alexey; Knoll, Alois

    2013-01-01

    Gradient boosting machines are a family of powerful machine-learning techniques that have shown considerable success in a wide range of practical applications. They are highly customizable to the particular needs of the application, like being learned with respect to different loss functions. This article gives a tutorial introduction into the methodology of gradient boosting methods with a strong focus on machine learning aspects of modeling. A theoretical information is complemented with descriptive examples and illustrations which cover all the stages of the gradient boosting model design. Considerations on handling the model complexity are discussed. Three practical examples of gradient boosting applications are presented and comprehensively analyzed. PMID:24409142

  12. Translating genomics in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Bombard, Yvonne; Bach, Peter B; Offit, Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    There is increasing enthusiasm for genomics and its promise in advancing personalized medicine. Genomic information has been used to personalize health care for decades, spanning the fields of cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, endocrinology, metabolic medicine, and hematology. However, oncology has often been the first test bed for the clinical translation of genomics for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Notable hereditary cancer examples include testing for mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 in unaffected women to identify those at significantly elevated risk for developing breast and ovarian cancers, and screening patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer for mutations in 4 mismatch repair genes to reduce morbidity and mortality in their relatives. Somatic genomic testing is also increasingly used in oncology, with gene expression profiling of breast tumors and EGFR testing to predict treatment response representing commonly used examples. Health technology assessment provides a rigorous means to inform clinical and policy decision-making through systematic assessment of the evidentiary base, along with precepts of clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and consideration of risks and benefits for health care delivery and society. Although this evaluation is a fundamental step in the translation of any new therapeutic, procedure, or diagnostic test into clinical care, emerging developments may threaten this standard. These include "direct to consumer" genomic risk assessment services and the challenges posed by incidental results generated from next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. This article presents a review of the evidentiary standards and knowledge base supporting the translation of key cancer genomic technologies along the continuum of validity, utility, cost-effectiveness, health service impacts, and ethical and societal issues, and offers future research considerations to guide the responsible introduction of

  13. Translating genomics in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Bombard, Yvonne; Bach, Peter B; Offit, Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    There is increasing enthusiasm for genomics and its promise in advancing personalized medicine. Genomic information has been used to personalize health care for decades, spanning the fields of cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, endocrinology, metabolic medicine, and hematology. However, oncology has often been the first test bed for the clinical translation of genomics for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Notable hereditary cancer examples include testing for mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 in unaffected women to identify those at significantly elevated risk for developing breast and ovarian cancers, and screening patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer for mutations in 4 mismatch repair genes to reduce morbidity and mortality in their relatives. Somatic genomic testing is also increasingly used in oncology, with gene expression profiling of breast tumors and EGFR testing to predict treatment response representing commonly used examples. Health technology assessment provides a rigorous means to inform clinical and policy decision-making through systematic assessment of the evidentiary base, along with precepts of clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and consideration of risks and benefits for health care delivery and society. Although this evaluation is a fundamental step in the translation of any new therapeutic, procedure, or diagnostic test into clinical care, emerging developments may threaten this standard. These include "direct to consumer" genomic risk assessment services and the challenges posed by incidental results generated from next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. This article presents a review of the evidentiary standards and knowledge base supporting the translation of key cancer genomic technologies along the continuum of validity, utility, cost-effectiveness, health service impacts, and ethical and societal issues, and offers future research considerations to guide the responsible introduction of

  14. From human-machine interaction to human-machine cooperation.

    PubMed

    Hoc, J M

    2000-07-01

    Since the 1960s, the rapid growth of information systems has led to the wide development of research on human-computer interaction (HCI) that aims at the designing of human-computer interfaces presenting ergonomic properties, such as friendliness, usability, transparency, etc. Various work situations have been covered--clerical work, computer programming, design, etc. However, they were mainly static in the sense that the user fully controls the computer. More recently, public and private organizations have engaged themselves in the enterprise of managing more and more complex and coupled systems by the means of automation. Modern machines not only process information, but also act on dynamic situations as humans have done in the past, managing stock exchange, industrial plants, aircraft, etc. These dynamic situations are not fully controlled and are affected by uncertain factors. Hence, degrees of freedom must be maintained to allow the humans and the machine to adapt to unforeseen contingencies. A human-machine cooperation (HMC) approach is necessary to address the new stakes introduced by this trend. This paper describes the possible improvement of HCI by HMC, the need for a new conception of function allocation between humans and machines, and the main problems encountered within the new forms of human-machine relationship. It proposes a conceptual framework to study HMC from a cognitive point of view in highly dynamic situations like aircraft piloting or air-traffic control, and concludes on the design of 'cooperative' machines.

  15. Translation Competence and Translation Performance: Lexical, Syntactic and Textual Patterns in Student Translations of a Specialized EU Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Adrienn

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study aiming to reveal the recurring patterns of lexical, syntactic and textual errors in student translations of a specialized EU genre from English into Hungarian. By comparing the student translations to the official translation of the text, this article uncovers the most frequent errors that students made…

  16. Induced Pluripotency for Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Menghua; Chen, Guilai; Hu, Baoyang

    2013-01-01

    The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized the concept of cellular reprogramming and potentially will solve the immunological compatibility issues that have so far hindered the application of human pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine. Recent findings showed that pluripotency is defined by a state of balanced lineage potency, which can be artificially instated through various procedures, including the conventional Yamanaka strategy. As a type of pluripotent stem cell, iPSCs are subject to the usual concerns over purity of differentiated derivatives and risks of tumor formation when used for cell-based therapy, though they provide certain advantages in translational research, especially in the areas of personalized medicine, disease modeling and drug screening. iPSC-based technology, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and direct lineage conversion each will play distinct roles in specific aspects of translational medicine, and continue yielding surprises for scientists and the public. PMID:24056061

  17. Translating connexin biology into therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Becker, David L; Phillips, Anthony R; Duft, Bradford J; Kim, Yeri; Green, Colin R

    2016-02-01

    It is 45 years since gap junctions were first described. Universities face increasing commercial pressures and declining federal funding, with governments and funding foundations showing greater interest in gaining return on their investments. This review outlines approaches taken to translate gap junction research to clinical application and the challenges faced. The need for commercialisation is discussed and key concepts behind research patenting briefly described. Connexin channel roles in disease and injury are also discussed, as is identification of the connexin hemichannel as a therapeutic target which appears to play a role in both the start and perpetuation of the inflammasome pathway. Furthermore connexin hemichannel opening results in vascular dieback in acute injury and chronic disease. Translation to human indications is illustrated from the perspective of one connexin biotechnology company, CoDa Therapeutics, Inc.

  18. Translational research on advanced therapies.

    PubMed

    Belardelli, Filippo; Rizza, Paola; Moretti, Franca; Carella, Cintia; Galli, Maria Cristina; Migliaccio, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues) is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  19. Finding Translation in Stress Research

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Ahmad R.; Holmes, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In our ongoing efforts to advance understanding of human diseases, translational research across rodents and humans on stress-related mental disorders stands out as a field that is briskly producing discoveries that illuminate novel mechanisms of risk and pathophysiology. Here we offer a perspective on how a productive translational research dialogue between preclinical models and clinical studies of these disorders is being powered by an ever developing appreciation of the shared neural circuits and genetic architecture that moderate the response to stress across species. Working from these deep foundations, we discuss the approaches, both traditional and innovative, which have the potential to deliver a new generation of risk-biomarkers and therapeutic strategies for stress-related disorders. PMID:26404709

  20. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  1. Z Machine at Sandia Labs

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-17

    Sandia Labs' Z machine is the largest laboratory source of x-rays in the world. For the few nanoseconds of a Z Machine test, its electrical output equals the output of 50x the electrical generating stations of all the power plants on earth. The Z Machine complex encompasses an area roughly the size of a major college basketball arena. Originally created to validate nuclear weapons models, the Z Machine is also considered a "dark horse" in the race for viable fusion energy production. After the famous "arcs and sparks" photo of Z (a photo no longer possible after its refurbishment), this is a fast-motion video of workers completing Z's recent refurbishment.

  2. Quantum-Enhanced Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Taylor, Jacob M.; Briegel, Hans J.

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.

  3. Nonprofit foundations spur translational research.

    PubMed

    Zaratin, Paola; Battaglia, Mario Alberto; Abbracchio, Maria P

    2014-11-01

    Every year, hundreds of promising basic discoveries in the pharmacological field are lost and will never have a chance to be exploited for patients due to difficulties in clinical translation. This is especially true for most neurodegenerative disorders lacking disease-modifying therapies. Here we present the current scenario and our vision of a 'collective-impact' multistakeholder approach to expedite the development of new drugs.

  4. A light-driven three-dimensional plasmonic nanosystem that translates molecular motion into reversible chiroptical function

    PubMed Central

    Kuzyk, Anton; Yang, Yangyang; Duan, Xiaoyang; Stoll, Simon; Govorov, Alexander O.; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Endo, Masayuki; Liu, Na

    2016-01-01

    Nature has developed striking light-powered proteins such as bacteriorhodopsin, which can convert light energy into conformational changes for biological functions. Such natural machines are a great source of inspiration for creation of their synthetic analogues. However, synthetic molecular machines typically operate at the nanometre scale or below. Translating controlled operation of individual molecular machines to a larger dimension, for example, to 10–100 nm, which features many practical applications, is highly important but remains challenging. Here we demonstrate a light-driven plasmonic nanosystem that can amplify the molecular motion of azobenzene through the host nanostructure and consequently translate it into reversible chiroptical function with large amplitude modulation. Light is exploited as both energy source and information probe. Our plasmonic nanosystem bears unique features of optical addressability, reversibility and modulability, which are crucial for developing all-optical molecular devices with desired functionalities. PMID:26830310

  5. A light-driven three-dimensional plasmonic nanosystem that translates molecular motion into reversible chiroptical function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyk, Anton; Yang, Yangyang; Duan, Xiaoyang; Stoll, Simon; Govorov, Alexander O.; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Endo, Masayuki; Liu, Na

    2016-02-01

    Nature has developed striking light-powered proteins such as bacteriorhodopsin, which can convert light energy into conformational changes for biological functions. Such natural machines are a great source of inspiration for creation of their synthetic analogues. However, synthetic molecular machines typically operate at the nanometre scale or below. Translating controlled operation of individual molecular machines to a larger dimension, for example, to 10-100 nm, which features many practical applications, is highly important but remains challenging. Here we demonstrate a light-driven plasmonic nanosystem that can amplify the molecular motion of azobenzene through the host nanostructure and consequently translate it into reversible chiroptical function with large amplitude modulation. Light is exploited as both energy source and information probe. Our plasmonic nanosystem bears unique features of optical addressability, reversibility and modulability, which are crucial for developing all-optical molecular devices with desired functionalities.

  6. Translational Control during Calicivirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Royall, Elizabeth; Locker, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of the strategies developed by caliciviruses to subvert or regulate the host protein synthesis machinery to their advantage. As intracellular obligate parasites, viruses strictly depend on the host cell resources to produce viral proteins. Thus, many viruses have developed strategies that regulate the function of the host protein synthesis machinery, often leading to preferential translation of viral mRNAs. Caliciviruses lack a 5′ cap structure but instead have a virus-encoded VPg protein covalently linked to the 5′ end of their mRNAs. Furthermore, they encode 2–4 open reading frames within their genomic and subgenomic RNAs. Therefore, they use alternative mechanisms for translation whereby VPg interacts with eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) to act as a proteinaceous cap-substitute, and some structural proteins are produced by reinitiation of translation events. This review discusses our understanding of these key mechanisms during caliciviruses infection as well as recent insights into the global regulation of eIF4E activity. PMID:27104553

  7. Translational Control during Calicivirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Royall, Elizabeth; Locker, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of the strategies developed by caliciviruses to subvert or regulate the host protein synthesis machinery to their advantage. As intracellular obligate parasites, viruses strictly depend on the host cell resources to produce viral proteins. Thus, many viruses have developed strategies that regulate the function of the host protein synthesis machinery, often leading to preferential translation of viral mRNAs. Caliciviruses lack a 5' cap structure but instead have a virus-encoded VPg protein covalently linked to the 5' end of their mRNAs. Furthermore, they encode 2-4 open reading frames within their genomic and subgenomic RNAs. Therefore, they use alternative mechanisms for translation whereby VPg interacts with eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) to act as a proteinaceous cap-substitute, and some structural proteins are produced by reinitiation of translation events. This review discusses our understanding of these key mechanisms during caliciviruses infection as well as recent insights into the global regulation of eIF4E activity. PMID:27104553

  8. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  9. The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Kirshner, Lewis

    2015-02-01

    The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis refers to the traditional method of interpreting or restating the meaning of verbal and behavioral acts of a patient in other, presumably more accurate terms that specify the forces and conflicts underlying symptoms. The analyst translates the clinical phenomenology to explain its true meaning and origin. This model of analytic process has been challenged from different vantage points by authors presenting alternative conceptions of therapeutic action. Although the temptation to find and make interpretations of clinical material is difficult to resist, behaving in this way places the analyst in the position of a teacher or diagnostician, seeking a specific etiology, which has not proven fruitful. Despite its historical appeal, I argue that the translational model is a misleading and anachronistic version of what actually occurs in psychoanalysis. I emphasize instead the capacity of analysis to promote the emergence of new forms of representation, or figuration, from the unconscious, using the work of Lacan, Laplanche, and Modell to exemplify this reformulation, and provide clinical illustrations of how it looks in practice.

  10. TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN NEUROLOGY: DEMENTIA

    PubMed Central

    Honig, Lawrence S.

    2013-01-01

    Dementia disorders are characterized by clinicopathological criteria. Molecular understandings of these disorders, based on immunohistochemical studies, biochemical investigations, genetic approaches, and animal models have resulted in advances in diagnosis. Likewise translational research has allowed application of increasing basic scientific knowledge regarding neurodegeneration, to the rational development of new investigational therapies based on current understanding of disease pathogenesis. This review discusses application of translational research to both diagnosis and treatment of dementia disorders. The development of biomarkers has yielded imaging and biochemical methods that more assist in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementias, especially Alzheimer’s disease. New diagnostic criteria for disease are based on these molecular-based techniques. And these biomarkers are of potential use in monitoring disease activity during therapeutic trials. Translational investigations likewise have led towards new avenues in targeted dementia research. This is particularly so in the development and testing of disease-modifying treatments that might slow or deter progressive deterioration. Recent clinical trials have not been based on empiric trial of established drugs, but rather upon trial of drugs shown through culture and animal models to interfere with known elements of the pathogenetic cascade of Alzheimer disease. PMID:22473767

  11. Systematic reviews and knowledge translation.

    PubMed Central

    Tugwell, Peter; Robinson, Vivian; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Santesso, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Proven effective interventions exist that would enable all countries to meet the Millennium Development Goals. However, uptake and use of these interventions in the poorest populations is at least 50% less than in the richest populations within each country. Also, we have recently shown that community effectiveness of interventions is lower for the poorest populations due to a "staircase" effect of lower coverage/access, worse diagnostic accuracy, less provider compliance and less consumer adherence. We propose an evidence-based framework for equity-oriented knowledge translation to enhance community effectiveness and health equity. This framework is represented as a cascade of steps to assess and prioritize barriers and thus choose effective knowledge translation interventions that are tailored for relevant audiences (public, patient, practitioner, policy-maker, press and private sector), as well as the evaluation, monitoring and sharing of these strategies. We have used two examples of effective interventions (insecticide-treated bednets to prevent malaria and childhood immunization) to illustrate how this framework can provide a systematic method for decision-makers to ensure the application of evidence-based knowledge in disadvantaged populations. Future work to empirically validate and evaluate the usefulness of this framework is needed. We invite researchers and implementers to use the cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation as a guide when planning implementation strategies for proven effective interventions. We also encourage policy-makers and health-care managers to use this framework when deciding how effective interventions can be implemented in their own settings. PMID:16917652

  12. Major milestones in translational oncology.

    PubMed

    Dragani, Tommaso A; Castells, Antoni; Kulasingam, Vathany; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Earl, Helena; Iams, Wade T; Lovly, Christine M; Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Schalken, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Translational oncology represents a bridge between basic research and clinical practice in cancer medicine. Today, translational research in oncology benefits from an abundance of knowledge resulting from genome-scale studies regarding the molecular pathways involved in tumorigenesis. In this Forum article, we highlight the state of the art of translational oncology in five major cancer types. We illustrate the use of molecular profiling to subtype colorectal cancer for both diagnosis and treatment, and summarize the results of a nationwide screening program for ovarian cancer based on detection of a tumor biomarker in serum. Additionally, we discuss how circulating tumor DNA can be assayed to safely monitor breast cancer over the course of treatment, and report on how therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors is proving effective in advanced lung cancer. Finally, we summarize efforts to use molecular profiling of prostate cancer biopsy specimens to support treatment decisions. Despite encouraging early successes, we cannot disregard the complex genetics of individual susceptibility to cancer nor the enormous complexity of the somatic changes observed in tumors, which urge particular attention to the development of personalized therapies. PMID:27469586

  13. Building and simulating protein machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katebi, Ataur Rahim

    Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway, present in almost all organisms, that produces energy. The pathway has been extensively investigated by biochemists. There is a significant body of structural and biochemical information about this pathway. The complete pathway is a ten step process. At each step, a specific chemical reaction is catalyzed by a specific enzyme. Fructose bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) and triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) catalyze the fourth and the fifth steps on the pathway. This thesis investigates the possible substrate transfer mechanism between FBA and TIM. FBA cleaves its substrate, the six-carbon fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), into two three-carbon products -- glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxy acetone phosphate (DHAP). One component of these two products, DHAP, is the substrate for TIM and the other component GAP goes directly to GAPDH, the subsequent enzyme on the pathway. TIM converts DHAP to GAP and delivers the product to GAPDH. I employ Elastic Network Models (ENM) to investigate the mechanistic and dynamic aspects of the functionality of FBA and TIM enzymes -- (1) the effects of the oligomerization of these two enzymes on their functional dynamics and the coordination of the individual protein's structural components along the functional region; and (2) the mechanistic synchrony of these two protein machines that may enable them to operate in a coordinated fashion as a conjugate machine -- transferring the product from FBA as substrate to TIM. A macromolecular machine comprised of FBA and TIM will facilitate the substrate catalysis mechanism and the product flow between FBA and TIM. Such a machine could be used as a functional unit in building a larger a machine for the structural modeling of the whole glycolysis pathway. Building such machines for the glycolysis pathway may reveal the interplay of the enzymes as a complete machine. Also the methods and insights developed from the efforts to build such large machines

  14. Wax Reinforces Honeycomb During Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towell, Timothy W.; Fahringer, David T.; Vasquez, Peter; Scheidegger, Alan P.

    1995-01-01

    Method of machining on conventional metal lathe devised for precise cutting of axisymmetric contours on honeycomb cores made of composite (matrix/fiber) materials. Wax filling reinforces honeycomb walls against bending and tearing while honeycomb being contoured on lathe. Innovative method of machining on lathe involves preparation in which honeycomb is placed in appropriate fixture and the fixture is then filled with molten water-soluble wax. Number of different commercial waxes have been tried.

  15. Biosleeve Human-Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assad, Christopher (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing human muscle action and gestures in order to control machines or robotic devices are disclosed. One exemplary system employs a tight fitting sleeve worn on a user arm and including a plurality of electromyography (EMG) sensors and at least one inertial measurement unit (IMU). Power, signal processing, and communications electronics may be built into the sleeve and control data may be transmitted wirelessly to the controlled machine or robotic device.

  16. Single acting translational/rotational brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Johnny W. (Inventor); Fleck, Jr., Vincent J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A brake system is provided that applies braking forces on surfaces in both the translational and rotational directions using a single acting self-contained actuator that travels with the translational mechanism. The brake engages a mechanical lock and creates a frictional force on the translational structure preventing translation while simultaneously creating a frictional torque that prevents rotation of the vertical support. The system may include serrations on the braking surfaces to provide increased braking forces.

  17. Preserved Network Metrics across Translated Texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabatbat, Josephine Jill T.; Monsanto, Jica P.; Tapang, Giovanni A.

    2014-09-01

    Co-occurrence language networks based on Bible translations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) translations in different languages were constructed and compared with random text networks. Among the considered network metrics, the network size, N, the normalized betweenness centrality (BC), and the average k-nearest neighbors, knn, were found to be the most preserved across translations. Moreover, similar frequency distributions of co-occurring network motifs were observed for translated texts networks.

  18. Model-based machine learning.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Christopher M

    2013-02-13

    Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact modelling language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This model-based approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored models for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative models. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single modelling environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical models, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for model-based machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for model-based machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications. PMID:23277612

  19. Model-based machine learning.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Christopher M

    2013-02-13

    Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact modelling language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This model-based approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored models for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative models. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single modelling environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical models, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for model-based machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for model-based machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications.

  20. Institutional Research with "Smart Machines."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Thomas R.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial intelligence programing for computers is advancing rapidly. The translation of databases into an institutional research knowledge base is explored, including the heuristic knowledge of institutional research experience. (Author/MLW)

  1. Staging "Swissness": Inter- and Intracultural Theatre Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Jane

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the choice to translate plays from "Hochdeutsch" (the standard form of the German language) into local dialect in German-speaking Switzerland. It first looks at the creative process of translating for the amateur stage and then at the reasons behind the choice to translate. It argues that this choice reflects a desire to…

  2. Collaborative Translations: Designing Bilingual Instructional Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Christopher S.; Puzio, Kelly; Jiménez, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the role of collaboration and multilingual literacy as 21st-century skills, the authors used design research methods to present, analyze, and refine a strategic reading approach for bilingual students. The collaborative translation strategy involves reading an academic text, translating key passages, and evaluating these translations.…

  3. Translation Factors Specify Cellular Metabolic State.

    PubMed

    Mata, Juan

    2016-08-16

    In this issue of Cell Reports, Shah et al. present evidence that a subcomplex of the eIF3 translation initiation factor regulates translation of mRNAs encoding components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and glycolytic enzymes, thus linking translational control with energy metabolism. PMID:27533178

  4. 22 CFR 92.78 - Translating documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Translating documents. 92.78 Section 92.78 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Copying, Recording, Translating and Procuring Documents § 92.78 Translating documents. Officers of the...

  5. 22 CFR 92.78 - Translating documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Translating documents. 92.78 Section 92.78 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Copying, Recording, Translating and Procuring Documents § 92.78 Translating documents. Officers of the...

  6. 22 CFR 92.78 - Translating documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Translating documents. 92.78 Section 92.78 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Copying, Recording, Translating and Procuring Documents § 92.78 Translating documents. Officers of the...

  7. 22 CFR 92.78 - Translating documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Translating documents. 92.78 Section 92.78 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Copying, Recording, Translating and Procuring Documents § 92.78 Translating documents. Officers of the...

  8. 22 CFR 92.78 - Translating documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Translating documents. 92.78 Section 92.78 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Copying, Recording, Translating and Procuring Documents § 92.78 Translating documents. Officers of the...

  9. Traveling Chaucer: Comparative Translation and Cosmopolitan Humanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrington, Candace

    2014-01-01

    Through the comparative study of non-Anglophone translations of Geoffrey Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales," we can achieve the progressive goals of Emily Apter's "translational transnationalism" and Edward Said's "cosmopolitan humanism." Both translation and humanism were intrinsic to Chaucer's…

  10. Reader, Text, Translation, and Interpretive Potentials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollerup, Cay; And Others

    No matter what pains translators take to produce a target-language text "identical" to the source-language text, criticism and/or translation of an original literary work cannot be the same in different language communities. That translation may change potentialities in the textual experience is particularly obvious in literature with a strong…

  11. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metalworking machines. 700.31 Section... Metalworking machines. (a) “Metalworking machines” include power driven, manual or automatic, metal cutting and metal forming machines and complete machines not supported in the hands of an operator when in...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.218 - Forging machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Forging machines. 1910.218 Section 1910.218 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.218 Forging machines. (a... other identifier, for the forging machine which was inspected. (ii) Scheduling and recording...

  13. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.218 - Forging machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Forging machines. 1910.218 Section 1910.218 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.218 Forging machines. (a... other identifier, for the forging machine which was inspected. (ii) Scheduling and recording...

  15. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.218 - Forging machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Forging machines. 1910.218 Section 1910.218 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.218 Forging machines. (a... other identifier, for the forging machine which was inspected. (ii) Scheduling and recording...

  17. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  18. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metalworking machines. 700.31 Section... Metalworking machines. (a) “Metalworking machines” include power driven, manual or automatic, metal cutting and metal forming machines and complete machines not supported in the hands of an operator when in...

  19. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metalworking machines. 700.31 Section... Metalworking machines. (a) “Metalworking machines” include power driven, manual or automatic, metal cutting and metal forming machines and complete machines not supported in the hands of an operator when in...

  20. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  1. Web Mining: Machine Learning for Web Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Chau, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Presents an overview of machine learning research and reviews methods used for evaluating machine learning systems. Ways that machine-learning algorithms were used in traditional information retrieval systems in the "pre-Web" era are described, and the field of Web mining and how machine learning has been used in different Web mining applications…

  2. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  3. Compensating for Shrinkage in Machined Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, L.; Fitchett, B. T.

    1986-01-01

    Technique insures machined ceramics shrink to correct dimensions after baked in kiln. New method automatically compensates during machining for shrinkage later, when part baked. Applicable to numerically controlled machines that include provision to adjust for variations in cuttingtool size, but do not provide for automatic verification of dimensions of machined parts.

  4. Measuring Difficulty in English-Chinese Translation: Towards a General Model of Translation Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Sanjun

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of a text's level of translation difficulty is critical for translator training and accreditation, translation research, and the language industry as well. Traditionally, people rely on their general impression to gauge a text's translation difficulty level. If the evaluation process is to be more effective and the…

  5. Traduction pedagogique et pedagogie de la traduction (Instructional Translation and the Teaching of Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durieu, Christine

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of translation and second-language instruction looks at the difference between translation used as a tool for teaching a second language and professional translation. It is argued that an interpretive theory of translation necessarily underlies its teaching. (MSE)

  6. How Do English Translation Majors Use Translation Strategies? A Survey of the Iranian EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asgarian, Amir; Vefali, Gülsen Musayeva

    2015-01-01

    Translation language learning strategies, especially in relation to translation students, have not received adequate attention in the research to date. Therefore, the present study attempted to explore Iranian translation students' use of translation strategies, related beliefs, and academic achievement. It was a survey study involving…

  7. Translating Proper Nouns: A Case Study on English Translation of Hafez's Lyrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirinzadeh, Seyed Alireza; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2014-01-01

    Proper nouns are regarded so simple that they might be taken for granted in translation explorations. Some may believe that they should not be translated in transmitting source texts to target texts. But, it is not the case; if one looks at present translations, he will notice that different strategies might be applied for translating proper…

  8. Machine vision systems using machine learning for industrial product inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi; Chen, Tie Q.; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Tisler, Anthony

    2002-02-01

    Machine vision inspection requires efficient processing time and accurate results. In this paper, we present a machine vision inspection architecture, SMV (Smart Machine Vision). SMV decomposes a machine vision inspection problem into two stages, Learning Inspection Features (LIF), and On-Line Inspection (OLI). The LIF is designed to learn visual inspection features from design data and/or from inspection products. During the OLI stage, the inspection system uses the knowledge learnt by the LIF component to inspect the visual features of products. In this paper we will present two machine vision inspection systems developed under the SMV architecture for two different types of products, Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and Vacuum Florescent Displaying (VFD) boards. In the VFD board inspection system, the LIF component learns inspection features from a VFD board and its displaying patterns. In the PCB board inspection system, the LIF learns the inspection features from the CAD file of a PCB board. In both systems, the LIF component also incorporates interactive learning to make the inspection system more powerful and efficient. The VFD system has been deployed successfully in three different manufacturing companies and the PCB inspection system is the process of being deployed in a manufacturing plant.

  9. Dry Machining Process of Milling Machine using Axiomatic Green Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puspita Andriani, Gita; Akbar, Muhammad; Irianto, Dradjad

    2016-02-01

    Most of companies know that there are strategies to become green industry, and they realize that green efforts have impacts on product quality and cost. Axiomatic Green Methodology models the relationship between green, quality, and cost. This methodology starts with determining the green improvement objective and then continues with mapping the functional, economic, and green requirements. From the mapping, variables which affect the requirements are identified. Afterwards, the effect of each variable is determined by performing experiments and regression modelling. In this research, axiomatic green methodology was implemented to dry machining of milling machine in order to reduce the amount of coolant. Dry machining will be feasible if it is not worse than the minimum required quality. As a result, dry machining is feasible without producing any defect. The proposed machining parameter is to reduce the coolant flow rate from 6.882 ml/minute to 0 ml/minute, set the depth of cut at 1.2 mm, spindle rotation speed at 500 rpm, and feed rate at 128 mm/minute. This solution is also resulted in reduction of cost for 200.48 rupiahs for each process.

  10. Gesture-Controlled Interfaces for Self-Service Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Charles J.; Beach, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Gesture-controlled interfaces are software- driven systems that facilitate device control by translating visual hand and body signals into commands. Such interfaces could be especially attractive for controlling self-service machines (SSMs) for example, public information kiosks, ticket dispensers, gasoline pumps, and automated teller machines (see figure). A gesture-controlled interface would include a vision subsystem comprising one or more charge-coupled-device video cameras (at least two would be needed to acquire three-dimensional images of gestures). The output of the vision system would be processed by a pure software gesture-recognition subsystem. Then a translator subsystem would convert a sequence of recognized gestures into commands for the SSM to be controlled; these could include, for example, a command to display requested information, change control settings, or actuate a ticket- or cash-dispensing mechanism. Depending on the design and operational requirements of the SSM to be controlled, the gesture-controlled interface could be designed to respond to specific static gestures, dynamic gestures, or both. Static and dynamic gestures can include stationary or moving hand signals, arm poses or motions, and/or whole-body postures or motions. Static gestures would be recognized on the basis of their shapes; dynamic gestures would be recognized on the basis of both their shapes and their motions. Because dynamic gestures include temporal as well as spatial content, this gesture- controlled interface can extract more information from dynamic than it can from static gestures.

  11. Classification SAR targets with support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lanying

    2007-02-01

    With the development of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology, automatic target recognition (ATR) is becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we proposed a 3-class target classification system in SAR images. The system is based on invariant wavelet moments and support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. It is a two-stage approach. The first stage is to extract and select a small set of wavelet invariant moment features to indicate target images. The wavelet invariant moments take both advantages of the wavelet inherent property of multi-resolution analysis and moment invariants quality of invariant to translation, scaling changes and rotation. The second stage is classification of targets with SVM algorithm. SVM is based on the principle of structural risk minimization (SRM), which has been shown better than the principle of empirical risk minimization (ERM) which is used by many conventional networks. To test the performance and efficiency of the proposed method, we performed experiments on invariant wavelet moments, different kernel functions, 2-class identification, and 3-class identification. Test results show that wavelet invariant moments indicate the target effectively; linear kernel function achieves better results than other kernel functions, and SVM classification approach performs better than conventional nearest distance approach.

  12. Function and regulation of local axonal translation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Andrew C; Holt, Christine E

    2013-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence indicates that local axonal translation is required for growing axons to respond appropriately to guidance cues and other stimuli. Recent studies suggest that asymmetrical synthesis of cytoskeletal proteins mediates growth cone turning and that local translation and retrograde transport of transcription factors mediate neuronal survival. Axonal translation is regulated partly by selective axonal localization of mRNAs and by translation initiation factors and RNA-binding proteins. We discuss possible rationales for local axonal translation, including distinct properties of nascent proteins, precise localization, and axonal autonomy. PMID:18508259

  13. Confinement of translated field-reversed configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuszewski, M.; Armstrong, W. T.; Chrien, R. E.; Klingner, P. L.; McKenna, K. F.; Rej, D. J.; Sherwood, E. G.; Siemon, R. E.

    1986-03-01

    The confinement properties of translating field-reversed configurations (FRC) in the FRX-C/T device [Phys. Fluids 29, (1986)] are analyzed and compared to previous data without translation and to available theory. Translation dynamics do not appear to appreciably modify the FRC confinement. Some empirical scaling laws with respect to various plasma parameters are extracted from the data. These are qualitatively similar to those obtained in the TRX-1 device [Phys. Fluids 28, 888 (1985)] without translation and with a different formation method. Translation with a static gas fill offers new opportunities such as improved particle confinement or refueling of the FRC particle inventory.

  14. The Translated Dowling Polynomials and Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Mangontarum, Mahid M.; Macodi-Ringia, Amila P.; Abdulcarim, Normalah S.

    2014-01-01

    More properties for the translated Whitney numbers of the second kind such as horizontal generating function, explicit formula, and exponential generating function are proposed. Using the translated Whitney numbers of the second kind, we will define the translated Dowling polynomials and numbers. Basic properties such as exponential generating functions and explicit formula for the translated Dowling polynomials and numbers are obtained. Convexity, integral representation, and other interesting identities are also investigated and presented. We show that the properties obtained are generalizations of some of the known results involving the classical Bell polynomials and numbers. Lastly, we established the Hankel transform of the translated Dowling numbers. PMID:27433494

  15. Adaptive Machining Of Large, Somewhat Flexible Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutow, David; Wagner, Garrett; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Deily, David

    1996-01-01

    Adaptive machining is method of machining large, somewhat flexible workpieces to close tolerances. Devised for machining precise weld lands on aft skirts of rocket nozzles, but underlying concept generally applicable to precise machining of any of large variety of workpieces deformed by thermal, gravitational, and/or machining forces. For example, in principle, method used to bore precise hole on unanchored end of long cantilever beam.

  16. Translation from research to applications.

    PubMed

    Hunziker, Ernst; Spector, Myron; Libera, Jeanette; Gertzman, Arthur; Woo, Savio L-Y; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Lysaght, Michael; Coury, Arthur; Kaplan, David; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2006-12-01

    The article summarizes the collective views expressed at the fourth session of the workshop Tissue Engineering--the Next Generation, which was devoted to the translation of results of tissue engineering research into applications. Ernst Hunziker described the paradigm of a dual translational approach, and argued that tissue engineering should be guided by the dimensions and physiological setting of the bodily compartment to be repaired. Myron Spector discussed collagen-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) scaffolds for musculoskeletal tissue engineering. Jeanette Libera focused on the biological and clinical aspects of cartilage tissue engineering, and described a completely autologous procedure for engineering cartilage using the patient's own chondrocytes and blood serum. Arthur Gertzman reviewed the applications of allograft tissues in orthopedic surgery, and outlined the potential of allograft tissues as models for biological and medical studies. Savio Woo discussed a list of functional tissue engineering approaches designed to restore the biochemical and biomechanical properties of injured ligaments and tendons to be closer to that of the normal tissues. Specific examples of using biological scaffolds that have chemoattractants as well as growth factors with unique contact guidance properties to improve their healing process were shown. Anthony Ratcliffe discussed the translation of the results of research into products that are profitable and meet regulatory requirements. Michael Lysaght challenged the proposition that commercial and clinical failures of early tissue engineering products demonstrate a need for more focus on basic research. Arthur Coury described the evolution of tissue engineering products based on the example of Genzyme, and how various definitions of success and failure can affect perceptions and policies relative to the status and advancement of the field of tissue engineering.

  17. Genetic analysis in translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    Patrinos, George P.; Innocenti, Federico; Cox, Nancy; Fortina, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The 2010 GOLDEN HELIX Symposium ‘Genetic Analysis in Translational Medicine' was held in Athens, Greece, Athens, Greece, 1-4 December 2010. The scientific program covered all aspects of this discipline, including genome-wide association studies, genomics of cancer and human disorders, molecular cytogenetics, advances in genomic technology, next-generation sequencing applications, pharmacogenomics and bioinformatics. In addition, various topics on genetics and society and genetic analysis in clinical practice were discussed. Here, we provide an overview of the plenary lectures and the topics discussed in the symposium. PMID:21438074

  18. Game-powered machine learning

    PubMed Central

    Barrington, Luke; Turnbull, Douglas; Lanckriet, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Searching for relevant content in a massive amount of multimedia information is facilitated by accurately annotating each image, video, or song with a large number of relevant semantic keywords, or tags. We introduce game-powered machine learning, an integrated approach to annotating multimedia content that combines the effectiveness of human computation, through online games, with the scalability of machine learning. We investigate this framework for labeling music. First, a socially-oriented music annotation game called Herd It collects reliable music annotations based on the “wisdom of the crowds.” Second, these annotated examples are used to train a supervised machine learning system. Third, the machine learning system actively directs the annotation games to collect new data that will most benefit future model iterations. Once trained, the system can automatically annotate a corpus of music much larger than what could be labeled using human computation alone. Automatically annotated songs can be retrieved based on their semantic relevance to text-based queries (e.g., “funky jazz with saxophone,” “spooky electronica,” etc.). Based on the results presented in this paper, we find that actively coupling annotation games with machine learning provides a reliable and scalable approach to making searchable massive amounts of multimedia data. PMID:22460786

  19. Game-powered machine learning.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Luke; Turnbull, Douglas; Lanckriet, Gert

    2012-04-24

    Searching for relevant content in a massive amount of multimedia information is facilitated by accurately annotating each image, video, or song with a large number of relevant semantic keywords, or tags. We introduce game-powered machine learning, an integrated approach to annotating multimedia content that combines the effectiveness of human computation, through online games, with the scalability of machine learning. We investigate this framework for labeling music. First, a socially-oriented music annotation game called Herd It collects reliable music annotations based on the "wisdom of the crowds." Second, these annotated examples are used to train a supervised machine learning system. Third, the machine learning system actively directs the annotation games to collect new data that will most benefit future model iterations. Once trained, the system can automatically annotate a corpus of music much larger than what could be labeled using human computation alone. Automatically annotated songs can be retrieved based on their semantic relevance to text-based queries (e.g., "funky jazz with saxophone," "spooky electronica," etc.). Based on the results presented in this paper, we find that actively coupling annotation games with machine learning provides a reliable and scalable approach to making searchable massive amounts of multimedia data.

  20. Optical-to-Tactile Translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langevin, Maurice L. (Inventor); Moynihan, Philip I. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An optical-to-tactile translator provides an aid for the visually impaired by translating a near-field scene to a tactile signal corresponding to said near-field scene. An optical sensor using a plurality of active pixel sensors (APS) converts the optical image within the near-field scene to a digital signal. The digital signal is then processed by a microprocessor and a simple shape signal is generated based on the digital signal. The shape signal is then communicated to a tactile transmitter where the shape signal is converted into a tactile signal using a series of contacts. The shape signal may be an outline of the significant shapes determined in the near-field scene, or the shape signal may comprise a simple symbolic representation of common items encountered repeatedly. The user is thus made aware of the unseen near-field scene, including potential obstacles and dangers, through a series of tactile contacts. In a preferred embodiment, a range determining device such as those commonly found on auto-focusing cameras is included to limit the distance that the optical sensor interprets the near-field scene.