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Sample records for machining edm process

  1. Analysis of aerosol emission and hazard evaluation of electrical discharge machining (EDM) process.

    PubMed

    Jose, Mathew; Sivapirakasam, S P; Surianarayanan, M

    2010-01-01

    The safety and environmental aspects of a manufacturing process are important due to increased environmental regulations and life quality. In this paper, the concentration of aerosols in the breathing zone of the operator of Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM), a commonly used non traditional manufacturing process is presented. The pattern of aerosol emissions from this process with varying process parameters such as peak current, pulse duration, dielectric flushing pressure and the level of dielectric was evaluated. Further, the HAZOP technique was employed to identify the inherent safety aspects and fire risk of the EDM process under different working conditions. The analysis of aerosol exposure showed that the concentration of aerosol was increased with increase in the peak current, pulse duration and dielectric level and was decreased with increase in the flushing pressure. It was also found that at higher values of peak current (7A) and pulse duration (520 micros), the concentration of aerosols at breathing zone of the operator was above the permissible exposure limit value for respirable particulates (5 mg/m(3)). HAZOP study of the EDM process showed that this process is vulnerable to fire and explosion hazards. A detailed discussion on preventing the fire and explosion hazard is presented in this paper. The emission and risk of fire of the EDM process can be minimized by selecting proper process parameters and employing appropriate control strategy.

  2. Modeling and optimizing electrodischarge machine process (EDM) with an approach based on genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabbah, Iman

    2012-01-01

    Electro Discharge Machine (EDM) is the commonest untraditional method of production for forming metals and the Non-Oxide ceramics. The increase of smoothness, the increase of the remove of filings, and also the decrease of proportional erosion tool has an important role in this machining. That is directly related to the choosing of input parameters.The complicated and non-linear nature of EDM has made the process impossible with usual and classic method. So far, some methods have been used based on intelligence to optimize this process. At the top of them we can mention artificial neural network that has modelled the process as a black box. The problem of this kind of machining is seen when a workpiece is composited of the collection of carbon-based materials such as silicon carbide. In this article, besides using the new method of mono-pulse technical of EDM, we design a fuzzy neural network and model it. Then the genetic algorithm is used to find the optimal inputs of machine. In our research, workpiece is a Non-Oxide metal called silicon carbide. That makes the control process more difficult. At last, the results are compared with the previous methods.

  3. Modeling and optimizing electrodischarge machine process (EDM) with an approach based on genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabbah, Iman

    2011-12-01

    Electro Discharge Machine (EDM) is the commonest untraditional method of production for forming metals and the Non-Oxide ceramics. The increase of smoothness, the increase of the remove of filings, and also the decrease of proportional erosion tool has an important role in this machining. That is directly related to the choosing of input parameters.The complicated and non-linear nature of EDM has made the process impossible with usual and classic method. So far, some methods have been used based on intelligence to optimize this process. At the top of them we can mention artificial neural network that has modelled the process as a black box. The problem of this kind of machining is seen when a workpiece is composited of the collection of carbon-based materials such as silicon carbide. In this article, besides using the new method of mono-pulse technical of EDM, we design a fuzzy neural network and model it. Then the genetic algorithm is used to find the optimal inputs of machine. In our research, workpiece is a Non-Oxide metal called silicon carbide. That makes the control process more difficult. At last, the results are compared with the previous methods.

  4. Fast and stable electrical discharge machining (EDM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianyang; Zhou, Ming; Xu, Xiaoyi; Yang, Jianwei; Zeng, Xiangwei; Xu, Donghui

    2016-05-01

    In order to improve EDM performances, the most important issue is to develop a highly stable control system. As a serious defect in EDM adaptive control system by minimum-variance control law, the occasional instability deterred its full applications in industries. This paper focuses on stabilizing EDM process by establishing a new minimum-variance and pole-placement coupled control law. Based on real-time estimation of EDM process model parameters, this adaptive control system directly controls electrode discharging cycle not only to follow a specified gap state for fast machining but also to track the dynamical response of a reference model for stabilizing EDM process. Confirmation experiment demonstrates that this control system can timely adjust electrode discharging cycle in terms of different machining situations quantified as a series of varied gap states to maintain a stable and fast fabrication. The adaptive control system by this newly developed control law exhibits its superior machining ability and capability of stabilizing sparking process to those of the adaptive control system by minimum-variance control law. The adaptive system has actually theoretically and technically solved the stability issue puzzled EDM circle for decades.

  5. Optimization of process parameters on EN24 Tool steel using Taguchi technique in Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeykrishnan, J.; Vijaya Ramnath, B.; Akilesh, S.; Pradeep Kumar, R. P.

    2016-09-01

    In the field of manufacturing sectors, electric discharge machining (EDM) is widely used because of its unique machining characteristics and high meticulousness which can't be done by other traditional machines. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the optimum machining parameter, to curtail the machining time with respect to high material removal rate (MRR) and low tool wear rate (TWR) by varying the parameters like current, pulse on time (Ton) and pulse off time (Toff). By conducting several dry runs using Taguchi technique of L9 orthogonal array (OA), optimized parameters were found using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the error percentage can be validated and parameter contribution for MRR and TWR were found.

  6. Mechanical characterization of Cu-Zn wire electrode base used in EDM and study of influence of the process of machining on its properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sedjal, H. Amirat, B.; Aichour, M.; Marouf, T.; Chitroub, M.

    2015-03-30

    This work is part of a Research National project (PNR) carried out by the group of research of the engineering and material sciences laboratory of the polytechnic national school at Algiers in collaboration with company BCR, which relates to “the characterization of the wire intended for the EDM of matrices metal. The goal of this work is to bring metallographic explanations on the wire electrode used by the machine ROBOFIL 290P, mechanically characterized this wire as of knowing of advantage about the process of its manufacturing (wiredrawing, .) The methods of studies used are it micro Vickers pyramid hardness, the tensile test, optical microscopy and scan electronic microscopy SEM.

  7. EDM Machine Modified For Micro Drilling In DAC Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonappan, Dayana; Shekar, N. V. Chandra; Sundaram, L. M.; Edwin, T.; Sahu, P. Ch.

    2011-07-01

    A JOEMARS Electric discharge machine (EDM) has been modified for micro drilling of gasket holes for high pressure experiments using a diamond anvil cell. We were able to use normal tungsten carbide drill bits that are used for drilling micro holes manually with the EDM. The drilled holes were free of burr formation and had a nice surface finish.

  8. Evaluating the electrical discharge machining (EDM) parameters with using carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, M. M.; Noordin, M. Y.; Brusa, E.

    2012-09-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the most accurate non traditional manufacturing processes available for creating tiny apertures, complex or simple shapes and geometries within parts and assemblies. Performance of the EDM process is usually evaluated in terms of surface roughness, existence of cracks, voids and recast layer on the surface of product, after machining. Unfortunately, the high heat generated on the electrically discharged material during the EDM process decreases the quality of products. Carbon nanotubes display unexpected strength and unique electrical and thermal properties. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes are therefore on purpose added to the dielectric used in the EDM process to improve its performance when machining the AISI H13 tool steel, by means of copper electrodes. Some EDM parameters such as material removal rate, electrode wear rate, surface roughness and recast layer are here first evaluated, then compared to the outcome of EDM performed without using nanotubes mixed to the dielectric. Independent variables investigated are pulse on time, peak current and interval time. Experimental evidences show that EDM process operated by mixing multi-wall carbon nanotubes within the dielectric looks more efficient, particularly if machining parameters are set at low pulse of energy.

  9. A fatigue study of electrical discharge machine (EDM) strain-gage balance materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhew, Ray D.

    1989-01-01

    A fatigue study was undertaken to determine how much electrical-discharge-machine (EDM) processing affected the fatigue life of balance materials: EDM and regular milling-machine (MM) samples were compared. Simulation of a typical balance stress configuration was devised for the fatigue testing in order to obtain results more closely related to balance situations. The fatigue testing of the EDM and MM specimens has indicated that the EDM technique does indeed reduce the fatigue life of 15-5PH steel, the first balance material tested. This conclusion was based on comparisons of the specimen fatigue lives with theoretical and manufacturer's data. Hence the EDM surface effects are detrimental to the fatigue life of this balance material.

  10. Study on ultra-fine w-EDM with on-machine measurement-assisted

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Shuntong; Yang Hongye

    2011-01-17

    The purpose of this study was to develop the on-machine measurement techniques so as to precisely fabricate micro intricate part using ultra-fine w-EDM. The measurement-assisted approach which employs an automatic optical inspection (AOI) is incorporated to ultra-fine w-EDM process to on-machine detect the machining error for next re-machining. The AOI acquires the image through a high resolution CCD device from the contour of the workpiece after roughing in order to further process and recognize the image for determining the residual. This facilitates the on-machine error detection and compensation re-machining. The micro workpiece and electrode are not repositioned during machining. A fabrication for a micro probe of 30-{mu}m diameter is rapidly machined and verified successfully. Based on the proposed technique, on-machine measurement with AOI has been realized satisfactorily.

  11. Study on ultra-fine w-EDM with on-machine measurement-assisted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shun-Tong; Yang, Hong-Ye

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the on-machine measurement techniques so as to precisely fabricate micro intricate part using ultra-fine w-EDM. The measurement-assisted approach which employs an automatic optical inspection (AOI) is incorporated to ultra-fine w-EDM process to on-machine detect the machining error for next re-machining. The AOI acquires the image through a high resolution CCD device from the contour of the workpiece after roughing in order to further process and recognize the image for determining the residual. This facilitates the on-machine error detection and compensation re-machining. The micro workpiece and electrode are not repositioned during machining. A fabrication for a micro probe of 30-μm diameter is rapidly machined and verified successfully. Based on the proposed technique, on-machine measurement with AOI has been realized satisfactorily.

  12. Development of an Eco-Friendly Electrical Discharge Machine (E-EDM) Using TRIZ Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreebalaji, V. S.; Saravanan, R.

    Electrical Discharge Machine (EDM) is one of the non-traditional machining processes. EDM process is based on thermoelectric energy between the work and an electrode. A pulse discharge occurs in a small gap between the work piece and the electrode and removes the unwanted material from the parent metal through melting and vaporization. The electrode and the work piece must have an electrical conductivity in order to generate the spark. Dielectric fluid acts as a spark conductor, concentrating the energy to a very narrow region. There are various types of products can be produced and finished using EDM such as Moulds, Dies, Parts of Aerodynamics, Automotives and Surgical components. This research work reveals how an Eco friendly EDM (E-EDM) can be modeled to replace die electric fluid and introducing ozonised oxygen in to EDM to eliminate harmful effects generated while machining by using dielectric, to make pollution free machining environment through a new design of EEDM using TRIZ (a Russian acronym for Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) approach, since Eco friendly design is the need of the hour.

  13. A machine vision system for micro-EDM based on linux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rui; Zhao, Wansheng; Li, Gang; Li, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yong

    2006-11-01

    Due to the high precision and good surface quality that it can give, Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is potentially an important process for the fabrication of micro-tools and micro-components. However, a number of issues remain unsolved before micro-EDM becomes a reliable process with repeatable results. To deal with the difficulties in micro electrodes on-line fabrication and tool wear compensation, a micro-EDM machine vision system is developed with a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera, with an optical resolution of 1.61μm and an overall magnification of 113~729. Based on the Linux operating system, an image capturing program is developed with the V4L2 API, and an image processing program is exploited by using OpenCV. The contour of micro electrodes can be extracted by means of the Canny edge detector. Through the system calibration, the micro electrodes diameter can be measured on-line. Experiments have been carried out to prove its performance, and the reasons of measurement error are also analyzed.

  14. Fabrication Of Micro-Nozzles Via {mu}-EDM Process

    SciTech Connect

    Modica, F.; Trotta, G.; Fassi, I.

    2011-01-17

    Since traditional handling mechanisms have an unpredictable behavior at micro scale, micro-assembly is a bottleneck in the development of hybrid micro-systems, and the development of new approaches is strongly demanded. In this paper, a recent study of the fabrication of a ceramics vacuum micro-gripper to handle parts in the range of hundreds of microns (300-1000) is presented. Among the possible micro manufacturing processes, micro-EDM has been selected as proving to be a very competitive fabrication technology for the manufacturing of ultra miniature components and micro sized features. The influence of the process parameters on the machining performance of interest is firstly investigated; then, the experimental results on machining the micro gripper are presented, finally concluding remarks are given.

  15. Fabrication Of Micro-Nozzles Via μ-EDM Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modica, F.; Ferraris, E.; Trotta, G.; Fassi, I.; Reynaerts, D.

    2011-01-01

    Since traditional handling mechanisms have an unpredictable behavior at micro scale, micro-assembly is a bottleneck in the development of hybrid micro-systems, and the development of new approaches is strongly demanded. In this paper, a recent study of the fabrication of a ceramics vacuum micro-gripper to handle parts in the range of hundreds of microns (300-1000) is presented. Among the possible micro manufacturing processes, micro-EDM has been selected as proving to be a very competitive fabrication technology for the manufacturing of ultra miniature components and micro sized features. The influence of the process parameters on the machining performance of interest is firstly investigated; then, the experimental results on machining the micro gripper are presented, finally concluding remarks are given.

  16. Assessing the effects of different dielectrics on environmentally conscious powder-mixed EDM of difficult-to-machine material (WC-Co)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jagdeep; Sharma, Rajiv Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a well-known nontraditional manufacturing process to machine the difficult-to-machine (DTM) materials which have unique hardness properties. Researchers have successfully performed hybridization to improve this process by incorporating powders into the EDM process known as powder-mixed EDM process. This process drastically improves process efficiency by increasing material removal rate, micro-hardness, as well as reducing the tool wear rate and surface roughness. EDM also has some input parameters, including pulse-on time, dielectric levels and its type, current setting, flushing pressure, and so on, which have a significant effect on EDM performance. However, despite their positive influence, investigating the effects of these parameters on environmental conditions is necessary. Most studies demonstrate the use of kerosene oil as dielectric fluid. Nevertheless, in this work, the authors highlight the findings with respect to three different dielectric fluids, including kerosene oil, EDM oil, and distilled water using one-variable-at-a-time approach for machining as well as environmental aspects. The hazard and operability analysis is employed to identify the inherent safety factors associated with powder-mixed EDM of WC-Co.

  17. EDM machinability of SiCw/Al composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramulu, M.; Taya, M.

    1989-01-01

    Machinability of high temperature composites was investigated. Target materials, 15 and 25 vol pct SiC whisker-2124 aluminum composites, were machined by electrodischarge sinker machining and diamond saw. The machined surfaces of these metal matrix composites were examined by SEM and profilometry to determine the surface finish. Microhardness measurements were also performed on the as-machined composites.

  18. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) of Inconel 718 by using copper electrode at higher peak current and pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Lajis, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    This experimental work is an attempt to investigate the performance of Copper electrode when EDM of Nickel Based Super Alloy, Inconel 718 is at higher peak current and pulse duration. Peak current, Ip and pulse duration (pulse on-time), ton are selected as the most important electrical pulse parameters. In addition, their influence on material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear rate (EWR), and surface roughness (Ra) are experimentally investigated. The ranges of 10 mm diameter of Copper electrode are used to EDM of Inconel 718. After the experiments, MRR, EWR, and Ra of the machined surfaces need to be measured in order to evaluate the performance of the EDM process. In order to obtain high MRR, higher peak current in range of 20A to 40A and pulse duration in range of 200μs to 400μs were used. Experimental results have shown that machining at a highest peak current used of 40A and the lowest pulse duration of 200μs used for the experiment yields the highest material removal rate (MRR) with value 34.94 mm3/min, whereas machining at a peak current of 20A and pulse duration of 400μs yields the lowest electrode wear rate (EWR) with value -0.0101 mm3/min. The lowest surface roughness (Ra) is 8.53 μm achieved at a lowest peak current used of 20A and pulse duration of 200μs.

  19. Traveling wire electrode increases productivity of Electrical Discharge Machining /EDM/ equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotora, J., Jr.; Smith, S. V.

    1967-01-01

    Traveling wire electrode on electrical discharge machining /EDM/ equipment reduces the time requirements for precision cutting. This device enables cutting with a minimum of lost material and without inducing stress beyond that inherent in the material. The use of wire increases accuracy and enables tighter tolerances to be maintained.

  20. Development of the Cylindrical Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process.

    SciTech Connect

    McSpadden, SB

    2002-01-22

    Results of applying the wire Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) process to generate precise cylindrical forms on hard, difficult-to-machine materials are presented. A precise, flexible, and corrosion-resistant underwater rotary spindle was designed and added to a conventional two-axis wire EDM machine to enable the generation of free-form cylindrical geometries. A detailed spindle error analysis identifies the major source of error at different frequency. The mathematical model for the material removal of cylindrical wire EDM process is derived. Experiments were conducted to explore the maximum material removal rate for cylindrical and 2D wire EDM of carbide and brass work-materials. Compared to the 2D wire EDM, higher maximum material removal rates may be achieved in the cylindrical wire EDM. This study also investigates the surface integrity and roundness of parts created by the cylindrical wire EDM process. For carbide parts, an arithmetic average surface roughness and roundness as low as 0.68 and 1.7 {micro}m, respectively, can be achieved. Surfaces of the cylindrical EDM parts were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to identify the craters, sub-surface recast layers and heat-affected zones under various process parameters. This study has demonstrated that the cylindrical wire EDM process parameters can be adjusted to achieve either high material removal rate or good surface integrity.

  1. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  2. Monitor For Electrical-Discharge Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1993-01-01

    Circuit monitors electrical-discharge-machining (EDM) process to detect and prevent abnormal arcing, which can produce unacceptable "burn" marks on workpiece. When voltage between EDM electrode and workpiece behaves in manner indicative of abnormal arcing, relay made to switch off EDM power, which remains off until operator attends to EDM setup and resets monitor.

  3. Characterization of nanoparticles from abrasive waterjet machining and electrical discharge machining processes.

    PubMed

    Ling, Tsz Yan; Pui, David Y H

    2013-11-19

    Abrasive Waterjet Machining (AWM) and Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) processes are found to produce nanoparticles during operation. Impacts of engineered nanoparticles released to the environment and biological system have caused much concern. Similarly, the nanoparticles unintentionally produced by the AWM and EDM can lead to comparable effects. By application of the Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) technique, the size distribution and concentration of nanoparticles in the water used in AWM and EDM were measured. The particles generally have a peak size of 100-200 nm. The filtration systems of the AWM and EDM processes were found to remove 70% and 90% the nanoparticles present, respectively. However, the particle concentration of the filtered water from the AWM was still four times higher than that found in regular tap water. These nanoparticles are mostly agglomerated, according to the microscopy analysis. Using the electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) technique, the particles are confirmed to come from the debris of the materials cut with the equipment. Since AWM and EDM are widely used, the handling and disposal of used filters collected with nanoparticles, release of nanoparticles to the sewer, and potential use of higher performance filters for these processes will deserve further consideration.

  4. Characterization of nanoparticles from abrasive waterjet machining and electrical discharge machining processes.

    PubMed

    Ling, Tsz Yan; Pui, David Y H

    2013-11-19

    Abrasive Waterjet Machining (AWM) and Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) processes are found to produce nanoparticles during operation. Impacts of engineered nanoparticles released to the environment and biological system have caused much concern. Similarly, the nanoparticles unintentionally produced by the AWM and EDM can lead to comparable effects. By application of the Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) technique, the size distribution and concentration of nanoparticles in the water used in AWM and EDM were measured. The particles generally have a peak size of 100-200 nm. The filtration systems of the AWM and EDM processes were found to remove 70% and 90% the nanoparticles present, respectively. However, the particle concentration of the filtered water from the AWM was still four times higher than that found in regular tap water. These nanoparticles are mostly agglomerated, according to the microscopy analysis. Using the electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) technique, the particles are confirmed to come from the debris of the materials cut with the equipment. Since AWM and EDM are widely used, the handling and disposal of used filters collected with nanoparticles, release of nanoparticles to the sewer, and potential use of higher performance filters for these processes will deserve further consideration. PMID:24144041

  5. Fabrication of high aspect ratio micro electrode by using EDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejid Elsiti, Nagwa; Noordin, M. Y.; Umar Alkali, Adam

    2016-02-01

    The electrical discharge machining (EDM) process inherits characteristics that make it a promising micro-machining technique. Micro electrical discharge machining (micro- EDM) is a derived form of EDM, which is commonly used to manufacture micro and miniature parts and components by using the conventional electrical discharge machining fundamentals. Moving block electro discharge grinding (Moving BEDG) is one of the processes that can be used to fabricate micro-electrode. In this study, a conventional die sinker EDM machine was used to fabricate the micro-electrode. Modifications are made to the moving BEDG, which include changing the direction of movements and control gap in one electrode. Consequently current was controlled due to the use of roughing, semi-finishing and finishing parameters. Finally, a high aspect ratio micro-electrode with a diameter of 110.49μm and length of 6000μm was fabricated.

  6. Experimental Study on the Machining of Inclined Holes for Thermal Barrier-Coated Nickel Superalloys by EDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guowei; Guo, Yongfeng; Wang, Li

    2016-10-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used to thermally insulate superalloy components from the hot gas streams in gas turbine engines. In this work, electrical discharge machining (EDM) was used to machine different inclined holes in TBC-coated nickel superalloys by integrating the inner-jet-liquid rotating electrode method and the assisting electrode method. The influences of the inclination angle (i.e., from 0° to 60°) and EDM parameters (i.e., peak current, pulse duration, duty factor and flushing pressure) on the machining time and electrode wear were investigated. The surface morphologies and elemental distribution were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope and an energy dispersive spectroscope. The results of the analysis showed that the 8YSZ ceramic coating is more prone to brittle fracture and cracking than the IN718 substrate and NiCoAlY bond coating, and pits and cracks become more pronounced as the inclination angle increases. The damage on the trailing edge is primarily caused by the thermal stress fracture, and the damage on the leading edge is mainly caused by thermal erosion. Using high-energy parameters, a delamination with dimensions of 28 μm (W) × 200 μm (L) occurs on the trailing edges of the coating/substrate interface.

  7. Experimental Study on the Machining of Inclined Holes for Thermal Barrier-Coated Nickel Superalloys by EDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guowei; Guo, Yongfeng; Wang, Li

    2016-08-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used to thermally insulate superalloy components from the hot gas streams in gas turbine engines. In this work, electrical discharge machining (EDM) was used to machine different inclined holes in TBC-coated nickel superalloys by integrating the inner-jet-liquid rotating electrode method and the assisting electrode method. The influences of the inclination angle (i.e., from 0° to 60°) and EDM parameters (i.e., peak current, pulse duration, duty factor and flushing pressure) on the machining time and electrode wear were investigated. The surface morphologies and elemental distribution were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope and an energy dispersive spectroscope. The results of the analysis showed that the 8YSZ ceramic coating is more prone to brittle fracture and cracking than the IN718 substrate and NiCoAlY bond coating, and pits and cracks become more pronounced as the inclination angle increases. The damage on the trailing edge is primarily caused by the thermal stress fracture, and the damage on the leading edge is mainly caused by thermal erosion. Using high-energy parameters, a delamination with dimensions of 28 μm (W) × 200 μm (L) occurs on the trailing edges of the coating/substrate interface.

  8. Investigation of the effect of process parameters on the formation and characteristics of recast layer in wire-EDM of Inconel 718

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, Thomas R; Melkote, Shreyes N; Watkins, Thomas R; Trejo, Rosa M; Riester, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Inconel 718 is a high nickel content superalloy possessing high strength at elevated temperatures and resistance to oxidation and corrosion. The non-traditional manufacturing process of wire-electrical discharge machining (EDM) possesses many advantages over traditional machining during the manufacture of Inconel 718 parts. However, certain detrimental effects are also present and are due in large part to the formation of the recast layer. An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the main EDM parameters which contribute to recast layer formation in Inconel 718. It was found that average recast layer thickness increased primarily with energy per spark, peak discharge current, and current pulse duration. Over the range of parameters tested, the recast layer was observed to be between 5 and 9 {micro}m in average thickness, although highly variable in nature. The recast material was found to possess in-plane tensile residual stresses, as well as lower hardness and elastic modulus than the bulk material.

  9. Numerical prediction of heat affected layer in the EDM of aeronautical alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo, B.; Plaza, S.; Sánchez, J. A.; Pombo, I.; Ortega, N.

    2012-10-01

    Electrical discharge machining is a popular non-traditional machining process, optimum for accurate machining of complex geometries in hard materials. EDM has been used for decades for machining pieces for the aeronautical industry, but surface integrity, and consequently the reliability of the machined parts have been questioned for long time due to the thermal nature of this machining process. In recent years, efforts have been put on modeling of the EDM process, being thermal modeling of the process one promising alternative. In a previous publication an original model of the EDM process was presented and it was used to predict material removal rate and surface finish for the EDM of steel. In the present article the capability of that modeling tool to characterize discharge properties and to predict recast layer distribution when EDMing an aeronautical alloy will be analyzed. EDM process of Inconel 718 has been studied and discharge properties have been obtained for four different EDM regimes. The capability of the model to reflect the behavior of more energetic regimes is discussed. Gathered information has been used to simulate the evolution of the recast layer generation process. Obtained results have been validated comparing them with experimental measurements, revealing a good correlation between predictions and experimental data. Finally, energetic efficiency of the discharge process has been simulated for the adjusted EDM regimes.

  10. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  11. Effect of the Machining Processes on Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of a Powder Metallurgy Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesman, J.; Kantzos, P.; Gabb, T. P.; Ghosn, L. J.

    2010-01-01

    A study has been performed to investigate the effect of various machining processes on fatigue life of configured low cycle fatigue specimens machined out of a NASA developed LSHR P/M nickel based disk alloy. Two types of configured specimen geometries were employed in the study. To evaluate a broach machining processes a double notch geometry was used with both notches machined using broach tooling. EDM machined notched specimens of the same configuration were tested for comparison purposes. Honing finishing process was evaluated by using a center hole specimen geometry. Comparison testing was again done using EDM machined specimens of the same geometry. The effect of these machining processes on the resulting surface roughness, residual stress distribution and microstructural damage were characterized and used in attempt to explain the low cycle fatigue results.

  12. Ultrasonic Abrasive Removal Of EDM Recast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Johnny L.; Jacobson, Marlowe S.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic abrasive process removes layer of recast material generated during electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of damper pocket on turbine blade. Form-fitted tool vibrated ultrasonically in damper pocket from which material removed. Vibrations activate abrasive in pocket. Amount of material removed controlled precisely.

  13. Electrical-Discharge Machining Of Curved Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guirguis, Kamal S.

    1993-01-01

    Electrical-discharge machining (EDM) used to cut deep hole with bends. EDM process done with articulating segmented electrode. Originally straight, electrode curved as it penetrates part, forming long, smoothly curving hole. After hole cut, honed with slurry to remove thin layer of recast metal created by EDM. Breakage of tools, hand deburring, and drilling debris eliminated.

  14. Numerical study on the splitting of a vapor bubble in the ultrasonic assisted EDM process with the curved tool and workpiece.

    PubMed

    Shervani-Tabar, M T; Seyed-Sadjadi, M H; Shabgard, M R

    2013-01-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a powerful and modern method of machining. In the EDM process, a vapor bubble is generated between the tool and the workpiece in the dielectric liquid due to an electrical discharge. In this process dynamic behavior of the vapor bubble affects machining process. Vibration of the tool surface affects bubble behavior and consequently affects material removal rate (MRR). In this paper, dynamic behavior of the vapor bubble in an ultrasonic assisted EDM process after the appearance of the necking phenomenon is investigated. It is noteworthy that necking phenomenon occurs when the bubble takes the shape of an hour-glass. After the appearance of the necking phenomenon, the vapor bubble splits into two parts and two liquid jets are developed on the boundaries of the upper and lower parts of the vapor bubble. The liquid jet developed on the upper part of the bubble impinges to the tool and the liquid jet developed on the lower part of the bubble impinges to the workpiece. These liquid jets cause evacuation of debris from the gap between the tool and the workpiece and also cause erosion of the workpiece and the tool. Curved tool and workpiece affect the shape and the velocity of the liquid jets during splitting of the vapor bubble. In this paper dynamics of the vapor bubble after its splitting near the curved tool and workpiece is investigated in three cases. In the first case surfaces of the tool and the workpiece are flat, in the second case surfaces of the tool and the workpiece are convex and in the third case surfaces of the tool and workpiece are concave. Numerical results show that in the third case, the velocity of liquid jets which are developed on the boundaries of the upper and lower parts of the vapor bubble after its splitting have the highest magnitude and their shape are broader than the other cases.

  15. Numerical study on the splitting of a vapor bubble in the ultrasonic assisted EDM process with the curved tool and workpiece.

    PubMed

    Shervani-Tabar, M T; Seyed-Sadjadi, M H; Shabgard, M R

    2013-01-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a powerful and modern method of machining. In the EDM process, a vapor bubble is generated between the tool and the workpiece in the dielectric liquid due to an electrical discharge. In this process dynamic behavior of the vapor bubble affects machining process. Vibration of the tool surface affects bubble behavior and consequently affects material removal rate (MRR). In this paper, dynamic behavior of the vapor bubble in an ultrasonic assisted EDM process after the appearance of the necking phenomenon is investigated. It is noteworthy that necking phenomenon occurs when the bubble takes the shape of an hour-glass. After the appearance of the necking phenomenon, the vapor bubble splits into two parts and two liquid jets are developed on the boundaries of the upper and lower parts of the vapor bubble. The liquid jet developed on the upper part of the bubble impinges to the tool and the liquid jet developed on the lower part of the bubble impinges to the workpiece. These liquid jets cause evacuation of debris from the gap between the tool and the workpiece and also cause erosion of the workpiece and the tool. Curved tool and workpiece affect the shape and the velocity of the liquid jets during splitting of the vapor bubble. In this paper dynamics of the vapor bubble after its splitting near the curved tool and workpiece is investigated in three cases. In the first case surfaces of the tool and the workpiece are flat, in the second case surfaces of the tool and the workpiece are convex and in the third case surfaces of the tool and workpiece are concave. Numerical results show that in the third case, the velocity of liquid jets which are developed on the boundaries of the upper and lower parts of the vapor bubble after its splitting have the highest magnitude and their shape are broader than the other cases. PMID:22784706

  16. Micro-EDM for silicon microstructure fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaozhong; Reynaerts, Dominiek; Meeusen, Wim; Van Brussel, Hendrik

    1999-03-01

    Currently, most silicon microstructures used in microstructures are produced by photolithographic methods. The reason for this is the well-developed etching technology, used in microelectronics, that has been transferred to the microsystem domain. But since the making of an arbitrary shape or angle on silicon mainly depends on the crystal orientation, some severe limits exist in the production of 3D structures. Electro-discharge machining (EDM) is basically a thermal process. During the EDM process material is removed by electric sparking. It is therefore completely different from etching. In this work, micro-EDM is introduce as a potential approach for solving the above mentioned drawbacks. First, this work presents several testing experiments with different process parameters to investigate the influence of the micro-EDM process on the silicon structure. Main emphasis is put on the surface roughness and on avoiding microcracks generated by the sparking process. It is found that microstructures with a sufficiently low surface roughness and with small microcracks can be produced. The remainder of the work concentrates on making small beam structures, which is a common structure in many microsensor designs. It is found that for a wafer thickness of 650 micrometers , the thinnest beam that can be produced is about 30 micrometers wide. This means that micro-EDM can offer an aspect ratio of 20 in combination with a god dimensional control.

  17. Making EDM Electrodes By Stereolithography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlas, Philip A.

    1988-01-01

    Stereolithography is computer-aided manufacturing technique. Used to make models and molds of electrodes for electrical-discharge machining (EDM). Eliminates intermediate steps in fabrication of plastic model of object used in making EDM electrode to manufacture object or mold for object.

  18. Micro-CT evaluation of in vivo osteogenesis at implants processed by wire-type electric discharge machining.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Koichi; Kataoka, Yu; Ohtsuka, Fukunaga; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Titanium surfaces processed by wire-type electric discharge machining (EDM) are microfabricated surfaces with an irregular morphology, and they exhibited excellent in vitro bone biocompatibility. In this study, the efficiency of in vivo osteogenesis on EDM surfaces was investigated by surgically placing screw-shaped EDM-processed and machined-surface implants into the femurs of four Japanese white rabbits. The volume and process of new bone formation were evaluated by an X-ray micro-CT scanner, coupled with histopathological observations at 1, 2, and 4 weeks post-implantation. Before surgical implantation, the surface topography and contact angle of each implant surface were examined. Bone formation increased over time on both implant surfaces, with both implant types yielding statistically equivalent bone volume at 4 weeks post-implementation. However, at 1 week post-implantation, amount of new bone at EDM-processed implant was markedly greater than that at machined-surface implant. Moreover, new bone appeared to initiate directly from the EDM surfaces, while new bone appeared to generate from pre-existing host bone to the machined surfaces. Thus, EDM seemed to be a promising method for surface modification of titanium implants to support enhanced osteogenesis.

  19. Micro-CT evaluation of in vivo osteogenesis at implants processed by wire-type electric discharge machining.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Koichi; Kataoka, Yu; Ohtsuka, Fukunaga; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Titanium surfaces processed by wire-type electric discharge machining (EDM) are microfabricated surfaces with an irregular morphology, and they exhibited excellent in vitro bone biocompatibility. In this study, the efficiency of in vivo osteogenesis on EDM surfaces was investigated by surgically placing screw-shaped EDM-processed and machined-surface implants into the femurs of four Japanese white rabbits. The volume and process of new bone formation were evaluated by an X-ray micro-CT scanner, coupled with histopathological observations at 1, 2, and 4 weeks post-implantation. Before surgical implantation, the surface topography and contact angle of each implant surface were examined. Bone formation increased over time on both implant surfaces, with both implant types yielding statistically equivalent bone volume at 4 weeks post-implementation. However, at 1 week post-implantation, amount of new bone at EDM-processed implant was markedly greater than that at machined-surface implant. Moreover, new bone appeared to initiate directly from the EDM surfaces, while new bone appeared to generate from pre-existing host bone to the machined surfaces. Thus, EDM seemed to be a promising method for surface modification of titanium implants to support enhanced osteogenesis. PMID:22673455

  20. Experimental Study on Influence of Process Variables on Crater Dimensions in Micro- EDM of {gamma}-Titanium Aluminide

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S.; Paul, G.; Sarkar, S.; Nagahanumaiah

    2011-01-17

    In the present work the effect of different dielectric mediums in micro-EDM of {gamma}-Titanium Aluminide alloy have been investigated. Experiments were conducted both in the absence (dry conditions) and in presence of dielectric (EDM oil).Circular craters were produced both in the presence and absence of dielectric fluid using varying micro-EDM process variables i.e. open circuit voltage, discharge capacitance, pulse frequency and pulse-on-time. Over cut was measured from optical microscope images using Image Analyzer software. Influences of process variables and optimal conditions for minimum over cut on crater dimensions were investigated. ANOVA test which shows that capacitance of RC circuit contributes significantly in crater formation followed by pulse frequency. Optical photographs exhibit that over cut are less in air medium compared to oil medium.

  1. Use of in-process EDM truing to generate complex contours on metal-bond, superabrasive grinding wheels for precision grinding structural ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Piscotty, M. A., LLNL

    1997-08-01

    This paper presents recent work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop cost-effective, versatile and robust manufacturing methods for grinding precision features in structural ceramics using metal-bond, superabrasive grinding wheels. The developed processes include utilizing specialized, on-machine hardware to generate precision profiles onto grinding wheels using electrical-discharge machining (EDM) and a contoured rotating electrode. The production grinding processes are described, which were developed and used to grind various precision details into a host of structural ceramics such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and BeO. The methodologies, hardware and results of both creep-feed and cylindrical grinding are described. A discussion of imparted grinding damage and wheel wear is also presented.

  2. Study of the Productivity and Surface Quality of Hybrid EDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wankhade, Sandeepkumar Haribhau; Sharma, Sunil Bansilal

    2016-01-01

    The development of new, advanced engineering materials and the need for precise prototypes and low-volume production have made the electric discharge machining (EDM), an important manufacturing process to meet such demands. It is capable of machining geometrically complex and hard material components, that are precise and difficult-to-machine such as heat treated tool steels, composites, super alloys, ceramics, carbides etc. Conversely the low MRR limits its productivity. Abrasive water jet machine (AJM) tools are quick to setup and offer quick turn-around on the machine and could make parts out of virtually any material. They do not heat the material hence no heat affected zone and can make any intricate shape easily. The main advantages are flexibility, low heat production and ability to machine hard and brittle materials. Main disadvantages comprise the process produces a tapered cut and health hazards due to dry abrasives. To overcome the limitations and exploit the best of each of above processes; an attempt has been made to hybridize the processes of AJM and EDM. The appropriate abrasives routed with compressed air through the hollow electrode to construct the hybrid process i.e., abrasive jet electric discharge machining (AJEDM), the high speed abrasives could impinge on the machined surface to remove the recast layer caused by EDM process. The main process parameters were varied to explore their effects and experimental results show that AJEDM enhances the machining efficiency with better surface finish hence can fit the requirements of modern manufacturing applications.

  3. Bacillus subtilis EdmS (formerly PgsE) participates in the maintenance of episomes.

    PubMed

    Ashiuchi, Makoto; Yamashiro, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kento

    2013-09-01

    Extrachromosomal DNA maintenance (EDM) is an important process in molecular breeding and for various applications in the construction of genetically engineered microbes. Here we describe a novel Bacillus subtilis gene involved in EDM function called edmS (formerly pgsE). Functional gene regions were identified using molecular genetics techniques. We found that EdmS is a membrane-associated protein that is crucial for EDM. We also determined that EdmS can change a plasmid vector with an unstable replicon and worse-than-random segregation into one with better-than-random segregation, suggesting that the protein functions in the declustering and/or partitioning of episomes. EdmS has two distinct domains: an N-terminal membrane-anchoring domain and a C-terminal assembly accelerator-like structure, and mutational analysis of edmS revealed that both domains are essential for EDM. Further studies using cells of Bacillus megaterium and itsedmS (formerly capE) gene implied that EdmS has potential as a molecular probe for exploring novel EDM systems.

  4. Machining Performance and Surface Integrity of AISI D2 Die Steel Machined Using Electrical Discharge Surface Grinding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Rajesh; Kumar, Harmesh; Singh, Shankar

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to establish optimum machining conditions for EDSG of AISI D2 die steel through an experimental investigation using Taguchi Methodology. To achieve combined grinding and electrical discharge machining, metal matrix composite electrodes (Cu-SiCp) were processed through powder metallurgy route. A rotary spindle attachment was developed to perform the EDSG experimental runs on EDM machine. Relationships were developed between various input parameters such as peak current, speed, pulse-on time, pulse-off time, abrasive particle size, and abrasive particle concentration, and output characteristics such as material removal rate and surface roughness. The optimized parameters were further validated by conducting confirmation experiments.

  5. Development of a 3D touch trigger probe using micro spherical stylus machining by micro-EDM for micro-CMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Chih-Liang; Chen, Yi-Lin; Tai, Tzu-Yao; Liu, Yun-Hui; Chuang, Cheng-Hsin; Lu, Chin-Tu

    2011-12-01

    This study develops a low-cost three-dimensional touch trigger probe for micro-CMM using micro spherical stylus machining by micro-EDM. The tip ball of the stylus, with a diameter smaller than 100 µm, is made by a micro electro discharge machine with the method of wire electro discharge grinding (WEDG). The current study uses tungsten carbide (WC) as the material for the stylus. Experimental results show that, the tip ball roundness could amount to 2 µm. Since the tip ball is not easily observable by naked eyes, we designed a micro imaging system to observe the probing in real time. This system is created with modified commercial webcam and microscope. The general design of the touch trigger probe is combined the stylus and suspension structure. When the stylus touches workpiece, it can be determined the time of probe trigger by measuring the motion of suspension structure. The stylus machined by micro-EDM was very fragile and the stylus handle of the tip ball was very thin. Therefore, the stylus handle bends easily that would result in the large measurement error or stylus break when the stylus touched workpiece. In this study we designed a measuring probe using a small chuck and an electrical circuit to measure the probe trigger. When the stylus touches the workpiece, the parallel circuit will switch on immediately and pick up the voltage variation of the resistor. Because the transistor always turns ON, it can avoid the problems of excessive energy and electrical noise.

  6. Experimental Investigations during Dry EDM of Inconel - 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BHANDARE, A. S.; DABADE, U. A.

    2016-02-01

    Dry EDM is a modification of the conventional EDM process in which the liquid dielectric is replaced by a gaseous medium. Tubular tool electrodes are used and as the tool rotates, high velocity gas is supplied through it into the discharge gap. The flow of high velocity gas into the gap facilitates removal of debris and prevents excessive heating of the tool and work piece at the discharge spots. It is now known that apart from being an environment- friendly process, other advantages of the dry EDM process are low tool wear, lower discharge gap, lower residual stresses, smaller white layer and smaller heat affected zone. Keeping literature review into consideration, in this paper, an attempt has been made by selecting compressed air as a dielectric medium, with Inconel - 718 as a work piece material and copper as a tool electrode. Experiments are performed using Taguchi DoE orthogonal array to observe and analyze the effects of different process parameters to optimize the response variables such as material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (Ra) and tool wear rate (TWR). In the current work, a unit has been developed to implement dry EDM process on existing oil based EDM machine.

  7. High-efficiency approach for fabricating MTE rotor by micro-EDM and micro-extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xuesong; Chi, Guanxin; Wang, Yukui; Wang, Zhenlong

    2014-07-01

    Micro-gas turbine engine (MTE) rotor is an important indicator of its property, therefore, the manufacturing technology of the microminiature rotor has become a hot area of research at home and abroad. At present, the main manufacturing technologies of the MTE rotor are directed forming fabrication technologies. However, these technologies have a series of problems, such as complex processing technology high manufacturing cost, and low processing efficiency, and so on. This paper takes advantage of micro electric discharge machining (micro-EDM) in the field of microminiature molds manufacturing, organizes many processing technologies of micro-EDM reasonably to improve processing accuracy, presents an integrated micro-EDM technology and its process flow to fabricate MTE rotor die, and conducts a series of experiments to verify efficiency of this integrated micro-EDM. The experiments results show that the MTE rotor die has sharp outline and ensure the good consistency of MTE rotor blades. Meanwhile, the MTE rotor die is applied to micro extrusion equipment, and technologies of micro-EDM and micro forming machining are combined based on the idea of the molds manufacturing, so the MTE rotor with higher aspect ratio and better consistency of blades can be manufactured efficiently. This research presents an integrated micro-EDM technology and its process flow, which promotes the practical process of MTE effectively.

  8. Shaping of steel mold surface of lens array by electrical discharge machining with single rod electrode.

    PubMed

    Takino, Hideo; Hosaka, Takahiro

    2014-11-20

    We propose a method for fabricating a lens array mold by electrical discharge machining (EDM). In this method, the tips of rods are machined individually to form a specific surface, and then a number of the machined rods are arranged to construct an electrode for EDM. The repetition of the EDM process using the electrode enables a number of lens elements to be produced on the mold surface. The effectiveness of our proposed method is demonstrated by shaping a lens array mold made of stainless steel with 16 spherical elements, in which the EDM process with a single rod electrode is repeatedly conducted.

  9. Corrosion Resistance Analysis of Sintered NdFeB Magnets Using Ultrasonic-Aided EDM Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Wei, X. T.; Li, Z. Y.; Cheng, X.

    2015-01-01

    Sintered neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) permanent magnets are widely used in many fields because of their excellent magnetic property. However, their poor corrosion resistance has been cited as a potential problem that limits their extensive application. This paper presents an experimental investigation into the improvement of surface corrosion resistance with the ultrasonic-aided electrical discharge machining (U-EDM) method. A scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the surface morphology of recast layers formed through the EDM and U-EDM processes. The chemical structure and elements of these recast layers were characterized using x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Corrosion resistance was also studied by means of potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion tests in 0.5 mol/L H2SO4 solution. Experimental results show that an amorphous structure was formed in the recast layer during the EDM and U-EDM processes and that this structure could improve the corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB magnets. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of U-EDM-treated surface was better than that of the EDM-treated surface.

  10. Mathematical modeling and analysis of EDM process parameters based on Taguchi design of experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxman, J.; Raj, K. Guru

    2015-12-01

    Electro Discharge Machining is a process used for machining very hard metals, deep and complex shapes by metal erosion in all types of electro conductive materials. The metal is removed through the action of an electric discharge of short duration and high current density between the tool and the work piece. The eroded metal on the surface of both work piece and the tool is flushed away by the dielectric fluid. The objective of this work is to develop a mathematical model for an Electro Discharge Machining process which provides the necessary equations to predict the metal removal rate, electrode wear rate and surface roughness. Regression analysis is used to investigate the relationship between various process parameters. The input parameters are taken as peak current, pulse on time, pulse off time, tool lift time. and the Metal removal rate, electrode wear rate and surface roughness are as responses. Experiments are conducted on Titanium super alloy based on the Taguchi design of experiments i.e. L27 orthogonal experiments.

  11. Machine and process characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Love, L.W.

    1992-12-01

    A study was conducted to statistically characterize 11 precision machining centers to determine their operating characteristics and process capabilities. Measurement probes and a ball plate were used for measurement analysis. A generic test part designed with geometric features that the department typically manufactures was machined using various machining processes. A better understanding of each machine`s characteristics and process capability was realized through repeating these methods on each machine.

  12. The Evolution of CERN EDMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardzinska, Aleksandra; Petit, Stephan; Bray, Rachel; Delamare, Christophe; Garcia Arza, Griselda; Krastev, Tsvetelin; Pater, Krzysztof; Suwalska, Anna; Widegren, David

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale long-term projects such as the LHC require the ability to store, manage, organize and distribute large amounts of engineering information, covering a wide spectrum of fields. This information is a living material, evolving in time, following specific lifecycles. It has to reach the next generations of engineers so they understand how their predecessors designed, crafted, operated and maintained the most complex machines ever built. This is the role of CERN EDMS. The Engineering and Equipment Data Management Service has served the High Energy Physics Community for over 15 years. It is CERN's official PLM (Product Lifecycle Management), supporting engineering communities in their collaborations inside and outside the laboratory. EDMS is integrated with the CAD (Computer-aided Design) and CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management) systems used at CERN providing tools for engineers who work in different domains and who are not PLM specialists. Over the years, human collaborations and machines grew in size and complexity. So did EDMS: it is currently home to more than 2 million files and documents, and has over 6 thousand active users. In April 2014 we released a new major version of EDMS, featuring a complete makeover of the web interface, improved responsiveness and enhanced functionality. Following the results of user surveys and building upon feedback received from key users group, we brought what we think is a system that is more attractive and makes it easy to perform complex tasks. In this paper we will describe the main functions and the architecture of EDMS. We will discuss the available integration options, which enable further evolution and automation of engineering data management. We will also present our plans for the future development of EDMS.

  13. Influence of surface position along the working range of conoscopic holography sensors on dimensional verification of AISI 316 wire EDM machined surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Pedro; Blanco, David; Rico, Carlos; Valiño, Gonzalo; Mateos, Sabino

    2014-03-06

    Conoscopic holography (CH) is a non-contact interferometric technique used for surface digitization which presents several advantages over other optical techniques such as laser triangulation. Among others, the ability for the reconstruction of high-sloped surfaces stands out, and so does its lower dependence on surface optical properties. Nevertheless, similarly to other optical systems, adjustment of CH sensors requires an adequate selection of configuration parameters for ensuring a high quality surface digitizing. This should be done on a surface located as close as possible to the stand-off distance by tuning frequency (F) and power (P) until the quality indicators Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and signal envelope (Total) meet proper values. However, not all the points of an actual surface are located at the stand-off distance, but they could be located throughout the whole working range (WR). Thus, the quality of a digitized surface may not be uniform. The present work analyses how the quality of a reconstructed surface is affected by its relative position within the WR under different combinations of the parameters F and P. Experiments have been conducted on AISI 316 wire EDM machined flat surfaces. The number of high-quality points digitized as well as distance measurements between different surfaces throughout the WR allowed for comparing the metrological behaviour of the CH sensor with respect to a touch probe (TP) on a CMM.

  14. Influence of Surface Position along the Working Range of Conoscopic Holography Sensors on Dimensional Verification of AISI 316 Wire EDM Machined Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Pedro; Blanco, David; Rico, Carlos; Valiño, Gonzalo; Mateos, Sabino

    2014-01-01

    Conoscopic holography (CH) is a non-contact interferometric technique used for surface digitization which presents several advantages over other optical techniques such as laser triangulation. Among others, the ability for the reconstruction of high-sloped surfaces stands out, and so does its lower dependence on surface optical properties. Nevertheless, similarly to other optical systems, adjustment of CH sensors requires an adequate selection of configuration parameters for ensuring a high quality surface digitizing. This should be done on a surface located as close as possible to the stand-off distance by tuning frequency (F) and power (P) until the quality indicators Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and signal envelope (Total) meet proper values. However, not all the points of an actual surface are located at the stand-off distance, but they could be located throughout the whole working range (WR). Thus, the quality of a digitized surface may not be uniform. The present work analyses how the quality of a reconstructed surface is affected by its relative position within the WR under different combinations of the parameters F and P. Experiments have been conducted on AISI 316 wire EDM machined flat surfaces. The number of high-quality points digitized as well as distance measurements between different surfaces throughout the WR allowed for comparing the metrological behaviour of the CH sensor with respect to a touch probe (TP) on a CMM. PMID:24662452

  15. Investigation of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of Thin Cross-Sections and Compliant Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Scott F.; Kao, Chen C.; Shih, Albert J.; Qu, Jun

    2005-01-01

    The wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) of cross-section with minimum thickness and compliant mechanisms is studied. Effects of EDM process parameters, particularly the spark cycle time and spark on-time on thin cross-section cutting of Nd-Fe-B magnetic material, carbon bipolar plate, and titanium are investigated. An envelope of feasible wire EDM process parameters is generated for the commercially pure titanium. The application of such envelope to select suitable EDM process parameters for micro feature generation is demonstrated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of EDM surface, subsurface, and debris are presented. SEM observations lead to a hypothesis based on the thermal and electrostatic stress induced fracture to explain the limiting factor for wire EDM cutting of thin-sections. Applications of the thin cross-section EDM cutting for manufacture of compliant mechanisms are discussed.

  16. Improving Electrical Efficiency of Edm Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, Emanoil; Simion, Carmen Mihaela

    2014-11-01

    This paper briefly presents the principal types of Pulse Generators for Electrical Discharge Machining and ways to improve electrical efficiency. A resonant converter with series-parallel LCC circuit, for EDM applications, was analyzed by PSpice simulation. The performances of EDM Power Supply were improved by adding an energy recovering - voltage limiter circuit. The shape of current pulse was changed by adding a supplementary MOSFET Switch in parallel with the gap. Two or more converters can be parallelized, in this way output current can be changed. A bloc-schema was conceived for EDM experimental set up

  17. Extra-chromosomal DNA maintenance in Bacillus subtilis, dependence on flagellation factor FliF and moonlighting mediator EdmS.

    PubMed

    Hakumai, Yuichi; Shimomoto, Kouko; Ashiuchi, Makoto

    2015-05-15

    Extra-chromosomal DNA maintenance (EDM) as an important process in the propagation and genetic engineering of microbes. Bacillus subtilis EdmS (formerly PgsE), a protein comprising 55 amino acids, is a mediator of the EDM process. In this study, the effect of mutation of global regulators on B. subtilis EDM was examined. Mutation of the swrA gene abolished EdmS-mediated EDM. It is known that swrA predominantly regulates expression of the fla/che operon in B. subtilis. We therefore performed EDM analysis using fla/che-deletion mutants and identified an EDM-mediated EDM cooperator in the flgB-fliL region. Further genetic investigation identified the flagellation factor FliF is a crucial EDM cooperator. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of the moonlighting function of FliF in DNA maintenance.

  18. Storage Ring EDM Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semertzidis, Yannis K.

    2016-04-01

    Dedicated storage ring electric dipole moment (EDM) methods show great promise advancing the sensitivity level by a couple orders of magnitude over currently planned hadronic EDM experiments. We describe the present status and recent updates of the field.

  19. High-speed micro-electro-discharge machining.

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekar, Srinivasan Dr. (.School of Industrial Engineering, West Lafayette, IN); Moylan, Shawn P. (School of Industrial Engineering, West Lafayette, IN); Benavides, Gilbert Lawrence

    2005-09-01

    When two electrodes are in close proximity in a dielectric liquid, application of a voltage pulse can produce a spark discharge between them, resulting in a small amount of material removal from both electrodes. Pulsed application of the voltage at discharge energies in the range of micro-Joules results in the continuous material removal process known as micro-electro-discharge machining (micro-EDM). Spark erosion by micro-EDM provides significant opportunities for producing small features and micro-components such as nozzle holes, slots, shafts and gears in virtually any conductive material. If the speed and precision of micro-EDM processes can be significantly enhanced, then they have the potential to be used for a wide variety of micro-machining applications including fabrication of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) components. Toward this end, a better understanding of the impacts the various machining parameters have on material removal has been established through a single discharge study of micro-EDM and a parametric study of small hole making by micro-EDM. The main avenues for improving the speed and efficiency of the micro-EDM process are in the areas of more controlled pulse generation in the power supply and more controlled positioning of the tool electrode during the machining process. Further investigation of the micro-EDM process in three dimensions leads to important design rules, specifically the smallest feature size attainable by the process.

  20. Multi-Objective Optimization of Green EDM: An Integrated Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadish; Ray, A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) generates toxic substances, results in serious occupational health, and environmental issues, which influence the process parameters of EDM. These process parameters are multi-response parameters. The aim of this research is to solve the multi-response optimization problems and selection of optimum process parameters of green EDM using an integrated methodology comprising of entropy and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA). In this work, initially, an experiment was performed using Taguchi experimental technique. Thereafter, Entropy-GRA has been used to convert the multi-response parameters into single response parameter. Finally, the ranking of the parameter decides the best experimental set up and optimizes the input process parameters. In this work, Entropy method has been used to extract the precise value of each of the output parameters, which influences the gray relational grades for finding the optimal experimental set up. The justification of optimal input process parameters has been made using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) analysis. An attempt has been made to compare the proposed methodology with the Fuzzy-TOPSIS and Taguchi-VIKOR methodology. The numerical result shows that the optimum process parameters are peak current (4.5 A), pulse duration (261 μs), dielectric level (80 mm) and flushing pressure (0.3 kg/cm2).

  1. Electrical discharge machining.

    PubMed

    LaBarge, K W

    1997-11-01

    This article describes a laboratory technique of achieving the highest degree of passive fit of an implant-retained restoration using electric discharge machining (EDM). This process can save time by eliminating the need for conventional soldering procedures, increase the longevity of the restoration, and when used along with the clinical technique of fabricating a verification index, eliminate the clinical try-in phase.

  2. A novel power source for high-precision, highly efficient micro w-EDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shun-Tong; Chen, Chi-Hung

    2015-07-01

    The study presents the development of a novel power source for high-precision, highly efficient machining of micropart microstructures using micro wire electrical discharge machining (w-EDM). A novel power source based on a pluri resistance-capacitance (pRC) circuit that can generate a high-frequency, high-peak current with a short pulse train is proposed and designed to enhance the performance of micro w-EDM processes. Switching between transistors is precisely controlled in the designed power source to create a high-frequency short-pulse train current. Various microslot cutting tests in both aluminum and copper alloys are conducted. Experimental results demonstrate that the pRC power source creates instant spark erosion resulting in markedly less material for removal, diminishing discharge crater size, and consequently an improved surface finish. A new evaluation approach for spark erosion ability (SEA) to assess the merits of micro EDM power sources is also proposed. In addition to increasing the speed of micro w-EDM by increasing wire feed rates by 1.6 times the original feed rate, the power source is more appropriate for machining micropart microstructures since there is less thermal breaking. Satisfactory cutting of an elaborate miniature hook-shaped structure and a high-aspect ratio microstructure with a squared-pillar array also reveal that the developed pRC power source is effective, and should be very useful in the manufacture of intricate microparts.

  3. Machine Process Capability Information Through Six Sigma

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, M.F.

    1998-03-13

    A project investigating details concerning machine process capability information and its accessibility has been conducted. The thesis of the project proposed designing a part (denoted as a machine capability workpiece) based on the major machining features of a given machine. Parts are machined and measured to gather representative production, short-term variation. The information is utilized to predict the expected defect rate, expressed in terms of a composite sigma level process capability index, for a production part. Presently, decisions concerning process planning, particularly what machine will statistically produce the minimum amount of defects based on machined features and associated tolerances, are rarely made. Six sigma tools and methodology were employed to conduct this investigation at AlliedSignal FM and T. Tools such as the thought process map, factor relationship diagrams, and components of variance were used. This study is progressing toward completion. This research study was an example of how machine process capability information may be gathered for milling planar faces (horizontal) and slot features. The planning method used to determine where and how to gather variation for the part to be designed is known as factor relationship diagramming. Components-of-variation is then applied to the gathered data to arrive at the contributing level of variation illustrated within the factor relationship diagram. The idea of using this capability information beyond process planning to the other business enterprise operations is proposed.

  4. Dry Machining Process of Milling Machine using Axiomatic Green Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puspita Andriani, Gita; Akbar, Muhammad; Irianto, Dradjad

    2016-02-01

    Most of companies know that there are strategies to become green industry, and they realize that green efforts have impacts on product quality and cost. Axiomatic Green Methodology models the relationship between green, quality, and cost. This methodology starts with determining the green improvement objective and then continues with mapping the functional, economic, and green requirements. From the mapping, variables which affect the requirements are identified. Afterwards, the effect of each variable is determined by performing experiments and regression modelling. In this research, axiomatic green methodology was implemented to dry machining of milling machine in order to reduce the amount of coolant. Dry machining will be feasible if it is not worse than the minimum required quality. As a result, dry machining is feasible without producing any defect. The proposed machining parameter is to reduce the coolant flow rate from 6.882 ml/minute to 0 ml/minute, set the depth of cut at 1.2 mm, spindle rotation speed at 500 rpm, and feed rate at 128 mm/minute. This solution is also resulted in reduction of cost for 200.48 rupiahs for each process.

  5. Micro-Hole Multi-Point Punching System Using Punch and Die Made by EDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broomfield, Mark; Mori, Toshihiko; Mikuriya, Teruaki; Tachibana, Kazushi

    In this research a multi-point micro punch and die system was developed. The process of electric discharge machining (EDM) was used to produce both the punch and die. The punches were machined from a 5 mm diameter tungsten and a 10 mm diameter tool steel round rods by wire electric discharge machining (WEDM), using a 200 µm diameter wire electrode. The die holes were made using the punch as the electrode. The EDM process of the holes was carried out on a newly developed desktop EDM machine. The punch and die placed on a micro-die set and then on a micro press were used to produce micro-holes using an automatic control system developed for this process. Experiments to produce 50 µm to 67 µm square micro-holes on 50 µm thick aluminum, 30 µm thick copper and 20 µm thick stainless steel foils were conducted. The capabilities of multi-point punching using the tungsten punch and a tool steel punch were examined and tungsten was chosen as the material of choice for making the punch tool. A scanning electron microscope confirmed that the holes produced are clean, and the sheared surfaces smooth. The punch tool showed no signs of deformation or cracks even after repeated punching.

  6. Surface Integrity of Inconel 718 by Wire-EDM at Different Energy Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Wei, X. T.; Guo, Y. B.; Li, W.; Liu, J. F.

    2014-08-01

    Inconel alloys including IN 718 alloy are widely used in turbomachinery industry due to their superior mechanical properties. Inconel alloys are very difficult to machine using cutting and grinding. Wire electrical discharge machining (W-EDM) is an alternative process to manufacture complex Inconel parts. However, little research has been done on surface integrity by W-EDMed IN 718. This study focuses on surface integrity of IN 718 by W-EDM at different modes of discharge energy. The results show that the EDMed surface topography shows dominant coral reef microstructures at high energy mode, while random microvoids are dominant at low energy modes. The average roughness can be significantly reduced at low energy mode. A thick white layer is predominantly discontinuous and non-uniform at relative high energy modes. Microvoids are confined within the thick white layers and no microcracks were found in the subsurface. A thin white layer by trim cut at low energy mode becomes continuous, uniform, and is free of voids. Compared to the bulk, white layers have dramatic reduction in microhardness. In addition, surface alloying from wire electrode and water dielectric is obvious in main cut, but it can be minimized in trim cuts.

  7. Parametric Optimization of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of Powder Metallurgical Cold Worked Tool Steel using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakara, Dara; Prasanthi, Guvvala

    2016-08-01

    Wire Cut EDM is an unconventional machining process used to build components of complex shape. The current work mainly deals with optimization of surface roughness while machining P/M CW TOOL STEEL by Wire cut EDM using Taguchi method. The process parameters of the Wire Cut EDM is ON, OFF, IP, SV, WT, and WP. L27 OA is used for to design of the experiments for conducting experimentation. In order to find out the effecting parameters on the surface roughness, ANOVA analysis is engaged. The optimum levels for getting minimum surface roughness is ON = 108 µs, OFF = 63 µs, IP = 11 A, SV = 68 V and WT = 8 g.

  8. Simulation of the electrochemical machining process

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.J.; Serbin, C.A.; Dietrich, W.C.

    1984-11-01

    An algorithm for simulating a two-dimensional electrochemical machining process is presented. A major part of the calculation, the solution of Laplace's equation, is accomplished by a boundary element method based upon Green's formula. Polarization, in the form of the Tafel equation, is included in the model. The computer program is discussed in detail.

  9. Digital Signal Processing and Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanqing; Ang, Kai Keng; Guan, Cuntai

    Any brain-computer interface (BCI) system must translate signals from the users brain into messages or commands (see Fig. 1). Many signal processing and machine learning techniques have been developed for this signal translation, and this chapter reviews the most common ones. Although these techniques are often illustrated using electroencephalography (EEG) signals in this chapter, they are also suitable for other brain signals.

  10. Combining human and machine processes (CHAMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudit, Moises; Sudit, David; Hirsch, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Machine Reasoning and Intelligence is usually done in a vacuum, without consultation of the ultimate decision-maker. The late consideration of the human cognitive process causes some major problems in the use of automated systems to provide reliable and actionable information that users can trust and depend to make the best Course-of-Action (COA). On the other hand, if automated systems are created exclusively based on human cognition, then there is a danger of developing systems that don't push the barrier of technology and are mainly done for the comfort level of selected subject matter experts (SMEs). Our approach to combining human and machine processes (CHAMP) is based on the notion of developing optimal strategies for where, when, how, and which human intelligence should be injected within a machine reasoning and intelligence process. This combination is based on the criteria of improving the quality of the output of the automated process while maintaining the required computational efficiency for a COA to be actuated in timely fashion. This research addresses the following problem areas: • Providing consistency within a mission: Injection of human reasoning and intelligence within the reliability and temporal needs of a mission to attain situational awareness, impact assessment, and COA development. • Supporting the incorporation of data that is uncertain, incomplete, imprecise and contradictory (UIIC): Development of mathematical models to suggest the insertion of a cognitive process within a machine reasoning and intelligent system so as to minimize UIIC concerns. • Developing systems that include humans in the loop whose performance can be analyzed and understood to provide feedback to the sensors.

  11. Electroformed Electrodes for Electrical-Discharge Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, A.; Cassidenti, M.

    1984-01-01

    Copper electrodes replace graphite electrodes in many instances of electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of complex shapes. Copper electrodes wear longer and cause less contamination of EDM dielectric fluid than do graphite electrodes.

  12. Effect of hole geometry and Electric-Discharge Machining (EDM) on airflow rates through small diameter holes in turbine blade material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, S. A.; Cochran, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of two design parameters, electrode diameter and hole angle, and two machine parameters, electrode current and current-on time, on air flow rates through small-diameter (0.257 to 0.462 mm) electric-discharge-machined holes were measured. The holes were machined individually in rows of 14 each through 1.6 mm thick IN-100 strips. The data showed linear increase in air flow rate with increases in electrode cross sectional area and current-on time and little change with changes in hole angle and electrode current. The average flow-rate deviation (from the mean flow rate for a given row) decreased linearly with electrode diameter and increased with hole angle. Burn time and finished hole diameter were also measured.

  13. Characterisation of integrated WAAM and machining processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adebayo, Adeyinka

    This research describes the process of manufacturing and machining of wire and arc additive manufactured (WAAM) thin wall structures on integrated and non-integrated WAAM systems. The overall aim of this thesis is to obtain a better understanding of deposition and machining of WAAM wall parts through an integrated system. This research includes the study of the comparison of deposition of WAAM wall structures on different WAAM platforms, namely an Integrated SAM Edgetek grinding machine, an ABB robot and a Friction Stir Welding (FSW) machine. The result shows that WAAM is a robustly transferable technique that can be implemented across a variety of different platforms typically available in industry.. For WAAM deposition, a rise in output repeatedly involves high welding travel speed that usually leads to an undesired humping effect. Part of the objectives of this work was to study the travel speed limit for humping. The findings from this research show that the travel speed limit falls within a certain region at which humping starts to occur. One of the objectives of this thesis was to study the effect of lubricants during sequential and non-sequential machining/deposition of the WAAM parts. Conventional fluid lubricants and solid lubricants were used. In addition, the effect of cleaning of deposited wall samples with acetone was also studied. A systematic study shows that a significant amount of solid lubricant contamination can be found in the deposited material. Furthermore, the results indicate that even cleaning of the wire and arc additive manufactured surfaces with acetone prior to the weld deposition can affect the microstructure of the deposited material..

  14. The effect of microstructure on fatigue performance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy after EDM surface treatment for application in orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Stráský, Josef; Janeček, Miloš; Harcuba, Petr; Bukovina, Michal; Wagner, Lothar

    2011-11-01

    Three different microstructures--equiaxed, bi-modal and coarse lamellar--are prepared from Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Electric discharge machining (EDM) with a high peak current (29 A) is performed in order to impose surface roughness and modify the chemical composition of the surface. Detailed scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation revealed a martensitic surface layer and subsurface heat affected zone (HAZ). EDX measurements showed carbon enriched remnants of the EDM process on the material surface. Rotating bending fatigue tests are undertaken for EDM processed samples for all three microstructures and also for electropolished-benchmark-samples. The fatigue performance is found to be rather poor and not particularly dependent on microstructure. The bi-modal microstructure shows a slightly superior high cycle fatigue performance. This performance can be further improved by a suitable heat treatment to an endurance limit of 200 MPa.

  15. Optimization of control parameters for SR in EDM injection flushing type on stainless steel 304 workpiece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, M. S.; Yusoff, A. R.; Shaharun, M. A.

    2012-09-01

    The operating control parameters of injection flushing type of electrical discharge machining process on stainless steel 304 workpiece with copper tools are being optimized according to its individual machining characteristic i.e. surface roughness (SR). Higher SR during EDM machining process results for poor surface integrity of the workpiece. Hence, the quality characteristic for SR is set to lower-the-better to achieve the optimum surface integrity. Taguchi method has been used for the construction, layout and analysis of the experiment for each of the machining characteristic for the SR. The use of Taguchi method in the experiment saves a lot of time and cost of machining the experiment samples. Therefore, an L18 Orthogonal array which was the fundamental component in the statistical design of experiments has been used to plan the experiments and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is used to determine the optimum machining parameters for this machining characteristic. The control parameters selected for this optimization experiments are polarity, pulse on duration, discharge current, discharge voltage, machining depth, machining diameter and dielectric liquid pressure. The result had shown that the lower the machining diameter, the lower will be the SR.

  16. Rheometry of polymer melts using processing machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesenbichler, Walter; Neunhäuserer, Andreas; Duretek, Ivica

    2016-08-01

    The technology of slit-die rheometry came into practice in the early 1960s. This technique enables engineers to measure the pressure drop very precisely along the slit die. Furthermore, slit-die rheometry widens up the measurable shear rate range and it is possible to characterize rheological properties of complicated materials such as wall slipping PVCs and high-filled compounds like long fiber reinforced thermoplastics and PIM-Feedstocks. With the use of slit-die systems in polymer processing machines e.g., Rauwendaal extrusion rheometer, by-pass extrusion rheometer, injection molding machine rheometers, new possibilities regarding rheological characterization of thermoplastics and elastomers at processing conditions near to practice opened up. Special slit-die systems allow the examination of the pressure-dependent viscosity and the characterization of cross-linking elastomers because of melt preparation and reachable shear rates comparable to typical processing conditions. As a result of the viscous dissipation in shear and elongational flows, when performing rheological measurements for high-viscous elastomers, temperature-correction of the apparent values has to be made. This technique was refined over the last years at Montanuniversitaet. Nowadays it is possible to characterize all sorts of rheological complicated polymeric materials under process- relevant conditions with viscosity values fully temperature corrected.

  17. Influence of Electrical Resistivity and Machining Parameters on Electrical Discharge Machining Performance of Engineering Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Renjie; Liu, Yonghong; Diao, Ruiqiang; Xu, Chenchen; Li, Xiaopeng; Cai, Baoping; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2014-01-01

    Engineering ceramics have been widely used in modern industry for their excellent physical and mechanical properties, and they are difficult to machine owing to their high hardness and brittleness. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the appropriate process for machining engineering ceramics provided they are electrically conducting. However, the electrical resistivity of the popular engineering ceramics is higher, and there has been no research on the relationship between the EDM parameters and the electrical resistivity of the engineering ceramics. This paper investigates the effects of the electrical resistivity and EDM parameters such as tool polarity, pulse interval, and electrode material, on the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic's EDM performance, in terms of the material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear ratio (EWR), and surface roughness (SR). The results show that the electrical resistivity and the EDM parameters have the great influence on the EDM performance. The ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity up to 3410 Ω·cm can be effectively machined by EDM with the copper electrode, the negative tool polarity, and the shorter pulse interval. Under most machining conditions, the MRR increases, and the SR decreases with the decrease of electrical resistivity. Moreover, the tool polarity, and pulse interval affect the EWR, respectively, and the electrical resistivity and electrode material have a combined effect on the EWR. Furthermore, the EDM performance of ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity higher than 687 Ω·cm is obviously different from that with the electrical resistivity lower than 687 Ω·cm, when the electrode material changes. The microstructure character analysis of the machined ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic surface shows that the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic is removed by melting, evaporation and thermal spalling, and the material from the working fluid and the graphite electrode can transfer to the workpiece surface during electrical discharge

  18. Influence of electrical resistivity and machining parameters on electrical discharge machining performance of engineering ceramics.

    PubMed

    Ji, Renjie; Liu, Yonghong; Diao, Ruiqiang; Xu, Chenchen; Li, Xiaopeng; Cai, Baoping; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2014-01-01

    Engineering ceramics have been widely used in modern industry for their excellent physical and mechanical properties, and they are difficult to machine owing to their high hardness and brittleness. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the appropriate process for machining engineering ceramics provided they are electrically conducting. However, the electrical resistivity of the popular engineering ceramics is higher, and there has been no research on the relationship between the EDM parameters and the electrical resistivity of the engineering ceramics. This paper investigates the effects of the electrical resistivity and EDM parameters such as tool polarity, pulse interval, and electrode material, on the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic's EDM performance, in terms of the material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear ratio (EWR), and surface roughness (SR). The results show that the electrical resistivity and the EDM parameters have the great influence on the EDM performance. The ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity up to 3410 Ω·cm can be effectively machined by EDM with the copper electrode, the negative tool polarity, and the shorter pulse interval. Under most machining conditions, the MRR increases, and the SR decreases with the decrease of electrical resistivity. Moreover, the tool polarity, and pulse interval affect the EWR, respectively, and the electrical resistivity and electrode material have a combined effect on the EWR. Furthermore, the EDM performance of ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity higher than 687 Ω·cm is obviously different from that with the electrical resistivity lower than 687 Ω·cm, when the electrode material changes. The microstructure character analysis of the machined ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic surface shows that the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic is removed by melting, evaporation and thermal spalling, and the material from the working fluid and the graphite electrode can transfer to the workpiece surface during electrical discharge

  19. Micro Electro Discharge Machining of Electrically Nonconductive Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, A.; Zeidler, H.; Hackert, M.; Wolf, N.

    2011-05-04

    EDM is a known process for machining of hard and brittle materials. Due to its noncontact and nearly forceless behaviour, it has been introduced into micro manufacturing and through constant development it is now an important means for producing high-precision micro geometries. One restriction of EDM is its limitation to electrically conducting materials.Today many applications, especially in the biomedical field, make use of the benefits of ceramic materials, such as high strength, very low wear and biocompatibility. Common ceramic materials such as Zirconium dioxide are, due to their hardness in the sintered state, difficult to machine with conventional cutting techniques. A demand for the introduction of EDM to these materials could so far not be satisfied because of their nonconductive nature.At the Chemnitz University of Technology and the Fraunhofer IWU, investigations in the applicability of micro-EDM for the machining of nonconductive ceramics are being conducted. Tests are undertaken using micro-EDM drilling with Tungsten carbide tool electrodes and ZrO{sub 2} ceramic workpieces. A starting layer, in literature often referred to as 'assisting electrode' is used to set up a closed electric circuit to start the EDM process. Combining carbon hydride based dielectric and a specially designed low-frequency vibration setup to excite the workpiece, the process environment can be held within parameters to allow for a constant EDM process even after the starting layer is machined. In the experiments a cylindrical 120 {mu}m diameter Tungsten carbide tool electrode and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}- and MgO- stabilized ZrO{sub 2} worpieces are used. The current and voltage signals of the discharges within the different stages of the process (machining of the starting layer, machining of the base material, transition stage) are recorded and their characteristics compared to discharges in metallic material. Additionally, the electrode feed is monitored. The influences of the

  20. Electrical-Discharge Machining With Additional Axis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malinzak, Roger M.; Booth, Gary N.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed electrical-discharge-machining (EDM) apparatus uses moveable vertical wire as electrode. Wire positionable horizontally along one axis as it slides vertically past workpiece. Workpiece indexed in rotation about horizontal axis. Because of symmetry of parts, process used to make two such parts at a time by defining boundary between them. Advantages: cost of material reduced, imparts less residual stress to workpiece, and less time spent machining each part when parts produced in such symmetrical pairs.

  1. The study on the atomic force microscopy base nanoscale electrical discharge machining.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jen-Ching; Chen, Chung-Ming

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative atomic force microscopy (AFM) based nanoscale electrical discharge machining (AFM-based nanoEDM) system which combines an AFM with a self-produced metallic probe and a high-voltage generator to create an atmospheric environment AFM-based nanoEDM system and a deionized water (DI water) environment AFM-based nanoEDM system. This study combines wire-cut processing and electrochemical tip sharpening techniques on a 40-µm thick stainless steel sheet to produce a high conductive AFM probes, the production can withstand high voltage and large current. The tip radius of these probes is approximately 40 nm. A probe test was executed on the AFM using probes to obtain nanoscales morphology of Si wafer surface. The silicon wafer was as a specimen to carry out AFM-base nanoEDM process in atmospheric and DI water environments by AFM-based nanoEDM system. After experiments, the results show that the atmospheric and DI water environment AFM-based nanoEDM systems operate smoothly. From experimental results, it can be found that the electric discharge depth of the silicon wafer at atmospheric environments is a mere 14.54 nm. In a DI water environment, the depth of electric discharge of the silicon wafer can reach 25.4 nm. This indicates that the EDM ability of DI water environment AFM-based nanoEDM system is higher than that of atmospheric environment AFM-based nanoEDM system. After multiple nanoEDM process, the tips become blunt. After applying electrochemical tip sharpening techniques, the tip radius can return to approximately 40 nm. Therefore, AFM probes produced in this study can be reused. PMID:21898457

  2. The study on the atomic force microscopy base nanoscale electrical discharge machining.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jen-Ching; Chen, Chung-Ming

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative atomic force microscopy (AFM) based nanoscale electrical discharge machining (AFM-based nanoEDM) system which combines an AFM with a self-produced metallic probe and a high-voltage generator to create an atmospheric environment AFM-based nanoEDM system and a deionized water (DI water) environment AFM-based nanoEDM system. This study combines wire-cut processing and electrochemical tip sharpening techniques on a 40-µm thick stainless steel sheet to produce a high conductive AFM probes, the production can withstand high voltage and large current. The tip radius of these probes is approximately 40 nm. A probe test was executed on the AFM using probes to obtain nanoscales morphology of Si wafer surface. The silicon wafer was as a specimen to carry out AFM-base nanoEDM process in atmospheric and DI water environments by AFM-based nanoEDM system. After experiments, the results show that the atmospheric and DI water environment AFM-based nanoEDM systems operate smoothly. From experimental results, it can be found that the electric discharge depth of the silicon wafer at atmospheric environments is a mere 14.54 nm. In a DI water environment, the depth of electric discharge of the silicon wafer can reach 25.4 nm. This indicates that the EDM ability of DI water environment AFM-based nanoEDM system is higher than that of atmospheric environment AFM-based nanoEDM system. After multiple nanoEDM process, the tips become blunt. After applying electrochemical tip sharpening techniques, the tip radius can return to approximately 40 nm. Therefore, AFM probes produced in this study can be reused.

  3. RSM model to evaluate material removal rate in EDM of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn using graphite electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashikur Rahman Khan, Md; Rahman, M. M.; Kadirgama, K.; Ismail, A. R.

    2012-09-01

    The usage of electrical discharge machining (EDM) is increasing gradually owing to its capability to cut precisely, geometrically complex material regardless hardness. Many process parameters greatly affect the EDM performance and complicated mechanism of the process result the lag of established theory. Hence, it becomes important to select the proper parameter set for different machining stages in order to promote efficiency. In view of these barriers, it is attempted to establish a model which can accurately predict the material removal rate (MRR) of titanium alloy by correlating the process parameter. Effect of the parameters on MRR is investigated as well. Experiment is conducted utilizing the graphite electrode maintaining negative polarity. Analysis and modelling is carried out based on design of experiment as well as response surface methodology. The agreeable accuracy is obtained and thus the model can become a precise tool setting the EDM process cost effective and efficient. Moreover, high ampere, short pulse-off time and low servo-voltage combined with about 250 μs pulse-on time generate the highest MRR.

  4. Process-based tolerance assessment of connecting rod machining process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, G. V. S. S.; Rao, P. Srinivasa; Surendra Babu, B.

    2016-01-01

    Process tolerancing based on the process capability studies is the optimistic and pragmatic approach of determining the manufacturing process tolerances. On adopting the define-measure-analyze-improve-control approach, the process potential capability index ( C p) and the process performance capability index ( C pk) values of identified process characteristics of connecting rod machining process are achieved to be greater than the industry benchmark of 1.33, i.e., four sigma level. The tolerance chain diagram methodology is applied to the connecting rod in order to verify the manufacturing process tolerances at various operations of the connecting rod manufacturing process. This paper bridges the gap between the existing dimensional tolerances obtained via tolerance charting and process capability studies of the connecting rod component. Finally, the process tolerancing comparison has been done by adopting a tolerance capability expert software.

  5. Application of Taguchi technique coupled with grey relational analysis for multiple performance characteristics optimization of EDM parameters on ST 42 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prayogo, Galang Sandy; Lusi, Nuraini

    2016-04-01

    The optimization technique of machining parameters considering multiple performance characteristics of non conventional machining EDM process using Taguchi method combined with grey relational analysis (GRA) is presented in this study. ST 42 steel was chosen as material work piece and graphite as electrode during this experiment. Performance characteristics such as material removal rate and overcut are selected to evaluated the effect of machining parameters. Current, pulse on time, pulse off time and discharging time/ Z down were selected as machining parameters. The experiments was conducted by varying that machining parameters in three different levels. Based on the Taguchi quality design concept, a L27 orthogonal array table was chosen for the experiments. By using the combination of GRA and Taguchi, the optimization of complicated multiple performance characteristics was transformed into the optimization of a single response performance index. Optimal levels of machining parameters were identified by using Grey Relational Analysis method. The statistical application of analysis of variance was used to determine the relatively significant machining parameters. The result of confirmation test indicted that the determined optimal combination of machining parameters effectively improve the performance characteristics of the machining EDM process on ST 42 steel.

  6. Hadronic EDMs in SUSY GUTs

    SciTech Connect

    Kakizaki, Mitsuru

    2005-12-02

    We investigate the constraints from the null results of the hadronic electric dipole moment (EDM) searches on supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). Especially we focus on (i) SUSY SU(5) GUTs with right-handed neutrinos and (ii) orbifold GUTs, where the GUT symmetry and SUSY are both broken by boundary conditions in the compactified extra dimensions. We demonstrate that the hadronic EDM experiments severely constrain SUSY GUT models. The interplay between future EDM and LFV experiments will probe the structures of the GUTs and the SUSY breaking mediation mechanism.

  7. Feature Based Machining Process Planning V5.1

    2001-07-30

    The purpose of the FB-Machining Advisor product is to provide industry with an end user product that will enable end users to more effectively interact with a solid model for manufacturing applications. The product allows end users to visualize and organize their manufacturing process plans as they are being conceived; avoid redundant and time consuming geometric construction and calculation; automate geometric reasoning processes, and automate downstream manufacturing applications. The product augments a solid model representationmore » of the part with a set of machining features (e.g., pockets, steps, holes, cutouts). The product also enables end users to interact with a solid model to create process plans. It will automatically recognize, or interactively create and modify surface based machining features (represented by sets of faces on the solid model) and volumetric machining features which are represented by delta volumes (solid bodies representing volumes of material to be removed from the part). The FB-Machining Advisor will generate “in process shapes” that represent the shape of the work piece prior or subsequent to a material removal operation. It is designed to facilitate process change propagation in order to minimize rework resulting from process modifications. The machining features will provide vital shape and tolerance information (i.e. depth of pocket, minimum side radius of pocket, diameter of hole, maximum surface finish of side walls). The FB-Machining Advisor also integrates solid model based (3 Dimensional) tolerance information with the machining feature representations.« less

  8. Process for laser machining and surface treatment

    DOEpatents

    Neil, George R.; Shinn, Michelle D.

    2004-10-26

    An improved method and apparatus increasing the accuracy and reducing the time required to machine materials, surface treat materials, and allow better control of defects such as particulates in pulsed laser deposition. The speed and quality of machining is improved by combining an ultrashort pulsed laser at high average power with a continuous wave laser. The ultrashort pulsed laser provides an initial ultrashort pulse, on the order of several hundred femtoseconds, to stimulate an electron avalanche in the target material. Coincident with the ultrashort pulse or shortly after it, a pulse from a continuous wave laser is applied to the target. The micromachining method and apparatus creates an initial ultrashort laser pulse to ignite the ablation followed by a longer laser pulse to sustain and enlarge on the ablation effect launched in the initial pulse. The pulse pairs are repeated at a high pulse repetition frequency and as often as desired to produce the desired micromachining effect. The micromachining method enables a lower threshold for ablation, provides more deterministic damage, minimizes the heat affected zone, minimizes cracking or melting, and reduces the time involved to create the desired machining effect.

  9. State machine analysis of sensor data from dynamic processes

    DOEpatents

    Cook, William R.; Brabson, John M.; Deland, Sharon M.

    2003-12-23

    A state machine model analyzes sensor data from dynamic processes at a facility to identify the actual processes that were performed at the facility during a period of interest for the purpose of remote facility inspection. An inspector can further input the expected operations into the state machine model and compare the expected, or declared, processes to the actual processes to identify undeclared processes at the facility. The state machine analysis enables the generation of knowledge about the state of the facility at all levels, from location of physical objects to complex operational concepts. Therefore, the state machine method and apparatus may benefit any agency or business with sensored facilities that stores or manipulates expensive, dangerous, or controlled materials or information.

  10. Edme Mariotte and Newton's Cradle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2012-01-01

    The first recorded experiments describing the phenomena made popular by Newton's cradle appear to be those conducted by Edme Mariotte around 1670. He was quoted in Newton's "Principia," along with Wren, Wallis, and Huygens, as having conducted pioneering experiments on the collisions of pendulum balls. Each of these authors concluded that momentum…

  11. Rapid prototyping of zirconium diboride/copper electrical discharge machining electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stucker, Brent Eric

    The acceptance of rapid prototyping (RP) as the predominant technique for producing polymer and paper parts directly from computer-aided design (CAD) models has led many corporations and universities to try to extend its capabilities to more robust materials. In addition to producing prototype metal and ceramic parts, a significant effort has been made to create parts that are useful as tools and dies or that reduce the time necessary to create tools and dies. Most materials used for tools and dies are very hard, because they need to be able to withstand millions of cycles before failing. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the most common method used to machine tools and dies out of hard materials. A method for producing EDM electrodes using RP could greatly reduce the time and cost involved in creating tools and dies. A new EDM electrode material made up of zirconium diboride and copper (ZrBsb2/Cu) that is superior to traditional EDM electrodes has been investigated. The processing techniques necessary for creating Zrsb2/Cu electrodes from powders of ZrB2 and copper have been developed. These ZrBsb2/Cu electrodes have a better wear ratio and a faster sink rate than graphite, copper or tungsten/copper EDM electrodes. Performance variables that were tracked are: (1) wear ratio, (2) sink rate and (3) surface finish, where ZrBsb2/Cu, copper, graphite and W/Cu were used as anodes (electrodes) and stainless steel as cathodes (workpieces). The ZrBsb2/Cu electrode material system retains its superior EDM electrode performance across a number of materials processing and compositional variations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the electrodes after EDM. These SEM observations facilitated an understanding of the superior EDM electrode performance characteristics of ZrBsb2/Cu to traditional EDM electrode material systems. A method for creating geometrically-complex ZrBsb2/Cu EDM electrodes using the selective laser sintering (SLS) RP technique was

  12. EDM Electrode for Internal Grooves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramani, V.; Werner, A.

    1985-01-01

    Electroerosive process inexpensive alternative to broaching. Hollow brass electrodes, soldered at one end to stainless-steel holding ring, held in grooves in mandrel. These electrodes used to machine grooves electrically in stainless-steel tube three-eights inch (9.5 millimeters) in diameter. Tool used on tubes already in place in equipment.

  13. Simulation of Fatigue Crack Initiation at Corrosion Pits With EDM Notches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen W.; Newman, John A.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    Uniaxial fatigue tests were conducted to compare the fatigue life of laboratory produced corrosion pits, similar to those observed in the shuttle main landing gear wheel bolt-hole, and an electro-discharged-machined (EDM) flaw. EDM Jaws are used to simulate corrosion pits during shuttle wheel (dynamometer) testing. The aluminum alloy, (AA 7050) laboratory fatigue tests were conducted to simulate the local stress level contained in the wheel bolt-hole. Under this high local stress condition, the EDM notch produced a fatigue life similar to test specimens containing corrosion pits of similar size. Based on the laboratory fatigue test results, the EDM Jaw (semi-circular disc shaped) produces a local stress state similar to corrosion pits and can be used to simulate a corrosion pit during the shuttle wheel dynamometer tests.

  14. Application of Hollow Sphere Structures and Composites in Processing Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöler, Martin; Mauermann, Marc; Majschak, Jens-Peter

    The term processing machines refers to a large variety of machines and equipment for the mass production of consumer goods. Processing machines are often specially tailored according to the particular processing task they have to fulfill, such as pasteurising milk or packing goods. Furthermore the vast majority is characterised by large production outputs, demanding high processing velocities and fast moving parts. A special application is that of the food and drug processing area. Due to high quality standards there are special requirements for material surfaces to be considered if surfaces are in contact with the manufactured product. This chapter deals with the special demands concerning dedicated engineering materials that occur from state of the art processing machines. Specific requirements ranging from high damping abilities for support components to high stiffness and low weight for fast moving tools are presented by means of a general classification of processing machines into four functional areas. Accordingly, the proposed hollow sphere structures and similar material classes are presented and applied on each of these four areas.

  15. Surface treatment by electric discharge machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloy for potential application in orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Harcuba, Petr; Bačáková, Lucie; Stráský, Josef; Bačáková, Markéta; Novotná, Katarína; Janeček, Miloš

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy after surface treatment by the electric discharge machining (EDM) process. The EDM process with high peak currents proved to induce surface macro-roughness and to cause chemical changes to the surface. Evaluations were made of the mechanical properties by means of tensile tests, and of surface roughness for different peak currents of the EDM process. The EDM process with peak current of 29 A was found to induce sufficient surface roughness, and to have a low adverse effect on tensile properties. The chemical changes were studied by scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyser (EDX). The surface of the benchmark samples was obtained by plasma-spraying a titanium dioxide coating. An investigation of the biocompatibility of the surface-treated Ti-6Al-4V samples in cultures of human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells revealed that the samples modified by EDM provided better substrates for the adhesion, growth and viability of MG 63 cells than the TiO2 coated surface. Thus, EDM treatment can be considered as a promising surface modification to orthopaedic implants, in which good integration with the surrounding bone tissue is required.

  16. An experimental study of electrochemical polishing for micro-electro-discharge-machined stainless-steel stents.

    PubMed

    Lappin, Derry; Mohammadi, Abdolreza Rashidi; Takahata, Kenichi

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports electrochemical polishing (EP) of 316L stainless-steel structures patterned using micro-electro-discharge machiningEDM) for application to stents including intelligent stents based on micro-electro-mechanical-systems technologies. For the process optimization, 10 μm deep cavities μEDMed on the planar material were polished in a phosphoric acid-based electrolyte with varying current densities and polishing times. The EP condition with a current density of 1.5 A/cm(2) for an EP time of 180 s exhibited the highest surface quality with an average roughness of 28 nm improved from~400 nm produced with high-energy μEDM. The EP of μEDMed surfaces was observed to produce almost constant smoothness regardless of the initial roughness determined by varying discharge energies. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was performed on the μEDMed surfaces before and after EP. A custom rotational apparatus was used to polish tubular test samples including stent-like structures created using μEDM, demonstrating uniform removal of surface roughness and sharp edges from the structures. PMID:22183790

  17. Electrochemical machining in-process data collection and control

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    Electrochemical machining (ECM) is a fast and efficient method to fabricate intricate metal parts. However, tooling is often expensive; and electical power consumption is relatively high. The precision of an ECM process is dependent upon several variables which often cannot be predicted in the initial tool design. This leads to iterative tool adjustments until the desired level of precision is achieved. A system was devised to use a computer for collecting data from the ECM process and for monitoring and controlling ECM operations. It is believed that these data collections and analyses will lead to the formulation of algorithms to produce parts with better tolerances and will allow more efficient uses of the ECM machines. One algorithm has been developed to allow the efficient ECM of large-surface-area parts. Such programs and equipment will enhance the competitive position of the ECM process in machining applications previously performed by more conventional methods while minimizing electrical power consumption.

  18. Electric dipole moments (EDM) of ionic atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Oshima, Sachiko

    2010-03-15

    Recent investigations show that the second-order perturbation calculations of electric dipole moments (EDM) from the finite nuclear size as well as the relativistic effects are all canceled out by the third-order perturbation effects and that this is due to electron screening. To derive the nucleon EDM from the nucleus, we propose to measure the EDM of an ionic system. In this case, it is shown that the nucleon EDM can survive by the reduction factor of 1/Z for the ionic system with one electron stripped off.

  19. Controlled English to facilitate human/machine analytical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braines, Dave; Mott, David; Laws, Simon; de Mel, Geeth; Pham, Tien

    2013-06-01

    Controlled English is a human-readable information representation format that is implemented using a restricted subset of the English language, but which is unambiguous and directly accessible by simple machine processes. We have been researching the capabilities of CE in a number of contexts, and exploring the degree to which a flexible and more human-friendly information representation format could aid the intelligence analyst in a multi-agent collaborative operational environment; especially in cases where the agents are a mixture of other human users and machine processes aimed at assisting the human users. CE itself is built upon a formal logic basis, but allows users to easily specify models for a domain of interest in a human-friendly language. In our research we have been developing an experimental component known as the "CE Store" in which CE information can be quickly and flexibly processed and shared between human and machine agents. The CE Store environment contains a number of specialized machine agents for common processing tasks and also supports execution of logical inference rules that can be defined in the same CE language. This paper outlines the basic architecture of this approach, discusses some of the example machine agents that have been developed, and provides some typical examples of the CE language and the way in which it has been used to support complex analytical tasks on synthetic data sources. We highlight the fusion of human and machine processing supported through the use of the CE language and CE Store environment, and show this environment with examples of highly dynamic extensions to the model(s) and integration between different user-defined models in a collaborative setting.

  20. The fabrication of a micro-spiral structure using EDM deposition in the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Guanxin; Wang, Zhenlong; Xiao, K.; Cui, Jingzhi; Jin, Baidong

    2008-03-01

    A novel micromachining method to deposit a micro-3D spiral structure in air using electrical discharge machining (EDM) with a brass electrode was presented. During the deposition process, a 3D spiral structure is obtained only by the feed of the z-axis in the vertical direction. Furthermore, the obtained structure can be formed and repeated stably even in the upside-down direction under a gravity environment. It is seen that the material components of a micro-spiral structure are almost the same as those of an electrode by the energy spectrum analysis of a micro-spiral structure. According to scanning electron microscope photographs, the micro-spiral appears to feature a layered material organism structure and has compact bonding with the body material. In order to understand the forming mechanism of this kind of micro-spiral structure, simulation analysis is conducted. The track of the deposition particles can be obtained by simulation, which determines the shape of the deposited structure. According to the simulation results, the track of the deposition particles is consistent with that of EDM experiments. It is further found that the distribution of the electromagnetic field in a discharge channel has an important influence on the deposited structure and the track of the deposition particles.

  1. Review of "Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoliar, Stephen W.

    This review of the book, "Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine," by John F. Sowa, argues that anyone who plans to get involved with issues of knowledge representation should have at least a passing acquaintance with Sowa's conceptual graphs for a database interface. (Used to model the underlying semantics of a…

  2. Process Damping and Cutting Tool Geometry in Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, C. M.; Sims, N. D.; Turner, S.

    2011-12-01

    Regenerative vibration, or chatter, limits the performance of machining processes. Consequences of chatter include tool wear and poor machined surface finish. Process damping by tool-workpiece contact can reduce chatter effects and improve productivity. Process damping occurs when the flank (also known as the relief face) of the cutting tool makes contact with waves on the workpiece surface, created by chatter motion. Tool edge features can act to increase the damping effect. This paper examines how a tool's edge condition combines with the relief angle to affect process damping. An analytical model of cutting with chatter leads to a two-section curve describing how process damped vibration amplitude changes with surface speed for radiussed tools. The tool edge dominates the process damping effect at the lowest surface speeds, with the flank dominating at higher speeds. A similar curve is then proposed regarding tools with worn edges. Experimental data supports the notion of the two-section curve. A rule of thumb is proposed which could be useful to machine operators, regarding tool wear and process damping. The question is addressed, should a tool of a given geometry, used for a given application, be considered as sharp, radiussed or worn regarding process damping.

  3. The effect of pulse energy on the removal form of silicon crystal in electrical discharge machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingbo, Qiu; Zongjun, Tian; Ye, Tian; Lida, Shen; Haoran, Chen; Hao, Ding

    2016-09-01

    A single-pulse discharge system for semiconductors was designed and produced. Single-pulse discharge experiments with single-crystal silicon were conducted, and the morphology of the electric erosion pit under different discharge energy levels was observed. Three removal forms, namely, heat removal, stress removal, and secondary crushing in electrical discharge machining (EDM) of single-crystal silicon, were discovered, and the mechanisms of semiconductor discharge processing were described. Finally, the role of different removal forms in single-crystal silicon EDM was explained and verified.

  4. Agricultural inventory capabilities of machine processed LANDSAT digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrick, D. L.; Fries, R. E.; Egbert, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    Agricultural crop identification and acreage determination analysis of LANDSAT digital data was performed for two study areas. A multispectral image processing and analysis system was utilized to perform the manmachine interactive analysis. The developed techniques yielded crop acreage estimate results with accuracy greater than 90% and as high as 99%. These results are encouraging evidence of agricultural inventory capabilities of machine processed LANDSAT digital data.

  5. A miniaturized EDM device suitable to fixing on a robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yongjun; Guo, Zhongning; Zhang, Yongjun

    2007-10-01

    A miniaturized EDM (Electro Discharge Machining) device has been designed which is suitable to fixing on robot, and the whole system can motion mobile working. A novel control strategy of differential driving principle has been presented in order to solve the problem that electrode can't be revolved owing compact size has been resolved. Coaxial forced vibration of electrode is benefit for the evacuation of debris, and it helps to achieve stable and efficient machining. Analysis of harmonic response and the theoretical value of amplitude have been carried out. The optimal design of ultrasonic motor has been implemented using animate function of ANSYS and optimal design means, and the interference between teeth of stator has been avoided. Auto-frequency tracking has been completed, and electrode lateral vibration of electrode has been eliminated. Finally, the holes with figures of Φ85μm circle, Y have been machined.

  6. MATERIAL PROCESSING FOR SELF-ASSEMBLING MACHINE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    K. LACKNER; D. BUTT; C. WENDT

    1999-06-01

    We are developing an important aspect of a new technology based on self-reproducing machine systems. Such systems could overcome resource limitations and control the deleterious side effects of human activities on the environment. Machine systems capable of building themselves promise an increase in industrial productivity as dramatic as that of the industrial revolution. To operate successfully, such systems must procure necessary raw materials from their surroundings. Therefore, next to automation, most critical for this new technology is the ability to extract important chemicals from readily available soils. In contrast to conventional metallurgical practice, these extraction processes cannot make substantial use of rare elements. We have designed a thermodynamically viable process and experimentally demonstrated most steps that differ from common practice. To this end we had to develop a small, disposable vacuum furnace system. Our work points to a viable extraction process.

  7. Six-Axis Electrical-Discharge Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    Electrical discharge machine (EDM) of unusual versitility made by conversion of radial drill. Drilling head is replaced by ram that holds and positions electrode. Tank and recirculation system for coolant are added. EDM has six independent motions and drastically reduced cost of manufacturing. New applications are constantly being found.

  8. Evaluation of Process Performance for Sustainable Hard Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotella, Giovanna; Umbrello, Domenico; , Oscar W. Dillon, Jr.; Jawahir, I. S.

    This paper aims to evaluate the sustainability performance of machining operation of through-hardening steel, AISI 52100, taking into account the impact of the material removal process in its various aspects. Experiments were performed for dry and cryogenic cutting conditions using chamfered cubic boron nitride (CBN) tool inserts at varying cutting conditions (cutting speed and feed rate). Cutting forces, mechanical power, tool wear, white layer thickness, surface roughness and residual stresses were investigated in order to evaluate the effects of extreme in-process cooling on the machined surface. The results indicate that cryogenic cooling has the potential to be used for surface integrity enhancement for improved product life and more sustainable functional performance.

  9. Intellectual Control System of Processing on CNC Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrasov, R. Y.; Lasukov, A. A.; Starikov, A. I.; Soloviev, I. V.; Bekareva, O. V.

    2016-04-01

    Scientific and technical progress makes great demands for quality of engineering production. The priority is to ensure metalworking equipment with required dimensional accuracy during the entire period of operation at minimum manufacturing costs. In article considered the problem of increasing of accuracy of processing products on CNC. The authors offers a solution to the problem by providing compensating adjustment in the trajectory of the cutting tool and machining mode. The necessity of creation of mathematical models of processes behavior in an automated technological system operations (OATS). Based on the research, authors have proposed a generalized diagram of diagnosis and input operative correction and approximate mathematical models of individual processes of diagnosis.

  10. Comparative Study on Electrical Discharge Machining of Ultrafine-Grain Al, Cu, and Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdieh, Mohammad Sajjad; Mahdavinejad, RamezanAli

    2016-10-01

    Recently, manufacturing of industrial parts out of ultrafine-grain (UFG) materials became prevalent due to their lightweight and high strength. Machining processes such as electrical discharge machining (EDM) are necessary to produce parts with accurate dimensions and tolerance. On the other hand, recast layer, heat-affected zone (HAZ), and the micro-cracks are the effects of the EDM process, reducing the surface integrity of the workpieces. These undesirable effects are more noticeable on the UFG materials because of the excess energy stored in them. This excess stored energy is because of the high strain and stress imposed on the microstructure of UFG material during severe plastic deformation processes. In this article, a comparative study is conducted about the effects of the EDM process on three applicable UFG materials: aluminum, steel, and copper. These UFG materials are produced by equal channel angular pressing, which is a well-known method in producing UFG materials. The surface integrity factors including thickness of recast layer and HAZ, cracks density, micro-hardness, and surface roughness are measured and investigated via optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction technique, roughness tester, and micro-hardness tester. Results show that after the EDM process, thicker recast layer, and HAZ, more cracks density and more microstructural changes are observed among the UFG aluminum samples than among the copper and steel samples.

  11. nEDM at SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Steven

    2014-07-30

    This PowerPoint presentation covered the following topics: Overview; participants in the collaboration; the experimental method and Free Precession Method descriptions; and then experimental design elements, ending with a summary. A new nEDM experiment is under development with a goal sensitivity 90% CL σd < (3-5) x 10-28 e-cm in 300 live-days; Free precession method: SQUIDS to read out the 3He precession frequency, Scintillation signal for the n relative precession frequency; Dressed spin method: Strong RF field to match n and 3He effective magnetic moments; Modulation/feedback of dressing parameter based on scintillation signal; and, Ongoing development/demonstration of many aspects of the apparatus (a subset was shown here).

  12. Research on machine vision system of monitoring injection molding processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Fan; Zheng, Huifeng; Wang, Yuebing; Wang, Cheng; Liao, Si'an

    2016-01-01

    With the wide development of injection molding process, the embedded monitoring system based on machine vision has been developed to automatically monitoring abnormality of injection molding processing. First, the construction of hardware system and embedded software system were designed. Then camera calibration was carried on to establish the accurate model of the camera to correct distortion. Next the segmentation algorithm was applied to extract the monitored objects of the injection molding process system. The realization procedure of system included the initialization, process monitoring and product detail detection. Finally the experiment results were analyzed including the detection rate of kinds of the abnormality. The system could realize the multi-zone monitoring and product detail detection of injection molding process with high accuracy and good stability.

  13. Cylindrical Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of Metal Bond Diamond Wheels- Part II: Wheel Wear Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    McSpadden, SB

    2002-01-22

    The use of stereo scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to investigate the wear mechanism of the wire EDM true metal bond diamond wheel for ceramic grinding is presented. On the grinding wheel, a wedge-shape removal part was machined to enable the examination and measurement of the worn wheel surfaces using the stereo SEM. The stereo SEM was calibrated by comparing results of depth profile of a wear groove with the profilometer measurements. On the surface of the grinding wheel after wire EDM truing and before grinding, the diamond protruding heights were measured in the level of 35 {micro}m, comparing to the 54 {micro}m average size of the diamond in the grinding wheel. The gap between the EDM wire and rotating grinding wheel is estimated to be about 35 to 40 {micro}m. This observation indicates that, during the wire EDM, electrical sparks occur between the metal bond and EDM wire, which leaves the diamond protruding in the gap between the wire and wheel. The protruding diamond is immediately fractured at the start of the grinding process, even under a light grinding condition. After heavy grinding, the grinding wheel surface and the diamond protrusion heights are also investigated using the stereo SEM. The height of diamond protrusion was estimated in the 5 to 15 {micro}m range. This study has demonstrated the use of stereo SEM as a metrology tool to study the grinding wheel surface.

  14. Process monitoring evaluation and implementation for the wood abrasive machining process.

    PubMed

    Saloni, Daniel E; Lemaster, Richard L; Jackson, Steven D

    2010-01-01

    Wood processing industries have continuously developed and improved technologies and processes to transform wood to obtain better final product quality and thus increase profits. Abrasive machining is one of the most important of these processes and therefore merits special attention and study. The objective of this work was to evaluate and demonstrate a process monitoring system for use in the abrasive machining of wood and wood based products. The system developed increases the life of the belt by detecting (using process monitoring sensors) and removing (by cleaning) the abrasive loading during the machining process. This study focused on abrasive belt machining processes and included substantial background work, which provided a solid base for understanding the behavior of the abrasive, and the different ways that the abrasive machining process can be monitored. In addition, the background research showed that abrasive belts can effectively be cleaned by the appropriate cleaning technique. The process monitoring system developed included acoustic emission sensors which tended to be sensitive to belt wear, as well as platen vibration, but not loading, and optical sensors which were sensitive to abrasive loading. PMID:22163477

  15. Process Monitoring Evaluation and Implementation for the Wood Abrasive Machining Process

    PubMed Central

    Saloni, Daniel E.; Lemaster, Richard L.; Jackson, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Wood processing industries have continuously developed and improved technologies and processes to transform wood to obtain better final product quality and thus increase profits. Abrasive machining is one of the most important of these processes and therefore merits special attention and study. The objective of this work was to evaluate and demonstrate a process monitoring system for use in the abrasive machining of wood and wood based products. The system developed increases the life of the belt by detecting (using process monitoring sensors) and removing (by cleaning) the abrasive loading during the machining process. This study focused on abrasive belt machining processes and included substantial background work, which provided a solid base for understanding the behavior of the abrasive, and the different ways that the abrasive machining process can be monitored. In addition, the background research showed that abrasive belts can effectively be cleaned by the appropriate cleaning technique. The process monitoring system developed included acoustic emission sensors which tended to be sensitive to belt wear, as well as platen vibration, but not loading, and optical sensors which were sensitive to abrasive loading. PMID:22163477

  16. Statistical process control (SPC) for coordinate measurement machines

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, R.N.

    2000-01-04

    The application of process capability analysis, using designed experiments, and gage capability studies as they apply to coordinate measurement machine (CMM) uncertainty analysis and control will be demonstrated. The use of control standards in designed experiments, and the use of range charts and moving range charts to separate measurement error into it's discrete components will be discussed. The method used to monitor and analyze the components of repeatability and reproducibility will be presented with specific emphasis on how to use control charts to determine and monitor CMM performance and capability, and stay within your uncertainty assumptions.

  17. Machine processing of ERTS and ground truth data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Peacock, K.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results achieved by ERTS-Atmospheric Experiment PR303, whose objective is to establish a radiometric calibration technique, are reported. This technique, which determines and removes solar and atmospheric parameters that degrade the radiometric fidelity of ERTS-1 data, transforms the ERTS-1 sensor radiance measurements to absolute target reflectance signatures. A radiant power measuring instrument and its use in determining atmospheric parameters needed for ground truth are discussed. The procedures used and results achieved in machine processing ERTS-1 computer -compatible tapes and atmospheric parameters to obtain target reflectance are reviewed.

  18. 29 CFR 570.61 - Occupations in the operation of power-driven meat-processing machines and occupations involving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-processing machines and occupations involving slaughtering, meat and poultry packing, processing, or... machines and occupations involving slaughtering, meat and poultry packing, processing, or rendering (Order... machines. (3) All occupations involved in tankage or rendering of dead animals, animal offal, animal...

  19. 29 CFR 570.61 - Occupations in the operation of power-driven meat-processing machines and occupations involving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-processing machines and occupations involving slaughtering, meat and poultry packing, processing, or... machines and occupations involving slaughtering, meat and poultry packing, processing, or rendering (Order... machines. (3) All occupations involved in tankage or rendering of dead animals, animal offal, animal...

  20. 29 CFR 570.61 - Occupations in the operation of power-driven meat-processing machines and occupations involving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-processing machines and occupations involving slaughtering, meat and poultry packing, processing, or... machines and occupations involving slaughtering, meat and poultry packing, processing, or rendering (Order... machines. (3) All occupations involved in tankage or rendering of dead animals, animal offal, animal...

  1. 29 CFR 570.61 - Occupations in the operation of power-driven meat-processing machines and occupations involving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-processing machines and occupations involving slaughtering, meat and poultry packing, processing, or... machines and occupations involving slaughtering, meat and poultry packing, processing, or rendering (Order... machines. (3) All occupations involved in tankage or rendering of dead animals, animal offal, animal...

  2. Contamination-Free Electrical-Discharge Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Mark G.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination of parts by electrical-discharge machining (EDM) almost completely eliminated by reversing flow of coolant. Flow reversed from usual direction so coolant carries contaminants out through passage in electrode. Coolant for reverse flow is pressurized dichlorodifluoromethane vapor.

  3. Electrical-Discharge Machining Of Perpendicular Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.

    1996-01-01

    Perpendicular telescoping electrode used to perform electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of internal passage through previously inaccessible depth of metal workpiece. More specifically, used to make internal passage perpendicular to passage entering from outer surface.

  4. High resolution lithography-compatible micro-electro-discharge machining of bulk metal foils for micro-electro-mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Mark Thomas

    The application of batch mode micro-electro-discharge machining (microEDM) to the fabrication of micro-electro-mechanical systems has opened the door to lithographically compatible precision machining of all bulk metals. High volume applications in biomedical, communications, and consumer electronics devices are enabled by this technology. This dissertation explores the capabilities, limitations, and further improvement of high density batch mode microEDM. There are four parts to this effort described below. A machining resolution study of high density features in stainless steel identifies the design space. Lithographically fabricated copper tools with single cross, parallel line, and circle/square array features of 5--100microm width and 5--75microm spacing were used. The observed discharge gap varies with shape, spacing, and feature location from 3.8--8microm. As tool feature density is increased, debris accumulation effects begin to dominate, eventually degrading both tool and workpiece. Two new techniques for mitigating this debris build-up are separately investigated. The first is a silicon passivation coating which suppresses spurious discharges triggered from the sidewalls of the machining tool. By this method, for high density batch machining, mean tool wear rate decreases from a typical rate of about 34% to 1.7% and machining non-uniformity reduces from 4.9microm to 1.1microm across the workpiece. The second involves a two-step machining process that enhances the hydraulic removal of machining debris and therefore throughput. Wireless RF signals are inherently emitted by the micro-discharge process. This thesis describes the first reported wireless detection of debris accumulation during microEDM, enabling direct monitoring of machining quality in real time with 5dBm signal drop. The first wireless detection of the interface between two stacked metals during microEDM is also reported giving a 10dBm signal change. The technique enables direct monitoring of

  5. Characterization of electric discharge machining, subsequent etching and shot-peening as a surface treatment for orthopedic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stráský, Josef; Havlíková, Jana; Bačáková, Lucie; Harcuba, Petr; Mhaede, Mansour; Janeček, Miloš

    2013-09-01

    Presented work aims at multi-method characterization of combined surface treatment of Ti-6Al-4V alloy for biomedical use. Surface treatment consists of consequent use of electric discharge machining (EDM), acid etching and shot peening. Surface layers are analyzed employing scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Acid etching by strong Kroll's reagent is capable of removing surface layer of transformed material created by EDM. Acid etching also creates partly nanostructured surface and significantly contributes to the enhanced proliferation of the bone cells. The cell growth could be positively affected by the superimposed bone-inspired structure of the surface with the morphological features in macro-, micro- and nano-range. Shot peening significantly improves poor fatigue performance after EDM. Final fatigue performance is comparable to benchmark electropolished material without any adverse surface effect. The proposed three-step surface treatment is a low-cost process capable of producing material that is applicable in orthopedics.

  6. A Study on the Optimization Performance of Fireworks and Cuckoo Search Algorithms in Laser Machining Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, D.; Chakraborty, S.

    2014-11-01

    Laser machining is a promising non-contact process for effective machining of difficult-to-process advanced engineering materials. Increasing interest in the use of lasers for various machining operations can be attributed to its several unique advantages, like high productivity, non-contact processing, elimination of finishing operations, adaptability to automation, reduced processing cost, improved product quality, greater material utilization, minimum heat-affected zone and green manufacturing. To achieve the best desired machining performance and high quality characteristics of the machined components, it is extremely important to determine the optimal values of the laser machining process parameters. In this paper, fireworks algorithm and cuckoo search (CS) algorithm are applied for single as well as multi-response optimization of two laser machining processes. It is observed that although almost similar solutions are obtained for both these algorithms, CS algorithm outperforms fireworks algorithm with respect to average computation time, convergence rate and performance consistency.

  7. Numerical study of the dielectric liquid around an electrical discharge generated vapor bubble in ultrasonic assisted EDM.

    PubMed

    Shervani-Tabar, Mohammad T; Mobadersany, Nima

    2013-07-01

    In electrical discharge machining due to the electrical current, very small bubbles are created in the dielectric fluid between the tool and the workpiece. Increase of the number of bubbles and their growth in size generate a single bubble. The bubble has an important role in electrical discharge machining. In this paper the effect of ultrasonic vibration of the tool and the velocity fields and pressure distribution in the dielectric fluid around the bubble in the process of electrical discharge machining are studied numerically. The boundary integral equation method is applied for the numerical solution of the problem. It is shown that ultrasonic vibration of the tool has great influence on the evolution of the bubble, fluid behavior and the efficiency of the machining in EDM. At the last stages of the collapse phase of the bubble, a liquid jet develops on the bubble which has different shapes. Due to the different cases, and a high pressure region appears just near the jet of the bubble. Also the fluid particles have the highest relative velocity just near the liquid jet of the bubble.

  8. Numerical study of the dielectric liquid around an electrical discharge generated vapor bubble in ultrasonic assisted EDM.

    PubMed

    Shervani-Tabar, Mohammad T; Mobadersany, Nima

    2013-07-01

    In electrical discharge machining due to the electrical current, very small bubbles are created in the dielectric fluid between the tool and the workpiece. Increase of the number of bubbles and their growth in size generate a single bubble. The bubble has an important role in electrical discharge machining. In this paper the effect of ultrasonic vibration of the tool and the velocity fields and pressure distribution in the dielectric fluid around the bubble in the process of electrical discharge machining are studied numerically. The boundary integral equation method is applied for the numerical solution of the problem. It is shown that ultrasonic vibration of the tool has great influence on the evolution of the bubble, fluid behavior and the efficiency of the machining in EDM. At the last stages of the collapse phase of the bubble, a liquid jet develops on the bubble which has different shapes. Due to the different cases, and a high pressure region appears just near the jet of the bubble. Also the fluid particles have the highest relative velocity just near the liquid jet of the bubble. PMID:23490015

  9. Progress of the JILA electron EDM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresh, Daniel; Cairncross, William; Cossel, Kevin; Grau, Matt; Ng, Kia Boon; Zhou, Yan; Ni, Yiqi; Ye, Jun; Cornell, Eric

    2016-05-01

    A nonzero permanent electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) would have important implications for extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics. The JILA eEDM experiment uses trapped HfF+ ions to attain large effective electric fields and long measurement coherence times. In our ion trap we prepare HfF+ in a low-lying, metastable 3Δ1 state and perform Ramsey spectroscopy between two Zeeman sub-levels in the presence of rotating electric and magnetic bias fields with free-evolution times of > 500 ms. Using this technique, we have thoroughly investigated sources of systematic error and have recently suppressed several of our leading systematics to the 10-30 e . cm level. Here, we present the results from our systematic error investigations and from a high-precision eEDM-sensitive 100-hour data run.

  10. Electrical Discharge Machining Techniques for Evaluating the Effects of Tritium on Materials

    SciTech Connect

    IMRICH, KENNETH

    2004-03-24

    In this investigation, new ways to evaluate the long-term effects of tritium on the structural properties of components were developed. Electric discharge machining (EDM) techniques for cutting tensile and fracture toughness samples from the tritium-exposed regions of returned reservoirs were demonstrated. An existing electric discharge machine was used to cut sub-size tensile and fracture toughness samples from the inside walls of reservoir mock-ups. Tensile properties from the EDM tensile samples were similar to those measured using full-size samples cut from similar stock. Although the existing equipment could not be used for machining tritium-exposed hardware, off-the-shelf EDM units are available that could. With the right equipment and the required radiological controls in place, similar machining and testing techniques could be used to directly measure the effects of tritium on the properties of material cut from reservoir returns. Stress-strain property data from tritium-exposed reservoirs would improve finite-element modeling of reservoir performance because the data are representative of the true state of the reservoir material in the field. Tensile data from samples cut directly from reservoirs complement existing shelf storage and burst test data of the Life Storage Program and help answer questions about a specific reservoir's processing history and properties.

  11. Electric-Discharge Machining Techniques for Evaluating Tritium Effects on Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M.J.

    2003-11-07

    In this investigation, new ways to evaluate the long-term effects of tritium on the structural properties of components were developed. Electric-discharge machining (EDM) techniques for cutting tensile and fracture toughness samples from tritium exposed regions of returned reservoirs were demonstrated. An existing electric discharge machine was used to cut sub-size tensile and fracture toughness samples from the inside surfaces of reservoir mockups. Tensile properties from the EDM tensile samples were similar to those measured using full-size samples cut from similar stock. Although the existing equipment could not be used for machining tritium-exposed hardware, off-the shelf EDM units are available that could. With the right equipment and the required radiological controls in place, similar machining and testing techniques could be used to directly measure the effects of tritium on the properties of material cut from reservoir returns. Stress-strain properties from tritium-exposed reservoirs would improve finite element modeling of reservoir performance because the data would be representative of the true state of the reservoir material in the field. Tensile data from samples cut directly from reservoirs would also complement existing shelf storage and burst test data of the Life Storage Program and help answer questions about a specific reservoir's processing history and properties.

  12. In-process EDM truing to generate complex contours on metal-bond, superabrasive grinding wheels for precision grinding structural ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Piscotty, M.A.; Davis, P.J.; Saito, T.T.; Blaedel, K.L.; Griffith, L.

    1997-08-01

    The demand and use of precision grinding of structural ceramics continue to increase as the worldwide advanced ceramic industry surpasses $20 billion is sales. Included in this industry are engineering structural ceramics, electronic ceramics, bioceramics and others. These materials are used in applications such as engine components, casting and extrusion dies, bearings, medical implants, nozzles, thermal insulators, and more. Along with the variety of ceramic applications comes a broad range of precision requirements, which in turn leads to various required processes to accommodate a spectrum of specifications. A process for grinding ceramic components to micrometer tolerances was employed and further developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for two separate grinding projects.

  13. Search for permanent EDM using laser cooled Fr atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Hirokazu; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Furukawa, T.; Harada, K.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Imai, K.; Inoue, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, T.; Murakami, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Sato, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Sakemi, Y.

    2013-03-01

    The existence of a non-zero electric dipole moment (EDM) implies the violation of time reversal symmetry. As the time-reversal symmetry violation predicted by the Standard Model (SM) for the electron EDM is too small to be observed with current experimental techniques and any a non-zero EDM would indicate new physics beyond the SM. The tiny signal from the electron EDM is enhanced in the heavy atoms such as francium (Fr). We are constructing the laser-cooled Fr factory to search for the electron EDM.

  14. Progress of the Jila Electron Edm Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Cairncross, William; Grau, Matt; Gresh, Dan; Ng, Kia Boon; Ni, Yiqi; Ye, Jun; Cornell, Eric

    2016-06-01

    A more accurate value for the permanent electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM), whether consistent with zero or otherwise, will have important implications for extensions to the Standard Model. The JILA eEDM experiment uses trapped HfF+ ions to attain a large effective electric field and a long measurement coherence time. We prepare HfF+ ions in a low-lying, metastable 3Δ1 state and perform Ramsey spectroscopy with free-evolution times of > 500 ms between two Zeeman sub-levels in the presence of rotating bias electric and magnetic fields. In this talk, we present initial results of an eEDM-sensitive 100-hour data run and a thorough investigation of various systematic errors. Several of our leading systematics have been suppressed to the 10-30 e.cm level. In addition, we report two ongoing experiments aimed towards increasing the statistical sensitivity: (1) applying STImulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP) for increased coherent population transfer to the eEDM-sensitive 3Δ1 state; and (2) implementing a new ion counting detector for increased detection efficiency and for suppressing shot-to-shot noise.

  15. Advances in the EDM-DEDM procedure.

    PubMed

    Caliandro, Rocco; Carrozzini, Benedetta; Cascarano, Giovanni Luca; Giacovazzo, Carmelo; Mazzone, Anna Maria; Siliqi, Dritan

    2009-03-01

    The DEDM (difference electron-density modification) algorithm has been described in a recent paper [Caliandro et al. (2008), Acta Cryst. A64, 519-528]: it breaks down the collinearity between model structure phases and difference structure phase estimates. The new difference electron-density produced by DEDM, summed to the calculated Fourier maps, is expected to provide a representation of the full structure that is more accurate than that obtained by the observed Fourier synthesis. In the same paper, the DEDM algorithm was combined with the EDM (electron-density modification) approach to give the EDM-DEDM procedure which, when applied to practical molecular-replacement cases, was able to improve the model structures. In this paper, it is shown that EDM-DEDM suffers from some critical points that did not allow cyclical application of the procedure. These points are identified and modifications are made to allow iteration of the procedure. The applications indicate that EDM-DEDM may become a fundamental tool in protein crystallography.

  16. Progress of the Jila Electron Edm Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Huanqian; Cossel, Kevin C.; Grau, Matt; Gresh, Daniel N.; Ni, Kang-Kuen; Ye, Jun; Cornell, Eric A.

    2013-06-01

    Molecules can be advantageous for the search for the electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) due to the large effective electric field experienced by a bound, unpaired electron. Furthermore, the closely-spaced states of opposite parity make the molecules easy to polarize in the lab frame. The JILA eEDM experiment currently uses HfF^+ molecules in an ion trap to achieve long coherence times to reduce systematics. When an electric field is applied the eEDM signal is proportional to the shift in energy splitting between two Zeeman levels in a low-lying, metastable ^3Δ_1 state. We have previously shown efficient preparation of trapped HfF^+ molecules in the rovibronic ground state, X^1Σ^+(v=0,J=0). Here, we demonstrate coherent transfer of population from the ground state to the a^3Δ_1(v=0, J=1) state through an intermediate ^3Π_{0+} state and efficient state read-out using photodissociation. In addition, we have begun to take spectroscopy data of the hyperfine and Zeeman structure of the eEDM science state in the presence of a rotating bias electric field and a magnetic field. A. E. Leanhardt et. al., Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 270, 1-25 (2011). H. Loh et. al., Journal of Chemical Physics 135, 154308 (2011).

  17. Shared and service-oriented CNC machining system for intelligent manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yao; Liu, Qiang; Tong, Ronglei; Cui, Xiaohong

    2015-11-01

    To improve efficiency, reduce cost, ensure quality effectively, researchers on CNC machining have focused on virtual machine tool, cloud manufacturing, wireless manufacturing. However, low level of information shared among different systems is a common disadvantage. In this paper, a machining database with data evaluation module is set up to ensure integrity and update. An online monitoring system based on internet of things and multi-sensors "feel" a variety of signal features to "percept" the state in CNC machining process. A high efficiency and green machining parameters optimization system "execute" service-oriented manufacturing, intelligent manufacturing and green manufacturing. The intelligent CNC machining system is applied in production. CNC machining database effectively shares and manages process data among different systems. The prediction accuracy of online monitoring system is up to 98.8% by acquiring acceleration and noise in real time. High efficiency and green machining parameters optimization system optimizes the original processing parameters, and the calculation indicates that optimized processing parameters not only improve production efficiency, but also reduce carbon emissions. The application proves that the shared and service-oriented CNC machining system is reliable and effective. This research presents a shared and service-oriented CNC machining system for intelligent manufacturing process.

  18. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOEpatents

    Szymocha, K.; Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Kulik, C.; Lebowitz, H.E.

    1995-12-05

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other mineral particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal. 4 figs.

  19. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOEpatents

    Szymocha, K.; Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Kulik, C.; Lebowitz, H.E.

    1997-02-11

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal. 4 figs.

  20. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOEpatents

    Szymocha, Kazimierz; Ignasiak, Boleslaw; Pawlak, Wanda; Kulik, Conrad; Lebowitz, Howard E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal.

  1. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOEpatents

    Szymocha, Kazimierz; Ignasiak, Boleslaw; Pawlak, Wanda; Kulik, Conrad; Lebowitz, Howard E.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal.

  2. MEASUREMENT OF INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM DRY-PROCESS PHOTOCOPY MACHINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article provides background information on indoor air emissions from office equipment, with emphasis on dry-process photocopy machines. The test method is described in detail along with results of a study to evaluate the test method using four dry-process photocopy machines. ...

  3. Scheduling Jobs with Variable Job Processing Times on Unrelated Parallel Machines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guang-Qian; Wang, Jian-Jun; Liu, Ya-Jing

    2014-01-01

    m unrelated parallel machines scheduling problems with variable job processing times are considered, where the processing time of a job is a function of its position in a sequence, its starting time, and its resource allocation. The objective is to determine the optimal resource allocation and the optimal schedule to minimize a total cost function that dependents on the total completion (waiting) time, the total machine load, the total absolute differences in completion (waiting) times on all machines, and total resource cost. If the number of machines is a given constant number, we propose a polynomial time algorithm to solve the problem. PMID:24982933

  4. Preset Electrodes for Electrical-Discharge Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, Bill E.

    1987-01-01

    New electrode holder for electrical-discharge machining (EDM) provides for repeatable loading and setting of many electrodes. New holder is rotating-index tool carrying six, eight, or more electrodes. Before use, all electrodes set with aid of ring surrounding tool, and locked in position with screws. When electrode replaced, EDM operator pulls spring-loaded pin on tool so it rotates about center pin. Fresh electrode then rotated into position against workpiece.

  5. Machining of bone: Analysis of cutting force and surface roughness by turning process.

    PubMed

    Noordin, M Y; Jiawkok, N; Ndaruhadi, P Y M W; Kurniawan, D

    2015-11-01

    There are millions of orthopedic surgeries and dental implantation procedures performed every year globally. Most of them involve machining of bones and cartilage. However, theoretical and analytical study on bone machining is lagging behind its practice and implementation. This study views bone machining as a machining process with bovine bone as the workpiece material. Turning process which makes the basis of the actually used drilling process was experimented. The focus is on evaluating the effects of three machining parameters, that is, cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut, to machining responses, that is, cutting forces and surface roughness resulted by the turning process. Response surface methodology was used to quantify the relation between the machining parameters and the machining responses. The turning process was done at various cutting speeds (29-156 m/min), depths of cut (0.03 -0.37 mm), and feeds (0.023-0.11 mm/rev). Empirical models of the resulted cutting force and surface roughness as the functions of cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed were developed. Observation using the developed empirical models found that within the range of machining parameters evaluated, the most influential machining parameter to the cutting force is depth of cut, followed by feed and cutting speed. The lowest cutting force was obtained at the lowest cutting speed, lowest depth of cut, and highest feed setting. For surface roughness, feed is the most significant machining condition, followed by cutting speed, and with depth of cut showed no effect. The finest surface finish was obtained at the lowest cutting speed and feed setting.

  6. Enhanced osteoblast response to electrical discharge machining surface.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Fukunaga; Kataoka, Yu; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the surface characteristics and biocompatibility of titanium (Ti) surfaces modified by wire electrical discharge machining (EDM). EDM surface characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thin-film X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and contact angle measurements. MC3T3-E1 cell morphology, attachment and proliferation, as well as analysis of osteoblastic gene expressions, on machined surfaces and EDM surfaces were also evaluated. EDM surfaces exhibited high super hydrophilicity, due to high surface energy. XPS and XRD revealed that a passive oxide layer with certain developing thickness onto. EDM surfaces promoted cell attachment, but restrained proliferation. Counted cell numbers increased significantly on the machined surfaces as compared to the EDM surfaces. Real-time PCR analyses showed significantly higher relative mRNA expression levels of osteoblastic genes (ALP, osteocalcin, Runx2, Osterix) in cells cultured on the EDM surfaces as compared to cells cultured on the machined surfaces.

  7. Enhanced osteoblast response to electrical discharge machining surface.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Fukunaga; Kataoka, Yu; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the surface characteristics and biocompatibility of titanium (Ti) surfaces modified by wire electrical discharge machining (EDM). EDM surface characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thin-film X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and contact angle measurements. MC3T3-E1 cell morphology, attachment and proliferation, as well as analysis of osteoblastic gene expressions, on machined surfaces and EDM surfaces were also evaluated. EDM surfaces exhibited high super hydrophilicity, due to high surface energy. XPS and XRD revealed that a passive oxide layer with certain developing thickness onto. EDM surfaces promoted cell attachment, but restrained proliferation. Counted cell numbers increased significantly on the machined surfaces as compared to the EDM surfaces. Real-time PCR analyses showed significantly higher relative mRNA expression levels of osteoblastic genes (ALP, osteocalcin, Runx2, Osterix) in cells cultured on the EDM surfaces as compared to cells cultured on the machined surfaces. PMID:22447066

  8. Scale effects and a method for similarity evaluation in micro electrical discharge machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingyu; Zhang, Qinhe; Wang, Kan; Zhu, Guang; Fu, Xiuzhuo; Zhang, Jianhua

    2016-08-01

    Electrical discharge machining(EDM) is a promising non-traditional micro machining technology that offers a vast array of applications in the manufacturing industry. However, scale effects occur when machining at the micro-scale, which can make it difficult to predict and optimize the machining performances of micro EDM. A new concept of "scale effects" in micro EDM is proposed, the scale effects can reveal the difference in machining performances between micro EDM and conventional macro EDM. Similarity theory is presented to evaluate the scale effects in micro EDM. Single factor experiments are conducted and the experimental results are analyzed by discussing the similarity difference and similarity precision. The results show that the output results of scale effects in micro EDM do not change linearly with discharge parameters. The values of similarity precision of machining time significantly increase when scaling-down the capacitance or open-circuit voltage. It is indicated that the lower the scale of the discharge parameter, the greater the deviation of non-geometrical similarity degree over geometrical similarity degree, which means that the micro EDM system with lower discharge energy experiences more scale effects. The largest similarity difference is 5.34 while the largest similarity precision can be as high as 114.03. It is suggested that the similarity precision is more effective in reflecting the scale effects and their fluctuation than similarity difference. Consequently, similarity theory is suitable for evaluating the scale effects in micro EDM. This proposed research offers engineering values for optimizing the machining parameters and improving the machining performances of micro EDM.

  9. Machinability of lithium disilicate glass ceramic in in vitro dental diamond bur adjusting process.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Fei; Ren, Hai-Tao; Yin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Esthetic high-strength lithium disilicate glass ceramics (LDGC) are used for monolithic crowns and bridges produced in dental CAD/CAM and oral adjusting processes, which machinability affects the restorative quality. A machinability study has been made in the simulated oral clinical machining of LDGC with a dental handpiece and diamond burs, regarding the diamond tool wear and chip control, machining forces and energy, surface finish and integrity. Machining forces, speeds and energy in in vitro dental adjusting of LDGC were measured by a high-speed data acquisition and force sensor system. Machined LDGC surfaces were assessed using three-dimensional non-contact chromatic confocal optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Diamond bur morphology and LDGC chip shapes were also examined using SEM. Minimum tool wear but significant LDGC chip accumulations were found. Machining forces and energy significantly depended on machining conditions (p<0.05) and were significantly higher than other glass ceramics (p<0.05). Machining speeds dropped more rapidly with increased removal rates than other glass ceramics (p<0.05). Two material machinability indices associated with the hardness, Young's modulus and fracture toughness were derived based on the normal force-removal rate relations, which ranked LDGC the most difficult to machine among glass ceramics. Surface roughness for machined LDGC was comparable for other glass ceramics. The removal mechanisms of LDGC were dominated by penetration-induced brittle fracture and shear-induced plastic deformation. Unlike most other glass ceramics, distinct intergranular and transgranular fractures of lithium disilicate crystals were found in LDGC. This research provides the fundamental data for dental clinicians on the machinability of LDGC in intraoral adjustments. PMID:26318569

  10. Machinability of lithium disilicate glass ceramic in in vitro dental diamond bur adjusting process.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Fei; Ren, Hai-Tao; Yin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Esthetic high-strength lithium disilicate glass ceramics (LDGC) are used for monolithic crowns and bridges produced in dental CAD/CAM and oral adjusting processes, which machinability affects the restorative quality. A machinability study has been made in the simulated oral clinical machining of LDGC with a dental handpiece and diamond burs, regarding the diamond tool wear and chip control, machining forces and energy, surface finish and integrity. Machining forces, speeds and energy in in vitro dental adjusting of LDGC were measured by a high-speed data acquisition and force sensor system. Machined LDGC surfaces were assessed using three-dimensional non-contact chromatic confocal optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Diamond bur morphology and LDGC chip shapes were also examined using SEM. Minimum tool wear but significant LDGC chip accumulations were found. Machining forces and energy significantly depended on machining conditions (p<0.05) and were significantly higher than other glass ceramics (p<0.05). Machining speeds dropped more rapidly with increased removal rates than other glass ceramics (p<0.05). Two material machinability indices associated with the hardness, Young's modulus and fracture toughness were derived based on the normal force-removal rate relations, which ranked LDGC the most difficult to machine among glass ceramics. Surface roughness for machined LDGC was comparable for other glass ceramics. The removal mechanisms of LDGC were dominated by penetration-induced brittle fracture and shear-induced plastic deformation. Unlike most other glass ceramics, distinct intergranular and transgranular fractures of lithium disilicate crystals were found in LDGC. This research provides the fundamental data for dental clinicians on the machinability of LDGC in intraoral adjustments.

  11. Search for electron EDM with laser cooled radioactive atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, T.; Kawamura, H.; Nataraj, H. S.; Sato, T.; Aoki, T.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Sakemi, Y.

    2013-05-01

    The permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the elementary particle has the sensitivity to the CP violation in the theories beyond the standard model (SM). The search for the EDM constitutes the stringent test to discriminate between the SM and beyond it. We plan to perform the electron EDM search by using the laser cooled francium (Fr) atom which has the largest enhancement factor of the electron EDM in the alkali atoms. In this paper, the present status of the laser cooled Fr factory that is being constructed at Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University are reported.

  12. CryoEDM: A cryogenic experiment to measure the neutron electric dipole moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Grinten, M. G. D.; CryoEDM Collaboration; Balashov, S. N.; Francis, V.; Green, K.; Iaydjiev, P. S.; Ivanov, S. N.; Khazov, A.; Tucker, M. A. H.; Wark, D. L.; Davidson, A.; Hardiman, M.; Harris, P. G.; Katsika, K.; Pendlebury, J. M.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Shiers, D. B.; Smith, P.; Townsley, C.; Wardell, I.; Clarke, C.; Henry, S.; Kraus, H.; McCann, M.; Geltenbort, P.; Yoshiki, Y.

    2009-12-01

    CryoEDM is an experiment that aims to measure the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron to a precision of 10 -28 e cm. A description of CryoEDM, the apparatus, technologies and commissioning is presented.

  13. Direct selective laser sintering of high performance metals: Machine design, process development and process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Suman

    1998-11-01

    This dissertation describes the development of an advanced manufacturing technology known as Direct Selective Laser Sintering (Direct SLS). Direct SLS is a laser based rapid manufacturing technology that enables production of functional, fully dense, metal and cermet components via the direct, layerwise consolidation of constituent powders. Specifically, this dissertation focuses on a new, hybrid net shape manufacturing technique known as Selective Laser Sintering/Hot Isostatic Pressing (SLS/HIP). The objective of research presented in this dissertation was to establish the fundamental machine technology and processing science to enable direct SLS fabrication of metal components composed of high performance, high temperature metals and alloys. Several processing requirements differentiate direct SLS of metals from SLS of polymers or polymer coated powders. Perhaps the most important distinguishing characteristic is the regime of high temperatures involved in direct SLS of metals. Biasing the temperature of the feedstock powder via radiant preheat prior to and during SLS processing was shown to be beneficial. Preheating the powder significantly influenced the flow and wetting characteristics of the melt. During this work, it was conclusively established that powder cleanliness is of paramount importance for successful layerwise consolidation of metal powders by direct SLS. Sequential trials were conducted to establish optimal bake-out and degas cycles under high vacuum. These cycles agreed well with established practices in the powder metallurgy industry. A study of some of the important transport mechanisms in direct SLS of metals was undertaken to obtain a fundamental understanding of the underlying process physics. This study not only provides an explanation of phenomena observed during SLS processing of a variety of metallic materials but also helps in developing selection schemes for those materials that are most amenable to direct SLS processing. The

  14. 29 CFR 570.61 - Occupations in the operation of power-driven meat-processing machines and occupations involving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-processing machines and occupations involving slaughtering, meat packing or processing, or rendering (Order... Health or Well-Being § 570.61 Occupations in the operation of power-driven meat-processing machines and... products and the operation of lard-roll machines. (3) All occupations involved in tankage or rendering...

  15. Effect of Powder-Suspended Dielectric on the EDM Characteristics of Inconel 625

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talla, Gangadharudu; Gangopadhyay, S.; Biswas, C. K.

    2016-02-01

    The current work attempts to establish the criteria for powder material selection by investigating the influence of various powder-suspended dielectrics and machining parameters on various EDM characteristics of Inconel 625 (a nickel-based super alloy) which is nowadays regularly used in aerospace, chemical, and marine industries. The powders include aluminum (Al), graphite, and silicon (Si) that have significant variation in their thermo-physical characteristics. Results showed that powder properties like electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, density, and hardness play a significant role in changing the machining performance and the quality of the machined surface. Among the three powders, highest material removal rate was observed for graphite powder due to its high electrical and thermal conductivities. Best surface finish and least radial overcut (ROC) were attained using Si powder. Maximum microhardness was found for Si due to its low thermal conductivity and high hardness. It is followed by graphite and aluminum powders. Addition of powder to the dielectric has increased the crater diameter due to expansion of plasma channel. Powder-mixed EDM (PMEDM) was also effective in lowering the density of surface cracks with least number of cracks obtained with graphite powder. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated possible formation of metal carbides along with grain growth phenomenon of Inconel 625 after PMEDM.

  16. The Fixture Device of the Horizontal Machining Center for the Input Tray Part Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ping

    The input tray part is key parts on the production of auto parts of the on the automatic line, this paper mainly studies on the horizontal machining center using the fixture device, the device to ensure the machining accuracy of the input tray part. Through the analysis of the positioning and clamping of the input tray part, design a clamp device, the device is applied in on the horizontal machining center, and on the basis of the fixture add auxiliary support device, in order to improve the input tray part rigidity and stability of processing.

  17. An Investigation of Machining Characteristics in Micro-scale Milling Process

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, Min-Su; Kang, Ik-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Suk

    2011-01-17

    In this paper, an analytical solution of micro-scale milling process is presented in order to suggest available machining conditions. The size effect should be considered to determine cutting characteristics in micro-scale cutting. The feed per tooth is the most dominant cutting parameter related to the size effect in micro-scale milling process. In order to determine the feed per tooth at which chips can be formed, the finite element method is used. The finite element method is employed by utilizing the Johnson-Cook (JC) model as a constitutive model of work material flow stress. Machining experiments are performed to validate the simulation results by using a micro-machining stage. The validation is conducted by observing cutting force signals from a cutting tool and the conditions of the machined surface of the workpiece.

  18. Installation and Implementation of an In-Process Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Derek

    2008-06-16

    This report documents the work accomplished during the installation and implementation of the in-process Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) in Department A. A wealth of knowledge has been gained in solving the many technical issues that delayed the partial implementation of this CMM. The work completed thus far lead to the successfully calibrated in-process CMM workstation. A great deal of current and future work has been outlined in the following pages that shall be used as a guide for the full implementation of this CMM with machining processes in Department A.

  19. An improved limit on the EDM of 225 Ra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishof, Michael; Bailey, Kevin; Dietrich, Matthew R.; Greene, John P.; Holt, Roy J.; Kalita, Mukut R.; Korsch, Wolfgang; Lemke, Nathan D.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Thomas P.; Parker, Richard H.; Rabga, Tenzin; Singh, Jaideep T.

    2016-05-01

    Searches for permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) are sensitive probes of symmetry violation that could explain the dominance of matter over anti-matter. The 225 Ra (t1/2 = 15 days, I = 1/2) atom is a particularly attractive system to use for an EDM measurement because its octupole-deformed nucleus, closely spaced ground-state parity doublet, and large nuclear charge make 225 Ra uniquely sensitive to symmetry-violating interactions in the nuclear medium. In 2015, we reported the first ``proof of principle'' measurement of the 225 Ra EDM, giving a 95% confidence upper limit of 5* 10-22 e-cm; representing the first EDM measurement using laser-trapped atoms as well as the first EDM measurement of an atom with an octupole-deformed nucleus. After implementing upgrades to our apparatus, we now observe nuclear spin coherence after 20 s of free evolution - a factor of ten improvement. A new EDM measurement based on the upgraded system improved the 95% confidence upper limit by a factor of 36. We also report on the progress of current experimental upgrades that have the potential to further improve our EDM sensitivity by many orders of magnitude, allowing us to test symmetry violation at an unprecedented level. This work is supported by U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  20. Scheduling algorithm for flow shop with two batch-processing machines and arbitrary job sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Bayi; Yang, Shanlin; Hu, Xiaoxuan; Li, Kai

    2014-03-01

    This article considers the problem of scheduling two batch-processing machines in flow shop where the jobs have arbitrary sizes and the machines have limited capacity. The jobs are processed in batches and the total size of jobs in each batch cannot exceed the machine capacity. Once a batch is being processed, no interruption is allowed until all the jobs in it are completed. The problem of minimising makespan is NP-hard in the strong sense. First, we present a mathematical model of the problem using integer programme. We show the scale of feasible solutions of the problem and provide optimality properties. Then, we propose a polynomial time algorithm with running time in O(nlogn). The jobs are first assigned in feasible batches and then scheduled on machines. For the general case, we prove that the proposed algorithm has a performance guarantee of 4. For the special case where the processing times of each job on the two machines satisfy p 1 j = ap 2 j , the performance guarantee is ? for a > 0.

  1. Femtosecond lasers for machining of transparent, brittle materials: ablative vs. non-ablative femtosecond laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, F.; Matylitsky, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    This paper focuses on precision machining of transparent materials by means of ablative and non-ablative femtosecond laser processing. Ablation technology will be compared with a newly developed patent pending non-ablative femtosecond process, ClearShapeTM, using the Spectra-Physics Spirit industrial femtosecond laser.

  2. Progress toward an EDM measurement in {sup225}Ra.

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R. J.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Graner, B.; Greene, J. P.; Korsch, W.; Lu, Z.-T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Sulai, I. A.; Trimble, W. L.

    2010-11-01

    Permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) in atoms or molecules are a signature of time-reversal and parity violation and represent an important window onto physics beyond the Standard Model. We are developing a next generation EDM search based on laser-cooled and trapped {sup 225}Ra atoms. Due to octupole deformation of the nucleus, {sup 225}Ra is predicted to be two to three orders of magnitude more sensitive to T-violating interactions than {sup 199}Hg, which currently sets the most stringent limits in the nuclear sector. We will discuss progress toward realizing a first EDM measurement for {sup 225}Ra.

  3. MUON EDM EXPERIMENT USING STAGE II OF THE NEUTRINO FACTORY.

    SciTech Connect

    FERNOW,R.C.; GALLARDO,J.C.; MORSE,W.M.; SEMERTZIDIS,Y.K.

    2002-07-01

    During the second stage of a future neutrino factory unprecedented numbers of bunched muons will become available. The cooled medium-energy muon beam could be used for a high sensitivity search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) of the muon with a sensitivity better than 10{sup -24}e {center_dot} cm. This will make the sensitivity of the EDM experiment to non-standard physics competitive and in many models more sensitive than the present limits on edms of the electron and nucleons. The experimental design exploits the strong motional electric field sensed by relativistic particles in a magnetic storage ring.

  4. PLANS FOR A NEUTRON EDM EXPERIMENT AT SNS

    SciTech Connect

    ITO, TAKEYASU

    2007-01-31

    The electric dipole moment of the neutron, leptons, and atoms provide a unique window to Physics Beyond the Standard Model. They are currently developing a new neutron EDM experiment (the nEDM Experiment). This experiment, which will be run at the 8.9 {angstrom} Neutron Line at the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline (FNPB) at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, will search for the neutron EDM with a sensitivity two orders of magnitude higher than the present limit. In this paper, the motivation for the experiment, the experimental method, and the present status of the experiment are discussed.

  5. Search for a permanent EDM using laser cooled radioactive atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Hirokazu; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Kato, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Sato, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Aoki, T.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Sakemi, Y.

    2014-03-01

    The search for the electric-dipole moment (EDM) of laser-cooled francium (Fr) atoms could lead to a measurement for the electron EDM. It is predicted that the electron EDM would be enhanced by approximately three orders of magnitude in heavy atoms such as Fr. Laser-cooling and trapping techniques are expected to suppress statistical and systematic errors in precision measurements. The magneto-optical trap was achieved using stable rubidium in a developing factory of laser-cooled radioactive atoms. In light of the results from the rubidium experiments, we found that an upgrade of each apparatus is preferred for Fr trapping.

  6. Data processing 1: Advancements in machine analysis of multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    Multispectral data processing procedures are outlined beginning with the data display process used to accomplish data editing and proceeding through clustering, feature selection criterion for error probability estimation, and sample clustering and sample classification. The effective utilization of large quantities of remote sensing data by formulating a three stage sampling model for evaluation of crop acreage estimates represents an improvement in determining the cost benefit relationship associated with remote sensing technology.

  7. Post-cast EDM method for reducing the thickness of a turbine nozzle wall

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Raymond Joseph; Bojappa, Parvangada Ganapathy; Kirkpatrick, Francis Lawrence; Schotsch, Margaret Jones; Rajan, Rajiv; Wei, Bin

    2002-01-01

    A post-cast EDM process is used to remove material from the interior surface of a nozzle vane cavity of a turbine. A thin electrode is passed through the cavity between opposite ends of the nozzle vane and displaced along the interior nozzle wall to remove the material along a predetermined path, thus reducing the thickness of the wall between the cavity and the external surface of the nozzle. In another form, an EDM process employing a profile as an electrode is disposed in the cavity and advanced against the wall to remove material from the wall until the final wall thickness is achieved, with the interior wall surface being complementary to the profile surface.

  8. The development of machine technology processing for earth resource survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A.

    1970-01-01

    The following technologies are considered for automatic processing of earth resources data: (1) registration of multispectral and multitemporal images, (2) digital image display systems, (3) data system parameter effects on satellite remote sensing systems, and (4) data compression techniques based on spectral redundancy. The importance of proper spectral band and compression algorithm selections is pointed out.

  9. Micromechanical Machining Processes and their Application to Aerospace Structures, Devices and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedrich, Craig R.; Warrington, Robert O.

    1995-01-01

    Micromechanical machining processes are those micro fabrication techniques which directly remove work piece material by either a physical cutting tool or an energy process. These processes are direct and therefore they can help reduce the cost and time for prototype development of micro mechanical components and systems. This is especially true for aerospace applications where size and weight are critical, and reliability and the operating environment are an integral part of the design and development process. The micromechanical machining processes are rapidly being recognized as a complementary set of tools to traditional lithographic processes (such as LIGA) for the fabrication of micromechanical components. Worldwide efforts in the U.S., Germany, and Japan are leading to results which sometimes rival lithography at a fraction of the time and cost. Efforts to develop processes and systems specific to aerospace applications are well underway.

  10. Ultra-precision cutting of Fresnel lenses on single crystal germanium and the machining processing analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yufeng; Zhu, Yongjian; Pan, Weiqing

    2010-10-01

    Single crystal germanium is used in infrared spectroscopes and other optical equipment as an excellent infrared optical material. The development of germanium Fresnel lenses not only improves the optical imaging quality but also enables the miniaturization of optical systems. In a previous work, a Fresnel lens with precise curvatures, sharp edges and precise cross-sectional profiles were fabricated. However, sometimes, microcracks will occur to the edge of grooves when the wear of the diamond tool is large in the machining process. In the present work, in order to minimize the effect of the tool tip wear to the groove edge of Fresnel lens, a novel machining process and machining conditions are proposed for fabricating a high-precision Fresnel lens.

  11. EDM-DEDM and protein crystal structure solution.

    PubMed

    Caliandro, Rocco; Carrozzini, Benedetta; Cascarano, Giovanni Luca; Giacovazzo, Carmelo; Mazzone, Anna Maria; Siliqi, Dritan

    2009-05-01

    Electron-density modification (EDM) procedures are the classical tool for driving model phases closer to those of the target structure. They are often combined with automated model-building programs to provide a correct protein model. The task is not always performed, mostly because of the large initial phase error. A recently proposed procedure combined EDM with DEDM (difference electron-density modification); the method was applied to the refinement of phases obtained by molecular replacement, ab initio or SAD phasing [Caliandro, Carrozzini, Cascarano, Giacovazzo, Mazzone & Siliqi (2009), Acta Cryst. D65, 249-256] and was more effective in improving phases than EDM alone. In this paper, a novel fully automated protocol for protein structure refinement based on the iterative application of automated model-building programs combined with the additional power derived from the EDM-DEDM algorithm is presented. The cyclic procedure was successfully tested on challenging cases for which all other approaches had failed.

  12. Machine learning and predictive data analytics enabling metrology and process control in IC fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Narender; Zhang, Yunlin; Wall, Donald; Dirahoui, Bachir; Bailey, Todd C.

    2015-03-01

    Integrate circuit (IC) technology is going through multiple changes in terms of patterning techniques (multiple patterning, EUV and DSA), device architectures (FinFET, nanowire, graphene) and patterning scale (few nanometers). These changes require tight controls on processes and measurements to achieve the required device performance, and challenge the metrology and process control in terms of capability and quality. Multivariate data with complex nonlinear trends and correlations generally cannot be described well by mathematical or parametric models but can be relatively easily learned by computing machines and used to predict or extrapolate. This paper introduces the predictive metrology approach which has been applied to three different applications. Machine learning and predictive analytics have been leveraged to accurately predict dimensions of EUV resist patterns down to 18 nm half pitch leveraging resist shrinkage patterns. These patterns could not be directly and accurately measured due to metrology tool limitations. Machine learning has also been applied to predict the electrical performance early in the process pipeline for deep trench capacitance and metal line resistance. As the wafer goes through various processes its associated cost multiplies. It may take days to weeks to get the electrical performance readout. Predicting the electrical performance early on can be very valuable in enabling timely actionable decision such as rework, scrap, feedforward, feedback predicted information or information derived from prediction to improve or monitor processes. This paper provides a general overview of machine learning and advanced analytics application in the advanced semiconductor development and manufacturing.

  13. Cost-effective machining of brittle materials (glasses and ceramics) eliminating/minimizing the polishing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlisle, Keith; Stocker, M. A.

    1997-09-01

    The disadvantages of traditional methods of edge grinding silicon wafers are discussed. With the industry's move to 300 mm format wafers, comes the pressure of environmental issues to minimize acid etch from the wafer process which is commonly used to improve surface finish and reduce sub surface damage. The recent work of Cranfield Precision in wafer edge processing is described, together with descriptions of a new grinding process and machine to eliminate grinding induced damage and minimize the polishing time.

  14. Microstructure, Morphology, and Nanomechanical Properties Near Fine Holes Produced by Electro-Discharge Machining

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; Howe, Jane Y; Coffey, Dorothy W; Trejo, Rosa M; Kenik, Edward A; Jolly, Brian C; Yang, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Fine holes in metal alloys are employed for many important technological purposes, including cooling and the precise atomization of liquids. For example, they play an important role in the metering and delivery of fuel to the combustion chambers in energy-efficient, low-emissions diesel engines. Electro-discharge machining (EDM) is one process employed to produce such holes. Since the hole shape and bore morphology can affect fluid flow, and holes also represent structural discontinuities in the tips of the spray nozzles, it is important to understand the microstructures adjacent to these holes, the features of the hole walls, and the nanomechanical properties of the material that was in some manner altered by the EDM hole-making process. Several techniques were used to characterize the structure and properties of spray-holes in a commercial injector nozzle. These include scanning electron microscopy, cross-sectioning and metallographic etching, bore surface roughness measurements by optical interferometry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy of recast EDM layers extracted with the help of a focused ion beam.

  15. Monocular depth perception using image processing and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hombali, Apoorv; Gorde, Vaibhav; Deshpande, Abhishek

    2011-10-01

    This paper primarily exploits some of the more obscure, but inherent properties of camera and image to propose a simpler and more efficient way of perceiving depth. The proposed method involves the use of a single stationary camera at an unknown perspective and an unknown height to determine depth of an object on unknown terrain. In achieving so a direct correlation between a pixel in an image and the corresponding location in real space has to be formulated. First, a calibration step is undertaken whereby the equation of the plane visible in the field of view is calculated along with the relative distance between camera and plane by using a set of derived spatial geometrical relations coupled with a few intrinsic properties of the system. The depth of an unknown object is then perceived by first extracting the object under observation using a series of image processing steps followed by exploiting the aforementioned mapping of pixel and real space coordinate. The performance of the algorithm is greatly enhanced by the introduction of reinforced learning making the system independent of hardware and environment. Furthermore the depth calculation function is modified with a supervised learning algorithm giving consistent improvement in results. Thus, the system uses the experience in past and optimizes the current run successively. Using the above procedure a series of experiments and trials are carried out to prove the concept and its efficacy.

  16. Neural-net Processed Electronic Holography for Rotating Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of an R&D effort to apply neural-net processed electronic holography to NDE of rotors. Electronic holography was used to generate characteristic patterns or mode shapes of vibrating rotors and rotor components. Artificial neural networks were trained to identify damage-induced changes in the characteristic patterns. The development and optimization of a neural-net training method were the most significant contributions of this work, and the training method and its optimization are discussed in detail. A second positive result was the assembly and testing of a fiber-optic holocamera. A major disappointment was the inadequacy of the high-speed-holography hardware selected for this effort, but the use of scaled holograms to match the low effective resolution of an image intensifier was one interesting attempt to compensate. This report also discusses in some detail the physics and environmental requirements for rotor electronic holography. The major conclusions were that neural-net and electronic-holography inspections of stationary components in the laboratory and the field are quite practical and worthy of continuing development, but that electronic holography of moving rotors is still an expensive high-risk endeavor.

  17. e-Learning Application for Machine Maintenance Process using Iterative Method in XYZ Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurunisa, Suaidah; Kurniawati, Amelia; Pramuditya Soesanto, Rayinda; Yunan Kurnia Septo Hediyanto, Umar

    2016-02-01

    XYZ Company is a company based on manufacturing part for airplane, one of the machine that is categorized as key facility in the company is Millac 5H6P. As a key facility, the machines should be assured to work well and in peak condition, therefore, maintenance process is needed periodically. From the data gathering, it is known that there are lack of competency from the maintenance staff to maintain different type of machine which is not assigned by the supervisor, this indicate that knowledge which possessed by maintenance staff are uneven. The purpose of this research is to create knowledge-based e-learning application as a realization from externalization process in knowledge transfer process to maintain the machine. The application feature are adjusted for maintenance purpose using e-learning framework for maintenance process, the content of the application support multimedia for learning purpose. QFD is used in this research to understand the needs from user. The application is built using moodle with iterative method for software development cycle and UML Diagram. The result from this research is e-learning application as sharing knowledge media for maintenance staff in the company. From the test, it is known that the application make maintenance staff easy to understand the competencies.

  18. Effect of processing parameters on surface finish for fused deposition machinable wax patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, F. E., III

    1995-01-01

    This report presents a study on the effect of material processing parameters used in layer-by-layer material construction on the surface finish of a model to be used as an investment casting pattern. The data presented relate specifically to fused deposition modeling using a machinable wax.

  19. A&M. TAN607. Process experimental pilot plant (PREPP) in north machine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607. Process experimental pilot plant (PREPP) in north machine shop of TAN-607. First floor plan shows kiln area, internal room dividers, air locks, and other features integrated within TAN-607. Ralph M. Parsons A-2. Date: February 1984. INEEL index no. 034-0607-00-693-147021 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Improved quality prediction model for multistage machining process based on geometric constraint equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Limin; He, Gaiyun; Song, Zhanjie

    2016-03-01

    Product variation reduction is critical to improve process efficiency and product quality, especially for multistage machining process (MMP). However, due to the variation accumulation and propagation, it becomes quite difficult to predict and reduce product variation for MMP. While the method of statistical process control can be used to control product quality, it is used mainly to monitor the process change rather than to analyze the cause of product variation. In this paper, based on a differential description of the contact kinematics of locators and part surfaces, and the geometric constraints equation defined by the locating scheme, an improved analytical variation propagation model for MMP is presented. In which the influence of both locator position and machining error on part quality is considered while, in traditional model, it usually focuses on datum error and fixture error. Coordinate transformation theory is used to reflect the generation and transmission laws of error in the establishment of the model. The concept of deviation matrix is heavily applied to establish an explicit mapping between the geometric deviation of part and the process error sources. In each machining stage, the part deviation is formulized as three separated components corresponding to three different kinds of error sources, which can be further applied to fault identification and design optimization for complicated machining process. An example part for MMP is given out to validate the effectiveness of the methodology. The experiment results show that the model prediction and the actual measurement match well. This paper provides a method to predict part deviation under the influence of fixture error, datum error and machining error, and it enriches the way of quality prediction for MMP.

  1. Infrared thermography for process control and predictive maintenance purposes in a steel wire drawing machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozlosnik, Andres E.; Lardone, Victor M.

    1999-03-01

    The industrial drawing process reduces the section of the wire rod by pulling the material through a hard die. This process generates heat by deformation and friction. The heat generated must be immediately removed after every reduction diameter step, otherwise the final quality of wire and the drawing performance will be poor. That is the reason why the improvement of the cooling efficiency in the drawing machine is of great importance. The better the cooling efficiency, the greater the wire quality and the productivity of the process will be. Nowadays, the infrared thermography control offer the possibility to analyze how the drawing aspect is affecting the cooling efficiency and how this technique allows the drawing process improvements. As you look at the capstans in the wire process control, you are doing at the same time, predictive maintenance in the machine.

  2. Etching process for improving the strength of a laser-machined silicon-based ceramic article

    DOEpatents

    Copley, Stephen M.; Tao, Hongyi; Todd-Copley, Judith A.

    1991-01-01

    A process for improving the strength of laser-machined articles formed of a silicon-based ceramic material such as silicon nitride, in which the laser-machined surface is immersed in an etching solution of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid for a duration sufficient to remove substantially all of a silicon film residue on the surface but insufficient to allow the solution to unduly attack the grain boundaries of the underlying silicon nitride substrate. This effectively removes the silicon film as a source of cracks that otherwise could propagate downwardly into the silicon nitride substrate and significantly reduce its strength.

  3. Etching process for improving the strength of a laser-machined silicon-based ceramic article

    DOEpatents

    Copley, S.M.; Tao, H.; Todd-Copley, J.A.

    1991-06-11

    A process is disclosed for improving the strength of laser-machined articles formed of a silicon-based ceramic material such as silicon nitride, in which the laser-machined surface is immersed in an etching solution of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid for a duration sufficient to remove substantially all of a silicon film residue on the surface but insufficient to allow the solution to unduly attack the grain boundaries of the underlying silicon nitride substrate. This effectively removes the silicon film as a source of cracks that otherwise could propagate downwardly into the silicon nitride substrate and significantly reduce its strength. 1 figure.

  4. Principles of image processing in machine vision systems for the color analysis of minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petukhova, Daria B.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2014-09-01

    At the moment color sorting method is one of promising methods of mineral raw materials enrichment. This method is based on registration of color differences between images of analyzed objects. As is generally known the problem with delimitation of close color tints when sorting low-contrast minerals is one of the main disadvantages of color sorting method. It is can be related with wrong choice of a color model and incomplete image processing in machine vision system for realizing color sorting algorithm. Another problem is a necessity of image processing features reconfiguration when changing the type of analyzed minerals. This is due to the fact that optical properties of mineral samples vary from one mineral deposit to another. Therefore searching for values of image processing features is non-trivial task. And this task doesn't always have an acceptable solution. In addition there are no uniform guidelines for determining criteria of mineral samples separation. It is assumed that the process of image processing features reconfiguration had to be made by machine learning. But in practice it's carried out by adjusting the operating parameters which are satisfactory for one specific enrichment task. This approach usually leads to the fact that machine vision system unable to estimate rapidly the concentration rate of analyzed mineral ore by using color sorting method. This paper presents the results of research aimed at addressing mentioned shortcomings in image processing organization for machine vision systems which are used to color sorting of mineral samples. The principles of color analysis for low-contrast minerals by using machine vision systems are also studied. In addition, a special processing algorithm for color images of mineral samples is developed. Mentioned algorithm allows you to determine automatically the criteria of mineral samples separation based on an analysis of representative mineral samples. Experimental studies of the proposed algorithm

  5. Processing of rock core microtomography images: Using seven different machine learning algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Swarup; Rühaak, Wolfram; Khan, Faisal; Enzmann, Frieder; Mielke, Philipp; Kersten, Michael; Sass, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    The abilities of machine learning algorithms to process X-ray microtomographic rock images were determined. The study focused on the use of unsupervised, supervised, and ensemble clustering techniques, to segment X-ray computer microtomography rock images and to estimate the pore spaces and pore size diameters in the rocks. The unsupervised k-means technique gave the fastest processing time and the supervised least squares support vector machine technique gave the slowest processing time. Multiphase assemblages of solid phases (minerals and finely grained minerals) and the pore phase were found on visual inspection of the images. In general, the accuracy in terms of porosity values and pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by the feature vectors selected. Relative porosity average value of 15.92±1.77% retrieved from all the seven machine learning algorithm is in very good agreement with the experimental results of 17±2%, obtained using gas pycnometer. Of the supervised techniques, the least square support vector machine technique is superior to feed forward artificial neural network because of its ability to identify a generalized pattern. In the ensemble classification techniques boosting technique converged faster compared to bragging technique. The k-means technique outperformed the fuzzy c-means and self-organized maps techniques in terms of accuracy and speed.

  6. BLAST: a machine architecture for high-speed list processing using associative tables

    SciTech Connect

    Sohi, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Due to the increasing popularity of nonnumeric processing languages such as LISP, there has been an increasing demand for machine architectures that are ideally suited to run such languages. Access to the main data structure used in LISP systems, i.e., list structures, is not conducive to a pipelined machine organization. In this thesis, the BLAST machine architecture is presented for the efficient execution of LISP and other list processing languages similar to LISP. The main feature of the BLAST architecture is the way in which lists are represented. First, representation of lists in a logical space and their mapping onto Exception Tables (ETs) are discussed. This ET representation for lists has the potential to achieve a substantial reduction in the memory space required to represent the list structure over conventional representations. Second, the actual BLAST machine architecture and some major traversal algorithms are presented. Next, the author discusses some of the major tasks carried out in a list processing environment and shows how they could be executed efficiently on BLAST. Last, he carries an evaluation of the BLAST architecture and discusses the various tradeoffs based on measurements of LISP program behavior carried out by previous researchers. The most important parameter influencing the performance of the architecture, the frequency of forwarding pointers, is discussed.

  7. Effects of shielding coatings on the anode shaping process during counter-rotating electrochemical machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dengyong; Zhu, Zengwei; Wang, Ningfeng; Zhu, Di

    2016-06-01

    Electrochemical machining (ECM) has been widely used in the aerospace, automotive, defense and medical industries for its many advantages over traditional machining methods. However, the machining accuracy in ECM is to a great extent limited by the stray corrosion of the unwanted material removal. Many attempts have been made to improve the ECM accuracy, such as the use of a pulse power, passivating electrolytes and auxiliary electrodes. However, they are sometimes insufficient for the reduction of the stray removal and have their limitations in many cases. To solve the stray corrosion problem in CRECM, insulating and conductive coatings are respectively used. The different implement processes of the two kinds of coatings are introduced. The effects of the two kinds of shielding coatings on the anode shaping process are investigated. Numerical simulations and experiments are conducted for the comparison of the two coatings. The simulation and experimental results show that both the two kinds of coatings are valid for the reduction of stray corrosion on the top surface of the convex structure. However, for insulating coating, the convex sidewall becomes concave when the height of the convex structure is over 1.26 mm. In addition, it is easy to peel off by the high-speed electrolyte. In contrast, the conductive coating has a strong adhesion, and can be well reserved during the whole machining process. The convex structure fabricated by using a conductive iron coating layer presents a favorable sidewall profile. It is concluded that the conductive coating is more effective for the improvement of the machining quality in CRECM. The proposed shielding coatings can also be employed to reduce the stray corrosion in other schemes of ECM.

  8. Auto-SEIA: simultaneous optimization of image processing and machine learning algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negro Maggio, Valentina; Iocchi, Luca

    2015-02-01

    Object classification from images is an important task for machine vision and it is a crucial ingredient for many computer vision applications, ranging from security and surveillance to marketing. Image based object classification techniques properly integrate image processing and machine learning (i.e., classification) procedures. In this paper we present a system for automatic simultaneous optimization of algorithms and parameters for object classification from images. More specifically, the proposed system is able to process a dataset of labelled images and to return a best configuration of image processing and classification algorithms and of their parameters with respect to the accuracy of classification. Experiments with real public datasets are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed system.

  9. BRICORK: an automatic machine with image processing for the production of corks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Roger; Correia, Bento A. B.; Carvalho, Fernando D.; Rodrigues, Fernando C.

    1991-06-01

    The production of cork stoppers from raw cork strip is a manual and labour-intensive process in which a punch-operator quickly inspects all sides of the cork strip for defects and decides where to punch out stoppers. He then positions the strip underneath a rotating tubular cutter and punches out the stoppers one at a time. This procedure is somewhat subjective and prone to error, being dependent on the judgement and accuracy of the operator. This paper describes the machine being developed jointly by Mecanova, Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia (LNETI) and Empresa de Investiga&sigmafcoe Desenvolvimento de Electronica SA (EID) which automatically processes cork strip introduced by an unskilled operator. The machine uses both image processing and laser inspection techniques to examine the strip. Defects in the cork are detected and categorised in order to determine regions where stoppers may be punched. The precise locations are then automatically optimised for best usage of the raw material (quantity and quality of stoppers). In order to achieve the required speed of production these image processing techniques may be implemented in hardware. The paper presents results obtained using the vision system software under development together with descriptions of both the image processing and mechanical aspects of the proposed machine.

  10. Application of machine learning and expert systems to Statistical Process Control (SPC) chart interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shewhart, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts are one of several tools used in quality control. Other tools include flow charts, histograms, cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, Pareto diagrams, graphs, and scatter diagrams. A control chart is simply a graph which indicates process variation over time. The purpose of drawing a control chart is to detect any changes in the process signalled by abnormal points or patterns on the graph. The Artificial Intelligence Support Center (AISC) of the Acquisition Logistics Division has developed a hybrid machine learning expert system prototype which automates the process of constructing and interpreting control charts.

  11. Improved experimental limit on the EDM of 225Ra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishof, Michael; Bailey, Kevin; Dietrich, Matthew R.; Greene, John P.; Holt, Roy J.; Kalita, Mukut R.; Korsch, Wolfgang; Lemke, Nathan D.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Tom P.; Parker, Richard H.; Rabga, Tenzin; Singh, Jaideep T.

    2015-10-01

    Searches for permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) in fundamental and composite particles are sensitive probes of beyond-standard-model symmetry violation that could explain the dominance of matter over anti-matter. The 225Ra (t1/2 = 15d, I = 1/2) atom is a particularly attractive system to use for an EDM measurement because its large nuclear octupole deformation, closely spaced ground-state parity doublet, and large atomic mass make 225Ra uniquely sensitive to symmetry-violating interactions in the nuclear medium. We have developed an experiment to measure the EDM of 225Ra and demonstrated the first ``proof-of-principle'' measurement, giving a 95% confidence upper limit of 5E-22 e-cm. After implementing a vacuum upgrade, we have observed nuclear spin coherence after 20 s of free evolution - a factor of ten improvement over our earlier results - and have lowered the 225Ra EDM limit by over an order of magnitude. Upcoming experimental upgrades have the potential to further improve our EDM sensitivity by many orders of magnitude, allowing us to test symmetry violation at an unprecedented level. This work is supported by U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  12. Modeling of the flow stress for AISI H13 Tool Steel during Hard Machining Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbrello, Domenico; Rizzuti, Stefania; Outeiro, José C.; Shivpuri, Rajiv

    2007-04-01

    In general, the flow stress models used in computer simulation of machining processes are a function of effective strain, effective strain rate and temperature developed during the cutting process. However, these models do not adequately describe the material behavior in hard machining, where a range of material hardness between 45 and 60 HRC are used. Thus, depending on the specific material hardness different material models must be used in modeling the cutting process. This paper describes the development of a hardness-based flow stress and fracture models for the AISI H13 tool steel, which can be applied for range of material hardness mentioned above. These models were implemented in a non-isothermal viscoplastic numerical model to simulate the machining process for AISI H13 with various hardness values and applying different cutting regime parameters. Predicted results are validated by comparing them with experimental results found in the literature. They are found to predict reasonably well the cutting forces as well as the change in chip morphology from continuous to segmented chip as the material hardness change.

  13. Optimization process planning using hybrid genetic algorithm and intelligent search for job shop machining

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Mojtaba

    2010-01-01

    Optimization of process planning is considered as the key technology for computer-aided process planning which is a rather complex and difficult procedure. A good process plan of a part is built up based on two elements: (1) the optimized sequence of the operations of the part; and (2) the optimized selection of the machine, cutting tool and Tool Access Direction (TAD) for each operation. In the present work, the process planning is divided into preliminary planning, and secondary/detailed planning. In the preliminary stage, based on the analysis of order and clustering constraints as a compulsive constraint aggregation in operation sequencing and using an intelligent searching strategy, the feasible sequences are generated. Then, in the detailed planning stage, using the genetic algorithm which prunes the initial feasible sequences, the optimized operation sequence and the optimized selection of the machine, cutting tool and TAD for each operation based on optimization constraints as an additive constraint aggregation are obtained. The main contribution of this work is the optimization of sequence of the operations of the part, and optimization of machine selection, cutting tool and TAD for each operation using the intelligent search and genetic algorithm simultaneously. PMID:21845020

  14. Methodological Issues in Predicting Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery Candidates Through Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel; Glass, Benjamin; Greiner, Hansel M.; Holland-Bouley, Katherine; Standridge, Shannon; Arya, Ravindra; Faist, Robert; Morita, Diego; Mangano, Francesco; Connolly, Brian; Glauser, Tracy; Pestian, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We describe the development and evaluation of a system that uses machine learning and natural language processing techniques to identify potential candidates for surgical intervention for drug-resistant pediatric epilepsy. The data are comprised of free-text clinical notes extracted from the electronic health record (EHR). Both known clinical outcomes from the EHR and manual chart annotations provide gold standards for the patient’s status. The following hypotheses are then tested: 1) machine learning methods can identify epilepsy surgery candidates as well as physicians do and 2) machine learning methods can identify candidates earlier than physicians do. These hypotheses are tested by systematically evaluating the effects of the data source, amount of training data, class balance, classification algorithm, and feature set on classifier performance. The results support both hypotheses, with F-measures ranging from 0.71 to 0.82. The feature set, classification algorithm, amount of training data, class balance, and gold standard all significantly affected classification performance. It was further observed that classification performance was better than the highest agreement between two annotators, even at one year before documented surgery referral. The results demonstrate that such machine learning methods can contribute to predicting pediatric epilepsy surgery candidates and reducing lag time to surgery referral. PMID:27257386

  15. 3D Machine Vision and Additive Manufacturing: Concurrent Product and Process Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyas, Ismet P.

    2013-06-01

    The manufacturing environment rapidly changes in turbulence fashion. Digital manufacturing (DM) plays a significant role and one of the key strategies in setting up vision and strategic planning toward the knowledge based manufacturing. An approach of combining 3D machine vision (3D-MV) and an Additive Manufacturing (AM) may finally be finding its niche in manufacturing. This paper briefly overviews the integration of the 3D machine vision and AM in concurrent product and process development, the challenges and opportunities, the implementation of the 3D-MV and AM at POLMAN Bandung in accelerating product design and process development, and discusses a direct deployment of this approach on a real case from our industrial partners that have placed this as one of the very important and strategic approach in research as well as product/prototype development. The strategic aspects and needs of this combination approach in research, design and development are main concerns of the presentation.

  16. Kinematic Analysis of Cpm Machine Supporting to Rehabilitation Process after Surgical Knee Arthroscopy and Arthroplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trochimczuk, R.; Kuźmierowski, T.

    2014-11-01

    Existing commercial solutions of the CPM (Continuous Passive Motion) machines are described in the paper. Based on the analysis of existing solutions we present our conceptual solution to support the process of rehabilitation of the knee joint which is necessary after arthroscopic surgery. For a given novel structure we analyze and present proprietary algorithms and the computer application to simulate the operation of our PCM device. In addition, we suggest directions for further research.

  17. Search for a permanent EDM with laser cooled radioactive atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2014-09-01

    To explore the mechanism for the generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe, the study on fundamental symmetry violation using the trapped radioactive atoms with laser cooling techniques is being promoted. An Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) of the elementary particle is a good prove to observe the phenomena beyond the Standard Model. A finite value of EDM means the violation of the time reversal symmetry, and the CP violation under the CPT invariance. In paramagnetic atoms, an electron EDM results in an atomic EDM enhanced by the factor of the 3rd power of the charge of the nucleus due the relativistic effects. A heaviest alkali element francium (Fr), which is the radioactive atom, has the largest enhancement factor K ~ 895 in atomic system. Then, we are developing a high intensity laser cooled Fr factory at Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University to search for the EDM of Fr with the accuracy of 10-29 e cm. To overcome the current accuracy limit of the EDM, it is necessary to realize the high intensity Fr source and to reduce the systematic error due to the motional magnetic field and inhomogeneous applied field. To reduce the dominant component of the systematic errors mentioned above, we will confine the Fr atoms in the small region with the Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT) and optical lattice using the laser cooling and trapping techniques. The construction of the experimental apparatus is making progress, and the new thermal ionizer already produces the Fr of ~ 10 6 ions/s with the primary beam intensity 200 nA. The extracted Fr ion beam is transported to the neutralizer, which is located 10 m downstream, and the produced neutral Fr atoms are introduced into the MOT to load the next trapping system such as the optical dipole force trap and optical lattice. The coherence time will be increased in the laser trapping system, and the present status of the experiment will be reported.

  18. Search for a permanent EDM using laser cooled radioactive atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakemi, Y.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Itoh, M.; Kawamura, H.; Liu, S.; Nataraj, H. S.; Oikawa, A.; Saito, M.; Sato, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Aoki, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Murakami, T.; Imai, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Wakasa, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Uchida, M.

    2011-07-01

    An Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) of the elementary particle is a good prove to observe the phenomena beyond the Standard Model. A non-zero EDM shows the violation of the time reversal symmetry, and under the CPT invariance it means the CP violation. In paramagnetic atoms, an electron EDM results in an atomic EDM enhanced by the factor of the 3rd power of the charge of the nucleus due the relativistic effects. A heaviest alkali element francium (Fr), which is the radioactive atom, has the largest enhancement factor K ~ 895. Then, we are developing a high intensity laser cooled Fr factory at Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University to perform the search for the EDM of Fr with the accuracy of 10-29 e · cm. The important points to overcome the current accuracy limit of the EDM are to realize the high intensity Fr source and to reduce the systematic error due to the motional magnetic field and inhomogeneous applied field. To reduce the dominant component of the systematic errors mentioned above, we will confine the Fr atoms in the small region with the Magneto-Optical Trap and optical lattice using the laser cooling and trapping techniques. The construction of the experimental apparatus is making progress, and the new thermal ionizer already produces the Fr of ~106 ions/s with the primary beam intensity 200 nA. The developments of the laser system and optical equipments are in progress, and the present status and future plan of the experimental project is reported.

  19. EMAT weld inspection and weld machine diagnostic system for continuous coil processing lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latham, Wayne M.; MacLauchlan, Daniel T.; Geier, Dan P.; Lang, Dennis D.

    1996-11-01

    Weld breaks of steel coil during cold rolling and continuous pickling operations are a significant source of lost productivity and product yield. Babcock and Wilcox Innerspec Technologies has developed a weld process control system which monitors the key variables of the welding process and determines the quality of the welds generated by flash butt welding equipment. This system is known as the Temate 2000 Automated Flash Butt Weld Inspection and Weld Machine Diagnostic System. The Temate 2000 system utilizes electro- magnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) technology as the basis for performing on-line, real-time, nondestructive weld quality evaluation. This technique accurately detects voids, laps, misalignment and over/under trim conditions in the weld. Results of the EMAT weld inspection are immediately presented to the weld machine operator for disposition. Welding process variables such as voltage, current, platen movements and upset pressures are monitored and collected with the high speed data acquisition system. This data is processed and presented in real-time display to indicate useful welding process information such as platen crabbing, upset force, peak upset current, and many others. Alarming for each variable is provided and allows detailed maintenance reports and summary information to be generated. All weld quality and process parameter data are stored, traceable to each unique weld, and available for post process evaluation. Installation of the Temate 2000 system in a major flat rolled steel mill has contributed to near elimination of weld breakage and increased productivity at this facility.

  20. Design and Analysis of a Sensor System for Cutting Force Measurement in Machining Processes

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Qiaokang; Zhang, Dan; Coppola, Gianmarc; Mao, Jianxu; Sun, Wei; Wang, Yaonan; Ge, Yunjian

    2016-01-01

    Multi-component force sensors have infiltrated a wide variety of automation products since the 1970s. However, one seldom finds full-component sensor systems available in the market for cutting force measurement in machine processes. In this paper, a new six-component sensor system with a compact monolithic elastic element (EE) is designed and developed to detect the tangential cutting forces Fx, Fy and Fz (i.e., forces along x-, y-, and z-axis) as well as the cutting moments Mx, My and Mz (i.e., moments about x-, y-, and z-axis) simultaneously. Optimal structural parameters of the EE are carefully designed via simulation-driven optimization. Moreover, a prototype sensor system is fabricated, which is applied to a 5-axis parallel kinematic machining center. Calibration experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of measuring cutting forces and moments with good linearity while minimizing coupling error. Both the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and calibration experimental studies validate the high performance of the proposed sensor system that is expected to be adopted into machining processes. PMID:26751451

  1. Design and Analysis of a Sensor System for Cutting Force Measurement in Machining Processes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qiaokang; Zhang, Dan; Coppola, Gianmarc; Mao, Jianxu; Sun, Wei; Wang, Yaonan; Ge, Yunjian

    2016-01-07

    Multi-component force sensors have infiltrated a wide variety of automation products since the 1970s. However, one seldom finds full-component sensor systems available in the market for cutting force measurement in machine processes. In this paper, a new six-component sensor system with a compact monolithic elastic element (EE) is designed and developed to detect the tangential cutting forces Fx, Fy and Fz (i.e., forces along x-, y-, and z-axis) as well as the cutting moments Mx, My and Mz (i.e., moments about x-, y-, and z-axis) simultaneously. Optimal structural parameters of the EE are carefully designed via simulation-driven optimization. Moreover, a prototype sensor system is fabricated, which is applied to a 5-axis parallel kinematic machining center. Calibration experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of measuring cutting forces and moments with good linearity while minimizing coupling error. Both the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and calibration experimental studies validate the high performance of the proposed sensor system that is expected to be adopted into machining processes.

  2. Design and Analysis of a Sensor System for Cutting Force Measurement in Machining Processes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qiaokang; Zhang, Dan; Coppola, Gianmarc; Mao, Jianxu; Sun, Wei; Wang, Yaonan; Ge, Yunjian

    2016-01-01

    Multi-component force sensors have infiltrated a wide variety of automation products since the 1970s. However, one seldom finds full-component sensor systems available in the market for cutting force measurement in machine processes. In this paper, a new six-component sensor system with a compact monolithic elastic element (EE) is designed and developed to detect the tangential cutting forces Fx, Fy and Fz (i.e., forces along x-, y-, and z-axis) as well as the cutting moments Mx, My and Mz (i.e., moments about x-, y-, and z-axis) simultaneously. Optimal structural parameters of the EE are carefully designed via simulation-driven optimization. Moreover, a prototype sensor system is fabricated, which is applied to a 5-axis parallel kinematic machining center. Calibration experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of measuring cutting forces and moments with good linearity while minimizing coupling error. Both the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and calibration experimental studies validate the high performance of the proposed sensor system that is expected to be adopted into machining processes. PMID:26751451

  3. Measurement of large aspherical mirrors using coordinate measurement machine during the grinding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Hongwei; Kuang, Long; Fan, Tianquan; Cao, Xuedong

    2006-02-01

    A new method has been developed to measure large aspherical mirrors accurately, quickly, and economically by using CMM (coordinate measurement machine). By using CMM to get the 3D coordinates of the actual points on the large aspherical mirrors and make bestfitting of actual surface and nominal surface, we can evaluate the surface of the large aspherical mirrors. It costs only 2 hours to measure an aspherical mirror with diameter larger than 1000mm. The results show good agreement with the results measured by Hartmann-Shack interferometer. Using this method, we can supervise the profile error to less than 5 μm PV during the grinding process. All the aspherical mirrors with dimensions within the range of the machine can be measured.

  4. Machine platform and software environment for rapid optics assembly process development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Sebastian; Müller, Tobias; Haag, Sebastian; Zontar, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The assembly of optical components for laser systems is proprietary knowledge and typically done by well-trained personnel in clean room environment as it has major impact on the overall laser performance. Rising numbers of laser systems drives laser production to industrial-level automation solutions allowing for high volumes by simultaneously ensuring stable quality, lots of variants and low cost. Therefore, an easy programmable, expandable and reconfigurable machine with intuitive and flexible software environment for process configuration is required. With Fraunhofer IPT's expertise on optical assembly processes, the next step towards industrializing the production of optical systems is made.

  5. Identifying children with autism spectrum disorder based on their face processing abnormality: A machine learning framework.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbo; Li, Ming; Yi, Li

    2016-08-01

    The atypical face scanning patterns in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been repeatedly discovered by previous research. The present study examined whether their face scanning patterns could be potentially useful to identify children with ASD by adopting the machine learning algorithm for the classification purpose. Particularly, we applied the machine learning method to analyze an eye movement dataset from a face recognition task [Yi et al., 2016], to classify children with and without ASD. We evaluated the performance of our model in terms of its accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of classifying ASD. Results indicated promising evidence for applying the machine learning algorithm based on the face scanning patterns to identify children with ASD, with a maximum classification accuracy of 88.51%. Nevertheless, our study is still preliminary with some constraints that may apply in the clinical practice. Future research should shed light on further valuation of our method and contribute to the development of a multitask and multimodel approach to aid the process of early detection and diagnosis of ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 888-898. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Identifying children with autism spectrum disorder based on their face processing abnormality: A machine learning framework.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbo; Li, Ming; Yi, Li

    2016-08-01

    The atypical face scanning patterns in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been repeatedly discovered by previous research. The present study examined whether their face scanning patterns could be potentially useful to identify children with ASD by adopting the machine learning algorithm for the classification purpose. Particularly, we applied the machine learning method to analyze an eye movement dataset from a face recognition task [Yi et al., 2016], to classify children with and without ASD. We evaluated the performance of our model in terms of its accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of classifying ASD. Results indicated promising evidence for applying the machine learning algorithm based on the face scanning patterns to identify children with ASD, with a maximum classification accuracy of 88.51%. Nevertheless, our study is still preliminary with some constraints that may apply in the clinical practice. Future research should shed light on further valuation of our method and contribute to the development of a multitask and multimodel approach to aid the process of early detection and diagnosis of ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 888-898. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27037971

  7. Electrochemical machining of super-hydrophobic Al surfaces and effect of processing parameters on wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jin-long; Xu, Wen-ji; Liu, Xin; Lu, Yao; Sun, Jing

    2012-09-01

    Super-hydrophobic aluminum (Al) surfaces were successfully fabricated via electrochemical machining in neutral NaClO3 electrolyte and subsequent fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) modification. The effects of the processing time, processing current density, and electrolyte concentration on the wettability, morphology, and roughness were studied. The surface morphology, chemical composition, and wettability of the Al surfaces were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), white-light interferometry, roughness measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and optical contact angle measurements. The results show that hierarchical rough structures and low surface energy films were present on the Al surfaces after electrochemical machining and FAS modification. The combination of the rough structures and the low surface energy materials plays a crucial role in achieving super-hydrophobicity. Compared with the anodic oxidation and chemical etching method, the method proposed in our work does not require strong acid or alkali, and causes less harm to the environment and operators but with high processing efficiency. The rough structures required by the super-hydrophobic surfaces were obtained at 30-s processing time and the best super-hydrophobicity with 164.6∘ water contact angle and 2∘ tilting angle was obtained at 360 s. The resulting super-hydrophobic Al surfaces have a long-time stability in air and an excellent resistance to corrosive liquids.

  8. Hybrid Processing: the Impact of Mechanical and Surface Thermal Treatment Integration onto the Machine Parts Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeeba, V. Yu; Ivancivsky, V. V.; Kutyshkin, A. V.; Parts, K. A.

    2016-04-01

    The comparative analysis of the two hybrid process technologies, which are based on the integration of mechanical treatment (abrasive grinding or turning) and a surface heat strengthening by high frequency current on the same processing equipment, is given in the paper. The acquired results demonstrate that the suggested integrating approach allows carrying out the processing on the one technological base, which leads to the increase in the quality of the machine parts surface layer. The conducted experimental research proves that a minor stock allowance value for the final mechanical processing (sparking out or diamond smoothing) ensures the absence of defects such as local abatement zones and provides strain hardening of the work piece surface. This leads to the formation of the work-hardened layer of 0.01 - 0.03 mm, increase in microhardness value by 12 - 17% and the level of residual compressive stress in the surface layer by 10 - 21 % respectively.

  9. Gaussian Process Regression as a machine learning tool for predicting organic carbon from soil spectra - a machine learning comparison study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Andreas; Lausch, Angela; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a soil analytical tool is spreading more and more. There is a wide range of possible applications ranging from the point scale (e.g. simple soil samples, drill cores, vertical profile scans) through the field scale to the regional and even global scale (UAV, airborne and space borne instruments, soil reflectance databases). The basic idea is that the soil's reflectance spectrum holds information about its properties (like organic matter content or mineral composition). The relation between soil properties and the observable spectrum is usually not exactly know and is typically derived from statistical methods. Nowadays these methods are classified in the term machine learning, which comprises a vast pool of algorithms and methods for learning the relationship between pairs if input - output data (training data set). Within this pool of methods a Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) is newly emerging method (originating from Bayesian statistics) which is increasingly applied to applications in different fields. For example, it was successfully used to predict vegetation parameters from hyperspectral remote sensing data. In this study we apply GPR to predict soil organic carbon from soil spectroscopy data (400 - 2500 nm). We compare it to more traditional and widely used methods such as Partitial Least Squares Regression (PLSR), Random Forest (RF) and Gradient Boosted Regression Trees (GBRT). All these methods have the common ability to calculate a measure for the variable importance (wavelengths importance). The main advantage of GPR is its ability to also predict the variance of the target parameter. This makes it easy to see whether a prediction is reliable or not. The ability to choose from various covariance functions makes GPR a flexible method. This allows for including different assumptions or a priori knowledge about the data. For this study we use samples from three different locations to test the prediction accuracies. One

  10. Process Development and Micro-Machining of MARBLE Foam-Cored Rexolite Hemi-Shell Ablator Capsules

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Randolph, Randall Blaine; Oertel, John A.; Schmidt, Derek William; Lee, Matthew Nicholson; Patterson, Brian M.; Henderson, Kevin C.; Hamilton, Christopher Eric

    2016-06-30

    For this study, machined CH hemi-shell ablator capsules have been successfully produced by the MST-7 Target Fabrication Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Process development and micro-machining techniques have been developed to produce capsules for both the Omega and National Ignition Facility (NIF) campaigns. These capsules are gas filled up to 10 atm and consist of a machined plastic hemi-shell outer layer that accommodates various specially engineered low-density polystyrene foam cores. Machining and assembly of the two-part, step-jointed plastic hemi-shell outer layer required development of new techniques, processes, and tooling while still meeting very aggressive shot schedules for both campaigns.more » Finally, problems encountered and process improvements will be discussed that describe this very unique, complex capsule design approach through the first Omega proof-of-concept version to the larger NIF version.« less

  11. Cooperative optimization of reconfigurable machine tool configurations and production process plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Nan; Li, Aiping; Xue, Wei

    2012-09-01

    The production process plan design and configurations of reconfigurable machine tool (RMT) interact with each other. Reasonable process plans with suitable configurations of RMT help to improve product quality and reduce production cost. Therefore, a cooperative strategy is needed to concurrently solve the above issue. In this paper, the cooperative optimization model for RMT configurations and production process plan is presented. Its objectives take into account both impacts of process and configuration. Moreover, a novel genetic algorithm is also developed to provide optimal or near-optimal solutions: firstly, its chromosome is redesigned which is composed of three parts, operations, process plan and configurations of RMTs, respectively; secondly, its new selection, crossover and mutation operators are also developed to deal with the process constraints from operation processes (OP) graph, otherwise these operators could generate illegal solutions violating the limits; eventually the optimal configurations for RMT under optimal process plan design can be obtained. At last, a manufacturing line case is applied which is composed of three RMTs. It is shown from the case that the optimal process plan and configurations of RMT are concurrently obtained, and the production cost decreases 6.28% and nonmonetary performance increases 22%. The proposed method can figure out both RMT configurations and production process, improve production capacity, functions and equipment utilization for RMT.

  12. Research on ultrasonic vibration aided femtosecond laser machining process of transparent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yutang; Liu, Bin; Yin, Guanglin; Li, Tao; Karanja, Joseph M.

    2015-08-01

    A new process of femtosecond laser micromachining with ultrasonic vibration aided is proposed. An ultrasonic aided device has been designed, and the laser micromachining experiments of transparent materials have been carried out. The effects of the ultrasonic vibration with different power on surface quality and the drilling depth have been investigated, and the mechanism of the ultrasonic vibration aided laser machining has been analyzed. After introducing the ultrasonic vibration device, the residue debris on surface of the ablated trench is significantly reduced, and the drilling depth is increased. These results show that, ultrasonic vibration can effectively improve the surface quality of material processing, increase the depth of the drilling hole and promote the processing efficiency of the femtosecond laser.

  13. Prediction and analysis of radial overcut in holes drilled by electrochemical machining process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajdari, Mehdi; Chavoshi, Saeed

    2013-09-01

    Radial overcut predictive models using multiple regression analysis, artificial neural network and co-active neurofuzzy inference system are developed to predict the radial overcut during electrochemical drilling with vacuum extraction of electrolyte. Four process parameters, electrolyte concentration, voltage, initial machining gap and tool feed rate, are selected to develop the models. The comparison between the results of the presented models shows that the artificial neural network and co-active neuro-fuzzy inference system models can predict the radial overcut with an average relative error of nearly 5%. Main effect and interaction plots are generated to study the effects of process parameters on the radial overcut. The analysis shows that the voltage, electrolyte concentration and tool feed rate have significant effect on radial overcut, respectively, while initial machining gap has a little effect. It is also found that the increase of the voltage and electrolyte concentration increases the radial overcut and the increase of the tool feed rate decreases the radial overcut.

  14. Application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and cuckoo optimization algorithm for analyzing electro chemical machining process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teimouri, Reza; Sohrabpoor, Hamed

    2013-12-01

    Electrochemical machining process (ECM) is increasing its importance due to some of the specific advantages which can be exploited during machining operation. The process offers several special privileges such as higher machining rate, better accuracy and control, and wider range of materials that can be machined. Contribution of too many predominate parameters in the process, makes its prediction and selection of optimal values really complex, especially while the process is programmized for machining of hard materials. In the present work in order to investigate effects of electrolyte concentration, electrolyte flow rate, applied voltage and feed rate on material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR) the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) have been used for creation predictive models based on experimental observations. Then the ANFIS 3D surfaces have been plotted for analyzing effects of process parameters on MRR and SR. Finally, the cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA) was used for selection solutions in which the process reaches maximum material removal rate and minimum surface roughness simultaneously. Results indicated that the ANFIS technique has superiority in modeling of MRR and SR with high prediction accuracy. Also, results obtained while applying of COA have been compared with those derived from confirmatory experiments which validate the applicability and suitability of the proposed techniques in enhancing the performance of ECM process.

  15. Computer-based diagnostic monitoring to enhance the human-machine interface of complex processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.

    1992-02-01

    There is a growing interest in introducing an automated, on-line, diagnostic monitoring function into the human-machine interfaces (HMIs) or control rooms of complex process plants. The design of such a system should be properly integrated with other HMI systems in the control room, such as the alarms system or the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS). This paper provides a conceptual foundation for the development of a Plant-wide Diagnostic Monitoring System (PDMS), along with functional requirements for the system and other advanced HMI systems. Insights are presented into the design of an efficient and robust PDMS, which were gained from a critical review of various methodologies developed in the nuclear power industry, the chemical process industry, and the space technological community.

  16. Reverse time migration: A seismic processing application on the connection machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiebrich, Rolf-Dieter

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of a reverse time migration algorithm on the Connection Machine, a massively parallel computer is described. Essential architectural features of this machine as well as programming concepts are presented. The data structures and parallel operations for the implementation of the reverse time migration algorithm are described. The algorithm matches the Connection Machine architecture closely and executes almost at the peak performance of this machine.

  17. Micro-electrical discharge machining of 3D micro-molds from Pd40Cu30P20Ni10 metallic glass by using laminated 3D micro-electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Wu, Xiao-yu; Ma, Jiang; Liang, Xiong; Lei, Jian-guo; Wu, Bo; Ruan, Shuang-chen; Wang, Zhen-long

    2016-03-01

    For obtaining 3D micro-molds with better surface quality (slight ridges) and mechanical properties, in this paper 3D micro-electrodes were fabricated and applied to micro-electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) to process Pd40Cu30P20Ni10 metallic glass. First, 100 μm-thick Cu foil was cut to obtain multilayer 2D micro-structures and these were connected to fit 3D micro-electrodes (with feature sizes of less than 1 mm). Second, under the voltage of 80 V, pulse frequency of 0.2MHZ, pulse width of 800 ns and pulse interval of 4200 ns, the 3D micro-electrodes were applied to micro-EDM for processing Pd40Cu30P20Ni10 metallic glass. The 3D micro-molds with feature within 1 mm were obtained. Third, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis were carried out on the processed results. The analysis results indicate that with an increase in the depth of micro-EDM, carbon on the processed surface gradually increased from 0.5% to 5.8%, and the processed surface contained new phases (Ni12P5 and Cu3P).

  18. A batch-mode micromachining process for spherical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Visvanathan, Karthik; Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports a self-aligned three-dimensional process (3D-SOULE) that incorporates batch-mode micro ultrasonic machining (µUSM), lapping and micro electro-discharge machiningEDM) for fabrication of concave and mushroom-shaped spherical structures from hard and brittle materials. To demonstrate the process, 1 mm structures are fabricated from glass and ruby spheres. The µEDM technique is used to create the tool for μUSM from stainless steel spheres. Stainless steel 440, which provides a tool wear ratio <5%, is chosen as the tool material. A 2 × 2 array is used for batch processing. For an ultrasound generator frequency of 20 kHz and a vibration amplitude of 15 µm, machining rates of 24 and 12 µm min-1 are obtained for glass and ruby spheres, respectively. An approximate linear relationship is observed between the measured roughness (Ra) of the machined surface and the product of the fracture toughness (KIC) and the hardness (H) of the workpiece material (KIC3/2H1/2).

  19. Image-Based Single Cell Profiling: High-Throughput Processing of Mother Machine Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Christian Carsten; Grünberger, Alexander; Helfrich, Stefan; Probst, Christopher; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Nöh, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Background Microfluidic lab-on-chip technology combined with live-cell imaging has enabled the observation of single cells in their spatio-temporal context. The mother machine (MM) cultivation system is particularly attractive for the long-term investigation of rod-shaped bacteria since it facilitates continuous cultivation and observation of individual cells over many generations in a highly parallelized manner. To date, the lack of fully automated image analysis software limits the practical applicability of the MM as a phenotypic screening tool. Results We present an image analysis pipeline for the automated processing of MM time lapse image stacks. The pipeline supports all analysis steps, i.e., image registration, orientation correction, channel/cell detection, cell tracking, and result visualization. Tailored algorithms account for the specialized MM layout to enable a robust automated analysis. Image data generated in a two-day growth study (≈ 90 GB) is analyzed in ≈ 30 min with negligible differences in growth rate between automated and manual evaluation quality. The proposed methods are implemented in the software molyso (MOther machine AnaLYsis SOftware) that provides a new profiling tool to analyze unbiasedly hitherto inaccessible large-scale MM image stacks. Conclusion Presented is the software molyso, a ready-to-use open source software (BSD-licensed) for the unsupervised analysis of MM time-lapse image stacks. molyso source code and user manual are available at https://github.com/modsim/molyso. PMID:27661996

  20. Quantification of geologic lineaments by manual and machine processing techniques. [in Oklahoma and the Colorado Plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podwysocki, M. H.; Moik, J. G.; Shoup, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of operator variability and subjectivity in lineament mapping and to examine methods to minimize or eliminate these problems by use of several machine preprocessing methods. LANDSAT scenes from the Anadarko Basin of Oklahoma and the Colorado Plateau were analyzed as test cases. Four geologists mapped lineaments on an Anadarko Basin scene, using transparencies of MSS bands 4-7, and their results are compared statistically. The total number of fractures mapped by the operators and their average lengths varied considerably, although comparison of lineament directions revealed some consensus. A summary map (785 linears) produced by overlaying the maps generated by the four operators showed that only 0.4% were recognized by all four operators, 4.7% by three, 17.8% by two and 77% by one operator. Two methods of machine aided mapping were tested, both simulating directional filters. One consists of computer (digital) processing of CCTs using edge enhancement algorithms, the other employs a television (analog) scanning of an image transparency which superimposes the original image and one offset in the direction of the scan line.

  1. Simulation of abrasive flow machining process for 2D and 3D mixture models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Rupalika; Maity, Kalipada

    2015-12-01

    Improvement of surface finish and material removal has been quite a challenge in a finishing operation such as abrasive flow machining (AFM). Factors that affect the surface finish and material removal are media viscosity, extrusion pressure, piston velocity, and particle size in abrasive flow machining process. Performing experiments for all the parameters and accurately obtaining an optimized parameter in a short time are difficult to accomplish because the operation requires a precise finish. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed to accurately determine optimum parameters. In the current work, a 2D model was designed, and the flow analysis, force calculation, and material removal prediction were performed and compared with the available experimental data. Another 3D model for a swaging die finishing using AFM was simulated at different viscosities of the media to study the effects on the controlling parameters. A CFD simulation was performed by using commercially available ANSYS FLUENT. Two phases were considered for the flow analysis, and multiphase mixture model was taken into account. The fluid was considered to be a

  2. Numerical Modelling of Wire-EDM for Predicting Erosion Rate of Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Kamlesh; Sharma, Gaurav; Dongre, Ganesh; Joshi, Suhas Sitaram

    2016-05-01

    Recently, a lot of work is carried out in photovoltaic industry for slicing Si ingots using non-conventional technique like wire-EDM apart from conventional techniques like inner diameter saw and multi-wire saw. It is an emerging technology in field of Si wafer slicing and has a potential to be cost efficient. It reduces the kerf-loss and produces crack-free Si wafers. In general, the process of Si wafer cutting using wire-EDM is less understood due to its complex nature. In this work, the complex phenomena like formation of plasma channel, melting and erosion of Si material has been modelled mathematically. Further, the effect of input energy parameters like current, open voltage and pulse on-time on plasma and plasma-ingot interface temperature has been studied. The model is further extended along the length of the wire to evaluate the erosion depth and rate. The effect of process parameters on erosion depth and rate was validated experimentally. The model considers variation in material removal through the `plasma flushing efficiency'.

  3. Process Modeling In Cold Forging Considering The Process-Tool-Machine Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroiss, Thomas; Engel, Ulf; Merklein, Marion

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, a methodic approach is presented for the determination and modeling of the axial deflection characteristic for the whole system of stroke-controlled press and tooling system. This is realized by a combination of experiment and FE simulation. The press characteristic is uniquely measured in experiment. The tooling system characteristic is determined in FE simulation to avoid experimental investigations on various tooling systems. The stiffnesses of press and tooling system are combined to a substitute stiffness that is integrated into the FE process simulation as a spring element. Non-linear initial effects of the press are modeled with a constant shift factor. The approach was applied to a full forward extrusion process on a press with C-frame. A comparison between experiments and results of the integrated FE simulation model showed a high accuracy of the FE model. The simulation model with integrated deflection characteristic represents the entire process behavior and can be used for the calculation of a mathematical process model based on variant simulations and response surfaces. In a subsequent optimization step, an adjusted process and tool design can be determined, that compensates the influence of the deflections on the workpiece dimensions leading to high workpiece accuracy. Using knowledge on the process behavior, the required number of variant simulations was reduced.

  4. Exploring the CP-violating NMSSM: EDM constraints and phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, S. F.; Mühlleitner, M.; Nevzorov, R.; Walz, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (NMSSM) features extra new sources for CP violation. In contrast to the MSSM CP violation can already occur at tree level in the Higgs sector. We investigate the range of possible allowed CP-violating phases by taking into account the constraints arising from the measurements of the Electric Dipole Moments (EDMs) and the latest LHC Higgs data. Our analysis shows that large CP-violating phases, that are NMSSM-specific, are not in conflict with the EDMs. They are dominantly constrained by the Higgs data in this case. We use our results to investigate the prospects of measuring CP violation through the combined measurement of Higgs rates, on the one hand, and in observables based on CP-violating Higgs couplings to tau leptons on the other hand.

  5. Optical dipole trapping of radium atoms for EDM search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, W. L.; Sulai, I. A.; Parker, R. H.; Bailey, K.; Greene, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Korsch, W.; Lu, Z.-T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Singh, J.

    2010-03-01

    We are developing an EDM search based on laser-cooled and trapped Ra-225 (half-life = 15 d) atoms. Due to octupole deformation of the nucleus, Ra-225 is predicted to be 2-3 orders of magnitude more sensitive to T-violating interactions than Hg-199, which currently sets the most stringent limits in the nuclear sector. Recently, we have succeeded in transferring Ra-226 atoms from a MOT into an optical dipole trap formed by a fiber laser beam at 1550 nm. For the EDM measurement, the cold atoms will be moved into the neighboring vacuum chamber inside magnetic shields where a pair of electrodes apply a 10 kV cm-1electric field. This work is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  6. Restricted Boltzmann machine: a non-linear substitute for PCA in spectral processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Yude; Zhao, Gang; Luo, A.-li; Pan, Jingchang; Chen, Yuqin

    2015-04-01

    Context. Principal component analysis (PCA) is widely used to repair incomplete spectra, to perform spectral denoising, and to reduce dimensionality. Presently, no method has been found to be comparable to PCA on these three problems. New methods have been proposed, but are often specific to one problem. For example, locally linear embedding outperforms PCA in dimensionality reduction. However, it cannot be used in spectral denoising and spectral reparing. Wavelet transform can be used to denoise spectra; however, it cannot be used in dimensionality reduction. Aims: We provide a new method that can substitute PCA in incomplete spectra repairing, spectral denoising and spectral dimensionality reduction. Methods: A new method, restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM), is introduced in spectral processing. RBM is a particular type of Markov random field with two-layer architecture, and use Gibbs sampling method to train the algorithm. It can be used in spectral denoising, dimensionality reduction and spectral repairing. Results: The performance of RBM is comparable to PCA in spectral processing. It can repair the incomplete spectra better: the difference between the RBM repaired spectra and the original spectra is smaller than that between the PCA repaired spectra and the original spectra. The denoised spectra given by RBM is similar to those given by PCA. In dimensionality reduction, RBM performs better than PCA: the classification results of RBM+ELM (i.e. the extreme learning machine) is higher than those of PCA+ELM. This shows that RBM can extract the spectral features more efficiently than PCA. Thus, RBM is a good alternative method for PCA in spectral processing. The source code of RBM algorithm is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/576/A96

  7. The status of the Storage Ring EDM experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Semertzidis, Yannis K.

    2009-12-17

    The status of the storage ring experiment capable of probing the proton and deuteron EDM at the 10{sup -29} e.cm level is presented here. At this level it will be sensitive to a new physics mass scale of {approx}300 TeV. If there is new physics at the LHC, it will be sensitive to 10{mu}rad CP-violating phase level making it the most sensitive experiment for CP-violation beyond the SM.

  8. Machine vision process monitoring on a poultry processing kill line: results from an implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, Colin; Britton, Dougl; Daley, Wayne; Stewart, John

    2005-11-01

    Researchers at the Georgia Tech Research Institute designed a vision inspection system for poultry kill line sorting with the potential for process control at various points throughout a processing facility. This system has been successfully operating in a plant for over two and a half years and has been shown to provide multiple benefits. With the introduction of HACCP-Based Inspection Models (HIMP), the opportunity for automated inspection systems to emerge as viable alternatives to human screening is promising. As more plants move to HIMP, these systems have the great potential for augmenting a processing facilities visual inspection process. This will help to maintain a more consistent and potentially higher throughput while helping the plant remain within the HIMP performance standards. In recent years, several vision systems have been designed to analyze the exterior of a chicken and are capable of identifying Food Safety 1 (FS1) type defects under HIMP regulatory specifications. This means that a reliable vision system can be used in a processing facility as a carcass sorter to automatically detect and divert product that is not suitable for further processing. This improves the evisceration line efficiency by creating a smaller set of features that human screeners are required to identify. This can reduce the required number of screeners or allow for faster processing line speeds. In addition to identifying FS1 category defects, the Georgia Tech vision system can also identify multiple "Other Consumer Protection" (OCP) category defects such as skin tears, bruises, broken wings, and cadavers. Monitoring this data in an almost real-time system allows the processing facility to address anomalies as soon as they occur. The Georgia Tech vision system can record minute-by-minute averages of the following defects: Septicemia Toxemia, cadaver, over-scald, bruises, skin tears, and broken wings. In addition to these defects, the system also records the length and

  9. A Voltage Multiplier for the nEDM Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouman, Nathaniel; Stanislaus, Shirantha; Valpo nEDM Team

    2015-10-01

    The nEDM experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory aims to search for the electric dipole moment of the neutron (nEDM) at the 10-28 level. The experiment is currently at the research and development phase. One of the variables proportional to the sensitivity of the measurement is the strength of the electric field in the measurement cell where the effect of an nEDM is to be generated. The design of the experiment calls for an electric field of 75 kV/cm in this cell. A unique voltage multiplier involving a variable capacitor has been proposed to achieve this large required electric field. Electrostatic calculations using two independent software packages, COMSOL and Field Precision, were carried out to study the feasibility of the proposed voltage multiplier. A prototype of the electrodes and the voltage multiplier whose size was 25% of full size was also built to verify the predictions of the electrostatic calculations. Results of the tests with the prototype and the electrostatic calculations, will be presented.

  10. An Approach to Realizing Process Control for Underground Mining Operations of Mobile Machines.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhen; Schunnesson, Håkan; Rinne, Mikael; Sturgul, John

    2015-01-01

    The excavation and production in underground mines are complicated processes which consist of many different operations. The process of underground mining is considerably constrained by the geometry and geology of the mine. The various mining operations are normally performed in series at each working face. The delay of a single operation will lead to a domino effect, thus delay the starting time for the next process and the completion time of the entire process. This paper presents a new approach to the process control for underground mining operations, e.g. drilling, bolting, mucking. This approach can estimate the working time and its probability for each operation more efficiently and objectively by improving the existing PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) and CPM (Critical Path Method). If the delay of the critical operation (which is on a critical path) inevitably affects the productivity of mined ore, the approach can rapidly assign mucking machines new jobs to increase this amount at a maximum level by using a new mucking algorithm under external constraints.

  11. Dynamic Process Analysis In Cutting Zone During Machining Of Nickel Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czán, Andrej; Šajgalík, Michal; Martikáň, Anton; Mrázik, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    To generally improve effectivity of parts production and metal cutting process, there are used process models of super alloys together with finite element modeling simulations. Advanced measurement methods of the process could improve and verify the accuracy of these models. These methods cause many error sources when using empiric or exact methods such as infrared radiation thermography to measure the temperature distribution of the tool, workpiece, and chip during metal cutting. Measuring of metal machining is challenging due to factors such as the high magnification required, high surface speeds and deformations, micro-blackbody effects, changing emissivity and deformations present at metal cutting. As part of an ongoing effort to improve our understanding of uncertainties associated with these measurement methods, multimeasurement sets of experiments were performed. First set of measurements observed connection between surface temperature and the internal temperature of the cutting tool. This was accomplished by measuring the temperature using a thermal camera in cutting zone. Second set performed high-speed scan of dynamic processes such as formation of elastic and plastic deformation. During this operation was applied high-speed scannning system using macro conversion lens for monitoring of micro-structural changes in deformation areas. Next necessary applied set is recording of dynamic processes by implementation of piezoelectric measurement device for monitoring of cutting forces. The outputs from multimeasuring system are the basis for verification of theoretical knowledge from this field and elimination of uncertainties, which arise by using computer simulation systems.

  12. An Approach to Realizing Process Control for Underground Mining Operations of Mobile Machines

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhen; Schunnesson, Håkan; Rinne, Mikael; Sturgul, John

    2015-01-01

    The excavation and production in underground mines are complicated processes which consist of many different operations. The process of underground mining is considerably constrained by the geometry and geology of the mine. The various mining operations are normally performed in series at each working face. The delay of a single operation will lead to a domino effect, thus delay the starting time for the next process and the completion time of the entire process. This paper presents a new approach to the process control for underground mining operations, e.g. drilling, bolting, mucking. This approach can estimate the working time and its probability for each operation more efficiently and objectively by improving the existing PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) and CPM (Critical Path Method). If the delay of the critical operation (which is on a critical path) inevitably affects the productivity of mined ore, the approach can rapidly assign mucking machines new jobs to increase this amount at a maximum level by using a new mucking algorithm under external constraints. PMID:26062092

  13. An Approach to Realizing Process Control for Underground Mining Operations of Mobile Machines.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhen; Schunnesson, Håkan; Rinne, Mikael; Sturgul, John

    2015-01-01

    The excavation and production in underground mines are complicated processes which consist of many different operations. The process of underground mining is considerably constrained by the geometry and geology of the mine. The various mining operations are normally performed in series at each working face. The delay of a single operation will lead to a domino effect, thus delay the starting time for the next process and the completion time of the entire process. This paper presents a new approach to the process control for underground mining operations, e.g. drilling, bolting, mucking. This approach can estimate the working time and its probability for each operation more efficiently and objectively by improving the existing PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) and CPM (Critical Path Method). If the delay of the critical operation (which is on a critical path) inevitably affects the productivity of mined ore, the approach can rapidly assign mucking machines new jobs to increase this amount at a maximum level by using a new mucking algorithm under external constraints. PMID:26062092

  14. Evaluation of surface water resources from machine-processing of ERTS multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mausel, P. W.; Todd, W. J.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Mitchell, R. A.; Cook, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    The surface water resources of a large metropolitan area, Marion County (Indianapolis), Indiana, are studied in order to assess the potential value of ERTS spectral analysis to water resources problems. The results of the research indicate that all surface water bodies over 0.5 ha were identified accurately from ERTS multispectral analysis. Five distinct classes of water were identified and correlated with parameters which included: degree of water siltiness; depth of water; presence of macro and micro biotic forms in the water; and presence of various chemical concentrations in the water. The machine processing of ERTS spectral data used alone or in conjunction with conventional sources of hydrological information can lead to the monitoring of area of surface water bodies; estimated volume of selected surface water bodies; differences in degree of silt and clay suspended in water and degree of water eutrophication related to chemical concentrations.

  15. The Law of Self-Acting Machines and Irreversible Processes with Reversible Replicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valev, Pentcho

    2002-11-01

    Clausius and Kelvin saved Carnot theorem and developed the second law by assuming that Carnot machines can work in the absence of an operator and that all the irreversible processes have reversible replicas. The former assumption restored Carnot theorem as an experience of mankind whereas the latter generated "the law of ever increasing entropy". Both assumptions are wrong so it makes sense to return to Carnot theorem (or some equivalent) and test it experimentally. Two testable paradigms - the system performing two types of reversible work and the system in dynamical equilibrium - suggest that perpetuum mobile of the second kind in the presence of an operator is possible. The deviation from the second law prediction, expressed as difference between partial derivatives in a Maxwell relation, measures the degree of structural-functional evolution for the respective system.

  16. Hybrid metaheuristics for solving a fuzzy single batch-processing machine scheduling problem.

    PubMed

    Molla-Alizadeh-Zavardehi, S; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R; Lotfi, F Hosseinzadeh

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with a problem of minimizing total weighted tardiness of jobs in a real-world single batch-processing machine (SBPM) scheduling in the presence of fuzzy due date. In this paper, first a fuzzy mixed integer linear programming model is developed. Then, due to the complexity of the problem, which is NP-hard, we design two hybrid metaheuristics called GA-VNS and VNS-SA applying the advantages of genetic algorithm (GA), variable neighborhood search (VNS), and simulated annealing (SA) frameworks. Besides, we propose three fuzzy earliest due date heuristics to solve the given problem. Through computational experiments with several random test problems, a robust calibration is applied on the parameters. Finally, computational results on different-scale test problems are presented to compare the proposed algorithms.

  17. Focused particle beam nano-machining: the next evolution step towards simulation aided process prediction.

    PubMed

    Plank, Harald

    2015-02-01

    During the last decade, focused ion beam processing has been developed from traditionally used Ga(+) liquid ion sources towards higher resolution gas field ion sources (He(+) and Ne(+)). Process simulations not only improve the fundamental understanding of the relevant ion-matter interactions, but also enable a certain predictive power to accelerate advances. The historic 'gold' standard in ion-solid simulations is the SRIM/TRIM Monte Carlo package released by Ziegler, Ziegler and Biersack 2010 Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 268 1818-23. While SRIM/TRIM is very useful for a myriad of applications, it is not applicable for the understanding of the nanoscale evolution associated with ion beam nano-machining as the substrate does not evolve with the sputtering process. As a solution for this problem, a new, adapted simulation code is briefly overviewed and finally addresses these contributions. By that, experimentally observed Ne(+) beam sputter profiles can be explained from a fundamental point of view. Due to their very good agreement, these simulations contain the potential for computer aided optimization towards predictable sputter processes for different nanotechnology applications. With these benefits in mind, the discussed simulation approach represents an enormous step towards a computer based master tool for adaptable ion beam applications in the context of industrial applications.

  18. Machine processing of S-192 and supporting aircraft data: Studies of atmospheric effects, agricultural classifications, and land resource mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F.

    1975-01-01

    Two tasks of machine processing of S-192 multispectral scanner data are reviewed. In the first task, the effects of changing atmospheric and base altitude on the ability to machine-classify agricultural crops were investigated. A classifier and atmospheric effects simulation model was devised and its accuracy verified by comparison of its predicted results with S-192 processed results. In the second task, land resource maps of a mountainous area near Cripple Creek, Colorado were prepared from S-192 data collected on 4 August 1973.

  19. Hybrid wavelet-support vector machine approach for modelling rainfall-runoff process.

    PubMed

    Komasi, Mehdi; Sharghi, Soroush

    2016-01-01

    Because of the importance of water resources management, the need for accurate modeling of the rainfall-runoff process has rapidly grown in the past decades. Recently, the support vector machine (SVM) approach has been used by hydrologists for rainfall-runoff modeling and the other fields of hydrology. Similar to the other artificial intelligence models, such as artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neural fuzzy inference system, the SVM model is based on the autoregressive properties. In this paper, the wavelet analysis was linked to the SVM model concept for modeling the rainfall-runoff process of Aghchai and Eel River watersheds. In this way, the main time series of two variables, rainfall and runoff, were decomposed to multiple frequent time series by wavelet theory; then, these time series were imposed as input data on the SVM model in order to predict the runoff discharge one day ahead. The obtained results show that the wavelet SVM model can predict both short- and long-term runoff discharges by considering the seasonality effects. Also, the proposed hybrid model is relatively more appropriate than classical autoregressive ones such as ANN and SVM because it uses the multi-scale time series of rainfall and runoff data in the modeling process. PMID:27120649

  20. One-step process for superhydrophobic metallic surfaces by wire electrical discharge machining.

    PubMed

    Bae, Won Gyu; Song, Ki Young; Rahmawan, Yudi; Chu, Chong Nam; Kim, Dookon; Chung, Do Kwan; Suh, Kahp Y

    2012-07-25

    We present a direct one-step method to fabricate dual-scale superhydrophobic metallic surfaces using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). A dual-scale structure was spontaneously formed by the nature of exfoliation characteristic of Al 7075 alloy surface during WEDM process. A primary microscale sinusoidal pattern was formed via a programmed WEDM process, with the wavelength in the range of 200 to 500 μm. Notably, a secondary roughness in the form of microcraters (average roughness, Ra: 4.16 to 0.41 μm) was generated during the exfoliation process without additional chemical treatment. The low surface energy of Al 7075 alloy (γ = 30.65 mJ/m(2)) together with the presence of dual-scale structures appears to contribute to the observed superhydrophobicity with a static contact angle of 156° and a hysteresis less than 3°. To explain the wetting characteristics on dual-scale structures, we used a simple theoretical model. It was found that Cassie state is likely to present on the secondary roughness in all fabricated surfaces. On the other hand, either Wenzel or Cassie state can present on the primary roughness depending on the characteristic length of sinusoidal pattern. In an optimal condition of the serial cutting steps with applied powers of ∼30 and ∼8 kW, respectively, a stable, superhydrophobic metallic surface was created with a sinusoidal pattern of 500 μm wavelength.

  1. Hybrid wavelet-support vector machine approach for modelling rainfall-runoff process.

    PubMed

    Komasi, Mehdi; Sharghi, Soroush

    2016-01-01

    Because of the importance of water resources management, the need for accurate modeling of the rainfall-runoff process has rapidly grown in the past decades. Recently, the support vector machine (SVM) approach has been used by hydrologists for rainfall-runoff modeling and the other fields of hydrology. Similar to the other artificial intelligence models, such as artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neural fuzzy inference system, the SVM model is based on the autoregressive properties. In this paper, the wavelet analysis was linked to the SVM model concept for modeling the rainfall-runoff process of Aghchai and Eel River watersheds. In this way, the main time series of two variables, rainfall and runoff, were decomposed to multiple frequent time series by wavelet theory; then, these time series were imposed as input data on the SVM model in order to predict the runoff discharge one day ahead. The obtained results show that the wavelet SVM model can predict both short- and long-term runoff discharges by considering the seasonality effects. Also, the proposed hybrid model is relatively more appropriate than classical autoregressive ones such as ANN and SVM because it uses the multi-scale time series of rainfall and runoff data in the modeling process.

  2. Sentence-processing in echo state networks: a qualitative analysis by finite state machine extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Stefan L.; Jacobsson, Henrik

    2010-06-01

    It has been shown that the ability of echo state networks (ESNs) to generalise in a sentence-processing task can be increased by adjusting their input connection weights to the training data. We present a qualitative analysis of the effect of such weight adjustment on an ESN that is trained to perform the next-word prediction task. Our analysis makes use of CrySSMEx, an algorithm for extracting finite state machines (FSMs) from the data about the inputs, internal states, and outputs of recurrent neural networks that process symbol sequences. We find that the ESN with adjusted input weights yields a concise and comprehensible FSM. In contrast, the standard ESN, which shows poor generalisation, results in a massive and complex FSM. The extracted FSMs show how the two networks differ behaviourally. Moreover, poor generalisation is shown to correspond to a highly fragmented quantisation of the network's state space. Such findings indicate that CrySSMEx can be a useful tool for analysing ESN sentence processing.

  3. Intensification of the Students' Self-Development Process When Performing Design and Settlement Works on the "Machine Parts" Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timerbaev, Rais Mingalievich; Muhutdinov, Rafis Habreevich; Danilov, Valeriy Fedorovich

    2015-01-01

    The article addresses issues related to the methodology of intensifying self-development process when performing design and settlement works on the "Machine Parts" course for the students studying in such areas of training as "Technology" and "Vocational Education" with the use of computer technologies. At the same…

  4. EDM 1.0: electron direct methods.

    PubMed

    Kilaas, R; Marks, L D; Own, C S

    2005-02-01

    A computer program designed to provide a number of quantitative analysis tools for high-resolution imaging and electron diffraction data is described. The program includes basic image manipulation, both real space and reciprocal space image processing, Wiener-filtering, symmetry averaging, methods for quantification of electron diffraction patterns and two-dimensional direct methods. The program consists of a number of sub-programs written in a combination of C++, C and Fortran. It can be downloaded either as GNU source code or as binaries and has been compiled and verified on a wide range of platforms, both Unix based and PC's. Elements of the design philosophy as well as future possible extensions are described.

  5. Rapid biocompatible micro device fabrication by micro electro-discharge machining.

    PubMed

    Murali, M; Yeo, S H

    2004-03-01

    Fabrication of a biocompatible micro device is predominantly done by silicon micromachining techniques. The lithographic and etching techniques require preparation and the use of masks which are time consuming and costly. Since bio research involves highly complex mechanisms, the modeling and simulation is difficult and experimental study is inevitable. To incorporate frequent design changes and to realize the hardware quickly, fabrication processes, complementary to the silicon micromachining techniques are required. In the present work the feasibility of using micro electro-discharge machining (EDM) for the fabrication of biocompatible microdevice has been studied. Micro channels with feature size as small as 25 microm are realized. The process is further improved by the introduction of ultrasonic vibration of the workpiece and the total time taken for the hardware realization is about 4 hours. The effects of ultrasonic vibration on the roughness of the spark eroded surface has been studied and reported. The potential of using micro EDM for making biocompatible devices for bio experiments is demonstrated and the surface finish achieved is well within the recommended Rz and Ra values of 3.4 and 0.4 microm respectively for biological studies like implant abutment.

  6. Seismic interpretation using Support Vector Machines implemented on Graphics Processing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzma, H A; Rector, J W; Bremer, D

    2006-06-22

    Support Vector Machines (SVMs) estimate lithologic properties of rock formations from seismic data by interpolating between known models using synthetically generated model/data pairs. SVMs are related to kriging and radial basis function neural networks. In our study, we train an SVM to approximate an inverse to the Zoeppritz equations. Training models are sampled from distributions constructed from well-log statistics. Training data is computed via a physically realistic forward modeling algorithm. In our experiments, each training data vector is a set of seismic traces similar to a 2-d image. The SVM returns a model given by a weighted comparison of the new data to each training data vector. The method of comparison is given by a kernel function which implicitly transforms data into a high-dimensional feature space and performs a dot-product. The feature space of a Gaussian kernel is made up of sines and cosines and so is appropriate for band-limited seismic problems. Training an SVM involves estimating a set of weights from the training model/data pairs. It is designed to be an easy problem; at worst it is a quadratic programming problem on the order of the size of the training set. By implementing the slowest part of our SVM algorithm on a graphics processing unit (GPU), we improve the speed of the algorithm by two orders of magnitude. Our SVM/GPU combination achieves results that are similar to those of conventional iterative inversion in fractions of the time.

  7. Cost minimizing of cutting process for CNC thermal and water-jet machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavaeva, Anastasia; Kurennov, Dmitry

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with optimization problem of cutting process for CNC thermal and water-jet machines. The accuracy of objective function parameters calculation for optimization problem is investigated. This paper shows that working tool path speed is not constant value. One depends on some parameters that are described in this paper. The relations of working tool path speed depending on the numbers of NC programs frames, length of straight cut, configuration part are presented. Based on received results the correction coefficients for working tool speed are defined. Additionally the optimization problem may be solved by using mathematical model. Model takes into account the additional restrictions of thermal cutting (choice of piercing and output tool point, precedence condition, thermal deformations). At the second part of paper the non-standard cutting techniques are considered. Ones may lead to minimizing of cutting cost and time compared with standard cutting techniques. This paper considers the effectiveness of non-standard cutting techniques application. At the end of the paper the future research works are indicated.

  8. Robust Brain-Machine Interface Design Using Optimal Feedback Control Modeling and Adaptive Point Process Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Carmena, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Much progress has been made in brain-machine interfaces (BMI) using decoders such as Kalman filters and finding their parameters with closed-loop decoder adaptation (CLDA). However, current decoders do not model the spikes directly, and hence may limit the processing time-scale of BMI control and adaptation. Moreover, while specialized CLDA techniques for intention estimation and assisted training exist, a unified and systematic CLDA framework that generalizes across different setups is lacking. Here we develop a novel closed-loop BMI training architecture that allows for processing, control, and adaptation using spike events, enables robust control and extends to various tasks. Moreover, we develop a unified control-theoretic CLDA framework within which intention estimation, assisted training, and adaptation are performed. The architecture incorporates an infinite-horizon optimal feedback-control (OFC) model of the brain’s behavior in closed-loop BMI control, and a point process model of spikes. The OFC model infers the user’s motor intention during CLDA—a process termed intention estimation. OFC is also used to design an autonomous and dynamic assisted training technique. The point process model allows for neural processing, control and decoder adaptation with every spike event and at a faster time-scale than current decoders; it also enables dynamic spike-event-based parameter adaptation unlike current CLDA methods that use batch-based adaptation on much slower adaptation time-scales. We conducted closed-loop experiments in a non-human primate over tens of days to dissociate the effects of these novel CLDA components. The OFC intention estimation improved BMI performance compared with current intention estimation techniques. OFC assisted training allowed the subject to consistently achieve proficient control. Spike-event-based adaptation resulted in faster and more consistent performance convergence compared with batch-based methods, and was robust to

  9. Robust Brain-Machine Interface Design Using Optimal Feedback Control Modeling and Adaptive Point Process Filtering.

    PubMed

    Shanechi, Maryam M; Orsborn, Amy L; Carmena, Jose M

    2016-04-01

    Much progress has been made in brain-machine interfaces (BMI) using decoders such as Kalman filters and finding their parameters with closed-loop decoder adaptation (CLDA). However, current decoders do not model the spikes directly, and hence may limit the processing time-scale of BMI control and adaptation. Moreover, while specialized CLDA techniques for intention estimation and assisted training exist, a unified and systematic CLDA framework that generalizes across different setups is lacking. Here we develop a novel closed-loop BMI training architecture that allows for processing, control, and adaptation using spike events, enables robust control and extends to various tasks. Moreover, we develop a unified control-theoretic CLDA framework within which intention estimation, assisted training, and adaptation are performed. The architecture incorporates an infinite-horizon optimal feedback-control (OFC) model of the brain's behavior in closed-loop BMI control, and a point process model of spikes. The OFC model infers the user's motor intention during CLDA-a process termed intention estimation. OFC is also used to design an autonomous and dynamic assisted training technique. The point process model allows for neural processing, control and decoder adaptation with every spike event and at a faster time-scale than current decoders; it also enables dynamic spike-event-based parameter adaptation unlike current CLDA methods that use batch-based adaptation on much slower adaptation time-scales. We conducted closed-loop experiments in a non-human primate over tens of days to dissociate the effects of these novel CLDA components. The OFC intention estimation improved BMI performance compared with current intention estimation techniques. OFC assisted training allowed the subject to consistently achieve proficient control. Spike-event-based adaptation resulted in faster and more consistent performance convergence compared with batch-based methods, and was robust to parameter

  10. Effect of composition and processing on the thermal fatigue and toughness of high performance die steels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.F.; Wang, Y.; Schwam, D.

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this study was to improve average die life by optimizing die steel composition and the die processing. Four different steels, K,Q,C and Premium Grade H-13 have been investigated for thermal fatigue resistance and toughness. Optimum heat treatment processing has been determined for each steel with respect to austenitizing temperature and tempering conditions. The effect of the quenching rate on the thermal fatigue resistance and toughness of the die steels and the effect of Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM) on the thermal fatigue resistance were also determined. The immersion thermal fatigue specimen developed at CWRU was used to determine the thermal fatigue resistance as characterized by the two parameters of average maximum crack length and total crack area. The Charpy V-notch impact test was used over a -100{degrees}F to 450{degrees}F testing temperature range to evaluate the toughness and the brittle-ductile transition behavior. K steel has been identified as superior in performance compared to Premium Grade H-13. Q and C provide lower toughness and thermal fatigue resistance than H-13. Faster cooling rates provide higher thermal fatigue resistance and toughness. Higher austenitizing temperatures such as 1925{degrees}F compared to 1875{degrees}F provide better thermal fatigue resistance, but lower austenitizing temperatures of 1875{degrees}F provide better toughness. Higher hardness improves thermal fatigue resistance, but reduces toughness. A minimum of Rc 46 hardness is desired for aluminum die casting dies. EDM reduces the thermal fatigue resistance compared to conventional machining operations. When the EDM process of multiple small steps of decreasing energy and post-EDM treatments are employed, the effect can be reduced to a very slight amount. Preliminary evidence of the superior performance of the K steel has been provided by ongoing field testing of inserts in multiple cavity dies.

  11. Automatic River Bed Grain Size Measurement Using Image Processing and Support Vector Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellugi, D.; Nelson, P. A.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    Gravel-bedded rivers cut through hilly and mountainous areas, driving landscape evolution and creating a diverse habitat upon which river food web ecosystems develop. Our understanding of the mechanics underlying important processes in fluvial geomorphology, hydrodynamics, and aquatic ecology inevitably requires knowledge about the grain size distribution of river bed material. Standard methods of sampling bed surface material may introduce errors due to biases and inadequate sample size. Alternative areal or volumetric sampling procedures are often impractical, particularly in coarse channel beds. Furthermore, all invasive sampling techniques can compromise laboratory flume experiments. These concerns suggest that there is a practical need for a reliable, automated, non-invasive procedure for obtaining the grain size distribution of bed surface material. Although considerable effort has been made to automatically generate grain size distributions using image processing and analysis techniques, the problem remains quite challenging: issues such as varying lighting conditions, partial immersion of particles in water, and heterogeneous mineralogy result in ambiguities that cannot be easily resolved. Feature extraction introduces further biases due to over- or under-segmentation of the image. Moreover, unless the grain distributions are fairly homogeneous between different locations, and images are collected in similar fashion, it is difficult to parametrize any such method in a transferable manner. In this study we present an image processing and machine learning procedure to automatically identify and measure grains from photographic images of gravel-bedded rivers. We apply the state-of-the-art of image segmentation techniques, making use of local cues such as brightness, color, and texture in a multi-scale approach. These cues are globalized using a graph partitioning method on the oriented contour signal. The resulting boundary probability signal is treated by a

  12. Simulation and fabrication of micro-scaled flow channels for metallic bipolar plates by the electrochemical micro-machining process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shuo-Jen; Lee, Chi-Yuan; Yang, Kung-Ting; Kuan, Feng-Hui; Lai, Ping-Hung

    In order to take better advantage of metallic bipolar plates for producing metallic fuel cells and make it a feasible technology, it is essential that we have an efficient and cost effective fabrication process for creating micro-scaled flow channels. In this study, an electrochemical micro-machining (EMM) process is developed. In order to have better process control a finite element analysis is employed to ensure machine tool platform rigidity; an electric field analysis is applied for the electrode design; and an electrolytic flow analysis is carried out for the fixture design and the selection of the operational parameter. Finally, flow channels measuring 200 μm in depth and 500 μm in width are fabricated on SS316 stainless steel sheets measuring 50 mm × 0.6 mm thick.

  13. Architecture For The Optimization Of A Machining Process In Real Time Through Rule-Based Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, Rafael; González, Luis Carlos; Martín, Francisco Jesús

    2009-11-01

    Under the project SENSOR-IA which has had financial funding from the Order of Incentives to the Regional Technology Centers of the Counsil of Innovation, Science and Enterprise of Andalusia, an architecture for the optimization of a machining process in real time through rule-based expert system has been developed. The architecture consists of an acquisition system and sensor data processing engine (SATD) from an expert system (SE) rule-based which communicates with the SATD. The SE has been designed as an inference engine with an algorithm for effective action, using a modus ponens rule model of goal-oriented rules.The pilot test demonstrated that it is possible to govern in real time the machining process based on rules contained in a SE. The tests have been done with approximated rules. Future work includes an exhaustive collection of data with different tool materials and geometries in a database to extract more precise rules.

  14. Modelling of the radial forging process of a hollow billet with the mandrel on the lever radial forging machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamyshev, A. P.; Nekrasov, I. I.; Pugin, A. I.; Fedulov, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The finite-element method (FEM) has been used in scientific research of forming technological process modelling. Among the others, the process of the multistage radial forging of hollow billets has been modelled. The model includes both the thermal problem, concerning preliminary heating of the billet taking into account thermal expansion, and the deformation problem, when the billet is forged in a special machine. The latter part of the model describes such features of the process as die calibration, die movement, initial die temperature, friction conditions, etc. The results obtained can be used to define the necessary process parameters and die calibration.

  15. Color machine vision system for process control in the ceramics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penaranda Marques, Jose A.; Briones, Leoncio; Florez, Julian

    1997-08-01

    This paper is focused on the design of a machine vision system to solve a problem found in the manufacturing process of high quality polished porcelain tiles. This consists of sorting the tiles according to the criteria 'same appearance to the human eye' or in other words, by color and visual texture. In 1994 this problem was tackled and led to a prototype which became fully operational at production scale in a manufacturing plant, named Porcelanatto, S.A. The system has evolved and has been adapted to meet the particular needs of this manufacturing company. Among the main issues that have been improved, it is worth pointing out: (1) improvement to discern subtle variations in color or texture, which are the main features of the visual appearance; (2) inspection time reduction, as a result of algorithm optimization and the increasing computing power. Thus, 100 percent of the production can be inspected, reaching a maximum of 120 tiles/sec.; (3) adaptation to the different types and models of tiles manufactured. The tiles vary not only in their visible patterns but also in dimensions, formats, thickness and allowances. In this sense, one major problem has been reaching an optimal compromise: The system must be sensitive enough to discern subtle variations in color, but at the same time insensitive thickness variations in the tiles. The following parts have been used to build the system: RGB color line scan camera, 12 bits per channel, PCI frame grabber, PC, fiber optic based illumination and the algorithm which will be explained in section 4.

  16. Quantification of Geologic Lineaments by Manual and Machine Processing Techniques. [Landsat satellites - mapping/geological faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podwysocki, M. H.; Moik, J. G.; Shoup, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of operator variability and subjectivity in lineament mapping and methods to minimize or eliminate these problems by use of several machine preprocessing methods was studied. Mapped lineaments of a test landmass were used and the results were compared statistically. The total number of fractures mapped by the operators and their average lengths varied considerably, although comparison of lineament directions revealed some consensus. A summary map (785 linears) produced by overlaying the maps generated by the four operators shows that only 0.4 percent were recognized by all four operators, 4.7 percent by three, 17.8 percent by two, and 77 percent by one operator. Similar results were obtained in comparing these results with another independent group. This large amount of variability suggests a need for the standardization of mapping techniques, which might be accomplished by a machine aided procedure. Two methods of machine aided mapping were tested, both simulating directional filters.

  17. Effect of Carbon in the Dielectric Fluid and Workpieces on the Characteristics of Recast Layers Machined by Electrical Discharge Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttamara, Apiwat; Kanchanomai, Chaosuan

    2016-06-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a popular non-traditional machining technique that is usually performed in kerosene. Carbon from the kerosene is mixed into the recast layer during EDM, increasing its hardness. EDM can be performed in deionized water, which causes decarburization. We studied the effects of carbon in the dielectric fluid and workpiece on the characteristics of recast layers. Experiments were conducted using gray cast iron and mild steel workpieces in deionized water or kerosene under identical operating conditions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the recast layer formed on gray iron was rougher than that produced on mild steel. Moreover, the dispersion of graphite flakes in the gray iron seemed to cause subsurface cracks, even when EDM was performed in deionized water. Dendritic structures and iron carbides were found in the recast layer of gray iron treated in deionized water. Kerosene caused more microcracks to form and increased surface roughness compared with deionized water. The microcrack length per unit area of mild steel treated in deionized water was greater than that treated in kerosene, but the cracks formed in kerosene were wider. The effect of the diffusion of carbon during cooling on the characteristics of the recast layer was discussed.

  18. An Insight to the Modeling of 1 × 1 Rib Loop Formation Process on Circular Weft Knitting Machine using Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Sadhan Chandra

    2015-10-01

    The mechanics of single jersey loop formation is well-reported is literature. However, as the concept of any model of double jersey loop formation process is not available in accessible international literature. Therefore, it was planned to develop a model of 1 × 1 rib loop formation process on dial and cylinder machine using computer so that the influence of various input variables on the final loop length as well on the profile of tension on the yarn inside Knitting Zone (KZ) can be understood. The model provides an insight into the mechanics of 1 × 1 rib loop formation system on dial and cylinder machine. Besides, the degree of agreement between predicted and measured values of loop length and cam forces as well as theoretical analysis of the model have justified the acceptability of the model.

  19. Manufacturing process applications team (MATEAM). [technology transfer in the areas of machine tools and robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The transfer of NASA technology to the industrial sector is reported. Presentations to the machine tool and robot industries and direct technology transfers of the Adams Manipulator arm, a-c motor control, and the bolt tension monitor are discussed. A listing of proposed RTOP programs with strong potential is included. A detailed description of the rotor technology available to industry is given.

  20. Elevating Virtual Machine Introspection for Fine-Grained Process Monitoring: Techniques and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Deepa

    2013-01-01

    Recent rapid malware growth has exposed the limitations of traditional in-host malware-defense systems and motivated the development of secure virtualization-based solutions. By running vulnerable systems as virtual machines (VMs) and moving security software from inside VMs to the outside, the out-of-VM solutions securely isolate the anti-malware…

  1. Updated measurement of the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of 199Hg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graner, Brent; Chen, Yi; Lindahl, Eric; Heckel, Blayne

    2016-03-01

    A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) in an atom or particle would prove that time reversal symmetry is broken. In addition, an atomic EDM may provide evidence of new physics or CP symmetry violation in the strong sector. We have recently completed an improved measurement of the EDM of 199Hg utilizing a set of vapor cells containing isotopically-enriched 199Hg optically pumped and probed with UV laser light. I will discuss the most recent iteration of the experiment, and present unblinded results. This work was supported by NSF Grant 1306743 and DOE Award No. DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  2. Updated measurement of the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of 199 Hg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graner, Brent; Chen, Yi; Lindahl, Eric; Heckel, Blayne

    2016-05-01

    A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) in an atom or particle would prove that time reversal symmetry is broken. In addition, an atomic EDM may provide evidence of new physics or CP symmetry violation in the strong sector. We have recently completed an improved measurement of the EDM of 199 Hg utilizing a set of vapor cells containing isotopically-enriched 199 Hg optically pumped and probed with UV laser light. I will discuss the most recent iteration of the experiment, and present unblinded results. This work was supported by NSF Grant 1306743 and DOE Award No. DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  3. Intelligent Machines in the 21st Century: Automating the Processes of Inference and Inquiry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2003-01-01

    The last century saw the application of Boolean algebra toward the construction of computing machines, which work by applying logical transformations to information contained in their memory. The development of information theory and the generalization of Boolean algebra to Bayesian inference have enabled these computing machines. in the last quarter of the twentieth century, to be endowed with the ability to learn by making inferences from data. This revolution is just beginning as new computational techniques continue to make difficult problems more accessible. However, modern intelligent machines work by inferring knowledge using only their pre-programmed prior knowledge and the data provided. They lack the ability to ask questions, or request data that would aid their inferences. Recent advances in understanding the foundations of probability theory have revealed implications for areas other than logic. Of relevance to intelligent machines, we identified the algebra of questions as the free distributive algebra, which now allows us to work with questions in a way analogous to that which Boolean algebra enables us to work with logical statements. In this paper we describe this logic of inference and inquiry using the mathematics of partially ordered sets and the scaffolding of lattice theory, discuss the far-reaching implications of the methodology, and demonstrate its application with current examples in machine learning. Automation of both inference and inquiry promises to allow robots to perform science in the far reaches of our solar system and in other star systems by enabling them to not only make inferences from data, but also decide which question to ask, experiment to perform, or measurement to take given what they have learned and what they are designed to understand.

  4. Charging machine

    DOEpatents

    Medlin, John B.

    1976-05-25

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

  5. Electrical discharge machining of type-N(f) microwave connectors

    SciTech Connect

    Haushalter, R.J.

    1996-07-01

    A particular out-of-specification mechanical dimension on Type-N(f) [Type-N(female)] microwave connectors sometimes disqualifies otherwise perfectly acceptable microwave devices from being used in calibration systems. The Miniature Machining Group at Sandia National Laboratories applied a technique called Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) to quickly and economically machine these devices without disassembly. In so doing, they facilitated the use of existing components without the need to purchase new devices. The technique also improves an uncertainty of calibration known as Mismatch Uncertainty by optimizing the reflection coefficient of the calibration test port. This effects a reduction in overall calibration uncertainties.

  6. Semi-online scheduling on two machines with GoS levels and partial information of processing time.

    PubMed

    Luo, Taibo; Xu, Yinfeng

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates semi-online scheduling problems on two parallel machines under a grade of service (GoS) provision subject to minimize the makespan. We consider three different semi-online versions with knowing the total processing time of the jobs with higher GoS level, knowing the total processing time of the jobs with lower GoS level, or knowing both in advance. Respectively, for the three semi-online versions, we develop algorithms with competitive ratios of 3/2, 20/13, and 4/3 which are shown to be optimal.

  7. On Electro Discharge Machining of Inconel 718 with Hollow Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesha, S.; Sharma, A. K.; Kumar, Pradeep

    2012-06-01

    Inconel 718 is a nickel-based alloy designed for high yield, tensile, and creep-rupture properties. This alloy has been widely used in jet engines and high-speed airframe parts in aeronautic application. In this study, electric discharge machining (EDM) process was used for machining commercially available Inconel 718. A copper electrode with 99.9% purity having tubular cross section was employed to machine holes of 20 mm height and 12 mm diameter on Inconel 718 workpieces. Experiments were planned using response surface methodology (RSM). Effects of five major process parameters—pulse current, duty factor, sensitivity control, gap control, and flushing pressure on the process responses—material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR) have been discussed. Mathematical models for MRR and SR have been developed using analysis of variance. Influences of process parameters on tool wear and tool geometry have been presented with the help of scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. Analysis shows significant interaction effect of pulse current and duty factor on MRR yielding a wide range from 14.4 to 22.6 mm3/min, while pulse current remains the most contributing factor with approximate changes in the MRR and SR of 48 and 37%, respectively, corresponding to the extreme values considered. Interactions of duty factor and flushing pressure yield a minimum surface roughness of 6.2 μm. The thickness of the sputtered layer and the crack length were found to be functions of pulse current. The hollow tool gets worn out on both the outer and the inner edges owing to spark erosion as well as abrasion due to flow of debris.

  8. Femtosecond laser ablation properties of transparent materials: impact of the laser process parameters on the machining throughput

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matylitsky, V. V.; Hendricks, F.; Aus der Au, J.

    2013-03-01

    High average power, high repetition rate femtosecond lasers with μJ pulse energies are increasingly used for bio-medical and material processing applications. With the introduction of femtosecond laser systems such as the SpiritTM platform developed by High Q Lasers and Spectra-Physics, micro-processing of solid targets with femtosecond laser pulses have obtained new perspectives for industrial applications [1]. The unique advantage of material processing with subpicosecond lasers is efficient, fast and localized energy deposition, which leads to high ablation efficiency and accuracy in nearly all kinds of solid materials. The study on the impact of the laser processing parameters on the removal rate for transparent substrate using femtosecond laser pulses will be presented. In particular, examples of micro-processing of poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) - bio-degradable polyester and XensationTM glass (Schott) machined with SpiritTM ultrafast laser will be shown.

  9. New two-loop contributions to hadronic EDMs in the MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, Minoru

    2007-11-20

    We discuss the quark EDMs and CEDMs in the MSSM with general flavor-changing terms in the squark mass matrices. In particular, the charged-Higgs mediated contributions to the down-quark EDM and CEDM are evaluated at two-loop level. We point out that these two-loop contributions may dominate over the one-loop induced gluino contribution even when the squark and gluino masses are around few TeV and tan {beta} is moderate.

  10. Towards the measurement of the electron EDM with laser cooled francium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Hirokazu; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Sakamoto, K.; Uchiyama, A.; Aoki, T.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Sato, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Yoshida, H. P.; Wakasa, T.; Sakemi, Y.

    2014-09-01

    The electric dipole moment (EDM) of a particle is a probe into new physics beyond the standard model. The electron EDM might be observed with an enhancement in heavier paramagnetic atoms. Francium (Fr), whose electron structure is useful for laser-cooling and trapping, has a large enhancement factor. Fr produced at high temperature via a fusion reaction will be laser-cooled and trapped in an optical lattice where the EDM is measured. The magneto-optical trapping of Fr is required in advance of the lattice trapping. The technique observing a small number of atoms makes it easy to search for the resonant frequency of Fr. The improvement of the beam purity should lead to a more efficient trap. The techniques towards Fr trapping and EDM measurement have been developed. The electric dipole moment (EDM) of a particle is a probe into new physics beyond the standard model. The electron EDM might be observed with an enhancement in heavier paramagnetic atoms. Francium (Fr), whose electron structure is useful for laser-cooling and trapping, has a large enhancement factor. Fr produced at high temperature via a fusion reaction will be laser-cooled and trapped in an optical lattice where the EDM is measured. The magneto-optical trapping of Fr is required in advance of the lattice trapping. The technique observing a small number of atoms makes it easy to search for the resonant frequency of Fr. The improvement of the beam purity should lead to a more efficient trap. The techniques towards Fr trapping and EDM measurement have been developed. Supported by MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI Grants (21104005, 25610112 and 26220705) and Tohoku University's Focused Research Project.

  11. Automatic Inspection During Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Clyde L.

    1988-01-01

    In experimental manufacturing process, numerically-controlled machine tool temporarily converts into inspection machine by installing electronic touch probes and specially-developed numerical-control software. Software drives probes in paths to and on newly machined parts and collects data on dimensions of parts.

  12. Magnetic Field R&D for the neutron EDM experiment at TRIUMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammei, Russell R.

    2014-09-01

    The neutron EDM experiment at TRIUMF aims to constrain the EDM with a precision of 1 ×10-27 e-cm by 2018. The experiment will use a spallation ultracold neutron (UCN) source employing superfluid helium coupled to a room-temperature EDM apparatus. In the previous best experiment, conducted at ILL, effects related to magnetic field homogeneity and instability were found to dominate the systematic error. This presentation will cover our R&D efforts on passive and active magnetic shielding, magnetic field generation within shielded volumes, and precision magnetometry. The neutron EDM experiment at TRIUMF aims to constrain the EDM with a precision of 1 ×10-27 e-cm by 2018. The experiment will use a spallation ultracold neutron (UCN) source employing superfluid helium coupled to a room-temperature EDM apparatus. In the previous best experiment, conducted at ILL, effects related to magnetic field homogeneity and instability were found to dominate the systematic error. This presentation will cover our R&D efforts on passive and active magnetic shielding, magnetic field generation within shielded volumes, and precision magnetometry. Supported by the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and the Canada Research Chairs program.

  13. Three-dimensional machining of carbon nanotube forests using water-assisted scanning electron microscope processing

    SciTech Connect

    Rajabifar, Bahram; Maschmann, Matthew R.; Kim, Sanha; Hart, A. John; Slinker, Keith; Ehlert, Gregory J.

    2015-10-05

    We demonstrate that vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be precisely machined in a low pressure water vapor ambient using the electron beam of an environmental scanning electron microscope. The electron beam locally damages the irradiated regions of the CNT forest and also dissociates the water vapor molecules into reactive species including hydroxyl radicals. These species then locally oxidize the damaged region of the CNTs. The technique offers material removal capabilities ranging from selected CNTs to hundreds of cubic microns. We study how the material removal rate is influenced by the acceleration voltage, beam current, dwell time, operating pressure, and CNT orientation. Milled cuts with depths between 0–100 microns are generated, corresponding to a material removal rate of up to 20.1 μm{sup 3}/min. The technique produces little carbon residue and does not disturb the native morphology of the CNT network. Finally, we demonstrate direct machining of pyramidal surfaces and re-entrant cuts to create freestanding geometries.

  14. Three-dimensional machining of carbon nanotube forests using water-assisted scanning electron microscope processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabifar, Bahram; Kim, Sanha; Slinker, Keith; Ehlert, Gregory J.; Hart, A. John; Maschmann, Matthew R.

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate that vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be precisely machined in a low pressure water vapor ambient using the electron beam of an environmental scanning electron microscope. The electron beam locally damages the irradiated regions of the CNT forest and also dissociates the water vapor molecules into reactive species including hydroxyl radicals. These species then locally oxidize the damaged region of the CNTs. The technique offers material removal capabilities ranging from selected CNTs to hundreds of cubic microns. We study how the material removal rate is influenced by the acceleration voltage, beam current, dwell time, operating pressure, and CNT orientation. Milled cuts with depths between 0-100 microns are generated, corresponding to a material removal rate of up to 20.1 μm3/min. The technique produces little carbon residue and does not disturb the native morphology of the CNT network. Finally, we demonstrate direct machining of pyramidal surfaces and re-entrant cuts to create freestanding geometries.

  15. Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930° C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380° C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

  16. Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P.

    2011-01-17

    This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930 deg. C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380 deg. C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

  17. A discrepancy within primate spatial vision and its bearing on the definition of edge detection processes in machine vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    The visual perception of form information is considered to be based on the functioning of simple and complex neurons in the primate striate cortex. However, a review of the physiological data on these brain cells cannot be harmonized with either the perceptual spatial frequency performance of primates or the performance which is necessary for form perception in humans. This discrepancy together with recent interest in cortical-like and perceptual-like processing in image coding and machine vision prompted a series of image processing experiments intended to provide some definition of the selection of image operators. The experiments were aimed at determining operators which could be used to detect edges in a computational manner consistent with the visual perception of structure in images. Fundamental issues were the selection of size (peak spatial frequency) and circular versus oriented operators (or some combination). In a previous study, circular difference-of-Gaussian (DOG) operators, with peak spatial frequency responses at about 11 and 33 cyc/deg were found to capture the primary structural information in images. Here larger scale circular DOG operators were explored and led to severe loss of image structure and introduced spatial dislocations (due to blur) in structure which is not consistent with visual perception. Orientation sensitive operators (akin to one class of simple cortical neurons) introduced ambiguities of edge extent regardless of the scale of the operator. For machine vision schemes which are functionally similar to natural vision form perception, two circularly symmetric very high spatial frequency channels appear to be necessary and sufficient for a wide range of natural images. Such a machine vision scheme is most similar to the physiological performance of the primate lateral geniculate nucleus rather than the striate cortex.

  18. A Contact-Imaging Based Microfluidic Cytometer with Machine-Learning for Single-Frame Super-Resolution Processing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiwei; Guo, Jinhong; Wang, Xiaolong; Yan, Mei; Kang, Yuejun; Yu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Lensless microfluidic imaging with super-resolution processing has become a promising solution to miniaturize the conventional flow cytometer for point-of-care applications. The previous multi-frame super-resolution processing system can improve resolution but has limited cell flow rate and hence low throughput when capturing multiple subpixel-shifted cell images. This paper introduces a single-frame super-resolution processing with on-line machine-learning for contact images of cells. A corresponding contact-imaging based microfluidic cytometer prototype is demonstrated for cell recognition and counting. Compared with commercial flow cytometer, less than 8% error is observed for absolute number of microbeads; and 0.10 coefficient of variation is observed for cell-ratio of mixed RBC and HepG2 cells in solution. PMID:25111497

  19. Using a Virtual Tablet Machine to Improve Student Understanding of the Complex Processes Involved in Tablet Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Sjöström, Hans-Erik; Englund, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To develop and implement a virtual tablet machine simulation to aid distance students’ understanding of the processes involved in tablet production. Design. A tablet simulation was created enabling students to study the effects different parameters have on the properties of the tablet. Once results were generated, students interpreted and explained them on the basis of current theory. Assessment. The simulation was evaluated using written questionnaires and focus group interviews. Students appreciated the exercise and considered it to be motivational. Students commented that they found the simulation, together with the online seminar and the writing of the report, was beneficial for their learning process. Conclusion. According to students’ perceptions, the use of the tablet simulation contributed to their understanding of the compaction process. PMID:27402990

  20. Using a Virtual Tablet Machine to Improve Student Understanding of the Complex Processes Involved in Tablet Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Sofia; Sjöström, Hans-Erik; Englund, Claire

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To develop and implement a virtual tablet machine simulation to aid distance students' understanding of the processes involved in tablet production. Design. A tablet simulation was created enabling students to study the effects different parameters have on the properties of the tablet. Once results were generated, students interpreted and explained them on the basis of current theory. Assessment. The simulation was evaluated using written questionnaires and focus group interviews. Students appreciated the exercise and considered it to be motivational. Students commented that they found the simulation, together with the online seminar and the writing of the report, was beneficial for their learning process. Conclusion. According to students' perceptions, the use of the tablet simulation contributed to their understanding of the compaction process. PMID:27402990

  1. Electrochemical machining process for forming surface roughness elements on a gas turbine shroud

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Johnson, Robert Alan; Wei, Bin; Wang, Hsin-Pang

    2002-01-01

    The back side recessed cooling surface of a shroud defining in part the hot gas path of a turbine is electrochemically machined to provide surface roughness elements and spaces therebetween to increase the heat transfer coefficient. To accomplish this, an electrode with insulating dielectric portions and non-insulating portions is disposed in opposition to the cooling surface. By passing an electrolyte between the cooling surface and electrode and applying an electrical current between the electrode and a shroud, roughness elements and spaces therebetween are formed in the cooling surface in opposition to the insulating and non-insulating portions of the electrode, hence increasing the surface area and heat transfer coefficient of the shroud.

  2. Protein-polymer nano-machines. Towards synthetic control of biological processes

    PubMed Central

    Pennadam, Sivanand S; Firman, Keith; Alexander, Cameron; Górecki, Dariusz C

    2004-01-01

    The exploitation of nature's machinery at length scales below the dimensions of a cell is an exciting challenge for biologists, chemists and physicists, while advances in our understanding of these biological motifs are now providing an opportunity to develop real single molecule devices for technological applications. Single molecule studies are already well advanced and biological molecular motors are being used to guide the design of nano-scale machines. However, controlling the specific functions of these devices in biological systems under changing conditions is difficult. In this review we describe the principles underlying the development of a molecular motor with numerous potential applications in nanotechnology and the use of specific synthetic polymers as prototypic molecular switches for control of the motor function. The molecular motor is a derivative of a TypeI Restriction-Modification (R-M) enzyme and the synthetic polymer is drawn from the class of materials that exhibit a temperature-dependent phase transition. The potential exploitation of single molecules as functional devices has been heralded as the dawn of new era in biotechnology and medicine. It is not surprising, therefore, that the efforts of numerous multidisciplinary teams [1,2]. have been focused in attempts to develop these systems. as machines capable of functioning at the low sub-micron and nanometre length-scales [3]. However, one of the obstacles for the practical application of single molecule devices is the lack of functional control methods in biological media, under changing conditions. In this review we describe the conceptual basis for a molecular motor (a derivative of a TypeI Restriction-Modification enzyme) with numerous potential applications in nanotechnology and the use of specific synthetic polymers as prototypic molecular switches for controlling the motor function [4]. PMID:15350203

  3. Protein-polymer nano-machines. Towards synthetic control of biological processes.

    PubMed

    Pennadam, Sivanand S; Firman, Keith; Alexander, Cameron; Górecki, Dariusz C

    2004-09-01

    The exploitation of nature's machinery at length scales below the dimensions of a cell is an exciting challenge for biologists, chemists and physicists, while advances in our understanding of these biological motifs are now providing an opportunity to develop real single molecule devices for technological applications. Single molecule studies are already well advanced and biological molecular motors are being used to guide the design of nano-scale machines. However, controlling the specific functions of these devices in biological systems under changing conditions is difficult. In this review we describe the principles underlying the development of a molecular motor with numerous potential applications in nanotechnology and the use of specific synthetic polymers as prototypic molecular switches for control of the motor function. The molecular motor is a derivative of a TypeI Restriction-Modification (R-M) enzyme and the synthetic polymer is drawn from the class of materials that exhibit a temperature-dependent phase transition.The potential exploitation of single molecules as functional devices has been heralded as the dawn of new era in biotechnology and medicine. It is not surprising, therefore, that the efforts of numerous multidisciplinary teams 12. have been focused in attempts to develop these systems. as machines capable of functioning at the low sub-micron and nanometre length-scales 3. However, one of the obstacles for the practical application of single molecule devices is the lack of functional control methods in biological media, under changing conditions. In this review we describe the conceptual basis for a molecular motor (a derivative of a TypeI Restriction-Modification enzyme) with numerous potential applications in nanotechnology and the use of specific synthetic polymers as prototypic molecular switches for controlling the motor function 4. PMID:15350203

  4. Triboplasma - the main component of plasma-chemical processes occurring in the friction units of machines and mechanisms in the presence of these drugs Tribo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashapov, N. F.; Sharifullin, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a technology capable of repairing worn surfaces of the friction units of machines and mechanisms. This technology can successfully be used in any production of engineering products. The proposed technology is low-cost, efficient and easy to use. It is shown that the processes occurring in the friction units of machines and mechanisms in the presence of these drugs tribo triboplasma plays a fundamental role, which arises in the contact mating surfaces.

  5. Machine processing of remotely sensed data; Proceedings of the Conference, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind., October 16-18, 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Topics discussed include the management and processing of earth resources information, special-purpose processors for the machine processing of remotely sensed data, digital image registration by a mathematical programming technique, the use of remote-sensor data in land classification (in particular, the use of ERTS-1 multispectral scanning data), the use of remote-sensor data in geometrical transformations and mapping, earth resource measurement with the aid of ERTS-1 multispectral scanning data, the use of remote-sensor data in the classification of turbidity levels in coastal zones and in the identification of ecological anomalies, the problem of feature selection and the classification of objects in multispectral images, the estimation of proportions of certain categories of objects, and a number of special systems and techniques. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  6. Non-traditional machining techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Robert D; Fierro, Frank; Garcia, Felix P; Hatch, Douglass J; Randolph, Randall B; Reardon, Patrick T; Rivera, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    During the course of machining targets for various experiments it sometimes becomes necessary to adapt fixtures or machines, which are designed for one function, to another function. When adapting a machine or fixture is not adequate, it may be necessary to acquire a machine specifically designed to produce the component required. In addition to the above scenarios, the features of a component may dictate that multi-step machining processes are necessary to produce the component. This paper discusses the machining of four components where adaptation, specialized machine design, or multi-step processes were necessary to produce the components.

  7. Annual Symposium on Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data, 4th, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind., June 21-23, 1977, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D. B. (Editor); Scherer, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    Papers are presented on a variety of techniques for the machine processing of remotely sensed data. Consideration is given to preprocessing methods such as the correction of Landsat data for the effects of haze, sun angle, and reflectance and to the maximum likelihood estimation of signature transformation algorithm. Several applications of machine processing to agriculture are identified. Various types of processing systems are discussed such as ground-data processing/support systems for sensor systems and the transfer of remotely sensed data to operational systems. The application of machine processing to hydrology, geology, and land-use mapping is outlined. Data analysis is considered with reference to several types of classification methods and systems.

  8. Current breathomics--a review on data pre-processing techniques and machine learning in metabolomics breath analysis.

    PubMed

    Smolinska, A; Hauschild, A-Ch; Fijten, R R R; Dallinga, J W; Baumbach, J; van Schooten, F J

    2014-06-01

    We define breathomics as the metabolomics study of exhaled air. It is a strongly emerging metabolomics research field that mainly focuses on health-related volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Since the amount of these compounds varies with health status, breathomics holds great promise to deliver non-invasive diagnostic tools. Thus, the main aim of breathomics is to find patterns of VOCs related to abnormal (for instance inflammatory) metabolic processes occurring in the human body. Recently, analytical methods for measuring VOCs in exhaled air with high resolution and high throughput have been extensively developed. Yet, the application of machine learning methods for fingerprinting VOC profiles in the breathomics is still in its infancy. Therefore, in this paper, we describe the current state of the art in data pre-processing and multivariate analysis of breathomics data. We start with the detailed pre-processing pipelines for breathomics data obtained from gas-chromatography mass spectrometry and an ion-mobility spectrometer coupled to multi-capillary columns. The outcome of data pre-processing is a matrix containing the relative abundances of a set of VOCs for a group of patients under different conditions (e.g. disease stage, treatment). Independently of the utilized analytical method, the most important question, 'which VOCs are discriminatory?', remains the same. Answers can be given by several modern machine learning techniques (multivariate statistics) and, therefore, are the focus of this paper. We demonstrate the advantages as well the drawbacks of such techniques. We aim to help the community to understand how to profit from a particular method. In parallel, we hope to make the community aware of the existing data fusion methods, as yet unresearched in breathomics. PMID:24713999

  9. Electron EDM measurement in a beam of ThO: Demonstrated and planned upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasner, Zack; Andreev, Vitaly; Ang, Daniel; Baron, Jacob; Demille, David; Doyle, John; Gabrielse, Gerald; Hutzler, Nicholas; O'Leary, Brendon; Panda, Cristian; Petrik, Elizabeth; Weber, Christian; West, Adam; Wilburn, Grey; ACME Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) d of a particle with spin S is characterized by a linear interaction H ~ d S-> . E-> with an electric field E-> . This Hamiltonian is inherently P- and T-odd, making it a powerful probe of fundamental physics. To date, no EDM of a fundamental particle has been observed, but limits placed for several particles have significantly constrained theories beyond the Standard Model in the TeV range. In 2014, the ACME collaboration set a new upper limit on the electron EDM (eEDM) of | d | < 1 ×10-28 e . cm by means of a spin-precession measurement in a beam of thorium monoxide (ThO). We present our measurement scheme and demonstrated apparatus upgrades designed to suppress known systematic errors and achieve an order of magnitude greater statistical sensitivity in a next-generation measurement of the eEDM. In addition, we describe upgrades currently in development to improve our statistical sensitivity beyond next-generation levels.

  10. Architecture and data processing alternatives for Tse computer. Volume 1: Tse logic design concepts and the development of image processing machine architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickard, D. A.; Bodenheimer, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    Digital computer components which perform two dimensional array logic operations (Tse logic) on binary data arrays are described. The properties of Golay transforms which make them useful in image processing are reviewed, and several architectures for Golay transform processors are presented with emphasis on the skeletonizing algorithm. Conventional logic control units developed for the Golay transform processors are described. One is a unique microprogrammable control unit that uses a microprocessor to control the Tse computer. The remaining control units are based on programmable logic arrays. Performance criteria are established and utilized to compare the various Golay transform machines developed. A critique of Tse logic is presented, and recommendations for additional research are included.

  11. Graphical processing unit-based machine vision system for simultaneous measurement of shrinkage and soil release in fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalakannan, Sridharan; Gururajan, Arunkumar; Hill, Matthew; Shahriar, Muneem; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Hequet, Eric F.

    2010-04-01

    We present a machine vision system for simultaneous and objective evaluation of two important functional attributes of a fabric, namely, soil release and shrinkage. Soil release corresponds to the efficacy of the fabric in releasing stains after laundering and shrinkage essentially quantifies the dimensional changes in the fabric postlaundering. Within the framework of the proposed machine vision scheme, the samples are prepared using a prescribed procedure and subsequently digitized using a commercially available off-the-shelf scanner. Shrinkage measurements in the lengthwise and widthwise directions are obtained by detecting and measuring the distance between two pairs of appropriately placed markers. In addition, these shrinkage markers help in producing estimates of the location of the center of the stain on the fabric image. Using this information, a customized adaptive statistical snake is initialized, which evolves based on region statistics to segment the stain. Once the stain is localized, appropriate measurements can be extracted from the stain and the background image that can help in objectively quantifying stain release. In addition, the statistical snakes algorithm has been parallelized on a graphical processing unit, which allows for rapid evolution of multiple snakes. This, in turn, translates to the fact that multiple stains can be detected and segmented in a computationally efficient fashion. Finally, the aforementioned scheme is validated on a sizeable set of fabric images and the promising nature of the results help in establishing the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  12. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  13. Using state machines to model the Ion Torrent sequencing process and to improve read error rates

    PubMed Central

    Golan, David; Medvedev, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: The importance of fast and affordable DNA sequencing methods for current day life sciences, medicine and biotechnology is hard to overstate. A major player is Ion Torrent, a pyrosequencing-like technology which produces flowgrams – sequences of incorporation values – which are converted into nucleotide sequences by a base-calling algorithm. Because of its exploitation of ubiquitous semiconductor technology and innovation in chemistry, Ion Torrent has been gaining popularity since its debut in 2011. Despite the advantages, however, Ion Torrent read accuracy remains a significant concern. Results: We present FlowgramFixer, a new algorithm for converting flowgrams into reads. Our key observation is that the incorporation signals of neighboring flows, even after normalization and phase correction, carry considerable mutual information and are important in making the correct base-call. We therefore propose that base-calling of flowgrams should be done on a read-wide level, rather than one flow at a time. We show that this can be done in linear-time by combining a state machine with a Viterbi algorithm to find the nucleotide sequence that maximizes the likelihood of the observed flowgram. FlowgramFixer is applicable to any flowgram-based sequencing platform. We demonstrate FlowgramFixer’s superior performance on Ion Torrent Escherichia coli data, with a 4.8% improvement in the number of high-quality mapped reads and a 7.1% improvement in the number of uniquely mappable reads. Availability: Binaries and source code of FlowgramFixer are freely available at: http://www.cs.tau.ac.il/~davidgo5/flowgramfixer.html. Contact: davidgo5@post.tau.ac.il PMID:23813003

  14. Computer-Aided TRIZ Ideality and Level of Invention Estimation Using Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Christopher; Tate, Derrick

    Patent textual descriptions provide a wealth of information that can be used to understand the underlying design approaches that result in the generation of novel and innovative technology. This article will discuss a new approach for estimating Degree of Ideality and Level of Invention metrics from the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) using patent textual information. Patent text includes information that can be used to model both the functions performed by a design and the associated costs and problems that affect a design’s value. The motivation of this research is to use patent data with calculation of TRIZ metrics to help designers understand which combinations of system components and functions result in creative and innovative design solutions. This article will discuss in detail methods to estimate these TRIZ metrics using natural language processing and machine learning with the use of neural networks.

  15. Application of system engineering processes to analyze and predict engine cooling fan system noise for off-highway machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Christopher P.; Mann, J. Adin

    2005-09-01

    System Engineering processes were applied to create a Cooling Fan System Noise Analysis Tool for a back-hoe loader machine. The Cooling Fan System Noise Analysis Tool combined elements of aeroacoustic theory, Fan Law, sound power measurements and particle image velocimetry into a single computer analysis tool. The cooling fan system consisted of a cooling fan, multiple radiators in front of the cooling fan, a shroud, a mock engine behind the cooling fan, and a simulated engine compartment. A vortex flow structure was measured in front of the cooling fan. The cooling fan system sound power spectrum was measured. The radiated sound power spectrum for the vortex interaction with the fan blades was calculated. Measured and predicted cooling fan system sound power results were compared. The overall structure and approach will be presented along with an overview of the theory and initial results.

  16. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (2nd, Cordoba, Spain, July 1-3, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Tiffany, Ed.; Desmarais, Michel, Ed.; Romero, Cristobal, Ed.; Ventura, Sebastian, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The Second International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM2009) was held at the University of Cordoba, Spain, on July 1-3, 2009. EDM brings together researchers from computer science, education, psychology, psychometrics, and statistics to analyze large data sets to answer educational research questions. The increase in instrumented…

  17. [Proceedings of the] International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (3rd, Pittsburgh, PA, July 11-13, 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ryan S. J. d., Ed.; Merceron, Agathe, Ed.; Pavlik, Philip I., Jr., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The Third International Conference on Data Mining (EDM 2010) was held in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. It follows the second conference at the University of Cordoba, Spain, on July 1-3, 2009 and the first edition of the conference held in Montreal in 2008, and a series of workshops within the AAAI, AIED, EC-TEL, ICALT, ITS, and UM conferences. EDM 2011…

  18. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (5th, Chania, Greece, June 19-21, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Educational Data Mining Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2012) is held in picturesque Chania on the beautiful Crete island in Greece, under the auspices of the International Educational Data Mining Society (IEDMS). The EDM 2012 conference is a leading international forum for high quality research that mines large data sets of educational…

  19. Machine vision for high-precision volume measurement applied to levitated containerless material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, R.C.; Schmidt, D.P.; Rogers, J.R.; Kelton, K.F.; Hyers, R.W.

    2005-12-15

    By combining the best practices in optical dilatometry with numerical methods, a high-speed and high-precision technique has been developed to measure the volume of levitated, containerlessly processed samples with subpixel resolution. Containerless processing provides the ability to study highly reactive materials without the possibility of contamination affecting thermophysical properties. Levitation is a common technique used to isolate a sample as it is being processed. Noncontact optical measurement of thermophysical properties is very important as traditional measuring methods cannot be used. Modern, digitally recorded images require advanced numerical routines to recover the subpixel locations of sample edges and, in turn, produce high-precision measurements.

  20. Data Processing And Machine Learning Methods For Multi-Modal Operator State Classification Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, Tristan A.

    2015-01-01

    This document is intended as an introduction to a set of common signal processing learning methods that may be used in the software portion of a functional crew state monitoring system. This includes overviews of both the theory of the methods involved, as well as examples of implementation. Practical considerations are discussed for implementing modular, flexible, and scalable processing and classification software for a multi-modal, multi-channel monitoring system. Example source code is also given for all of the discussed processing and classification methods.

  1. Machine Vision for High Precision Volume Measurement Applied to Levitated Containerless Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, R. C.; Schmidt, D. P.; Rogers, J. R.; Kelton, K. F.; Hyers, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    By combining the best practices in optical dilatometry with new numerical methods, a high-speed and high precision technique has been developed to measure volume of levitated, containerlessly processed samples with sub- pixel resolution. Containerless processing provides the ability to study highly reactive materials without the possibility of contamination affecting thermo-physical properties. Levitation is a common technique used to isolate a sample as it is being processed. Noncontact optical measurement of thermo-ophysical properties is very important as traditional measuring methods cannot be used. Modern, digitally recorded images require advanced numerical routines to recover the sub-pixel locations of sample edges and, in turn produce high precision measurements.

  2. Preliminary design and manufacturing feasibility study for a machined Zircaloy triangular pitch fuel rod support system (grids) (AWBA development program)

    SciTech Connect

    Horwood, W A

    1981-07-01

    General design features and manufacturing operations for a high precision machined Zircaloy fuel rod support grid intended for use in advanced light water prebreeder or breeder reactor designs are described. The grid system consists of a Zircaloy main body with fuel rod and guide tube cells machined using wire EDM, a separate AM-350 stainless steel insert spring which fits into a full length T-slot in each fuel rod cell, and a thin (0.025'' or 0.040'' thick) wire EDM machined Zircaloy coverplate laser welded to each side of the grid body to retain the insert springs. The fuel rods are placed in a triangular pitch array with a tight rod-to-rod spacing of 0.063 inch nominal. Two dimples are positioned at the mid-thickness of the grid (single level) with a 90/sup 0/ included angle. Data is provided on the effectiveness of the manufacturing operations chosen for grid machining and assembly.

  3. Recent Results and Progress on Leptonic and Storage Ring EDM Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawall, David

    2016-02-01

    The Standard Model is incomplete and unable to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe. Many extensions of the Standard Model predict new particles and interactions with additional CP-violating phases that can explain this imbalance. Electric dipole moments (EDMs) of fundamental particles, which are generated by CP-violating interactions, can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude by contributions from this new physics to a magnitude within reach of current and planned experiments. New approaches to EDM searches using storage rings, and their sensitivity to new physics are presented.

  4. PNPI differential EDM spectrometer and latest results of measurements of the neutron electric dipole moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebrov, A. P.; Kolomenskiy, E. A.; Pirozhkov, A. N.; Krasnoshchekova, I. A.; Vasiliev, A. V.; Polyushkin, A. O.; Lasakov, M. S.; Murashkin, A. N.; Solovey, V. A.; Fomin, A. K.; Shoka, I. V.; Zherebtsov, O. M.; Alexandrov, E. B.; Dmitriev, S. P.; Dovator, N. A.; Geltenbort, P.; Ivanov, S. N.; Zimmer, O.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the double chamber magnetic resonance spectrometer of the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) designed to measure the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) is briefly described. A method for long storage of polarized ultracold neutrons in a resonance space with a superposed electric field collinear to the leading magnetic field is used. The results of the measurements carried out on the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France) are interpreted as the upper limit of the value of neutron EDM |dn| < 5.5 × 10-26 e cm at the 90% confidence level.

  5. Interim results from the characterization testing of the Engineering Development (EDM) rubidium clocks for satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Edward D., Jr.; Danzy, Fredrick

    1990-01-01

    Some interim results from the environmental testing program to evaluate the Engineering Design Model (EDM) of the EG and G Spaceborne Rubidium Clock are presented. This effort is in support of the Global Positioning System (GPS) BLOCK IIR program and is intended to characterize the performance of EG and G design for BLOCK IIR satellite applications. Two EG and G EDM units are currently under test at NRL's Clock Test Facility to measure the long-term frequency stability, drift, and frequency versus temperature characteristics.

  6. Rb atomic magnetometer toward EDM experiment with laser cooled francium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Ando, Shun; Aoki, Takahiro; Arikawa, Hiroshi; Harada, Ken-Ichi; Hayamizu, Tomohiro; Ishikawa, Taisuke; Itoh, Masatoshi; Kato, Ko; Kawamura, Hirokazu; Sakamoto, Kosuke; Uchiyama, Aiko; Asahi, Koichiro; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2014-09-01

    A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of a particle or an atom is a suited observable to test the physics beyond the standard model. We plan to search for the electron EDM by using the laser cooled francium (Fr) atom, since the Fr atom has a large enhancement factor of the electron EDM and the laser cooling techniques can suppress both statistical and systematic errors. In the EDM experiment, a fluctuation of the magnetic field is a main source of the errors. In order to achieve the high precision magnetometry, a magnetometer based on the nonlinear magneto-optical rotation effect of the Rb atom is under development. A long coherence time of Rb atom is the key issue for the highly sensitive detection of the field fluctuations. The coherence time is limited due both to collisions with an inner surface of a cell contained the Rb atom and to residual field in a magnetic shield. We prepared the cell coated with an anti-relaxation material and measured the relaxation time. A degauss of the shield was performed to eliminate the residual field. We will report the present status of the magnetometer. A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of a particle or an atom is a suited observable to test the physics beyond the standard model. We plan to search for the electron EDM by using the laser cooled francium (Fr) atom, since the Fr atom has a large enhancement factor of the electron EDM and the laser cooling techniques can suppress both statistical and systematic errors. In the EDM experiment, a fluctuation of the magnetic field is a main source of the errors. In order to achieve the high precision magnetometry, a magnetometer based on the nonlinear magneto-optical rotation effect of the Rb atom is under development. A long coherence time of Rb atom is the key issue for the highly sensitive detection of the field fluctuations. The coherence time is limited due both to collisions with an inner surface of a cell contained the Rb atom and to residual field in a magnetic shield

  7. PNPI differential EDM spectrometer and latest results of measurements of the neutron electric dipole moment

    SciTech Connect

    Serebrov, A. P. Kolomenskiy, E. A.; Pirozhkov, A. N.; Krasnoshchekova, I. A.; Vasiliev, A. V.; Polyushkin, A. O.; Lasakov, M. S.; Murashkin, A. N.; Solovey, V. A.; Fomin, A. K.; Shoka, I. V.; Zherebtsov, O. M.; Alexandrov, E. B.; Dmitriev, S. P.; Dovator, N. A.; Geltenbort, P.; Ivanov, S. N.; Zimmer, O.

    2015-12-15

    In this work, the double chamber magnetic resonance spectrometer of the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) designed to measure the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) is briefly described. A method for long storage of polarized ultracold neutrons in a resonance space with a superposed electric field collinear to the leading magnetic field is used. The results of the measurements carried out on the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France) are interpreted as the upper limit of the value of neutron EDM vertical bar d{sub n} vertical bar < 5.5 × 10{sup –26}e cm at the 90% confidence level.

  8. The Supraspliceosome — A Multi-Task Machine for Regulated Pre-mRNA Processing in the Cell Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Shefer, Kinneret; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing of Pol II transcripts is executed in the mammalian cell nucleus within a huge (21 MDa) and highly dynamic RNP machine — the supraspliceosome. It is composed of four splicing active native spliceosomes, each resembling an in vitro assembled spliceosome, which are connected by the pre-mRNA. Supraspliceosomes harbor protein splicing factors and all the five-spliceosomal U snRNPs. Recent analysis of specific supraspliceosomes at defined splicing stages revealed that they harbor all five spliceosomal U snRNAs at all splicing stages. Supraspliceosomes harbor additional pre-mRNA processing components, such as the 5′-end and 3′-end processing components, and the RNA editing enzymes ADAR1 and ADAR2. The structure of the native spliceosome, at a resolution of 20 Å, was determined by cryo-EM. A unique spatial arrangement of the spliceosomal U snRNPs within the native spliceosome emerged from in-silico studies, localizing the five U snRNPs mostly within its large subunit, and sheltering the active core components deep within the spliceosomal cavity. The supraspliceosome provides a platform for coordinating the numerous processing steps that the pre-mRNA undergoes: 5′ and 3′-end processing activities, RNA editing, constitutive and alternative splicing, and processing of intronic microRNAs. It also harbors a quality control mechanism termed suppression of splicing (SOS) that, under normal growth conditions, suppresses splicing at abundant intronic latent 5′ splice sites in a reading frame-dependent fashion. Notably, changes in these regulatory processing activities are associated with human disease and cancer. These findings emphasize the supraspliceosome as a multi-task master regulator of pre-mRNA processing in the cell nucleus. PMID:25408845

  9. Development of a cleaning process for uranium chips machined with a glycol-water-borax coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.

    1984-12-01

    A chip-cleaning process has been developed to remove the new glycol-water-borax coolant from oralloy chips. The process involves storing the freshly cut chips in Freon-TDF until they are cleaned, washing with water, and displacing the water with Freon-TDF. The wash water can be reused many times and still yield clean chips and then be added to the coolant to make up for evaporative losses. The Freon-TDF will be cycled by evaporation. The cleaning facility is currently being designed and should be operational by April 1985.

  10. An analysis of metropolitan land-use by machine processing of earth resources technology satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mausel, P. W.; Todd, W. J.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    A successful application of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology in classifying an urban area into its broad land use classes is reported. This research proves that numerous urban features are amenable to classification using ERTS multispectral data automatically processed by computer. Furthermore, such automatic data processing (ADP) techniques permit areal analysis on an unprecedented scale with a minimum expenditure of time. Also, classification results obtained using ADP procedures are consistent, comparable, and replicable. The results of classification are compared with the proposed U. S. G. S. land use classification system in order to determine the level of classification that is feasible to obtain through ERTS analysis of metropolitan areas.

  11. Using a design of experiment method to improve KDP crystal machining process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaye, Philippe; Chomont, Christian; Dumont, Pierre; Duchesne, Jacky; Chabassier, Genevieve

    1999-07-01

    Surface quality is an important issue for KDP crystal implemented in high power lasers. Single Point Diamond Turning is the only way to get the required transmitted wavefront and damage threshold, specially in the UV band of the laser Megajoule. The aim of the process development was to reach an rms roughness lower than 3 nm using a vertical fly-cutter, an appropriate cleaning equipment and an interferometric microscope for measurements. A Taguchi Design of Experiment method has been sued to optimize the fly-cutting process parameters on 100 X 100 mm2 KDP crystals.

  12. Using a design of experiment method to improve KDP crystal machining process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaye, Philippe; Chomont, Christian; Dumont, Pierre; Duchesne, Jacky; Chabassier, Genevieve

    1999-09-01

    Surface quality is an important issue for KDP crystals implemented in high power lasers. Single Point Diamond Turning is the only way to get the required transmitted wavefront and damage threshold, especially in the UV band of the laser Megajoule. The aim of the process development was to reach an rms roughness lower than 3 nm using a vertical fly-cutter, an appropriate cleaning equipment and an interferometric microscope for measurements. A Taguchi Design of Experiment method has been used to optimize the fly-cutting process parameters on 100 X 100 mm2 KDP crystals.

  13. Machine learning for molecular scattering dynamics: Gaussian Process models for improved predictions of molecular collision observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krems, Roman; Cui, Jie; Li, Zhiying

    2016-05-01

    We show how statistical learning techniques based on kriging (Gaussian Process regression) can be used for improving the predictions of classical and/or quantum scattering theory. In particular, we show how Gaussian Process models can be used for: (i) efficient non-parametric fitting of multi-dimensional potential energy surfaces without the need to fit ab initio data with analytical functions; (ii) obtaining scattering observables as functions of individual PES parameters; (iii) using classical trajectories to interpolate quantum results; (iv) extrapolation of scattering observables from one molecule to another; (v) obtaining scattering observables with error bars reflecting the inherent inaccuracy of the underlying potential energy surfaces. We argue that the application of Gaussian Process models to quantum scattering calculations may potentially elevate the theoretical predictions to the same level of certainty as the experimental measurements and can be used to identify the role of individual atoms in determining the outcome of collisions of complex molecules. We will show examples and discuss the applications of Gaussian Process models to improving the predictions of scattering theory relevant for the cold molecules research field. Work supported by NSERC of Canada.

  14. Measurement and Processing of Fast Pulsed Discharge Current in Plasma Focus Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Saw, S. H.; Rawat, R. S.; Lee, P.; Verma, R.; Talebitaher, A.; Hassan, S. M.; Abdou, A. E.; Ismail, Mohamed; Mohamed, Amgad; Torreblanca, H.; Al Hawat, Sh.; Akel, M.; Chong, P. L.; Roy, F.; Singh, A.; Wong, D.; Devi, K.

    2012-04-01

    The fast pulsed electric discharge current drives all physical processes in the plasma focus device; in turn all physical processes in the focus affect the current waveform. Thus the discharge current waveform is the most important indicator of plasma focus performance. This underlies the importance of properly measuring, processing and interpreting the discharge current waveform. This paper reports the measurement of fast pulsed discharge current by the Rogowski coil, in two different modes: the current transformer, "I" mode, and current derivative, "Idot" mode. The processing and interpretation of recorded current waveform to obtain useful information about the physical processes in the plasma focus device are discussed. The current transformer with a large number of turns and a sub-1 Ohm terminator has good high frequency response, necessary for the sharp current dip region when dI/ dt exceeds 2 × 1011 A/s. However the signal is "noisy" in the current dip region. Several methods to extract the current dip from the noise are discussed and examples of how low pass filters affect the signals are shown. The dI/ dt coil, the Rogowski coil in "Idot" mode, with a few turns terminated by 50-Ohm is also described. Integrating the 1 GSa/s digital waveform does remove the high frequency noise components, yet the extracted waveform shows sharp angular features indicative of the retention of short-time features. This makes the dI/ dt coil superior to the current transformer. A 7-turn coil is tested against the Lee Model code and found to be suitable to measure the plasma focus discharge current.

  15. Adaptive automation of human-machine system information-processing functions.

    PubMed

    Kaber, David B; Wright, Melanie C; Prinzel, Lawrence J; Clamann, Michael P

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research was to describe the ability of human operators to interact with adaptive automation (AA) applied to various stages of complex systems information processing, defined in a model of human-automation interaction. Forty participants operated a simulation of an air traffic control task. Automated assistance was adaptively applied to information acquisition, information analysis, decision making, and action implementation aspects of the task based on operator workload states, which were measured using a secondary task. The differential effects of the forms of automation were determined and compared with a manual control condition. Results of two 20-min trials of AA or manual control revealed a significant effect of the type of automation on performance, particularly during manual control periods as part of the adaptive conditions. Humans appear to better adapt to AA applied to sensory and psychomotor information-processing functions (action implementation) than to AA applied to cognitive functions (information analysis and decision making), and AA is superior to completely manual control. Potential applications of this research include the design of automation to support air traffic controller information processing.

  16. Digital signal processing control of induction machine`s torque and stator flux utilizing the direct stator flux field orientation method

    SciTech Connect

    Seiz, J.B.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents a review of the Direct Stator Flux Field Orientation control method. This method can be used to control an induction motor`s torque and flux directly and is the application of interest for this thesis. This control method is implemented without the traditional feedback loops and associated hardware. Predictions are made, by mathematical calculations, of the stator voltage vector. The voltage vector is determined twice a switching period. The switching period is fixed throughout the analysis. The three phase inverter duty cycle necessary to control the torque and flux of the induction machine is determined by the voltage space vector Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique. Transient performance of either the flux or torque requires an alternate modulation scheme which is also addressed in this thesis. A block diagram of this closed loop system is provided. 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Parallel Algorithm for GPU Processing; for use in High Speed Machine Vision Sensing of Cotton Lint Trash

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Mathew G.

    2008-01-01

    One of the main hurdles standing in the way of optimal cleaning of cotton lint is the lack of sensing systems that can react fast enough to provide the control system with real-time information as to the level of trash contamination of the cotton lint. This research examines the use of programmable graphic processing units (GPU) as an alternative to the PC's traditional use of the central processing unit (CPU). The use of the GPU, as an alternative computation platform, allowed for the machine vision system to gain a significant improvement in processing time. By improving the processing time, this research seeks to address the lack of availability of rapid trash sensing systems and thus alleviate a situation in which the current systems view the cotton lint either well before, or after, the cotton is cleaned. This extended lag/lead time that is currently imposed on the cotton trash cleaning control systems, is what is responsible for system operators utilizing a very large dead-band safety buffer in order to ensure that the cotton lint is not under-cleaned. Unfortunately, the utilization of a large dead-band buffer results in the majority of the cotton lint being over-cleaned which in turn causes lint fiber-damage as well as significant losses of the valuable lint due to the excessive use of cleaning machinery. This research estimates that upwards of a 30% reduction in lint loss could be gained through the use of a tightly coupled trash sensor to the cleaning machinery control systems. This research seeks to improve processing times through the development of a new algorithm for cotton trash sensing that allows for implementation on a highly parallel architecture. Additionally, by moving the new parallel algorithm onto an alternative computing platform, the graphic processing unit “GPU”, for processing of the cotton trash images, a speed up of over 6.5 times, over optimized code running on the PC's central processing unit “CPU”, was gained. The new

  18. On-Machine Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, K.F.

    2000-02-14

    Probing processes are used intermittently and not effectively as an on-line measurement device. This project was needed to evolve machine probing from merely a setup aid to an on-the-machine inspection system. Use of probing for on-machine inspection would significantly decrease cycle time by elimination of the need for first-piece inspection (at a remote location). Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) had the manufacturing facility and the ability to integrate the system into production. The Contractor had a system that could optimize the machine tool to compensate for thermal growth and related error.

  19. Ultra precision machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debra, Daniel B.; Hesselink, Lambertus; Binford, Thomas

    1990-05-01

    There are a number of fields that require or can use to advantage very high precision in machining. For example, further development of high energy lasers and x ray astronomy depend critically on the manufacture of light weight reflecting metal optical components. To fabricate these optical components with machine tools they will be made of metal with mirror quality surface finish. By mirror quality surface finish, it is meant that the dimensions tolerances on the order of 0.02 microns and surface roughness of 0.07. These accuracy targets fall in the category of ultra precision machining. They cannot be achieved by a simple extension of conventional machining processes and techniques. They require single crystal diamond tools, special attention to vibration isolation, special isolation of machine metrology, and on line correction of imperfection in the motion of the machine carriages on their way.

  20. Machining of uranium and uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, T.O.

    1981-12-14

    Uranium and uranium alloys can be readily machined by conventional methods in the standard machine shop when proper safety and operating techniques are used. Material properties that affect machining processes and recommended machining parameters are discussed. Safety procedures and precautions necessary in machining uranium and uranium alloys are also covered. 30 figures.

  1. How fine-tuned is a large Muon EDM from Flavor?

    SciTech Connect

    Rueppell, Timo

    2010-02-10

    We study the possibility of having a large muon electric dipole moment (EDM) of the order 10{sup -24}-10{sup -22} ecm. We quantify how natural such a value is within the general minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model with CP violation from lepton flavor violation.

  2. Technique for Machining Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Process for machining glass with conventional carbide tools requires a small quantity of a lubricant for aluminum applied to area of glass to be machined. A carbide tool is then placed against workpiece with light pressure. Tool is raised periodically to clear work of glass dust and particles. Additional lubricant is applied as it is displaced.

  3. Machining heavy plastic sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalkup, O. M.

    1967-01-01

    Machining technique produces consistently satisfactory plane-parallel optical surfaces for pressure windows, made of plexiglass, required to support a photographic study of liquid rocket combustion processes. The surfaces are machined and polished to the required tolerances and show no degradation from stress relaxation over periods as long as 6 months.

  4. Monte Carlo point process estimation of electromyographic envelopes from motor cortical spikes for brain-machine interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yuxi; She, Xiwei; Wang, Yiwen; Zhang, Shaomin; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Principe, Jose C.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Representation of movement in the motor cortex (M1) has been widely studied in brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). The electromyogram (EMG) has greater bandwidth than the conventional kinematic variables (such as position, velocity), and is functionally related to the discharge of cortical neurons. As the stochastic information of EMG is derived from the explicit spike time structure, point process (PP) methods will be a good solution for decoding EMG directly from neural spike trains. Previous studies usually assume linear or exponential tuning curves between neural firing and EMG, which may not be true. Approach. In our analysis, we estimate the tuning curves in a data-driven way and find both the traditional functional-excitatory and functional-inhibitory neurons, which are widely found across a rat’s motor cortex. To accurately decode EMG envelopes from M1 neural spike trains, the Monte Carlo point process (MCPP) method is implemented based on such nonlinear tuning properties. Main results. Better reconstruction of EMG signals is shown on baseline and extreme high peaks, as our method can better preserve the nonlinearity of the neural tuning during decoding. The MCPP improves the prediction accuracy (the normalized mean squared error) 57% and 66% on average compared with the adaptive point process filter using linear and exponential tuning curves respectively, for all 112 data segments across six rats. Compared to a Wiener filter using spike rates with an optimal window size of 50 ms, MCPP decoding EMG from a point process improves the normalized mean square error (NMSE) by 59% on average. Significance. These results suggest that neural tuning is constantly changing during task execution and therefore, the use of spike timing methodologies and estimation of appropriate tuning curves needs to be undertaken for better EMG decoding in motor BMIs.

  5. Viral capsid assembly as a model for protein aggregation diseases: Active processes catalyzed by cellular assembly machines comprising novel drug targets.

    PubMed

    Marreiros, Rita; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Bader, Verian; Selvarajah, Suganya; Dey, Debendranath; Lingappa, Vishwanath R; Korth, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Viruses can be conceptualized as self-replicating multiprotein assemblies, containing coding nucleic acids. Viruses have evolved to exploit host cellular components including enzymes to ensure their replicative life cycle. New findings indicate that also viral capsid proteins recruit host factors to accelerate their assembly. These assembly machines are RNA-containing multiprotein complexes whose composition is governed by allosteric sites. In the event of viral infection, the assembly machines are recruited to support the virus over the host and are modified to achieve that goal. Stress granules and processing bodies may represent collections of such assembly machines, readily visible by microscopy but biochemically labile and difficult to isolate by fractionation. We hypothesize that the assembly of protein multimers such as encountered in neurodegenerative or other protein conformational diseases, is also catalyzed by assembly machines. In the case of viral infection, the assembly machines have been modified by the virus to meet the virus' need for rapid capsid assembly rather than host homeostasis. In the case of the neurodegenerative diseases, it is the monomers and/or low n oligomers of the so-called aggregated proteins that are substrates of assembly machines. Examples for substrates are amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and tau in Alzheimer's disease, α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease, prions in the prion diseases, Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) in subsets of chronic mental illnesses, and others. A likely continuum between virus capsid assembly and cell-to-cell transmissibility of aggregated proteins is remarkable. Protein aggregation diseases may represent dysfunction and dysregulation of these assembly machines analogous to the aberrations induced by viral infection in which cellular homeostasis is pathologically reprogrammed. In this view, as for viral infection, reset of assembly machines to normal homeostasis should be the goal of protein aggregation

  6. Physics-based simulation modeling and optimization of microstructural changes induced by machining and selective laser melting processes in titanium and nickel based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arisoy, Yigit Muzaffer

    Manufacturing processes may significantly affect the quality of resultant surfaces and structural integrity of the metal end products. Controlling manufacturing process induced changes to the product's surface integrity may improve the fatigue life and overall reliability of the end product. The goal of this study is to model the phenomena that result in microstructural alterations and improve the surface integrity of the manufactured parts by utilizing physics-based process simulations and other computational methods. Two different (both conventional and advanced) manufacturing processes; i.e. machining of Titanium and Nickel-based alloys and selective laser melting of Nickel-based powder alloys are studied. 3D Finite Element (FE) process simulations are developed and experimental data that validates these process simulation models are generated to compare against predictions. Computational process modeling and optimization have been performed for machining induced microstructure that includes; i) predicting recrystallization and grain size using FE simulations and the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) model, ii) predicting microhardness using non-linear regression models and the Random Forests method, and iii) multi-objective machining optimization for minimizing microstructural changes. Experimental analysis and computational process modeling of selective laser melting have been also conducted including; i) microstructural analysis of grain sizes and growth directions using SEM imaging and machine learning algorithms, ii) analysis of thermal imaging for spattering, heating/cooling rates and meltpool size, iii) predicting thermal field, meltpool size, and growth directions via thermal gradients using 3D FE simulations, iv) predicting localized solidification using the Phase Field method. These computational process models and predictive models, once utilized by industry to optimize process parameters, have the ultimate potential to improve performance of

  7. Are "infinity machines" paradoxical? Can processes involving an infinite sequence of operations or "acts" be completed in a finite time?

    PubMed

    Grünbaum, A

    1968-01-26

    The mathematical physicist Hermann Weyl (2) has claimed that, unless machines can accomplish an infinite sequence of distinct operations in a finite time, the standard mathematical theory of motion is beset by one of Zeno's kinematical paradoxes. Hence I have compared the kinematics of several such "infinity machines" to the kinematics of the continuous motion of Achilles. And I have argued that, while some designs for infinity machines are indeed inconsistent, others are not impossible on purely kinematical grounds. This argument was coupled with several reasons for denying Zeno's and A. N. Whitehead's allegation of paradox against the mathematical, description of the motion of Achilles. PMID:5634657

  8. Support Vector Machine (SVM) Models for Predicting Inhibitors of the 3' Processing Step of HIV-1 Integrase.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Shouyi; Wang, Maolin; Kang, Hang; Kirchmair, Johannes; Tan, Lu; Yan, Aixia

    2013-10-01

    Inhibition of the 3' processing step of HIV-1 integrase by small molecule inhibitors is one of the most promising strategies for the treatment of AIDS. Using a support vector machine (SVM) approach, we developed six classification models for predicting 3'P inhibitors. The models are based on up to 48 selected molecular descriptors and a comprehensive data set of 1253 molecules, with measured activities ranging from nanomolar to micromolar IC50 values. Model B2, the most robust SVM model, obtains a prediction accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 93 %, 81 %, 94 % and 0.67 on the test set, respectively. The presence of hydrogen bonding features and hydrophilicity in general were identified as key determinants of inhibitory activity. Further important properties include molecular refractivity, π atom charge, total charge, lone pair electronegativity, and effective atom polarizability. Comparative fragment-based analysis of the active and inactive molecules corroborated these observations and revealed several characteristic structural elements of 3'P inhibitors. The models built in this study can be obtained from the authors.

  9. OPTICAM machine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedes, Jyrki T.

    1992-01-01

    Rank Pneumo has worked with the Center of Optics Manufacturing to design a multiple-axis flexible machining center for spherical lens fabrication. The OPTICAM/SM prototype machine has been developed in cooperation with the Center's Manufacturing Advisory Board. The SM will generate, fine grind, pre-polish, and center a spherical lens surface in one setup sequence. Unique features of the design incorporate machine resident metrology to provide RQM (Real-time Quality Management) and closed-loop feedback control that corrects for lens thickness, diameter, and centering error. SPC (Statistical Process Control) software can compensate for process drift and QA data collection is provided without additional labor.

  10. Machine tools get smarter

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1995-11-01

    This article describes how, using software, sensors, and controllers, a new generation of intelligent machine tools are optimizing grinding, milling, and molding processes. A paradox of manufacturing parts is that the faster the parts are made, the less accurate they are--and vice versa. However, a combination of software, sensors, controllers, and mechanical innovations are being used to create a new generation of intelligent machine tools capable of optimizing their own grinding, milling, and molding processes. These brainy tools are allowing manufacturers to machine more-complex, higher-quality parts in shorter cycle times. The technology also lowers scrap rates and reduces or eliminates the need for polishing inadequately finished parts.

  11. Gauge invariant Barr-Zee type contributions to fermionic EDMs in the two-Higgs doublet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Tomohiro; Hisano, Junji; Kitahara, Teppei; Tobioka, Kohsaku

    2014-01-01

    We calculate all gauge invariant Barr-Zee type contributions to fermionic electric dipole moments (EDMs) in the two-Higgs doublet models (2HDM) with softly broken Z 2 symmetry. We start by studying the tensor structure of h → VV ' part in the Barr-Zee diagrams, and we calculate the effective couplings in a gauge invariant way by using the pinch technique. Then we calculate all Barr-Zee diagrams relevant for electron and neutron EDMs. We make bounds on the parameter space in type-I, type-II, type-X, and type-Y 2HDMs. The electron and neutron EDMs are complementary to each other in discrimination of the 2HDMs. Type-II and type-X 2HDMs are strongly constrained by recent ACME experiment's result, and future experiments of electron and neutron EDMs may search (10) TeV physics.

  12. Processing and Characterization of Novel Biomimetic Nanoporous Bioceramic Surface on β-Ti Implant by Powder Mixed Electric Discharge Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Chander; Kansal, H. K.; Pabla, B. S.; Puri, Sanjeev

    2015-09-01

    Herein, a β-Ti-based implant was subjected to powder mixed electric discharge machining (PMEDM) for surface modification to produce a novel biomimetic nanoporous bioceramic surface. The microstructure, surface topography, and phase composition of the non-machined and machined (PMEDMed) surfaces were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The microhardness of the surfaces was measured on a Vickers hardness tester. The corrosion resistance of the surfaces was evaluated via potentiodynamic polarization measurements in simulated body fluid. The application of PMEDM not only altered the surface chemistry, but also imparted the surface with a nanoporous topography or a natural bone-like surface structure. The characterization results confirmed that the alloyed layer mainly comprised bioceramic oxides and carbide phases (TiO2, Nb2O5, ZrO2, SiO2, TiC, NbC, SiC). The microhardness of PMEDMed surface was twofold higher than that of the base material (β-Ti alloy), primarily because of the formation of the hard carbide phases on the machined layer. Electrochemical analysis revealed that PMEDMed surface featured insulative and protective properties and thus displayed higher corrosion resistance ability when compared with the non-machined surface. This result was attributed to the formation of the bioceramic oxides on the machined surface. Additionally, the in vitro biocompatibility of the surfaces was evaluated using human osteoblastic cell line MG-63. PMEDMed surface with a micro-, sub-micro-, and nano-structured topography exhibited bioactivity and improved biocompatibility relative to β-Ti surface. Furthermore, PMEDMed surface enabled better adhesion and growth of MG-63 when compared with the non-machined substrate.

  13. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods. PMID:24272434

  14. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  15. Laser machining - Theory and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Chryssolouris, G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments and the state of the art in the field of laser machining are reviewed with emphasis on practical applications. First, an overview of conventional material removing processes is presented. Laser machining systems are then described, and an overview is provided of the necessary knowledge from heat transfer and fluid mechanics required in order to understand the physical mechanisms and thermal processes associated with laser machining. The applications of laser machining discussed include drilling, cutting, marking, and three-dimensional machining of metals, ceramics, plastics, composites, and other materials, and micromachining. 209 refs.

  16. Progress Toward a Ten-Times Better Measurement of the Electron's EDM with ThO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Brendon; Andreev, Vitaly; Ang, Daniel; Baron, Jacob; Demille, David; Doyle, John; Gabrielse, Gerald; Hutzler, Nicholas; Lasner, Zack; Panda, Cristian; Petrik, Elizabeth; Weber, Christian; West, Adam; Wilburn, Grey; ACME Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The ACME experiment recently improved the limit on the electron's electric dipole moment (EDM) by a factor of 10 by performing spin-precession measurements on a molecular beam of ThO. Since that measurement, we have implemented and demonstrated a series of improvements that will increase the statistical sensitivity to the EDM by another factor of 10, including methods to increase the efficiency of molecular state preparation and detection. Additional improvements are projected to suppress known systematic errors to a level below the new target statistical uncertainty. The largest systematic errors in our first measurement arose due to thermal stress-induced birefringence and an E1-M1 interference effect; we will describe our approach to dramatically reduce each of these effects.

  17. CATSI EDM: recent advances in the development and validation of a ruggedized passive standoff CWA sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoie, Hugo; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Bouffard, François; Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Lacasse, Paul

    2008-04-01

    Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) - Valcartier is currently developing a ruggedized passive standoff sensor for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) based on differential Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) radiometry. This system is referred to as the Compact ATmospheric Sounding Interferometer (CATSI) Engineering Development Model (EDM). The CATSI EDM sensor is based on the use of a double-beam FTIR spectrometer that is optimized for optical subtraction. A description of the customized sensor is given along with a discussion on the detection and identification approaches that have been developed. Preliminary results of validation from a number of laboratory measurements and open-air trials are analyzed to establish the capability of detection and identification of various toxic and non-toxic chemical vapor plumes. These results clearly demonstrate the capability of the passive differential radiometric approach for the standoff detection and identification of chemical vapors at distances up to a few kilometers from the sensor.

  18. Characterization of a gene from the EDM1-PSACH region of human chromosome 19p

    SciTech Connect

    Lennon, G.G.; Giorgi, D.; Martin, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    Genetic linkage mapping has indicated that both multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (EDM1), a dominantly inherited chondrodysplasia, and pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH), a skeletal disorder associated with dwarfism, map to a 2-3 Mb region of human chromosome 19p. We have isolated a partial cDNA from this region using hybrid selection, and report on progress towards the characterization of the genomic structure and transcription of the corresponding gene. Sequence analysis of the cDNA to date indicates that this gene is likely to be expressed within extracellular matrix tissues. Defects in this gene or neighboring gene family members may therefore lead to EDM1, PSACH, or other connective tissue and skeletal disorders.

  19. Nuclear Spin Maser at Highly Stabilized Low Magnetic Field and Search for Atomic EDM

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimi, A.; Asahi, K.; Inoue, T.; Uchida, M.; Hatakeyama, N.; Tsuchiya, M.; Kagami, S.

    2009-08-04

    A nuclear spin maser is operated at a low static field through an active feedback scheme based on an optical nuclear spin detection and succeeding spin control by a transverse field application. The frequency stability of this optical-coupling spin maser is improved by installation of a low-noise current source for a solenoid magnet producing a static magnetic field in the maser operation. Experimental devices for application of the maser to EDM experiment are being developed.

  20. Broadband Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy of Molecular Ions for Use in the Jila Electron Edm Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresh, Daniel N.; Cossel, Kevin C.; Cornell, Eric A.; Ye, Jun

    2013-06-01

    The JILA electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) experiment will use a low-lying, metastable ^3Δ_1 state in trapped molecular ions of HfF^+ or ThF^+. Prior to this work, the low-lying states of these molecules had been investigated by PFI-ZEKE spectroscopy. However, there were no detailed studies of the electronic structure. The recently developed technique of frequency comb velocity modulation spectroscopy (VMS) provides broad-bandwidth, high-resolution, ion-sensitive spectroscopy, allowing the acquisition of 150 cm^{-1} of continuous spectra in 30 minutes over 1500 simultaneous channels. By supplementing this technique with cw-laser VMS, we have investigated the electronic structure of HfF^+ in the frequency range of 9950 to 14600 cm^{-1}, accurately fitting and assigning 16 rovibronic transitions involving 8 different electronic states including the X^1Σ^+ and a^3Δ_1 states. In addition, an observed ^3Π_{0+} state with coupling to both the X and a states has been used in the actual eEDM experiment to coherently transfer population from the rovibronic ground state of HfF^+ to the eEDM science state. Furthermore, we report on current efforts of applying frequency comb VMS at 700 - 900 nm to the study of ThF^+, which has a lower energy ^3Δ_1 state and a greater effective electric field, and will provide increased sensitivity for a measurement of the eEDM. A. E. Leanhardt et. al., Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 270, 1-25 (2011). B. J. Barker, I. O. Antonov, M. C. Heaven, K. A. Peterson, Journal of Chemical Physics 136, 104305 (2012). L. C. Sinclair, K. C. Cossel, T. Coffey, J. Ye, E. A. Cornell, Physical Review Letters 107, 093002 (2011). K.C. Cossel et. al., Chemical Physics Letters 546, 1-11 (2012).

  1. Lepton Flavour Violation and electron EDM in SUSY with a non-abelian flavour symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Calibbi, Lorenzo

    2008-11-23

    We present the lepton sector phenomenology of a supersymmetric flavour model based on a SU(3) horizontal symmetry. This model successfully reproduces the observed fermion masses and mixings, without introducing unacceptably large SUSY sources of flavour and CP violation. We show that the model, which is at present weakly constrained, predicts the electron EDM and {mu}{yields}e,y to be within the final sensitivity of the currently running experiments, at least for SUSY masses within the reach of the LHC.

  2. A Telesurveillance System With Automatic Electrocardiogram Interpretation Based on Support Vector Machine and Rule-Based Processing

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Miao; Lai, Feipei; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Hung, Chi-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Telehealth care is a global trend affecting clinical practice around the world. To mitigate the workload of health professionals and provide ubiquitous health care, a comprehensive surveillance system with value-added services based on information technologies must be established. Objective We conducted this study to describe our proposed telesurveillance system designed for monitoring and classifying electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and to evaluate the performance of ECG classification. Methods We established a telesurveillance system with an automatic ECG interpretation mechanism. The system included: (1) automatic ECG signal transmission via telecommunication, (2) ECG signal processing, including noise elimination, peak estimation, and feature extraction, (3) automatic ECG interpretation based on the support vector machine (SVM) classifier and rule-based processing, and (4) display of ECG signals and their analyzed results. We analyzed 213,420 ECG signals that were diagnosed by cardiologists as the gold standard to verify the classification performance. Results In the clinical ECG database from the Telehealth Center of the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH), the experimental results showed that the ECG classifier yielded a specificity value of 96.66% for normal rhythm detection, a sensitivity value of 98.50% for disease recognition, and an accuracy value of 81.17% for noise detection. For the detection performance of specific diseases, the recognition model mainly generated sensitivity values of 92.70% for atrial fibrillation, 89.10% for pacemaker rhythm, 88.60% for atrial premature contraction, 72.98% for T-wave inversion, 62.21% for atrial flutter, and 62.57% for first-degree atrioventricular block. Conclusions Through connected telehealth care devices, the telesurveillance system, and the automatic ECG interpretation system, this mechanism was intentionally designed for continuous decision-making support and is reliable enough to reduce the

  3. DNA-based machines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications.

  4. DNA-based machines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications. PMID:24647836

  5. Sensitivity Reach of the Neutron EDM Experiment: The Electric Field Strength

    SciTech Connect

    Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Cooper, M.; Currie, S. A.; Makela, M. F.; Ramsey, J. C.; Tajima, S.; Womack, T. L.; Long, J. C.; Stanislaus, S.

    2010-08-04

    The search for an electric dipole moment of the neutron tests physics beyond the Standard Model such as new sources of CP-violation and Supersymmetry. The nEDM experiment aims to improve the sensitivity on the current limit of the electric dipole moment of the neutron to <10{sup -27} e{center_dot}cm. The experiment will use a flux of Ultra Cold Neutrons (UCNs) produced and stored in a bath of superfluid He-II. A change in precession frequency is expected for a non-zero EDM when an electric field is applied parallel and antiparallel to a magnetic field across the neutron storage cell. A dominant parameter in terms of reducing the statistical uncertainty of this measurement is the strength of the applied electric field. An experiment to measure if superfluid He-II can sustain up to 50 kV/cm for a volume and electrode spacings comparable to the nEDM experiment has been constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It consists in a large-area parallel plate capacitor immersed in a 200 liter central volume inside a suitable cryostat that in turn is connected to a dilution refrigerator unit. A description of test runs and the status of the experiment is presented.

  6. Three-dimensional spiral injection scheme for the g-2/EDM experiment at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iinuma, Hiromi; Nakayama, Hisayoshi; Oide, Katsunobu; Sasaki, Ken-ichi; Saito, Naohito; Mibe, Tsutomu; Abe, Mitsushi

    2016-10-01

    A newly developed three-dimensional spiral injection scheme for beam insertion into a solenoidal storage ring is reported. A new planned muon g-2/EDM experiment at J-PARC aims to measure g - 2 to a factor of 5 better statistical precision and a factor of 100 better sensitivity for the electric dipole moment (EDM) measurement compared to previous experiments. The J-PARC experiment will use a 3-T MRI solenoid magnet as the muon storage ring with a 0.66 m diameter to achieve a 1-ppm level of local uniformity. The previous g - 2 injection scheme is not applicable for beam injection into a small ring. The new scheme provides a smooth injection utilizing a radial solenoidal fringe field, without causing an error field in the storage volume. The expected storage efficiency is 80% and over, which is to be compared to 3.5% for the previous g - 2 experiment. In addition, the ability to control the storage plane is important for the EDM measurement. In this paper, we introduce the conceptual design and required beam parameters in terms of Twiss functions and the expected injection efficiency.

  7. New Results from a Search for the Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) of 99Hg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckel, Blayne

    2015-05-01

    The measurement of a nonzero EDM of an atom or elementary particle, at current levels of experimental sensitivity, would imply CP violation beyond the CKM matrix of the Standard Model. Additional sources of CP violation have been proposed to help explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry observed in our universe and the magnitude of ΘQCD, the strength of CP-violation in the strong interaction, remains unknown. We have recently completed a set of measurements on the EDM of 199Hg, sensitive to both new sources of CP violation and ΘQCD.The experiment compares the phase accumulated by precessing Hg atom spins in vapor cells with electric fields parallel and anti-parallel to a common magnetic field. The statistical sensitivity of new measurements represents a factor of 3 to 4 improvement over previous results. A description of the EDM experiment and the data, along with the current state of the systematic error analysis, will be presented. This work was supported by NSF Grant PHY-1306743 and by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Award Number DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  8. Electric machine

    SciTech Connect

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  9. Nonplanar machines

    SciTech Connect

    Ritson, D. )

    1989-05-01

    This talk examines methods available to minimize, but never entirely eliminate, degradation of machine performance caused by terrain following. Breaking of planar machine symmetry for engineering convenience and/or monetary savings must be balanced against small performance degradation, and can only be decided on a case-by-case basis. 5 refs.

  10. Meso-Machining Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    BENAVIDES,GILBERT L.; ADAMS,DAVID P.; YANG,PIN

    2001-06-01

    Meso-scale manufacturing processes are bridging the gap between silicon-based MEMS processes and conventional miniature machining. These processes can fabricate two and three-dimensional parts having micron size features in traditional materials such as stainless steels, rare earth magnets, ceramics, and glass. Meso-scale processes that are currently available include, focused ion beam sputtering, micro-milling, micro-turning, excimer laser ablation, femtosecond laser ablation, and micro electro discharge machining. These meso-scale processes employ subtractive machining technologies (i.e., material removal), unlike LIGA, which is an additive meso-scale process. Meso-scale processes have different material capabilities and machining performance specifications. Machining performance specifications of interest include minimum feature size, feature tolerance, feature location accuracy, surface finish, and material removal rate. Sandia National Laboratories is developing meso-scale mechanical components and actuators which require meso-scale parts fabricated in a variety of materials. Subtractive meso-scale manufacturing processes expand the functionality of meso-scale components and complement silicon based MEMS and LIGA technologies.

  11. A Prototyping Environment for Research on Human-Machine Interfaces in Process Control: Use of Microsoft WPF for Microworld and Distributed Control System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Thomas A. Ulrich

    2014-08-01

    Operators of critical processes, such as nuclear power production, must contend with highly complex systems, procedures, and regulations. Developing human-machine interfaces (HMIs) that better support operators is a high priority for ensuring the safe and reliable operation of critical processes. Human factors engineering (HFE) provides a rich and mature set of tools for evaluating the performance of HMIs, but the set of tools for developing and designing HMIs is still in its infancy. Here we propose that Microsoft Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) is well suited for many roles in the research and development of HMIs for process control.

  12. Machine Tool Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  13. Permutation Machines.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Swapnil; LaBoda, Craig; Yanez, Vanessa; Haddock-Angelli, Traci; Densmore, Douglas

    2016-08-19

    We define a new inversion-based machine called a permuton of n genetic elements, which allows the n elements to be rearranged in any of the n·(n - 1)·(n - 2)···2 = n! distinct orderings. We present two design algorithms for architecting such a machine. We define a notion of a feasible design and use the framework to discuss the feasibility of the permuton architectures. We have implemented our design algorithms in a freely usable web-accessible software for exploration of these machines. Permutation machines could be used as memory elements or state machines and explicitly illustrate a rational approach to designing biological systems.

  14. Permutation Machines.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Swapnil; LaBoda, Craig; Yanez, Vanessa; Haddock-Angelli, Traci; Densmore, Douglas

    2016-08-19

    We define a new inversion-based machine called a permuton of n genetic elements, which allows the n elements to be rearranged in any of the n·(n - 1)·(n - 2)···2 = n! distinct orderings. We present two design algorithms for architecting such a machine. We define a notion of a feasible design and use the framework to discuss the feasibility of the permuton architectures. We have implemented our design algorithms in a freely usable web-accessible software for exploration of these machines. Permutation machines could be used as memory elements or state machines and explicitly illustrate a rational approach to designing biological systems. PMID:27383067

  15. Laser machining of ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Laudel, A.

    1980-01-01

    The Kansas City Division of The Bendix Corporation manufactures hybrid microcircuits (HMCs) using both thin film and thick film technologies. Laser machining is used to contour the ceramic substrates and to drill holes in the ceramic for frontside-backside interconnections (vias) and holes for mounting components. A 1000 W CO/sub 2/ type laser is used. The laser machining process, and methods used for removing protruding debris and debris from holes, for cleaning the machined surfaces, and for refiring are described. The laser machining process described consistently produces vias, component holes and contours with acceptable surface quality, hole locations, diameter, flatness and metallization adhesion. There are no cracks indicated by dipping in fluorescent dye penetrant and the substances are resistant to repeated thermal shock.

  16. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  17. Opticam PM machine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedes, Jyrki T.

    1992-12-01

    Rank Pneumo has worked with the Center for Optics Manufacturing and the Center's Manufacturing Advisory Board to design a multi-axis prism grinding machine. The Opticam PM is a three axis, high precision CNC reciprocating grinder. It is designed for the automated manufacturing of glass prisms. Unique features of the design incorporate electrolytic in- process dressing of the finishing wheel, nested grinding wheels and machine resident metrology to provide RQM (Real-time Quality Management).

  18. Diamond machine tool face lapping machine

    DOEpatents

    Yetter, H.H.

    1985-05-06

    An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

  19. Machine learning and radiology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers.

  20. Machine Learning and Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  1. Automated Classification of Radiology Reports for Acute Lung Injury: Comparison of Keyword and Machine Learning Based Natural Language Processing Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Solti, Imre; Cooke, Colin R.; Xia, Fei; Wurfel, Mark M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of keyword and machine learning-based chest x-ray report classification for Acute Lung Injury (ALI). ALI mortality is approximately 30 percent. High mortality is, in part, a consequence of delayed manual chest x-ray classification. An automated system could reduce the time to recognize ALI and lead to reductions in mortality. For our study, 96 and 857 chest x-ray reports in two corpora were labeled by domain experts for ALI. We developed a keyword and a Maximum Entropy-based classification system. Word unigram and character n-grams provided the features for the machine learning system. The Maximum Entropy algorithm with character 6-gram achieved the highest performance (Recall=0.91, Precision=0.90 and F-measure=0.91) on the 857-report corpus. This study has shown that for the classification of ALI chest x-ray reports, the machine learning approach is superior to the keyword based system and achieves comparable results to highest performing physician annotators. PMID:21152268

  2. The effect of electro-discharge machined sonotrode topology on interlaminar bonding in ultrasonic consolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, H. C.; Harris, R. A.

    2011-04-01

    Ultrasonic Consolidation (UC) is a solid state additive manufacturing process which fabricates three-dimensional objects by ultrasonically joining metal foils together, layer-by-layer, to form a solid part. This study investigates the effect of sonotrode surface texture on the bond strength, interlaminar microstructure and sample surface texture of parts fabricated by UC. White light interferometry was used to characterize the surface of two sonotrodes, textured by Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM). Aluminum 3003-H18 UC samples were fabricated using both sonotrodes under identical processing conditions. The surface texture of the UC samples produced is a reduced amplitude version of the parent sonotrodes texture. Peel testing was used to evaluate the bond strength and failure mode of the samples. The interlaminar microstructure of the parts was examined and linear weld density measured. The rougher sonotrode samples exhibited higher weld strength and brittle failure modes compared to the less rough sonotrode samples which demonstrated ductile failure and lower weld strength. This paper examines the influence of sonotrode texture on interlaminar bonding in UC and how this could be controlled and exploited to optimize bonding in UC.

  3. Micro Machining Enhances Precision Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Advanced thermal systems developed for the Space Station Freedom project are now in use on the International Space Station. These thermal systems employ evaporative ammonia as their coolant, and though they employ the same series of chemical reactions as terrestrial refrigerators, the space-bound coolers are significantly smaller. Two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts between Creare Inc. of Hanover, NH and Johnson Space Center developed an ammonia evaporator for thermal management systems aboard Freedom. The principal investigator for Creare Inc., formed Mikros Technologies Inc. to commercialize the work. Mikros Technologies then developed an advanced form of micro-electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) to make tiny holes in the ammonia evaporator. Mikros Technologies has had great success applying this method to the fabrication of micro-nozzle array systems for industrial ink jet printing systems. The company is currently the world leader in fabrication of stainless steel micro-nozzles for this market, and in 2001 the company was awarded two SBIR research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to advance micro-fabrication and high-performance thermal management technologies.

  4. Monel Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Castle Industries, Inc. is a small machine shop manufacturing replacement plumbing repair parts, such as faucet, tub and ballcock seats. Therese Castley, president of Castle decided to introduce Monel because it offered a chance to improve competitiveness and expand the product line. Before expanding, Castley sought NERAC assistance on Monel technology. NERAC (New England Research Application Center) provided an information package which proved very helpful. The NASA database was included in NERAC's search and yielded a wealth of information on machining Monel.

  5. The TUM walking machines.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Friedrich

    2007-01-15

    This paper presents some aspects of walking machine design with a special emphasis on the three machines MAX, MORITZ and JOHNNIE, having been developed at the Technical University of Munich within the last 20 years. The design of such machines is discussed as an iterative process improving the layout with every iteration. The control concepts are event-driven and follow logical rules, which have largely been transferred from neurobiological findings. At least for the six-legged machine MAX, a nearly perfect autonomy could be achieved, whereas for the biped JOHNNIE, a certain degree of autonomy could be realized by a vision system with appropriate decision algorithms. This vision system was developed by the group of Prof. G. Schmidt, TU-München. A more detailed description of the design and realization is presented for the biped JOHNNIE.

  6. Prediction of Machine Tool Condition Using Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peigong; Meng, Qingfeng; Zhao, Jian; Li, Junjie; Wang, Xiufeng

    2011-07-01

    Condition monitoring and predicting of CNC machine tools are investigated in this paper. Considering the CNC machine tools are often small numbers of samples, a condition predicting method for CNC machine tools based on support vector machines (SVMs) is proposed, then one-step and multi-step condition prediction models are constructed. The support vector machines prediction models are used to predict the trends of working condition of a certain type of CNC worm wheel and gear grinding machine by applying sequence data of vibration signal, which is collected during machine processing. And the relationship between different eigenvalue in CNC vibration signal and machining quality is discussed. The test result shows that the trend of vibration signal Peak-to-peak value in surface normal direction is most relevant to the trend of surface roughness value. In trends prediction of working condition, support vector machine has higher prediction accuracy both in the short term ('One-step') and long term (multi-step) prediction compared to autoregressive (AR) model and the RBF neural network. Experimental results show that it is feasible to apply support vector machine to CNC machine tool condition prediction.

  7. Effect of Processing of HIPERCO® 50 Alloy Laminates on Their Magnetic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, Tanjore V.

    2015-11-01

    Fe-Co-based soft-magnetic materials form an important class of high-induction alloys that are widely used in energy conversion applications in the aerospace industry. In this work, the effect of processing—cut method [stamping and wire-electrical discharge machining (EDM)] and annealing (cut unannealed, cut followed by annealing, and annealing followed by cut)—on the magnetic properties of the HIPERCO® 50 Alloy laminates was investigated. A cold-rolled ˜0.006-in (˜150-μm)-thick strip of HIPERCO® 50 Alloy was cut into ring laminations and final-annealed in dry hydrogen. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction analysis indicated the presence of extraneous Cu on the cut edge of the wire-EDM cut ring laminates, along with the expected Fe-Co phase for HIPERCO® 50 alloy. SEM micrographs of the cut edge showed the typical sheared surface and irregular surface for stamped and wire-EDM cut ring laminates respectively. The rings that were stamped followed by annealing (STfA) showed superior direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) magnetic properties. The presence of Cu (diamagnetic) in wire-EDM cut rings adversely affects induction ( B) and core loss ( P T), compared to the stamped rings for corresponding annealing conditions. The difference in the DC magnetic properties between the ring laminates STfA and annealed followed by stamping (AfST) was significantly large compared to that between the ring laminates that were wire-EDM cut followed by annealing (EDfA) and annealing followed by wire-EDM (AfED). This suggests that, for certain applications where the differences in DC magnetic properties between EDfA and AfED are acceptable, the AfED rings may be put to application/service after the wire-EDM cut operation, i.e. wire-EDM may be performed after `final-annealing'. However, the AC properties between EDfA and AfED rings were significantly different, hence for AC applications, the `final annealing', post-cutting, is critical irrespective

  8. Search for an Atomic EDM with Optical-Coupling Nuclear Spin Oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Asahi, K.; Uchida, M.; Inoue, T.; Hatakeyama, N.; Yoshimi, A.

    2007-06-13

    We have constructed a nuclear spin oscillator of a new type, that employs a feedback scheme based on an optical spin detection and suceeding spin control by a transverse field application. This spin oscillator parallels the conventional spin maser in many points, but exhibits advantages and requirements that are different from those with the spin maser. By means of the optical-coupling nuclear spin oscillator, an experimental setup to search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) in a spin 1/2 diamagnetic atom 129Xe is being developed.

  9. Shaping of steel mold surface of lens array by electrical discharge machining with spherical ball electrode.

    PubMed

    Takino, Hideo; Hosaka, Takahiro

    2016-06-20

    We propose a method for fabricating a spherical lens array mold by electrical discharge machining (EDM) with a ball-type electrode. The electrode is constructed by arranging conductive spherical balls in an array. To fundamentally examine the applicability of the proposed EDM method to the fabrication of lens array molds, we use an electrode having a single ball to shape a lens array mold made of stainless steel with 16 spherical elements, each having a maximum depth of 0.5 mm. As a result, a mold surface is successfully shaped with a peak-to-valley shape accuracy of approximately 10 μm, and an average surface roughness of 0.85 μm. PMID:27409126

  10. Shaping of steel mold surface of lens array by electrical discharge machining with spherical ball electrode.

    PubMed

    Takino, Hideo; Hosaka, Takahiro

    2016-06-20

    We propose a method for fabricating a spherical lens array mold by electrical discharge machining (EDM) with a ball-type electrode. The electrode is constructed by arranging conductive spherical balls in an array. To fundamentally examine the applicability of the proposed EDM method to the fabrication of lens array molds, we use an electrode having a single ball to shape a lens array mold made of stainless steel with 16 spherical elements, each having a maximum depth of 0.5 mm. As a result, a mold surface is successfully shaped with a peak-to-valley shape accuracy of approximately 10 μm, and an average surface roughness of 0.85 μm.

  11. Electric breakdown and ionization detection in normal liquid and superfluid 4He for the SNA nEDM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karcz, Maciej

    A new experiment to search for the neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) is under construction at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The SNS nEDM experiment is a national collaboration spanning over 20 universities and laboratories with more than 100 physicists and engineers contributing to the research and development. The search for a nEDM is a precision test of time reversal symmetry in particle physics, in the absence of a discovery, the SNS nEDM experiment seeks to improve the present limit on the nEDM value by two orders of magnitude. A non-zero value of the nEDM would help to explain the asym- metry between matter and anti-matter in the universe by providing an additional source of charge conjugation and parity symmetry violation, a necessary ingredient in the theory of baryogenesis in the early universe. The nEDM experiment will measure the Larmor precession frequency of neutrons by detecting scintillation from neutron capture by a dilute concentration of 3He inside a bath of superfluid 4He. Neutron capture by 3He is spin-dependent and the magnetic moments of the neutron and the 3He nucleus are comparable. A direct measurement of the precession frequency of polarized 3He and scintillation from neutron capture allows for the relative precession frequencies of 3He and the neutron to be determined. The experiment will then look for changes in the relative precession of 3He and neutrons under the influence of strong electric fields. 3He has negligible EDM and therefore any deviation due to an applied electric field would be from a nEDM. The nEDM experiment will need to apply strong electric fields inside superfluid (SF) 4He and it was necessary to investigate the ability of SF 4He to sustain electric fields. An experiment to study electric breakdown in superfluid 4He was constructed at the Indiana University Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter (CEEM). The experiment studied the electric breakdown behavior of liquid

  12. Improvement of reliability of welding by in-process sensing and control (development of smart welding machines for girth welding of pipes). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hardt, D.E.; Masubuchi, K.; Paynter, H.M.; Unkel, W.C.

    1983-04-01

    Closed-loop control of the welding variables represents a promising, cost-effective approach to improving weld quality and therefore reducing the total cost of producing welded structures. The ultimate goal is to place all significant weld variables under direct closed-loop control; this contrasts with preprogrammed machines which place the welding equipment under control. As the first step, an overall strategy has been formulated and an investigation of weld pool geometry control for gas tungsten arc process has been completed. The research activities were divided into the areas of arc phenomena, weld pool phenomena, sensing techniques and control activities.

  13. Research on machining error compensation in high-precision surface grinding machine for optical aspheric elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Xiaolong; Guo, Yinbiao; Zhang, Shihan; Huang, Hao

    2010-10-01

    Using aspheric component in optical system can correct optical aberration, acquire high imaging quality, improve the optical characteristic, simplify system structure, and reduce system volume. Nowadays, high-precision surface grinding machine is an important approach to processing optical aspheric elements. However, because of the characteristics of optical aspheric elements, the processing method makes a higher demand to whole performance of surface grinding machine, and hardly to achieve ideal machining effect. Taking high generality and efficiency into account, this paper presents a compensation method for machining errors of high-precision surface grinding machine, which bases on optical aspheric elements, to achieve high-precision machining for all kinds of optical aspheric elements. After compensation, the machining accuracy of grinding machine could reach 2um/200×200mm. The research bases on NC surface grinding machine which is self developed. First of all, this paper introduces machining principle for optical aspheric elements on the grinding machine. And then error sources which producing errors are analyzed. By contacting and non-contacting measurement sensors, measurement software which is self designed realizes on-position measure for grinded workpiece, then fits surface precision and machining errors. Through compensation software for machining error which is self designed, compensation algorithm is designed and translated compensation data into G-code for the high-precision grinding machine to achieve compensation machining. Finally, by comparison between machining error compensation before and after processing, the experiments for this purpose are done to validate the compensation machining accuracy.

  14. Workout Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Orbotron is a tri-axle exercise machine patterned after a NASA training simulator for astronaut orientation in the microgravity of space. It has three orbiting rings corresponding to roll, pitch and yaw. The user is in the middle of the inner ring with the stomach remaining in the center of all axes, eliminating dizziness. Human power starts the rings spinning, unlike the NASA air-powered system. Marketed by Fantasy Factory (formerly Orbotron, Inc.), the machine can improve aerobic capacity, strength and endurance in five to seven minute workouts.

  15. Zgoubi vs. the machines

    SciTech Connect

    Meot, Francois

    2015-05-03

    The presentation covered the following areas: Stepwise tracking numerical machinery; Polarization at RHIC complex; Polarization in eRHIC; Dynamical acceptance of eRHIC FFAG ring; Polarization in the MEIC Figure-8 collider ring; and, p-EDM ring, prospects.

  16. On Machine Capacitance Dimensional and Surface Profile Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resnick, Ralph

    1993-01-01

    A program was awarded under the Air Force Machine Tool Sensor Improvements Program Research and Development Announcement to develop and demonstrate the use of a Capacitance Sensor System including Capacitive Non-Contact Analog Probe and a Capacitive Array Dimensional Measurement System to check the dimensions of complex shapes and contours on a machine tool or in an automated inspection cell. The manufacturing of complex shapes and contours and the subsequent verification of those manufactured shapes is fundamental and widespread throughout industry. The critical profile of a gear tooth; the overall shape of a graphite EDM electrode; the contour of a turbine blade in a jet engine; and countless other components in varied applications possess complex shapes that require detailed and complex inspection procedures. Current inspection methods for complex shapes and contours are expensive, time-consuming, and labor intensive.

  17. Tool & Die and EDM Series. Educational Resources for the Machine Tool Industry. Course Syllabi, Instructor's Handbook, [and] Student Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll. System, Waco.

    This package consists of course syllabi, an instructor's handbook, and a student laboratory manual for a 2-year vocational training program to prepare students for entry-level employment as tool and die makers. The program was developed through a modification of the DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) technique. The course syllabi volume begins with…

  18. Magnetometry in the Munich Neutron Electric Dipole Moment (nEDM) Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenkolb, Skyler

    2013-05-01

    Neutron EDM measurements rely on sensitive magnetometry to decouple signal from systematic errors. State-of-the-art co-magnetometers use hyperpolarized diamagnetic atoms, chosen for small spin-flip cross-sections and long coherence times. In particular, the 254 nm 199Hg line is used to polarize and detect via Hg lamps or lasers. We present a comprehensive scheme of Hg co-magnetometers, external magnetometers and gradiometers inside passive and active shields. Hg gas is pumped and probed by a diode laser with two doubling stages whose UV output is locked to the 254 nm line at the point of vanishing light shift; adjacent cells containing Hg and/or other species are used to extract systematics correlated with material properties of Hg (e.g., center-of-mass displacements or georotational shifts). Vapor cell magnetometers of Hg or Cs are used for comparison, and to guide apparatus installation. The vibration-isolated experiment takes place within passive mu-metal and aluminum shields, inside a non-magnetic experimental hall. A magnetically shielded room, monitored by 180 fluxgate magnetometers which generate error signals for 24 independent external compensation coils, contains the passive shield. Design and performance of the composite system will be discussed. (for the Munich nEDM Collaboration: nedm.ph.tum.de)

  19. Improving the Limit on the Electron EDM: Data Acquisition and Systematics Studies in the ACME Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Paul William

    The ACME collaboration has completed a measurement setting a new upper limit on the size of the electron's permanent electric dipole moment (EDM). The existence of the EDM is well motivated by theories extending the standard model of particle physics, with predicted sizes very close to the current experimental limit. The new limit was set by measuring spin precession within the metastable H state of the polar molecule thorium monoxide (ThO). A particular focus here is on the automated data acquisition system developed to search for a precession phase odd under internal and external reversal of the electric field. Automated switching of many different experimental controls allowed a rapid diagnosis of major systematics, including the dominant systematic caused by non-reversing electric fields and laser polarization gradients. Polarimetry measurements made it possible to quantify and minimize the polarization gradients in our state preparation and probe lasers. Three separate measurements were used to determine the electric field that did not reverse when we tried to switch the field direction. The new bound of | de| < 8.7 x 10--29 e·cm is over an order of magnitude smaller than previous limits, and strongly limits T-violating physics at TeV energy scales.

  20. Wacky Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Collectors everywhere know that local antique shops and flea markets are treasure troves just waiting to be plundered. Science teachers might take a hint from these hobbyists, for the next community yard sale might be a repository of old, quirky items that are just the things to get students thinking about simple machines. By introducing some…

  1. Formal modeling of virtual machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cremers, A. B.; Hibbard, T. N.

    1978-01-01

    Systematic software design can be based on the development of a 'hierarchy of virtual machines', each representing a 'level of abstraction' of the design process. The reported investigation presents the concept of 'data space' as a formal model for virtual machines. The presented model of a data space combines the notions of data type and mathematical machine to express the close interaction between data and control structures which takes place in a virtual machine. One of the main objectives of the investigation is to show that control-independent data type implementation is only of limited usefulness as an isolated tool of program development, and that the representation of data is generally dictated by the control context of a virtual machine. As a second objective, a better understanding is to be developed of virtual machine state structures than was heretofore provided by the view of the state space as a Cartesian product.

  2. Diamond machining of steel molds for optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohr, Roland

    2016-08-01

    The requirement of ultra precision diamond machining of lens molds in steel is identified. A solution for this type of machining is presented and results of such a machining in steel compared to standard milling and polishing process are shown.

  3. Cleaning of Free Machining Brass

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, T

    2005-12-29

    We have investigated four brightening treatments proposed by two cleaning vendors for cleaning free machining brass. The experimental results showed that none of the proposed brightening treatments passed the swipe test. Thus, we maintain the recommendation of not using the brightening process in the cleaning of free machining brass for NIF application.

  4. Self-Adjusting Teaching Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovgyallo, A. M.

    A study was made on the synthesis of teaching machine elements to ensure the stabilization of the chi indicator of the teaching process of each student. At first, a procedure was developed for calculating the chi indicator for the case when the teaching machine predicts the magnitude of this indicator based on probabilities derived from an…

  5. Man Machine Systems in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sall, Malkit S.

    This review of the research literature on the interaction between humans and computers discusses how man machine systems can be utilized effectively in the learning-teaching process, especially in secondary education. Beginning with a definition of man machine systems and comments on the poor quality of much of the computer-based learning material…

  6. Employing Ti nano-powder dielectric to enhance surface characteristics in electrical discharge machining of AISI D2 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marashi, Houriyeh; Sarhan, Ahmed A. D.; Hamdi, Mohd

    2015-12-01

    Manufacturing components with superior surface characteristics is challenging when electrical discharge machining (EDM) is employed for mass production. The aim of this research is to enhance the characteristics of AISI D2 steel surface machined with EDM through adding Ti nano-powder to dielectric under various machining parameters, including discharge duration (Ton) and peak current (I). Surface roughness profilometer, FESEM and AFM analysis were utilized to reveal the machined surface characteristics in terms of surface roughness, surface morphology and surface micro-defects. Moreover, EDX analysis was performed in order to evaluate the atomic deposition of Ti nano-powder on the surface. The concentration of Ti nano-powder in dielectric was also examined using ESEM and EDX. According to the results, the addition of Ti nano-powder to dielectric notably enhanced the surface morphology and surface roughness at all machining parameters except Ton = 340 μs. Of these parameters, maximum enhancement was observed at Ton = 210 μs, where the material removal rate and average surface roughness improved by ∼69 and ∼35% for peak current of 6 and 12 A, respectively. Elemental analysis signified negligible Ti deposition on the machined surface while the atomic concentration of Ti was increased around the crack areas.

  7. The Answer Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering;…

  8. Fabrication and process analysis of anatase type TiO 2 nanofluid by an arc spray nanofluid synthesis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho; Liu, Min-Kun

    2007-06-01

    This research aims to analyze the process parameters of an innovative method for preparing TiO 2 nanofluids. In the arc spray nanofluid synthesis system (ASNSS), a titanium rod, deployed as an electrode in electrical discharge machining (EDM), is melted by the submerged arc and vaporized in deionized liquid under a controlled vacuum environment. The vaporized Ti particles are then rapidly quenched by the designed cooling system, thus forming nanocrystalline powders. The experimental results and analysis revealed that the critical electric current for preparing the nanofluid is 1.63 A. Parameters such as applied electric power (including current, voltage and pulse-duration) and temperature of deionized liquid are found to influence the characteristics of the generated nanoparticles. With a set of designed process parameters, the developed ASNSS can generate the TiO 2 nanofluid with an average particle diameter less than 20 nm and with an improved size distribution and high roundness.

  9. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

  10. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, Oliver T.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

  11. Machine processing of remotely sensed data; Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Symposium, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind., June 27-29, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tendam, I. M. (Editor); Morrison, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    Papers are presented on techniques and applications for the machine processing of remotely sensed data. Specific topics include the Landsat-D mission and thematic mapper, data preprocessing to account for atmospheric and solar illumination effects, sampling in crop area estimation, the LACIE program, the assessment of revegetation on surface mine land using color infrared aerial photography, the identification of surface-disturbed features through a nonparametric analysis of Landsat MSS data, the extraction of soil data in vegetated areas, and the transfer of remote sensing computer technology to developing nations. Attention is also given to the classification of multispectral remote sensing data using context, the use of guided clustering techniques for Landsat data analysis in forest land cover mapping, crop classification using an interactive color display, and future trends in image processing software and hardware.

  12. Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Achim; Mahidadia, Ashesh

    The purpose of this chapter is to present fundamental ideas and techniques of machine learning suitable for the field of this book, i.e., for automated scientific discovery. The chapter focuses on those symbolic machine learning methods, which produce results that are suitable to be interpreted and understood by humans. This is particularly important in the context of automated scientific discovery as the scientific theories to be produced by machines are usually meant to be interpreted by humans. This chapter contains some of the most influential ideas and concepts in machine learning research to give the reader a basic insight into the field. After the introduction in Sect. 1, general ideas of how learning problems can be framed are given in Sect. 2. The section provides useful perspectives to better understand what learning algorithms actually do. Section 3 presents the Version space model which is an early learning algorithm as well as a conceptual framework, that provides important insight into the general mechanisms behind most learning algorithms. In section 4, a family of learning algorithms, the AQ family for learning classification rules is presented. The AQ family belongs to the early approaches in machine learning. The next, Sect. 5 presents the basic principles of decision tree learners. Decision tree learners belong to the most influential class of inductive learning algorithms today. Finally, a more recent group of learning systems are presented in Sect. 6, which learn relational concepts within the framework of logic programming. This is a particularly interesting group of learning systems since the framework allows also to incorporate background knowledge which may assist in generalisation. Section 7 discusses Association Rules - a technique that comes from the related field of Data mining. Section 8 presents the basic idea of the Naive Bayesian Classifier. While this is a very popular learning technique, the learning result is not well suited for

  13. Fullerene Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash

    1998-01-01

    Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically accessible and of great interest. We have computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Preliminary results suggest that these gears can be cooled by a helium atmosphere and a laser motor can power fullerene gears if a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. In addition, we have unproven concepts based on experimental and computational evidence for support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and manufacture. Combining fullerene machines with the remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, there is some reason to believe that a focused effort to develop fullerene nanotechnology could yield materials with tremendous properties.

  14. Using Machine Learning and Natural Language Processing Algorithms to Automate the Evaluation of Clinical Decision Support in Electronic Medical Record Systems

    PubMed Central

    Szlosek, Donald A; Ferrett, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: As the number of clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) incorporated into electronic medical records (EMRs) increases, so does the need to evaluate their effectiveness. The use of medical record review and similar manual methods for evaluating decision rules is laborious and inefficient. The authors use machine learning and Natural Language Processing (NLP) algorithms to accurately evaluate a clinical decision support rule through an EMR system, and they compare it against manual evaluation. Methods: Modeled after the EMR system EPIC at Maine Medical Center, we developed a dummy data set containing physician notes in free text for 3,621 artificial patients records undergoing a head computed tomography (CT) scan for mild traumatic brain injury after the incorporation of an electronic best practice approach. We validated the accuracy of the Best Practice Advisories (BPA) using three machine learning algorithms—C-Support Vector Classification (SVC), Decision Tree Classifier (DecisionTreeClassifier), k-nearest neighbors classifier (KNeighborsClassifier)—by comparing their accuracy for adjudicating the occurrence of a mild traumatic brain injury against manual review. We then used the best of the three algorithms to evaluate the effectiveness of the BPA, and we compared the algorithm’s evaluation of the BPA to that of manual review. Results: The electronic best practice approach was found to have a sensitivity of 98.8 percent (96.83–100.0), specificity of 10.3 percent, PPV = 7.3 percent, and NPV = 99.2 percent when reviewed manually by abstractors. Though all the machine learning algorithms were observed to have a high level of prediction, the SVC displayed the highest with a sensitivity 93.33 percent (92.49–98.84), specificity of 97.62 percent (96.53–98.38), PPV = 50.00, NPV = 99.83. The SVC algorithm was observed to have a sensitivity of 97.9 percent (94.7–99.86), specificity 10.30 percent, PPV 7.25 percent, and NPV 99.2 percent for

  15. Using Machine Learning and Natural Language Processing Algorithms to Automate the Evaluation of Clinical Decision Support in Electronic Medical Record Systems

    PubMed Central

    Szlosek, Donald A; Ferrett, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: As the number of clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) incorporated into electronic medical records (EMRs) increases, so does the need to evaluate their effectiveness. The use of medical record review and similar manual methods for evaluating decision rules is laborious and inefficient. The authors use machine learning and Natural Language Processing (NLP) algorithms to accurately evaluate a clinical decision support rule through an EMR system, and they compare it against manual evaluation. Methods: Modeled after the EMR system EPIC at Maine Medical Center, we developed a dummy data set containing physician notes in free text for 3,621 artificial patients records undergoing a head computed tomography (CT) scan for mild traumatic brain injury after the incorporation of an electronic best practice approach. We validated the accuracy of the Best Practice Advisories (BPA) using three machine learning algorithms—C-Support Vector Classification (SVC), Decision Tree Classifier (DecisionTreeClassifier), k-nearest neighbors classifier (KNeighborsClassifier)—by comparing their accuracy for adjudicating the occurrence of a mild traumatic brain injury against manual review. We then used the best of the three algorithms to evaluate the effectiveness of the BPA, and we compared the algorithm’s evaluation of the BPA to that of manual review. Results: The electronic best practice approach was found to have a sensitivity of 98.8 percent (96.83–100.0), specificity of 10.3 percent, PPV = 7.3 percent, and NPV = 99.2 percent when reviewed manually by abstractors. Though all the machine learning algorithms were observed to have a high level of prediction, the SVC displayed the highest with a sensitivity 93.33 percent (92.49–98.84), specificity of 97.62 percent (96.53–98.38), PPV = 50.00, NPV = 99.83. The SVC algorithm was observed to have a sensitivity of 97.9 percent (94.7–99.86), specificity 10.30 percent, PPV 7.25 percent, and NPV 99.2 percent for

  16. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (4th, Eindhoven, the Netherlands, July 6-8, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Calders, Toon; Conati, Cristina; Ventura, Sebastian; Romero, Cristobal; Stamper, John

    2011-01-01

    The 4th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2011) brings together researchers from computer science, education, psychology, psychometrics, and statistics to analyze large datasets to answer educational research questions. The conference, held in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, July 6-9, 2011, follows the three previous editions…

  17. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (6th, Memphis, TN., USA, July 6-9, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mello, S. K., Ed.; Calvo, R. A., Ed.; Olney, A., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Since its inception in 2008, the Educational Data Mining (EDM) conference series has featured some of the most innovative and fascinating basic and applied research centered on data mining, education, and learning technologies. This tradition of exemplary interdisciplinary research has been kept alive in 2013 as evident through an imaginative,…

  18. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (8th, Madrid, Spain, June 26-29, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Olga Cristina, Ed.; Boticario, Jesus Gonzalez, Ed.; Romero, Cristobal, Ed.; Pechenizkiy, Mykola, Ed.; Merceron, Agathe, Ed.; Mitros, Piotr, Ed.; Luna, Jose Maria, Ed.; Mihaescu, Cristian, Ed.; Moreno, Pablo, Ed.; Hershkovitz, Arnon, Ed.; Ventura, Sebastian, Ed.; Desmarais, Michel, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The 8th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2015) is held under auspices of the International Educational Data Mining Society at UNED, the National University for Distance Education in Spain. The conference held in Madrid, Spain, July 26-29, 2015, follows the seven previous editions (London 2014, Memphis 2013, Chania 2012,…

  19. Induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Whitney H.

    1980-01-01

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  20. Surface characterization and in vivo evaluation of laser sintered and machined implants followed by resorbable-blasting media process: A study in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Michelle; Yoo, Daniel; Marin, Charles; Gil, Luiz; Shabaka, Nour; Goldstein, Matt; Janal, Malvin; Tovar, Nick; Bonfante, Estevam; Coelho, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to compare the histomorphometric and histological bone response to laser-sintered implants followed by resorbable-blasting media (RBM) process relative to standard machined/RBM surface treated implants. Material and Methods Six male sheep (n=6) received 2 Ti-6Al-4V implants (1 per surface) in each side of the mandible for 6 weeks in vivo. The histomorphometric parameters bone-implant contact (BIC) and bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO) were evaluated. Results Optical interferometry revealed higher Sa and Sq values for the laser-sintered/RBM surface in relation to standard/RBM implants. No significant differences in BIC were observed between the two groups (p>0.2), but significantly higher BAFO was observed for standard/RBM implants (p<0.01). Conclusions The present study demonstrated that both surfaces were biocompatible and osseoconductive, and the combination of laser sintering and RBM has no advantage over the standard machined implants with subsequent RBM. Key words:Dental implants, osseointegration, resorbable- blasting media, sheep, in vivo. PMID:26827064

  1. Stochastic flow shop scheduling of overlapping jobs on tandem machines in application to optimizing the US Army's deliberate nuclear, biological, and chemical decontamination process, (final report). Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, V.

    1991-05-01

    The U.S. Army's detailed equipment decontamination process is a stochastic flow shop which has N independent non-identical jobs (vehicles) which have overlapping processing times. This flow shop consists of up to six non-identical machines (stations). With the exception of one station, the processing times of the jobs are random variables. Based on an analysis of the processing times, the jobs for the 56 Army heavy division companies were scheduled according to the best shortest expected processing time - longest expected processing time (SEPT-LEPT) sequence. To assist in this scheduling the Gap Comparison Heuristic was developed to select the best SEPT-LEPT schedule. This schedule was then used in balancing the detailed equipment decon line in order to find the best possible site configuration subject to several constraints. The detailed troop decon line, in which all jobs are independent and identically distributed, was then balanced. Lastly, an NBC decon optimization computer program was developed using the scheduling and line balancing results. This program serves as a prototype module for the ANBACIS automated NBC decision support system.... Decontamination, Stochastic flow shop, Scheduling, Stochastic scheduling, Minimization of the makespan, SEPT-LEPT Sequences, Flow shop line balancing, ANBACIS.

  2. Formation of the Integral Ecological Quality Index of the Technological Processes in Machine Building Based on Their Energy Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egorov, Sergey B.; Kapitanov, Alexey V.; Mitrofanov, Vladimir G.; Shvartsburg, Leonid E.; Ivanova, Natalia A.; Ryabov, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of article is to provide development of a unified assessment methodology in relation to various technological processes and the actual conditions of their implementation. To carry the energy efficiency analysis of the technological processes through comparison of the established power and the power consumed by the actual technological…

  3. Studies of Systematic Limitations in the EDM Searches at Storage Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleev, Artem; Nikolaev, Nikolai; Rathmann, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Searches of the electric dipole moment (EDM) at a pure magnetic ring, like COSY, encounter strong background coming from magnetic dipole moment (MDM). The most troubling issue is the MDM spin rotation in the so-called imperfection, radial and longitudinal, B-fields. To study the systematic effects of the imperfection fields at COSY we proposed the original method which makes use of the two static solenoids acting as artificial imperfections. Perturbation of the spin tune caused by the spin kicks in the solenoids probes the systematic effect of cumulative spin rotation in the imperfection fields all over the ring. The spin tune is one of the most precise quantities measured presently at COSY at 10-10 level. The method has been successfully tested in September 2014 run at COSY, unravelling strength of spin kicks in the ring’s imperfection fields at the level of 10-3rad.

  4. Interior Vector Magnetic Field Monitoring via External Measurements for the SNS Neutron EDM Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Nima; Brown, Michael; Carr, Robert; Filippone, Bradley; Osthelder, Charles; Plaster, Bradley; Slutsky, Simon; Swank, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    A prototype of a magnetic field monitoring system designed to reconstruct the vector magnetic field components (and, hence, all nine of the ∂Bi / ∂xj field gradients) within the interior measurement fiducial volume solely from external measurements is under development for the SNS neutron EDM experiment. A first-generation room-temperature prototype array has already been tested. A second-generation prototype array consisting of 12 cryogenic-compatible fluxgate magnetometer probes will be deployed within the cold region of the experiment's 1 / 3 -scale cryogenic magnet testing apparatus. We will report progress towards the development of this second-generation prototype. This work was supported in part by the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Physics under Award No. DE-FG02-08ER41557.

  5. Muonium production target for the muon g-2/EDM experiment at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Sohtaro

    2014-08-01

    There is more than three standard-deviations discrepancy between measurement and theoretical prediction of the muon anomalous magnetic moment. We are going to measure the precision value of muon g - 2 and search for physics beyond standard model. In addition, we can search for muon EDM which violates CP symmetry. CP violation in charged lepton sector is currently not found. We are developing the 'Ultra Cold Muon Beam' instead of tertiary muon beam with electric focusing. Ultra cold muon is realized by laser ionization of muonium (bound state of a muon and an electron) from the production target. Increase of muonium yield is essential for our experimental goal; 0.1ppm statistical precision. Muonium production experiment at J-PARC MLF MUSE is planned in 2012 autumn. In this paper, we discuss the development of muonium production target and positron detector for the study.

  6. Applications of Machine Learning in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Sally Jo; Witten, Ian H.; Littin, James

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the basic ideas that underpin applications of machine learning to information retrieval. Describes applications of machine learning to text categorization. Considers how machine learning can be applied to the query-formulation process. Examines methods of document filtering, where the user specifies a query that is to be applied to an…

  7. Biomimetic machine vision system.

    PubMed

    Harman, William M; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Wilcox, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Real-time application of digital imaging for use in machine vision systems has proven to be prohibitive when used within control systems that employ low-power single processors without compromising the scope of vision or resolution of captured images. Development of a real-time machine analog vision system is the focus of research taking place at the University of Wyoming. This new vision system is based upon the biological vision system of the common house fly. Development of a single sensor is accomplished, representing a single facet of the fly's eye. This new sensor is then incorporated into an array of sensors capable of detecting objects and tracking motion in 2-D space. This system "preprocesses" incoming image data resulting in minimal data processing to determine the location of a target object. Due to the nature of the sensors in the array, hyperacuity is achieved thereby eliminating resolutions issues found in digital vision systems. In this paper, we will discuss the biological traits of the fly eye and the specific traits that led to the development of this machine vision system. We will also discuss the process of developing an analog based sensor that mimics the characteristics of interest in the biological vision system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of how an array of these sensors can be applied toward solving real-world machine vision issues.

  8. An evaluation of machine processing techniques of ERTS-1 data for user applications. [urban land use and soil association mapping in Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D.

    1974-01-01

    A broad study is described to evaluate a set of machine analysis and processing techniques applied to ERTS-1 data. Based on the analysis results in urban land use analysis and soil association mapping together with previously reported results in general earth surface feature identification and crop species classification, a profile of general applicability of this procedure is beginning to emerge. Put in the hands of a user who knows well the information needed from the data and also is familiar with the region to be analyzed it appears that significantly useful information can be generated by these methods. When supported by preprocessing techniques such as the geometric correction and temporal registration capabilities, final products readily useable by user agencies appear possible. In parallel with application, through further research, there is much potential for further development of these techniques both with regard to providing higher performance and in new situations not yet studied.

  9. CNC Machining Of The Complex Copper Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popan, Ioan Alexandru; Balc, Nicolae; Popan, Alina

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the machining process of the complex copper electrodes. Machining of the complex shapes in copper is difficult because this material is soft and sticky. This research presents the main steps for processing those copper electrodes at a high dimensional accuracy and a good surface quality. Special tooling solutions are required for this machining process and optimal process parameters have been found for the accurate CNC equipment, using smart CAD/CAM software.

  10. Experimental study of micro electrical discharge machining discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Braganca, I. M. F.; Rosa, P. A. R.; Martins, P. A. F.; Dias, F. M.; Alves, L. L.

    2013-06-21

    Micro electrical discharge machining ({mu}EDM) is an atmospheric-pressure plasma-assisted technology that uses point-to-plane discharges in liquid dielectrics to remove microscopic quantities of electrically conductive materials. In this work, an innovative {mu}EDM prototype machine was specifically designed and fabricated to produce and control single spark discharges, thus, resolving the typical limitations of (multi-discharge) commercial machines. The work analyses the type of discharge and the micro-plasma electron-density values obtained for 0.5-38 {mu}m gap sizes, 3-10 000 {mu}s pulse durations, 75-250 V low breakdown voltages, and 1-20 A discharge currents, using different combinations of metallic electrodes in oil and in water. Results allow fitting, for micro-scale and low voltages, an empirical law between the maximum gap-size for breakdown, the breakdown voltage, and the effective stress-time. The electron density n{sub e} is obtained by optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics of the H{sub {alpha}}-line Stark broadening (yielding n{sub e}{approx}10{sup 16}-10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}, i.e., ionization degrees of {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4}) and by a semi-empirical resistive plasma model. The model uses the experimental values of several electrical and geometrical quantities, and of the gas pressure estimated as {approx}60 bar-2 kbar from measurements of the plasma mechanical action, obtained using a force sensor. The quantitative information of this phenomenological study can assist the optimization of this micro-fabrication technique.

  11. Experimental study of micro electrical discharge machining discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragança, I. M. F.; Rosa, P. A. R.; Dias, F. M.; Martins, P. A. F.; Alves, L. L.

    2013-06-01

    Micro electrical discharge machiningEDM) is an atmospheric-pressure plasma-assisted technology that uses point-to-plane discharges in liquid dielectrics to remove microscopic quantities of electrically conductive materials. In this work, an innovative μEDM prototype machine was specifically designed and fabricated to produce and control single spark discharges, thus, resolving the typical limitations of (multi-discharge) commercial machines. The work analyses the type of discharge and the micro-plasma electron-density values obtained for 0.5-38 μm gap sizes, 3-10 000 μs pulse durations, 75-250 V low breakdown voltages, and 1-20 A discharge currents, using different combinations of metallic electrodes in oil and in water. Results allow fitting, for micro-scale and low voltages, an empirical law between the maximum gap-size for breakdown, the breakdown voltage, and the effective stress-time. The electron density ne is obtained by optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics of the Hα-line Stark broadening (yielding ne˜1016-1017 cm-3, i.e., ionization degrees of ˜2×10-5-10-4) and by a semi-empirical resistive plasma model. The model uses the experimental values of several electrical and geometrical quantities, and of the gas pressure estimated as ˜60 bar-2 kbar from measurements of the plasma mechanical action, obtained using a force sensor. The quantitative information of this phenomenological study can assist the optimization of this micro-fabrication technique.

  12. Interior Vector Magnetic Field Monitoring for the SNS Neutron EDM Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Nima; Plaster, Brad

    2014-09-01

    A concept has been developed which provides for a real-time determination of the spatial dependence of the vector components of the magnetic field (and, hence, the ∂Bi / ∂xj field gradients) within the interior fiducial volume of the SNS neutron EDM experiment solely from exterior measurements at fixed discrete locations. This technique will be especially important during the operation of the experiment, when direct measurements of the field gradients present within the fiducial volume will not be physically possible. Our method, which is based on the solution to the Laplace Equation, is completely general and does not require the field to possess any type of symmetry. We describe the concept and our systematic approach for optimizing the locations of these exterior measurements. We also present results from prototyping studies of a field monitoring system deployed within a half-scale prototype of the experiment's magnetic field environment. A concept has been developed which provides for a real-time determination of the spatial dependence of the vector components of the magnetic field (and, hence, the ∂Bi / ∂xj field gradients) within the interior fiducial volume of the SNS neutron EDM experiment solely from exterior measurements at fixed discrete locations. This technique will be especially important during the operation of the experiment, when direct measurements of the field gradients present within the fiducial volume will not be physically possible. Our method, which is based on the solution to the Laplace Equation, is completely general and does not require the field to possess any type of symmetry. We describe the concept and our systematic approach for optimizing the locations of these exterior measurements. We also present results from prototyping studies of a field monitoring system deployed within a half-scale prototype of the experiment's magnetic field environment. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of

  13. Electrical machine

    DOEpatents

    De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Gerstler, William Dwight; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2016-06-21

    An apparatus, such as an electrical machine, is provided. The apparatus can include a rotor defining a rotor bore and a conduit disposed in and extending axially along the rotor bore. The conduit can have an annular conduit body defining a plurality of orifices disposed axially along the conduit and extending through the conduit body. The rotor can have an inner wall that at least partially defines the rotor bore. The orifices can extend through the conduit body along respective orifice directions, and the rotor and conduit can be configured to provide a line of sight along the orifice direction from the respective orifices to the inner wall.

  14. TEMPO machine

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.; Lancaster, K.T.; Lawson, R.N.

    1986-06-01

    TEMPO is a transformer powered megavolt pulse generator with an output pulse of 100 ns duration. The machine was designed for burst mode operation at pulse repetition rates up to 10 Hz with minimum pulse-to-pulse voltage variations. To meet the requirement for pulse duration a nd a 20-..omega.. output impedance within reasonable size constraints, the pulse forming transmission line was designed as two parallel water-insulated, strip-type Blumleins. Stray capacitance and electric fields along the edges of the line elements were controlled by lining the tank with plastic sheet.

  15. Machinability of Green Powder Metallurgy Components: Part II. Sintered Properties of Components Machined in Green State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert-Perron, Etienne; Blais, Carl; Pelletier, Sylvain; Thomas, Yannig

    2007-06-01

    The green machining process is virtually a must if the powder metallurgy (PM) industries are to solve the lower machining performances associated with PM components. This process is known for lowering the rate of tool wear. Recent improvements in binder/lubricant technologies have led to high-green-strength systems that enable green machining. Combined with the optimized cutting parameters determined in Part I of the study, the green machining of PM components seems to be a viable process for fabricating high performance parts on large scale and complete other shaping processes. This second part of our study presents a comparison between the machining behaviors and the sintered properties of components machined prior to or after sintering. The results show that the radial crush strength measured on rings machined in their green state is equal to that of parts machined after sintering.

  16. Processive ATP-driven Substrate Disassembly by the N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive Factor (NSF) Molecular Machine*♦

    PubMed Central

    Cipriano, Daniel J.; Jung, Jaemyeong; Vivona, Sandro; Fenn, Timothy D.; Brunger, Axel T.; Bryant, Zev

    2013-01-01

    SNARE proteins promote membrane fusion by forming a four-stranded parallel helical bundle that brings the membranes into close proximity. Post-fusion, the complex is disassembled by an AAA+ ATPase called N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF). We present evidence that NSF uses a processive unwinding mechanism to disassemble SNARE proteins. Using a real-time disassembly assay based on fluorescence dequenching, we correlate NSF-driven disassembly rates with the SNARE-activated ATPase activity of NSF. Neuronal SNAREs activate the ATPase rate of NSF by ∼26-fold. One SNARE complex takes an average of ∼5 s to disassemble in a process that consumes ∼50 ATP. Investigations of substrate requirements show that NSF is capable of disassembling a truncated SNARE substrate consisting of only the core SNARE domain, but not an unrelated four-stranded coiled-coil. NSF can also disassemble an engineered double-length SNARE complex, suggesting a processive unwinding mechanism. We further investigated processivity using single-turnover experiments, which show that SNAREs can be unwound in a single encounter with NSF. We propose a processive helicase-like mechanism for NSF in which ∼1 residue is unwound for every hydrolyzed ATP molecule. PMID:23775070

  17. Urban land use mapping by machine processing of ERTS-1 multispectral data: A San Francisco Bay area example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellefsen, R.; Swain, P. H.; Wray, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The study is reported to develop computer produced urban land use maps using multispectral scanner data from a satellite is reported. Data processing is discussed along with the results of the San Francisco Bay area, which was chosen as the test area.

  18. Discrimination of raw and processed Dipsacus asperoides by near infrared spectroscopy combined with least squares-support vector machine and random forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Ni; Gu, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Hao; Hu, Yu-Zhu; Yang, Zhong-Lin

    2012-04-01

    Most herbal medicines could be processed to fulfill the different requirements of therapy. The purpose of this study was to discriminate between raw and processed Dipsacus asperoides, a common traditional Chinese medicine, based on their near infrared (NIR) spectra. Least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) and random forests (RF) were employed for full-spectrum classification. Three types of kernels, including linear kernel, polynomial kernel and radial basis function kernel (RBF), were checked for optimization of LS-SVM model. For comparison, a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) model was performed for classification, and the successive projections algorithm (SPA) was executed prior to building an LDA model to choose an appropriate subset of wavelengths. The three methods were applied to a dataset containing 40 raw herbs and 40 corresponding processed herbs. We ran 50 runs of 10-fold cross validation to evaluate the model's efficiency. The performance of the LS-SVM with RBF kernel (RBF LS-SVM) was better than the other two kernels. The RF, RBF LS-SVM and SPA-LDA successfully classified all test samples. The mean error rates for the 50 runs of 10-fold cross validation were 1.35% for RBF LS-SVM, 2.87% for RF, and 2.50% for SPA-LDA. The best classification results were obtained by using LS-SVM with RBF kernel, while RF was fast in the training and making predictions.

  19. Laser machining of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  20. Software sensors for biomass concentration in a SSC process using artificial neural networks and support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Gonzalo; Ramirez, Cristian; Curilem, Millaray

    2014-01-01

    The lack of sensors for some relevant state variables in fermentation processes can be coped by developing appropriate software sensors. In this work, NARX-ANN, NARMAX-ANN, NARX-SVM and NARMAX-SVM models are compared when acting as software sensors of biomass concentration for a solid substrate cultivation (SSC) process. Results show that NARMAX-SVM outperforms the other models with an SMAPE index under 9 for a 20 % amplitude noise. In addition, NARMAX models perform better than NARX models under the same noise conditions because of their better predictive capabilities as they include prediction errors as inputs. In the case of perturbation of initial conditions of the autoregressive variable, NARX models exhibited better convergence capabilities. This work also confirms that a difficult to measure variable, like biomass concentration, can be estimated on-line from easy to measure variables like CO₂ and O₂ using an adequate software sensor based on computational intelligence techniques.

  1. Electrical Evaluation Of Welding Machines Based On The Arc Properties. Application To SMAW, GMAW And GTAW Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguel, V.; Martínez, A.; Manjabacas, M. C.; Coello, J.; Calatayud, A.

    2009-11-01

    In this work, a methodology to obtain the electrical behavior of arc welding equipments is presented. The method is based on the electrical arc fundamentals and it is applied to Shielding Metal Arc Welding and to Gas Metal Arc Welding processes. For the first one, different arc points are achieved by practicing several arc lengths. For MIG process, different arc lengths are made by changing the feel wire velocity. Arc current and voltage are measured for the different arc length in both cases. Finally, a Gas Tungsten Arc Welding equipment has been used to obtain the electrical arc characteristics as a function of arc length. Different considerations about the thermal and electrical principles related to the arc behavior have been made.

  2. Symposium on Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind., June 29-July 1, 1976, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers are presented on the applicability of Landsat data to water management and control needs, IBIS, a geographic information system based on digital image processing and image raster datatype, and the Image Data Access Method (IDAM) for the Earth Resources Interactive Processing System. Attention is also given to the Prototype Classification and Mensuration System (PROCAMS) applied to agricultural data, the use of Landsat for water quality monitoring in North Carolina, and the analysis of geophysical remote sensing data using multivariate pattern recognition. The Illinois crop-acreage estimation experiment, the Pacific Northwest Resources Inventory Demonstration, and the effects of spatial misregistration on multispectral recognition are also considered. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  3. Susceptibility mapping of shallow landslides using kernel-based Gaussian process, support vector machines and logistic regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colkesen, Ismail; Sahin, Emrehan Kutlug; Kavzoglu, Taskin

    2016-06-01

    Identification of landslide prone areas and production of accurate landslide susceptibility zonation maps have been crucial topics for hazard management studies. Since the prediction of susceptibility is one of the main processing steps in landslide susceptibility analysis, selection of a suitable prediction method plays an important role in the success of the susceptibility zonation process. Although simple statistical algorithms (e.g. logistic regression) have been widely used in the literature, the use of advanced non-parametric algorithms in landslide susceptibility zonation has recently become an active research topic. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the possible application of kernel-based Gaussian process regression (GPR) and support vector regression (SVR) for producing landslide susceptibility map of Tonya district of Trabzon, Turkey. Results of these two regression methods were compared with logistic regression (LR) method that is regarded as a benchmark method. Results showed that while kernel-based GPR and SVR methods generally produced similar results (90.46% and 90.37%, respectively), they outperformed the conventional LR method by about 18%. While confirming the superiority of the GPR method, statistical tests based on ROC statistics, success rate and prediction rate curves revealed the significant improvement in susceptibility map accuracy by applying kernel-based GPR and SVR methods.

  4. Mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, H.R.

    1984-12-04

    A mining machine is disclosed comprising a mobile base and a cutting head assembly at a forward end of the mobile base having a cutter drum rotatable about an output shaft disposed along the longitudinal axis of the cutter drum. A drive system for the cutting head assembly comprises at least one motor for driving at least one toothed motor pinion and a generally cylindrical combination gear having generally circular end surfaces. A bevel or face gear is formed in at least one of the end surfaces, having teeth adapted to mate with and be driven by the toothed motor pinion. The combination gear has a worm gear formed in the outside cylindrical surface, which is disposed in driving engagement with the teeth of an output gear integrally and coaxially connected to the output shaft of the cutter drum.

  5. Copying Machine Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Manufacturer of the Model 2210 copying machine was looking for a plastic valve bushing material that could be produced by a low-cost injection molding process to replace the unsuitable valve bushing they were using. NERAC conducted a computer search of the NASA database and was able to supply Nashua Corporation with several technical reports in their area of interest. Information aided the company's development of a urethane valve bushing which solved the problem and created a dramatic reduction in unit cost.

  6. Development of an electric field application system with transparent electrodes towards the electron EDM measurement with laser-cooled Fr atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Taisuke; Ando, Shun; Aoki, Takahiro; Arikawa, Hiroshi; Harada, Ken-Ichi; Hayamizu, Tomohiro; Inoue, Takeshi; Itoh, Masatoshi; Kawamura, Hirokazu; Kato, Ko; Sakamoto, Kosuke; Uchiyama, Aiko; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2014-09-01

    The permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of elementary particles is a good probe for new physics beyond the standard model. Since the francium (Fr) atom has a large enhancement factor of the electron EDM and laser-cooled atoms can have long coherence times, we plan to utilize laser-cooled Fr atoms for the electron EDM search experiment. Besides, a strong electric field is one of key issues for the EDM experiment. Recently, we have embarked on a development of the electric field application system with transparent electrodes coated by tin-doped indium oxide (ITO). The ITO electrodes break the difficulty in the coexistence of electrodes with several cooling laser lights. The actual electric field applied to the atom is evaluated by measuring the dc Stark shift for the laser-cooled rubidium atoms. In this presentation, the present status of the electric field application system will be reported. The permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of elementary particles is a good probe for new physics beyond the standard model. Since the francium (Fr) atom has a large enhancement factor of the electron EDM and laser-cooled atoms can have long coherence times, we plan to utilize laser-cooled Fr atoms for the electron EDM search experiment. Besides, a strong electric field is one of key issues for the EDM experiment. Recently, we have embarked on a development of the electric field application system with transparent electrodes coated by tin-doped indium oxide (ITO). The ITO electrodes break the difficulty in the coexistence of electrodes with several cooling laser lights. The actual electric field applied to the atom is evaluated by measuring the dc Stark shift for the laser-cooled rubidium atoms. In this presentation, the present status of the electric field application system will be reported. This work is supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 26220705) and Tohoku University's Focused Research Project.

  7. An intelligent CNC machine control system architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.J.; Loucks, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    Intelligent, agile manufacturing relies on automated programming of digitally controlled processes. Currently, processes such as Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machining are difficult to automate because of highly restrictive controllers and poor software environments. It is also difficult to utilize sensors and process models for adaptive control, or to integrate machining processes with other tasks within a factory floor setting. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, a CNC machine control system architecture based on object-oriented design and graphical programming has been developed to address some of these problems and to demonstrate automated agile machining applications using platform-independent software.

  8. Can a Machine Develop a Career? A Statement about the Processes of Exploration and Commitment in Career Development. Information System for Vocational Decisions. Project Report 16a.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiedeman, David V.

    Through a description of an imitation career, the author introduces the complexities involved in programming a man-machine system which facilitates individualized career development. The interaction of man and machine is programmed, in the imitation career, because the individual descriptions of events in career chronologies, vitae and…

  9. The PHD-finger module of the Arabidopsis thaliana defense regulator EDM2 can recognize triply modified histone H3 peptides.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Tokuji; Eulgem, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recently we reported that the Arabidopsis thaliana PHD-finger protein EDM2 (enhanced downy mildew 2) impacts disease resistance by affecting levels of di-methylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me2) at an alternative polyadenylation site in the immune receptor gene RPP7. EDM2-dependent modulation of this post-translational histone modification (PHM) shifts the balance between full-length RPP7 transcripts and prematurely polyadenylated transcripts, which do not encode the RPP7 protein. Our previous work genetically linked, for the first time, PHMs to alternative polyadenylation and established EDM2 as a critical component mediating PHM-dependent polyadenylation control. However, how EDM2 is recruited to its genomic target sites and how it affects H3K9me2 levels is unknown. Here we show the PHD-finger module of EDM2 to recognize histone H3 bearing certain combinations of 3 distinct PHMs. Our results suggest that targeting of EDM2 to specific genomic regions is mediated by the histone-binding selectivity of its PHD-finger domain. PMID:25763495

  10. Systematic errors in the measurement of the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the 199 Hg atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Graner, Brent; Heckel, Blayne; Lindahl, Eric

    2016-05-01

    This talk provides a discussion of the systematic errors that were encountered in the 199 Hg experiment described earlier in this session. The dominant systematic error, unseen in previous 199 Hg EDM experiments, arose from small motions of the Hg vapor cells due to forces exerted by the applied electric field. Methods used to understand this effect, as well as the anticipated sources of systematic errors such as leakage currents, parameter correlations, and E2 and v × E / c effects, will be presented. The total systematic error was found to be 72% as large as the statistical error of the EDM measurement. This work was supported by NSF Grant 1306743 and by DOE Grant DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  11. Systematic errors in the measurement of the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the 199Hg atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Graner, Brent; Lindahl, Eric; Heckel, Blayne

    2016-03-01

    This talk provides a discussion of the systematic errors that were encountered in the 199Hg experiment described earlier in this session. The dominant systematic error, unseen in previous 199Hg EDM experiments, arose from small motions of the Hg vapor cells due to forces exerted by the applied electric field. Methods used to understand this effect, as well as the anticipated sources of systematic errors such as leakage currents, parameter correlations, and E2 and v × E / c effects, will be presented. The total systematic error was found to be 72% as large as the statistical error of the EDM measurement. This work was supported by NSF Grant 1306743 and by DOE Grant DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  12. Vibration assisted femtosecond laser machining on metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Kyu; Yoon, Ji-Wook; Cho, Sung-Hak

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate a novel approach to improve laser machining quality on metals by vibrating the optical objective lens with a frequency (of 500 Hz) and various displacements (0-16.5 μm) during a femtosecond laser machining process. The laser used in this experiment is an amplified Ti:sapphire fs laser system that generates 100 fs pulses having an energy of 3.5 mJ/pulse with a 5 kHz repetition rate at a central wavelength of 790 nm. It is found that both the wall surface finish of the machined structures and the aspect ratio obtained using the frequency vibration assisted laser machining are improved, compared to those derived via laser machining without vibration assistance. This is the first report of low frequency vibration of an optical objective lens in the femtosecond laser machining process being exploited to obtain significantly improved surface roughness of machined side walls and increased aspect ratios.

  13. Altered neural correlates of reward and loss processing during simulated slot-machine fMRI in pathological gambling and cocaine dependence☆

    PubMed Central

    Worhunsky, Patrick D.; Malison, Robert T.; Rogers, Robert D.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with gambling or substance-use disorders exhibit similar functional alterations in reward circuitry suggestive of a shared underlying vulnerability in addictive disorders. Additional research into common and unique alterations in reward-processing in substance-related and non-substance-related addictions may identify neural factors that could be targeted in treatment development for these disorders. Methods To investigate contextual reward-processing in pathological gambling, a slot-machine fMRI task was performed by three groups (with pathological gambling, cocaine dependence and neither disorder; N=24 each) to determine the extent to which two groups with addictions (non-substance-related and substance-related) showed similarities and differences with respect to each other and a non-addicted group during anticipatory periods and following the delivery of winning, losing and ‘near-miss’ outcomes. Results Individuals with pathological gambling or cocaine dependence compared to those with neither disorder exhibited exaggerated anticipatory activity in mesolimbic and ventrocortical regions, with pathological-gambling participants displaying greater positive possible-reward anticipation and cocaine-dependent participants displaying more negative certain-loss anticipation. Neither clinical sample exhibited medial frontal or striatal responses that were observed following near-miss outcomes in healthy comparison participants. Conclusions Alterations in anticipatory processing may be sensitive to the valence of rewards and content-disorder-specific. Common and unique findings in pathological gambling and cocaine dependence with respect to anticipatory reward and near-miss loss processing suggest shared and unique elements that might be targeted through behavioral or pharmacological interventions in the treatment of addictions. PMID:25448081

  14. Biosleeve Human-Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assad, Christopher (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing human muscle action and gestures in order to control machines or robotic devices are disclosed. One exemplary system employs a tight fitting sleeve worn on a user arm and including a plurality of electromyography (EMG) sensors and at least one inertial measurement unit (IMU). Power, signal processing, and communications electronics may be built into the sleeve and control data may be transmitted wirelessly to the controlled machine or robotic device.

  15. From ergonomics to design specifications: contributions to the design of a processing machine in a tire company.

    PubMed

    Moraes, A S P; Arezes, P M; Vasconcelos, R

    2012-01-01

    The development of ergonomics' recommendations, guidelines and standards are attempts to promote the integration of ergonomics into industrial contexts. Such developments result from several sources and professionals and represent the effort that has been done to develop healthier and safer work environments. However, the availability of large amount of data and documents regarding ergonomics does not guarantee their applicability. The main goal of this paper is to use a specific case to demonstrate how ergonomics criteria were developed in order to contribute to the design of workplaces. Based on the obtained results from research undertaken in a tire company, it was observed that the ergonomics criteria should be presented as design specifications in order to be used by engineers and designers. In conclusion, it is observed that the multiple constraint environment impeded the appliance of the ergonomics criteria. It was also observed that the knowledge on technical design and the acquaintance with ergonomic standards, the level of integration in the design team, and the ability to communicate with workers and other technical staff have paramount importance in integrating ergonomics criteria into the design process.

  16. Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning (NLP/ML): Applying Advances in Biomedicine to the Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, R.; Myers, S.; Palmer, M.; Jenkins, C. J.; Thessen, A.; Martin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Semantics underlie many of the tools and services available from and on the web. From improving search results to enabling data mashups and other forms of interoperability, semantic technologies have proven themselves. But creating semantic resources, especially re-usable semantic resources, is extremely time consuming and labor intensive. Why? Because it is not just a matter of technology but also of obtaining rough consensus if not full agreement amongst community members on the meaning and order of things. One way to develop these resources in a more automated way would be to use NLP/ML techniques to extract the required resources from large corpora of subject-specific text such as peer-reviewed papers where presumably a rough consensus has been achieved at least about the basics of the particular discipline involved. While not generally applied to Earth Sciences, considerable resources have been spent in other fields such as medicine on these types of techniques with some success. The NSF-funded ClearEarth project is applying the techniques developed for biomedicine to the cryosphere, geology, and biology in order to spur faster development of the semantic resources needed in these fields. The first area being addressed by the project is the cryosphere, specifically sea ice nomenclature where an existing set of sea ice ontologies are being used as the "Gold Standard" against which to test and validate the NLP/ML techniques. The processes being used, lessons learned and early results will be described.

  17. A new affinity-HPLC packing for protein separation: Cibacron blue attached uniform porous poly(HEMA-co-EDM) beads.

    PubMed

    Unsal, Ender; Durdu, Aysun; Elmas, Begum; Tuncel, Murvet; Tuncel, Ali

    2005-11-01

    In this study, a new affinity high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) stationary phase suitable for protein separation was synthesized. In the first stage of the synthesis, uniform porous poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate), poly(HEMA-co-EDM), beads 6.2 mum in size were obtained. Homogeneous distribution of hydroxyl groups in the bead interior was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The plain poly(HEMA-co-EDM) particles gave very low non-specific protein adsorption with albumin. The selected dye ligand Cibacron blue F3G-A (CB F3G-A) was covalently linked onto the beads via hydroxyl groups. In the batch experiments, albumin adsorption up to 60 mg BSA/g particles was obtained with the CB F3G-A carrying poly(HEMA-co-EDM) beads. The affinity-HPLC of selected proteins (albumin and lysozyme) was investigated in a 25 mm x 4.0-mm inner diameter column packed with CB F3G-A carrying beads and both proteins were successfully resolved. By a single injection, 200 mug of protein was loaded and quantitatively eluted from the column. The protein recovery increased with increasing flow rate and salt concentration of the elution buffer and decreased with the increasing protein feed concentration. During the albumin elution, theoretical plate numbers up to 30,000 plates/m were achieved by increasing the salt concentration.

  18. Extensive Frequency Comb Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy of ThF^+ for Use in the Jila Electron Edm Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresh, Dan; Cossel, Kevin; Ye, Jun; Cornell, Eric

    2014-06-01

    The metastable ^3Δ_1 state in trapped HfF^+ is being used for an ongoing measurement of the electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) ThF^+, which has a larger effective electric field and a longer-lived ^3Δ_1 state, offers increased sensitivity for an eEDM measurement. Recently, the Heaven group has spectroscopically studied the low-lying states of ThF^+. However, to date there is no detailed information available about technically-accessible laser transitions in the near-infrared region of the spectrum, which are necessary for state preparation and detection in an eEDM experiment. By applying the technique of frequency comb velocity modulation spectroscopy (VMS) to ThF^+ we can acquire 150 cm-1 of continuous, ion-sensitive spectra with 150 MHz resolution in 25 minutes. Here, we report on extensive broadband, high-resolution survey spectroscopy of ThF^+ in the near-IR where we have observed and accurately fit several rovibronic transitions. In addition, we have observed and characterized numerous rovibronic transitions from an unknown thoriated species of molecular ions. H. Loh, K. C. Cossel, M. C. Grau, K.-K. Ni, E. R. Meyer, J. L. Bohn, J. Ye, E. A. Cornell, Science 342, 1220 (2013). B. J. Barker, I. O. Antonov, M. C. Heaven, K. A. Peterson, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 104305 (2012). L. C. Sinclair, K. C. Cossel, T. Coffey, J. Ye, E. A. Cornell, PRL 107, 093002 (2011).

  19. Effects of Wire EDM on the Microstructure of P/M Titanium Samples

    PubMed Central

    Viskić, Joško; Schauperl, Zdravko; Ćatić, Amir; Balog, Martin; Krizik, Peter; Gržeta, Biserka; Popović, Jasminka; Ortolan, Slađana Milardović

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) has been recognized in dentistry for its biocompatibility, good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Conventional manufacturing processes can affect surface quality and result in poor bonding of dental ceramics to CP Ti. This is why powder metallurgy (P/M) and wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) are being introduced in the manufacturing process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of WEDM on the surface composition and microstructure of P/M CP Ti samples produced for bond strength testing according to ISO 9693. Materials and methods Eight samples of P/M CP Ti, dimensions according to ISO 9693, were made using WEDM and divided in two groups (untreated and grinded). Microanalyses of chemical composition and microstructure of both groups were made using SEM, EDS and XDR. Results SEM and EDS analysis of untreated samples showed a thin layer on surfaces with fractures in it. Grinded samples showed homogenous structure with no layer and no fractures. XDR analysis showed high level of oxides on the surface of untreated samples, while after grinding only pure α-phase was found. Conclusion WEDM is a suitable method of sample production for ISO 9693 if accompanied by grinding with silicon carbide papers P320-P4000.

  20. Machine wanting.

    PubMed

    McShea, Daniel W

    2013-12-01

    Wants, preferences, and cares are physical things or events, not ideas or propositions, and therefore no chain of pure logic can conclude with a want, preference, or care. It follows that no pure-logic machine will ever want, prefer, or care. And its behavior will never be driven in the way that deliberate human behavior is driven, in other words, it will not be motivated or goal directed. Therefore, if we want to simulate human-style interactions with the world, we will need to first understand the physical structure of goal-directed systems. I argue that all such systems share a common nested structure, consisting of a smaller entity that moves within and is driven by a larger field that contains it. In such systems, the smaller contained entity is directed by the field, but also moves to some degree independently of it, allowing the entity to deviate and return, to show the plasticity and persistence that is characteristic of goal direction. If all this is right, then human want-driven behavior probably involves a behavior-generating mechanism that is contained within a neural field of some kind. In principle, for goal directedness generally, the containment can be virtual, raising the possibility that want-driven behavior could be simulated in standard computational systems. But there are also reasons to believe that goal-direction works better when containment is also physical, suggesting that a new kind of hardware may be necessary. PMID:23792091

  1. Machine wanting.

    PubMed

    McShea, Daniel W

    2013-12-01

    Wants, preferences, and cares are physical things or events, not ideas or propositions, and therefore no chain of pure logic can conclude with a want, preference, or care. It follows that no pure-logic machine will ever want, prefer, or care. And its behavior will never be driven in the way that deliberate human behavior is driven, in other words, it will not be motivated or goal directed. Therefore, if we want to simulate human-style interactions with the world, we will need to first understand the physical structure of goal-directed systems. I argue that all such systems share a common nested structure, consisting of a smaller entity that moves within and is driven by a larger field that contains it. In such systems, the smaller contained entity is directed by the field, but also moves to some degree independently of it, allowing the entity to deviate and return, to show the plasticity and persistence that is characteristic of goal direction. If all this is right, then human want-driven behavior probably involves a behavior-generating mechanism that is contained within a neural field of some kind. In principle, for goal directedness generally, the containment can be virtual, raising the possibility that want-driven behavior could be simulated in standard computational systems. But there are also reasons to believe that goal-direction works better when containment is also physical, suggesting that a new kind of hardware may be necessary.

  2. Machine vision for digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2010-01-01

    Machine vision is widely used in an industrial environment today. It can perform various tasks, such as inspecting and controlling production processes, that may require humanlike intelligence. The importance of imaging technology for biological research or medical diagnosis is greater than ever. For example, fluorescent reporter imaging enables scientists to study the dynamics of gene networks with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such high-throughput imaging is increasingly demanding the use of machine vision for real-time analysis and control. Digital microfluidics is a relatively new technology with expectations of becoming a true lab-on-a-chip platform. Utilizing digital microfluidics, only small amounts of biological samples are required and the experimental procedures can be automatically controlled. There is a strong need for the development of a digital microfluidics system integrated with machine vision for innovative biological research today. In this paper, we show how machine vision can be applied to digital microfluidics by demonstrating two applications: machine vision-based measurement of the kinetics of biomolecular interactions and machine vision-based droplet motion control. It is expected that digital microfluidics-based machine vision system will add intelligence and automation to high-throughput biological imaging in the future.

  3. Machine vision for digital microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2010-01-01

    Machine vision is widely used in an industrial environment today. It can perform various tasks, such as inspecting and controlling production processes, that may require humanlike intelligence. The importance of imaging technology for biological research or medical diagnosis is greater than ever. For example, fluorescent reporter imaging enables scientists to study the dynamics of gene networks with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such high-throughput imaging is increasingly demanding the use of machine vision for real-time analysis and control. Digital microfluidics is a relatively new technology with expectations of becoming a true lab-on-a-chip platform. Utilizing digital microfluidics, only small amounts of biological samples are required and the experimental procedures can be automatically controlled. There is a strong need for the development of a digital microfluidics system integrated with machine vision for innovative biological research today. In this paper, we show how machine vision can be applied to digital microfluidics by demonstrating two applications: machine vision-based measurement of the kinetics of biomolecular interactions and machine vision-based droplet motion control. It is expected that digital microfluidics-based machine vision system will add intelligence and automation to high-throughput biological imaging in the future.

  4. Applications of the connection machine

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Connection Machine development effort was initiated in the belief that parallel processing and artificial intelligence could together accelerate the rate of progress toward truly intelligent machines. This progress is the result of the ease with which the machine can be programmed and the dramatic increase in compute power that the machine can bring to bear. The authors have been able to run many trials of experiments in instances where previously, running just one would have been considered an achievement and no further experimentation would have been done. This has enabled exploring a great many more hypotheses and to work on much larger problems that had been possible on previous-generation artificial intelligence workstations. The ease of programming is in part the result of a decision to use existing serial machines (the Symbolics 3600 or Digital Equipment Corporation VAX), thus leaving unchanged the operating systems, editors, file systems, debuggers, network communications systems, and so on, so as to provide familiar programming environments. The Connection Machine is programmed in conservative extensions of Common Lisp and C. Users familiar with these languages and with front-end computer systems have been able to produce results on the Connection Machine on the first day that they use it.

  5. RISMA: A Rule-based Interval State Machine Algorithm for Alerts Generation, Performance Analysis and Monitoring Real-Time Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laban, Shaban; El-Desouky, Aly

    2013-04-01

    The monitoring of real-time systems is a challenging and complicated process. So, there is a continuous need to improve the monitoring process through the use of new intelligent techniques and algorithms for detecting exceptions, anomalous behaviours and generating the necessary alerts during the workflow monitoring of such systems. The interval-based or period-based theorems have been discussed, analysed, and used by many researches in Artificial Intelligence (AI), philosophy, and linguistics. As explained by Allen, there are 13 relations between any two intervals. Also, there have also been many studies of interval-based temporal reasoning and logics over the past decades. Interval-based theorems can be used for monitoring real-time interval-based data processing. However, increasing the number of processed intervals makes the implementation of such theorems a complex and time consuming process as the relationships between such intervals are increasing exponentially. To overcome the previous problem, this paper presents a Rule-based Interval State Machine Algorithm (RISMA) for processing, monitoring, and analysing the behaviour of interval-based data, received from real-time sensors. The proposed intelligent algorithm uses the Interval State Machine (ISM) approach to model any number of interval-based data into well-defined states as well as inferring them. An interval-based state transition model and methodology are presented to identify the relationships between the different states of the proposed algorithm. By using such model, the unlimited number of relationships between similar large numbers of intervals can be reduced to only 18 direct relationships using the proposed well-defined states. For testing the proposed algorithm, necessary inference rules and code have been designed and applied to the continuous data received in near real-time from the stations of International Monitoring System (IMS) by the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Preparatory

  6. Calibration of catalyst temperature in automotive engines over coldstart operation in the presence of different random noises and uncertainty: Implementation of generalized Gaussian process regression machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, Nasser L.; Mozaffari, Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    The main scope of the current study is to develop a systematic stochastic model to capture the undesired uncertainty and random noises on the key parameters affecting the catalyst temperature over the coldstart operation of automotive engine systems. In the recent years, a number of articles have been published which aim at the modeling and analysis of automotive engines' behavior during coldstart operations by using regression modeling methods. Regarding highly nonlinear and uncertain nature of the coldstart operation, calibration of the engine system's variables, for instance the catalyst temperature, is deemed to be an intricate task, and it is unlikely to develop an exact physics-based nonlinear model. This encourages automotive engineers to take advantage of knowledge-based modeling tools and regression approaches. However, there exist rare reports which propose an efficient tool for coping with the uncertainty associated with the collected database. Here, the authors introduce a random noise to experimentally derived data and simulate an uncertain database as a representative of the engine system's behavior over coldstart operations. Then, by using a Gaussian process regression machine (GPRM), a reliable model is used for the sake of analysis of the engine's behavior. The simulation results attest the efficacy of GPRM for the considered case study. The research outcomes confirm that it is possible to develop a practical calibration tool which can be reliably used for modeling the catalyst temperature.

  7. Comparison of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and Gaussian processes for machine learning (GPML) algorithms for the prediction of skin temperature in lower limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Neha; Glesk, Ivan; Buis, Arjan

    2016-10-01

    Monitoring of the interface temperature at skin level in lower-limb prosthesis is notoriously complicated. This is due to the flexible nature of the interface liners used impeding the required consistent positioning of the temperature sensors during donning and doffing. Predicting the in-socket residual limb temperature by monitoring the temperature between socket and liner rather than skin and liner could be an important step in alleviating complaints on increased temperature and perspiration in prosthetic sockets. In this work, we propose to implement an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference strategy (ANFIS) to predict the in-socket residual limb temperature. ANFIS belongs to the family of fused neuro fuzzy system in which the fuzzy system is incorporated in a framework which is adaptive in nature. The proposed method is compared to our earlier work using Gaussian processes for machine learning. By comparing the predicted and actual data, results indicate that both the modeling techniques have comparable performance metrics and can be efficiently used for non-invasive temperature monitoring. PMID:27452775

  8. Study of on-machine error identification and compensation methods for micro machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shih-Ming; Yu, Han-Jen; Lee, Chun-Yi; Chiu, Hung-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Micro machining plays an important role in the manufacturing of miniature products which are made of various materials with complex 3D shapes and tight machining tolerance. To further improve the accuracy of a micro machining process without increasing the manufacturing cost of a micro machine tool, an effective machining error measurement method and a software-based compensation method are essential. To avoid introducing additional errors caused by the re-installment of the workpiece, the measurement and compensation method should be on-machine conducted. In addition, because the contour of a miniature workpiece machined with a micro machining process is very tiny, the measurement method should be non-contact. By integrating the image re-constructive method, camera pixel correction, coordinate transformation, the error identification algorithm, and trajectory auto-correction method, a vision-based error measurement and compensation method that can on-machine inspect the micro machining errors and automatically generate an error-corrected numerical control (NC) program for error compensation was developed in this study. With the use of the Canny edge detection algorithm and camera pixel calibration, the edges of the contour of a machined workpiece were identified and used to re-construct the actual contour of the work piece. The actual contour was then mapped to the theoretical contour to identify the actual cutting points and compute the machining errors. With the use of a moving matching window and calculation of the similarity between the actual and theoretical contour, the errors between the actual cutting points and theoretical cutting points were calculated and used to correct the NC program. With the use of the error-corrected NC program, the accuracy of a micro machining process can be effectively improved. To prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods, micro-milling experiments on a micro machine tool were conducted, and the results

  9. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome. PMID:26572668

  10. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome.

  11. Fabrication of micro end mills by wire EDM and some micro cutting tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiwang; Uchida, Kazuyoshi; Yoshihara, Nobuhito; Kuriyagawa, Tsunemoto

    2009-02-01

    Extremely fine end mills with noncircular cross-sectional profiles have been fabricated utilizing wire electro discharge machining. By using suitable electro discharging conditions, the geometrical error of the end mill and the roundness of the cutting edge were both controlled below 1 µm. Micro grooving tests were performed on electroless nickel plating using these end mills, and the machining behavior was investigated. Nearly burr-free precision machining was realized. Until a total cutting distance of 1000 mm, no remarkable change was found in the cutting force and chip formation, demonstrating the high anti-wear ability of the tools. It can be presumed that the electro discharge-induced micro asperities on the tool surface play an important role in machining by improving the tribological properties of the tool-workpiece interface.

  12. From human-machine interaction to human-machine cooperation.

    PubMed

    Hoc, J M

    2000-07-01

    Since the 1960s, the rapid growth of information systems has led to the wide development of research on human-computer interaction (HCI) that aims at the designing of human-computer interfaces presenting ergonomic properties, such as friendliness, usability, transparency, etc. Various work situations have been covered--clerical work, computer programming, design, etc. However, they were mainly static in the sense that the user fully controls the computer. More recently, public and private organizations have engaged themselves in the enterprise of managing more and more complex and coupled systems by the means of automation. Modern machines not only process information, but also act on dynamic situations as humans have done in the past, managing stock exchange, industrial plants, aircraft, etc. These dynamic situations are not fully controlled and are affected by uncertain factors. Hence, degrees of freedom must be maintained to allow the humans and the machine to adapt to unforeseen contingencies. A human-machine cooperation (HMC) approach is necessary to address the new stakes introduced by this trend. This paper describes the possible improvement of HCI by HMC, the need for a new conception of function allocation between humans and machines, and the main problems encountered within the new forms of human-machine relationship. It proposes a conceptual framework to study HMC from a cognitive point of view in highly dynamic situations like aircraft piloting or air-traffic control, and concludes on the design of 'cooperative' machines.

  13. Multicutter machining of compound parametric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatna, Abdelmadjid; Grieve, R. J.; Broomhead, P.

    2000-10-01

    Parametric free forms are used in industries as disparate as footwear, toys, sporting goods, ceramics, digital content creation, and conceptual design. Optimizing tool path patterns and minimizing the total machining time is a primordial issue in numerically controlled (NC) machining of free form surfaces. We demonstrate in the present work that multi-cutter machining can achieve as much as 60% reduction in total machining time for compound sculptured surfaces. The given approach is based upon the pre-processing as opposed to the usual post-processing of surfaces for the detection and removal of interference followed by precise tracking of unmachined areas.

  14. An in situ probe for on-line monitoring of cell density and viability on the basis of dark field microscopy in conjunction with image processing and supervised machine learning.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ning; You, Jia; Friehs, Karl; Flaschel, Erwin; Nattkemper, Tim Wilhelm

    2007-08-15

    Fermentation industries would benefit from on-line monitoring of important parameters describing cell growth such as cell density and viability during fermentation processes. For this purpose, an in situ probe has been developed, which utilizes a dark field illumination unit to obtain high contrast images with an integrated CCD camera. To test the probe, brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is chosen as the target microorganism. Images of the yeast cells in the bioreactors are captured, processed, and analyzed automatically by means of mechatronics, image processing, and machine learning. Two support vector machine based classifiers are used for separating cells from background, and for distinguishing live from dead cells afterwards. The evaluation of the in situ experiments showed strong correlation between results obtained by the probe and those by widely accepted standard methods. Thus, the in situ probe has been proved to be a feasible device for on-line monitoring of both cell density and viability with high accuracy and stability.

  15. The effect of electric discharge machined notches on the fracture toughness of several structural alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, J.A.; Link, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    Recent computational studies of the stress and strain fields at the tip of very sharp notches have shown that the stress and strain fields are very weakly dependent on the initial geometry of the notch once the notch has been blunted to a radius that is 6 to 10 times the initial root radius. It follows that if the fracture toughness of a material is sufficiently high so that fracture initiation does not occur in a specimen until the crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) reaches a value from 6 to 10 times the size of the initial notch tip diameter, then the fracture toughness will be independent of whether a fatigue crack or a machined notch served as the initial crack. In this experimental program the fracture toughness (J{sub Ic} and J resistance (J-R) curve, and CTOD) for several structure alloys was measured using specimens with conventional fatigue cracks and with EDM machined notches. The results of this program have shown, in fact, that most structural materials do not achieve initiation CTOD values on the order of 6 to 10 times the radius of even the smallest EDM notch tip presently achievable. It is found furthermore that tougher materials do not seem to be less dependent on the type of notch tip present. Some materials are shown to be much more dependent on the type of notch tip used, but no simple pattern is found that relates this observed dependence to the material strength toughness, or strain hardening rate.

  16. CENTRIFUGAL CASTING MACHINE

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, A.B.

    1958-04-01

    A device is described that is specifically designed to cast uraniumn fuel rods in a vacuunn, in order to obtain flawless, nonoxidized castings which subsequently require a maximum of machining or wastage of the expensive processed material. A chamber surrounded with heating elements is connected to the molds, and the entire apparatus is housed in an airtight container. A charge of uranium is placed in the chamber, heated, then is allowed to flow into the molds While being rotated. Water circulating through passages in the molds chills the casting to form a fine grained fuel rod in nearly finished form.

  17. Building and simulating protein machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katebi, Ataur Rahim

    Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway, present in almost all organisms, that produces energy. The pathway has been extensively investigated by biochemists. There is a significant body of structural and biochemical information about this pathway. The complete pathway is a ten step process. At each step, a specific chemical reaction is catalyzed by a specific enzyme. Fructose bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) and triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) catalyze the fourth and the fifth steps on the pathway. This thesis investigates the possible substrate transfer mechanism between FBA and TIM. FBA cleaves its substrate, the six-carbon fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), into two three-carbon products -- glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxy acetone phosphate (DHAP). One component of these two products, DHAP, is the substrate for TIM and the other component GAP goes directly to GAPDH, the subsequent enzyme on the pathway. TIM converts DHAP to GAP and delivers the product to GAPDH. I employ Elastic Network Models (ENM) to investigate the mechanistic and dynamic aspects of the functionality of FBA and TIM enzymes -- (1) the effects of the oligomerization of these two enzymes on their functional dynamics and the coordination of the individual protein's structural components along the functional region; and (2) the mechanistic synchrony of these two protein machines that may enable them to operate in a coordinated fashion as a conjugate machine -- transferring the product from FBA as substrate to TIM. A macromolecular machine comprised of FBA and TIM will facilitate the substrate catalysis mechanism and the product flow between FBA and TIM. Such a machine could be used as a functional unit in building a larger a machine for the structural modeling of the whole glycolysis pathway. Building such machines for the glycolysis pathway may reveal the interplay of the enzymes as a complete machine. Also the methods and insights developed from the efforts to build such large machines

  18. Estimation of breast percent density in raw and processed full field digital mammography images via adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering and support vector machine segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Brad M.; Nathan, Diane L.; Wang Yan; Zheng Yuanjie; Gee, James C.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The amount of fibroglandular tissue content in the breast as estimated mammographically, commonly referred to as breast percent density (PD%), is one of the most significant risk factors for developing breast cancer. Approaches to quantify breast density commonly focus on either semiautomated methods or visual assessment, both of which are highly subjective. Furthermore, most studies published to date investigating computer-aided assessment of breast PD% have been performed using digitized screen-film mammograms, while digital mammography is increasingly replacing screen-film mammography in breast cancer screening protocols. Digital mammography imaging generates two types of images for analysis, raw (i.e., 'FOR PROCESSING') and vendor postprocessed (i.e., 'FOR PRESENTATION'), of which postprocessed images are commonly used in clinical practice. Development of an algorithm which effectively estimates breast PD% in both raw and postprocessed digital mammography images would be beneficial in terms of direct clinical application and retrospective analysis. Methods: This work proposes a new algorithm for fully automated quantification of breast PD% based on adaptive multiclass fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering and support vector machine (SVM) classification, optimized for the imaging characteristics of both raw and processed digital mammography images as well as for individual patient and image characteristics. Our algorithm first delineates the breast region within the mammogram via an automated thresholding scheme to identify background air followed by a straight line Hough transform to extract the pectoral muscle region. The algorithm then applies adaptive FCM clustering based on an optimal number of clusters derived from image properties of the specific mammogram to subdivide the breast into regions of similar gray-level intensity. Finally, a SVM classifier is trained to identify which clusters within the breast tissue are likely fibroglandular, which are then

  19. Development of a high intensity laser for efficient spin exchange optical pumping in a spin maser measurement of the 129Xe EDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funayama, Chikako; Furukawa, Takeshi; Sato, Tomoya; Ichikawa, Yuichi; Ohtomo, Yuichi; Sakamoto, Yu; Kojima, Shuichiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Chikamori, Masatoshi; Hikota, Eri; Tsuchiya, Masato; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Bidinosti, Christopher; Ino, Takashi; Ueno, Hideki; Matsuo, Yukari; Fukuyama, Takeshi; Asahi, Koichiro

    2014-09-01

    We aim to search for an atomic electric dipole moment (EDM) in 129Xe beyond the present upper limit at the level of 10-28 e cm. The enhancement of the spin polarization through the efficient spin-exchange optical pumping process is important for stable maser operation. Previously, a distributed feedback (DFB) laser and a spatially separated tapered amplifier (TA) were used for the optical pumping. The characteristics of the TA-DFB laser, such as its narrow line width and high frequency stability, enable us to produce a large spin polarization. However, the power of the TA-DFB laser was not sufficient for stable operation of the 3He spin-maser comagnetometer. Recently, we have been preparing a new laser system containing an external cavity laser diode (ECLD) and a more intense TA for more efficient pumping. In the presentation, we discuss the Rb and noble gases polarizations achieved with our new ECLD compared to that with the DFB laser, and evaluate the advantages gained by employing the ECLD.

  20. Machine vision systems using machine learning for industrial product inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi; Chen, Tie Q.; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Tisler, Anthony

    2002-02-01

    Machine vision inspection requires efficient processing time and accurate results. In this paper, we present a machine vision inspection architecture, SMV (Smart Machine Vision). SMV decomposes a machine vision inspection problem into two stages, Learning Inspection Features (LIF), and On-Line Inspection (OLI). The LIF is designed to learn visual inspection features from design data and/or from inspection products. During the OLI stage, the inspection system uses the knowledge learnt by the LIF component to inspect the visual features of products. In this paper we will present two machine vision inspection systems developed under the SMV architecture for two different types of products, Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and Vacuum Florescent Displaying (VFD) boards. In the VFD board inspection system, the LIF component learns inspection features from a VFD board and its displaying patterns. In the PCB board inspection system, the LIF learns the inspection features from the CAD file of a PCB board. In both systems, the LIF component also incorporates interactive learning to make the inspection system more powerful and efficient. The VFD system has been deployed successfully in three different manufacturing companies and the PCB inspection system is the process of being deployed in a manufacturing plant.

  1. Catalysts Encapsulated in Molecular Machines.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tiezheng; Liu, Junqiu

    2016-06-17

    Smart catalysts offer the control of chemical processes and sequences of transformations, and catalysts with unique catalytic behavior can afford chiral products or promote successive polymerization. To meet advanced demands, the key to constructing smart catalysts is to incorporate traditional catalytic functional groups with trigger-induced factors. Molecular machines with dynamic properties and particular topological structures have typical stimulus-responsive features. In recent years, scientists have made efforts to utilize molecular machines (molecular switches, rotaxanes, motors, etc.) as scaffolds to develop smart catalysts. This Minireview focuses on the achievements of developing catalysts encapsulated in molecular machines and their remarkable specialties. This strategy is believed to provide more potential applications in switchable reactions, asymmetric synthesis, and processive catalysis.

  2. Aerosols generated during beryllium machining.

    PubMed

    Martyny, J W; Hoover, M D; Mroz, M M; Ellis, K; Maier, L A; Sheff, K L; Newman, L S

    2000-01-01

    Some beryllium processes, especially machining, are associated with an increased risk of beryllium sensitization and disease. Little is known about exposure characteristics contributing to risk, such as particle size. This study examined the characteristics of beryllium machining exposures under actual working conditions. Stationary samples, using eight-stage Lovelace Multijet Cascade Impactors, were taken at the process point of operation and at the closest point that the worker would routinely approach. Paired samples were collected at the operator's breathing zone by using a Marple Personal Cascade Impactor and a 35-mm closed-faced cassette. More than 50% of the beryllium machining particles in the breathing zone were less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter. This small particle size may result in beryllium deposition into the deepest portion of the lung and may explain elevated rates of sensitization among beryllium machinists.

  3. Helium-3 relaxation time measurements at low temperatures for the neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qiang

    The search for the existence of a nonzero neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) has the potential to reveal new sources of T and CP violation beyond the Standard Model and may have a significant impact on our understanding of the universe. A new experiment aiming at two orders of magnitude improvement (˜ 10--28 e·cm) over the current experimental upper limit has been proposed in the United States. In the experiment, the measurement cell will be made of dTPB-dPS coated acrylic and filled with superfluid 4He at ˜300-500 mK. The measurement of the neutron precession frequency will rely on the spin-dependence of the cross section of the nuclear reaction between polarized neutrons and 3He atoms: n⃗+H3 ⃗e → p + t + 764 keV. Polarized 3He will also be used as a comagnetometer based on the nuclear magnetic resonance technique. The 3He polarization needs to have sufficiently long relaxation time so that little polarization is lost during the measurement period in order to achieve the proposed sensitivity. Understanding the relaxation mechanism of 3He polarization in the measurement cell under the nEDM experimental conditions and maintaining 3He polarization is crucial for the experiment. With the presence of superfluid 4He, 3He relaxation time measurements in a dTPB-dPS coated cylindrical acrylic cell at the temperature of 1.9 K and ˜400 mK have been performed at the Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) on the campus of Duke University. The extracted depolarization probabilities of polarized 3He on the cell surface are on the order of (1 -- 2) x 10--7 at 1.9 K and ˜ 4.7 x 10--7 at ˜400 mK. The extrapolated relaxation time of polarized 3He in the nEDM cell geometry is ˜ 4870 seconds at ˜400 mK, which is sufficiently long for the nEDM experiment and further improvements are anticipated.

  4. Interaction with Machine Improvisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo

    We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

  5. Cold machining of high density tungsten and other materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegelmeier, P.

    1969-01-01

    Cold machining process, which uses a sub-zero refrigerated cutting fluid, is used for machining refractory or reactive metals and alloys. Special carbide tools for turning and drilling these alloys further improve the cutting performance.

  6. MAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS IN EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOUGHARY, JOHN W.

    THIS BOOK INCLUDES 5 PARTS. THE FIRST, BACKGROUND, PROVIDES A THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL BASE FOR THE MAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS DESCRIBED LATER. IT DEFINES MAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS, DESCRIBES COMPUTERS, AND DISCUSSES THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MEDIA TECHNOLOGY AND LEARNING PROCESSES. PART 2, INSTRUCTION, DESCRIBES ADVANCED SYSTEMS IN EDUCATION WHICH ARE…

  7. Tube Alinement for Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, J.

    1984-01-01

    Tool with stepped shoulders alines tubes for machining in preparation for welding. Alinement with machine tool axis accurate to within 5 mils (0.13mm) and completed much faster than visual setup by machinist.

  8. Stirling machine operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

  9. Women, Men, and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  10. Ultrashort-pulse lasers machining

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, P S; Feit, M D; Nguyen, H T; Perry, M D, Stuart, B C

    1999-01-22

    A new type of material processing is enabled with ultrashort (t < 10 psec) laser pulses. Cutting, drilling, sculpting of all materials (biologic materials, ceramics, sapphire, silicon carbide, diamond, metals) occurs by new mechanisms which eliminate thermal shock or collateral damage. High precision machining to submicron tolerances is enabled resulting in high surface quality and negligible heat affected zone.

  11. Ultrashort-pulse laser machining

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, P S; Feit, M D; Nguyen, H T; Perry, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Sefcik, J A; Stuart, B C

    1998-09-01

    A new type of material processing is enabled with ultrashort (t < 10 ps) laser pulses. Cutting, drilling, sculpting of all materials (biologic materials, ceramics, sapphire, silicon carbide, diamond, metals) occurs by new mechanisms that eliminate thermal shock or collateral damage. High-precision machining to submicron tolerances is enabled resulting in high surface quality and negligible heat affected zone.

  12. Cable-Twisting Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurnett, S.

    1982-01-01

    New cable-twisting machine is smaller and faster than many production units. Is useful mainly in production of short-run special cables. Already-twisted cable can be fed along axis of machine. Faster operation than typical industrial cable-twisting machines possible by using smaller spools of wire.

  13. Your Sewing Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Marion E.

    The programed instruction manual is designed to aid the student in learning the parts, uses, and operation of the sewing machine. Drawings of sewing machine parts are presented, and space is provided for the student's written responses. Following an introductory section identifying sewing machine parts, the manual deals with each part and its…

  14. Apprentice Machine Theory Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This volume contains outlines for 16 courses in machine theory that are designed for machine tool apprentices. Addressed in the individual course outlines are the following topics: basic concepts; lathes; milling machines; drills, saws, and shapers; heat treatment and metallurgy; grinders; quality control; hydraulics and pneumatics;…

  15. Continuous mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, H.E.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a continuous mining machine for excavating a longitudinal shaft or tunnel underneath the surface of the earth, the mining machine. It comprises: transport means for moving the machine over a floor of the shaft or tunnel that is being excavated; a working platform having forward and trailing ends.

  16. Diamond Measuring Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Krstulic, J.F.

    2000-01-27

    multiple runs of each stone. Although there were problems with a few stones, the machine automatically completed measurements on a majority of the stones tested. A demo was performed in Lawrence for AccuGem stockholders and potential investors. The demo successfully demonstrated our technology on a random stone brought by an attendee. In conclusion, the project was successful in development of the basic technology required for a diamond measuring machine. Continued improvements in lighting control, edge and defect extraction, and an increased image depth-of-field will increase the reliability and consistency of measurements. Although additional work is needed to make the machine a commercial product, there are no foreseeable technical roadblocks in that process.

  17. Automatic Production Planning System to Achieve Flexible Direct Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamoto, Keiichi; Shirase, Keiichi; Wakamatsu, Hidefumi; Tsumaya, Akira; Arai, Eiji

    For shortening of production lead-time, it is needed to eliminate time and efforts for process and operation planning after product design. However, a conventional NC machine tool has no autonomy and intelligence to achieve direct machining operation or “Rapid Manufacturing”. Because CL data and cutting parameters for machining operation have to be determined precisely in process and operation planning. In this study, in order to realize an autonomous and intelligent machine tool, the digital copy milling system which allows to generate tool paths during machining operation, and the trouble free machining strategy which allows to adapt cutting parameters, have been developed. And, an automatic process and operation planning system has been developed to integrate with the functions mentioned. This planning system works on commercial CAD software, and a prototype of autonomous and intelligent machine tool can achieve direct machining operation or “Rapid Manufacturing” which does not require any effort to prepare an NC program.

  18. Machine learning methods in chemoinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John B O

    2014-01-01

    Machine learning algorithms are generally developed in computer science or adjacent disciplines and find their way into chemical modeling by a process of diffusion. Though particular machine learning methods are popular in chemoinformatics and quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR), many others exist in the technical literature. This discussion is methods-based and focused on some algorithms that chemoinformatics researchers frequently use. It makes no claim to be exhaustive. We concentrate on methods for supervised learning, predicting the unknown property values of a test set of instances, usually molecules, based on the known values for a training set. Particularly relevant approaches include Artificial Neural Networks, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, k-Nearest Neighbors and naïve Bayes classifiers. WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2014, 4:468–481. How to cite this article: WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2014, 4:468–481. doi:10.1002/wcms.1183 PMID:25285160

  19. Cyclodextrin-based molecular machines.

    PubMed

    Hashidzume, Akihito; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Harada, Akira

    2014-01-01

    This chapter overviews molecular machines based on cyclodextrins (CDs). The categories of CD-based molecular machines, external stimuli for CD-based molecular machines, and typical examples of CD-based molecular machines are briefly described.

  20. Waterless Clothes-Cleaning Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Glenn; Ganske, Shane

    2013-01-01

    A waterless clothes-cleaning machine has been developed that removes loose particulates and deodorizes dirty laundry with regenerative chemical processes to make the clothes more comfortable to wear and have a fresher smell. This system was initially developed for use in zero-g, but could be altered for 1-g environments where water or other re sources are scarce. Some of these processes include, but are not limited to, airflow, filtration, ozone generation, heat, ultraviolet light, and photocatalytic titanium oxide.

  1. Improving Energy Efficiency in CNC Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavanaskar, Sushrut S.

    We present our work on analyzing and improving the energy efficiency of multi-axis CNC milling process. Due to the differences in energy consumption behavior, we treat 3- and 5-axis CNC machines separately in our work. For 3-axis CNC machines, we first propose an energy model that estimates the energy requirement for machining a component on a specified 3-axis CNC milling machine. Our model makes machine-specific predictions of energy requirements while also considering the geometric aspects of the machining toolpath. Our model - and the associated software tool - facilitate direct comparison of various alternative toolpath strategies based on their energy-consumption performance. Further, we identify key factors in toolpath planning that affect energy consumption in CNC machining. We then use this knowledge to propose and demonstrate a novel toolpath planning strategy that may be used to generate new toolpaths that are inherently energy-efficient, inspired by research on digital micrography -- a form of computational art. For 5-axis CNC machines, the process planning problem consists of several sub-problems that researchers have traditionally solved separately to obtain an approximate solution. After illustrating the need to solve all sub-problems simultaneously for a truly optimal solution, we propose a unified formulation based on configuration space theory. We apply our formulation to solve a problem variant that retains key characteristics of the full problem but has lower dimensionality, allowing visualization in 2D. Given the complexity of the full 5-axis toolpath planning problem, our unified formulation represents an important step towards obtaining a truly optimal solution. With this work on the two types of CNC machines, we demonstrate that without changing the current infrastructure or business practices, machine-specific, geometry-based, customized toolpath planning can save energy in CNC machining.

  2. Microfabrication with femtosecond laser processing : (A) laser ablation of ferrous alloys, (B) direct-write embedded optical waveguides and integrated optics in bulk glasses.

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Junpeng; McDaniel, Karen Lynn; Palmer, Jeremy Andrew; Yang, Pin; Griffith, Michelle Lynn; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Harris, Marc F.; Tallant, David Robert; Luk, Ting Shan; Burns, George Robert

    2004-11-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories, miniaturization dominates future hardware designs, and technologies that address the manufacture of micro-scale to nano-scale features are in demand. Currently, Sandia is developing technologies such as photolithography/etching (e.g. silicon MEMS), LIGA, micro-electro-discharge machining (micro-EDM), and focused ion beam (FIB) machining to fulfill some of the component design requirements. Some processes are more encompassing than others, but each process has its niche, where all performance characteristics cannot be met by one technology. For example, micro-EDM creates highly accurate micro-scale features but the choice of materials is limited to conductive materials. With silicon-based MEMS technology, highly accurate nano-scale integrated devices are fabricated but the mechanical performance may not meet the requirements. Femtosecond laser processing has the potential to fulfill a broad range of design demands, both in terms of feature resolution and material choices, thereby improving fabrication of micro-components. One of the unique features of femtosecond lasers is the ability to ablate nearly all materials with little heat transfer, and therefore melting or damage, to the surrounding material, resulting in highly accurate micro-scale features. Another unique aspect to femtosecond radiation is the ability to create localized structural changes thought nonlinear absorption processes. By scanning the focal point within transparent material, we can create three-dimensional waveguides for biological sensors and optical components. In this report, we utilized the special characteristics of femtosecond laser processing for microfabrication. Special emphasis was placed on the laser-material interactions to gain a science-based understanding of the process and to determine the process parameter space for laser processing of metals and glasses. Two areas were investigated, including laser ablation of ferrous alloys and direct

  3. Electropulse chemical machining

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.A.; Rospopo, S.D.

    1984-08-01

    Electropulse Chemical Machining is a new technique in chemical milling, and we have applied it to the photoforming of molybdenum. We apply direct current in short pulses at current densities of thousands of amperes per square foot with little thermal degradation of resists or workpieces. We have achieved etch rates an order of magnitude faster than those of existing methods, with a corresponding improvement in surface finish. Equipment designed for pulse plating can be used and is readily available from plating suppliers. Chemicals are commercially available and may be diluted to levels that protect resist images, reduce hazards to personnel, and simplify disposal. We speculate that this process can be applied to other refractory metals and noble metals.

  4. Electrochemical machining development for turbine generator rotor slots. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    The Electrochemical Machining Development for Turbine Generator Rotor Slots was initiated to provide a viable alternative to conventional machining of slots in conventional rotor forging materials and in advanced metallurgical alloys. ECM was selected because it is a stress-free machining process and is insensitive to material hardness. ECM concepts were developed and reviewed with ECM consultants prior to development work.

  5. Analytical design of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.; Valavanis, Kimon P.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of designing 'intelligent machines' to operate in uncertain environments with minimum supervision or interaction with a human operator is examined. The structure of an 'intelligent machine' is defined to be the structure of a Hierarchically Intelligent Control System, composed of three levels hierarchically ordered according to the principle of 'increasing precision with decreasing intelligence', namely: the organizational level, performing general information processing tasks in association with a long-term memory; the coordination level, dealing with specific information processing tasks with a short-term memory; and the control level, which performs the execution of various tasks through hardware using feedback control methods. The behavior of such a machine may be managed by controls with special considerations and its 'intelligence' is directly related to the derivation of a compatible measure that associates the intelligence of the higher levels with the concept of entropy, which is a sufficient analytic measure that unifies the treatment of all the levels of an 'intelligent machine' as the mathematical problem of finding the right sequence of internal decisions and controls for a system structured in the order of intelligence and inverse order of precision such that it minimizes its total entropy. A case study on the automatic maintenance of a nuclear plant illustrates the proposed approach.

  6. Strain gradient plasticity theory applied to machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Raphaël; Laheurte, Raynald; Darnis, Philippe; Gérard, Alain; Cahuc, Olivier

    2011-05-01

    Machining is the most common manufacturing process. A good behaviour law is necessary in the simulation of machining processes (analytical and finite element modeling). Usually, commonly used behaviour laws such as Jonhson-Cook can bring unsatisfactory results especially for high strain and large deformation processes. Significant differences can appear between experimental and simulation results. The aim of this paper is to present the choices made regarding the behaviour law in this context. This study develops a large deformation strain-gradient theoretical framework with hypothesis linked to metal cutting processes. The theoretical framework has the potential of expressing moments at the tool tip as they were observed in experiments. It will be shown that the theory has the capability of interpreting the complex phenomena found in machining and more particularly in high speed machining.

  7. Strain gradient plasticity theory applied to machining

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Raphael; Laheurte, Raynald; Darnis, Philippe; Gerard, Alain; Cahuc, Olivier

    2011-05-04

    Machining is the most common manufacturing process. A good behaviour law is necessary in the simulation of machining processes (analytical and finite element modeling). Usually, commonly used behaviour laws such as Jonhson-Cook can bring unsatisfactory results especially for high strain and large deformation processes. Significant differences can appear between experimental and simulation results. The aim of this paper is to present the choices made regarding the behaviour law in this context. This study develops a large deformation strain-gradient theoretical framework with hypothesis linked to metal cutting processes. The theoretical framework has the potential of expressing moments at the tool tip as they were observed in experiments. It will be shown that the theory has the capability of interpreting the complex phenomena found in machining and more particularly in high speed machining.

  8. Rendering for machine vision prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, Jacek

    2008-09-01

    Machine Vision systems for manufacturing quality inspection are interdisciplinary solutions including lighting, optics, cameras, image processing, segmentation, feature analysis, classification as well as integration with manufacturing process. The design and optimization of the above systems, especially image acquisition setup is mainly driven by experiment. This requires deep know-how and well equipped laboratory, which does not guarantee the optimal development process and results. This paper proposes novel usage of rendering, originating from 3D computer graphics, for machine vision prototyping and optimization. The invented technique and physically-based rendering aids selection or optimization of luminaires, tolerancing of mechanical construction and object handling, robustness predetermination or surface flaw simulation. The rendering setup utilizes mesh modeling, bump and normal mapping and light distribution sharpening with IES data files. The performed light simulation experiments for metal surfaces (face surface of bearing rollers) are validated.

  9. Laboratory directed research and development final report: Intelligent tools for on-machine acceptance of precision machined components

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, N.G.; Harwell, L.D.; Hazelton, A.

    1997-02-01

    On-Machine Acceptance (OMA) is an agile manufacturing concept being developed for machine tools at SNL. The concept behind OMA is the integration of product design, fabrication, and qualification processes by using the machining center as a fabrication and inspection tool. This report documents the final results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development effort to qualify OMA.

  10. DREAMS: a payload on-board the ExoMars EDM Schiaparelli for the characterization of Martian environment during the statistical dust storm season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molfese, Cesare; Esposito, Francesca; Debei, Stefano; Bettanini, Carlo; Arruego Rodríguez, Ignacio; Colombatti, Giacomo; Harri, Ari-Matty.; Montmessin, Franck; Wilson, Colin; Aboudan, Alessio; Mugnuolo, Raffaele; Pirrotta, Simone; Marchetti, Ernesto; Witasse, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    , the dust opacity, and the atmospheric electric properties close to the surface of Mars. It will fly in January 2016 on-board the Schiaparelli Entry, Descent and landing Demonstrator Module (EDM) of the ExoMars space mission. It is foreseen to land on Mars in late October 2016 during the statistical dust storm season. Therefore, DREAMS might have the unique chance to make scientific measurements to characterize the Martian environment in a dusty scenario also performing the first ever measurements of atmospheric electric field on Mars. The relationship between the process of dust entrainment in the atmosphere during dust events and the enhancement of atmospheric electric field has been widely studied in an intense field test campaign in the Sahara desert. In order to better characterize this physical process, we performed atmospheric and environmental measurements comparable to those that DREAMS will acquire on Mars. Preliminary results will be discussed. DREAMS is in a high development state. A first model has been delivered to ESA and has been integrated in the EDM Flight Model. Integration tests are on-going. The DREAMS Flight Model will be delivered at the end of March this year.

  11. Machine tool locator

    DOEpatents

    Hanlon, John A.; Gill, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  12. Fault Tolerant State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary R.; Taft, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    State machines are commonly used to control sequential logic in FPGAs and ASKS. An errant state machine can cause considerable damage to the device it is controlling. For example in space applications, the FPGA might be controlling Pyros, which when fired at the wrong time will cause a mission failure. Even a well designed state machine can be subject to random errors us a result of SEUs from the radiation environment in space. There are various ways to encode the states of a state machine, and the type of encoding makes a large difference in the susceptibility of the state machine to radiation. In this paper we compare 4 methods of state machine encoding and find which method gives the best fault tolerance, as well as determining the resources needed for each method.

  13. Using Phun to Study ``Perpetual Motion'' Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koreš, Jaroslav

    2012-05-01

    The concept of "perpetual motion" has a long history. The Indian astronomer and mathematician Bhaskara II (12th century) was the first person to describe a perpetual motion (PM) machine. An example of a 13th- century PM machine is shown in Fig. 1. Although the law of conservation of energy clearly implies the impossibility of PM construction, over the centuries numerous proposals for PM have been made, involving ever more elements of modern science in their construction. It is possible to test a variety of PM machines in the classroom using a program called Phun2 or its commercial version Algodoo.3 The programs are designed to simulate physical processes and we can easily simulate mechanical machines using them. They provide an intuitive graphical environment controlled with a mouse; a programming language is not needed. This paper describes simulations of four different (supposed) PM machines.4

  14. Unified universal quantum cloning machine and fidelities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yinan; Shi Handuo; Xiong Zhaoxi; Jing Li; Mu Liangzhu; Ren Xijun; Fan Heng

    2011-09-15

    We present a unified universal quantum cloning machine, which combines several different existing universal cloning machines together, including the asymmetric case. In this unified framework, the identical pure states are projected equally into each copy initially constituted by input and one half of the maximally entangled states. We show explicitly that the output states of those universal cloning machines are the same. One importance of this unified cloning machine is that the cloning procession is always the symmetric projection, which reduces dramatically the difficulties for implementation. Also, it is found that this unified cloning machine can be directly modified to the general asymmetric case. Besides the global fidelity and the single-copy fidelity, we also present all possible arbitrary-copy fidelities.

  15. OptiCentric lathe centering machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buß, C.; Heinisch, J.

    2013-09-01

    High precision optics depend on precisely aligned lenses. The shift and tilt of individual lenses as well as the air gap between elements require accuracies in the single micron regime. These accuracies are hard to meet with traditional assembly methods. Instead, lathe centering can be used to machine the mount with respect to the optical axis. Using a diamond turning process, all relevant errors of single mounted lenses can be corrected in one post-machining step. Building on the OptiCentric® and OptiSurf® measurement systems, Trioptics has developed their first lathe centering machines. The machine and specific design elements of the setup will be shown. For example, the machine can be used to turn optics for i-line steppers with highest precision.

  16. Machine generation of machine-executable state-change instructions for magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hoenninger, J.C. III; Crooks, L.E.

    1987-11-17

    A process of machine generating machine executable state-change instructions for a sequence controller of a multi-slice magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system is described comprising the steps of: defining predetermined program-change tables T1, T2,...Tn of MRI parameter values in a machine accessible memory; defining predetermined slice-specific program segments P1, P2,...Pm of machine executable MRI sequencer instructions in a machine accessible memory, which segments are referenced by predetermined respective symbolic addresses and which segments include pointer-references to the tables; and machine replicating a predetermined set of the slice-specific program segments in a predetermined order while indexing the corresponding symbolic addresses and referenced table entries in a predetermined sequence so as to maintain proper correspondence between slice-specific main programs and subroutines in each replicated segment.

  17. General CPT-even dimension-five nonminimal couplings between fermions and photons yielding EDM and MDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Jonas B.; Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M.

    2016-09-01

    In this letter, we examine a new class of CPT-even nonminimal interactions, between fermions and photons, deprived of higher order derivatives, that yields electric dipole moment (EDM) and magnetic dipole moment (MDM) in the context of the Dirac equation. The couplings are dimension-five CPT-even and Lorentz-violating nonminimal structures, composed of a rank-2 tensor, Tμν, the electromagnetic tensor, and gamma matrices, being addressed in its axial and non-axial Hermitian versions, and also comprising general possibilities. We then use the electron's anomalous magnetic dipole moment and electron electric dipole moment measurements to reach upper bounds of 1 part in 1020 and 1025 (eV) - 1.

  18. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  19. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2004-12-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  20. Parallel Kinematic Machines (PKM)

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.S.

    2000-03-17

    The purpose of this 3-year cooperative research project was to develop a parallel kinematic machining (PKM) capability for complex parts that normally require expensive multiple setups on conventional orthogonal machine tools. This non-conventional, non-orthogonal machining approach is based on a 6-axis positioning system commonly referred to as a hexapod. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) was the lead site responsible for a multitude of projects that defined the machining parameters and detailed the metrology of the hexapod. The role of the Kansas City Plant (KCP) in this project was limited to evaluating the application of this unique technology to production applications.