Arcoverde, Alessandro Roberto; Rodrigues, André Flávio Soares Ferreira; Daemon, Erik
This study was aimed at making the bionomic aspects of Pseudolynchia canariensis (Macquart 1839) clear and at providing ways for keeping this diptera under laboratory conditions. A hundred and seventy-four flies were collected, of which 30% did not show hematophagy under laboratory conditions. The others were split into two groups with feeding intervals of 24 and 48 h. The individuals fed within a 24-h interval were found to live longer than the ones fed within a 48-h interval and blood meal time was decreased as feeding interval was increased. In the 48-h-feeding-interval group, females were found to live longer than the males, what could not be shown for the 24-h-feeding-interval group. Copulation was not observed in vitro, even after exposure to pigeon feathers and scraped skin. Data from this study suggest that daily feeding makes it possible to keep P. canariensis under laboratory conditions for a period of time longer than the one found for the 48-h feeding interval.
González, C R; Llanos, L; Saldarriaga-Córdoba, M
The terrestrial larva of the austral horsefly, Parosca latipalpis (Macquart), identified by molecular techniques, is described. The larva of P. latipalpis resembles Scaptia auriflua (Donovan), Copidapha vicina (Taylor), Myioscaptia muscula (English), and Osca lata (Guérin-Meneville) in many morphological characters, as well as in their terrestrial habitats. Some characters that are shared between these species are unique among Tabanidae and provide evidence of their monophyletic origin, suggesting a typical Gondwanaland group. Larvae of P. latipalpis were found 2-3 cm below of the soil surface and associated with larvae of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera in southern Chile.
Roeterdink, Evan M; Dadour, Ian R; Watling, R John
Whole body concentrations of lead (Pb), barium (Ba) and antimony (Sb) were determined in larvae of the blowfly Calliphora dubia (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) removed from a piece of beef shot and contaminated with gunshot residue and compared with the concentrations detected within larvae feeding on a control piece of beef. Whole larvae were taken into solution and analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significantly higher concentrations of Pb, Ba and Sb were detected within the larvae feeding on the shot piece of beef compared with larvae that were feeding on the control piece of beef. Initial results indicate that the concentrations of Pb and Sb within the larvae decrease as the duration of feeding increases, whereas Ba concentrations appear to increase, suggesting a bioaccumulation of Ba within the larvae. The second part of this experiment investigated the depuration of Pb, Ba and Sb from the larvae following removal of the gunshot residue source. A significant reduction in Pb, Ba and Sb concentrations within the larvae was observed following the transfer of larvae from the shot piece of beef to the control piece of beef.
Ma, Ting; Huang, Jia; Wang, Jiang-Feng
Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) is one of the most common species of blow flies at the scene of death in Southern China. Pupae are useful in postmortem interval (PMI) estimation due to their sedentary nature and longer duration of association with the corpse. However, to determine the age of a pupa is more difficult than that of a larva, due to the fact that morphological changes are rarely visible during pupal development. In this study, eggs of C. rufifacies were reared in climatic chambers under four different constant temperatures (20, 24, 28 and 32°C each±1°C, respectively) with same rearing conditions such as foodstuff, substrate, photoperiod and relative humidity. Ten duplicate pupae were sampled at 8-h intervals from prepupae to emergence under the different constant temperatures, respectively. The pupae were sampled, killed, fixed, dissected and with the puparium removed, the external morphological changes of the pupae were observed, recorded and photographed. The morphological characters of C. rufifacies pupae were described. Based on the visible external morphological characters during pupal morphogenesis at 28°C±1°C, the developmental period of C. rufifacies was divided into nine developmental stages and recorded in detailed description. Based on above-mentioned nine developmental stages, some visible external morphological characters were selected as indications for developmental stages. These indications mapped to 8-h sampling intervals at the four different constant temperatures were also described in this study. It is demonstrated that generally the duration of each developmental stage of C. rufifacies pupae is inversely correlated to appropriate developmental temperatures. This study provides relatively systematic pupal developmental data of C. rufifacies for the estimation of PMI. In addition, further work may improve by focus on other environmental factors, histological analysis, more thorough external examination by shortening sampling
Ricarte, Antonio; Marcos-García, M. Ángeles; Hancock, E. Geoffrey; Rotheray, Graham E.
Ten species of Copestylum (Diptera: Syrphidae) were reared from fruits and flowers in Costa Rica, Ecuador and Trinidad. Seven were new and in this paper, we describe them, their development sites and the third stage larva and/or the puparium of all ten species. One new synonym is proposed, Copestylum pinkusi (Curran) [= Copestylum cinctiventre (Curran)]. Similarities and differences between these new and other Copestylum species, suggest they separate into two groups, referred to as the Vagum and Cinctiventre species groups. Features characterising these groups for both adult and early stages are assessed. Each species was also distinguished using adult and early stage characters. Within the Vagum group, adults were more disparate morphologically than the larval stage; this was reversed in the Cinctiventre group. Adult colour patterns are probably cryptic in function and for disguise. Vagum species have disruptive marks, while the Cinctiventre species have reflective colours. Biologically, the groups are almost distinguished by larval development sites. Vagum species use predominantly fruits and have a larval stage that is relatively generalised in form and habit. Cinctiventre species are confined to developing in flowers and the larva is more specialised. A key to both adult and early stages of all ten species is provided. PMID:26580811
Female Tabanus nigrovittatus were field collected and used in laboratory experimentation to further elucidate the physiological and behavioral factors that affect engorgement. Previous studies have shown that sulfakinins are feeding satiety factors in invertebrates. This study demonstrates that sulf...
Ferguson, David J; Lambkin, Christine L; Yeates, David K
We describe, diagnose and illustrate eight new species in the genus Anabarhynchus Macquart, 1848 as follows: Anabarhynchus cretatus sp. n., Anabarhynchus darembal sp. n., Anabarhynchus iancommoni sp. n., Anabarhynchus longiseta sp. n. Anabarhynchus lyncurium sp. n., Anabarhynchus moretonensis sp. n., Anabarhynchus neboensis sp. n. and Anabarhynchus wintertoni sp. n. These represent all new species in collections from south east Queensland. These new species bring the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 112.
Men, Qiu-Lei; Yu, Dao-Ping
One new species of the subgenus Eriocera Macquart, 1838, Hexatoma (Eriocera) cleopatroides Men, sp. n. (Southern China: Anhui) is described and illustrated. A key to all of 78 known species from China in the subgenus is provided, which was solely based on literatures. The new species is similar to Hexatoma (Eriocera) cleopatra Alexander, 1933, but distinguishes from the latter by the prescutum entirely black with two ill-defined gray stripes, by the legs with fore and middle femora brown in basal half, black in apical half, with hind femora brown in basal one-fourth, and by the wings with cells c and sc more yellowish brown than the ground color.
Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Mariluis, Juan Carlos; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Olea, María Sofía
A revision is given of the species placed in the genus Microcerella Macquart, known from the southern extreme of South America, the so-called Patagonian Region. A new diagnosis of the genus is given on the basis of the revision of a large number of Neotropical species. A total of 25 valid species are recognized in the region. Most of these (21 species) are divided into four species-groups on the basis of general groundplan of genitalia and external characters. Four new species are described, M. deliae sp. nov., M. holmbergi sp. nov., M. nataliae sp. nov. and M. paetoi sp. nov. One new synonymy is established: Austrohartigia shannoni Lopes as a new junior synonym of Microcerella spinosa (Hall), syn. nov. A lectotype is designated for Doringia subandina Blanchard [a junior synonym of Microcerella spinigena (Rondani)]. Two species are recorded from Argentina for the first time: M. chicoensis (Lopes) and M. engeli (Hall). Three nominal species were not examined and are treated as nomina dubia within Microcerella: M. apicalis (Townsend), M. rufomaculata Macquart and M. sarcophagina Thomson. An illustrated key is provided to the males of Patagonian species of Microcerella allowing for separation of 25 species. Additionally, a series of images of male genitalia based on color photography and illustrations is provided to aid in the identification of these species of Microcerella. Biological information is given for the species, where known.
Men, Qiu-Lei; Yu, Dao-Ping
Abstract One new species of the subgenus Eriocera Macquart, 1838, Hexatoma (Eriocera) cleopatroides Men, sp. n. (Southern China: Anhui) is described and illustrated. A key to all of 78 known species from China in the subgenus is provided, which was solely based on literatures. The new species is similar to Hexatoma (Eriocera) cleopatra Alexander, 1933, but distinguishes from the latter by the prescutum entirely black with two ill-defined gray stripes, by the legs with fore and middle femora brown in basal half, black in apical half, with hind femora brown in basal one-fourth, and by the wings with cells c and sc more yellowish brown than the ground color. PMID:25685007
Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Narongchai, Paitoon; Kanchai, Chaturong; Vichairat, Karnda; Piangjai, Somsak; Boonsriwong, Worachote; Bunchu, Nophawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Kuntalue, Budsabong; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Sukontason, Kom
In Thailand, the hairy maggots of the blow flies, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, are of forensic importance. Both flies are closely related species, not only in the morphological appearance of their larvae and puparia, but also on the aggressive feeding habit of the former. In our continuing studies of forensically important flies, identification of immature ones needs particular attention. In this study, we reported the morphological comparison between the puparia of these two blow fly species using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Observation revealed that the cuticular sculpture of tubercles along the dorsal and lateral segments had markedly different features: with C. rufifacies having many sharp spines assembling only at the tip, while of C. villeneuvi bore stout spines throughout the tubercle. A larger number of globules at the bubble membrane on the dorsolateral border of the fifth segment was found in C. villeneuvi (average 225) than in C. rufifacies (average 35), and more papillae was observed on the anterior spiracle in C. villeneuvi (13-15) than in C. rufifacies (9-12). However, the morphology of distinct net-like patches of the integument and structure of the posterior spiracle of both species were almost identical. Morphological comparison in this study permitted identification of the puparia of both fly species, particularly in areas where they co-exist.
Mostovski, Mike B
Metopina kuslitzkyi sp. n. with a rudimentary anterior flap on tergite 5 in female is described from Israel. Four other species, the Palaearctic Metopina braueri, M. pileata, M. ulrichi and Afrotropical M. obsoleta, have been recorded from Israel for the first time, in addition to the previously known M. heselhausi. An illustrated identification key to the Israeli species of Metopina is provided.
Tantawi, Tarek I; Sinclair, Bradley J
Seven species of Calliphoridae are reported from the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador: Lucilia pionia (Walker), L. setosa (James), L. deceptor (Curran), L. eximia (Wiedemann), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Lucilia eximia is newly recorded from the islands. Lucilia sp. near pionia is recorded from the island of Española. The distribution and collection records of these species are discussed and listed, and a key to their identification is provided. Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) is reported for the first time from mainland Ecuador and the identification of this species is outlined.
Swiger, S L; Hogsette, J A; Butler, J F
Larval interactions of dipteran species, blow flies in particular, were observed and documented daily over time and location on five black bear carcasses in Gainesville, FL, USA, from June 2002 - September 2004. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) or Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) larvae were collected first, after which Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) oviposited on the carcasses in multiple locations (i.e., neck, anus, and exposed flesh) not inhabited already by the other blow fly larvae. Within the first week of decomposition, C. rufifacies larvae grew to ≥12 mm, filling the carcasses with thousands of larvae and replacing the other calliphorid larvae either through successful food source competition or by predation. As a result, C. macellaria and C. megacephala were not collected past their third instar feeding stage. The blow fly species, C. megacephala, C. macellaria, Lucilia caeruleiviridis (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), and C. rufifacies, completed two developmental cycles in the 88.5-kg carcass. This phenomenon might serve to complicate or prevent the calculation of an accurate postmortem interval.
Ozerov, A L; Krivosheina, M G
Flies of the genera Cleigastra Macquart, 1835, Gonarcticus Becker, 1894, Gonatherus Rondani, 1856, Hexamitocera Becker, 1894, Nanna Strobl, 1894, Orthacheta Becker, 1894 and Spathephilus Becker, 1894 (all Scathophagidae) of the fauna of Russia are reviewed. Key to genera, generic descriptions and keys for determination of species are given, and data on geographical distribution are summarized. One species, Nanna cryophila sp. nov., is described as new to science. One new synonymy is proposed: Nanna kamtschatkense (Hendel, 1930) = Nanna tibiella (Zetterstedt, 1838). Orthacheta cornuta (Loew, 1863) is recorded from Europe for the first time. Gonarcticus arcticus (Becker, 1907) is newly recorded from the Palaearctic Region and Russia. Additionally, Nanna flavipes (Fallén, 1819) is newly recorded from China, and Spathephilus nigriventris (Loew, 1864) is newly recorded from Kazakhstan.
Fleming, Aj; Wood, D Monty; Smith, M Alex; Janzen, Daniel; Hallwachs, Winnie
We describe a new species of Cordyligaster Macquart (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. Cordyligastercapellii sp. n., is described and photographed. All specimens of C.capellii were reared from Syngamiaflorella (Stoll, 1781) (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae), a leaf-rolling caterpillar collected in ACG rain forest. By coupling morphology, photographic documentation, life history and molecular data, we provide a clear and concise description of this new species. In addition the authors provide new distribution and host records for C.fuscipennis (Macquart) reared in ACG.
Wood, D Monty; Smith, M Alex; Janzen, Daniel; Hallwachs, Winnie
Abstract We describe a new species of Cordyligaster Macquart (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. Cordyligaster capellii sp. n., is described and photographed. All specimens of C. capellii were reared from Syngamia florella (Stoll, 1781) (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae), a leaf-rolling caterpillar collected in ACG rain forest. By coupling morphology, photographic documentation, life history and molecular data, we provide a clear and concise description of this new species. In addition the authors provide new distribution and host records for C. fuscipennis (Macquart) reared in ACG. PMID:25535485
A REDESCRIPTION OF THE HOLOTYPE MALE OF AEDES (STEGOMYIA) TONGAE EDWARDS WITH A NOTE ON TWO TOPOTYPIC FEMALES ( DIPTERA : CULICIDAE ) YIAU-MIN...Stegomyia) Tongae Edwards with a Note on Two Topotypic Females 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d... FEMALES ( DIPTERA : CULICIDAE ) ‘v2 YIAU-MIN HUANG, Southeast Asia Mosquito Project, Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington
Background: Female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of pathogens that impact livestock and wildlife in the United States. Little is known about their molecular functioning, including components of their immune system. Because the insect immune response is involved ...
A revision of Afrotropical Quasimodo flies (Diptera: Schizophora; Curtonotidae). Part IV—the continental Afrotropical species of Curtonotum Macquart, with descriptions of thirteen new species and a combined phylogenetic analysis of the Curtonotidae.
Kirk-Spriggs, Ashley H; Wiegmann, Brian M
specific name, as Parapsinota sublineata (Duda, 1939). The continental Afrotropical fauna of the genus Curtonotum Macquart, 1844 is revised and a diagnosis of the genus is provided. Known biology, behaviour and published information on immature stages of the genus are briefly reviewed. Type material of 12 of the 13 named species (C. angolense Tsacas, C. campsiphallum Tsacas, C. cuthbertsoni Duda, C. herrero Tsacas, C. pauliani Tsacas, C. platyphallum Tsacas, C. quinquevittatum Curran, C. saheliense Tsacas, C. sao Tsacas, C. simile Tsacas, C. striatifrons Malloch and C. tigrinum Séguy), was studied and errors in previous interpretations and designation of type specimens are resolved. Curtonotum pauliani is the only species occurring on both the continental African mainland and Madagascar. The type spec-imen of C. maculiventris (Enderlein) is lost and a neotype is here designated. One species synonymy is proposed: C. tigrinum Séguy, 1933 = C. maculiventris (Enderlein, 1917), syn. n. Additional material of the aforementioned species is noted, substantially increasing their known distributions. Thirteen species are described as new, namely: C. bicuspis Kirk- Spriggs, sp. n., C. cimbebas Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. constance Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. freidberg Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. gonzo Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. hay Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. litoralis Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. marriott Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. mcgregor Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. moffatt Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. tsacas Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. uncinatum Kirk- Spriggs, sp. n. and C. unicuspis Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n. The head and thorax, frons, wing, fifth sternite and hypandrium of the male of the 25 named species are illustrated for the first time, as well as the highly diagnostic male phallus, from both the right and left sides laterally. A key to species based on male characters is provided, and species distributions are mapped and interpreted according to major vegetation types, topography and humidity zones. The
Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana
Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids.
Lampromyia bellasiciliae sp. n. is described from Sicily, Italy. The new species belongs to the pallida subgroup and is differentiated from related taxa in a dichotomous identification key. DNA barcodes for eight of the currently recognised ten Palaearctic species of Lampromyia are provided, and the calculated genetic distances between the taxa and species groups/subgroups are discussed. New distributional data for additional species of Lampromyia are presented and the occurrence of the Palaearctic taxa is depicted in a distribution map.
Gabrieli, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Di Cosimo, Alessandro; Savini, Grazia; Fumagalli, Marco; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano
In the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)(Diptera: Tephritidae), mating has a strong impact on female biology, leading to a decrease in sexual receptivity and increased oviposition and fecundity. Previous studies suggest that sperm transfer may play a role in inducing these behavioural changes. Here we report the identification of a medfly innexin gene, Cc-inx5, whose expression is limited to the germ-line of both sexes. Through RNA interference of this gene, we generated males without testes and, consequently, sperm, but apparently retaining all the other reproductive organs intact. These sperm-less males were able to mate and, like their wild-type counterparts, to induce in their partners increased oviposition rates and refractoriness to remating. Interestingly, matings to sperm-less males results in oviposition rates higher than those induced by copulation with control males. In addition, the observed female post-mating behavioural changes were congruent with changes in transcript abundance of genes known to be regulated by mating in this species. Our results suggest that sperm transfer is not necessary to reduce female sexual receptivity and to increase oviposition and fecundity. These data pave the way to a better understanding of the role/s of seminal components in modulating female post-mating responses. In the long term, this knowledge will be the basis for the development of novel approaches for the manipulation of female fertility, and, consequently, innovative tools to be applied to medfly control strategies in the field.
Kumaran, Nagalingam; Hayes, R Andrew; Clarke, Anthony R
In tephritid fruit flies of the genus Bactrocera Macquart, a group of plant derived compounds (sensu amplo 'male lures') enhance the mating success of males that have consumed them. For flies responding to the male lure methyl eugenol, this is due to the accumulation of chemicals derived from the male lure in the male rectal gland (site of pheromone synthesis) and the subsequent release of an attractive pheromone. Cuelure, raspberry ketone and zingerone are a second, related group of male lures to which many Bactrocera species respond. Raspberry ketone and cuelure are both known to accumulate in the rectal gland of males as raspberry ketone, but it is not known if the emitted male pheromone is subsequently altered in complexity or is more attractive to females. Using Bactrocera tryoni as our test insect, and cuelure and zingerone as our test chemicals, we assess: (i) lure accumulation in the rectal gland; (ii) if the lures are released exclusively in association with the male pheromone; and (iii) if the pheromone of lure-fed males is more attractive to females than the pheromone of lure-unfed males. As previously documented, we found cuelure was stored in its hydroxyl form of raspberry ketone, while zingerone was stored largely in an unaltered state. Small but consistent amounts of raspberry ketone and β-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propionic acid were also detected in zingerone-fed flies. Males released the ingested lures or their analogues, along with endogenous pheromone chemicals, only during the dusk courtship period. More females responded to squashed rectal glands extracted from flies fed on cuelure than to glands from control flies, while more females responded to the pheromone of calling cuelure-fed males than to control males. The response to zingerone treatments in both cases was not different from the control. The results show that male B. tryoni release ingested lures as part of their pheromone blend and, at least for cuelure, this attracts more
Ammonia and its derivatives are used largely by female fruit 32 flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally-based control strategies such a food-based lures a...
Mangan, Robert L
Wild strains of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) placed into laboratory rearing conditions are subjected to selection pressures caused by the diet, cages, density of flies, and other factors. Selection that changes mating behavior of the strain may result in less effective males released in sterile insect programs. Tests were performed to examine the effects of protein in diet and adult interactions on egg production and mating during sexual maturation of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) in laboratory cages. Flies were offspring of wild flies collected from Chiapas or Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and reared on Valencia oranges. Experiments demonstrated effects of yeast hydrolysate protein in adult diet and pairing with males on production of mature and immature eggs, numbers of females producing eggs, and mating with females aged 15 d. Addition of protein to 4% fructose in the adult diet approximately tripled mature egg production in females maintained for the total maturation period with an equal number of males. Females that matured without males produced approximately 33% more-mature eggs when fed protein than those fed no protein. Total egg production of females matured without males and fed sugar only or sugar with protein was more than twice that of females matured with males. Tests to examine the effects of male and female diet separately on female egg production showed slightly higher egg production in females fed protein, or females paired with males fed protein, but these differences were not significant. The most definitive effects were that combining wild strain females and males in cages during maturation reduced egg production. This effect was greatest when flies were not fed protein.
Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani
Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."
Yuan, Liang-Chen; Luo, Yi-Bo; Thien, Leonard B.; Fan, Jian-Hua; Xu, Huan-Li; Chen, Zhi-Duan
Background and Aims The mutualistic interaction between insects and flowers is considered to be a major factor in the early evolution of flowering plants. The Schisandraceae were, until now, the only family in the ANITA group lacking information on pollination biology in natural ecosystems. Thus, the objective of this research was to document the pollination biology and breeding system of Schisandra henryi. Methods Field observations were conducted in three populations of S. henryi and the floral phenology, floral characters and insect activities were recorded. Floral fragrances were sampled in the field and analysed using TCT-GC-MS. Floral thermogenesis was measured with a TR-71U Thermo Recorder. Pollen loads and location of pollen grains on insect bodies (including the gut) were checked with a scanning electron microscope and under a light microscope. Key Results Schisandra henryi is strictly dioecious. Male flowers are similar to female flowers in colour, shape, and size, but more abundant than female flowers. The distance between tepals and the androecium or gynoecium is narrow. Neither male nor female flowers are fragrant or thermogenic. Schisandra henryi is pollinated only by adult female Megommata sp. (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera) that eat the pollen grains as extra nutrition for ovary maturation and ovipositing. Both male and female flowers attract the pollinators using similar visual cues and thus the female flowers use deceit as they offer no food. Conclusions Schisandra henryi exhibits a specialized pollination system, which differs from the generalized pollination system documented in other ANITA members. Pollen is the sole food resource for Megommata sp. and the female flowers of S. henryi attract pollinators by deceit. This is the first report of predacious gall midges utilizing pollen grains as a food source. The lack of floral thermogenesis and floral odours further enforces the visual cues by reducing attractants for other potential pollinators. PMID
Piñero, Jaime C; Souder, Steven K; Smith, Trevor R; Fox, Abbie J; Vargas, Roger I
Ammonia and its derivatives are used by female fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally based control strategies such as food-based lures and insecticidal baits targeting pestiferous fruit fly species. In field cage studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioral response of laboratory-reared male and female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), to seven commercially available protein baits and to beer waste, a relatively inexpensive and readily available substance. Each material was tested alone or in combination with either ammonium acetate or ammonium carbonate. For the majority of baits evaluated, the presence of ammonium acetate, but not ammonium carbonate, elicited a significantly greater level of response of female C. capitata compared with the protein baits alone. The addition of ammonium acetate to selected baits increased bait attractiveness to a level comparable with that elicited by the most widely used spinosad-based protein bait, GF-120. Our findings indicate that the addition of ammonium acetate to commercially available proteinaceous baits and to beer waste can greatly improve their attractiveness to C. capitata, potentially increasing the bait's effectiveness for fruit fly monitoring and suppression.
López-Ley, Jorge Ulises; Toledo, Jorge; Malo, Edi A; Gomez, Jaime; Santiesteban, Antonio; Rojas, Julio C
In this study, we investigated the influence of cultivar type, fruit ripeness, and damage by conspecific larvae on the attraction of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to and oviposition on carambola fruit (Averroha carambola L.). The attraction of both sexes of A. obliqua to fruit of different quality was evaluated through cage experiments in the field, and the oviposition preferences of mated females were examined in laboratory tests. Both sexes, mated or virgin, were more attracted to the "Maha" fruit than to the "Golden Star" fruit, and the females oviposited more frequently on the Maha cultivar than the Golden Star cultivar. Both sexes were more attracted to ripe and half-ripe Maha fruits than to mature green fruit, and although females did not show a preference for ovipositing on half-ripe or ripe fruits, they did not oviposit on mature green fruits. Males did not show a preference for the volatiles from uninfested, artificially damaged, or infested Maha fruits, but females were more attracted to uninfested fruits than to artificially damaged and infested Maha fruits. Furthermore, females preferred to oviposit on uninfested fruits compared with artificially damaged fruit, and they did not oviposit on infested fruits.
Chen, Peng; Yuan, Ruiling; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, Jin
The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions worldwide. To better comprehend flight capacity of B. dorsalis and its physiological basis, a computer-monitored flight mill was used to study flight capacity of B. dorsalis adult females of various ages, and the changes of its flight muscle ultrastructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The flight capacity (both speed and distance) changed significantly with age of B. dorsalis female adults, peaking at about 15 d; the myofibril diameter of the flight muscle of test insects at 15-d old was the longest, up to 1.56 µm, the sarcomere length at 15-d old was the shortest, averaging at 1.37 µm, volume content of mitochondria of flight muscle at 15-d old reached the peak, it was 32.64%. This study provides the important scientific data for better revealing long-distance movement mechanism of B. dorsalis. PMID:26450591
Abraham, Solana; Nuñez-Beverido, Nicolás; Contreras-Navarro, Yair; Pérez-Staples, Diana
In numerous insects, accessory gland products (AGPs) transferred from males to females during mating are responsible for female sexual inhibition, but these products can be affected by male condition. Here, we investigated the effect of AGPs on female receptivity of the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew), and the effect of male and female strain, male irradiation, AGP dose and sexual activity period on the effectiveness of these AGPs in inhibiting female remating. Injections of aqueous extracts of male accessory glands into the abdomen of females did not reduce their receptivity either at 0.2 or 0.8 male equivalent. Females injected with AGPs behaved like virgin females and not as mated females. Neither male origin, female origin (wild versus mass-reared), nor male irradiation (sterile versus fertile males) had an effect in inhibiting female remating. Also, injections of glands obtained during the sexual calling period of males, or obtained during the morning when males are not sexually active had no effect on female remating behavior. Mated mass-reared females were more likely to remate than wild females. We conclude that inhibition of female sexual receptivity of A. ludens is mediated by factors other than AGPs, such as the number of sperm stored by females, the stimulus of copulation per se or more probably, mediated by a combination of factors. More research is needed to elucidate the role of AGPs in this species.
Thiemann, Tara; Nelms, Brittany; Reisen, William K
Vegetation patterns and the presence of large numbers of nesting herons and egrets significantly altered the number of host-seeking Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae) collected at dry ice-baited traps. The numbers of females collected per trap night at traps along the ecotone of Eucalyptus stands with and without a heron colony were always greater or equal to numbers collected at traps within or under canopy. No Cx. tarsalis were collected within or under Eucaplytus canopy during the peak heron nesting season, even though these birds frequently were infected with West Nile virus and large number of engorged females could be collected at resting boxes. These data indicate a diversion of host-seeking females from traps to nesting birds reducing sampling efficiency.
THIEMANN, TARA; NELMS, BRITTANY; REISEN, WILLIAM K.
Vegetation patterns and the presence of large numbers of nesting herons and egrets significantly altered the number of host-seeking Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae) collected at dry ice-baited traps. The numbers of females collected per trap night at traps along the ecotone of Eucalyptus stands with and without a heron colony were always greater or equal to numbers collected at traps within or under canopy. No Cx. tarsalis were collected within or under Eucaplytus canopy during the peak heron nesting season, even though these birds frequently were infected with West Nile virus and large number of engorged females could be collected at resting boxes. These data indicate a diversion of host-seeking females from traps to nesting birds reducing sampling efficiency. PMID:21661310
Carriére, Y; Millar, J G; McNeil, J N; Miller, D; Underbill, E W
Gas chroinatography of hexane extracts of 3-day-old virgin A.frontella adults revealed a branched saturated hydrocarbon present only in females. This compound was isolated by argentation chromotography and preparative GC, identified by GC and GC-MS as 3,7-dimethylnonadecane, and subsequently synthesized. Three-day-old virgin females contained 54.1 ± 3.5 ng (± SEM;N = 48) of 3,7-dimethylnonadecane. Male cadavers do not elicit male courtship behavior, but when treated with ∼ 18 ng of 3,7-dimethylnonadecane they were as attractive as cadavers of 3-day-old virgin females. Black cotton knots were less attractive than male cadavers when treated with 3,7-dimethylnonadecane, but all bioassays indicated that this compound is an important semiochemical modulating male mating behavior.
Release/recapture studies were conducted with both feral and sterile females of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), to determine sampling range for a liquid protein bait (hydrolyzed torula yeast) and for a two-component synthetic lure (ammonium acetate and putrescine). Tests were d...
Fruit fly pest species have been successfully controlled and managed via the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), a control strategy that uses infertile matings of sterile males to wild females to reduce pest populations. Biological efficiency in the field is higher if only sterile males are released in...
The relative toxicities of eight repellents (DMP, Rutgers 612, DEET, IR3535, Picardin, PMD, AI3-35765, and AI3-37220) were evaluated by topical application against females of Aedes aegypti (L.) Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, and Anopheles albimanus Weidemann. Based on 24h...
Johnson, Brian J; Ritchie, Scott A
The need to capture male mosquitoes has intensified recently as a result of a number of male-based sterile insect technique (SIT) and population-modification programs focused on Aedes aegypti (L.) having initiated field releases. Here, we report the results of the successful exploitation of the attraction of male Ae. aegypti to female flight tones to enhance male collections in nonmechanical passive (nonbattery powered) Gravid Aedes Traps (GAT). Prior to field studies, male attraction to female flight tones of 484 and 560 Hz, as well as to a male flight tone of 715 Hz, were assessed in a series of controlled release-recapture and semifield trials. These trials determined that a pure tone of 484 Hz was significantly more attractive to free-flying males than the other flight tones and enabled their collection in sound-baited GATs (ca. 95% capture rate after 2 h; 484 Hz at 65 dB). In contrast, gravid females were unresponsive to male or female flight tones and were evenly distributed among sound-baited and control GATs. Importantly, under normal field conditions sound-baited GATs (484 Hz at 70 dB) captured significantly more male Ae. aegypti per 24-h trap interval (1.3 ± 0.37) than controls (0.2 ± 0.13). Overall, sound-bated GATs captured approximately twice as many Ae. aegypti (male and female; 3.0 ± 0.68 per interval, 30 total) than controls (1.5 ± 0.56 per interval, 15 total). These results reveal that sound-baited GATs are a simple and effective surveillance tool for Ae. aegypti that would allow current male-based SIT and population-modification programs to effectively monitor males in their target populations.
Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Cáceres, Abraham G
The female of the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia reclusa Fernández & Rogers 1991 [= Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) reclusa (Fernández & Rogers) sensu Galati], is described for the first time, based on specimens collected in the Department of Cajamarca, in northern Peru. The female can be recognized from other species of the series pia, species group Verrucarum, by wing venation with beta shorter than half of alpha, labrum just shorter than head width but longer than flagellomere 1, palpomere 5 much longer than palpomere 3, arrangement of cibarial armature, and form of spermathecae and relative size of spermathecal ducts. Diagnostic characters and measurements of the male of Lu. reclusa are provided as well.
Ogaugwu, Christian E; Schetelig, Marc F; Wimmer, Ernst A
Fruit fly pest species have been successfully controlled and managed via the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), a control strategy that uses infertile matings of sterile males to wild females to reduce pest populations. Biological efficiency in the field is higher if only sterile males are released in SIT programs and production costs are also reduced. Sexing strains developed in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (medfly) through classical genetics are immensely beneficial to medfly SIT programs but exhibit reduced fertility and fitness. Moreover, transfer of such classical genetic systems to other tephritid species is difficult. Transgenic approaches can overcome this limitation of classical genetic sexing strains (GSSs), but had resulted so far in transgenic sexing strains (TSSs) with dominant lethality at late larval and pupal stages. Here we present a transgene-based female-specific lethality system for early embryonic sexing in medfly. The system utilizes the sex-specifically spliced transformer intron to restrict ectopic mRNA translation of the pro-apoptotic gene hid(Ala5) to females only. The expression of this lethal effector gene is driven by a tetracycline-repressible transactivator gene tTA that is under the control of promoters/enhancers of early-acting cellularization genes. Despite observed position effects on the sex-specific splicing, we could effectively establish this early-acting transgenic sexing system in the medfly C. capitata. After satisfactory performance in large scale tests, TSSs based on this system will offer cost-effective sexing once introduced into SIT programs. Moreover, this approach is straight forward to be developed also for other insect pest and vector species.
Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Margherita; Leis, Marilena
We describe here a rare case of traumatic myiasis occurred in August 2014, caused by an association of 2 Diptera species, Sarcophaga tibialis Macquart (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in a domestic cat in northern Italy. Species identification was based on adult male morphology. The present case is the first report of S. tibialis as an agent of myiasis in Italy, and also the first ever report of myiasis caused by an association of S. tibialis and L. sericata. The cat developed an extensive traumatic myiasis in a large wound on the rump, which was treated pharmacologically and surgically. The biology, ecology, and distribution of S. tibialis and L. sericata are also discussed. A literature review is provided on cases of myiasis caused by S. tibialis, and cases of myiasis by L. sericata involving cats worldwide and humans and animals in Italy. PMID:26323846
Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Margherita; Leis, Marilena
We describe here a rare case of traumatic myiasis occurred in August 2014, caused by an association of 2 Diptera species, Sarcophaga tibialis Macquart (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in a domestic cat in northern Italy. Species identification was based on adult male morphology. The present case is the first report of S. tibialis as an agent of myiasis in Italy, and also the first ever report of myiasis caused by an association of S. tibialis and L. sericata. The cat developed an extensive traumatic myiasis in a large wound on the rump, which was treated pharmacologically and surgically. The biology, ecology, and distribution of S. tibialis and L. sericata are also discussed. A literature review is provided on cases of myiasis caused by S. tibialis, and cases of myiasis by L. sericata involving cats worldwide and humans and animals in Italy.
Laghezza Masci, Valentina; Di Luca, Marco; Gambellini, Gabriella; Taddei, Anna Rita; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Guerra, Laura; Mazzini, Massimo; Fausto, Anna Maria
The morphology and ultrastructure of female accessory reproductive glands of Anopheles maculipennis s.s., Anopheles labranchiae and Anopheles stephensi were investigated by light and electron microscopy. The reproductive system in these species is characterized by two ovaries, two lateral oviducts, a single spermatheca and a single accessory gland. The gland is globular and has a thin duct which empties into the vagina, near the opening of the spermathecal duct. Significant growth of the accessory reproductive gland is observed immediately after blood meal, but not at subsequent digestion steps. At ultrastructural level, the gland consists of functional glandular units belonging to type 3 ectodermal glands. The secretory cells are elongated and goblet shaped, with most of their cytoplasm and large nucleus in the basal part, close to the basement lamella. Finely fibrous electron-transparent material occupies the secretory cavity that is in contact with the end of a short efferent duct (ductule) emerging from the gland duct. The present study is the first detailed description of female accessory gland ultrastructure in Anophelinae and provides insights into the gland's functional role in the reproductive biology of these insects.
Cetin, H; Tufan-Cetin, O; Turk, A O; Tay, T; Candan, M; Yanikoglu, A; Sumbul, H
The larvicidal activity of some lichen metabolites, (+)-usnic acid, atranorin, 3-hydroxyphysodic acid and gyrophoric acid, against the second and third instar larvae of the mosquito Culiseta longiareolata were studied. All metabolites caused high larvicidal activities. When metabolites were compared on the basis of their LC(50) values, the order of increasing toxicity was as follows: gyrophoric acid (0.41 ppm) > (+)-usnic acid (0.48 ppm) > atranorin (0.52 ppm) > 3-hydroxyphysodic acid (0.97 ppm). However, when LC(90) values were compared, the order of toxicity was (+)-usnic acid (1.54 ppm) > gyrophoric acid (1.93 ppm) > 3-hydroxyphysodic acid (4.33 ppm) > atranorin (5.63 ppm). In conclusion, our results found that lichen secondary metabolites may have a promising role as potential larvicides.
Abstract The taxonomic concept of Herniosina Roháček, 1983 (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) is revised on the basis of five W. Palaearctic species, thus excluding the E. Nearctic Herniosina voluminosa Marshall, 1987 whose inclusion caused the paraphyly of the genus. Two new species, Herniosina erymantha sp. n. (male only, Greece: Peloponnese) and Herniosina hamata sp. n. (both sexes, Cyprus), are described and illustrated, and the other three species, Herniosina bequaerti (Villeneuve, 1917), Herniosina horrida (Roháček, 1978) and Herniosina pollex Roháček, 1993, are diagnosed with an atlas of their male and female terminalia. The relationships of the redefined genus and of all its species are discussed, and their biology and distribution are reviewed. A new illustrated key to Herniosina species is given. PMID:27563273
Piñero, J C; Mau, R F L; Vargas, R I
Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources, and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioural response of wild female oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)), melon fly (B. cucurbitae (Coquillett)), and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) to spinosad-based GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait(©) formulated to contain either 0, 1 or 2% ammonium acetate. Use of visually-attractive yellow bait stations for bait application in the field allowed for proper comparisons among bait formulations. Field cage tests were also conducted to investigate, using a comparative behavioural approach, the effects of female age and protein starvation on the subsequent response of F1 generation B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis to the same three bait formulations that were evaluated in the field. Our field results indicate a significant positive effect of the presence, regardless of amount, of AA in GF-120 for B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae. For C. capitata, there was a significant positive linear relationship between the relative amounts of AA in bait and female response. GF-120 with no AA was significantly more attractive to female C. capitata, but not to female B. dorsalis or B. cucurbitae, than the control treatment. Our field cage results indicate that the effects of varying amounts of AA present in GF-120 can be modulated by the physiological stage of the female flies and that the response of female B. cucurbitae to GF-120 was consistently greater than that of B. dorsalis over the various ages and levels of protein starvation regimes evaluated. Results are discussed in light of their applications for effective fruit fly suppression.
The female of Platycheirus troll Mutin is described. A preliminary key to the females of the Northern Palaearctic species of the Platycheirus clypeatus group is presented. The possibility to identify the undescribed female of Platycheirus magadanensis Mutin is discussed.
Fischer, S; Sy, V; Campos, R E; Otero, M
Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Macquart) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae develop synchronously after rainfall events in ephemeral or temporary pools, where they occasionally attain very high abundance. The aims of the current study were to analyze the response of life history parameters such as daily larval mortality, time to pupation, and adult size of Oc. albifasciatus to increasing larval density under controlled conditions, and to analyze the relationships of daily larval mortality with density and environmental variables (drying rate, temperature, and season) in urban rain pools in Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exponential increase in mortality was observed at high larval densities under controlled conditions. Development times and adult size (wing length) differed between males and females, and were also affected by density. Development times extended for 0.36 d for each order of magnitude of increase in larval density, and wing length decreased 0.0021 mm per additional larva in 600 cm(2). Larval density in the field varied from <1 larva per square meter to nearly 1100 larvae per square meter. Daily larval mortality values in the field were variable (0.02-0.91), positively related to the drying rate, and exhibited seasonal differences. No significant relation with larval density or temperature was found in the field. It remains to be established whether the density-independent mortality observed in this study is a generalized pattern of Oc. albifasciatus populations in Buenos Aires Province or a pattern restricted only to urban habitats.
Susceptibility of 15 mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) cultivars to the attack by Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the role of underdeveloped fruit as pest reservoirs: management implications.
Aluja, M; Arredondo, J; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Birke, A; Rull, J; Niogret, J; Epsky, N
We evaluated the susceptibility of 15 mango cultivars to the attack of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the main tephritid pests of this crop in Mexico. In a field experiment, bagged fruit-bearing branches were exposed to gravid females of both fly species. Infestation rates, developmental time, adult eclosion, and F1 adult longevity, fecundity, and fertility were recorded, ranking cultivars in terms of susceptibility to fly attack and development. We also compared the volatile profile in selected resistant and susceptible cultivars in search of possible correlations. In a second experiment, clutch size for A. ludens was determined in each cultivar. Infestation rates, developmental time, and F1 demographic parameters varied sharply among cultivars and between fly species for bagged fruit. Cultivars 'Vishi,' '74-82,' and 'Brooks' were most susceptible to A. ludens infestation while "Tommy,' 'Sensation,' and 'Ataulfo "niño"' (parthenocarpic fruit) were most susceptible to A. obliqua infestation. 'Edward,' 'Kent,' 'Brooks late,' 'Palmer, and 'Ataulfo' exhibited tolerance to attack of both fly species. Fruit of susceptible and resistant cultivars exhibited unique volatile profiles. Fly development and F1 adult demographic parameters varied significantly among cultivars. A. ludens females laid larger clutches in larger and harder fruit. We highlight the important role of Ataulfo "niño" as pest reservoir if fruit is left unharvested on trees. We discuss the possible use of highly resistant cultivars as trap crops or egg sinks.
Piñero, Jaime C; Souder, Steven K; Gomez, Luis E; Mau, Ronald F L; Vargas, Roger I
The effectiveness of foliar applications of protein baits against pestiferous fruit flies (Tephritidae) can be adversely affected by a rapid loss of attractive volatile compounds and by rainfall due to the high water solubility of the baits. In a large coffee, Coffea arabica L., plantation in Hawaii with high and low populations of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the relative attractiveness of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait as either a 40% (vol:vol) spray solution (= GF-120 NF) or as a formulated proprietary amorphous polymer matrix (= GF-120 APM) was compared. The GF-120 APM formulations contained either, 25, 50, or 75% of GF-120 NF (wt:wt). All baits were tested in association with visually attractive yellow bait stations as a way of standardizing the evaluations. With both high and low C. capitata populations, significantly more females were attracted to the fresh sprayed GF-120 NF than to any of the three fresh GF-120 APM formulations. The attractiveness of GF-120 sprayed decreased significantly after 1 wk, whereas 1-wk-old GF-120 APM formulations were as attractive as similar fresh formulations. GF-120 APM 75% aged for 3 wk outperformed similarly-aged sprayed GF-120 NF with comparatively high C. capitata populations. With low populations, both GF-120 APM 75% and GF-120 APM 50% aged for 2 wk outperformed the similarly aged sprayed GF-120 NF. Combined findings indicate that APM mixed with either 50 or 75% GF-120 applied to bait stations can be attractive to female C. capitata for up to 3 wk longer than the standard sprayed GF-120 NF.
Examples are provided for species of the mosquito tribe Mansoniini with published illustrations and/or descriptions of the female genitalia and include corresponding literature citations. Most species of Mansonia Blanchard have only the tergum VIII illustrated and/or described for the female genital...
Species of the mosquito tribe Aedini with illustrations and/or descriptions of the female genitalia are listed and include corresponding literature citations. Approximately 44% of aedine species currently have published partial or complete illustrations and/or descriptions of the female genitalia....
Maia, V C; Fleury, G; Soares, G L G; Isaias, R M S
The gall of Pisphondylia brasiliensis on Guapira opposita, its female and pupa are described and illustrated. The geographic distribution of this species is now widened to Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). For the first time, a female of the genus is described.
The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is more efficient and cost-effective when only sterile males are released. A female-specific lethality system based on a female-specifically spliced intron was developed for transgenic sexing in Ceratitis capitata (Fu et al., 2007) possibly to overcome the fitness ...
Examples are provided for species of the mosquito tribes Orthopodomyiini, Toxorhynchitini and Uranotaeniini with published illustrations and/or descriptions of the female genitalia and include corresponding literature citations....
Examples are provided for species of the mosquito tribes Aedeomyiini, Culisetini and Ficalbiini with published illustrations and/or descriptions of the female genitalia and include corresponding literature citations....
Barreto, Mauricio; Burbano, María Elena; Young, David G
A new Lutzomyia species in the subgenus Trichophoromyia, L. pabloi, is described and illustrated. A description of the previously unknown female of L. howardi Young is also presented. These specimens were captured in the Amazon region of Colombia.
Pape, Thomas; Ulefors, Sven-Olof; Disney, R Henry L
Abaristophora arctophila Schmitz, 1927 is confirmed from Europe through a series of males and females collected in boreal Sweden. The male of A. arctophila is documented and separated from A. sachalinensis Michailovskaya, 1988 and Abaristophora kolaensis Disney n. sp., which is described from a single male from N.W. Russia. A lectotype is designated for A. arctophila and the female is described for the first time.
abbreviations M (= male), F (= female), P (= pupa ), and L (= larva) indicates that all or some portion of that sex or stage is illustrated. Sixteen species...Verteneuil, Brussels. Fascicle, 194, 258 pp., 5 pl. Edwards, F.W. (1941) Mosquitoes of the Ethiopian region. III. Culicine adults and pupae . British Museum
Methoprene treatment can reduce the time required for sexual maturation in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Wiedemann) males under laboratory conditions, supporting its use as a treatment for sterile males within the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Here we evaluated sexu...
Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examine...
Stein, Marina; Carlos Rossi, Gustavo; Ricardo Almirón, Walter
The female of Psorophora (Grabhamia) paulli Paterson & Shannon is redescribed, and the pupa, fourth-instar larva and male genitalia are described and illustrated for the first time. Information about the distribution, bionomics and taxonomy is also included. Adults of Ps. paulli can be separated from the other species of the genus and subgenus by its small size. The larva of Ps. paulli is similar to that of Ps. varinervis Edwards and Ps. discolor (Coquillett) but can be separated based on the development of setae 1-X and 5-VIII, the length of the anal papillae and the comb on a sclerotized area.
de Oliveira, Everton Falcão; Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Mateus, Nathália Lopes Fontoura; Murat, Paula Guerra; Fernandes, Wagner Souza; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi
Studies on natural infection by Leishmania spp of sandflies collected in endemic and nonendemic areas can provide important information on the distribution and intensity of the transmission of these parasites. This study sought to investigate the natural infection by Leishmaniain wild female sandflies. The specimens were caught in the city of Corumbá, state of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil) between October 2012-March 2014, and dissected to investigate flagellates and/or submitted to molecular analysis to detect Leishmania DNA. A total of 1,164 females (77.56% of which were Lutzomyia cruzi) representing 11 species were investigated using molecular analysis; 126 specimens of Lu. cruziwere dissected and also submitted to molecular analysis. The infection rate based on the presence of Leishmania DNA considering all the sandfly species analysed was 0.69%; only Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis was identified in Lu. cruzi by the molecular analysis. The dissections were negative for flagellates. This is the first record of the presence of L. (L.) amazonensis DNA in Lu. cruzi, and the first record of this parasite in this area. These findings point to the need for further investigation into the possible role of this sandfly as vector of this parasite. PMID:26602870
Maciel-de-Freitas, R; Koella, J C; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, R
As the pathogenic effects of a parasite on its hosts can strongly influence its epidemiology, we compared the life-histories of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2)-infected and uninfected Aedes aegypti females. Unexposed mosquitoes lived longer than exposed ones, but those infected lived longer than exposed but negative (as assayed by Real-Time quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR [qRT-PCR]) mosquitoes. Infected mosquitoes from a long-established laboratory colony presented more viral RNA copies at death than those from the F1-generation of a field population from Rio de Janeiro. The mortality of infected colony-mosquitoes was independent of the number of viral RNA copies at death, whereas in the field population, longevity decreased with the number of viral RNA copies, suggesting that F1 of field mosquitoes are less tolerant to infection than the laboratory-colony. Infected females had a lower fecundity than controls. F1 of field mosquitoes were more likely to lay eggs than the colony; egg-laying success was strongly affected by mosquito age for both mosquito populations: from 49.28 in the first clutch to 20.7 in the fifth. Overall, DENV-2 reduced Aedes aegypti survival and fecundity, clearly affecting vectorial capacity and consequently transmission intensity.
Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Jariyapan, Narissara; Mano, Chonlada; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Sor-Suwan, Sriwatapron; Sriwichai, Patchara; Saeung, Atiporn; Bates, Paul A.
Understanding changes in mosquito salivary proteins during the time that sporozoite maturation occurs and after blood feeding may give information regarding the roles of salivary proteins during the malarial transmission. Anopheles dissidens (formerly Anopheles barbirostris species A1) is a potential vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand. In this study, analyses of the proteomic profiles of female An. dissidens salivary glands during adult development and after blood feeding were carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed at least 17 major salivary gland proteins present from day one to day 21 post emergence at 8 different time points sampled. Although there was variation observed, the patterns of protein expression could be placed into one of four groups. Fifteen protein spots showed significant depletion after blood feeding with the percentages of the amount of depletion ranging from 8.5% to 68.11%. The overall results identified various proteins, including a putative mucin-like protein, an anti-platelet protein, a long form D7 salivary protein, a putative gVAG protein precursor, a D7-related 3.2 protein, gSG7 salivary proteins, and a gSG6 protein. These results allow better understanding of the changes of the salivary proteins during the adult mosquito development. They also provide candidate proteins to investigate any possible link or not between sporozoite maturation, or survival of skin stage sporozoites, and salivary proteins. PMID:27669021
Aluja, Martín; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José
The objective of this study was to determine the host status in Mexico of commercially cultivated and marketed avocado, Persea americana (Mill.), 'Hass' to Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Experiments in Michoacán, Mexico, were carried out in six orchards located at three altitudes above sea level during two times (August-October 2001 and April-June 2002). They included choice ('Hass' avocado plus natural host) and no-choice foraging behavior tests on trees under field cages; no-choice, forced infestation trials on caged, fruit-bearing branches in the field, and with individual fruit under laboratory conditions; infestation trials using 'Hass' avocados left unprotected over 1 and 7 d on the ground of orchards; studies to ascertain depth of oviposition and determine egg hatchability; and experiments to determine susceptibility by using time elapsed since removal of fruit from tree as the experimental variable. We trapped adult Anastrepha (n = 7,936) in all orchards and dissected fruit (n = 7,695) from orchards and packing houses (n = 1,620) in search of eggs or larvae. Most (96.7%) A. ludens, A. obliqua, A. striata, and A. serpentina adults were captured in low-elevation orchards. No eggs or larvae were detected in any of the fruit from foraging behavior studies or dissected fruit from orchards or packing houses. Of 5,200 mature, intact fruit on trees in the field forcibly exposed to no-choice female oviposition activity (five females/fruit), we only found four fruit infested by A. ludens but no adults emerged. 'Hass' avocados only became marginally susceptible to attack by A. ludens (but not A. obliqua, A. serpentina, and A. striata) 24 h after being removed from the tree. Fruit placed on the ground in orchards (n = 3,600) were occasionally infested by Neosilba batesi (Curran) (Diptera: Lonchaeidae), a decomposer, but not Anastrepha spp. Based on our
Terefe, G; Yacob, H T; Grisez, C; Prevot, F; Dumas, E; Bergeaud, J P; Dorchies, Ph; Hoste, H; Jacquiet, P
Mixed parasitic infection of animals is a common phenomenon in nature. The existence of one species often positively or negatively influences the survival of the other. Our experimental study was started with the objectives to demonstrate the interaction of Haemonchus contortus and Oestrus ovis in relation to cellular and humoral immune responses in sheep. Twenty-two sheep of Tarasconnais breed (France) were divided into four groups (O, OH, H and C) of five or six animals. Group O and OH received 5 weekly consecutive inoculations with O. ovis L1 larvae (total = 82 L1) in the first phase of the experiment between days 0 and 28. On the second phase, groups OH and H received 5000 L3 of H. contortus on day 48 while group C served as our control throughout the experimental period. Parasitological, haematological, serological and histopathological examinations were made according to standard procedures and all animals were slaughtered at day 95. There was no significant variation in the number and degree of development of O. ovis larvae between the two infected groups. Furthermore, in tissues examined in the upper respiratory tract (nasal septum, turbinate, ethmoide and sinus), group O and OH has responded similarly on the basis of cellular inflammatory responses (blood and tissue eosinophils, mast cells and globule leucocytes (GL)) and serum antibody responses against the nasal bots. This may indicate that the presence of H. contortus in the abomasa of group OH had no marked influence over the development of O. ovis larvae in the upper respiratory tract. On the other hand, we have observed a significantly lower H. contortus female worm length, fecal egg count (FEC) and in utero egg count in animals harbouring the nasal bot (OH) than in the mono-infected group (H). This was significantly associated with higher blood eosinophilia, higher packed cell volume (PCV) and increased number of tissue eosinophils and globule leucocytes. We conclude that, the establishment of O
Yang, Shih-Tsai; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng
Necrophagous blow fly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are the most important agents for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) in forensic entomology. Nevertheless, the oviposition preferences of blow flies may cause a bias of PMI estimations because of a delay or acceleration of egg laying. Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and C. rufifacies (Macquart) are two predominant necrophagous blow fly species in Taiwan. Their larvae undergo rather intense competition, and the latter one can prey on the former under natural conditions. To understand the oviposition preferences of these two species, a dual-choice device was used to test the choice of oviposition sites by females. Results showed when pork liver with and without larvae of C. rufifacies was provided, C. megacephala preferred to lay eggs on the liver without larvae. However, C. megacephala showed no preference when pork liver with and without conspecific larvae or larvae of Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) was provided. These results indicate that females of C. megacephala try to avoid laying eggs around larvae of facultatively predaceous species of C. rufifacies. However, C. rufifacies showed significant oviposition preference for pork liver with larvae of C. megacephala or conspecific ones when compared with pork liver with no larvae. These results probably imply that conspecific larvae or larvae of C. megacephala may potentially be alternative food resources for C. rufifacies, so that its females prefer to lay eggs in their presence. When considering the size of the oviposition media, pork livers of a relatively small size were obviously unfavorable to both species. This may be because females need to find sufficient resources to meet the food demands of their larvae. In another experiment, neither blow fly species showed an oviposition preference for pork livers of different stages of decay. In addition, the oviposition preferences of both species to those media with larvae were greatly disturbed in a dark
Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.
A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phoenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September. ?? 2007 Entomological Society of America.
Although insects have been objects of observation in French-speaking countries since the seventeenth century, and were illustrated by Reaumur and other scientists during the eighteenth, specialized dipterology only emerged in the first half of the nineteenth century. The two main divisions of the Order Diptera were defined by French entomologists, namely Nemocera (currently Nematocera) by Latreille in 1817, and Brachocera (currently Brachycera) by Macquart in 1834. Insects as a whole were rarely studied until the late nineteenth century, when the discovery of their role in the transmission of important diseases resulted in the creation of a new discipline: medical entomology. From this time on, medically important groups (mosquitoes, tsetse flies, etc.) have been objects of intense concern and study, especially at the Pasteur Institute and the Paris Faculté de médecine. But the most important French dipterist* in the twentieth century has probably been the Museum specialist Eugène Séguy.
Barnes, Jeffrey K.; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P. G.
Abstract Background This is the fourth in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months in 2013 using twelve trap types, including Malaise and canopy traps, Lindgren multifunnel traps, and pan traps. New information We provide collection records for 38 species of Asilidae and other Diptera, 7 of which are new state records for Arkansas: (Asilidae) Lasiopogon opaculus Loew, 1874; (Lygistorrhinidae) Lygistorrhina sancthecatharinae Thompson, 1975; (Stratiomyidae) Cephalochrysa nigricornis (Loew, 1866), Gowdeyana punctifera (Malloch, 1915), Sargus decorus Say, 1824; (Ulidiidae) Callopistromyia annulipes Macquart, 1855; and (Xylophagidae) Rachicerus obscuripennis Loew, 1863. PMID:27660536
Thanh-Xuan-Nguyen; Cabes, J L
Females of Culex pipiens autogenicus generally have two refractory periods: post-emergence refractory period (during the first 48 hrs. after emergence) and post-insemination refractory period. Males of Culex pipiens autogenicus can inseminate 2 to 3 females. After the 4th insemination he can no longer completely fulfill his reproductory role. Therefore the female can inseminated by another male.
Aluja, M; Rull, J; Sivinski, J; Trujillo, G; Pérez-Staples, D
Recent recognition of widespread polyandry in insects has generated considerable interest in understanding why females mate multiple times and in identifying factors that affect mating rate and inhibit female remating. However, little attention has been paid to understanding the question from both a female and male perspective, particularly with respect to factors that may simultaneously influence female remating rates. Here, we report on a study aimed at ascertaining the possible interactive effects that male and female size and diet, and female access to a host could have on mating latency, probability, and duration and female refractory period using two tropical fruit fly species with contrasting life histories. Of all factors tested, adult diet played the most significant role. Both Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua males which had constant access to protein and sucrose mated more often, had shorter copulations and induced longer refractory periods in females than males fed a low quality diet (sucrose offered every third day). Female size and the interaction with male diet determined how quickly female A. ludens mated for the first time. Smaller females mated sooner with low quality fed males than with high quality fed males while there was no difference for large females, suggesting that male choice may be at play if high quality fed males discriminate against smaller females. Copulation duration also depended on both male and female nutritional condition, and the interaction between male diet and female size and diet. Large and high quality fed females had shorter copulations regardless of male condition. Importantly, for A. ludens, female refractory period depended on male size and the nutritional condition of both males and females, which could indicate that for this species, female receptivity does not depend only on the condition of the male ejaculate. For A. obliqua refractory period was associated with the interaction between male size and diet
Aluja, M; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Papaj, D R.; Lagunes, G; Sivinski, J
Oocyte counts, used as a measure of egg load, were compared among three different age groups (15, 30 and 45 days) of two polyphagous species of tephritid fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua, which were exposed to varying conditions of diet (sucrose vs sucrose and protein), availability of oviposition substrate (present vs absent), adult female density (1, 2 and 4 females/cage), and semiochemical context (presence vs absence of male pheromones and fruit volatiles). In both species, oocyte counts were higher in older females and for females fed sucrose and protein than for females fed sucrose only. The presence of artificial oviposition substrates influenced oocyte counts in A. obliqua, but not in A. ludens. Female density influenced oocyte counts in both species. Females maintained in groups had higher egg loads than isolated females. Finally, preliminary evidence suggests that semiochemical context influenced oocyte counts. Counts were highest for females in a room containing both fruit volatiles and male pheromone, lowest for females in a room containing neither volatiles nor pheromone, and intermediate for females in rooms containing either volatiles or pheromone but not both. Our results suggest that egg load is influenced by environmental factors in different ways in these two species. Egg load in A. obliqua, a species whose host fruits are highly ephemeral, is responsive to access to the host resource. By contrast, in A. ludens, a species infesting less ephemeral fruit, female density and age played a more important role than host stimuli. The role of ovarian maturation and oviposition in mediating these effects, as well as implications for mass rearing and pest management, are discussed.
Survival of caged female Aedes albopictus allowed to imbibe blood from two different vertebrate host species (double meal) was higher than the females fed on only one vertebrate host species (single meal) (mean survival: 70.2 ± 9.6 vs. 55.5 ± 5.5 %, respectively) when held in the laboratory for 72 h...
A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of the genus Rampamyia was conducted. The female genitalia of the genus are characterized and a comparison with other taxa is provided. The type species of the genus, Ra. notoscripta (Skuse), is illustrated. Treatment of the genital mo...
A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Jarnellius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The female genitalia of the genus are characterized and a comparison with other taxa is provided. The type species of the genus, Ja. varipalpus (Coquil...
A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Danielsia Theobald was conducted. The female genitalia of the genus are characterized and a comparison with other taxa is provided. The type species of the genus, Dn. albotaeniata Leicester, is illustrated. ...
Recent recognition of widespread polyandry in insects has generated considerable interest in understanding why females mate multiply and at identifying factors that affect mating rate and inhibit female remating. However, little attention has been paid to understanding the question from both a fema...
Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo
Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species.
A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species of the genus Petermattinglyius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted and a composite description is provided. Petermattinglyius is divided into two subgenera, Petermattinglyius and Aglaonotus Reinert, Harbach and Kitchin...
ZHIQING, MA; GULIA-NUSS, MONIKA; ZHANG, XING; BROWN, MARK R.
Botanical insecticides offer novel chemistries and actions that may provide effective mosquito control. Toosendanin (TSN, 95% purity) is one such insecticide used to control crop pests in China, and in this study, it was evaluated for lethal and sublethal effects on larvae and females of the yellowfever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.). TSN was very toxic to first instar larvae after a 24 h exposure (LC50 = 60.8 μg/ml) and to adult females up to 96 h after topical treatment (LD50 = 4.3 μg/female) or ingestion in a sugar bait (LC50 = 1.02 μg/μl). Treatment of first instars for 24 h with a range of sublethal doses (6.3–25 μg/ml) delayed development to pupae by 1 to 2 d. Egg production and larval hatching from eggs were dose dependently reduced (>45%) by TSN doses (1.25–10.0 μg) topically applied to females 24 h before or 1 h after a bloodmeal. Ingestion of TSN (0.031–0.25 μg/μl of sugar bait) by females 24 h before a bloodmeal also greatly reduced egg production and larval hatch; no eggs were oviposited by females ingesting the highest dose. Further studies revealed that topical or ingested TSN dose-dependently disrupted yolk deposition in oocytes, blood ingestion and digestion, and ovary ecdysteroid production in blood-fed females. Overall, our results indicate that TSN is an effective insecticide for Ae. aegypti larvae and adults, because of its overt toxicity at high doses and disruption of development and reproduction at sublethal doses. PMID:23427659
Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Gonçalves, Jaylei Monteiro; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo
Rubidium chloride (RbCl) has been used for the study of vector biology and behavior, although the efficacy of marking, egg production, and survivorship of marked females have been poorly studied. Four concentrations of RbCl were tested, among which 0.025 M was the best for marking Aedes albopictus: more than 80% of egg batches of females fed once with blood containing RbCl were marked; Rb-marked egg batches, interspersed with non marked ones were recovered until 61 days after a blood meal containing RbCl followed by non marked meals; RbCl was essentially detected in the abdomen of marked females, whose egg production and survivorship did not differ from non marked ones, at least in the three weeks following the Rb-marked blood meal.
Slone, D.H.; Gruner, Susan V.
The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.
Slone, D H; Gruner, S V
The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormnia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.
A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Collessius was conducted and a composite description is provided. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Co. macfarlanei (Edwards), are illustrated. Collessius is divided into two subgenera, Alloeom...
A morphological analysis of the female genitalia of the species included in genus Luius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Lu. fengi (Edwards), are illustrated for the first time. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a ...
A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Elpeytonius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The genitalia of the two species included in the genus, El. apicoannulatus (Edwards) and El. simulans (Newstead and Carter), are illustrated. Treatmen...
A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of the genus Hopkinsius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted and a composite description is provided. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Hk. ingrami (Edwards), are illustrated for the first time. Hopkinsius is divide...
A morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Gilesius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Gi. pulchriventer (Giles), are illustrated for the first time. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includ...
A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Bifidistylus Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a composite description of the genus, a detailed description and illustration of the type sp...
A morphological analysis of the female genitalia of the species included in genus Lewnielsenius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Ln. muelleri (Dyar), are illustrated. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a detailed de...
A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Catageiomyia Theobald was conducted. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a composite description of the genus, a detailed description and illustration of the type species (Cg. irritans (...
A morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Polyleptiomyia Theobald was conducted. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a description of the genus, a detailed description and illustration of the type species, Po. albocephala (Theobald), a list ...
A morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Sallumia Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Sl. hortator (Dyar and Knab), are illustrated. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a description...
There is no magic fruit fly trap: multiple biological factors influence the response of adult Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) individuals to MultiLure traps baited with BioLure or NuLure.
Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Aluja, Martín
Field-cage experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of MultiLure traps (Better World MFG Inc., Fresno, CA) baited with NuLure (Miller Chemical and Fertilizer Corp., Hanover, PA) or BioLure (Suterra LLC, Inc., Bend, OR) in capturing individually marked Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), and West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), of both sexes. Experimental treatments involved wild and laboratory-reared flies of varying ages (2-4 and 15-18 d) and dietary histories (sugar only, open fruit, open fruit plus chicken feces, and hydrolyzed protein mixed with sugar). Data were divided into two parts: total captures over a 24-h period and trap visits/landings, entrances into interior of trap ,and effective captures (i.e., drowning in liquid bait or water) over a 5-h detailed observation period (0600-1100 hours). The response to the two baits varied by fly species, gender, physiological state, age, and strain. Importantly, there were several highly significant interactions among these factors, underlining the complex nature of the response. The two baits differed in attractiveness for A. obliqua but not A. ludens. The effect of strain (wild versus laboratory flies) was significant for A. ludens but not A. obliqua. For effect of dietary history, adults of both species, irrespective of sex, were significantly less responsive to both baits when fed on a mixture of protein and sugar when compared with adults fed the other diets. Finally, we confirmed previous observations indicating that McPhail-type traps are quite inefficient. Considering the total 24-h fly tenure in the cage, and independent of bait treatment and fly type (i.e., strain, adult diet, gender and age), of a total of 2,880 A. obliqua and 2,880 A. ludens adults released into the field cages over the entire study (15 replicates), only 564 (19.6%) and 174 (6%) individuals, respectively, were effectively caught. When only considering the 5-h detailed
The sheep blow fly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. The females are attracted to sheep, following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Ear...
Dantas, Galileu P S; Hamada, Neusa; Mendes, Humberto F
Twenty two species of Stenochironomus Kieffer are known from Brazil, 19 of which occur in the Amazon region. In order to increase knowledge of the taxonomy of this genus in the Amazon region, collections were carried out in streams located in Presidente Figueiredo, Manaus and Itacoatiara municipalities, Amazonas State. Leaves and wood mined by Stenochironomus larvae were collected and transported to the laboratory where they were kept until adult emergence. Seven new species were found, one of which is described in the immature stages and as adults of both sexes (S. amazonicus sp. n.), one as immatures and adult male (S. liviae sp. n.), four as male and pupa (S. bare sp. n., S. figueiredoensis sp. n., S. gracilis sp. nov. and S. manauara sp. n.) and one only as male (S. suzanae sp. n.). Additionally, the female, pupa and larva of S. impendens Borkent, pupa and larva of S. jubatus Borkent, female and pupa of S. zonarius Borkent and female of S. palliaculeatus Borkent were described.
[Phlebotomus from Madagascar (Diptera: Psychodidae). II--Description of the female Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) fertei Depaquit, Léger & Robert, 2002; description of the male and new data for the female Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) berentiensis (Léger & Rodhain, 1978) comb. nov].
Depaquit, J; Léger, N; Ferté, H; Robert, V
The female of Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) fertei Depaquit, Léger & Robert, 2002 is described from Madagascar. The spermathecae have separated ducts, a body with an enlarged-sclerified dilatation and a deriviated large bladder with thin walls and long head. P. fertei female has the following characters: long antennal segments, pharyngeal armature with small teeth and cibarium with 15 to 30 denticles, and very long legs. Its remarkable spermatheca is closely related to that of P. berentiensis. The status of P. (Anaphlebotomus) berentiensis (Léger & Rodhain, 1978) is revised into this paper. The female is redescribed and the male is described for the first time. The latter has an unusual antennal formula (2/III-XII), a cibarium with four teeth and about 30 denticles, no tuft of setae on the coxite, four spines on the style, including a very long proximal one. Males and females were linked to each other based on morphological and molecular characteristics (second internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA and ND4 gene of the mitochondrial DNA). The inclusion of these taxa into the subgenus Anaphlebotomus Theodor, 1948 is exclusively based on male characters as listed by Theodor (style with four spines, no basal lobe on the coxite, paramere with two or three branches). The very heterogeneous characters of the females do not allow their use for the definition of this subgenus, which is probably not homogeneous.
Soliman, M A; Abdel-Hamid, M E; Mansour, M M; Seif, A I; Kamel, K I; el Hamshary, E M
Salivary glands of Culex pipiens and Aedes caspius were analyzed to determine total protein content and its fractionation during adult female development and after blood sucking. In both species, the molecular weight of proteins ranged between 26.000 and 84.000 Daltons. These proteins were not identical in the two species. In Cx. pipiens, the total protein level increased during the first 3 days of adult development from 4.94 +/- 0.84 to 6.6 +/- 0.37 micrograms/gland. During this period, the salivary gland proteins were separated into 35, 34 and 37 fractions respectively. Cx. pipiens released in the human host 64% of the total proteins while taking a blood meal compared to unfed females. This decrease in protein level was proportional to protein fractions. Over the next 6 days, the protein level increased again to attain values comparable to those obtained prior to blood sucking. In Ae. caspius, the total protein level of the salivary glands did not change during the first 4 days of adult development (range between 3.13 +/- 0.27 and 3.91 +/- 0.36 micrograms gland), but on the fifth day, 2-fold increase was observed. The total salivary gland protein increased during the next 3 days after blood sucking to reach 15.5 +/- 0.98 micrograms/gland. During this period, a tremendous change in protein patterns was observed. After oviposition, on the fourth day, a significant reduction in the total protein level was observed (4.13 +/- 0.56 micrograms/gland), but over the next 3 days the level increased again (range between 4.13 +/- 0.66 and 7.13 +/- 0.66 micrograms/gland).
Green, T A; Prokopy, R J; Hosmer, D W
Mature female apple maggot flies,Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), were released individually onto a single potted, fruitless hawthorne tree in the center of an open field. The tree was surrounded by four 1-m(2) plywood host tree models painted green or white, with or without synthetic host fruit odor (butyl hexanoate), and placed at one of several distances from the release tree. Each fly was permitted to forage freely on the release tree for up to 1 hr, or until it left the tree. Flies left the tree significantly sooner when green models with host fruit were present at 0.5, 1.5, or 2.5 m distance from the release tree than when these models were placed at a greater distance (4.5 m) from the release tree or when no models were present. Flies responded detectably to 1-m(2) models without odor up to a maximum distance of 1.5 m. These results suggest that female apple maggot flies did not detect green 1-m(2) models with odor 4.5 m away or models without odor 2.5 m or more away. Flies responded to white models with and without odor to a much lesser extent, both in terms of response distance and flight to and alightment upon models. Increasing model size to 2 m(2) increased the distance to 2.5 m at which flies responded to green models without odor. Decreasing model size to 0.5 m(2) reduced fly responsiveness to green or white models. The presence of host fruit odor alone, without the visual stimulus of a green model, did not influence residence time on the release tree.
Larval distribution and behavior of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera:Calliphoridae) relative to other species on Florida black bear(Carnivora:Ursidae) carcasses decompsing in North Central Florida.
Larval interactions of blow flies were documented daily temporally and spatially on 5 black bear carcasses from June – November, 2002. Cochliomyia macellaria or Chrysomya megacephala larvae were collected first, then Chrysomya rufifacies oviposited in multiple locations on the carcasses uninhabited...
Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris
Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.
Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris
Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa. PMID:25879221
Cicero, Lizette; Sivinski, John; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin
Life history theory predicts that individuals will allocate resources to different traits so as to maximize overall fitness. Because conditions experienced during early development can have strong downstream effects on adult phenotype and fitness, we investigated how four species of synovigenic, larval-pupal parasitoids that vary sharply in their degree of specialization (niche breadth) and life history (Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, Doryctobracon crawfordi, Opius hirtus and Utetes anastrephae), allocate resources acquired during the larval stage towards adult reproduction. Parasitoid larvae developed in a single host species reared on four different substrates that differed in quality. We measured parasitoid egg load at the moment of emergence and at 24 h, egg numbers over time, egg size, and also adult size. We predicted that across species the most specialized would have a lower capacity to respond to changes in host substrate quality than wasps with a broad host range, and that within species, females that emerged from hosts that developed in better quality substrates would have the most resources to invest in reproduction. Consistent with our predictions, the more specialized parasitoids were less plastic in some responses to host diet than the more generalist. However, patterns of egg load and size were variable across species. In general, there was a remarkable degree of reproductive effort-allocation constancy within parasitoid species. This may reflect more "time-limited" rather than "egg-limited" foraging strategies where the most expensive component of reproductive success is to locate and handle patchily-distributed and fruit-sequestered hosts. If so, egg costs, independent of degree of specialization, are relatively trivial and sufficient resources are available in fly larvae stemming from all of the substrates tested.
Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu
Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time.
Evenhuis, Neal L; Pont, Adrian C; Whitmore, Daniel
The Diptera genus-group names of Charles Henry Tyler Townsend are reviewed and annotated. A total of 1506 available genus-group names in 12 families of Diptera are listed alphabetically for each name, giving author, year and page of original publication, originally included species, type species and method of fixation, current status of the name, family placement, and a list of any emendations of it that have been found in the literature. Remarks are given to clarify nomenclatural and/or taxonomic information. In addition, an index to all the species-group names of Diptera proposed by Townsend (1595, of which 1574 are available names) is given with bibliographic reference (year and page) to each original citation. An appendix with a full bibliography of almost 650 papers written by Townsend is presented with accurate dates of publication. Two new replacement names are proposed for preoccupied genus-group names and both are named to honor our good friend and colleague, James E. O'Hara, for his decades of work on tachinids: Oharamyia Evenhuis, Pont & Whitmore, n. name, for Lindigia Townsend, 1931 [Tachinidae] (preoccupied by Karsten, 1858); Jimimyia Evenhuis, Pont & Whitmore, n. name, for Siphonopsis Townsend, 1916 [Tachinidae] (preoccupied by Agassiz, 1846). Earlier dates of availability are found for the following: Eucnephalia Townsend, 1892 [Tachinidae]; Gabanimyia Townsend, 1914 [Tachinidae]; Incamyia Townsend, 1912 [Tachinidae]; Muscopteryx Townsend, 1892 [Tachinidae]; Philippolophosia Townsend, 1927 [Tachinidae]; Pseudokea Townsend, 1927 [Tachinidae]. Corrected or clarified included species and/or corrected or clarified type-species and methods of typification are given for: Alitophasia Townsend, 1934 [Tachinidae]; Almugmyia Townsend, 1911 [Tachinidae]; Arachnidomyia Townsend, 1934 [Sarcophagidae]; Austenina Townsend, 1921 [Glossinidae]; Austrohartigia Townsend, 1937 [Sarcophagidae]; Awatia Townsend, 1921 [Muscidae
A new species of Pseudacteon phorid fly Pseudacteon calderis (Diptera: Phoridae) is described from females attacking worker ants of Solenopsis interrupta Santschi in Salta and Jujuy provinces, northwestern Argentina. Pseudacteon calderis differs from almost all other South American Pseudacteon speci...
Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David
The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.
Bunchu, Nophawan; Sukontason, Kom; Sanit, Sangob; Chidburee, Polprecha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L
Based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. The blow fly fauna in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand was studied from May 2009 to April 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of Muang, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai and Wang Thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. Collections were carried out monthly using commercial funnel fly traps and sweeping methods, with 1-day tainted pork viscera as bait. Identification of adult blow flies exhibited 14 634 specimens, comprising of 5 subfamilies, 14 genera and 36 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) and Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart, 1843) were the most and second most abundant species trapped, respectively. These two species of carrion flies prevailed in all the types of land investigated. We calculated and compared the diversity indices, species evenness and richness, and similarity coefficients of the blow fly species in various areas. The data from this study may be used to identify the potential of forensicallyimportant fly species within Phitsanulok Province and fulfill the information on blow fly fauna in Thailand.
Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde
Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small
Picture-winged flies (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp., Diptera: Ulidiidae) are severe primary pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Females oviposit in silks and larvae consume the silks and kernels, rendering the ear unmarketable. Growers treat their fields with numerous broad spectrum insecticide ap...
O'hara, James E; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Dahlem, Gregory A
The Rhinophoridae (Diptera) have a cosmopolitan distribution and a known fauna of about 150 species (Cerretti & Pape 2007). So far as known, all species are parasitoids of terrestrial woodlice (sow bugs) of the order Isopoda (Oniscoidea) (Pape 2010). Female rhinophorids lay eggs in the vicinity of potential hosts and the planidial first instars parasitize sow bugs as they pass by (Pape 1998).
dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Pinheiro, Maria Sueli Barros; de Andrade, Andrey José
Abstract The available type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the “Coleção de Flebotomíneos” of the Instituto Evandro Chagas (ColFleb IEC) is now presented in an annotated catalogue comprising a total of 121 type specimens belonging to 12 species as follow: Nyssomyia richardwardi (2 female paratypes), Nyssomyia shawi (9 male and 25 female paratypes), Nyssomyia umbratilis (female holotype and 1 female paratype), Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (1 male and 1 female paratypes), Pintomyia gruta (1 male and 2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus lainsoni (2 male syntypes), Psychodopygus leonidasdeanei (male holotype, female “allotype” and 45 female paratypes), Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi (2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus wellcomei (1 male and 4 female “syntypes”), Trichophoromyia readyi (male holotype, female “allotype” and 1 male paratype), Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (male holotype, 13 male 5 female paratypes), and Trichophoromyia brachipyga (1 male paratype). PMID:24715786
Dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Pinheiro, Maria Sueli Barros; de Andrade, Andrey José
The available type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the "Coleção de Flebotomíneos" of the Instituto Evandro Chagas (ColFleb IEC) is now presented in an annotated catalogue comprising a total of 121 type specimens belonging to 12 species as follow: Nyssomyia richardwardi (2 female paratypes), Nyssomyia shawi (9 male and 25 female paratypes), Nyssomyia umbratilis (female holotype and 1 female paratype), Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (1 male and 1 female paratypes), Pintomyia gruta (1 male and 2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus lainsoni (2 male syntypes), Psychodopygus leonidasdeanei (male holotype, female "allotype" and 45 female paratypes), Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi (2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus wellcomei (1 male and 4 female "syntypes"), Trichophoromyia readyi (male holotype, female "allotype" and 1 male paratype), Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (male holotype, 13 male 5 female paratypes), and Trichophoromyia brachipyga (1 male paratype).
Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.
Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.
El-Hawagry, Magdi S.; Abdel-Dayem, Mahmoud S.; Elgharbawy, Ali A.; Dhafer, Hathal M. Al
Abstract The first list of insects of Al-Baha Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) was published in 2013 and contained a total of 582 species; an addendum to this list was published in 2015 adding 142 species and bringing the total number recorded from the province to 724 insect species representing 17 orders. The previous two studies excluded Jabal Shada al-A’la Nature Reserve (SANR), so the present study in SANR, as belonging to Al-Baha Province, are complementary to the previous two. The present study presents a preliminary list of Diptera (Insecta) in SANR, with remarks on their zoogeography, and is the first of a series of planned ecological and systematic studies on different insect orders as one of the outputs of a project proposed to study the entire insect fauna of SANR. A total number of 119 Diptera species belonging to 87 genera, 31 tribes, 42 subfamilies, and representing 30 families has been recorded from SANR in the present study. Some species have been identified only to the genus level and listed herein only because this is the first time to record their genera in KSA. Fourteen of the species are recorded for the first time for KSA, namely: Forcipomyia sahariensis Kieffer, 1923 [Ceratopogonidae]; Chaetosciara sp. [Sciaridae]; Neolophonotus sp.1; Neolophonotus sp.2; Promachus sinaiticus Efflatoun, 1934; Saropogon longicornis (Macquart, 1838); Saropogon sp. [Asilidae]; Spogostylum tripunctatum (Pallas in Wiedemann, 1818) [Bombyliidae]; Phycus sp. [Therevidae]; Hemeromyia sp.; Meoneura palaestinensis Hennig, 1937 [Carnidae]; Desmometopa inaurata Lamb, 1914 [Milichiidae]; Stomoxys niger Macquart, 1851 [Muscidae]; and Sarcophaga palestinensis (Lehrer, 1998) [Sarcophagidae]. Zoogeographic affinities of recorded fly species suggest a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region (46%) than to the Palearctic region (23.5%) or the Oriental region (2.5%). This supports the previous studies’ conclusions and emphasizes the fact that parts of the Arabian
Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Guillén, Larissa; Rull, Juan
Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are devastating agricultural pests worldwide but studies on their long-term population dynamics are sparse. Our aim was to determine the mechanisms driving long-term population dynamics as a prerequisite for ecologically based areawide pest management. The population density of three pestiferous Anastrepha species [Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann)] was determined in grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi Macfad.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), and sapodilla [Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen] orchards in central Veracruz, México, on a weekly basis over an 11-yr period. Fly populations exhibited relatively stable dynamics over time. Population dynamics were mainly driven by a direct density-dependent effect and a seasonal feedback process. We discovered direct and delayed influences that were correlated with both local (rainfall and air temperature) and global climatic variation (El Niño Southern Oscillation [ENSO] and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]), and detected differences among species and location of orchards with respect to the magnitude and nature (linear or nonlinear) of the observed effects, suggesting that highly mobile pest outbreaks become uncertain in response to significant climatic events at both global and local levels. That both NAO and ENSO affected Anastrepha population dynamics, coupled with the high mobility of Anastrepha adults and the discovery that when measured as rate of population change, local population fluctuations exhibited stable dynamics over time, suggests potential management scenarios for the species studied lie beyond the local scale and should be approached from an areawide perspective. Localized efforts, from individual growers will probably prove ineffective, and nonsustainable.
Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Sukontason, Kom; Ngoen-klan, Ratchadawan; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Irvine, Kim N; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Prangkio, Chira; Sanit, Sangob; Sukontason, Kabkaew L
Understanding how medically important flies respond to abiotic factor changes is necessary for predicting their population dynamics. In this study, we investigated the geographical distribution of the medically important blowfly, Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and ascertained the response to climatic and physio-environmental factors in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. Adult fly surveys were carried out every 2 weeks from May 2009 to May 2010 at 18 systematically randomized study sites in three districts of Chiang Mai province (Mueang Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, and Hang Dong), using reconstructable funnel traps with 1-day tainted beef offal as bait. During the study period, 8,861 adult A. rufifacies were captured, with peak densities being observed at the end of winter (i.e., late February) and throughout most of the summer (May to March). Population density had a weak but significant (α = 0.05) positive correlation with temperature (r = 0.329) and light intensity (r = 0.231), and a weak but significant (α = 0.05) negative correlation with relative humidity (r = -0.236). From the six ecological land use types (disturbed mixed deciduous forest, mixed deciduous forest, mixed orchard, lowland village, city town, and paddy field), greater fly densities were observed generally in the disturbed mixed deciduous forest and lowland village, but not in the paddy fields. In conclusion, A. rufifacies are abundant from the end of winter and throughout most of the summer in northern Thailand, with population density being weakly positively correlated with temperature and light intensity, but weakly negatively correlated with relative humidity. The greatest densities of this fly species were collected in disturbed mixed deciduous forest and lowland village land uses. The prediction of annual and season specific distributions of A. rufifacies were provided in each season and all-year patterns using a co-kriging approach (ArcGIS9.2).
Ribesia sarae Gagné, new genus, new species(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from simple leaf blister galls on Ribes aureum(Grossulariaceae) from Montana. The female abdomen is superficially similar to that of CystiphoraKieffer and SackenomyiaFelt. The three genera are compared. Because of stro...
An overview of our knowledge of the Diptera of Nearctic America is presented. About two-thirds of all the flies estimated to occur in Nearctic America have been named and documented. Unfortunately, less than one percent of these flies are treated comprehensively in monographs and less than a quart...
J. Med. Entomol. Vol. 23, no. 2: 196-200 31 March 1986 AEDES (STEGOLMYIA) BROMELIAE (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE), THE YELLOW FEVER VIRUS VECTOR IN EAST...lilii, and Ae. bromeliae). The species from which Mahaffy, Had- dow, and others isolated yellow fever virus , and which is the most common and...and western Africa but is less prevalent than Ae. bromeliae, and no females have been recorded as biting man. Literature refer- ences to Ae
Low Diversity Bacterial Community and the Trapping Activity of Metabolites from Cultivable Bacteria Species in the Female Reproductive System of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Shi, Zhanghong; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Hongyu
Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and evaluate the chemotaxis of B. dorsalis to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were assigned to the five bacterial classes Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria. Nine OTUs were assigned to Gammaproteobacteria, which was the most highly represented class. Enterobacteriaceae constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including Enterobacter sakazakii, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Raoultella terrigena and Enterobacter amnigenus. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by R. terrigena, K. oxytoca and K. pneumoniae were attractive to the B. dorsalis adults, and in field studies, B. dorsalis adults were most attracted to K. oxytoca. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly. PMID:22754363
Takaoka, H; Sofian-Azirun, M; Ya'cob, Z; Chen, C D; Lau, K W; Pham, H T
A total of 29 female black flies were captured by a hand net as they swarmed around humans in Tam Dao National Park, Vinh Phuc Province, Vietnam. They included one species of the subgenus Gomphostilbia (Simulium (Gomphostilbia) asakoae Takaoka & Davies) and five species of the subgenus Simulium, of which one species is described as Simulium (Simulium) vietnamense sp. nov. and the other four species (S. (S.) chungi Takaoka & Huang, S. (S.) grossifilum Takaoka & Davies, S. (S.) maenoi Takaoka & Choochote, and S. (S.) rufibasis Brunetti) are newly recorded from Vietnam.
Ubero-Pascal, Nicolás; Paños, Ángela; García, María-Dolores; Presa, Juan-José; Torres, Belén; Arnaldos, María-Isabel
The Sarcophagidae are one of the most numerous groups of Diptera in the world, consisting of many species of forensic interest, whose immature stages are useful in the estimation of postmortem interval. The immature stages of some species of forensic importance still remain unknown or undescribed, like in the case of Sarcophaga (Liopygia) cultellata Pandellé, 1986, a species restricted to the Iberian Peninsula, south of France and north of Italy, which shares a ecological niche with species of the same subgenus, e.g., Sarcophaga (Liopygia) argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) and Sarcophaga (Liopygia) crassipalpis Macquart, 1839, making it necessary to lay the groundwork for a proper specific differentiation before it can be successfully applied in forensic practice. This study provides the first micromorphological description of all preimaginal stages of S. (L.) cultellata using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the results of which allow the morphology of the main features to be followed during the immature life cycle. We propose a combination of features for distinguishing Liopygia from other sarcophagid subgenera, based on the current level of morphological knowledge of immature stages. S. (L.) cultellata can be differentiated from S. (L.) argyrostoma and S. (L.) crassipalpis in every immature stage by both light microscopy and SEM. The presence of tegumental warts and a fan-shaped anterior spiracle with a single row of 15-18 respiratory papillae allow distinguishing the third instar larvae of S. (L.) cultellata from other Sarcophaga species described hitherto by SEM. Identification keys based on light microscopy observations are provided, covering all the immature stages of Liopygia subgenus occurring in the Iberian Peninsula.
Weidner, L M; Jennings, D E; Tomberlin, J K; Hamilton, G C
Determining the time of colonization of human or other animal remains by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) can play an important role in criminal investigations. However, blow fly presence in a given area is strongly influenced by abiotic and biotic variables such as temperature and habitat. We wanted to assess the biodiversity of adult blow flies in New Jersey, USA, where very little is known about these taxa. Toward that end we collected adult blow flies biweekly from traps baited with bovine liver and placed across three regions in New Jersey over a 2-yr period (2011-2013). We collected and identified 9,257 adult calliphorids, comprising six genera and 12 species. Blow fly assemblages composed of these species varied by season, but community composition did not vary among regions within a given season. Three species, Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), and Phormia regina (Meigen) comprised 88.5% of all adult blow flies collected (42.6, 25.9, 20.0%, respectively). Combining all regions, the dominant species for both spring and summer was L. coeruleiviridis comprising 35.1% of all adults caught in spring and 64.1% in summer. P. regina was the dominant species in fall, totaling 40.1% of all adults caught and Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) was the dominant species for winter, totaling 44.8% of all adults caught. Our findings provide the first assessment of blow fly communities in New Jersey, and these results can be applied to surrounding states where data are severely lacking for forensic application.
Benkova, Ivana; Volf, Petr
Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the most important vector of Leishmania major, and previous experiments revealed that Leishmania development in the sand fly midgut is significantly affected by temperature. Therefore, we maintained blood-fed P. papatasi females at 23 or 28 degrees C to understand the effect of temperature on bloodmeal digestion and developmental times of this sand fly. At the lower temperature, the metabolic processes were slower and developmental times were longer: defecation, oviposition, and egg hatch started later and took longer to complete. Also, the mortality of blood-fed females was significantly lower. The defecation of bloodmeal remains was delayed for 12-36 h at 23 degrees C compared with the group maintained at 28 degrees C. Such delay would provide more time for Leishmania to establish the midgut infection and could partially explain the increased susceptibility of P. papatasi to Leishmania major at 23 degrees C. In both experimental groups, blood-fed females laid similar numbers of eggs (mean 60 and 70, maximum 104 and 115 per female). Egg numbers were positively correlated with the amount of hematin excreted in feces of ovipositing females. In parallel experiments, autogeny was recorded in 8% of females. The autogenous egg batches were smaller (mean, 12; range, 1-39), but they all produced viable larvae.
Sex pheromone-related behavior and chemistry were studied in the wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a pupal parasitoid of house flies Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Males responded behaviorally to female extracts by arrestment, whereas females did not arrest to male e...
Martín-Vega, Daniel; Baz, Arturo
The use of carrion-baited traps is a common and widely extended practice in the study of sarcosaprophagous Diptera. However, it implies different areas of bias, one of them being the different responses of males and females to carrion bait, which results in possible biased sex ratios in the captures. In the present study, the use of carrion-baited traps revealed significant female-biased captures in the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae, whereas the collected species of the families Piophilidae, Heleomyzidae, and Ulidiidae showed different patterns in the observed sex ratios. Possible explanations according to existing literature and the types of mating behaviors of the different families are discussed.
Effect of Quorum Sensing by Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Attraction Response of Female Adult Yellow Fever Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), to a Blood-Feeding Source
Zhang, Xinyang; Crippen, Tawni L.; Coates, Craig J.; Wood, Thomas K.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.
Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths annually. Compounds such as carbon dioxide, amino acids, fatty acids and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been widely studied for their role in attracting Ae. aegypti to hosts. Many VOCs from humans are produced by associated skin microbiota. Staphyloccocus epidermidis, although not the most abundant bacteria according to surveys of relative 16S ribosomal RNA abundance, commonly occurs on human skin. Bacteria demonstrate population level decision-making through quorum sensing. Many quorum sensing molecules, such as indole, volatilize and become part of the host odor plum. To date, no one has directly demonstrated the link between quorum sensing (i.e., decision-making) by bacteria associated with a host as a factor regulating arthropod vector attraction. This study examined this specific question with regards to S. epidermidis and Ae. aegypti. Pairwise tests were conducted to examine the response of female Ae. aegypti to combinations of tryptic soy broth (TSB) and S. epidermidis wildtype and agr- strains. The agr gene expresses an accessory gene regulator for quorum sensing; therefore, removing this gene inhibits quorum sensing of the bacteria. Differential attractiveness of mosquitoes to the wildtype and agr- strains was observed. Both wildtype and the agr- strain of S. epidermidis with TSB were marginally more attractive to Ae. aegypti than the TSB alone. Most interestingly, the blood-feeder treated with wildtype S. epidermidis/TSB attracted 74% of Ae. aegypti compared to the agr- strain of S. epidermidis/TSB (P ≤ 0.0001). This study is the first to suggest a role for interkingdom communication between host symbiotic bacteria and mosquitoes. This may have implications for mosquito decision-making with regards to host detection, location and acceptance. We speculate that mosquitoes “eavesdrop” on the chemical discussions occurring
Effect of Quorum Sensing by Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Attraction Response of Female Adult Yellow Fever Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), to a Blood-Feeding Source.
Zhang, Xinyang; Crippen, Tawni L; Coates, Craig J; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K
Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths annually. Compounds such as carbon dioxide, amino acids, fatty acids and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been widely studied for their role in attracting Ae. aegypti to hosts. Many VOCs from humans are produced by associated skin microbiota. Staphyloccocus epidermidis, although not the most abundant bacteria according to surveys of relative 16S ribosomal RNA abundance, commonly occurs on human skin. Bacteria demonstrate population level decision-making through quorum sensing. Many quorum sensing molecules, such as indole, volatilize and become part of the host odor plum. To date, no one has directly demonstrated the link between quorum sensing (i.e., decision-making) by bacteria associated with a host as a factor regulating arthropod vector attraction. This study examined this specific question with regards to S. epidermidis and Ae. aegypti. Pairwise tests were conducted to examine the response of female Ae. aegypti to combinations of tryptic soy broth (TSB) and S. epidermidis wildtype and agr- strains. The agr gene expresses an accessory gene regulator for quorum sensing; therefore, removing this gene inhibits quorum sensing of the bacteria. Differential attractiveness of mosquitoes to the wildtype and agr- strains was observed. Both wildtype and the agr- strain of S. epidermidis with TSB were marginally more attractive to Ae. aegypti than the TSB alone. Most interestingly, the blood-feeder treated with wildtype S. epidermidis/TSB attracted 74% of Ae. aegypti compared to the agr- strain of S. epidermidis/TSB (P ≤ 0.0001). This study is the first to suggest a role for interkingdom communication between host symbiotic bacteria and mosquitoes. This may have implications for mosquito decision-making with regards to host detection, location and acceptance. We speculate that mosquitoes "eavesdrop" on the chemical discussions occurring between
Segura, D.; Petit-Marty, N.; Cladera, J.; Sciurano, R.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Vera, T.; Allinghi, A.
Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author) [Spanish] Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) presenta un sistema de apareamiento tipo lek. Los machos forman grupos y, en forma conjunta, emiten senales (acusticas, visuales, o quimicas) para
Hernández, Emilio; Escobar, Arseny; Bravo, Bigail; Montoya, Pablo
We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, "GT" screen towers and "MX" screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fly densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm²) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb® and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb® and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb® powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fly sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fly species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs.
Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, L. trifolii (Burgess) and L. huidobrensis (Blanchard) are three invasive leafminer species (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in China that have caused significant economic damage on vegetables and ornamental plants. In the current study, the repellent responses of female adults to ...
Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I.; Ozerov, Andrey L.; Woźnica, Andrzej J.; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K.; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T.; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C. D.; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L.; Chandler, Peter J.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A.; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N.; Mathis, Wayne N.; Hubenov, Zdravko
Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera–Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera–Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger
Rull, Juan; Diaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, Jose
Irradiation doses currently applied to sterilize Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), for release under the sterile insect technique eradication campaign in Mexico, were reviewed in an effort to increase sterile male performance in the field. A dose maximizing sterility induction into wild populations was sought by balancing somatic fitness with genetic sterility. Doses of 40, 60, and 80 Gy induced 95% or more sterility in all males, which in turn induced similar degrees of sterility into a cohort of wild flies in the laboratory. However, a low dose of 40 Gy was sufficient to completely suppress egg production in females. Similarly, a mild carryover of genetic damage might have been transferred to the F1 progeny of males irradiated at 40 Gy crossed with fertile wild females. Our results suggest that the 80-Gy dose currently applied in Mexico can be lowered substantially without jeopardizing program goals. This view could be strengthened by comparing performance of males irradiated at different doses under more natural settings. In general, we discuss the value of determining irradiation doses for pest species where females are more radiosensitive than males, by selecting the dose that causes 100% sterility in females.
Condoms for women; Contraception - female condom; Family planning - female condom; Birth control - female condom ... care provider or pharmacy for information about emergency contraception (Plan B) if the condom tears or the ...
Winterton, Shaun L.
Abstract Australian stiletto flies of the sister-genera Acupalpa Kröber, 1912 and Pipinnipons Winterton, 2001 (Diptera: Therevidae: Agapophytinae) are revised. Twelve new species of Acupalpa are described, while Acupalpa imitans (White, 1915), comb. n. is transferred from Pipinnipons and Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber, 1914), comb. n. is transferred from Ectinorhynchus Macquart as a senior synonym of Acupalpa pollinosa Mann. The total number of species of Acupalpa is therefore increased to 19: Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber), comb. n., Acupalpa albitarsa Mann, Acupalpa boharti sp. n., Acupalpa divisa (Walker), Acupalpa dolichorhyncha sp. n., Acupalpa glossa sp. n., Acupalpa imitans (White), comb. n., Acupalpa irwini Winterton, Acupalpa melanophaeos sp. n., Acupalpa miaboolya sp. n., Acupalpa minuta sp. n., Acupalpa minutoides sp. n., Acupalpa notomelas sp. n., Acupalpa novayamarna sp. n., Acupalpa rostrata Kröber, Acupalpa semirufa Mann, Acupalpa westralica sp. n., Acupalpa yalgoo sp. n. and Acupalpa yanchep sp. n. Three new species of Pipinnipons are described, increasing the total number of species to five: Pipinnipons chauncyvallis sp. n., Pipinnipons fascipennis (Kröber), Pipinnipons kampmeierae sp. n., Pipinnipons kroeberi Winterton, and P. sphecoda sp. n. Pipinnipons and Acupalpa are rediagnosed in light of the new species presented herein and revised keys to species are included. A dichotomous key to genera of Australasian Therevidae is included. As an empirical example of cybertaxonomy, taxonomic descriptions were composed using a character matrix developed in Lucid Builder (in Structured Descriptive Data (SDD) format) to generate natural language descriptions supplemented by online specimen and image databases. Web resources are provided throughout the document including: a) links to high resolution colour images of all species on Morphbank, b) registration of authors, publications, taxon names and other nomenclatural acts in Zoobank, with assignment of Life
Winterton, Shaun L
Australian stiletto flies of the sister-genera Acupalpa Kröber, 1912 and Pipinnipons Winterton, 2001 (Diptera: Therevidae: Agapophytinae) are revised. Twelve new species of Acupalpa are described, while Acupalpa imitans (White, 1915), comb. n. is transferred from Pipinnipons and Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber, 1914), comb. n. is transferred from Ectinorhynchus Macquart as a senior synonym of Acupalpa pollinosa Mann. The total number of species of Acupalpa is therefore increased to 19: Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber), comb. n., Acupalpa albitarsa Mann, Acupalpa bohartisp. n., Acupalpa divisa (Walker), Acupalpa dolichorhynchasp. n., Acupalpa glossasp. n., Acupalpa imitans (White), comb. n., Acupalpa irwini Winterton, Acupalpa melanophaeossp. n.,Acupalpa miaboolyasp. n., Acupalpa minutasp. n., Acupalpa minutoidessp. n., Acupalpa notomelassp. n., Acupalpa novayamarnasp. n., Acupalpa rostrata Kröber, Acupalpa semirufa Mann, Acupalpa westralicasp. n., Acupalpa yalgoosp. n. and Acupalpa yanchepsp. n. Three new species of Pipinnipons are described, increasing the total number of species to five: Pipinnipons chauncyvallissp. n., Pipinnipons fascipennis (Kröber), Pipinnipons kampmeieraesp. n., Pipinnipons kroeberi Winterton, and P. sphecodasp. n.Pipinnipons and Acupalpa are rediagnosed in light of the new species presented herein and revised keys to species are included. A dichotomous key to genera of Australasian Therevidae is included. As an empirical example of cybertaxonomy, taxonomic descriptions were composed using a character matrix developed in Lucid Builder (in Structured Descriptive Data (SDD) format) to generate natural language descriptions supplemented by online specimen and image databases. Web resources are provided throughout the document including: a) links to high resolution colour images of all species on Morphbank, b) registration of authors, publications, taxon names and other nomenclatural acts in Zoobank, with assignment of Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs
Bergeron, Matthew D; Marshall, Stephen A; Swann, John E
The New World species of Coproica Rondani, 1861 (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) are reviewed on the basis of over 17,000 examined specimens. The genus is divided into three major clades: the C. acutangula, C. vagans, and C. urbana species groups. Eight new species (C. bifurcata, C. bispatha, C. brachystyla, C. diabolica, C. emarginata, C. galapagosensis, C. novacula, and C. testudinea) are described, and redescriptions are provided for eleven additional species. Included are two keys (one for the twenty New World species only and one for all described species), updated New World distribution records, and illustrations of male and female genitalic structures.
Heo, C C; Aisha, S; Kurahashi, H; Omar, B
Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia. We collected one male and two females during a field trip conducted at Genting Highland, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia in May 2011. A 3-day old cow liver was offered as attractant and dipterans collected were transferred to the laboratory for specimens processing and identification. The adults of I. paurogonita were attracted to the odour and then captured by using a sweep net. Isomyia paurogonita was also recorded from two other localities in Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo, namely Gombak Utara, Selangor and Sibu, Sarawak.
Langer, Sarah V; Kyle, Christopher J; Beresford, David V
Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Phormia regina (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are morphologically similar blow fly species commonly used for estimating postmortem intervals. Field collection and storage of adults can result in color changes, in particular on calypters and palps; often collected specimens show damage such as wing fray or fungal growth. We measured the frons width: total head width ratio using photographs (ImageJ version 1.49) to differentiate these two species. Both sexes were distinguishable to species, with the greatest difference between males: 12.34% P. terraenovae versus 1.62% P. regina, less so for females: 40.25% P. terraenovae, versus 33.65% P. regina. Incorporating this feature into future blow fly keys would help with distinguishing field-caught specimens when other features are obstructed.
Clariza Samayoa, Ana; Chen, Wei-Ting; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi
The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was reared on artificial diet (wheat bran and chicken feed) in the laboratory at 28ºC (immature stages) and under a greenhouse set at 28ºC (adults). Data were collected and analyzed based on an age-stage, two-sex life table. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), ﬁnite rate of increase (λ), net reproduction rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were 0.0759 (d(-1)), 1.0759 (d(-1)), 68.225 offspring, and 55.635 d, respectively. The maximum reproductive value of females occurred at 54 d. Only six females out of 21 were able to successfully oviposit. The number of eggs laid per female ranged from 236 to a maximum of 1,088 eggs. We demonstrated that first-instar larvae of H. illucens are more susceptible to perishing when reared under artificial diet than are later instars.
Samayoa, Ana Clariza; Chen, Wei-Ting; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi
The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was reared on artificial diet (wheat bran and chicken feed) in the laboratory at 28°C (immature stages) and under a greenhouse set at 28°C (adults). Data were collected and analyzed based on an age-stage, two-sex life table. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), ﬁnite rate of increase (λ), net reproduction rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were 0.0759 (d(-1)), 1.0759 (d(-1)), 68.225 offspring, and 55.635 d, respectively. The maximum reproductive value of females occurred at 54 d. Only six females out of 21 were able to successfully oviposit. The number of eggs laid per female ranged from 236 to a maximum of 1,088 eggs. We demonstrated that first-instar larvae of H. illucens are more susceptible to perishing when reared under artificial diet than are later instars.
Poddighe, Simone; Dekker, Teun; Scala, Antonio; Angioy, Anna Maria
The nasal botfly Oestrus ovis (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha: Oestridae) is a myiasis-causing insect species, which affects the health of sheep, goats and humans. Gravid females are viviparous and larviposit into the animal’s nostrils. Host-searching and larvipositing flies are visually guided and influenced by climatic conditions, whereas olfaction seemed to play no role in this process. However, here, we show that the antennae of adult O. ovis female flies are relatively small but well developed and inhabited by several types of olfactory sensilla. Further, we show that the antennal lobes of this species receive input from antennal afferents and consist of a clearly defined glomerular organisation. We also give the first evidence of the fly’s ability to detect several synthetic odour compounds. Our findings provide a morpho-functional basis for future investigations on olfactory-mediated behaviour of this insect pest.
62nd Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America 16-19 November 2014; Portland, OR Title: Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Nancy D. Epsky, Micah A. Gill, C. Teri Allen, Dong H. Cha, and Peter J. Landolt Nancy D. Epsky USDA-ARS, Subtropical Horticulture...
The two main members of the higher Diptera for which monitoring traps have been developed (at least in countries where tsetse does not exist) are the house fly, Musca domestica, and the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans. Both flies are major pest species in the US and elsewhere and the development of ...
Marsaro Júnior, A L; Deus, E G; Ronchi-Teles, B; Adaime, R; Silva Júnior, R J
The guava fruit (Psidium guajava) is among the most strongly affected by fruit flies in Brazil. In the Brazilian Amazon, 11 species of Anastrepha have been reported in guava orchards to date. This work aimed to identify the species of Anastrepha present in a guava orchard in the municipality of Boa Vista, determine the species infesting the fruits, and identify any parasitoids present. Two McPhail traps with food bait were installed and weekly collections were made between January and December 2008. Fruits were also collected systematically during this period, with a view to determining the association between host plant and tephritid species. Nine species of Anastrepha were identified, in addition to one specimen belonging to a probable new species. Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) were the dominant species in the orchard, accounting for 84.8% of all captured individuals. All females collected directly from fruits were A. striata. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was the only parasitoid species obtained. In this work, Anastrepha ethalea (Walker) is reported for the first time in the state of Roraima.
Evans, Richard K.; Toews, Michael D.
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an economically important pest of blueberry and other thin-skinned fruits, persists and prolifically reproduces under seemingly lethal climatic conditions in the field. However, behavioral and physiological mechanisms employed by D. suzukii to tolerate such extreme climatic conditions in the field are unknown. The primary objective of this project was to investigate diel periodicity of D. suzukii and their reproductive success under field conditions as related by climatic factors such as temperature and relative humidity. Results show that D. suzukii reproductive success was significantly higher during the night (including dawn and dusk periods) than the day in terms of oviposition, pupation, adult eclosion, and the number of progeny per female. Female D. suzukii reproductive success was not significantly different between specific regions of a blueberry bush in relation to the amount of shade provided by the canopy. Our studies indicate that D. suzukii flight activity is crepuscular and is sensitive to fluctuations in temperature and relative humidity. Results also suggest that the majority of fly activity during peak hours is concentrated in areas around the border and within the center of blueberry orchards with little activity in the surrounding wooded areas. These findings suggest that D. suzukii prefers microclimate with mild temperatures and high humidity, and does not function well when exposed to direct sunlight with extreme heat. The authors propose that D. suzukii management strategies should be implemented during the early morning and immediately before darkness to maximize efficacy. PMID:28187140
Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Skoda, S R
The sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. Female flies are attracted to sheep following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Earlier workers attempted to reduce fly population in the field, with some success, using traps baited with various attractants. This research was conducted to determine if L. sericata would respond to a recently developed synthetic attractant that has attracted gravid screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, and stimulated them to oviposit. Results of the laboratory bioassays demonstrated that gravid females L. sericata were attracted to substrates treated with the synthetic screwworm attractant composed of five compounds--dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, p-cresol, and indole. Tests with various combinations of these compounds suggest that the sulfur compounds and indole are the most important compounds to elicit attraction and stimulate oviposition, while phenol and p-cresol may have minor roles. Semiochemical baits based on these compounds may be useful in the field to trap gravid L. sericata.
Hernandez, E.; Orozco, D.; Flores Breceda, S.; Dominguez, J.
The rates of dispersal and survival of sterile mass-reared laboratory flies and sterile wild flies of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) were estimated and compared with a regular rectangular array of 64 food-baited traps spaced 60 m between traps around the release point in Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. The traps were scored every day during the first week, and then every 3 d over a 30-d period. For A. obliqua, the number of males recaptured was higher than that of females, while for A. ludens, females were recaptured more frequently than males. The recapture rate for the wild strains ranged from 0.6-24.8% for A. ludens and 1.3-16.2% for A. obliqua and the corresponding ranges for the mass-reared strains were 0.5-7.1% and 0.5-3.0% respectively. The life expectancy was 4.7 d for wild and 4.3 d for mass-reared A. obliqua males but 3 and 2 d, respectively, for wild and mass-reared A. ludens males. The net displacement of A. ludens and A. obliqua ranged approximately from 100-250 m and took place mostly on the first day. Wild A. ludens moved to the northwest from the release point while the mass-reared strain moved to the west. The A. obliqua wild flies moved to the west, while the mass-reared strain shifted to the southwest. We discuss the implications of our findings as to the spacing and frequency of sterile fly releases for the suppression of wild populations. (author) [Spanish] La dispersion y longevidad de las moscas esteriles silvestres y de cria masiva de Anastrepha ludens (Loew) y A. obliqua (Macquart) fueron determinadas y comparadas utilizando un arreglo rectangular de 64 trampas espaciadas a 60 metros entre trampas alrededor del punto de liberacion en Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. Las trampas fueron revisadas y evaluadas diariamente durante la primera semana y despues cada tres dias hasta completar 30 dias. Para A. obliqua la cantidad de machos capturados fue mayor que la cantidad de hembras; mientras que para A. ludens las hembras fueron
Mengual, Ximo; Kazerani, Farzaneh; Talebi, Ali Asghar; Gilasian, Ebrahim
The genus Pelecocera Meigen (Diptera: Syrphidae) is revised. Type material of most species was studied to describe, illustrate and delimit the male of Pelecocera persiana Kuznetzov, recently discovered from Iran. This is the first known specimen of this species since 1914, when the type female was collected. The diagnostic characters of P. persiana are provided, along with an identification key for Pelecocera species. The lectotype of Pelecocera latifrons Loew is designated.
Mathis, Wayne N; Marinoni, Luciane
The Neotropical genera and species of the tribe Ephydrini are revised and include nine genera and 33 species. Of the nine genera, Setacera Cresson, Cirrula Cresson, Dimecoenia Cresson, Paracoenia Cresson and Ephydra Fallén are mostly temperate in distribution, primarily in the Northern Hemisphere. The other four genera, which are exclusively Neotropical, include two, Austrocoenia and Notiocoenia, that were treated previously in the tribe Scatellini, and two recently described genera: Paraephydra (type species: Paraephydra freitasi (Oliveira)) and Neoephydra (type species: Neoephydra araucaria Mathis). New species described herein are: Neoephydra neotropica (Chile), N. dasycephala (Argentina and Peru), N. mallonota (Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile), N. shewelli (Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile), N. inca (Argentina, Bolivia, Peru), N. penai (Chile) and N. trichina (Argentina and Chile). New synonyms are (cited in their original combinations): Ephydra densepilosa Hendel = E. ciligena Rondani, Dimecoenia grumanni Oliveira = E. ciligena Rondani, D. coltaensis Cresson = D. zurcheri Hendel, D. carrerai Oliveira = D. zurcheri Hendel, D. lopesi = E. ciligena Rondani, D. travassosi Mello and Oliveira = E. prionoptera Thomson. A neotype is designated for E. caesia Wulp, and the following lectotype designations have also been made to better stabilize nomenclature (here cited in their original combination): Ephydra chilensis Macquart, Ephydra densepilosa Hendel, Ephydra pravoneura Hendel, Ephydra prionoptera Thomson, and Dimecoenia zurcheri Hendel. Dimecoenia venteli Oliveira is listed as a species inquirenda, as the type series includes only female specimens that we cannot presently recognize. Although the genera and subgenera are fairly easily distinguished, the included species are frequently difficult to separate, and we have generally relied on characters of the male terminalia to determine a species identity. Illustrations of male terminalia and distribution maps are
Abu Daia, J M
It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue.
Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Pham, Xuan Da
Surveys of pupae and larvae of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) were carried out in Thua Thien Hue Province of central Vietnam, and Lam Dong Province of southern Vietnam in 2014. A total of 26 species belonging to the genus Simulium were collected, consisting of eight known species, one newly recorded species, and 17 new species (of which three species of the subgenus Nevermannia were described in 2014). The remaining 14 new species (nine of the subgenus Gomphostilbia and five of the subgenus Simulium) are described here based on females, males, pupae and mature larvae. The total number of species of black flies in Vietnam is now 46. Keys to identify all 26 species recorded from the two provinces of Vietnam are given for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.
Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Srisuka, Wichai; Saeung, Atiporn; Choochote, Wej
Simulium (Asiosimulium) furvum sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) is described from female, male, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Maewa National Park, Lampang Province, Thailand. This new species represents the fourth member of the subgenus Asiosimulium Takaoka & Chochoote, one of two small black fly subgenera endemic in the Oriental Region. It is characterized by a pear-shaped spermatheca in the female; a ventral plate in the male with a laterally compressed median keel directed ventrally and with a deep notch posteromedially, and aedeagal membrane with stout spines; and by 22 gill filaments in the pupa. Taxonomic notes are provided to separate this new species from three known species, Simulium (Asiosimulium) oblongum Takaoka & Choochote and Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii Takaoka & Choochote, both from Thailand, and Simulium (Asiosimulium) suchitrae Takaoka from Nepal.
Molina, Jorge Alberto; Ortiz, Mario Iván; Guhl, Felipe
The bionomics of sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) was studied monthly for two consecutive years in alluvial gallery forests in the department of Casanare, Northeastern Colombia. A total of 2,365 specimens and 10 species were captured using CDC light traps and Shannon traps, and from diurnal resting places, and human landing collections. Lutzomyia fairtigi Martins (55%), Lutzomyia micropyga (Mangabeira) (20.9%), and Lutzomyia antunesi (Coutinho) (13.5%) were the predominant species in the region. Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and Lutzomyia panamensis, potential vectors of Leishmania in Colombia and neighboring countries, were also collected, but in low numbers. Lu. fairtigi is an endemic species to Colombia, and minimal data are available on its biology and distribution. The present study provides additional information about Lu. fairtigi, such as the diurnal activity displayed by females on cloudy days, the greater density during the rainy season (April to October), marked anthropophilia, and the presence of flagellates in the midgut of one female.
Martín-Vega, Daniel; Baz, Arturo
The use of carrion-baited traps is a common and widely extended practice in the study of sarcosaprophagous Diptera. However, it implies different areas of bias, one of them being the different responses of males and females to carrion bait, which results in possible biased sex ratios in the captures. In the present study, the use of carrion-baited traps revealed significant female-biased captures in the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae, whereas the collected species of the families Piophilidae, Heleomyzidae, and Ulidiidae showed different patterns in the observed sex ratios. Possible explanations according to existing literature and the types of mating behaviors of the different families are discussed. PMID:23885859
Wagner, Rüdiger; Stuckenberg, Brian
Subfamily Bruchomyiinae is comprised of 60 species and has been referred to as the most primitive within the Psychodidae. The assumed sister-group relationship with Phlebotominae is based on ecological constraints of their environment. A cladistics analysis based on 29 characters and 52 species revealed the distinction of an Old World clade characterized by males with elongate, narrow vasa deferentia, and a New World clade with males having shorter and basally widened vasa deferentia. The Old World clade consists of the genera Nemopalpus Macquart (9 species), and Eutonnoiria Alexander (1 species). The New World clade includes Bruchomyia Alexander (10 species), Boreofairchildia genus nov. (13 species), Laurenceomyia genus nov. (5 species), and Notofairchildia genus nov. (15 species). Parsimony and Bayesian analyses resulted in trees that generally support this generic classification; however, with some species groups less resolved. Diagnostic features for genera are provided. In contrast to the other New World genera, Notofairchildia is paraphyletic with the provisional inclusion of at least the Australasian taxa.
Martinez, A.J.; Salinas, E.J.; Rendon, P.
Two trapping systems were compared in a study in Guatemala during the wet season, May through Dec 2001. Trap/lure combinations consisting of green or yellow-based plastic McPhail-like traps baited with a synthetic 2-component lure (putrescine and ammonium acetate) and 300 mL of propylene glycol antifreeze as a preservative were compared to the traditional glass McPhail baited with torula yeast/borax and 300 mL of water. Both systems captured several key Anastrepha species including Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus Weidemann as well as Ceratitis capitata Weidemann. Additionally, 13 other Anastrepha spp. were captured with the synthetic lure. The plastic traps captured more key flies than the McPhail trap except for A. distincta where there were no significant differences between the yellow-based plastic trap and the McPhail trap and no significant differences between any trap and lure for trapping A. fraterculus. The synthetic lure lasted 10 weeks. The sex ratio was female-biased for almost all captured key species in both systems. Moreover, there were significant numbers of captured nontarget insects in all traps; however, the captured flies in those traps with the synthetic lure were not adversely affected by these insects. Propylene glycol-based antifreeze was a superior preservative when compared to borax/water. (author) [Spanish] En Guatemala, se compararon dos sistemas de trampeo durante la epoca lluviosa de Mayo a Deciembre, 2001. Combinaciones de trampa/atrayente que consistieron de trampas de plastico con bases verdes o amarillos y con atrayentes sinteticos (acetate de amoniaco y putrecina) fueron comparadas con el sistema de trampeo tradicional McPhail de vidrio cebada con torula y borax en agua. Los dos sistemas capturaron moscas del genero Anastrepha incluyendo Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A
... Nov. 13, 2014. Hatcher RA, et al. Contraceptive Technology. 20th ed. New York, N.Y.: Ardent Media; 2011:391. FC2 female condom. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/ ...
Pereira, Thalles Platiny Lavinscky; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Bravo, Freddy
The genus Pseudacteon Coquillett (Diptera, Phoridae) has a worldwide distribution and comprises parasitic myrmecophilous species that decapitate host ants. Seventy one species are known in the genus, 41 of them occur in the Neotropical Region and are 25 from Brazil. In northeastern Brazil, there are only records for two species, Pseudacteon dentiger Borgmeier and Pseudacteon antiguensis Malloch. In this paper, two new species of the genus are described from female specimens, Pseudacteon pesqueroi new spec. and Pseudacteon plowesi new spec., and also, new records of three Pseudacteon species for the Brazilian Northeast are given.
Terenius, Olle; de Oliveira, Caroline Dantas; Pinheiro, Waleria Dasso; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; James, Anthony Amade; Marinotti, Osvaldo
The microbial flora associated with Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae), a major Neotropical malaria vector, was investigated for the development of a paratransgenesis-based approach to control malaria transmission in Brazil. Female mosquitoes were collected using human land catches and captured insects provided a bloodmeal. The controlled blood feeding resulted in increased detection of mosquito bacterial population because it was possible to retrieve bacterial DNA from all blood-fed mosquitoes. The 16S sequences of bacteria recovered, include some closely related to those found in other vector mosquitoes, including Aeromonas, Pantoea and Pseudomonas species.
Andersson, Martin N.; Corcoran, Jacob A.; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Hillbur, Ylva; Newcomb, Richard D.; Löfstedt, Christer
The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1–2 days) and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR) family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1) are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogs, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogs together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the Cecidomyiidae
Guo, Y D; Cai, J F; Li, X; Xiong, F; Su, R N; Chen, F L; Liu, Q L; Wang, X H; Chang, Y F; Zhong, M; Wang, X; Wen, J F
Accurate species identication is a crucial step in forensic entomology, as the insect collected on a corpse can provide useful information for estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). The utility of the forensically important Sarcophagidae (Diptera) for crime scene investigation has been severely restricted, as morphological identification is difficult, especially the identification of females and larvae. In this study, a method for using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data and phylogenetic analysis was performed to distinguish the three Chinese sarcophagid species: Boerttcherisca peregrina (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) Parasarcophaga albiceps (Meigen, 1826) and Parasarcophaga dux (Thompson, 1869) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). DNA was extracted and analyzed by a 189 bp fragment of cytochrome coxidase subunit II (COII) gene. The monophyletic branches of the phylogenetic tree reveal that this marker is suitable for discrimination between these species, providing high support for separation on congeneric species. Therefore, the molecular method applied to the sarcophagid species identification is feasible.
Abstract An updated checklist of the Atelestidae, Brachystomatidae, Dolichopodidae, Empididae and Hybotidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. The genera with uncertain placement within superfamily Empidoidea (= the Iteaphila group) are also included in this paper. PMID:25337016
Generic classification of the Archiborborinae (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae), with a revision of Antrops Enderlein, Coloantrops gen. nov., Maculantrops gen. nov., Photoantrops gen. nov., and Poecilantrops gen. nov.
Kits, Joel H; Marshall, Stephen A
, Poecilantrops crocidosternum, Poecilantrops dominicus, Poecilantrops flavifemur, Poecilantrops marensis, Poecilantrops plaumanni, Poecilantrops psilosternum, Poecilantrops stellans, Poecilantrops vittifrons, all sp. nov.). Six additional species of Antrops and two of Poecilantrops known from females only are diagnosed but not described. The genus Boreantrops is described for two species (Boreantrops mexicanus (Steyskal) comb. nov., and Boreantrops calceatus (Duda) comb. nov.). Boreantrops includes a number of new species but is not fully revised here. New synonyms at the species level are: Antrops femoralis (Blanchard 1852) = Archiborborus argentinensis Papp 1977, and Archiborborus submaculatus Duda 1921, both syn. nov.; Antrops hirtus (Bigot 1888) = Archiborborus edwardsi Richards 1931, syn. nov.; Antrops quadrinotus (Bigot 1888) = Archiborborus albicans Richards 1931, Archiborborus chilensis Richards 1931, Archiborbo-rus koenigi Duda 1932, all syn. nov.; Maculantrops hirtipes (Macquart 1844) = Copromyza alternata Rondani 1868, syn. nov.
Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo; Castellón, Eloy G; De Souza, Maria de Fátima; Menezes, Alexandre A Lara; Queiroz, José Wilton; Macedo e Silva, Virgínia Penéllope; Jerônimo, Selma M B
The resurgence of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil increases the need for studies to elucidate the spatial and temporal dynamics of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae), the vector of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Sand flies were captured in peridomestic habitats biweekly for 3 yr. Cross-correlation tests and spectral analysis were used to analyze the simultaneous and lag-time correlations between Lu. longipalpis population densities and abiotic factors of temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity, and rainfall. Distinct seasonal patterns were observed for males and females, with intervals of 6 mo between population peaks for males and 12 mo for females. Peak female population densities lagged 3 mo behind the maximum annual temperature. Female population density was negatively correlated with relative humidity. An increase in average wind velocity was followed by a decrease in the number of females for 2 wk. Understanding the relationship between the seasonal population dynamics of Lu. longipalpis and abiotic factors will contribute to the design of better control measures to decrease transmission of L. infantum and consequently the incidence of leishmaniasis.
Blosser, Erik M; Stenn, Tanise; Acevedo, Carolina; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D
Culex (Melanoconion) iolambdis (Dyar, 1918) is a mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species found throughout much of tropical America, including southern Florida. Relatively few reports are available regarding the ecology of Cx. iolambdis, despite its widespread distribution and putative involvement in transmission of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. To quantify habitat and host utilization, adults of Cx. iolambdis were sampled from resting shelters at a field site in Vero Beach, Florida, over a 12-month period. Culex iolambdis (1109 males, 3072 females) constituted more than half (56.76%) of all mosquitoes sampled (24 species) and was active year-round. Unfed females and gravid females of Cx. iolambdis were significantly more abundant in mangrove habitat, while males and blood-fed females were not. PCR-based bloodmeal analysis of 305 females revealed that Cx. iolambdis has very wide host breadth, feeding on birds (37.0% overall), reptiles (26.6%), amphibians (23.3%) and mammals (13.1%). Green heron (Butorides virescens), Southern leopard frog (Lithobates sphenocephala) and American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) were the most commonly fed upon hosts. Bloodmeals from different host classes varied significantly with season, suggesting that Cx. iolambdis may play a role in the amplification and epidemic transmission of zoonotic arboviruses affecting human health.
Odiere, M; Bayoh, M N; Gimnig, J; Vulule, J; Irungu, L; Walker, E
Clay pots were analyzed as devices for sampling the outdoor resting fraction of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquito species in a rural, western Kenya. Clay pots (Anopheles gambiae resting pots, herein AgREPOTs), outdoor pit shelters, indoor pyrethrum spray collections (PSC), and Colombian curtain exit traps were compared in collections done biweekly for nine intervals from April to June 2005 in 20 housing compounds. Of 10,517 mosquitoes sampled, 4,668 An. gambiae s.l. were sampled in total of which 63% were An. gambiae s.s. (46% female) and 37% were An. arabiensis (66% female). The clay pots were useful and practical for sampling both sexes of An. gambiae s.l. Additionally, 617 An. funestus (58% female) and 5,232 Culex spp. (males and females together) were collected. Temporal changes in abundance of An. gambiae s.l. were similarly revealed by all four sampling methods, indicating that the clay pots could be used as devices to quantify variation in mosquito population density. Dispersion patterns of the different species and sexes fit well the negative binomial distribution, indicating that the mosquitoes were aggregated in distribution. Aside from providing a useful sampling tool, the AgREPOT also may be useful as a delivery vehicle for insecticides or pathogens to males and females that enter and rest in them.
Dvořák, Libor; Beuk, Paul LT
Abstract Background Anisopodidae (window gnats or wood gnats) is a small family of nematocerous Diptera. Until now only Sylvicola (Anisopus) punctatus (Fabricius, 1787) and Sylvicola (Sylvicola) fenestralis (Scopoli, 1763) were reported from Romania. New information New faunistic records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) are presented. Sylvicola (Sylvicola) cinctus (Fabricius, 1787) and S. (Anisopus) fuscatus (Fabricius, 1775) are recorded from Romania for the first time. An identification key and illustrations of Romanian Sylvicola species are presented. PMID:26929721
Effect of Resin Ducts and Sap Content on Infestation and Development of Immature Stages of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Four Mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) Cultivars.
Guillén, Larissa; Adaime, Ricardo; Birke, Andrea; Velázquez, Olinda; Angeles, Guillermo; Ortega, Fernando; Ruíz, Eliel; Aluja, Martín
We determined the influence of resin ducts, sap content, and fruit physicochemical features of four mango cultivars (Criollo, Manila, Ataulfo, and Tommy Atkins) on their susceptibility to the attack of the two most pestiferous fruit fly species infesting mangoes in Mexico: Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart). We performed three studies: 1) analysis of resin ducts in mango fruit exocarp to determine the density and area occupied by resin ducts in each mango cultivar, 2) assessment of mango physicochemical features including fruit sap content, and 3) a forced infestation trial under field conditions using enclosed fruit-bearing branches to expose mangoes to gravid A. ludens or A. obliqua females. Infestation rates, development time from egg to prepupae and pupae, pupal weight, and percent of adult emergence, were assessed. 'Ataulfo' and 'Tommy Atkins' cultivars exhibited the highest resin duct density and sap content, the lowest infestation rate, and had a negative effect on immature development and pupal weight. In sharp contrast, 'Manila' and 'Criollo' cultivars, with the lowest resin duct density and sap content, were highly susceptible to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack. We conclude that sap content and the number, size, and distribution of resin ducts as well as firmness in mango fruit exocarp are all involved in the resistance of mango to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack.
Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae) do not infest Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), but Anastrepha obliqua occasionally shares this resource with Anastrepha striata in nature.
Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martin
This study examined whether economically important fruit fly species Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) may opportunistically exploit guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), growing near preferred natural hosts. We collected 3,459 kg of guavas and 895 kg of other known host species [sour orange, Citrus aurantium L.; grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfadyen; mango, Mangifera indica L.; white sapote, Casimiroa edulis La Llave and Lex.; sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.); sapodilla, Manilkara zapota L.; and wild plum, Spondias purpurea L. and Spondias mombin L.] along an altitudinal gradient over a 4-yr period (2006-2009). Plants were growing in sympatry in 23 localities where the guavas are usually infested in the state of Veracruz, M6xico. The guava samples yielded 20,341 Anastrepha spp. pupae in total (overall mean, 5.88 pupae per kg of fruit). Confirming previous reports, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) were found heavily infesting guavas in Veracruz. Importantly, although we did not find evidence that A. ludens and A. serpentina are able to attack this valuable commodity, we document for the first time in the agriculturally important state of Veracruz that P. guajava is an alternative natural host plant of A. obliqua. We recovered two fruit in the mango-growing locality of la Vibora, Tlalixcoyan, that harbored larvae of A. striata and A. obliqua. This finding has important practical implications for management of A. obliqua. Over the entire altitudinal gradient, when individual fruit infestation was examined, a dynamic pattern of species dominance was unveiled with guavas growing below 800 m above sea level mainly attacked by A. striata and a progressive replacement with increasing altitude by A. fraterculus. Interestingly, most individual fruit examined (97%) harbored a single species of fruit fly, a finding that may be taken as evidence of
Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S A
The family Nothybidae (Diptera: Schizophora) is revised. The family consists of 11 species in the single genus Nothybus Rondani, which occurs in Papua New Guinea, Nepal and much of the Oriental Region. Three species are described as new: N. absens spec. nov. (China), N. cataractus spec. nov. (Laos, Thailand) and N. procerus spec. nov. (India). Nothybus longithorax Rondani, 1875 is treated as a junior synonym of N. longicollis (Walker, 1856). Nothybus decorus Meijere, 1924 syn. nov. is included as a junior synonym of N. lineifer Enderlein, 1922.
Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Hashim, Rosli; Yacob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee-Dhang
Two new species of black flies, Simulium (Comphostilbia) terengganuense sp. nov. and Simulium (Gomphostilbia) aziruni sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae), are described on the basis of reared adult, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Peninsular Malaysia. Both species are placed in the batoense species-group within the subgenus Gomphostilbia, one of two dominant subgenera of the genus Simulium in Peninsular Malaysia as well as in the Oriental Region. Strikingly, three morphological characteristics that rarely occur in the subgenus Gomphostilbia are found in these two new species: the very narrow female frons and the mushroom-like pupal terminal hooks in S. (G.) terengganuense sp. nov. and the pupal gill composed of an inflated horn-like structure and eight slender filaments in S. (G.) aziruni sp. nov.
Wagner, Rüdiger; Bellstedt, Ronald
The aquatic insect collection of the late Dr. W. Joost contained two new species of Thaumaleidae (Diptera) from the Caucasus Mountains: Thaumalea monikae sp. n. and Thaumalea biacuminata sp. n. These two new species are herein described, and the most abundant species in Dr. Joost's collection, Thaumalea martinovskyi Joost, 1979, is redescribed based on the type material. Figures of male and female genitalia for all species are provided. All three species show morphological similarities to taxa from the Eastern Mediterranean area. Thaumalea monikae is related to the European T. bezzii-species group, T. biacuminata to the T. serrata-group, and T. martinovskyi to T. kyladica Wagner, 1981 and T. malickyi Theischinger, 1979 from the Eastern Mediterranean area.
Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M
Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality.
Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.
Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647
Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan
To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm’ bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors. PMID:27623751
Tang, Liang-De; Lu, Yong-Yue; Zhao, Hai-Yan
Spalangia endius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is found to be one of the most important natural enemies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae in China. In this study, the influence of host pupal age on the preference for and suitability of the host by the parasitoid S. endius was determined using choice and nonchoice tests. S. endius females accepted the 1-7 d-old B. dorsalis pupae for oviposition, and their offspring developed successfully. However, the S. endius preferentially parasitized the 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old host pupae. The emergence rate of the adult progeny was not affected by the host pupal age, nor was the male body weight, male longevity, and sex ratio of the parasitoid offspring. However, the shortest development time of both male and female progeny and the greatest size and adult longevity of female progeny were observed in hosts that were ≤4 d old. Females emerged later and lived longer than males, and they weighed more than the males. Host mortality decreased as the age of the host increased for 1-7-d-old hosts. Our findings suggest that 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old B. dorsalis pupae would be the best host ages at which to rear S. endius for effective control in field releases.
Lantova, Lucie; Svobodova, Milena; Volf, Petr
Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) are important vectors of human pathogens. Moreover, they possess monoxenous parasites, including gregarines of the genus Psychodiella Votypka, Lantova, and Volf, which can negatively affect laboratory-reared colonies, and have been considered as potential candidates in biological control. In this study, effects of the gregarine Psychodiella sergenti Lantova, Volf, and Votypka on its natural host Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot were evaluated. The gregarines increased the mortality of immature sand fly stages, and this effect was even more apparent when the infected larvae were reared in more dense conditions. Similarly, the gregarines negatively affected the survival of adult males and females. However, no impact was observed on the mortality of blood-fed females, the proportion of females that laid eggs, and the number of eggs oviposited. The 10-times higher infection dose (50 versus five gregarine oocysts per one sand fly egg) led to -10 times more gamonts in fourth-instar larvae and two or three times more gamonts in females and males, respectively. Our study clearly shows that Ps. sergenti is harmful to its natural host under laboratory conditions. However, its potential for use in biological control is questionable as a result of several factors, including this parasite's strict host specificity.
Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan
To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm' bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors.
Rull, Juan; Barreda-Landa, Abraham
To restore male mating competitiveness of Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), reared for sterile insect releases by the Mexican Fruit fly Eradication Campaign, two strain replacement techniques were evaluated. Field cage male competitiveness tests revealed that laboratory males of the Metapa strain mated 3 times less often with wild females than field-collected wild males. A strain developed from the cross of wild males and laboratory females (hybrid strain) was similar to a strain developed from the cross of laboratory males and females (laboratory strain) in that its females produced similar amounts of eggs and the eggs displayed similar levels of hatch and egg-to-pupa transformation in artificial diet. By contrast, a strain developed from the cross of wild males and females (wild strain), forced into artificial rearing, experienced a series of bottlenecks involving reduced egg laying and extremely poor development in diet. The male F1 progeny of the hybrid strain and field-collected wild males outcompeted Fl laboratory males in field cage tests for matings with field-collected wild females. In conclusion, we found that strains developed from the cross of wild males and laboratory females allowed us to restore male mating competitiveness of F1 Mexican fruit flies without compromising mass-rearing production.
Yamany, Abeer S; Adham, Fatma K
The effect of larval and adult nutrition on survival and fecundity of the dengue vector Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) were studied under laboratory conditions, the energy for the physiological activities for both male and female mosquitoes is provided largely by their reserves during larval stage and affected by adult diets. Two groups of larvae (A, B) were reared at 27 ± 3 degrees C, 70-80% R.H. and DL. 12: 12. Group (A) with 200 larvae (high larval diet) and Group (B) with 600 larvae (low larval diet). Ae. albopictus exhibited increased fecundity and egg hatch success. Immature development was quick. Immature survival was high, with lowest rate in the pupal stage. Highest longevity was observed in large females fed water + 10% sucrose solution (29.571 ± 0.415 days) while the lowest one was (1.3 ± 0.132 days) in starved small females. Large females have significantly (P < 0.001) higher fecundity than smaller females, regardless of whether the females were provided 10% sucrose solution or not (524 ± 0.203 eggs/group 159.714 ± 0.1997 eggs/group), respectively. The addition of 10% sucrose solution significantly (P < 0.001) increase the fecundity regardless of whether large or small females (657.9 ± 0.2198 eggs/group, 242.429 ± 0.119 eggs/group), respectively.
Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will
The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), infests numerous fruit species, particularly Anacardiaceae and most importantly mango (Mangifera indica L.). Widespread in the Neotropics, it was first reported in Hispaniola nearly 70 years ago. Continental populations are attacked by the op...
Characterization of a new Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)-Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) symbiotic association generated by artificial transfer of the wPip strain from Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).
Calvitti, Maurizio; Moretti, Riccardo; Lampazzi, Elena; Bellini, Romeo; Dobson, Stephen L
Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont inducing various effects in insects and other invertebrate hosts that facilitate the invasion of naive host populations. One of the effects is a form of sterility known as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) through which females are effectively sterilized when they mate with males harboring a different Wolbachia strain. The repeated mass release of cytoplasmically incompatible males can be a tool to suppress insect populations. Here, we attempt to infect an Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) strain, artificially deprived of the natural Wolbachia infection, with a new Wolbachia strain from Culex pipiens (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Further experiments were designed to study the effects of the new infection on Ae. albopictus fitness and evaluate key parameters that affect infection dynamics, including CI level and maternal inheritance. Using embryonic microinjection, the new Wolbachia strain was successfully established in Ae. albopictus. Crosses demonstrated a pattern of bidirectional CI between naturally infected and transinfected individuals. Specifically, egg hatch was essentially absent (i.e., CI was very high) in all crosses between the transinfected males and females with a different infection status. Furthermore, naturally infected Ae. albopictus males were incompatible with the transinfected females. Maternal inheritance was close to 100%. Moreover, the new infection did not affect immature and adult survivorship, but it significantly reduced female fecundity and egg hatch rate. The results are discussed in relation to the potential use of the new Ae. albopictus-Wolbachia symbiotic association as a suitable system for the study and development of CI-based strategies for suppressing populations of this important pest and disease vector.
Florez, Eliana; Wolff, Marta
Larvae of 13 blowfly species from Colombia are described and an illustrated key for all them is presented. All larval instars of Calliphora nigribasis Macquart, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius), Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani), Lucilia eximia (Weidemann) are described, but the second and third instars of Compsomyiops verena (Walter), and only the third instar of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), Lucilia peruviana Robineau-Desvoidy, Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Le Guillou).
Syamsa, R A; Omar, B; Zuha, R M; Faridah, M N; Swarhib, M S; Hidayatulfathi, O; Shahrom, A W
The distributions of flies are not only confined to ground level but can also be at higher altitudes. Here, we report three forensic cases involving dipterans in high-rise buildings in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Case 1 involved a corpse of adult female found at the top floor of a fifteen-story apartment. Case 2 dealt with a body of a 75-year-old female discovered in a bedroom on the eleventh floor of an eighteen-story building, while Case 3 was a 52-year-old male found in his fifth floor shop house. Interestingly, entomological analysis revealed that all corpses were infested with similar Dipterans: Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) (Diptera: Muscidae) and sarcophagid (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). The first two species were commonly associated with corpses found indoors at ground level. We noted the additional occurrence of blowflies Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae in Case 2 and Case 3, respectively. Findings from this study are significant as they demonstrate that certain groups of fly can locate dead bodies even in high-rise buildings. Forensic entomofauna research on corpses found at high elevation is scarce and our study has highlighted the peculiarity of the fly species involved in Malaysia.
Brodie, Bekka S; Wong, Warren H L; VanLaerhoven, Sherah; Gries, Gerhard
When female blow flies Lucilia sericata and Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) oviposit in aggregations on carrion, even-aged larval offspring reportedly develop faster, and fewer are parasitized or preyed upon. The benefits of aggregated oviposition equally affect con- and heterospecific larvae sharing a resource. The benefits imply that female blow flies engage in coordinated, pheromone-mediated oviposition behavior. Yet, repeated attempts to identify oviposition pheromones have failed invoking doubt that they exist. Simply by regurgitating and feeding on carrion, flies may produce attractive semiochemicals. If flies were to aggregate in response to feeding flies rather than ovipositing flies, then the semiochemical cue(s) may be associated with the salivary gland. Working with L. sericata and P. regina and using liver as a surrogate oviposition medium, we test the hypotheses, and present data in their support, that (i) gravid or nongravid females ovipositing and/or feeding on liver enhance its attractiveness to gravid and nongravid females; (ii) females respond to semiochemicals from feeding heterospecific females; (iii) females respond equally well to semiochemicals from feeding con- and heterospecific females; (iv) macerated head tissues of females applied to liver enhance its attractiveness; and (v) females in direct contact with and feeding on liver, but not when next to yet physically separated from liver, enhance attraction of flies. We conclude that oviposition site-seeking females do not respond to an oviposition pheromone. Instead, they appear to coopt semiochemicals associated with feeding flies as resource indicators, taking chances that resources are suitable for oviposition, and that ovipositing flies are present.
Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A
The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations.
Wormington, Jillian D.; Juliano, Steven A.
Background Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in insects often accompanies a sexual difference in development time, sexual bimaturism (SBM). Goal To determine whether three Aedes mosquito species have similar plasticity in SSD, attain sexual dimorphism through similar strategies, and whether SSD and SBM are associated. Organisms Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods In four different food availability environments, we quantified plastic responses of relative growth rate (RGR), development time, and adult body size in individually reared males and females. Results Food availability affected RGR differently for the sexes for all three species. The RGR of males and females differed significantly in the 0.1 g/L food treatment. This difference did not account for observed SSD. Food levels over which the largest changes in RGR were observed differed among the species. Male and female adult mass and development time were jointly affected by food availability in a pattern that differed among the three species, so that degree of SSD and SBM changed differentially with food availability for all three species. Development time was generally less sexually dimorphic than mass, particularly in A. albopictus. At lower food levels, A. aegypti and A. triseriatus had accentuated dimorphism in development time. These results, combined with our knowledge of mosquito life history, suggest that a direct benefit of SBM is improbable for mosquitoes and that the observed intersexual differences in development time are more likely byproducts of selection for SSD. PMID:25663826
Toledo, Jorge; Campos, Sergio E; Flores, Salvador; Liedo, Pablo; Barrera, Juan F; Villaseñior, Antonio; Montoya, Pablo
The virulence of two products of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (LCPP and Bassianil) on adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their effect on the mating performance of infected males was evaluated in laboratory and field cage tests. The horizontal transmission capacity of the fungus during copulation or attempted copulation also was quantified using inoculated males as well as the impact of infection on female fecundity and longevity. Both fungal products were found to be highly virulent (LCPP, mortality = 98.7% at 1 x 10(8) conidia per ml, LT50 = 4.20 d, LC50 = 9.35 x 10(5) conidia per ml; Bassianil, mortality = 99.3% at 1 X 10(8) conidia per ml, LT50 = 4.04 d, LC50 = 2.69 x 10(7) conidia per ml). Mating success of inoculated males was not affected compared with the control group during the 3 d postinoculation. Horizontal transmission to females during the first day was 80.6 and 84.3% through mating and 15.4 and 21.6% through attempts to mate and contact during courtship for the LCPP and Bassianil products, respectively. The fertility of infected females was notably reduced, and longevity did not extend beyond 15 d. Our results suggest the possibility of using sterile flies as fungus vectors in sterile insect technique programs, but the potential benefits and shortcomings of this approach require further investigation.
Swiger, Sonja Lise; Hogsette, Jerome A; Butler, Jerry F
Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) were colonized so that larval growth rates could be compared. Colonies were also established to provide insight into the protein needs of adult C. rufifacies and developmental rates of the ensuing larvae. The C. megacephala and C. rufifacies laboratory colonies were reared for five and six generations, respectively, at 28°C. C. megacephala developmental mean rate from egg to adult was 20.4 ± 0.38 d. First-instar larvae emerge in 1.4 ± 0.24 d, second-instar larvae develop in 2.6 ± 0.38 d and third instars occur at 6.3 ± 0.72 d. Development from egg to pupation occurred in 12 ± 1.10 d. C. rufifacies developed at a mean rate of 16.2 ± 0.78 d from egg to adult emergence. Each stage occurred in succession from first-instar larvae 1.1 ± 0.25 d, second-instar larvae developed 2.3 ± 0.25 d later, and the third-instar larvae developed 5.7 ± 0.41 d later. The larvae pupated 10.0 ± 0.57 d after oviposition. Both of these flies can be collected in the wild and easily colonized using conditioned chicken as an oviposition and larval medium. C. megacephala apparently prefers a lower development and maintenance temperature than C. rufifacies, as evidenced by the high pupal mortality. Laboratory-reared C. rufifacies benefited from bloodmeal as a protein supplement to enhance egg production. C. rufifacies larvae were not observed preying on each other and additional larval species were not provided to serve as prey.
O’Hara, James E.
Abstract The history of the classification of the Tachinidae (Diptera) is traced from Meigen to the present. The contributions of Robineau-Desvoidy, Townsend, Villeneuve, Mesnil, Herting, Wood and many others are discussed within a chronological, taxonomic, and geographic context. The gradual development of the Tachinidae into its modern concept as a family of the Oestroidea and the emergence of the classificatory scheme of tribes and subfamilies in use today are reviewed. Certain taxa that have in the past been difficult to place, or continue to be of uncertain affinity, are considered and some are given in a table to show their varied historical treatments. The more significant systematic works published on the Tachinidae in recent decades are enumerated chronologically. PMID:23878512
Harrup, L E; Logan, J G; Cook, J I; Golding, N; Birkett, M A; Pickett, J A; Sanders, C; Barber, J; Rogers, D J; Mellor, P S; Purse, B V; Carpenter, S
The host kairomones carbon dioxide (CO2) and 1-octen-3-ol elicit a host seeking response in a wide range of haematophagous Diptera. This study investigates the response of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to these cues using field-based experiments at two sites in the United Kingdom with very different species complements. Traps used for surveillance (miniature CDC model 512) and control (Mosquito Magnet Pro) were modified to release ratios of (R)- and (S)-1-octen-3-ol enantiomers in combination with CO2 and, in the case of the latter trap type, a thermal cue. Abundance and species diversity were then compared between these treatments and against collections made using a trap with a CO2 lure only, in a Latin square design. In both habitats, results demonstrated that semiochemical lures containing a high proportion of the (R)-enantiomer consistently attracted a greater abundance of host-seeking Culicoides females than any other treatment. Culicoides collected using an optimal stimulus of 500 ml/min CO2 combined with 4.1 mg/h (R)-1-octen-3-ol were then compared with those collected on sheep through the use of a drop trap. While preliminary in nature, this trial indicated Culicoides species complements are similar between collections made using the drop trap in comparison to the semiochemical-baited CDC trap, and that there are advantages in using (R)-1-octen-3-ol.
Awad, Azza A.; Ali, Nashat A.; Mohamed, Hend O.
Antennal morphology and funicular sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study focused on the sensillae found on the antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus that bears the arista) of B. zonata. Antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of the males. The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, were heavily covered with microtrichia and bear bristles. Numerous microtrichia as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic, clavate, and coeloconic sensillae were observed on the funiculus. SEM studies showed some differences in size and also in position of some sensillae on the antennae of the females of B. zonata. The sensillae found on the funiculus, such as trichoid and basiconic sensillae, were significantly larger in females. PMID:25373192
Salem, A.; Franc, M.; Jacquiet, P.; Bouhsira, E.; Liénard, E.
Bionomic aspects of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) were studied under laboratory conditions. For this reason, laboratory-rearing techniques were optimized at the National Veterinary School of Toulouse. The colony was maintained at 25 ± 2 °C, 50 ± 10% RH under a 12-hour light cycle and observed daily. The size of each adult cage is 30 x 30 x 30 cm and designed to house about 500-1,000 flies. The average cycle from egg to adult was 19.2 ± 1.7 days. The mean longevity of imagos was 9.3 ± 5.8 days and not significantly different between sexes. Stable flies were split into two groups; the first was fed with blood, honey and water, and the second was fed only with honey and water. The mean weight of a blood meal was 11.1 ± 3.8 mg with no significant differences between males and females. The mean longevity of non-blood fed flies was found to be significantly higher (10.4 ± 3.9 days) than those fed with blood. The maximum lifespan was shorter for non-blood fed males (17 days) and females (18 days) than for those fed with blood (females: 24 days, males: 23 days). Under these laboratory conditions, S. calcitrans rearing was successfully established. In the end, the number of expected generations of S. calcitrans and the net reproduction rate were estimated to be 11.8 generations/year and 16.2 living females per female respectively. PMID:23193515
Tormos, J; Asís, J; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Baños, L; Gayubo, S F; Beitia, F
The frequency of superparasitism and its effects on the quality of laboratory-reared Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitoids were investigated under laboratory conditions. Numerous variables were measured, such as the number of 'ovip holes' per host as a measure of superparasitism. Adult emergence and sex ratio, as well as female size, emergence ability from soil and longevity were also measured. Finally, an assessment was made of fertility and survival of adult parasitoids emerging from the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae with different levels of superparasitism. A high frequency and prevalence of superparasitism under laboratory rearing conditions was observed. The number of 'ovip holes' per host ranged from one to 17, with an average (±SD) of 2.8±3.4. Sex ratios became increasingly female-biased with increasing levels of superparasitism, although overall levels of wasp emergence (male, female) declined. Nevertheless, no relationship was discerned between female size and level of superparasitism. The 'emergence ability from the soil' was higher in those parasitoids that emerged from strongly superparasitized hosts, but not related to the type of substrate in which the host pupae were buried. The level of superparasitism did not have a significant effect on the longevity, fertility and survival of female parasitoids. Our results support the hypothesis that superparasitism in S. cameroni might be adaptive, since attributes such as 'emergence ability from the soil', longevity, fertility and survival were not affected by the level of superparasitism or the presumably detrimental effects derived from physical combats among conspecific larvae. Our findings are relevant to recommendations for rearing S. cameroni for biological control releases, as well as shedding light on superparasitism under both laboratory and field conditions.
George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Toop, Tes
This study explored the molecular mechanisms potentially underlying blow fly nocturnal oviposition. A behavioral study revealed that Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) possesses a diel rhythm of oviposition in light under 12:12 light/dark conditions. Reversal to 12:12 dark/light resulted in oviposition behavior changing to align with the adjusted regime in most females, but four of 59 experimental females lacked a diel rhythm of oviposition (were arrhythmic). Real-time PCR was used to monitor the molecular expression levels of known circadian genes per and tim in C. vicina to determine whether gene expression and behavior correlated. As with behavior, reversing light/dark conditions changed rhythmic gene expression to align with an adjusted light regime. This suggests that although it is unlikely that C. vicina will colonize dead bodies at night, arrhythmic females and oviposition in the dark was demonstrated.
Drosophila suzukii Mastsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted-wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the U.S. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies ...
Several similarly appearing species of silk fly (Diptera: Ulidiidae) are extremely destructive pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Currently, silk flies are managed solely with multiple broad spectrum insecticide applications, and there is concern that some species are developing resistance to ...
Podenas, Sigitas; Podeniene, Virginija; Byun, Hye-Woo
The Korean crane fly species of the genus Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 (Diptera: Pediciidae) is taxonomically revised. H. gloriosus gloriosus (Alexander, 1924) is redescribed. A new species Heterangaeus koreanus n. sp., which is the first species of Pediciidae from South Korea, is described and illustrated.
The water saturated soils and wet feces in livestock feed lots support a variety of Diptera including Musca spp. and Culicoides spp. Aquatic insects that must regulate the ion concentrations of their haemolymph; and fresh water insects tend to loose ions to their aquatic environment. The larvae of C...
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Curran, 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Ait.) Borkh. (Rosaceae), in Washington state, U.S.A. Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (...
Reemer, Menno; Bot, Sander
Six new species of the myrmecophilous hoverfly genus Microdon Meigen (Diptera: Syrphidae) are described from Madagascar. Redescriptions are given for the three other Madagascan species of this genus. Keys are presented to the Madagascan genera of the subfamily Microdontinae and to the Madagascan species of Microdon.
Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...
Embryos of Lucilia (Phaenicia) sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), the green blowfly, were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification in liquid nitrogen and stored for 8 yr. Embryos incubated at 19 deg. C for 17 h after oviposition were found to be the most appropriate stage to cryopreserve...
A world catalog of extant and fossil frog-biting midges (Diptera: Corethrellidae) provides full type information, known life stages, and distribution of each species. There are 105 extant and seven fossil species of Corethrellidae but unnamed species are known from Costa Rica, Colombia and Madagascar. New information on types and other important specimens are provided.
A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...
Anbalagan, S; Arunprasanna, V; Kannan, M; Dinakaran, S; Krishnan, M
Two new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) are described on the basis of reared adult, pupal and larval specimens collected from Southern Western Ghats India. The morphological data of two new species S. (Gomphostilbia) panagudiense sp. n. and S. (Gomphostilbia) kottoorense sp. n. are assigned to the batoense species group in the subgenus Gomphostilbia. S. (Gomphostilbia) panagudiense sp.n. is characterized in the female by having the scutum without longitudinal vitta and arms of the genital fork wide basally and in the pupa by the stalk of ventral pair medium-long. S. (Gomphostilbia) kottoorense sp.n. is characterized by the arm of genital fork tapered near apex in the female and style in medial view 0.63 times as long as coxite in the male. Phylogeny of members in the genus Simulium was reconstructed based on DNA barcoding gene (cytochrome oxidase c subunit I). Tree analysis using new technology and maximum likelihood analyses are congruent with evidence of two new species in the subgenus Gomphostilbia and separated from other species.
Brown, Brian V.; Hash, John M.; Porras, Wendy; Amorim, Dalton de Souza
Abstract Background Numerous well-documented associations occur among species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), but examples of brood parasitism are rare and the mechanisms of parasitism often remain unsubstantiated. New information We present two video-documented examples of ant brood (larvae and pupae) parasitism by scuttle flies. In footage from Estação Biológica de Boracéia in Brazil, adult females of Ceratoconus setipennis Borgmeier can be seen attacking workers of Linepithema humile (Mayr) species group while they are carrying brood, and ovipositing directly onto brood in the nest. In another remarkable example, footage from the Soltis Center, near Peñas Blancas in Costa Rica, shows adult females of an unidentified species of the Apocephalus grandipalpus Borgmeier group mounting Pheidole Westwood brood upside-down and ovipositing while the brood are being transported by workers. Analysis of evolutionary relationships (in preparation) among Apocephalus Coquillett species shows that this is a newly derived behavior within the genus, as the A. grandipalpus group arises within a group of adult ant parasitoids. In contrast, relationships of Ceratoconus Borgmeier have not been studied, and the lifestyles of the other species in the genus are largely unknown. PMID:28325980
Horváth, Gábor; Majer, József; Horváth, Loránd; Szivák, Ildikó; Kriska, György
Adult tabanid flies (horseflies and deerflies) are terrestrial and lay their eggs onto marsh plants near bodies of fresh water because the larvae develop in water or mud. To know how tabanids locate their host animals, terrestrial rendezvous sites and egg-laying places would be very useful for control measures against them, because the hematophagous females are primary/secondary vectors of some severe animal/human diseases/parasites. Thus, in choice experiments performed in the field we studied the behavior of tabanids governed by linearly polarized light. We present here evidence for positive polarotaxis, i.e., attraction to horizontally polarized light stimulating the ventral eye region, in both males and females of 27 tabanid species. The novelty of our findings is that positive polarotaxis has been described earlier only in connection with the water detection of some aquatic insects ovipositing directly into water. A further particularity of our discovery is that in the order Diptera and among blood-sucking insects the studied tabanids are the first known species possessing ventral polarization vision and definite polarization-sensitive behavior with known functions. The polarotaxis in tabanid flies makes it possible to develop new optically luring traps being more efficient than the existing ones based on the attraction of tabanids by the intensity and/or color of reflected light.
Moran, Zelda R; Parker, Andrew G
Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption.
González, Ricardo; Toledo, Jorge; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo; Virgen, Armando; Santiesteban, Antonio; Malo, Edi A
The behavioral and electrophysiological responses of nonirradiated male and female Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to white sapote, Casimiroa edulis Oerst. (Rutaceae), volatiles were investigated. Females flew upwind and landed more often on fruit than on artificial fruit in wind tunnel bioassays. Males flew upwind (but not landed) more frequently on fruit than on artificial fruit. Porapak Q volatile extracts of white sapote also elicited upwind flight and landing on artificial fruit for both sexes. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection analysis of white sapote extracts revealed that antennae of both sexes responded to eight compounds. Two peaks were unidentified because they did not separate from the solvent. Subsequent peaks were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as styrene, myrcene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,8-cineole, and linalool in a proportion of 50: 21: 0.5: 27: 1.5, respectively. Eight peaks were tentatively identified as beta-trans-ocimene. The number of A. ludens captured in multilure traps baited with the synthetic white sapote blend was higher than the flies captured by the multilure unbaited traps (control) in field cages. However, the number of flies captured by traps baited with the white sapote blend was not different from that of flies captured by traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. Using standard chemical ecology techniques, we found potential attractants from wild sapote fruit for monitoring and management of A. ludens population.
Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki
In the past decade, many transgenic lines of mosquitoes have been generated and analyzed, whereas the maintenance of a large number of transgenic lines requires a great deal of effort and cost. In vitro fertilization by an injection of cryopreserved sperm into eggs has been proven to be effective for the maintenance of strains in mammals. The technique of artificial egg activation is a prerequisite for the establishment of in vitro fertilization by sperm injection. We demonstrated that artificial egg activation is feasible in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae). Nearly 100% of eggs dissected from virgin females immersed in distilled water darkened, similar to normally oviposited fertilized eggs. It was revealed by the cytological examination of chromosomes that meiotic arrest was relieved in these eggs approximately 20 min after incubation in water. Biochemical examinations revealed that MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) and MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) were dephosphorylated similar to that in fertilized eggs. These results indicate that dissected unfertilized eggs were activated in distilled water and started development. Injection of distilled water into body cavity of the virgin blood-fed females also induced activation of a portion of eggs in the ovaries. The technique of artificial egg activation is expected to contribute to the success of in vitro fertilization in A. stephensi.
McKee, Fraser R; Levac, Joshua; Hallett, Rebecca H
The pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae), is a highly polyphagous insect pest of global distribution. L. huidobrensis feeds and lays its eggs on leaf tissue and reduces crop marketability because of stippling and mining damage. In field insecticide trials, it was observed that stippling was reduced on plants treated with surfactant alone. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of surfactants on host selection behaviors of female L. huidobrensis and to assess the phytotoxicity of two common surfactants to test plants. The application of the surfactant Sylgard 309 to celery (Apium graveolens) caused a significant reduction in stippling rates. The application of Agral 90 to cucumber leaves (Cucumis sativus) resulted in changes to the amount of effort invested by females in specific host plant selection behaviors, as well as causing a significant reduction in the amount of stippling damage. The recommended dose of Sylgard 309 does not induce phytotoxicity on celery over a range of age classes nor does Agral 90 cause a phytotoxic effect in 35-d-old cucumber. Thus, reductions in observed stippling and changes to host selection behaviors were caused by an antixenotic effect of the surfactant on L. huidobrensis rather than a toxic effect of the surfactant on the plant. The presence of surfactant on an otherwise acceptable host plant seems to have masked host plant cues and prevented host plant recognition. Results indicate that surfactants may be used to reduce leafminer damage to vegetable crops, potentially reducing the use of insecticides.
Moran, Zelda R.; Parker, Andrew G.
Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption. PMID:27402791
Cha, Dong H; Hesler, Stephen P; Cowles, Richard S; Vogt, Heidrun; Loeb, Gregory M; Landolt, Peter J
We determined the attractiveness of a new chemical lure compared with fermented food baits in use for trapping Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae), in Connecticut, New York, and Washington in the United States and at Dossenheim in Germany. The chemical lure (SWD lure) and food baits were compared in two types of traps: the dome trap and a cup trap. Regardless of trap type, numbers of male and female D. suzukii trapped were greater with the SWD lure compared with apple cider vinegar (ACV) baits at the Washington and New York sites, and were comparable with numbers of D. suzukii captured with a wine plus vinegar bait (W + V) at Germany site and a combination bait meant to mimic W + V at the Connecticut site. Averaged over both types of attractants, the numbers of D. suzukii captured were greater in dome traps than in cup traps in New York and Connecticut for both male and female D. suzukii and in Washington for male D. suzukii. No such differences were found between trap types at the Washington site for female and Germany for male and female D. suzukii. Assessments were also made of the number of large (>0.5 cm) and small (<0.5 cm) nontarget flies trapped. The SWD lure captured fewer nontarget small flies and more large flies compared with ACV bait in New York and fewer nontarget small flies compared with W + V in Germany, although no such differences were found in Washington for the SWD lure versus ACV bait and in Connecticut for the SWD lure versus the combination bait, indicating that these effects are likely influenced by the local nontarget insect community active at the time of trapping. In New York, Connecticut, and Germany, dome traps caught more nontarget flies compared with cup traps. Our results suggest that the four-component SWD chemical lure is an effective attractant for D. suzukii and could be used in place of fermented food-type baits.
Albertoni, Fabiano Fabian; Borkent, Christopher James; Amorim, Dalton S.
Abstract Background Members of the family Mycetophilidae (Diptera) have life cycles that are typically associated with fungus. Their biology is relatively well known in the Palaearctic, though other regions are poorly known, and there are no associations recorded between mycetophilid immatures and fungi in the Neotropical region. Here we report the first association between a mycetophilid—Neoempheria puncticoxa Edwards—and fungi in this region. Immatures of N. puncticoxa were collected on fungi and some were reared in the laboratory until adult emergence. The immature stages and adult of N. puncticoxa are described and re-described respectively, and high resolution images and illustrations of the habitus, wings, thorax, male and female terminalia, immatures, and in situ specimens are given. New information We report the first association between Mycetophilidae and fungi in the Neotropical region. PMID:26175610
Mukhopadhyay, Emon; Mazumdar, Abhijit; Joardar, S N; Saha, Goutam K; Banerjee, Dhriti
Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Insecta : Diptera : Ceratopogonidae) are small nematocerous biological vectors of a wide range of pathogens of veterinary and medical importance. They are distributed worldwide but prefer warm, damp, and muddy areas. Female midges require blood for egg maturation. Studies on taxonomy, proper identification keys, and distribution patterns of these flies across different geographical regions of India of these flies are limited. This article provides an updated checklist of Culicoides spp. from India collected from various scattered publications, along with their synonyms and details on their subgenera, geographical distribution, and type locality. A compiled list of different Culicoides vectors from India has also been included separately in this article, along with the type of the diseases spread.
Kim, Heung Chul; Bellis, Glenn A; Kim, Myung-Soon; Klein, Terry A; Gopurenko, David; Cai, Du-Cheng; Seo, Hyun-Ji; Cho, In-Soo; Park, Jee-Yong
Biting midges belonging to the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected by Mosquito Magnet(®) and black light traps at 5 sites on Jeju-do, Republic of Korea (Korea), from May-November 2013 to determine species diversity and seasonal distribution. A total of 4,267 specimens were collected, of which 99.9% were female. The most common species was Culicoides tainanus (91.8%), followed by C. lungchiensis (7.2%) and C. punctatus (0.6%), while the remaining 4 species accounted for <0.5% of all Culicoides spp. that were collected. High numbers of C. tainanus were collected in May, followed by decreasing numbers through August, and then increasing numbers through November when surveillance was terminated. Peak numbers of C. lungchiensis were collected during September, with low numbers collected from May-August and October-November. The presence of C. lungchiensis in Korea was confirmed by morphological and molecular analyses.
Ament, D C; Dos Santos, T G
Non-aquatic reproductive modes have evolved among frogs possibly favored by some advantages such as the avoidance of aquatic predators. These reproductive modes, however, make the egg clutches susceptible to terrestrial predators, among which Diptera larvae are some of the most harmful. The present work reports the predation by phorid flies of 22 egg clutches of Phyllomedusa iheringii Boulenger in the South of Brazil. Phorid specimens were identified as Megaselia bruchiana (Borgmeier & Schmitz) and Megaselia necrophaga (Enderlein), species that were reported previously to be associated with ants and dead beetles, respectively. Frog-feeding in these species is hypothesized to be use of an alternative seasonal food source. We amend the diagnoses of both Megaselia species and provide new illustrations to facilitate their identification. We also describe the male of M. bruchiana for the first time and associate males with females of both species.
Kim, Heung Chul; Bellis, Glenn A.; Kim, Myung-Soon; Klein, Terry A.; Gopurenko, David; Cai, Du-Cheng; Seo, Hyun-Ji; Cho, In-Soo; Park, Jee-Yong
Biting midges belonging to the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected by Mosquito Magnet® and black light traps at 5 sites on Jeju-do, Republic of Korea (Korea), from May-November 2013 to determine species diversity and seasonal distribution. A total of 4,267 specimens were collected, of which 99.9% were female. The most common species was Culicoides tainanus (91.8%), followed by C. lungchiensis (7.2%) and C. punctatus (0.6%), while the remaining 4 species accounted for <0.5% of all Culicoides spp. that were collected. High numbers of C. tainanus were collected in May, followed by decreasing numbers through August, and then increasing numbers through November when surveillance was terminated. Peak numbers of C. lungchiensis were collected during September, with low numbers collected from May-August and October-November. The presence of C. lungchiensis in Korea was confirmed by morphological and molecular analyses. PMID:26323852
de la Ossa, Napoleón; Castro, Luis Eduardo; Visbal, Lila; Santos, Ana María; Díaz, Esther; Romero-Vivas, Claudia M E
Human myiasis is the parasitism of human tissues by fly larvae. Diagnoses are based on clinical pattern of tissue damage and presence of insect stages. Herein, a case myiasis is described in a seven-year-old female child. She presented with fever associated with abscessed scalp lesions containing exposed larvae. Severe pediculosis was also observed. The patient was hospitalized and treated with clindamycin, gentamicin (for bacterial secondary infections) and ivermectin (treatment for lice) after which the patient showed clinical improvement and was discharged four days later. Since human myiasis can be caused by a number of different species, larvae were collected from the patient and identified as those of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Because other cases of coinfestation of flies and lice are on record, health workers are to be alerted about the possible pediculosis-myasis risk.
Fouque, Florence; Gaborit, Pascal; Issaly, Jean; Carinci, Romuald; Gantier, Jean-Charles; Ravel, Christophe; Dedet, Jean-Pierre
Between March 2000 and December 2001 a survey of the sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) of French Guiana was carried out during 14 nights of captures with CDC light-traps and Malaise traps, and resulted in the collection of 2245 individuals of 38 species. The most abundant species were Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) ininii Floch & Abonnenc, Lu.(Psychodopygus) squamiventris maripaensis Floch & Abonnenc, and Lu .(Nyssomyia) flaviscutellata Mangabeira. Half of the collected sand flies females were dissected under field conditions and five species were found harboring Leishmania-like parasites. The Leishmania (Kinetoplastidae: Trypanosomatidae) species were identified by molecular typing, and for the first time Lu. (Nys.) flaviscutellata was found harboring Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis and Lu. (Tri) ininii harboring unknown Leishmania. The first record for French Guiana of Lu. (Psy.) squamiventris maripaensis harboring L. (V.) naiffi, was also reported. The patterns of diversification of the human cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in French Guiana are discussed.
Sousa, Viviane R DE; Couri, Márcia S
Agromyza Fallén (Diptera, Agromyzidae) is a genus of leaf mining flies, including species with high economic importance. The knowledge of this genus is very poor in the neotropics, with 12 known species, only six of them recorded from Brazil. This paper describes two new Agromyza species from "Cerrado" and "Pantanal" biomes and records three other species represented only by females that could not be identified to species level. We also present a taxonomic key to segregate the 14 Neotropical species. The specimens were collected in Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states and are deposited at Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil) and Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) collections. The adults were photographed and the male terminalia were dissected and illustrated.
Orford, Katherine A; Vaughan, Ian P; Memmott, Jane
Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found no significant difference in pollen-loads between the syrphid and non-syrphid Diptera. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the level of specialization between the two groups in the pollen-transport networks, though the Syrphidae had significantly greater visitation evenness. Flower visitation data from 33 farms showed that non-syrphid Diptera made up the majority of the flower-visiting Diptera in the agricultural studies (on average 82% abundance and 73% species richness), and we estimate that non-syrphid Diptera carry 84% of total pollen carried by farmland Diptera. As important pollinators, such as bees, have suffered serious declines, it would be prudent to improve our understanding of the role of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators.
COMPUTERIZED GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGE.M) TO KEDICALLY IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) Annual Report Terry L. Erwin June...GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Annual--1 September 1979- (SEIGEM) TO MEDICALLY ThWORTANT ARTHROPODS 30 May 1980 (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) 6
Morphological, Molecular , and Chromosomal Discrimination of Cryptic Anopheies (A?~ssorhynchus) (Diptera: Culicidae) from South America L. P...appraisal of molecular , chromosomal, and morphological characters, we conclude herein that the 2 taxa are specifically distinct and remove An. trinkae...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Morphological, Molecular , and Chromosomal Discrimination of Cryptic Anopheles( Nyssorhynchus) (Diptera: Culicidae) from South
Le. GMC). interfor Dyar Harbach et al. 1986:141I (from synonymy of bidens). invidiosus Theobald chioroventer Theobald. 1909. Townsend 1990:59 (add 2...Diptera: Culicidae). Proc. En- and Culex interfor Dyar (Diptera: Culici- tomol. Soc. Wash. 90:153-163. dae) as separate species. Mosq. Syst. Huang, Y
Orford, Katherine A.; Vaughan, Ian P.; Memmott, Jane
Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found no significant difference in pollen-loads between the syrphid and non-syrphid Diptera. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the level of specialization between the two groups in the pollen-transport networks, though the Syrphidae had significantly greater visitation evenness. Flower visitation data from 33 farms showed that non-syrphid Diptera made up the majority of the flower-visiting Diptera in the agricultural studies (on average 82% abundance and 73% species richness), and we estimate that non-syrphid Diptera carry 84% of total pollen carried by farmland Diptera. As important pollinators, such as bees, have suffered serious declines, it would be prudent to improve our understanding of the role of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators. PMID:25808886
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Osório, Hugo Costa; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Alves, Maria João
The host blood-feeding patterns of mosquito vectors affects the likelihood of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens, including West Nile Virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV). In Portugal, data are unavailable regarding the blood-feeding habits of common mosquito species, including Culex pipiens L., considered the primary vector of WNV to humans. The sources of bloodmeals in 203 blood-fed mosquitoes of nine species collected from June 2007 to November 2010 in 34 Portuguese counties were analyzed by sequencing cytochrome-b partial fragments. Cx. pipiens was the most common species collected and successfully analyzed (n = 135/78). In addition, blood-fed females of the following species were analyzed: Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas (n = 20), Culex theileri Theobald (n = 16), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (n = 10), Culiseta longiareolata Macquart (n = 7), Aedes aegypti L. (n = 6), Culex perexiguus Theobald (n = 3), Culiseta annulata Schrank (n = 3), and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday (n = 3). The Cx. pipiens mosquitoes fed predominantly on birds (n = 55/78, 70.5%), with a high diversity of avian species used as hosts, although human blood was identified in 18 specimens (18/78, 23.1%). No significant differences were found between the host-feeding patterns of blood-fed Cx. pipiens collected in residential and nonresidential habitats. The occurrence of human derived blood meals and the presence of a mix avian-human bloodmeal accordingly suggest this species as a potential vector of WNV. Therefore, in Portugal, Cx. pipiens may play a role both in the avian-to-avian enzootic WNV cycle and in the avian-to-mammal transmission. In this context, the identity of Cx. pipiens (considering the forms molestus and pipiens) and the potential consequence on feeding behavior and WNV transmission are discussed.
Rull, Juan; Brunel, Odette; Mendez, Maria Elena
Mating competitiveness and sterility induction into cohorts of wild Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was compared among wild and laboratory flies reared for use in the sterile insect technique Mexican program. Laboratory flies stemming from an 11-yr-old bisexual strain were either not irradiated, irradiated at 3 krad (low dose), or irradiated at 8 krad. In 30 by 30 by 30-cm Plexiglas cages, where a cohort of laboratory flies (male and female) irradiated at different doses (0, 3, and 8 krad) was introduced with a cohort of wild flies, males and females of each type mated randomly among themselves. Compared with nonirradiated laboratory and wild males, irradiated males, irrespective of dose (3 or 8 krad), induced shorter refractory periods and greater mating frequency in wild females. Nevertheless, laboratory flies irradiated at a low dose induced greater sterility into cohorts of wild flies than laboratory flies irradiated at a high dose. In a 3 by 3 by 3-m walk-in cage, wild males gained significantly more matings with wild females than nonirradiated and irradiated laboratory males a finding that revealed a strong effect of strain on mating performance. Mating incompatibility of the laboratory strain might have obscured the effect of reduced irradiation doses on male mating performance in the walk-in cage. Our results highlight an urgent need to replace the A. ludens strain currently used by the Mexican fruit fly eradication campaign and at least suggest that reducing irradiation doses result in an increase in sterility induction in wild populations.
Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Del Ventura, Fabiola; Zorrilla, Adriana; Liria, Jonathan
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9,607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3,133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles--subgenera Kerteszia--with the upper limit of 2,680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2,550 m were the highest records in the Central-Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2,252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2,000 m.
Sánchez Molina, Óscar; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique
Larvae of Empididae (Diptera) prey on black fly immatures and its pupae can be collected from pupal cases of Simuliidae (Diptera). The aim of our work was to report the second record of association between immatures of Empididae and Simuliidae in the Neotropical Region and the first for the Atlantic Forest (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). We collected 4982 pupae and exuviae of Simulium Latreille, (Diptera, Simuliidae) and found three with a pupa of Hemerodromia Meigen (Diptera, Empididae) inside. This shows that the use of black flies cocoons by dance flies occurs at extremely low frequencies, which might explain why this association is so rarely recorded. Our results are relevant for a better comprehension of the predator-prey relationship between these families.
... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System A A ... the egg or sperm. continue Parts of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...
Nerudová, Jana; Kovac, Damir; Tóthová, Andrea
This is the first description of larva and puparium of Oplodontha rubrithorax (Macquart, 1838) from the Oriental Region. Larvae were found at a hot spring in North Thailand. The morphological features and cuticular structures of the larva are documented by drawings and SEM micrographs and the main characters are compared with the European O. viridula (Fabricius, 1775), the only described larva of this genus. Differences between larvae of both species were only found in pubescence. The characteristic, somewhat dilated and slightly clavate hairs on the dorsal surface of the body segments of O. viridula larva are apparently lacking in the larva of O. rubrithorax.
Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Fisher, Eric
A new name for the Oriental genus Nyssomyia Hull, 1962 (Diptera: Asilidae) is proposed. Homonymy exists between this Oriental robber fly genus and the more senior Neotropical phlebotomine sand fly genus Nyssomyia Barretto, 1962 (sensu Galati 2003) (Diptera: Psychodidae), and the following replacement name is proposed: Ekkentronomyia nom. nov. for Nyssomyia Hull (nec Barretto 1962). Accordingly, a new combination is herein proposed for the only species currently included in this genus: Ekkentronomyia ochracea (Hull, 1962) comb. nov.
Interspecific competition of a new invasive mosquito, Culex coronator, and two container mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), across different detritus environments.
Yee, D A; Skiff, J F
The mosquito Culex coronator (Dyar and Knab) (Diptera: Culicidae) has undergone rapid range expansion in the United States since 2003, with its historical distribution in the southwest expanding eastward to the Atlantic coast. Although Cx. coronator nominally use small natural aquatic habitats for development, the use of containers (e.g., tires) makes it potentially important as container invasive. To determine the potential ecological effects of Cx. coronator on resident container species, we conducted a laboratory experiment to assess its competitive ability with two common tire-inhabiting species, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae were reared under a factorial design with each species alone and in combination (Cx. coronator + Ae. albopictus, Cx. coronator + Cx. quinquefasciatus) across three different resource environments (leaf detritus only, animal detritus only, animal + leaf). Mosquito performance (survival, adult male and female mass, and development time) was measured for each species across treatments. Female Cx. coronator developed slowest when grown with Ae. albopictus, or when grown with leaves only regardless of species combinations; similar patterns emerged for males although species effects were restricted to mass. Few differences were evident in performance for male and female Cx. coronator across detritus environments when grown with Cx. quinquefasciatus. Cx. quinquefasciatus did not vary in mass or development time in the presence of Cx. coronator compared with when grown alone. Ae. albopictus female mass was 15% lower in the presence of Cx. coronator. Survival of Cx. coronator was highest in animal and leaf detritus containers, although survival was generally lower when larvae were grown with Ae. albopictus. These findings suggest that the performance of Cx. coronator is similar to that of Cx. quinquefasciatus but it suffers in the presence of Ae. albopictus under some resource environments.
Interspecific Competition of a New Invasive Mosquito, Culex coronator, and Two Container Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), Across Different Detritus Environments
YEE, D. A.; SKIFF, J. F.
The mosquito Culex coronator (Dyar and Knab) (Diptera: Culicidae) has undergone rapid range expansion in the United States since 2003, with its historical distribution in the southwest expanding eastward to the Atlantic coast. Although Cx. coronator nominally use small natural aquatic habitats for development, the use of containers (e.g., tires) makes it potentially important as container invasive. To determine the potential ecological effects of Cx. coronator on resident container species, we conducted a laboratory experiment to assess its competitive ability with two common tire-inhabiting species, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae were reared under a factorial design with each species alone and in combination (Cx. coronator + Ae. albopictus, Cx. coronator + Cx. quinquefasciatus) across three different resource environments (leaf detritus only, animal detritus only, animal + leaf). Mosquito performance (survival, adult male and female mass, and development time) was measured for each species across treatments. Female Cx. coronator developed slowest when grown with Ae. albopictus, or when grown with leaves only regardless of species combinations; similar patterns emerged for males although species effects were restricted to mass. Few differences were evident in performance for male and female Cx. coronator across detritus environments when grown with Cx. quinquefasciatus. Cx. quinquefasciatus did not vary in mass or development time in the presence of Cx. coronator compared with when grown alone. Ae. albopictus female mass was 15% lower in the presence of Cx. coronator. Survival of Cx. coronator was highest in animal and leaf detritus containers, although survival was generally lower when larvae were grown with Ae. albopictus. These findings suggest that the performance of Cx. coronator is similar to that of Cx. quinquefasciatus but it suffers in the presence of Ae. albopictus under some resource environments
Keiper, Joe B; Walton, William E; Foote, Benjamin A
Although studies of freshwater entomofauna frequently do not include the biodiversity and ecological roles of higher Diptera, cyclorraphous flies are often numerous and species rich in wetlands. Seventeen families are commonly found in freshwater wetlands, with Ephydridae, Chloropidae, Sciomyzidae, Sphaeroceridae, and Scathophagidae being among the most important in terms of population size and species richness. Difficulty with sampling cryptic larval habitats and species identification challenges may account for the exclusion of acalyptrate and other dipterans from wetlands ecology studies. Large populations are facilitated by the high productivity of freshwater wetlands and the high intrinsic rate of increase characteristic of many species. Higher dipterans exist in all freshwater wetland types, are microhabitat selective, and play significant roles in food webs. The varied strategies for food acquisition and patterns of spatial and temporal distribution limit ecological overlap among the higher Diptera.
Martín-Vega, D; Baz, A
The composition and spatial distribution of sarcosaprophagous Diptera assemblages were studied using carrion-baited traps along a bioclimatic gradient of natural habitats in central Spain throughout the different seasons during 1 year. Calliphoridae and Muscidae were the most abundant families, accounting for, respectively, 41.9% and 35.1% of all Diptera specimens collected. Other abundant families were Heleomyzidae (8.4%), Sarcophagidae (6.9%) and Piophilidae (5.1%). Fly assemblage compositions differed among bioclimatic levels, with Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) being the dominant species in mesomediterranean habitats, Muscina levida (Harris) (Diptera: Muscidae) the dominant species in supramediterranean habitats, and Prochyliza nigrimana (Meigen) (Diptera: Piophilidae) the dominant species in oromediterranean habitats. Differences in assemblage composition were also found among seasons. Thermophobic species such as Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and some species of Heleomyzidae were well represented during autumn, winter and spring in the three bioclimatic levels sampled. By contrast, thermophilic species such as Ch. albiceps and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and most Muscidae and Sarcophagidae species were more abundant during summer and in mesomediterranean habitats located at lower elevations. Knowledge of the preferences of some species for certain habitats may be of ecological and forensic value and may establish a starting point for further research.
Mosquito Sys tematics VOL. 8(2) 1976 205 A Ventromedian Cervical Sclerite oflMosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) John F. Rein& Department of...aegypt; (Linnaeus) by Hochman and Reinert (1974). The ventromedian cervical sclerite has a frag- mented appearance in a number of species of the...Dyar and Knab and dupreei (Coquillett)). Seventy-four species in 19 subgenera of Aedes examined possessed a ven- tromedian cervical sclerite. These
Aluja, M; Rull, J; Pérez-Staples, D; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Sivinski, J
The Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a polyphagous pestiferous insect with a geographical range encompassing highly variable environmental conditions. Considering that cryptic species have been recently found among South American representatives of the same taxonomic group as A. ludens, we tested whether or not some populations of A. ludens have evolved assortative mating as an isolating mechanism that maintains intrapopulation genetic differences and behavioral adaptations to local conditions. Males and females stemming from widely separated locations with similar environmental conditions and males and females stemming from populations within individual-flight range, but collected in different hosts (a native and an exotic one), mated randomly amongst themselves when placed in a field cage. Despite the fact that sibling males and females from two distinct populations also mated randomly amongst themselves, siblings engaged in significantly longer copulations than non-siblings, indicating that perhaps adults discriminated mates with similar genetic compositions. Our results have important practical implications as A. ludens is the most devastating pest of citrus in Mexico and Central America, and large-scale releases of sterile flies are used to control it.
Ohashi, Kazunori; Nakada, Kazuhide; Ishiwatari, Takao; Miyaguchi, Jun'ichi; Shono, Yoshinori; Lucas, John R; Mito, Nobuaki
Pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors have become a serious threat for malaria control, and bed nets that reduce the development of resistance are urgently needed. Here, we tested the effects of bed nets treated with the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen against adult female Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Noninsecticidal nets made of 195 denier monofilament polyethylene with a mesh size of 75 holes per square inch (equivalent to the Olyset Net) were dipped in a 0.1, 0.01, or 0.001% (wt:vol) alcohol solution of pyriproxyfen and dried overnight. Adult females of an insecticide-susceptible An. gambiae strain were exposed to treated and untreated nets before and after a bloodmeal. Bioassays showed that females were completely sterilized after exposure to 0.1% (35 mg [AI]/m2) and 0.01% pyriproxyfen-treated nets both before and after a bloodmeal. In addition, adult longevity decreased after exposure to the pyriproxyfen-treated nets in a concentration-dependent manner. The sterilizing and life-shortening effects of pyriproxyfen on the vector mosquito indicate that the combined use of pyriproxyfen and pyrethroids on bed nets has the potential to provide better malaria control and prevent the further development of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors.
LORENZ, AMANDA R.; WALKER, EDWARD D.; KAUFMAN, MICHAEL G.
Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) is recently invasive in North America and has expanded its range rapidly since 1998. Throughout its native and expanded range, Ae. j. japonicus larvae are commonly observed in many types of natural and artificial water-filled containers that vary in organic matter content and exposure to sunlight. Larvae are most often found in containers with decaying leaf material or algae, and we postulated that the added autocthonous primary production from algae could be both an important food source for larvae and an influential oviposition attractant to adult Ae. j. japonicus. We tested this hypothesis by placing plastic containers with varied levels of shading to manipulate algal density in the field, and then monitored oviposition by natural populations of Ae. j. japonicus. Over 99% of larvae hatching from eggs laid on the walls of our containers were Ae. j. japonicus, indicating that this species is a dominant colonizer of artificial containers in the study areas. Although full shading treatments effectively reduced algal biomass (significant reduction in chlorophyll a levels), at only one of three sites did this appear to affect Ae. j. japonicus oviposition. We conclude that algae in larval habitats are not a major factor in oviposition choices of adult Ae. j. japonicus females except when in situ primary production is high enough to substantially alter overall organic matter content cues. PMID:23427654
Sukantamala, Jedsada; Sing, Kong-Wah; Jaturas, Narong; Polseela, Raxsina; Wilson, John-James
Certain species of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of the protozoa which causes leishmaniasis. Sandflies are found breeding in enclosed places like caves. Thailand is a popular tourist destination, including for ecotourism activities like caving, which increases the risk of contact between tourists and sandflies. Surveillance of sandflies is important for monitoring this risk but identification of species based on morphology is challenged by phenotypic plasticity and cryptic diversity. DNA barcodes have been used for the identification of sandflies in Thailand. We collected sandflies using CDC light trap from four tourist caves in Northern Thailand. Female sandflies were provisionally sorted into 13 morphospecies and 19 unidentified specimens. DNA was extracted from the thorax and legs of sandflies and the DNA barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase I mtDNA amplified and sequenced. The specimens were sorted into 22 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU) based on the 145 DNA barcodes, which is significantly more than the morphospecies. Several of the taxa thought to be present in multiple caves, based on morphospecies sorting, split into cave-specific MOTU which likely represent cryptic species. Several MOTU reported in an earlier study from Wihan Cave, Thailand, were also found in these caves. This supports the use of DNA barcodes to investigate species diversity of sandflies and their useful role in surveillance of sandflies in Thailand.
Zarrouk, Asmae; Kahime, Kholoud; Boussaa, Samia; Belqat, Boutaïna
Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection is transmitted by an infected female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) of the subgenus Larroussius: Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, the vectorial role of P. ariasi was demonstrated, while that of P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus is not elucidated. In addition, Moroccan P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus populations present a higher morphologic and genetic variability. It was classified as P. perniciosus complex, including typical (PN) and atypical (PNA) morphs of P. perniciosus, P. longicuspis sensu stricto (LCss), and a sibling species of P. longicuspis (LCx). With the aim to study the ecological and epidemiological status of P. perniciosus complex species in Morocco, entomological surveys were carried out during three entomological seasons (2012, 2013, and 2014). We collected a total of 6298 specimens from 81 localities of northern, central, and southern Morocco. After describing the geographical distribution of P. perniciosus complex trough Morocco according to many variables (altitude, latitude, and longitude), we discuss the resulting epidemiological implications of its species. Our results highlight the geographical distribution of the two morphs of P. perniciosus through Morocco: PN is limited to the north, while PNA is widespread in northern, central, and southern Morocco. In terms of vectorial role, we hypothesize the potential involvement of PN, LCss, and LCx, at least, with P. ariasi, in the epidemiological cycle of L. infantum in Morocco.
Desvars, A; Grimaud, Y; Guis, H; Esnault, O; Allène, X; Gardès, L; Balenghien, T; Baldet, T; Delécolle, J C; Garros, C
This study establishes the first faunistic inventory of livestock associated Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species of Reunion Island (Indian Ocean), where bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease are regularly recorded. Single night-catches were performed at 41 sites using light suction traps at altitudes ranging from 0 to 1525 m, from March to April 2005. Five species were recorded: Culicoides imicola, Culicoides bolitinos, Culicoides enderleini, Culicoides grahamii, and Culicoides kibatiensis, among which at least the first three species are known to be involved in virus transmission to ruminants and equids. This is the first record of C. bolitinos, C. kibatiensis, and C. enderleini on the island. C. imicola was the most abundant species along the sea coast. C. bolitinos was more abundant inland and on two sites on the east coast. C. kibatiensis and C. grahamii were less abundant than the other three species and limited to two foci. Spatial distribution analysis of the different species showed that C. bolitinos, C. enderleini and C. imicola were collected at low altitudes, while the other two species were found at higher altitude. A morphological identification key for adult females and males is given, as well as cytochrome oxydase subunit I sequences. Phylogenetic reconstructions showed a clear divergence between C. bolitinos from Reunion Island and mainland Africa. This monograph will help to identify the Culicoides species in the poorly known entomological fauna of the south-western Indian Ocean region.
Kirkpatrick, D M; McGhee, P S; Hermann, S L; Gut, L J; Miller, J R
Methods for trapping spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsmura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), have not yet been optimized for detecting this devastating pest of soft-skinned fruits. Here, we report outcomes of choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays quantifying the rates of spotted wing drosophila alightment on 5-cm-diameter sticky disks of various colors, but no fruit odors. Red, purple, and black disks captured the most spotted wing drosophila when presented against a white background. Male and female spotted wing drosophila responded identically in these tests. Significantly more D. suzukii were captured on the red and yellow disks than those presenting the corresponding grayscale for that color, proving that D. suzukii perceives colors and not just the level of target brightness. Fluorescent red is the best candidate for trap color, while clear and white are the least desirable. However, when the background was switched to black, all nonfluorescent colors were equally acceptable to spotted wing drosophila, suggesting that background must be specified when reporting spotted wing drosophila color preference. Additional spotted wing drosophila research is justified on the effects of target color against natural backgrounds.
Li, X Y; Liu, X H; Ge, Y Q; Zhang, D
Hypoderma lineatum (Villers, 1789) (Diptera: Oestridae) is a hypodermosis fly that has resulted in great economic losses worldwide. The antennae of cattle grub males and females were examined through stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to reveal the general morphology, combined with distribution, type, size, and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. All of the three antennal segments (antennal scape, pedicel, and funiculus) possess microtrichiae on their surface. Mechanoreceptors only exist on the antennal scape and pedicel. The antennal funiculus presents four types of antennal sensilla: trichoid, basiconic, coeloconic, and clavate sensilla. Three distinctive characters of H. lineatum are obvious: (1) the relatively slender, flexible, and equal-height mechanoreceptors; (2) the enlarged antennal pedicel, and numerous antennal sensory pits and pit sensilla on the antennal funiculus; and (3) all types of antennal sensilla clustered in sensory pits, respectively. Additionally, the enlarged antennal pedicel and abundant sensory pits and pit sensilla might facilitate odor detection, enhance olfactory sensitivity and accuracy, and also protect the fragile antennal sensilla from mechanical irritation or damage.
Dinesh, D S; Singh, A; Kumar, V; Kesari, S; Kumar, A J; Kishore, K; Roy, S P; Bhattacharya, S K; Das, P
Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the vector for visceral leishmaniasis in India. The aspects of its biology such as feeding and man vector contact are associated with emergence periodicity of the adult. Hence, the present study was made to find out the actual emergence period of P. argentipes. Wild caught P. argentipes were confined in the rearing pots inside laboratory. The newly emerged adults were collected at hourly intervals and released in to separate polythene bags and were held at 4°C till death. Sand flies were segregated sex-wise after the death under a microscope. The emergence of adult was observed throughout the day. However, the male preferred dawn emergence and the female the dusk. Two peaks of emergence were found in a day; first one in the morning (0900h) and the second one in the evening (1800h). The ratio of both sexes was found to be about equal. The emergence of adult was found to be 77% out of total eggs laid, which was completed within 7-10 days from the 1st day of emergence under laboratory conditions (25°C to 31°C and 70% to 75% relative humidity). This study has important bearings to find out the actual time for personal protection against biting of sand flies to prevent the transmission of Kala-azar.
Rasgado, Milton A; Malo, Edi A; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C; Toledo, Jorge
We investigated the behavioral and electrophysiological responses of male and female Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to volatiles of bitter orange fruit, Citrus aurantium L. In field cage tests, the number of A. ludens caught in Multilure traps baited with mature green bitter orange fruit was significantly higher than the number captured in traps baited with ripe yellow bitter orange fruit and control (unbaited traps). Both sexes were more attracted to mature green bitter orange fruit extracts than to controls in both flight tunnel and field cage assays. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the mature green bitter orange fruit volatiles identified 10 different compounds. Limonene was the most abundant volatile compound, followed by an unknown compound, tentatively identified as trans-ocimene. Linalool, beta-pinene, and methyl salicylate were found in lower proportions. Both sexes of A. ludens evoked higher antennal response to linalool, methyl salicylate, and to a blend of these four components in comparison with limonene, and beta-pinene. In flight tunnel, both sexes were more attracted and landed more often on spheres baited with the four-component blend compared with control spheres. In field cage tests, Multilure traps baited with the four-component blend captured significantly more A. ludens flies than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein or control traps.
Chaudhury, M F; Chen, H; Sagel, A; Skoda, S R
Spray-dried whole bovine blood, dry poultry egg, and a dry milk substitute are the constituents of the artificial diet currently used for mass rearing screwworm larvae, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Due to high cost and uncertainty of the commercial supply of spray-dried blood, research was conducted to identify alternative, locally available, inexpensive, dietary ingredients which could reduce cost of rearing and eliminate concerns of short supply. Experimental diets were prepared without blood component and with various ratios of bovine blood or blood cell product and defatted soy flour. Results indicate that spray-dried bovine blood can be replaced by a readily available and less expensive blood cell product. When the quantity of whole dried blood or blood cell component was reduced or removed completely from the diet, the larvae did not feed adequately, resulting in high mortality. Those larvae that survived produced pupae that were of unacceptable quality. When the milk product was replaced by soy flour, pupae were slightly smaller than those reared using the current diet; however, replacement of egg product with soy flour produced even smaller pupae. Longevity of adult flies that emerged from these small pupae was short and the females deposited few eggs. These results indicate that soy flour cannot replace the blood component from the diet, but can replace the milk product successfully. It is likely that some factor or a combination of factors in the blood act as feeding stimulants, without which larvae are unable to feed normally, resulting in high larval mortality.
Ramos, Walkyria Rodrigues; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia María; Marialva, Eric Fabrício; Desmouliére, Sylvain J M; Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa
Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are responsible for the transmission of protozoan parasites that cause leishmaniases. They are found predominantly in forests, but some species exploit environments that have been subject to deforestation and subsequent human colonization. Studies conducted in Brazil over the past 30 years show that some species are adapting to peri-urban and urban settings. We evaluated sand fly diversity and abundance in the rural settlement of Rio Pardo, Presidente Figueiredo Municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil. Settlement households were divided into four categories. These categories were determined by the human population density and the degree of deforestation in the immediate area. We used CDC light traps to sample the area surrounding 24 households (6 households in each category). Samples were taken on six occasions during September-November 2009 and June-August 2010. A total of 3074 sand fly specimens were collected, including 1163 females and 1911 males. These were classified into 13 genera and 52 species. The greatest abundance of sand flies and the greatest richness of species were observed in areas where human population density was highest. Our results show that changes in the human occupancy and vegetation management in rural settlements may affect the population dynamics and distribution of sand fly species, thereby affecting the local transmission of cutaneous leishmaniases.
Kaunisto, Kari M; Vahtera, Varpu
Abstract The subgenus Idiopyga Savchenko, 1987 is a northern hemisphere group of short-palped crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae). In the current article we describe a new species, Dicranomyia (I.) boreobaltica Salmela sp.n., and redescribe the male and female post-abdomen of a closely related species, D. (I.) intricata Alexander. A standard DNA barcoding fragment of 5′ region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene of the new species is presented, whilst the K2P minimum distances between the new species and 10 other species of the subgenus were found to range from 5.1 to 15.7 % (mean 11.2 %). Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony and maximum likelihood) based on COI sequences support the identity of the new species and its close relationship with D. (I.) intricata and D. (I.) esbeni (Nielsen). The new species is known from the northern Baltic area of Finland. The new species has been mostly collected from Baltic coastal meadows but an additional relict population is known from a calcareous rich fen that was estimated to have been at sea level circa 600-700 years ago. Dicranomyia (I.) intricata (syn. D. suecica Nielsen) is a Holarctic species, occurring in the north boreal and subarctic vegetation zones in Fennoscandia. PMID:25535487
Kuzina, L V; Peloquin, J J; Vacek, D C; Miller, T A
From the guts of new and old colonies (female and male) of Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae), we identified a total of 18 different bacterial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Vibrionaceae, Micrococcaceae, Deinococcacea, Bacillaceae, and the genus Listeria. Enterobacter, Providencia, Serratia, and Staphylococcus spp. were the most frequently isolated genera, with Citrobacter, Streptococcus, Aerococcus, and Listeria found less frequently. We found Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter sakazakii, Providencia stuartii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa only in the new colony, Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumoniae spp. pneumoniae only in the old colony. We also studied resistance/sensitivity to 12 antibiotics for six bacterial isolates such as Enterobacter cloacae, E. sakazakii, K. pneumoniae spp., Providencia rettgeri, P. aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus. Isolates on the whole were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin (five of six isolates) and sensitive to rifampin and streptomycin (six of six isolates). Antibiotic resistance profiles might be useful characteristics for distinguishing among species and strains of these bacteria, probably having ecological significance with respect to intra- and inter-specific competition within host cadavers, and could have implications for the utility of these organisms for biological control, including the alternative control strategy, paratransgenesis.
Sciurano, R.; Rodriguero, M.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.L.; Allinghi, Armando
Despite the interest in applying environmentally friendly control methods such as sterile insect technique (SIT) against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), information about its biology, taxonomy, and behavior is still insufficient. To increase this information, the present study aims to evaluate the performance of wild flies under field cage conditions through the study of sexual competitiveness among males (sexual selection). A wild population from Horco Molle, Tucuman, Argentina was sampled. Mature virgin males and females were released into outdoor field cages to compete for mating. Morphometric analyses were applied to determine the relationship between the multivariate phenotype and copulatory success. Successful and unsuccessful males were measured for 8 traits: head width (HW), face width (FW), eye length (EL), thorax length (THL), wing length (WL), wing width (WW), femur length (FL), and tibia length (TIL). Combinations of different multivariate statistical methods and graphical analyses were used to evaluate sexual selection on male phenotype. The results indicated that wing width and thorax length would be the most probable targets of sexual selection. They describe a non-linear association between expected fitness and each of these 2 traits. This non-linear relation suggests that observed selection could maintain the diversity related to body size. (author) [Spanish] A pesar del interes por la aplicacion de metodos de control de bajo impacto ambiental sobre Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae), como la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE), no existe aun informacion suficiente sobre su biologia, taxonomia y comportamiento. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar el desempeno de moscas en jaulas de campo a traves del estudio de la competitividad sexual entre machos salvajes (seleccion sexual). Para ello, se muestreo una poblacion de Horco Molle, Tucuman (Argentina). En jaulas de campo se liberaron machos y hembras adultos
... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System A A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...
... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...
van Achterberg, Kees; Teixeira, Tânia; Oliveira, Luísa
Abstract A new gregarious larval-pupal endoparasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is described and illustrated: Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini). PMID:23129984
Kameneva, Elena P; Korneyev, Valery A
The genus Physiphora includes at least 29 species, most of them occurring predominantly in the Afrotropical Region and a few species native to the other regions of the Old World. At least P. alceae (Preyssler 1791) and P. clausa (Macquart 1843) are subcosmopolitan species unintentionally introduced into the Australasian, Nearctic, and Neotropical Regions. Twelve new species from the Afrotropical Region are described: P. hendeli sp. n., P. igniceps sp. n., P. kirki sp. n., P. maraisi sp. n., P. meyi sp. n., P. opalizana sp. n., P. orinigra sp. n., P. polita sp. n., P. rugosa sp. n., P. spriggsi sp. n., P. steyskali sp. n., and P. virens sp. n. Detailed illustrated descriptions and a key for identification are provided for all the species of Physiphora. Analysis of the new and previously known biological data shows that larvae of most Physiphora species are saprophagous associated with rotting tissues of palms (apparently infested by the palm weevils), giant Euphorbia, and even baobabs and poplars. Some species are attracted to (and as larvae possibly can develop in) the dung of ungulates. The following synonymy is established: Physiphora clausa (Macquart 1843) = Physiphora hainanensis Chen in Chen & Kameneva 2007: 24, syn. n.; Physiphora flavipes (Karsch 1888) = Chrysomyza africana Hendel 1909, syn. n., = Cliochloria senegalensis Enderlein 1927, syn. n.
Teh, Yik Koon
This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…
Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Nadel, Hannah
The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an invasive pest in California. Identifying environmental constraints that affect the geographic distribution and abundance of any invasive insect pest is fundamental to its effective management. California's Central Valley, where most commercial olives are grown, is extremely hot during the summer, with maximum daily temperatures consistently >35.0 degrees C. This study examined the effects of two diurnal temperature regimens (low 18.3 degrees C, high 35.0 or 37.8 degrees C) reflecting summer conditions in the valley, and one control temperature regimen (low 18.3 degrees C, high 23.9 degrees C) on the fly's survival and reproductive success in the laboratory. The temperature regimen of 18.3-35.0 degrees C resulted in delayed egg maturation and reduced production of mature eggs compared with the control temperature regimen. Egg maturation was possible at the higher temperature regimen when females were provided with water and food, and egg-laying occurred during the cold phase of the temperature cycle. Access to olive fruit and oviposition itself further promoted egg maturation. Under exposure to the 18.3-35.0 degrees C temperature regimen, approximately 50% of eggs died, and the remainder that hatched died as first instars. No egg hatch occurred at the temperature treatment of 18.3-37.8 degrees C. We confirmed these laboratory results through field cage studies with adult B. oleae, conducted in the summer of 2007 and 2008. Under ambient summer temperatures, adult B. oleae survived for 1-2 wk, and females readily laid eggs when provided water and food. No offspring developed in midsummer of 2007, and <2% of the offspring developed to adults in summer 2008 trials. These results suggest that high summer temperatures limit the fly's abundance in California's Central Valley.
Cárdenas, José; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Nieves, Elsa
Leishmaniasis is a public health problem that has been increasing year by year, with the further difficulty that an efficient control system is not available. Therefore, it is necessary to search for less contaminating and dangerous alternatives for controlling Leishmania transmitting sandflies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of Monticalia greenmaniana (Asteraceae) extracts and essential oil as an adulticide against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, from a laboratory colony, in experimental conditions. Dry aerial parts of M. greenmaniana (Hieron) Jeffrey were used. Methanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared, and essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. Adulticide tests in pots, adulticide tests in cages, and knocked-down effects were determined. The results obtained demonstrated that methanolic and aqueous extracts produced adulticide activity. The essential oil from M. greenmaniana was proved to be the most toxic against L. migonei, with a 95 % death rate at a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml during a 1-h exposure. The essential oil showed a DL50 = 0.0050 and DL98 = 0.0066 mg/ml. The methanolic extract was DL50 = 0.130 and DL98 = 1.016 mg/ml, and the aqueous extract, DL50 = 0.487 and DL98 10.924 mg/ml. The knocked-down effect for the M. greenmaniana oil showed a KDTL50 = 48.6 and KDTL98 = 90.1 min. It was concluded that the essential oil from M. greenmaniana showed a strong insecticide effect against L. migonei females, which encourages us to continue these studies in search for control alternatives against sandflies.
Lasa, Rodrigo; Velázquez, Olinda E; Ortega, Rafael; Acosta, Emilio
One of the most important factors for the success of a mass trapping strategy to control a fruit fly involves the selection of an effective trap-lure combination. Because different species of fruit flies respond differently to the physical characteristics of a trap and to bait volatiles, the evaluation of commercial traps and lures that have proved useful against other tephtrids is necessary to determine their efficacy for mass trapping of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Under caged conditions, a commercial hemispherical trap with lateral holes (Maxitrap Plus) proved more attractive to A. ludens (both sexes) than five other commercial traps that were all baited with hydrolyzed protein. Among these traps, bottom invaginated traps and traps with invaginated lateral holes constructed with transparent cylinders had the best physical retention properties. When evaluated under field conditions, the lure was critical for the efficacy of the trap, and one of the traps that performed poorly in attraction and retention cage tests (MS2) resulted as one of the most effective traps when baited with CeraTrap lure. Considering the use of different trap models under field conditions, CeraTrap liquid bait was more effective in A. ludens capture than Biolure dry synthetic bait, but both lures were not replaced during the entire course of the experiment. The percentage of captured females was also slightly higher using CeraTrap lure (67.2%) than using Biolure baits (54.5-58.8%). In field tests, 75-81% of females were mated and no significant differences were observed among trap-lure combinations. Trap selectivity against nontarget adult lacewings also differed among trap-lure combinations.
Mulla, Mir S; Chansang, Uruyakorn
Species of eye flies and eye gnats (Diptera: Chloropidae) are severe and persistent pests of man, domestic and wild animals, and potential vectors of pathogens. The species prevailing in the Oriental region belong to the genus Siphunculina, while those in the Neotropic and Nearctic regions belong to Liohippelates and Hippelates. These are small insects of 1-2 mm that feed on wounds, lacerations, scratches, and mucous membranes of man and higher animals. One species, Siphunculina funicola, commonly known as the Oriental eye fly, is considered the most anthropophilic in the genus, with potential involvement in the spread and mechanical transmission of infectious agents to humans and animals. Very little is known about the biology, prevalence, host-seeking, and aggregation behavior of this species in South and Southeast Asia. We initiated studies on biological aspects of this potential vector and human pest in central Thailand. The most significant findings of our study were the aggregation behaviors of S. funicola, that both sexes attack hosts, and that males outnumbered females attacking humans, dogs, and other domestic animals. They feed on wounds, scabs, lacerations, eyes, and mucous membranes. They hover around and feed on hosts during the daylight hours when host-seeking activities are more pronounced at temperatures above 25-27 degrees C under calm conditions. We noted that large masses of males and females aggregated on a variety of hanging objects such as strings, trailings, electrical lines, decorations, ropes, twines, abandoned cob webs, clothes hangers, and other hanging substrates in open shade of structures and dwellings. This behavior of eye flies brings them closer to human and animal hosts. In these aggregations, both males and females were present, with mating pairs frequently noted. In the aggregations, about 37% of the females had fully developed eggs in the rainy season, but only <1-3.6% were gravid in the hot and dry season. The average number of
ARS, Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory (Kerrville, TX). The colony was estab- lished using pupae from a long-established...Antonio, TX 78229. 3 Corresponding author, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. 4 Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory, United...States Department of Agriculture, Kerrville, TX 78029. 5 Present address: USDA Agricultural Research Service, Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior
cage and provided 10% sucrose ad libitum. Bovine blood in 1%heparin placed in collagen sausage casings (The Sausage Maker, Buffalo, NY) was warmed to 37...Some aspects of history , general ecology and vertical transmission of the dengue virus]. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 89: 115Ð119. Gillett, J. D., and R
Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of both dengue and yellow fever. Use of insecticides is one of the primary ways to control this medically important insect pest. However, few new insecticides have been developed for mosquito control in recent years. As a part of our effort to search for new ...
Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu
Two new species of Dicranoptycha Osten Sacken, 1859, crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae) from the Korean peninsula are described, illustrated and compared with already known and related species. An identification key and check-list of all Korean Dicranoptycha is presented.
Four species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns are described from the Neotropical Region: T. dimorphica (Argentina), T. fasciata (Argentina), T. polita (Argentina and Bolivia), and T. trivittata (Argentina). Celidosphenella Hendel, 1914 and Melanotrypana Hering, 1944 are ...
Kahanpää, Jere; Stuke, Jens-Hermann
Abstract A checklist of the Diptera superfamilies Conopoidea (Conopidae), Nerioidea (Micropezidae, Pseudopomyzidae) and Diopsoidea (Megamerinidae, Psilidae, Strongylophthalmyiidae, Tanypezidae) from Finland in presented. Myopa vicaria Walker, 1849 is formally recorded for the first time from the country. PMID:25337021
Laboratory tests documented that Diachasmimorpha kraussii Fullaway (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was a potentially effective biological control agent against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diachasmimorpha kraussii was approved for release in Hawa...
Microchrysa flaviventris (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Sarginae), a species widespread in the Old World, has been introduced and is apparently established in the eastern United States. Specimens were taken in Alexandria, Virginia in August of 2007....
Abstract A checklist of the Agromyzidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. 279 (or 280) species are currently known from the country. Phytomyza linguae Lundqvist, 1947 is recorded as new to Finland. PMID:25337025
Broski, Scott A; King, B H
One method of control of house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), and other filth flies is by repeated release of large numbers of pupal parasitoids such as Spalangia endius Walker. Rearing these parasitoids may be facilitated by understanding how host factors affect their production. Previous studies have examined the effects of host size and host age on parasitoid production, but have not examined the interaction between host size and host age or the effects with older females, which may be less capable of drilling tough hosts. Females were given hosts of a single size-age category (small young, small old, large young, or large old) for 2 wk. The effect of host size and of host age on parasitoid production depended on female age. On their first day of oviposition, females produced more offspring from large than from small hosts, but host age had no significant effect. The cumulative number of parasitoids produced in the first week was not significantly affected by host size or host age. However, the cumulative number of parasitoids produced over 2 wk was affected by both host size and host age, with the greatest number of parasitoids produced from small young hosts. Thus, not only are smaller hosts cheaper to produce, but these results suggest that their use may have no effect or a positive effect on the number of parasitoids that can be produced when females are ovipositing for a week or two.
Elleuch, Jihen; Tounsi, Slim; Ben Hassen, Najeh Belguith; Lacoix, Marie Noël; Chandre, Fabrice; Jaoua, Samir; Zghal, Raida Zribi
Bacillus thuringiensis is successfully used in pest management strategies as an eco-friendly bioinsecticide. Isolation and identification of new strains with a wide variety of target pests is an ever growing field. In this paper, new B. thuringiensis isolates were investigated to search for original strains active against diptera and able to produce novel toxins that could be used as an alternative for the commercial H14 strain. Biochemical and molecular characterization revealed a remarkable diversity among the studied strains. Using the PCR method, cry4C/Da1, cry30Ea, cry39A, cry40 and cry54 genes were detected in four isolates. Three strains, BLB355, BLB196 and BUPM109, showed feeble activities against Aedes aegypti larvae. Interestingly, spore-crystal mixtures of BLB361, BLB30 and BLB237 were found to be active against Ceratitis capitata with an LC50 value of about 65.375, 51.735 and 42.972 μg cm(-2), respectively. All the studied strains exhibited important mortality levels using culture supernatants against C. capitata larvae. This suggests that these strains produce a wide range of soluble factors active against C. capitata larvae.
Castelo, Marcela K.; Crespo, José E.
White grubs are larvae of Coleoptera of the family Scarabaeidae. They are known because of their intensive feeding habits on crop roots. Mallophora ruficauda (Diptera: Asilidae) is a dipteran parasitoid whose larva is a natural enemy for white grubs. This species is a solitary ectoparasitoid, where both female and larva realize different steps in the host location process. Female place its eggs in high grasslands and then, the larva finds and parasitizes the host in the ground. There are nine potential hosts in the area of action of this parasitoid; however a high preference for Cyclocephala signaticollis has been observed (87% of field parasitism). It is known that many insects have developed defensive and immunological mechanisms when attacked by a parasitoid, which can be behavioral, physiological, chemical or genetic. The objectives of this work were to investigate what kind of defense and non-immunological associated mechanisms the white grubs have against this parasitoid and to understand why M. ruficauda have such a high preference for masked chafer grubs or Cyclocephala species. In particular, for each white grub species, we asked: (1) If there is a differential behavioral reaction when a parasitoid attack is simulated; (2) If body attributes of white grubs species have influence on defense behavior, and particularly for the masked chafer C. signaticollis; and (3) Why this species is the most selected by M. ruficauda. It was found that behavioral defenses of white grubs would explain the parasitism pattern of M. ruficauda larvae and its preference for C. signaticollis. PMID:26466623
USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT FEMALE SUICIDE BOMBERS by Ms. Debra D. Zedalis Department of the Army Civilian Dr. Anna Waggener Project Advisor This... Female Suicide Bombers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Debra Zedalis 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...ii iii ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Debra D. Zedalis TITLE: Female Suicide Bombers FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 19 March 2004 PAGES: 43
Among the insects which are typically considered of forensic interest, the family Piophilidae (Diptera) is frequently cited because of its common occurrence on carcasses in different stages of decay. Piophilids are mainly known from the cosmopolitan species Piophila casei, which can be also a major pest for the food industry and an agent of myiasis. However, many other species of Piophilidae occur frequently on carrion, including human corpses; hence, it is essential to ensure a careful identification of specimens. Reviews of relevant published information about the Piophilidae species of potential forensic use, including recent interesting records, are presented.
Irwin, Michael E.; Winterton, Shaun L.
Abstract Two new stiletto fly genera of Agapophytinae (Diptera: Therevidae) are described from Australia. Sidarena gen. n. comprises six new species (Sidarena aurantia sp. n., Sidarena flavipalpa sp. n., Sidarena geraldton sp. n., Sidarena hortorum sp. n., Sidarena macfarlandi sp. n., and Sidarena yallingup sp. n.) and is largely endemic to Western Australia. Zelothrix gen. n. is described based on two species; Zelothrix warrumbungles sp. n. is a locally abundant species in Eastern Australia, while Zelothrix yeatesi sp. n. is restricted to southwestern Western Australia. These sister genera are likely closely related to Taenogerella Winterton & Irwin and Actenomeros Winterton & Irwin. PMID:27853402
Boonsriwong, Worachote; Sukontason, Kom; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Sukontason, Kabkaew L
The alimentary canal is a major organ system that is often involved in the transmission of pathogens to humans from insects that serve as vectors of disease. In this study, we investigated the alimentary canal of the blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), highlighting the description for dissection and morphometric analysis of each organ. Dissection was performed in a phosphate buffer solution (pH=7.4) on 3(rd) instar larvae (three to four days old) and on both male and female adults (seven days old). Larval dissection was accomplished using two fine forceps to open the specimens from the posterior end and proceed anteriorly toward the cephalic segment. Meticulous dissection of the anterior end was vital for observation of the delicate salivary ducts, crop duct, and esophagus. Overall length of the 3(rd) instar alimentary canal measured 89.15 mm (range 81.40-99.70 mm). The midgut comprised the longest portion, measuring 46.35 mm (range 40.00-52.00 mm; n = 30) of the entire canal. Adult dissection was also performed from abdomen to head. Morphometric analyses revealed that the alimentary canal of males and females were relatively similar. No statistical differences were found between the entire length of the alimentary canal from mouth to anus (excluding all branches of the salivary glands, crop, and Malpighian tubules) of males and females. The alimentary canals of males measured 36.23 mm (range 32.60-41.20 mm) in length; whereas, those of females measured 37.23 mm (range 32.70-42.15 mm). Two-thirds of the entire canal length was comprised of midgut in each sex.
Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Pavarini, Ronaldo
Abstract Diaugia angusta Perty, 1833 is a Neotropical species of Tachinidae (Diptera) reported here as a parasitoid of Metamasius ensirostris (Germar, 1824) and Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) in Brazil. Several species of Dryophthoridae and Curculionidae cause damage to bromeliad and palm species, and most are regarded as pests. In the present study, the male and female of Diaugia angusta are morphologically characterized and illustrated to provide a means for the identification of this parasitoid. Data obtained from preliminary field research show that natural parasitism of Metamasius pupae by Diaugia angusta varies by year but can reach nearly 30%. A network of parasitoid-host interactions among tachinid parasitoids and coleopteran hosts reported as bromeliad and palm pests (Dryophthoridae and Curculionidae) in the Americas indicates that the species of the tribe Dexiini sensu lato (including Diaugia angusta) might be promising as biological control agents of these pests. PMID:21594164
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of cherry (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be monitored using traps baited with ammonia. However, ammonia-based attractants also attract non-target Diptera that clutter traps. Here, the hypothe...
Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas
The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included.
Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas
The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included. PMID:27019632
Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.
The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…
This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions.
Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…
Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A
The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning, thereby increasing their risk of bone loss. Although its prevalence is unknown, the Female Athlete Triad is believed to affect many athletes at all ages and all sport competition levels. Even though the Triad affects athletes in all sports, girls and women in sports that emphasize a thin or small body size or shape appear to be most at risk. This article focuses on the risks of the Female Athlete Triad for middle- and high-school-age female athletes as well as the unique issues related to the identification, management, and treatment of the various components of the Triad in this special adolescent subpopulation.
Agrawal, Sweta; Grimaldi, David; Fox, Jessica L
One of the primary specializations of true flies (order Diptera) is the modification of the hind wings into club-shaped halteres. Halteres are complex mechanosensory structures that provide sensory feedback essential for stable flight control via an array of campaniform sensilla at the haltere base. The morphology of these sensilla has previously been described in a small number of dipteran species, but little is known about how they vary across fly taxa. Using a synoptic set of specimens representing 42 families from all of the major infraorders of Diptera, we used scanning electron microscopy to map the gross and fine structures of halteres, including sensillum shape and arrangement. We found that several features of haltere morphology correspond with dipteran phylogeny: Schizophora generally have smaller halteres with stereotyped and highly organized sensilla compared to nematoceran flies. We also found a previously undocumented high variation of haltere sensillum shape in nematoceran dipterans, as well as the absence of a dorsal sensillum field in multiple families. Overall, variation in haltere sensillar morphology across the dipteran phylogeny provides insight into the evolution of a highly specialized proprioceptive organ and a basis for future studies on haltere sensory function.
Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies.
Robert, D; Read, M P; Hoy, R R
Tympanate hearing has evolved in at least 6 different orders of insects, but had not been reported until recently in the Diptera. This study presents a newly discovered tympanal hearing organ, in the parasitoid tachinid fly, Ormia ochracea. The hearing organ is described in terms of external and internal morphology, cellular organization of the sensory organ and preliminary neuroanatomy of the primary auditory afferents. The ear is located on the frontal face of the prothorax, directly behind the head capsule. Conspicuously visible are a pair of thin cuticular membranes specialized for audition, the prosternal tympanal membranes. Directly attached to these membranes, within the enlarged prosternal chamber, are a pair of auditory sensory organs, the bulbae acusticae. These sensory organs are unique among all auditory organs known so far because both are contained within an unpartitioned acoustic chamber. The prosternal chamber is connected to the outside by a pair of tracheae. The cellular anatomy of the fly's scolopophorous organ was investigated by light and electron microscopy. The bulba acustica is a typical chordotonal organ and it contains approximately 70 receptor cells. It is similar to other insect sensory organs associated with tympanal ears. The similarity of the cellular organization and tympanal morphology of the ormiine ear to the ears of other tympanate insects suggests that there are potent constraints in the design features of tympanal hearing organs, which must function to detect high frequency auditory signals over long distances. Each sensory organ is innervated by a branch of the frontal nerve of the fused thoracic ganglia. The primary auditory afferents project to each of the pro-, meso-, and metathoracic neuropils. The fly's hearing organ is sexually dimorphic, whereby the tympanal membranes are larger in females and the spiracles larger in males. The dimorphism presumably reflects differences in the acoustic behavior in the two sexes.
Iankovskiĭ, A V
Four new species of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are described. Helodon rezidentsii Yankovsky, sp. n., Khabarovsk Territory, differs from all known species of the genus with morphology of eyes consisting only of microommatidii in male; from related species H. kamtshaticus (Rubzov, 1940) with large triangular posteromedial lobes of branches of genital fork in female; with number of rays of primary fan of premandibles (20-22, when in H. kamtshaticus 30-32) in larva. Helodon submulticaulis Yankovsky, sp. n., Transbaikalia, differs from related species H. multicaulis (Popov, 1968) with number of rays of primary fan of mandibles (36-40, when in H. multicaulis 26-28), narrow anterior branches of anal sclerite, number of rows of hooks in posterior attachment organ (88-92, when in H. multicaulis 78-80) in larva; with morphology of respiratory organ, consisting of 5-8 lobes bearing 40-60 tune filaments (in H. multicaulis 3-4 lobes bearing more than 150 filaments) in pupa. Sch. samarkandica Yankovsky, sp. n., Uzbekistan, differs from related species Sch. pseudopusilla Rubzov, 1956 with 3 (not 2 as in Sch. pseudopusilla) hooks in parameres, bifurcated lateral branches of X sternite, long projection of gonostyles in male. Schoenbaueria ivdelensis Yankovsky, sp. n., Middle Ural, differs from related species Sch. rangiferina (Rubzov, 1956) with prolonged gonostyles bearing narrow projection in male; with number of rays of secondary fan of premandibles (20-28, when in Sch. rangiferina 44-48), deep ventral groove of cephalic capsule, number of rows of hooks in posterior attachment organ (80-82, when in Sch. rangiferina 70-72) in larva; with morphology of respiratory organ (very long stems of 2 and 3 pairs of filaments) in pupa.
Langner, Kathrin F A; Darpel, Karin E; Denison, Eric; Drolet, Barbara S; Leibold, Wolfgang; Mellor, Philip S; Mertens, Peter P C; Nimtz, Manfred; Greiser-Wilke, Irene
Salivary proteins of hematophagous Culicoides spp. are thought to play an important role in pathogen transmission and skin hypersensitivity. Analysis of these proteins, however, has been problematic due to the difficulty in obtaining adequate amounts of secreted Culicoides saliva. In the current study, a collection method for midge saliva was developed. Over a 3-d period, 3- to 5-d-old male and female Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were repeatedly placed onto the collection system and allowed to deposit saliva into a filter. Salivary products were eluted from the filters and evaluated by gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry as well as by intradermal testing and determination of clotting time. Gel electrophoresis revealed approximately 55 protein spots displaying relative molecular masses from 5 to 67 kDa and isoelectric points ranging from 4.5 to 9.8. The majority of molecular species analyzed by mass spectrometry showed high convergence with salivary proteins recently obtained from a cDNA library of Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones, including proteins involved in sugarmeal digestion, defense, and coagulation inhibition as well as members of the D7 family and unclassified salivary proteins. In addition, the proteome analysis revealed a number of peptides that were related to proteins from insect species other than Culicoides. Intradermal injection of the saliva in human skin produced edema, vasodilatation, and pruritus. The anticoagulant activity of the saliva was demonstrated by significantly prolonged clotting times for human platelets. The potential role of the identified salivary proteins in the transmission of pathogens and the induction of allergies is discussed.
Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan
Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikunguniya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The adulticidal and repellent activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Eclipta alba and Andrographis paniculata were assayed for their toxicity against two important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of A. paniculata against the adults of C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti with the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 149.81, 172.37 ppm and 288.12, 321.01 ppm, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extract of E. alba and A. paniculata plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito adulticidal and repellent activities of the reported E. alba and A. paniculata plants.
Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade
Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists.
Epsky, Nancy D; Espinoza, Hernán R; Kendra, Paul E; Abernathy, Robert; Midgarden, David; Heath, Robert R
Studies were conducted in Honduras to determine effective sampling range of a female-targeted protein-based synthetic attractant for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Multilure traps were baited with ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine lures (three-component attractant) and sampled over eight consecutive weeks. Field design consisted of 38 traps (over 0.5 ha) placed in a combination of standard and high-density grids to facilitate geostatistical analysis, and tests were conducted in coffee (Coffea arabica L.),mango (Mangifera indica L.),and orthanique (Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticulata). Effective sampling range, as determined from the range parameter obtained from experimental variograms that fit a spherical model, was approximately 30 m for flies captured in tests in coffee or mango and approximately 40 m for flies captured in orthanique. For comparison, a release-recapture study was conducted in mango using wild (field-collected) mixed sex C. capitata and an array of 20 baited traps spaced 10-50 m from the release point. Contour analysis was used to document spatial distribution of fly recaptures and to estimate effective sampling range, defined by the area that encompassed 90% of the recaptures. With this approach, effective range of the three-component attractant was estimated to be approximately 28 m, similar to results obtained from variogram analysis. Contour maps indicated that wind direction had a strong influence on sampling range, which was approximately 15 m greater upwind compared with downwind from the release point. Geostatistical analysis of field-captured insects in appropriately designed trapping grids may provide a supplement or alternative to release-recapture studies to estimate sampling ranges for semiochemical-based trapping systems.
Villagrán, M Elvira; Willink, Eduardo; Vera, M Teresa; Follett, Peter
Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries.
Strickler-Dinglasan, Patricia M.; Guz, Nurper; Attardo, Geoffrey; Aksoy, Serap
The regulation of iron is critical for maintaining homeostasis in the tsetse fly (Diptera:Glossinidae), in which both adult sexes are strict blood feeders. We have characterized the cDNAs for two putative iron-binding proteins (IBP) involved in transport and storage; transferrin (GmmTsf1) and ferritin from Glossina morsitans morsitans. GmmTsf1 transcripts are detected in the female fat body and in adult reproductive tissues, and only in the adult developmental stage in a bloodmeal independent manner. In contrast, the ferritin heavy chain (GmmFer1HCH) and light chain (GmmFer2LCH) transcripts are expressed ubiquitously, suggesting a more general role for these proteins in iron transport and storage. Protein domain predictions for each IBP suggest both the conservation and loss of several motifs present in their vertebrate homologues. In concert with many other described insect transferrins, putative secreted GmmTsf1 maintains 3 of the 5 residues necessary for iron-binding in the N-terminal lobe, but exhibits a loss of this iron-binding ability in the C-terminal role as well as a loss of large sequence blocks. Both putative GmmFer1HCH and GmmFer2LCH proteins have signal peptides, similar to other insect ferritins. GmmFer2LCH has lost the 5’UTR iron-responsive element (IRE) and, thus, translation is no longer regulated by cellular iron levels. On the other hand, GmmFer1HCH maintains both the conserved ferroxidase center and the 5’UTR IRE; however, transcript variants suggest a more extensive regulatory mechanism for this subunit. PMID:17098167
Belien, T; Thys, T; Fassotte, C; Walrant, C; Tomme, M; Bolen, M; Bylemans, D
The vinegar fly Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera Drosophilidae), spotted wing drosophila, is a new invasive fruit pest that recently became established in Europe. Unlike other fruit flies that typically only infest overripe and rotten fruit, D. suzukii females oviposit in ripe fruit leading to considerable economic losses of fruit during production. In 2011 and 2012 D. suzukii was detected at several places in Belgium. In 2013, a large-scale monitoring in frame of the project "FLY ALERT" (FOD) was executed using traps with liquid attractant (apple cider vinegar) at more than 100 locations across Belgium during the whole fruit growing season. At 16 locations we also compared the efficacy of a 'bottle type' trap with a 'cup type' trap. The results show that D. suzukii has expanded its distribution in Belgium. Remarkably, in 2013 as well as in 2012 the first detections were made only in the second part of the growing season (August) and the populations reached their peak only at the very end of the season (November). In the bottle type trap the first flies were caught 2-3 weeks earlier than in the cup type trap. In addition, also the population peaks were on average 1 week earlier when monitored with the bottle trap compared to when monitored with the cup trap. In 2014, after an exceptional mild winter adult D. suzukii flies were continuously detected throughout the winter and early spring. The implications of these findings for the phenology of D. suzukii in the Northwest climate region of Europe are discussed.
Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena M Tarshis
Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is sporadically captured in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although its preferred hosts are in the Sapotaceae family, several varieties of Citrus, including grapefruit and oranges are listed as alternate hosts. Although Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is known to be a major pest of Citrus, doubt exists as to the status of Citrus as a breeding host for A. serpentina. To evaluate the host status of commercial Citrus for A. serpentina we compared oviposition and development with that of A. ludens under laboratory conditions with 'Rio Red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MacFayden) and 'Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] in different stages of maturity. Both fly species oviposited in early season fruit in which the eggs and larvae died in the fruit albedo. Survival of either species to the adult stage occurred in later season grapefruit. In oranges, no A. serpentina larvae survived compared with 150 A. ludens surviving to adults. Survival on both Citrus species was much lower for A. serpentina, only approximately 5% of eggs eclosed into larvae in grapefruit compared with approximatley 50% for A. ludens. In oranges approximately 16% of A. serpentina eggs eclosed compared with approximately 76% for A. ludens. In grapefruit, only one fourth as many A. serpentina larvae survived to the adult stage compared with A. ludens. Additional experiments were performed in a greenhouse on small, caged trees of la coma (Sideroxylon celastrinum H.B.K.), a Texas species of Sapotaceae. The A. serpentina females readily oviposited into these berries and normal adults emerged. The present low incidence of the adults, coupled with the high mortality during development of the larvae, suggests that Texas citrus is unlikely to support a breeding population of A. serpentina.
Lapointe, D A
Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies.
Griffin, Garrett R; Kim, Jennifer C
The concept of the ideal female eyebrow has changed over time. Modern studies examining youthful brow aesthetics are reviewed. An analysis of ideal female brow characteristics as depicted in the Western print media between 1945 and 2011 was performed. This analysis provided objective evidence that the ideal youthful brow peak has migrated laterally over time to lie at the lateral canthus. There has been a nonstatistically significant trend toward lower and flatter brows. These findings are discussed in relation to current concepts of female brow aging, with repercussions regarding endoscopic brow lift and aesthetic forehead surgery.
Yi, Jee Hwan; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Sankarapandian, Karuppasamy; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Ahn, Young-Joon
Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Meigen) (Diptera: Scatopsidae) are two of the most economically important insect pests of cultivated mushrooms. The toxicities to the fly larvae of the three phenylpropanoids (methyleugenol, myristicin, and safrole) from aerial parts of Asarum sieboldii Miquel (Aristolochiaceae) were compared with those of the currently available carbamate insecticide benfuracarb. In a contact+fumigant mortality bioassay with L. ingenua and C. fuscipes larvae, methyleugenol (1.46 and 2.33 µg/cm2) was the most toxic compound, followed by safrole (2.03 and 2.59 µg/cm2) and myristicin (3.59 and 4.96 µg/cm2), based on 24-h LC50 values. The phenylpropanoids were less toxic than benfuracarb (LC50, 0.75 and 0.55 µg/cm2). In vapor-phase mortality tests with the larvae, the phenylpropanoids were consistently more toxic in closed versus open containers, indicating that the effect of the compounds was largely a result of vapor action. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on A. sieboldii plant-derived products as potential fumigants for the control of mushroom fly populations in mushroom houses and mushroom compost.
Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens
Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed.
Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L
The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae.
Gruner, S V; Slone, D H; Capinera, J L; Turco, M P
Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) is a forensically important fly that is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. We calculated the accumulated development time and transition points for each life stage from eclosion to adult emergence at five constant temperatures: 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C. For each transition, the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles were calculated with a logistic linear model. The mean transition times and % survivorship were determined directly from the raw laboratory data. Development times of C. megacephala were compared with that of two other closely related species, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Phormia regina (Meigen). Ambient and larval mass temperatures were collected from field studies conducted from 2001-2004. Field study data indicated that adult fly activity was reduced at lower ambient temperatures, but once a larval mass was established, heat generation occurred. These development times and durations can be used for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI).
Gruner, S. V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.; Turco, M. P.
Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) is a forensically important fly that is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. We calculated the accumulated development time and transition points for each life stage from eclosion to adult emergence at five constant temperatures: 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C. For each transition, the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles were calculated with a logistic linear model. The mean transition times and % survivorship were determined directly from the raw laboratory data. Development times of C. megacephala were compared with that of two other closely related species, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Phormia regina (Meigen). Ambient and larval mass temperatures were collected from field studies conducted from 2001–2004. Field study data indicated that adult fly activity was reduced at lower ambient temperatures, but once a larval mass was established, heat generation occurred. These development times and durations can be used for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI).
Rosa, J M da; Arioli, C J; Santos, J P Dos; Menezes-Netto, A C; Botton, M
The Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the main pest of fruit trees grown in temperate climates in the southern region of Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the major commercial food lures used in Brazil for trapping and monitoring of A. fraterculus in plum, pear, and feijoa orchards. The assessed lures were hydrolyzed proteins of animal origin (CeraTrap) and plant origin (BioAnastrepha), torula yeast + borax (Torula), and grape juice. Response variables included the rate of adult capture (flies per trap per day, FTD) and the percentage of females captured. We also evaluated the number of times the weekly capture rate exceeded the traditional threshold of 0.5 FTD for each lure. Traps baited with grape juice, currently used for monitoring A. fraterculus in Southern Brazil, captured fewer adults and a lower percentage of females compared with the other lures. CeraTrap trapped a greater number of A. fraterculus adults and, in some cases, a lower percentage of females compared with the other lures in pears. Traps baited with CeraTrap had greater capture rates (FTD), particularly during the stages of fruit maturation and harvest, and even in years with low population density of A. fraterculus, thus demonstrating greater sensitivity in the detection of this pest. These results show that, in order to detect and monitor the presence of A. fraterculus in plum, feijoa, and pear crops, protein-based lures are superior to grape juice, especially the animal protein CeraTrap.
Hobart, J A; Smucker, D R
The female athlete triad is defined as the combination of disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. This disorder often goes unrecognized. The consequences of lost bone mineral density can be devastating for the female athlete. Premature osteoporotic fractures can occur, and lost bone mineral density may never be regained. Early recognition of the female athlete triad can be accomplished by the family physician through risk factor assessment and screening questions. Instituting an appropriate diet and moderating the frequency of exercise may result in the natural return of menses. Hormone replacement therapy should be considered early to prevent the loss of bone density. A collaborative effort among coaches, athletic trainers, parents, athletes and physicians is optimal for the recognition and prevention of the triad. Increased education of parents, coaches and athletes in the health risks of the female athlete triad can prevent a potentially life-threatening illness.
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Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja
Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity.
Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren
Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.
Jin, Li; Walker, Adam S; Fu, Guoliang; Harvey-Samuel, Timothy; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Miles, Andrea; Marubbi, Thea; Granville, Deborah; Humphrey-Jones, Nerys; O'Connell, Sinead; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy involving the mass release of radiation-sterilized insects, which reduce the target population through nonviable matings. In Lepidoptera, SIT could be more broadly applicable if the deleterious effects of sterilization by irradiation could be avoided. Moreover, male-only release can improve the efficacy of SIT. Adequate methods of male-only production in Lepidoptera are currently lacking, in contrast to some Diptera. We describe a synthetic genetic system that allows male-only moth production for SIT and also replaces radiation sterilization with inherited female-specific lethality. We sequenced and characterized the doublesex (dsx) gene from the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Sex-alternate splicing from dsx was used to develop a conditional lethal genetic sexing system in two pest moths: the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and pink bollworm. This system shows promise for enhancing existing pink bollworm SIT, as well as broadening SIT-type control to diamondback moth and other Lepidoptera.
Awad, Azza A.; Mohamed, Hend O.; Ali, Nashat A.
Antennal sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), obtained from three different host fruit species (guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae); peach, Prunus persica (L.) Stokes (Rosales: Rosaceae); and orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Sapindales: Rutaceae)), were studied with scanning electron microscopy. This study was carried out to describe the different types of sensillae present on the three antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus) of both sexes of B. zonata on different host fruit. The antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of males feeding on peach and guava fruit. On orange, both sexes were similar (no significant differences were found). The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, are reinforced by some bristles and have different types of sensillae, including trichoid I, II, S; basiconic II; and sensilla chaetica in different numbers on different host fruit species. Numerous microtrichia, as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic (I), clavate, and coeloconic (I, II) sensillae were observed on the funiculus with a great variation in number and length. As a result of feeding on different hosts, differences were found between sexes and some plasticity in size, number, distribution, and position of some sensillae, including trichoid, basiconic, chaetica, and clavate on the antennae of the female B. zonata. These sensillae were significantly larger in females. Also, some morphological and morphemetric differences have been found according to their feeding on different host fruit. PMID:25688086
Muturi, Ephantus J; Mwangangi, Joseph; Shililu, Josephat; Muriu, Simon; Jacob, Benjamin; Mbogo, Charles M; John, Githure; Novak, Robert
Field studies were conducted in a rice, Oryza sativa L., agroecosystem in Mwea Kenya to compare the efficiency of CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps against nonbaited CDC light traps and gravid traps against oviposition traps in outdoor collection of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquitoes. Collectively, 21 mosquito species from the genera Culex, Anopheles, Mansonia, Ficalbia, and Aedes were captured during the 10-wk study period. Cx. quinquefasciatus was the predominant species in all trap types with proportions ranging from 57% in the nonbaited CDC light traps to 95% in the gravid traps. Significantly higher numbers of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Culex annulioris Theobald were collected in the CO2-baited CDC light traps than in the nonbaited CDC light traps, but the numbers of other mosquito species, including malaria vectors Anopheles arabiensis Patton and Anopheles funestus Giles did not differ significantly between the two trap types. More Cx. quinquefasciatus females were collected in grass infusion-baited gravid traps than egg rafts of this species in oviposition traps containing the same infusion. Although most mosquitoes captured in CO,-baited and nonbaited CDC light traps were unfed, most of those collected in gravid traps were gravid. From these findings, it is concluded that at least in the rice-growing area of Mwea Kenya, CO2-baited CDC light traps in conjunction with gravid traps can be used in monitoring of Cx. quinquefasciatus both for control and disease surveillance.
Van Cann, Joannes; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Jordaens, Kurt; De Meyer, Marc
Abstract Previous attempts to resolve the Ceratitis FAR complex (Ceratitis fasciventris, Ceratitis anonae, Ceratitis rosa, Diptera, Tephritidae) showed contrasting results and revealed the occurrence of five microsatellite genotypic clusters (A, F1, F2, R1, R2). In this paper we explore the potential of wing morphometrics for the diagnosis of FAR morphospecies and genotypic clusters. We considered a set of 227 specimens previously morphologically identified and genotyped at 16 microsatellite loci. Seventeen wing landmarks and 6 wing band areas were used for morphometric analyses. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance detected significant differences both across morphospecies and genotypic clusters (for both males and females). Unconstrained and constrained ordinations did not properly resolve groups corresponding to morphospecies or genotypic clusters. However, posterior group membership probabilities (PGMPs) of the Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC) allowed the consistent identification of a relevant proportion of specimens (but with performances differing across morphospecies and genotypic clusters). This study suggests that wing morphometrics and PGMPs might represent a possible tool for the diagnosis of species within the FAR complex. Here, we propose a tentative diagnostic method and provide a first reference library of morphometric measures that might be used for the identification of additional and unidentified FAR specimens. PMID:26798274
Navarro-Llopis, V; Vacas, S; Sanchis, J; Primo, J; Alfaro, C
During 2008 and 2009, the efficacy of the combination of two Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), control techniques, sterile insect technique (SIT) and a chemosterilant bait station system (Adress), was tested in three crops: citrus (Citrus spp.), stone fruit (Prunus spp.), and persimmon (Diospyros spp.). Two thousand sterile males were released per ha each week in the whole trial area (50,000 ha, SIT area). For 3,600 ha, within the whole trial area, 24 Adress traps per ha were hung (SIT + Adress area). Ten SIT + Adress plots and 10 SIT plots in each of three different fruit crops were arranged to assess Mediterranean fruit fly population densities and fruit damage throughout the trial period. To evaluate the efficacy of each treatment, the male and female populations were each monitored from August 2008 to November 2009, and injured fruit was assessed before harvest. Results showed a significant reduction in the C. capitata population in plots treated with both techniques versus plots treated only with the SIT. Likewise, a corresponding reduction in the percentage of injured fruit was observed. These data indicate the compatibility of these techniques and suggest the possibility of using Adress coupled with SIT to reduce C. capitata populations in locations with high population densities, where SIT alone is not sufficiently effective to suppress fruit fly populations to below damaging levels.
Tormos, José; Beitia, Francisco; Böckmann, Elias A; Asís, Josep D; Fernández, Severiano
The development and morphology of the immature phases of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875) (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) are described from a laboratory rearing culture maintained on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera, Tephritidae) using microscopic techniques, including light and scanning electron microscopy. The surface of the chorion of the egg is granulated, and the micropyle occurs at the anterior end. The labrum of the first instar larva does not have sensilla, and the second to fourth instar larvae have setae on the head. The mature larva is characterized by the position and number of the integumental differentiations (sensilla and setae). On completion of larval development, an adecticous and exarate pupa is produced. As for the adult, the mandibles of the pupae are toothed. Five larval instars are recorded, based on statistical analyses of the sizes of the larval mandibles in combination with characters such as the number of exuviae and excretion of the meconium. Developmental time from egg to adult emergence was 18-20 days for males and 21-23 days for females at 21-26 degrees C, 55-85 relative humidity, and a 16L:8D photoperiod. The results show that the eggs and different larval instars of this parasitoid can be unambiguously identified only by scanning electron microscope.
Herrera, F; Miranda, E; Gómez, E; Presa-Parra, E; Lasa, R
Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew; Diptera: Tephritidae), have traditionally been trapped in citrus orchards in Mexico using protein hydrolysates as bait. Recently, CeraTrap(®), an enzymatic hydrolyzed protein, has emerged as an effective lure for monitoring A. ludens at the orchard level and is currently being used by growers in the region of Veracruz. Several studies have revealed that grape juice is highly attractive to A. ludens, and recent work supports its potential use for regulation purposes. In our study, the attraction of A. ludens to different grape products was evaluated in citrus orchards and in comparison to other Anastrepha species in an area composed of mango and chicozapote orchards. Attraction to grape lures was compared with CeraTrap and the standard protein Captor +borax trap. In general, CeraTrap was more attractive than different commercial grape products in several experiments. Only Jumex, a commercial grape juice, did not differ significantly from CeraTrap in the capture of A. ludens males and females in a citrus crop. However, several drawbacks were detected when using Jumex grape juice: 1) higher tendency to capture males, 2) less selectivity against non-targeted insects, 3) higher capture of beneficial lacewings, and iv) the need to re-bait weekly owing to lower stability. In the area containing mango and chicozapote, CeraTrap was more attractive than Captor + borax for Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina, followed by grape juice products, which were the least attractive for these fruit fly species.
Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations.
Krtinić, B; Ludoški, J; Milankov, V
Culex (Culex) pipiens s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) comprises two distinct biotypes, pipiens ('rural') and molestus ('urban'), both of which are thought to have differing capacities due to different host preferences. To better understand West Nile encephalitis epidemiology and improve risk assessment, local distinction between these forms is essential. This study assesses phenotypic variation at larval and adult stages of 'urban' and 'rural' biotypes of the species by complementary use of meristic, univariate and multivariate traits analyzed by traditional and geometric morphometrics. Third- and fourth-instar larvae from a broad area of the city of Novi Sad (Serbia) were collected and reared in the laboratory. After adult eclosion, the sex of each larva was recorded based on the sex of the corresponding adult. Examination of the association between variations of larval traits revealed contrasting variations regarding pecten spines vs. siphonal size and siphonal shape in the 'rural' biotype. Siphons of larvae collected in marshes and forest ecosystems outside urban areas were found to be the largest, but possessed the smallest number of pecten spines. In addition, statistically significant female-biased sexual dimorphism was observed in siphonal size, wing size and wing shape. Finally, we propose that an integrative approach is essential in delimitation of Cx. pipiens s.l. biotypes, since their differentiation was not possible based solely on larval and adult traits. Our findings shed light on the phenotypic plasticity important for population persistence in the changing environment of these medically important taxa.
Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J
Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.
Carabellese, F; La Tegola, D; Alfarano, E; Tamma, M; Candelli, C; Catanesi, R
The aim of this review was to study "female stalking" in the sense of the specific traits characterizing the phenomenon of stalking behaviour committed by women. The main medical databases were searched (Medline, Social Science Research Network, Apa Psyc Net), and 67 articles were selected, reporting studies conducted in clinical populations, case series, reports, reviews, retrospective studies and original articles. We outline a variety of different tactics adopted by female stalkers and a lesser propensity to pass on to physical violence. Nevertheless, female stalkers are more frequently affected by erotomania, and this condition generally increases the risk of violence. If there have previously been intimate relations between the stalker and her victim, this will increase the risk of violence. In a significant proportion of female stalkers, the behavior is carried out in the occupational setting, especially in the field of psychotherapy, where the male-female ratio is reversed. No significant differences emerged between the motivations of heterosexual or homosexual stalkers. In the category of crimes of harassment committed by women, stalking, at least in Italy, seems to be among the most prominent.
Kasap, Ozge Erisoz; Alten, Bulent
We measured reproductive and population parameters of adult sand flies, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli, 1786) (Diptera: Psychodidae), in environmental chambers maintained at temperatures of 15, 18, 20, 25, 28, and 32 degrees C. Based on cohorts of adults at each temperature regime, horizontal life tables were constructed using established laboratory colonies initiated from specimens collected in Sanliurfa Province, southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. The fecundity and longevity of the insects were both highly variable, depending on the temperature. At 15 degrees C, all of the cohort females died before laying eggs, so the construction of a life table for this temperature regime was not possible. Within a range of 18 to 32 degrees C, the longevity of adult P. papatasi increased as the temperature decreased; at 15 degrees C, the mean survival times of females and males were 19.04 +/- 6.94 days (9-35) and 17.84 +/- 7.11 days (9-33), respectively. While the highest number of eggs was found in the cohort at 28 degrees C (44.08 +/- 7.79), this was only 3.60 +/- 1.55 in the cohort at 32 degrees C and 2.8 +/- 0.9 in the cohort at 18 degrees C. This result showed that extreme temperatures negatively affect the fecundity of this species. The cohort reared at 28 degrees C exhibited the highest intrinsic rates of population increase (r(m)) for P. papatasi. The r(m) ranged from 0.098 at 28 degrees C to 0.007 at 18 degrees C. The cohort placed at 28 degrees C was found to be significantly different (P < 0.01) from the other cohorts producing the fewest progeny in terms of net reproductive rate, R(0), (15.87). The values for mean generation time (T) were estimated to vary from 36 days to 271 days depending on temperature. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) confirmed results from the previous studies that the cohort at 28 degrees C orientated and clustered as a distinct group along the first two PCs.
Chelbi, I; Zhioua, E
Details on the productivity and developmental times of a colony of Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae) over 14 generations are reported and compared with findings of previous studies. The average productivity (percentage of eggs laid that were reared to adults) over six generations at 26-27 and at 29 -30 degrees C was 44.08 and 59.53%, respectively. The maximum productivity was 69.5%. The average developmental time over six generations at 26-27 and at 29 -30 degrees C was 35 and 26 d, respectively. The minimum developmental time from egg to adults was 25 d. The Tunisian strain of P. papatasi can reproduce autogenously or anautogenously, depending on the availability of a suitable bloodmeal source.
Mei, Maurizio; Gibson, Joel F.; Skevington, Jeffrey H.
Direct observations of hilltopping behaviour in the thick-headed flies (Diptera: Conopidae) have only been mentioned once in the literature. Hilltop collecting, however, may be an effective way to survey these endparasitoids. The first evidence of hilltopping in species belonging to the subfamilies Myopinae and Dalmanniinae is presented and discussed. Field observations were conducted on Colle Vescovo, Italy and Mount Rigaud, Canada, and museum specimens were examined. Observations and records indicate that four species in the genera Dalmannia, Myopa, and Zodion are hilltoppers on Colle Vescovo, while three species in the genera Myopa and Physocephala are hilltoppers on three hilltops near Ottawa, Canada. Fifteen additional species of conopids have been collected on hilltops and could possibly utilize hilltops in some years as a part of their mating strategy. Detailed phenologies and observations of mating and perching behaviours are given for species in the genera Dalmannia, Myopa, Physocephala, and Zodion. The importance of hilltop habitat preservation is stressed. PMID:20578949
Podenas, Sigitas; Podeniene, Virginija
The Korean species of Limonia Meigen, 1803 crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) are taxonomically revised. Species L. annulata Lackschewitz, 1940 (Lackschewitz, Pagast, 1940), L. bidens Savchenko, 1979, L. episema Alexander, 1924, L. fusciceps fusciceps Alexander, 1924, L. juvenca Alexander, 1935, L. messaurea messaurea Mendl, 1971, L. nemoralis Savchenko, 1983 are new records for the Korean peninsula and L. pia n. sp. is described. Synonymy of L. venerabilis Alexander, 1938 with L. macrostigma (Schummel, 1829) is confirmed. L. tanakai (Alexander, 1921) is not confirmed for the Korean Peninsula. An identification key, redescriptions and illustrations of all species and both sexes of adults, if they were found in Korea, are presented. Descriptions, illustrations and habitat characteristics are given for the previously unknown larva and pupa of L. parvipennis Alexander, 1940. Distinguishing morphological characters of the last instar larvae of Korean Limonia are discussed. Keys to the known Korean Limonia larvae and pupae are compiled.
Billeter, S A; Hayman, D T S; Peel, A J; Baker, K; Wood, J L N; Cunningham, A; Suu-Ire, R; Dittmar, K; Kosoy, M Y
Bat flies are obligate ectoparasites of bats and it has been hypothesized that they may be involved in the transmission of Bartonella species between bats. A survey was conducted to identify whether Cyclopodia greefi greefi (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) collected from Ghana and 2 islands in the Gulf of Guinea harbour Bartonella. In total, 137 adult flies removed from Eidolon helvum, the straw-coloured fruit bat, were screened for the presence of Bartonella by culture and PCR analysis. Bartonella DNA was detected in 91 (66·4%) of the specimens examined and 1 strain of a Bartonella sp., initially identified in E. helvum blood from Kenya, was obtained from a bat fly collected in Ghana. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to report the identification and isolation of Bartonella in bat flies from western Africa.
Fonseca, Dina M.
Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520
Briscoe, Andrew G; Sivell, Duncan; Harbach, Ralph E
Dixidae, meniscus midges, belong to the suborder Nematocera of the order Diptera. The family includes 197 known species classified in nine genera. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Dixella aestivalis (Meigen) from the United Kingdom is reported here, along with its annotation and comparison with the genome of an unidentified species of Dixella from China. The circular genome consists of 16 465 bp and has a gene content consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding, A + T-rich, control region. The mitochondrial genome of D. aestivalis can be used to identify genetic markers for species identification, and will be valuable for resolving phylogenetic relationships within the genus, family Dixidae and suborder Nematocera.
Kahanpää, Jere; Mutanen, Marko
This data release provides COI barcodes for 366 species of parasitic flies (Diptera: Tachinidae), enabling the DNA based identification of the majority of northern European species and a large proportion of Palearctic genera, regardless of the developmental stage. The data will provide a tool for taxonomists and ecologists studying this ecologically important but challenging parasitoid family. A comparison of minimum distances between the nearest neighbors revealed the mean divergence of 5.52% that is approximately the same as observed earlier with comparable sampling in Lepidoptera, but clearly less than in Coleoptera. Full barcode-sharing was observed between 13 species pairs or triplets, equaling to 7.36% of all species. Delimitation based on Barcode Index Number (BIN) system was compared with traditional classification of species and interesting cases of possible species oversplits and cryptic diversity are discussed. Overall, DNA barcodes are effective in separating tachinid species and provide novel insight into the taxonomy of several genera. PMID:27814365
Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah
Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains.
George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Toop, Tes
Worldwide research into nocturnal colonization by blowflies has produced many contradictory findings, prompting investigation specific to southeastern Australia. Initial experiments showed that blowfly colonization begins shortly after sunrise and continues until sunset; nocturnal colonization never occurred. Colonization peaks occurred at mid-morning, midday, and in the hours preceding sunset. In an additional experiment, wild blowflies were captured and placed in cages with colonization medium supplied nocturnally. Colonization occurred on four of five nights, and Calliphora augur (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was the main species colonizing baits nocturnally. Results suggest that colonization is most likely to occur during warm weather and when flies are able to walk or crawl to bait. In particular, blowflies trapped within a confined space (such as a room or car) with warmer-than-ambient temperature may be stimulated to colonize nearby remains. Entomologists should consider these findings when estimating minimum postmortem interval under these environmental conditions.
Sakurai, Kazutoshi; Tomiyama, Kenichi; Kawakami, Yukihiko; Ochiai, Nozomi; Yabe, Shigeki; Nakagawa, Tomomi; Asakawa, Yoshinori
The volatile components from the thalloid liverwort, Marchantia paleacea subsp. diptera were investigated by HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. The monocyclic monoterpene aldehyde, perillaldehyde was identified for the first time as the major component and its content was about 50% of the volatiles, along with β-pinene, limonene, β-caryophyllene, α-selinene and β-selinene as minor volatiles. Using MD (Multi-dimensional) GC-MS analysis equipped with a chiral column as the second column, the chirality was determined of both perillaldehyde and limonene, which was considered as the precursor of perillaldehyde. Both compounds were (S)-(-)-enantiomers (over 99.0 %) and (R)-enantiomers (less than 0.5 %). This is the first report of the existence of perillaldehyde in liverworts.
Horn, Elizabeth; Gergen, Nicole; McGarry, Kelly A
The female athlete triad is a spectrum of interrelated pathophysiologic consequences of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. Components of the triad are not only counterproductive to athletic performance goals, but can lead to serious long-term negative health outcomes. Practitioners caring for female athletes play an important role detecting at-risk athletes early in their course along the disease spectrum. Importantly, women who are evaluated for one component of the triad should always be screened for the other two. Detecting the disorder early is the most important factor for preventing the potentially severe consequences, and requires heightened vigilance on the part of all those who work with this special patient population. In this article, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of the female athlete triad.
Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L
The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.
Thein, L A; Thein, J M
Since the passage of Title IX in 1972, women's participation in physical activity and sports has increased significantly. A concurrent expansion in the body of knowledge regarding women and sports has occurred. Questions regarding menstrual dysfunction and exercise continue, while new questions about menstrual dysfunction and its effect on bone mineral density have arisen. Physical and physiological differences between men and women not only guide treatment, but help fuel policy decisions regarding competition between males and females. It is essential for the physical therapist to remain current on issues related to women and sports in order to better advise and treat the female athlete.
Unger, Robin H
Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments.
Cepeda-Palacios, R; Scholl, P J
Microanatomical characteristics and the size of the ovaries of Oestrus ovis L. during development were related to the intrapuparial-phenological stadia. Mature 3rd instars were collected from the head cavities of slaughtered goats, and pupae were reared under laboratory conditions. The length of freshly dissected ovaries and follicles were measured daily after pupal-adult apolysis to emergence. Ovarian tissue was stained using the PAS-Picroindigocarmine techniques. Oocyte development was classified according to a six-stage scale previously used in oestrid species. Shortly after pupal-adult apolysis, the single primary follicle is still unseparated from the germarium. In early white-eyed pharate adults, the primary follicle of stage 1 separates from the germarium, the nurse cells and oocyte are surrounded by a layer of cuboidal follicular cells, and the remaining oogonia degenerate. Oocytes in stage 2 initiate yolk deposition becoming ovoid, and this occurs when pharate adults have white-yellow to orange eyes. Oocytes in stage 3 are mainly vitellogenic, during the orange to red-eye stage. In stage 4, oocytes complete vitellogenesis and nurse cells degenerate when pupae achieve 90-96% of development. Mature oocytes of stage 5 can be found at emergence. Ovaries and ovarioles increase in size because of yolk deposition. O. ovis begins oogenesis as pharate adults, whereas vitellogenesis occurs during 55-96% of pupal development. Females emerge with one life-long complement of eggs ready to be fertilized, similar to other species of the Family Oestridae.
Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.
The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why…
Offers advice from the upper echelon of females in the training profession: (1) learn the business; (2) get line experience; (3) stop thinking like a trainer; (4) educate executives; (5) partner with the powerful; (6) exceed expectations; (7) develop coping strategies; (8) be realistic; (9) align values; and (10) organize. (JOW)
Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, the author explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female…
Deimel, Jay F; Dunlap, Bradley J
The Female Athlete Triad poses serious health risks, both short and long term, to the overall well-being of affected individuals. Sustained low energy availability can impair health, causing many medical complications within the skeletal, endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive, and central nervous systems. With the surge of females participating in athletics within the past 10 to 15 years, it is both conceivable and likely that the prevalence of this syndrome will continue to grow. Therefore, it is imperative that appropriate screening and diagnostic measures are enacted by a multidisciplinary team of health care providers, counselors, teachers, and dieticians in order to provide the proper care to affected athletes. Initial awareness should take place within the educational confines of elementary and high schools. Screening for female athletes exhibiting risk factors for the triad should also take place at the time of sports physicals. If one component of the triad is identified, the clinician should take the time to effectively workup the other 2. Treatment for each component of the triad includes both pharmacological and nonpharmacological measures, with emphasis placed upon increased energy availability and overall improved nutritional health. Using this all-encompassing type of approach, sports medicine practitioners should feel empowered to continue to promote the lifelong well-being of female athletes in the years to come.
Sharma, J B; Kalra, Bharti
Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a common complex clinical condition, with multiple etiologies, association and pathophysiologic correlations. This review includes the definition, etiology, and diagnosis of FSD. It calls for a bio psychosocial approach to FSD management, which incorporates, but is not limited to, only the psychological aspects of FSD.
Nazem, Taraneh Gharib; Ackerman, Kathryn E.
Context: The female athlete triad (the triad) is an interrelationship of menstrual dysfunction, low energy availability (with or without an eating disorder), and decreased bone mineral density; it is relatively common among young women participating in sports. Diagnosis and treatment of this potentially serious condition is complicated and often requires an interdisciplinary team. Evidence Acquisition: Articles from 1981 to present found on PubMed were selected for review of major components of the female athlete triad as well as strategies for diagnosis and treatment of the conditions. Results: The main goal in treatment of young female athletes with the triad is a natural return of menses as well as enhancement of bone mineral density. While no specific drug intervention has been shown to consistently improve bone mineral density in this patient population, maximizing energy availability and optimizing vitamin D and calcium intake are recommended. Conclusions: Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach involving health care professionals as well as coaches and family members. Prevention of this condition is important to minimize complications of the female athlete triad. PMID:23016101
Hodge, N. J.
This autoinstructional lesson can be used with health education and/or biology classes in a high school curriculum. It deals with the study of human development with emphasis on the female reproductive organs and cycles. The behavioral objectives are given, and the materials and equipment needed to gain these objectives are itemized. Fifteen…
Zuha, Raja Muhammad; Omar, Baharudin
Cosmopolitan scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) is one of the commonest forensic species recorded colonizing human corpse indoors and in concealed environment. The occurrence of this species in such environments provides a higher evidential value to assist estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) compared to other forensically important dipterans. However, developmental and size data of M. scalaris are still lacking and they are derived from a limited range of thermal values. The objective of this study is to develop the growth model of M. scalaris by emphasizing the size range of larvae and puparia at different constant temperatures. This species was reared in six replicates at eight varying constant temperatures ranging from 23 to 36 °C and cow's liver was provided as food source. Larvae and puparia were sampled at set time intervals and measured by their length and weight. Because interpretation of forensic entomological evidence is subject to application of different techniques, development of M. scalaris is expressed herein by using developmental table, length/morphological stage diagrams and linear/nonlinear estimation methods. From the findings, it is very important to highlight that sexual dimorphism of M. scalaris during post feeding larva and pupa stage could be observed based on size and developmental periods. Mean length and weight ratios of male to female puparia are approximately 0.8 and 0.3-0.5, respectively, indicating sexual dimorphism of this species. Developmental period in female are 4.0-11.4 h (post feeding larval stage), 3.7-24.0 h (pupal stage), and 3.0-20.1 h (total developmental period) longer in male. Due to this dimorphism, PMI estimation using M. scalaris post feeding larva or puparium specimens must be carried out carefully by to avoid inaccuracy and misinterpretation.
Hydrelliaeucoila egeria, a new genus and species obtained from pupae of Hydrellia sp. nov. (Diptera: Ephydridae) mining in Egeria densa Planchon (Hydrocharitaceae), is described. Diagnostic photographs and data about the biology of this parasitoid are included. ...
A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...
APPLICATION OF A COMPUTERIZED GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO MEDICALLY IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) I’ Annual Report...Bailey. 1981. Application of a com- puterized information management system (SELGEM) to medically important arthropods (National Museum Mosquito
Strongygaster triangulifera (Loew) (Diptera:Tachinidae) is reported for the first time as a parasitoid of Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Plataspidae), the kudzu bug, an introduced pest of soybeans and other legume crops in the southeastern U.S....
Godoy, R E; Galati, E A B
Lutzomyia fraihai (Martins, Falcão & Silva 1979), described from Três Braços municipality (Bahia state, Brazil), is closely related to Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (Young & Porter, 1972), described from Rio Anori, Antioquia, Colombia. The former species, despite the morphological differences reported by its authors, was included as a junior synonym of Ny. yuilli yuilli, and this status has been accepted by sand fly-taxonomists. However, we had an opportunity to examine both taxa, and a clear difference was noted in their male genitalia. In this study, the morphometric/morphologic characters of specimens that had been identified as Ny. yuilli yuilli from different localities (Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Bolivia) and type material of both Ny. yuilli yuilli and Lu. fraihai were analyzed. The results revealed that males from Brazil (Bahia, Acre, Pará, and Rondônia states) and Peru present statistically significant differences in the ratio between paramere rectangular and digitiform areas as well as for the cercus length and width of the aedeagal ducts tips, when compared with the type specimens of Ny. yuilli yuilli, but are statistically similar to those characters of Lu. fraihai However, females of the two species are indistinguishable. Thus, based on the male morphology, Ny. fraihai STAT REV N COM: was resurrected from the synonymy of Ny. yuilli yuilli. The specimens from the Atlantic forest biome and the Amazon biome in Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia in fact belong to Ny. fraihai This species presents a cis-Andean distribution, while Ny. yuilli yuilli has been found in both Andean and Trans-Andean areas.
The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest that inhabits areas of South and Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean with occasional infestations in the southern United States. We examine intra-specific variation within Anastre...
Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the West Indian fruit fly, is a frugivorous pest that occasionally finds its way to commercial growing areas outside its native distribution. It inhabits areas in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean, with occasional infestations...
Harwood, James F; Chen, Kehui; Liedo, Pablo; Müller, Hans-Georg; Wang, Jane-Ling; Morice, Amy E; Carey, James R
Hypotheses exploring the influence of dietary conditions on the life history trade-off between survival and reproductive success are extensively tested in female insects, but are rarely explored in males. Here, the impact of dietary quality and female access on age-specific reproduction and survival of male Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), are examined. There is a clear cost of female access for males with access to dietary protein, measurable as a decrease in life expectancy, which is further influenced by the age when females are introduced. A protein deficient diet reduces the lifespan benefit of virginity and masks the detrimental effect of female access on male life expectancy. Dietary protein is not necessary for reproductive success, but access to protein at eclosion improves the lifetime reproductive success of males compared to when it is delayed. Overall, reproductive success diminishes as the male flies age, regardless of the dietary conditions, providing evidence for reproductive senescence in males. Delaying the males' access to a protein source fails to influence the negative effect of age on reproductive ability. Because age specific reproductive rates decline with age, regardless of diet, male fitness does not benefit from lifespan extension. Therefore, males can be expected to allocate available resources towards reproductive effort in favour of extended lifespan, regardless of mate and protein availability.
HARWOOD, JAMES F.; CHEN, KEHUI; LIEDO, PABLO; MÜLLER, HANS-GEORG; WANG, JANE-LING; MORICE, AMY E.; CAREY, JAMES R.
Hypotheses exploring the influence of dietary conditions on the life history trade-off between survival and reproductive success are extensively tested in female insects, but are rarely explored in males. Here, the impact of dietary quality and female access on age-specific reproduction and survival of male Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), are examined. There is a clear cost of female access for males with access to dietary protein, measurable as a decrease in life expectancy, which is further influenced by the age when females are introduced. A protein deficient diet reduces the lifespan benefit of virginity and masks the detrimental effect of female access on male life expectancy. Dietary protein is not necessary for reproductive success, but access to protein at eclosion improves the lifetime reproductive success of males compared to when it is delayed. Overall, reproductive success diminishes as the male flies age, regardless of the dietary conditions, providing evidence for reproductive senescence in males. Delaying the males’ access to a protein source fails to influence the negative effect of age on reproductive ability. Because age specific reproductive rates decline with age, regardless of diet, male fitness does not benefit from lifespan extension. Therefore, males can be expected to allocate available resources towards reproductive effort in favour of extended lifespan, regardless of mate and protein availability. PMID:25709143
A recent survey by the Inter-African Committee for Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children found that 75-85 million women in Africa have undergone some form of female genital mutilation (FGM). FGM has long been practiced in Kenya. The ethnic groups which practice it, including the Kikuyu, Kamba, Kisii, Kalenjin, Maasai, and people of Somali origin, have a death rate of 170/1000 of their female populations. Approximately half of these deaths are the result of FGM, a practice which also contributes to the poor health of mutilated women. The adverse health consequences of FGM have led Kenya's President Daniel arap Moi to ban the practice in his country. In announcing the ban, President Moi advised Kenyans to discontinue cultural practices and customs which have no place in modern society and which will otherwise retard development. A number of prominent Kenyans have come forth in support of Moi's move.
Unuane, David; Tournaye, Herman; Velkeniers, Brigitte; Poppe, Kris
Female infertility occurs in about 37% of all infertile couples and ovulatory disorders account for more than half of these. The ovaries are in continuous interaction with the other endocrine organs. The interplay may account for infertility occurring at different levels and may render the diagnosis of infertility a difficult exercise for the involved physician. A hypothalamic cause of female infertility should be considered in an appropriate clinical context, with tests pointing to a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It can be functional, physiological or related to organic causes. Hyperprolactinemia has well characterized effects on the normal gonadal function and treatment is well established. Acromegaly and Cushing's disease may impair fertility at different levels, mechanisms involved however remain ill defined. Thyroid disorders, both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, can interact with the ovaries, through a direct effect on ovarian function, but autoimmunity may be involved, as well as alterations of the sex hormone binding protein levels. Primary ovarian disorders, such as the polycystic ovary syndrome and primary ovarian insufficiency are frequent diseases, for which novel treatments are currently being developed and discussed. We will propose an algorithm for the diagnosis and approach of the female patient presenting with infertility on the basis of the available evidence in literature.
Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A
Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.
Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio
A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi SP NOV: (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil.
Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio
A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil. PMID:25368065
Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.); Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing ca...
Alternative control technologies envisioned for the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) include botanical insecticides, which are believed to pose little threat to the environment or to human health and may provide a practical substitute for synthetic insecticides. In this study, we...
Three new genera and 5 new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) are described from the Nearctic and Neotropical Regions. The new genera are: Agallamyia Norrbom (type species: A. pendula Norrbom, n. sp.), Neosphaeniscus Norrbom (type species: Euribia m-nigrum Hendel), and Phacelochaeta Norrbom (type spec...
The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...
Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the primary vector of bluetongue virus (BTV) in North America and a competent vector of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Little is known about how viral infection of this midge affects its blood feeding behavior. Midges were intrathoracically inoc...
Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the primary vector of bluetongue virus (BTV) in North America and a competent vector of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Little is known about how viral infection of this midge affects its blood feeding behavior and fecundity. Blood feeding succes...
Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the primary vector of Bluetongue virus in North America and a competent vector of Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV). Little is known about how viral infection of this midge affects blood feeding behavior and how this might affect virus transmission....
Garrouste, Romain; Azar, Dany; Nel, Andre
Eocenotrichia magnifica gen. et sp. nov. (Diptera: Scenopinidae: Metatrichini) is described and illustrated from the Lowermost Eocene amber of Oise (France) and represents the oldest definitive window fly fossil. The present discovery in the Earliest Eocene supports the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene age currently proposed for the emergence of Metatrichini.
Dios, Rodrigo De Vilhena Perez; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo
A new Tachinidae species, Eutrichopoda flavipenna sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae), from Brazil and Paraguay is described and illustrated by photographs and line drawings. The remarkable yellow, feather-like setae on the hind tibia distinguishes the new species from all other species in the tribe Trichopodini.
Trari, B; Dakki, M; Himmi, O; el Agbani, M A
The history of the Culicidae of Morocco was related from bibliographical data. A synthesis of the almost entire works carried out on these Insects (Diptera) since 1916 allowed to bring out the main stages of research of which they were the subject, while emphasizing the important periods of large malaria epidemics in Morocco. A short list of species is also given.
Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option for exported commodities such as stone fruits and small fruits to prevent movement of the new invasive pest spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Walker) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal dev...
Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a blow fly genus of forensic, medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. Both species of this genus causes myiasis and are vectors of disease causing bacteria. This genus is also famous because of its beneficial uses in maggot therapy. ...
The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions world-wide including the island of Hawaii, in the Hawaiian archipelago. The need to control large populations over large areas helped initiate the USDA-ARS (United Stat...
A wide variety of blood feeding Diptera feed on extrafloral sugar sources such as homopteran honeydew. he significance of these sugar sources to insect survival and disease transmission are poorly known. Culicoides sonorensis can survive on plant sugars but might feed on homopteran honeydew. The su...
In this study we systematically evaluated for the first time the biting deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti [yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae)] using the K & D bioassay system (Klun et al 2005). The saturated fatty acids (C6:0 to C16...
Bactrocera latifrons is a tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) which has a host list of 59 plant species from 14 plant families, with over 70% of the host plant species coming from the plant families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Bactrocera latifrons is of primarily Asian distribution, but it...
Diptera are one of the three largest and most diverse animal groups of the world. As an often neglected, but important group of pollinators, they play a significant role in agrobiodiversity and biodiversity of plants everywhere. Flies are present in almost all habitats and biomes and for many food p...
BACKGROUND: A mixture of wine and vinegar is highly attractive to spotted wing drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and ethanol and acetic acid are considered key to SWD attraction to such materials. In addition to ethanol and acetic acid, thirteen other wine an...
Spray-dried whole bovine blood, dry poultry egg, and a dry milk substitute are the constituents of the standard artificial diet currently used for mass rearing screwworm larvae, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Due to high cost and uncertainty of the commercial supply of ...
The objective of this laboratory study was to determine the effects of two organically-certified insecticides, azadirachtin and spinosad, on the stink bug parasitoid Trichopoda pennipes (Fab.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) in residual, topical, and oral toxicity tests. The insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin was...
Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Kahanpää, Jere
Abstract A checklist of 112 species of shore flies (Ephydridae, Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. Comparing this to the list of Hackman (1980), 52 changes are made: 25 species are added (all but one recorded after 1980), 18 misidentifications are deleted, 5 junior synonyms are replaced and 5 updated generic combinations are given. PMID:25337031
A new genus and species, Kerteszmyia ecuadora gen. nov., sp. nov., (Diptera: Stratiomyidae, Pachygastrinae) is described from material from Ecuador (type locality), Venezuela, and Costa Rica. A key to the known Neotropical genera of Pachygastrinae with two or more scutellar spines is presented. ...
incongruence. Cladistics 10: 315-319. Felsenstein, J. (1993). PHYLIP (Phylogeny inference package), ver- sion 3.5. Department of Genetics, University of...disease vectors (Diptera, Culicidae): Impact of molecular biology and cladistic analysis. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 42: 351-369. Peyton, E. L
The African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States. Tests were conducted in southern Florida that recorded the response of Z. indianus to baits that included Merlot wine, rice vinegar, et...
The African fig fly (AFF), Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States after first being detected in Florida in 2005. This drosophilid is a primary pest of figs in Brazil, so there were initial concern...
Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infests many solanaceous plant species, some of which are important horticultural crop species. It has also been found to infest a number of cucurbitaceous plant species as well as a few plant species in other plant families. B. latifrons is of ...
Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed....
Norrbom, Allen L; Castillo-Meza, Ana Lucía; García-Chávez, Juan Héctor; Aluja, Martín; Rull, Juan
Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed.
systems for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae ) in seven countries," J. Econ. Entomol. 92, 156-164. 2. Hendrichs, J., Franz, G., and Rendon, P...Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae ) in Israel: Comparison of lures and trap type,". J. Econ. Entomol. 91, 1335-1339. 4. Prokopy, R.J., and...Diptera: Tephritidae )," Fla. Entomol. 83, 411-421. 8. Anderson, J.B., and Mankin, R.W.. (2002). "Comparison of particle velocity and sound pressure
Background Developing embryos are provided with maternal RNA transcripts and proteins, but transcription from the zygotic nuclei must be activated to control continuing embryonic development. Transcripts are generated at different stages of early development, and those involved in sex determination and cellularisation are some of the earliest to be activated. The male sex in tephritid fruit flies is determined by the presence of a Y chromosome, and it is believed that a transcript from the Y-chromosome sets in motion a cascade that determines male development, as part of the greater maternal to zygotic transition (MTZ). Here we investigate the poly(A+) transcriptome in early male and female embryos of the horticultural pest Bactrocera jarvisi (Diptera: Tephritidae). Results Bactrocera jarvisi embryos were collected over two pre-blastoderm time periods, 2-3h and 3-5h after egg laying. Embryos were individually sexed using a Y-chromosome marker, allowing the sex-specific poly(A+) transcriptome of single-sex embryo pools to be deep-sequenced and assembled de novo. Transcripts for sixteen sex-determination and two cellularisation gene homologues of Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) were identified in early embryos of B. jarvisi, including transcripts highly upregulated prior to cellularisation. No strong candidates for transcripts derived solely from the Y chromosome were recovered from the poly(A+) fraction. Conclusions Bactrocera jarvisi provides an excellent model for embryonic studies due to available Y-chromosome markers and the compact time frame for zygotic transcription and the sex-determined state. Our data contribute fundamental information to sex-determination research, and provide candidates for the sourcing of gene promoters for transgenic pest-management strategies of tephritid fruit flies. PMID:25472807
There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…
Gonçalves, R S; Nava, D E; Andreazza, F; Lisbôa, H; Nunes, A M; Grützmacher, A D; Valgas, R A; Maia, A H N; Pazianotto, R A A
Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes, 1924) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) is a koinobiont endoparasitoid of larvae of species of the genus Anastrepha and of Ceratitis capitata. It is a candidate for use as a biological control agent, as under field conditions, it may reach a parasitism rate of 62%. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different constant temperatures on biological parameters of A. pelleranoi when parasitizing the larva of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae), as well as to determine its thermal requirements. The study was conducted in environmental chambers at 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, and 30 ± 1°C; 70 ± 10% relative humidity; and a 12-h photophase. Females maintained at 18 and 20°C produced more progeny than females at other temperatures tested. The longevity of males and females was inversely proportional to temperature, ranging from 49.1 to 3.73 d for females and from 32.1 to 3.8 d for males at temperatures of 18-30°C, respectively. The duration of the biological cycle (egg-to-adult) was influenced by temperature, and ranged from 69.1 d at 18°C to 30 d at 25°C. No preimaginal development of A. pelleranoi occurred at 28 and 30°C. The relationship between temperature and the demographic parameters of A. pelleranoi showed a linear effect over the temperature range of 18-25°C. The lower temperature threshold and thermal constant were 11.69°C and 391.70 degree days, respectively.
Aluja, M; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Arredondo, J; Valle-Mora, J; Rull, J
Commercially ripe 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Mill, artificially exposed to wild Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) females 24 h after harvest were placed in a cold storage facility to determine the effect of low temperature on larval survival and adult viability. Fruit were left for 3, 6, 9, and 12 d in a cold room at 5 degrees C followed by a 20-25-d period at ambient temperature to allow for larval development and pupation. Hass avocados and grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfadyen, maintained at ambient temperature served as controls. Overall, only 0.23% of the Hass avocados and 19.30% of the grapefruit were infested. The number of infested fruit increased with decreasing exposure time to cold. Puparia from cold-treated Hass avocados were significantly smaller than those stemming from cold-treated grapefruit. Hass avocados exposed for 12 d to 5 degrees C yielded no puparia, and those exposed for 6 and 9 d yielded 22 and two puparia, respectively, but no adults. Although Hass avocados exposed to cold temperature for 3 d yielded adults that reached sexual maturity (N = 16), females laid inviable eggs. Grapefruit exposed to cold for 12 d yielded normal-sized puparia (but no adults), whereas those exposed over 9 d yielded females able to lay viable eggs. We conclude that exposing fruit to cold storage after packing and during transport represents an effective risk-mitigating procedure in the highly improbable event that a gravid A. ludens female might lay eggs in a commercially ripe Hass avocado that had been left unprotected in a packinghouse.
Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy; Kemp, Kenneth E
This study, consisting of three experiments, was designed to assess whether diatomaceous earth, when applied to the surface of growing media, reduces adult fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Diptera: Sciaridae) emergence or inhibits the females from laying eggs; and whether fungus gnat adults are attracted to the fungus Trichoderma harzianum T-22 (Rifai strain KRL-AG2) under laboratory conditions. In the first two experiments, diatomaceous earth was applied at two different thicknesses (3.1 and 6.3 mm) and conditions (dry and moist) to the surface of a growing medium (Universal SB 300 Mix) after the growing medium had been artificially inoculated with second or third instars of fungus gnats, or before female fungus gnat adults were released into each deli squat container. In the third experiment, preparations of the fungus T. harzianum at the highest recommended label rate (0.889 kg/m3) were amended into the growing medium and processed 24, 48, or 72 h before use in a series of three two-choice trials with a two-armed experimental arena. In the first two experiments, the dry or moist layers of diatomaceous earth, in general, did not affect fungus gnats in terms of preventing adult emergence or egg laying by the females. During the course of these experiments, we observed that the diatomaceous earth dry treatments expanded as a result of absorbing moisture from the growing medium, creating fissures that allowed the fungus gnat larvae to pupate and females to lay eggs. In the third experiment, fungus gnat adults were not attracted to the T. harzianum treatments in any of the trials.
Rehman, Junaid Ur; Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Jilani, Ghulam; Khan, Mir A; Zalom, Frank G
Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) is an herb native to arid and semiarid regions of Central Asian deserts. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of P. harmala seeds on the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), i.e., adult repellency, reproductive activity, and larval growth, as well as parasitism levels by Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti). Olive fruit treated with 2% extract reduced B. oleae oviposition. In choice tests, female B. oleae spent >99% of their time foraging on untreated fruit rather than P. harmala-treated fruit. These changes in ovipositional behavior resulted in a nearly 30-fold decrease in oviposition marks on treated fruit compared with untreated fruit during a 48 h exposure period. When female B. oleae were fed liquid diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract, there was no effect on the number of ovipositional marks on exposed fruit, but up to 21.4% of the deposited eggs were deformed. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses of deformed eggs revealed that some protein bands were missing. Consequently, the number of offspring produced by treated females was lower than by untreated females. Neither the sex ratio nor body size of the fly's offspring were affected by adults fed diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract. However, there was a slightly prolonged developmental time from egg to adult. Parasitism of larval B. oleae by P. concolor was not affected by infested fruit treatment with 2% P. harmala extract. P. harmala extracts as a potential control for insect pest species are discussed.
Background The emergence and massive spread of bluetongue in Western Europe during 2006-2008 had disastrous consequences for sheep and cattle production and confirmed the ability of Palaearctic Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to transmit the virus. Some aspects of Culicoides ecology, especially host-seeking and feeding behaviors, remain insufficiently described due to the difficulty of collecting them directly on a bait animal, the most reliable method to evaluate biting rates. Our aim was to compare typical animal-baited traps (drop trap and direct aspiration) to both a new sticky cover trap and a UV-light/suction trap (the most commonly used method to collect Culicoides). Methods/results Collections were made from 1.45 hours before sunset to 1.45 hours after sunset in June/July 2009 at an experimental sheep farm (INRA, Nouzilly, Western France), with 3 replicates of a 4 sites × 4 traps randomized Latin square using one sheep per site. Collected Culicoides individuals were sorted morphologically to species, sex and physiological stages for females. Sibling species were identified using a molecular assay. A total of 534 Culicoides belonging to 17 species was collected. Abundance was maximal in the drop trap (232 females and 4 males from 10 species) whereas the diversity was the highest in the UV-light/suction trap (136 females and 5 males from 15 species). Significant between-trap differences abundance and parity rates were observed. Conclusions Only the direct aspiration collected exclusively host-seeking females, despite a concern that human manipulation may influence estimation of the biting rate. The sticky cover trap assessed accurately the biting rate of abundant species even if it might act as an interception trap. The drop trap collected the highest abundance of Culicoides and may have caught individuals not attracted by sheep but by its structure. Finally, abundances obtained using the UV-light/suction trap did not estimate accurately Culicoides
Reindeer are either wild or kept under very extensive farming systems. They are seasonal breeders, with mating coinciding with the decreasing photoperiod in the autumn, and with calving in the spring. Little is known regarding the factors that influence reproduction in reindeer or of their reproductive physiology. Studies carried out to date have mainly focused on issues related to the population dynamics of wild populations and semi-domestic herds, and to a limited extent on the reproductive physiology of the female. Nor is much known about reproductive disorders and their medical treatment, or of the possibilities to manipulate or control reproduction by the use of hormones. Modern reproductive techniques such as artificial insemination and in vitro fertilisation, maturation and transfer of embryos have so far received scant attention.In the future, it is possible that reindeer under certain conditions might be kept in more intensive production systems. Limited access to high-quality winter pastures and increased demands for productivity have resulted in artificial feeding becoming a common practice in various reindeer herding areas in Scandinavia. In efforts to enhance the productivity of reindeer herds, attention has been focused on factors affecting reproduction in the female and survival of the offspring. Further knowledge on these issues seems necessary when developing strategies for optimalization of meat production in domestic herds and the harvesting of wild populations. This paper puts a broad focus on various aspects of reproduction, including factors influencing the fecundity of reproductively active females. In order to understand these effects it is important also to have a basic understanding of the reproductive physiology of these animals.
... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000134.htm Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... Dmochowski RR, Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al; Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American ...
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In October 1989 midwives and nurses held mass demonstrations in Benin city, the capital of Bendel State, Nigeria, to protest against female circumcision. This practice, which is firmly entrenched in the area, may involve cutting off the clitoris or more extensive removal of girls' genitalia, either in infancy or at puberty. Nigerian hospitals no longer perform circumcision, so people do it themselves or have traditional practitioners do so. Recent demonstrations reflect outrage on the part of Western-trained health care activists regarding aesthetic and obstetric complications, as well as added risk of spreading tetanus and AIDS by unsanitary procedures.
Lester, Jaime; Bers, Trudy
Community colleges are generally more inclusive to female faculty as compared to four-year institutions. Women represent 49 percent of fulltime and 50 percent of part-time community college faculty, a stark contrast to the low numbers of female faculty in four-year institutions. Female faculty at community colleges also receive similar rates of…
Buster, John E
Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation.
Female sexual problems are common, frequently overlooked and have a significant impact on the lives of women. Research in the last decade has brought to the understanding and recognition of a number of standpoints, mainly the broad range of normative function. In 2003, the American Urological Association Foundation convened an international committee of experts in the field of women's sexuality, to reconsider the existing definitions of women's sexual dysfunction. Based on the circular response cycle developed by Basson, the group emphasized motivations that might move a woman from being sexually "neutral" to making a decision to be sexual with her partner, as a normative alternative to the need for spontaneous sexual desire as the trigger for sexual behavior. Etiology may stem from medical as well as psychological factors, thus assessment must include a complete evaluation. Treatment includes psycho-education, improvement of interpersonal communication, cognitive behavioral treatment and elucidation and treatment of medical problems, if necessary. Several pharmacological treatments are under investigation, with modest results and uncertainties about their long term safety. This review presents the female sexual response as it is understood today and the current diagnostic and therapeutic understandings and directions.
Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram
Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life.
Versteirt, V; Nagy, Z T; Roelants, P; Denis, L; Breman, F C; Damiens, D; Dekoninck, W; Backeljau, T; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W
Since its introduction in 2003, DNA barcoding has proven to be a promising method for the identification of many taxa, including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Many mosquito species are potential vectors of pathogens, and correct identification in all life stages is essential for effective mosquito monitoring and control. To use DNA barcoding for species identification, a reliable and comprehensive reference database of verified DNA sequences is required. Hence, DNA sequence diversity of mosquitoes in Belgium was assessed using a 658 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and a reference data set was established. Most species appeared as well-supported clusters. Intraspecific Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances averaged 0.7%, and the maximum observed K2P distance was 6.2% for Aedes koreicus. A small overlap between intra- and interspecific K2P distances for congeneric sequences was observed. Overall, the identification success using best match and the best close match criteria were high, that is above 98%. No clear genetic division was found between the closely related species Aedes annulipes and Aedes cantans, which can be confused using morphological identification only. The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex, that is Anopheles maculipennis s.s. and An. messeae, were weakly supported as monophyletic taxa. This study showed that DNA barcoding offers a reliable framework for mosquito species identification in Belgium except for some closely related species.
Robert Liu, Fu-Guo; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting
The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events. PMID:26078303
Steffan, Shawn A; Lee, Jana C; Singleton, Merritt E; Vilaire, Auriel; Walsh, Doug B; Lavine, Laura S; Patten, Kim
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the United States. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies were conducted to assess whether cranberries may serve as hosts for D. suzukii. In the first study, the suitability of ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were assayed by examining adult oviposition and larval development in no-choice trials. In the second study, wounded and unwounded fruit were examined as potential hosts in choice and no-choice trials. Our first study showed that ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were unsuitable hosts (few eggs were laid, with no surviving puparia). In the wounded and unwounded berry study, no larvae survived to adulthood among unwounded berries. Within wounded fruit, D. suzukii readily fed and developed into adults. Together, these results suggest that unwounded cranberries--whether ripe, unripe, or over-ripe--are unsuitable as hosts for D. suzukii. Wounded rotting cranberries, however, can serve as hosts. Across the landscape, cranberry marshes with rotting fruit may contribute to D. suzukii source-sink dynamics.
Murungi, Edwin K; Kariithi, Henry M; Adunga, Vincent; Obonyo, Meshack; Christoffels, Alan
Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major roles in membrane biology, visual processing, memory, olfactory signal processing, and mechanosensory antennal inputs. Thus, these proteins are potential targets for control of insect pests. Here, we report that the genome of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae) encodes at least seventeen tetraspanins (GmTsps), all containing the signature features found in the tetraspanin superfamily members. Whereas six of the GmTsps have been previously reported, eleven could be classified as novel because their amino acid sequences do not map to characterized tetraspanins in the available protein data bases. We present a model of the GmTsps by using GmTsp42Ed, whose presence and expression has been recently detected by transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of G. morsitans. Phylogenetically, the identified GmTsps segregate into three major clusters. Structurally, the GmTsps are largely similar to vertebrate tetraspanins. In view of the exploitation of tetraspanins by organisms for survival, these proteins could be targeted using specific antibodies, recombinant large extracellular loop (LEL) domains, small-molecule mimetics and siRNAs as potential novel and efficacious putative targets to combat African trypanosomiasis by killing the tsetse fly vector.
Alten, B; Ozbel, Y; Ergunay, K; Kasap, O E; Cull, B; Antoniou, M; Velo, E; Prudhomme, J; Molina, R; Bañuls, A-L; Schaffner, F; Hendrickx, G; Van Bortel, W; Medlock, J M
The distribution of phlebotomine sand flies is widely reported to be changing in Europe. This can be attributed to either the discovery of sand flies in areas where they were previously overlooked (generally following an outbreak of leishmaniasis or other sand fly-related disease) or to true expansion of their range as a result of climatic or environmental changes. Routine surveillance for phlebotomines in Europe is localized, and often one of the challenges for entomologists working in non-leishmaniasis endemic countries is the lack of knowledge on how to conduct, plan and execute sampling for phlebotomines, or how to adapt on-going sampling strategies for other haematophagous diptera. This review brings together published and unpublished expert knowledge on sampling strategies for European phlebotomines of public health concern in order to provide practical advice on: how to conduct surveys; the collection and interpretation of field data; suitable techniques for the preservation of specimens obtained by different sampling methods; molecular techniques used for species identification; and the pathogens associated with sand flies and their detection methods.
Changbunjong, Tanasak; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Maneeon, Pattarapon; Ganpanakngan, Manoch; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn; Sungvornyothin, Sungsit; Sriwichai, Patchara; Sumruayphol, Suchada; Ruangsittichai, Jiraporn
Stomoxyini flies (Diptera: Muscidae) include species of parasitic flies of medical and veterinary importance. The adult flies feed on the blood of mammals and may transmit several parasites and pathogens. We conducted an entomological survey of Stomoxyini flies from different sites in Thailand. Stomoxyini flies were collected at four major types of sites: zoos, livestock farms, wildlife conservation areas and a national park using vavoua traps between November 2010 and April 2011. A total of 3,314 Stomoxyini flies belonging to the genera Stomoxys, Haematobosca, Haematostoma and Haematobia were collected. Eight species were identified: S. calcitrans (46.6%), S. uruma (26.8%), S. pulla (4.3%), S. indicus (0.7%), S. sitiens (0.1%), H. sanguinolenta (11.2 %), H. austeni (0.5%) and H. irritans exigua (9.8%). The diversity of Stomoxyini flies in the livestock farms was higher than the other sites. Altitude correlated with the number of flies. This study provides information that may be useful for Stomoxyini flies control.
Daniel, Claudia; Mathis, Samuel; Feichtinger, Georg
The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of sweet cherries in Europe. The aim of our experiments was to develop a new, cost-efficient, lead chromate-free and more eco-friendly trap for monitoring and mass trapping of R. cerasi. Five different-colored yellow panels and three different trap shapes were compared to a standard Rebell® amarillo trap in three experimental orchards in 2012. Trap color F, with a strong increase in reflectance at 500–550 nm and a secondary peak in the UV-region at 300–400 nm, captured significantly more flies than the standard Rebell® amarillo trap. Yellow traps with increased reflectance in the blue region (400–500 nm) were least attractive. Trap shape was of minor importance, as long as the object was three-dimensional and visible from all directions. Based on economic and practical considerations, a cylinder-shaped trap “UFA-Samen Kirschenfliegenfalle” was developed for commercial use and is currently under on-farm evaluation. PMID:26462825
Liu, Fu-Guo Robert; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting
The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events.
Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna
To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females’ midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia. PMID:25793285
Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860
Klick, J; Yang, W Q; Bruck, D J
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has caused significant economic damage to berry and stone fruit production regions. Markers that are systemic in plants and easily transferred to target organisms are needed to track D. suzukii exploitation of host resources and trophic interactions. High and low concentrations of the trace element, rubidium (Rb), and the stable isotope, 15N, were tested to mark D. suzukii larvae feeding on fruits of enriched strawberry plants grown in containers under greenhouse conditions. Fly marker content and proportion of flies marked 1, 7, and 14 d after emergence from enriched fruits and fly dry mass were analyzed. Nearly 100% of the flies analyzed 14 d after emerging from 15N-enriched plants were marked, whereas only 30-75% and 0-3% were marked 14 d after emerging from high and low Rb concentration plants, respectively. Rapid Rb decay, strong 15N persistence, and the economics of using these markers in the field to elucidate D. suzukii pest ecology are discussed.
Bauernfeind, René; Schneeberg, Katharina; Beutel, Rolf Georg
Exechia and Bibio have retained several plesiomorphic groundplan features of Diptera and Bibionomorpha, including a fully exposed and sclerotized head capsule, the transverse undivided labrum, the absence of movable premandibles, and undivided mandibles without combs. The fusion of the hypostomal bridge with the head capsule and largely reduced antennae are derived features shared by both taxa. The absence of teeth at the anterior hypostomal margin is a potential autapomorphy of Bibionomorpha. A basal position of Anisopodidae is suggested by a number of plesiomorphies retained in this family. Apomorphies of Bibionomorpha excluding Anisopodidae are the reduction of tentorial elements, the partial fusion of the labrum and clypeus, one-segmented antennae, the absence of a separate submental sclerite, the loss of the labial palpus, and the reduction of the pharyngeal filter apparatus. Head structures of Bibio are largely unmodified. The subprognathous orientation is one of few autapomorphic features. In contrast, the mouthparts of Exechia are highly modified in correlation with the specialized food uptake. The rasping counterrotating movements of maxillae and mandibles with teeth oriented in opposite directions are carried out by strongly developed extensors and flexors of the paired mouthparts. The modified labium mechanically supports the "drill head" formed by the mandibles und maxillae. The necessary stability of the head capsule is provided by the hypostomal bridge which also compensates the far-reaching reduction of the tentorium.
Abstract Background Fungus gnats (Sciaroidea) are a globally species rich group of lower Diptera. In Europe, Fennoscandian peninsula in particular holds a notable diversity, ca. 1000 species, of which 10 % are still unnamed. Fungus gnats are predominantly terrestrial insects, but some species dwell in wetland habitats. New information Eight new fungus gnat species, belonging to the families Keroplatidae (Orfelia boreoalpina Salmela sp.n.) and Mycetophilidae (Sciophila holopaineni Salmela sp.n., S. curvata Salmela sp.n., Boletina sasakawai Salmela & Kolcsár sp.n., B. norokorpii Salmela & Kolcsár sp.n., Phronia sompio Salmela sp.n., P. reducta Salmela sp.n., P. prolongata Salmela sp.n.), are described. Four of the species are known from Fennoscandia only whilst two are supposed to have boreo-alpine disjunct ranges, i.e. having populations in Fennoscandia and the Central European Alps. One of the species probably has a boreal range (Finnish Lapland and Central Siberia). Type material of Boletina curta Sasakawa & Kimura from Japan was found to consist of two species, and a further species close to these taxa is described from Finland. Phronia elegantula Hackman is redescribed and reported for the first time from Norway. DNA barcodes are provided for the first time for five species. PMID:28325987
Schneeberg, Katharina; Friedrich, Frank; Courtney, Gregory W; Wipfler, Benjamin; Beutel, Rolf G
Larval head structures of Nymphomyia dolichopeza were examined and described in detail. The conditions are compared to those of other dipteran representatives. Our results support the monophyly of Nymphomyiidae. Potential apomorphies are dimorphic crochets on the abdominal prolegs and the complete loss of the tentorium. Possible synapomorphies of Nymphomyiidae and Deuterophlebiidae could be the rows of spatulate macrosetae covering the ventral surface of the labrum-epipharynx, the presence of distinct teeth along the anterior premento-hypopharyngeal margin, the absence of labral microtrichia and some other affinities concerning the life history of the two groups. A clade Blephariceromorpha is also supported by some larval features. Potential synapomorphies of Nymphomyiidae, Deuterophlebiidae and Blephariceridae are the vestigial M. labroepipharyngalis, the absence of a movable premandible, crochet-tipped prolegs, the complete loss of spiracles and non-retractable anal papillae. A clade Nymphomyiidae and Chironomidae is only weakly supported by characters of the larval head. The anteriorly serrate and posteriorly fused hypostoma is a potential apomorphic character. Our results support neither phylogenetic affinities between Nymphomyiidae and Axymyiidae nor a sistergroup relationship between Nymphomyiidae and the remaining Diptera. However, a comprehensive cladistic analysis is not presented in our study.
Birmingham, Anna L; Kovacs, Ervin; Lafontaine, Jean Pierre; Avelino, Norman; Borden, John H; Andreller, Isak S; Gries, Gerhard
We conducted a series of nine laboratory experiments testing the response of "vinegar flies," Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae), released in bioassay chambers to experimental traps and lures. These experiments showed that an effective trap could be constructed from a clear 225-ml screw-cap jar fitted with a hollow 8-mm-diameter cylindrical cross bridge. Flies could enter the trap from either end of the cylindrical "gate" and in turn could enter the interior chamber of the trap through a cut out portion at mid-span of the cylinder. The experiments also showed that a natural-component lure could be made using a teabag containing freeze-dried banana powder, yeast, and carrageenan gum powder as a humectant. When dipped in water for 10-15 s and then placed in the bottom of a trap, the teabag provided effective attraction for at least 7 d. Captured flies were immobilized on a sticky card placed in the trap, allowing them to be easily seen. Unlike other traps that cannot be opened and have liquid lures, the cylindrical-gate trap can be reused repeatedly if the teabag and sticky card are replaced. A final two experiments showed that the prototype operational cylindrical-gate trap with a teabag lure captured 3.3 and 2.3 times more released flies, respectively, than the next best of three commercially available traps.
Richards, Stephanie L; Apperson, Charles S; Ghosh, Sujit K; Cheshire, Heather M; Zeichner, Brian C
Temporal and spatial distribution of egg-laying by Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) was investigated in suburban neighborhoods in Raleigh, NC, by using oviposition traps (ovitraps) at fixed sampling stations during the 2002 and 2003 mosquito seasons. Variations in the phenology of oviposition between the two mosquito seasons resulted from differences in the patterns and amounts of rainfall early in the season. Aerial images of each study neighborhood were digitized, and the proportions of specific types of land cover within buffer zones encompassing ovitraps were estimated. Retrospective analyses showed that in some neighborhoods, oviposition intensity was significantly associated with specific types of land cover. However, in general, it seemed that gravid Ae. albopictus searched throughout the landscape for water-filled containers in which to lay eggs. Peridomestic surveys were carried out concurrently with ovitrap collections to estimate production of Ae. albopictus pupae in discarded water-filled containers and the abundance of females in vegetation that made up the resting habitat. Results of linear regression analyses indicated that the mean standing crop of pupae (total and per container) per residence was not a significant predictor of mean egg densities in ovitraps. However, the mean standing crop of adult females was a significant but weak predictor variable, because the magnitude and sign of regression coefficients varied between neighborhoods. Linear spatial regression analyses revealed that oviposition intensity was not spatially dependent on pupal standing crop or the numbers of pupae-positive containers distributed peridomestically. However, a weak spatial dependence on the standing crop of adult females was found in some neighborhoods. Based on spherical variogram models, kriging was carried out to predict the spatial patterns of oviposition in suburban neighborhoods. Focal areas of high and low oviposition intensity were evident in
Sampselle, C M; DeLancey, J O
Various muscle, connective tissue, and neurologic structures within the pelvic floor play critical roles in the maintenance of both urinary and fecal continence. Recent advances in technology, combined with greater precision during anatomic study, have expanded our understanding of the role played by the pelvic floor in maintaining continence. The goal of this article is to summarize recent research on female pelvic anatomy, with a particular emphasis on the evidence base related to urinary incontinence. The content is organized to accomplish three aims: (1) identify, within the context of pelvic floor anatomy, the structures that comprise the urinary continence system, (2) Describe the functional dynamics of urinary continence, including factors in resting urethral pressure and pressure transmission, and (3) Present the rationale, technique, and interpretation of various methods of measuring pelvic floor function.
Portmann, Luc; Giusti, Vittorio
The practitioner, as well as specialist such as gynecologist and endocrinologist, may face in their office women with eating disorders, abnormalities of menstrual cycles and low bone mass, which may be the first hints of the female athlete triad. In these situations, the practitioner may search other findings of these triad by looking at some particular physical findings and by using appropriate questionnaire. In some advanced forms of this triad specific abnormalities of eating disorders (anorexia and boulimia) may be present as well as amenorrhea and osteoporosis, which may disturb the well-being and cause health damages of women practising sport either as amateur or in a elite setting. An appropriate handling of such disorders has to be proposed to these women.
Bitzer, Johannes; Alder, Judith
Sexual medicine has become an integrated part of womens' health care. Physicians need therefore communication skills to talk about sexuality with their female patients and a knowledge about models of human sexuality, about classification systems, and diagnostic and therapeutic concepts and processes. The diagnostic reaches from a clear description of the sexual problem to an exploration of the conditioning factors. These can be differentiated into biological factors, intraindividual and interpersonal psychological factors and sociocultural factors. These factors can become effective as predisposing, precipitating and maintaining factors. The therapeutic process is based on several steps. The basic step consists in psychoeducation and basic counselling. Therapy usually includes the combination of pharmacologic intervention (hormones, PDE5) and specific psychotherapeutic techniques (sensate focus, cognitive techniques, couple counselling).
Talmor, Alon; Dunphy, Bruce
Infertility affects one in seven couples, and its rate is on the increase. Ovulatory defects and unexplained causes account for >50% of infertile aetiologies. It is postulated that a significant proportion of these cases are either directly or indirectly related to obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obese men and women has topped 50% in some developed countries. Obesity is on the increase worldwide; in turn, the consequences in terms of the associated morbidity and mortality have also been increasing. Obesity is associated with various reproductive sequelae including anovulation, subfertility and infertility, increased risk of miscarriage and poor neonatal and maternal pregnancy outcomes. Thus, the combination of infertility and obesity poses some very real challenges in terms of both the short- and long-term management of these patients. The mechanism with which obesity impacts female reproductive function is summarised in this review.
Beier, K M
Unlike the intrapsychic mechanism for self-esteem regulation in males as a basic component of perversion--extrapsychically (compensationally) culminating in an output of sexual impulses--a functional stabilization of the female self-concept seems more likely if conflict drives were to be focused on reproductional aspects and not on sexuality. It therefore seems more suitable to use a new expression in linguistic analogy to perversion: "reproversion." The case history gives an example of a clinical manifestation of "reproverse" symptom formation. The general survey describes the main points of view in regard to clinically oriented differentiation, i.e., intensity, ego-proximity in the personality structure, and one's own self-acceptance within "reproverse" symptom formation. Underlying personality disturbances are also discussed. The significance of reproversion is relevant to many different specialized medical fields. This is explained in conclusion, using the examples of denied pregnancy and infanticide at birth based on initial empirical results.
Caro-Corrales, Lorena; Caro-Corrales, Jose; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Lopez-Valenzuela, Jose; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Coronado-Velazquez, Daniel; Hernandez-Ortiz, Emilio; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose
The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most harmful pests of mango causing direct damage by oviposition on the fruit pulp. Mango for export is subjected to hydrothermal treatment as a quarantine method for the control of this pest, but exposure to heat for long periods of time reduces considerably the quality and shelf-life of treated fruit. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes of third-instar larvae and adults of A. ludens after in vitro exposure to high temperature at sublethal times. A heating block system was used to expose larvae at 46.1°C for 19.6 and 12.9 min, producing 94.6 and 70% mortality, respectively. Treated larvae were processed for optical microscopy. A fraction of surviving treated larvae was separated into containers with artificial diet to allow development into adults. Adult sexual organs were dissected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Results showed that 94.6% of the treated larvae died at 46.1°C for 19.6 min and none of the surviving larvae eclosed to adulthood, as they developed as malformed puparia. For the in vitro treatment at 46.1°C during 12.9 min, 70% of the treated larvae died and only 3.75% reached the adult stage, but ultrastructural damage in the male testes and in the female ovaries was observed. Additionally, 11.1% of the adult flies from the in vitro treatment also showed wing malformation and were incapable of flying. The analysis showed that surviving flies were unable to reproduce. PMID:25797796
Tormos, José; Beitia, Francisco; Böckmann, Elias A; Asís, Josep D
The development and morphology of the immature phases of Spalangia cameroni Perkins, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) are described from a laboratory rearing culture maintained on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera, Tephritidae), using microscopic techniques, including light and scanning electron microscopy. The surface of the chorion of the egg is smooth and the micropyle occurs at the anterior end. The immature larvae are similar to the mature larva, differing mainly in the size of the head capsule and mandibles. The mature larva displays tubercules on the body segments as well as a pleurostoma and superior and inferior mandibular processes. On completion of its larval development, an adecticous and exarate pupa is produced. The mandibles of the pupa, as for the adult, are toothed. Three larval instars are recorded based on statistical analyses of the sizes of the larval mandibles and head capsules, in combination with such characters as the number of exuviae and excretion of the meconium. There are significant positive correlations between mandible length and width of larval head capsule with the number of instars, thus indicating that the mandible length and width of larval capsule are good predictors of the number of instars in this parasitoid. Developmental time from egg to adult emergence was approximately 33-34 days for females and approximately 28-29 days for males at 21-26 degrees C, 55-85 RH and a L16:D8 photoperiod. Our results show that the eggs and different instars of S. cameroni can be unambiguously identified only by SEM. Therefore, characterization of the immature stages of Spalangia species using SEM should be done before subsequent routine identifications using a binocular microscope or stereomicroscope.
Kaiser, Tobias S; Heckel, David G
Circadian rhythms pre-adapt the physiology of most organisms to predictable daily changes in the environment. Some marine organisms also show endogenous circalunar rhythms. The genetic basis of the circalunar clock and its interaction with the circadian clock is unknown. Both clocks can be studied in the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera), as different populations have different local adaptations in their lunar and diurnal rhythms of adult emergence, which can be analyzed by crossing experiments. We investigated the genetic basis of population variation in clock properties by constructing the first genetic linkage map for this species, and performing quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis on variation in both lunar and diurnal timing. The genome has a genetic length of 167-193 centimorgans based on a linkage map using 344 markers, and a physical size of 95-140 megabases estimated by flow cytometry. Mapping the sex determining locus shows that females are the heterogametic sex, unlike most other Chironomidae. We identified two QTL each for lunar emergence time and diurnal emergence time. The distribution of QTL confirms a previously hypothesized genetic basis to a correlation of lunar and diurnal emergence times in natural populations. Mapping of clock genes and light receptors identified ciliary opsin 2 (cOps2) as a candidate to be involved in both lunar and diurnal timing; cryptochrome 1 (cry1) as a candidate gene for lunar timing; and two timeless (tim2, tim3) genes as candidate genes for diurnal timing. This QTL analysis of lunar rhythmicity, the first in any species, provides a unique entree into the molecular analysis of the lunar clock.
Lachance, Simon; Shiell, Justine; Guerin, Michele T; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia
Poultry barns provide an ideal breeding environment for Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) owing to the controlled temperatures and litter (manure plus bedding material) accumulation. Management techniques that render the litter less suitable for immature stage development, such as the addition of naturally occurring insecticidal substances, could reduce fly infestations. The effectiveness of acetic, boric, and citric acids; diatomaceous earth; and hydrated lime at restricting female landing and growth of house flies in duck litter was evaluated. Litter treated with 1.9% and 4.7% by weight of acetic or boric acid had significantly lower adult emergence rates compared with the same concentrations of citric acid, diatomaceous earth, hydrated lime, or the untreated control litter. The pH of duck litter treated with acetic or citric acid was significantly reduced and remained significantly lower than the control litter (pH 8.7) for 10 d. Significantly more house flies landed on a house fly-rearing substrate (wheat bran, powdered milk, bloodmeal, water, and yeast) than litter treated with any of the other test substances or the control. The LC50 for boric acid was estimated to be 0.01% by weight, which was lower than that of acetic acid (1.42%). Similarly, the LC90 of boric acid was estimated to be 0.12%, which was lower than that of acetic acid (10.03%). Acetic acid and boric acid have the potential to be incorporated into litter as a pest management tactic to reduce house fly populations in duck production facilities.
Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lia; López, Gladis; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco
Field and laboratory no-choice oviposition tests were performed to determine whether the 'Persian' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) is a host of Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae). Trapping and fruit sampling were performed to determine adult population densities and the level of infestation in the two lime orchards. Additionally, unharvested and harvested limes were exposed to sexually mature flies and the number of eggs laid and the immature developmental rates were determined. As a control, parthenocarpic 'Ataulfo' mangoes (Mangifera indica L.), a suitable host for A. ludens, were exposed to similar experimental procedures. The fecundity and fertility of adults obtained from limes and mangoes were compared. Our results demonstrate that A. ludens, under forced infestation conditions, oviposit on limes and also on control fruit. However, differences were detected in unharvested and harvested fruit, as unharvested limes were not infested. In the case of harvested fruit, the numbers of eggs laid and survival rates of immatures were significantly lower for 'Persian' limes compared with mangoes. Egg clutches were larger in limes than in mangoes, and most were deposited in the albedo rather than in the pulp. Moreover, oviposition rates were much higher in limes than in mangoes. Despite the fact that few of the immatures reached adulthood, the females obtained from limes were as fecund and fertile as those obtained from mangoes. Although adult A. ludens flies were captured in the two orchards, fruit sampling showed a complete absence of natural infestation among 'Persian' limes. We discuss the importance of our findings for determining the host status for 'Persian' limes.
Caro-Corrales, Lorena; Caro-Corrales, Jose; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Lopez-Valenzuela, Jose; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Coronado-Velazquez, Daniel; Hernandez-Ortiz, Emilio; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose
The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most harmful pests of mango causing direct damage by oviposition on the fruit pulp. Mango for export is subjected to hydrothermal treatment as a quarantine method for the control of this pest, but exposure to heat for long periods of time reduces considerably the quality and shelf-life of treated fruit. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes of third-instar larvae and adults of A. ludens after in vitro exposure to high temperature at sublethal times. A heating block system was used to expose larvae at 46.1°C for 19.6 and 12.9 min, producing 94.6 and 70% mortality, respectively. Treated larvae were processed for optical microscopy. A fraction of surviving treated larvae was separated into containers with artificial diet to allow development into adults. Adult sexual organs were dissected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Results showed that 94.6% of the treated larvae died at 46.1°C for 19.6 min and none of the surviving larvae eclosed to adulthood, as they developed as malformed puparia. For the in vitro treatment at 46.1°C during 12.9 min, 70% of the treated larvae died and only 3.75% reached the adult stage, but ultrastructural damage in the male testes and in the female ovaries was observed. Additionally, 11.1% of the adult flies from the in vitro treatment also showed wing malformation and were incapable of flying. The analysis showed that surviving flies were unable to reproduce.
Kaiser, Tobias S.; Heckel, David G.
Circadian rhythms pre-adapt the physiology of most organisms to predictable daily changes in the environment. Some marine organisms also show endogenous circalunar rhythms. The genetic basis of the circalunar clock and its interaction with the circadian clock is unknown. Both clocks can be studied in the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera), as different populations have different local adaptations in their lunar and diurnal rhythms of adult emergence, which can be analyzed by crossing experiments. We investigated the genetic basis of population variation in clock properties by constructing the first genetic linkage map for this species, and performing quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis on variation in both lunar and diurnal timing. The genome has a genetic length of 167–193 centimorgans based on a linkage map using 344 markers, and a physical size of 95–140 megabases estimated by flow cytometry. Mapping the sex determining locus shows that females are the heterogametic sex, unlike most other Chironomidae. We identified two QTL each for lunar emergence time and diurnal emergence time. The distribution of QTL confirms a previously hypothesized genetic basis to a correlation of lunar and diurnal emergence times in natural populations. Mapping of clock genes and light receptors identified ciliary opsin 2 (cOps2) as a candidate to be involved in both lunar and diurnal timing; cryptochrome 1 (cry1) as a candidate gene for lunar timing; and two timeless (tim2, tim3) genes as candidate genes for diurnal timing. This QTL analysis of lunar rhythmicity, the first in any species, provides a unique entree into the molecular analysis of the lunar clock. PMID:22384150
Shelley, A J; Coscarón, S
Mansonella ozzardi, a relatively nonpathogenic filarial parasite of man in Latin America, is transmitted by either ceratopogonid midges or simuliid blackflies. In the only known focus of the disease in north-western Argentina the vectors have never been incriminated. This study investigated the potential vectors of M. ozzardi in this area. The only anthropophilic species of these Diptera families biting man at the time of the investigation were Simulium exiguum, S. dinellii, Culicoides lahillei and C. paraensis. Using experimentally infected flies S. exiguum and both species of Culicoides allowed full development of microfilariae to the infective stage, with C. lahillei being a more competent host than S. exiguum. Based on these data, biting rates and natural infectivity rates it is probable that at the begininning of the wet season C. lahillei is the main vector of M. ozzardi and both C. paraensis and S. exiguum secondary vectors. Additionally, it was found that a single dose of ivermectin was ineffectual in eradicating M. ozzardi from infected individuals in this area.
The cellular and molecular characteristics of female germ cells have primarily been studied in the mammalian ovary. In most female mammals, all primordial germ cells (PGCs) develop into oocytes early during ovary formation, and germline stem cells are few in number or absent in postnatal ovaries (Lei L, Spradling AC. Female mice lack adult germ-line stem cells but sustain oogenesis using stable primordial follicles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2013, 110:8585-8590). Research efforts in the field have largely focused on meiosis and follicular development, but a fundamental question regarding establishment of femaleness, which is very important to understand the 'female' germline, has not been discussed sufficiently. Recent work has revealed the presence of germline stem cells in the vertebrate ovary, using the teleost fish, medaka (Oryzias latipes) (Nakamura S, Kobayashi K, Nishimura T, Higashijima S, Tanaka, M. Identification of germline stem cells in the ovary of teleost medaka. Science 2010, 328:1561-1563). This discovery allows direct comparison between female and male germline stem cells and raises an interesting and heretofore unaddressed issue regarding femaleness of germline stem cells. In this article, the germ cell behavior in the ovaries of different species is reviewed and compared, the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of female germ cells are discussed, and the relationship between female germ cells and the surrounding somatic cells is examined.
Brundage, Adrienne; Bros, Shannon; Honda, Jeffrey Y
Seasonal and habitat calliphorid abundance and distribution were examined weekly for two years (2001-2003) in Santa Clara County, California, using sentinel traps baited with bovine liver. Of the 34,389 flies examined in three defined habitats (rural, urban, and riparian), 38% of the total catch represented Compsomyiops callipes (Bigot) and 23% represented Phormia regina (Meigen). Other flies collected in this survey included Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Calliphora latifrons (Hough), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), and Lucilia mexicana (Macquart), which is a new record for the area. Multivariate MANOVA and ANOVA (P ≤ 0.05) analysis indicate significant seasonal habitat preference for all fly species examined. This information may be used to identify potentially forensically impo rtant fly species within Santa Clara County, California.
Musundire, Robert; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Salifu, Daisy; Krüger, Kerstin
Host plant species can affect the behavior and attributes of parasitoids, such as host searching, oviposition, and offspring fitness. In this study, parasitism, host feeding, and sex ratios of Diglyphus isaea (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard), Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, and Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) larvae reared on Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., Solanum lycopersicum L., and Vicia faba L. were determined. In no-choice tests, L. huidobrensis had the highest rate of parasitism when reared on P. vulgaris (46%), L. sativae when reared on V. faba (59%) and P. vulgaris (59%), and L. trifolii when reared on S. lycopersicum (68%). Host feeding in no-choice tests ranged between 2% and 36% and was highest on L. trifolii reared on V. faba. Results of choice tests showed a significant interaction effect for host plant and Liriomyza species on parasitism and host feeding. Within plant mixtures, L. sativae reared on P. vulgaris had the highest rate of parasitism (31%), followed by L. trifolii on S. lycopersicum (29%) and L. huidobrensis on V. faba (28%). Host feeding was highest on L. trifolii reared on S. lycopersicum (14%) and lowest on L. huidobrensis reared on P. sativum and S. lycopersicum (1%). In some instances, plant mixtures resulted in a higher proportion of females of D. isaea than single plant species. The highest proportion of females was obtained in plant mixtures on L. huidobrensis and L. trifolii on V. faba (71 and 72%, respectively). This study suggests that planting crop mixtures can potentially lead to higher proportions of females, thus improving parasitism and host feeding, depending on Liriomyza and host plant species.
Ivković, Marija; Kúdela, Matuš; Kúdelová, Tatiana
All records of blackflies (Simuliidae) from the territory of Croatia are summarized, including previously unpublished data. The blackfly fauna of Croatia consists of 28 species. Simulium (Nevermannia) angustitarse (Lundström), Simulium (Nevermannia) cryophilum (Rubtsov) complex, Simulium (Nevermannia) lundstromi (Enderlein), Simulium (Nevermannia) vernum Macquart complex, Simulium (Simulium) argyreatum Meigen, Simulium (Simulium) bezzii (Corti) complex, Simulium paraequinum Puri and Simulium pseudequinum Séguy are reported for the first time from Croatia. Information related to the ecoregions, in which species were found and specific species traits are given. Genus Prosimulium Roubaud is represented by one species only. Genus Simulium Latreille is represented by 27 species in six subgenera, with subgenus Simulium Latreille s. str. being most species rich (13 species) and subgenera Boophthora Enderlein and Trichodagmia Enderlein represented each by only one species. Compared to the neighboring countries, the Croatian species assemblage is most similar to the fauna of Slovenia and least similar to that of Italy. The relatively low number of species, presence of several species complexes and unclear identity of other species show that further research of blackflies in Croatia is needed.
Pinilla Beltran, Y T; Segura, N A; Bello, F J
Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae have medical and forensic importance. Species of these families are the first insects colonizing corpses and are, therefore, useful in establishing postmortem interval and as indicators in corpse transfer. The synanthropic index (SI) measures the relation of dipteran species with human settlements. Our main objective was to determine the synanthropic index of these families during the rainy and dry seasons in Bogotá. Captures were carried out using traps with baits (beef liver) in three zones (urban, rural, and forest areas). In the family Calliphoridae, the most abundant species were Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) with a sinanthropy index (SI) of +83.1, followed by Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (SI = +92.2) and Compsomyiops verena (Walker) (SI = +42.0). Calliphora nigribasis (Macquart) was not associated with human settlements, while Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Le Guillou) was present in the three zones and considered hemisynanthropic (SI = +19.0). Roraimomusca roraima (Townsend) was reported for the first time in Bogotá and was a non-synanthropic species (SI = -36.0). On the other hand, in Sarcophagidae, three species were collected: Ravinia rufipes (Twonsend), Ravinia colombiana (Lopes), and Boettcheria sp1, which were abundant in the rural and forest zones, the first having a dual characterization as synanthropic and hemisynanthropic, while the other two were hemisynanthropic. Our data showed differences in the association of Calliphoridae species with the three environments, whereas Sarcophagidae were distributed in locations with a lower human impact.
Fu, Liao; Li, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Guan-Sheng; Wu, Xing-Xia; Ni, Wen-Long; Qü, Wei-Wei
The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), is one of the most important pests throughout the Americas. CLIMEX 3.0 and ArcGIS 9.3 were used to model the current and future potential geographical distribution of this pest. Under current climatic conditions, A. obliqua is predicted to be able to establish throughout much of the tropics and subtropics, including not only North and South America, where it has been reported, but also southern Asia, northeastern Australia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The main factors limiting the pest's range expansion may be cold stress. Climate change expands the potential distribution of A. obliqua poleward as cold stress boundaries recede, but the predicted distribution in northwestern Australia and northern parts of Sub-Saharan Africa will decrease because of heat stress. Considering the widely suitable range for A. obliqua globally and in China, enhanced quarantine and monitoring measures should be implemented in areas that are projected to be suitable for the establishment of the pest under current and future climatic conditions.
Grzywacz, Andrzej; Szpila, Krzysztof; Pape, Thomas
Egg morphology of nine species of the cluster fly genus Pollenia Robineau-Desvoidy was studied with scanning electron microscopy. Funnel-shaped micropylar area, chorion covered with centrally depressed hexagons, well developed hatching pleats on the dorsal surface encompassing the median area were found in eggs of all species: P. amentaria (Scopoli), P. angustigena Wainwright, P. atramentaria (Meigen), P. labialis Robineau-Desvoidy, P. mayeri Jacentkovsky, P. pediculata Macquart, P. rudis (Fabricius), P. similis (Jacentkovsky), and P. vagabunda (Meigen). Untypical for Calliphoridae, a dual morphological structure of plastron-bearing area is described here for the first time. On the basis of our observations, all species studied share the presence of a plastron respiratory function on the entire surface between the hatching lines. Differences between species were found in the shape of the longitudinal hatching pleats and the proportion between 'island pattern' and 'hexagonal pattern' of their chorionic surface, and in the intensity of perforation of hexagons of the median area. Comparisons of Pollenia egg morphology with that of other representatives of Calliphoridae revealed its unique structure, allowing easy differentiation from other representatives of the family.
Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Quintero-Fong, Luis
A new adult diet formulation was evaluated for sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) males at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The formulation consists of hydrolyzed protein, sugar, juvenile hormone analogue methoprene, and water. The proportion of the ingredients between the solute (4% hydrolyzed protein and 96% sugar) and solvent (10% methoprene and 90% water) was 5:1. This new formulation was called the 1:24 formulation. The main objectives of this study were to develop a simple way to supply the 1:24 formulation to adults and to compare the sexual performance of these flies with the performance of flies fed a standard diet (called the Mubarqui formulation) used at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The preparation, time, and cost also were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in the sexual behaviors of the males (number of males mating, number of males calling, mating latency, and mating duration) between the 1:24 formulation and the Mubarqui formulation. However, the cost and the required preparation time are much lower for the 1:24 formulation process than for the Mubarqui formulation process. Based on these results, we recommend the 1:24 formulation as an additional adult diet option in the handling of sterile flies. Its application is practical and does not require changes in packaging systems. The contribution of our findings and their potential application to the improvement of the sterile insect technique are discussed.
Weiss Kelly, Amanda K; Hecht, Suzanne
The number of girls participating in sports has increased significantly since the introduction of Title XI in 1972. As a result, more girls have been able to experience the social, educational, and health-related benefits of sports participation. However, there are risks associated with sports participation, including the female athlete triad. The triad was originally recognized as the interrelationship of amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and disordered eating, but our understanding has evolved to recognize that each of the components of the triad exists on a spectrum from optimal health to disease. The triad occurs when energy intake does not adequately compensate for exercise-related energy expenditure, leading to adverse effects on reproductive, bone, and cardiovascular health. Athletes can present with a single component or any combination of the components. The triad can have a more significant effect on the health of adolescent athletes than on adults because adolescence is a critical time for bone mass accumulation. This report outlines the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the triad conditions.
Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field.
Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B
In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.
Joshi, Neelendra K.; Biddinger, David J.; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan
Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed. PMID:25434039
Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Cholidis, Symira; Johnsen, Arild; Ottesen, Preben
DNA barcoding is a practical tool for species identification, when morphological classification of an organism is difficult. Herein we describe the utilisation of this technique in a case of ophthalmomyiasis interna. A 12-year-old boy was infested during a summer holiday in northern Norway, while visiting an area populated with reindeer. Following medical examination, a Diptera larva was surgically removed from the boy's eye and tentatively identified from its morphological traits as Hypoderma tarandi (L.) (Diptera: Oestridae). Ultimately, DNA barcoding confirmed this impression. The larval cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA sequence was matched with both profiles of five adult H. tarandi from the same region where the boy was infested, and other established profiles of H. tarandi in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) identification engine.
Card, Allison; Cross, Peter; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal
Twenty Sus scrofa carcasses were used to study the effect the presence of clothing had on decomposition rate and colonization locations of Diptera species; 10 unclothed control carcasses were compared to 10 clothed experimental carcasses over 58 days. Data collection occurred at regular accumulated degree day intervals; the level of decomposition as Total Body Score (TBSsurf ), pattern of decomposition, and Diptera present was documented. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in the rate of decomposition, (t427 = 2.59, p = 0.010), with unclothed carcasses decomposing faster than clothed carcasses. However, the overall decomposition rates from each carcass group are too similar to separate when applying a 95% CI, which means that, although statistically significant, from a practical forensic point of view they are not sufficiently dissimilar as to warrant the application of different formulae to estimate the postmortem interval. Further results demonstrated clothing provided blow flies with additional colonization locations.
Joshi, Neelendra K; Biddinger, David J; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan
Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed.
Dohino, Toshiyuki; Hallman, Guy J; Grout, Timothy G; Clarke, Anthony R; Follett, Peter A; Cugala, Domingos R; Minh Tu, Duong; Murdita, Wayan; Hernandez, Emilio; Pereira, Rui; Myers, Scott W
Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is arguably the most important tephritid attacking fruits after Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). In 2003 it was found in Africa and quickly spread to most of the sub-Saharan part of the continent, destroying fruits and creating regulatory barriers to their export. The insect is causing new nutritional and economic losses across Africa, as well as the losses it has caused for decades in infested areas of Asia, New Guinea, and Hawaii. This new panorama represents a challenge for fruit exportation from Africa. Phytosanitary treatments are required to export quarantined commodities out of infested areas to areas where the pest does not exist and could become established. This paper describes current phytosanitary treatments against B. dorsalis and their use throughout the world, the development of new treatments based on existing research, and recommendations for further research to provide phytosanitary solutions to the problem.
ARMY TRAINING, *APPRENTICESHIP, * FEMALES , MILITARY TRAINING, MALES, AUSTRALIA, STRESS(PSYCHOLOGY), ATTITUDES(PSYCHOLOGY), ROLES(BEHAVIOR), ASSIMILATION, SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE, COMMERCE, INSTRUCTORS, WORK
Piperine [(E,E)-1-pip- eroyl-piperidine] is a major piperidine alkaloid iso- lated from Piper nigrum Linn (Rathnawathie and Buckle 1983). Natural...Lee, S. C. Shin, J. D. Park, and Y. J. Ahn. 2002. Larvicidal activity of isobutylamides identiÞed in Piper nigrum fruits against three mosquito...piperine in pepper ( Piper nigrum ) using high-perfor- mance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. 264: 316Ð 320. Ribeiro, T. S., L. Freire-de-Lima, J. O
insecticides in the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae): an experimental reevaluation. J. Econ. Entomol. 87: 885Ð893. Hougard, J. M., S...New Jersey Mosquito Extermina- tion Association and the 19th Annual Meeting of the American Mosquito Control Association, 12 March 1963, Atlantic City
modifications for blackflies (see Mebrahtu et al. allele at a single locus (e.g., PG) were used to 1986). Electrophoresis equipment (Helena Lab... blackfly (Simuliidae: Diptera) larvae and an intraspecific enzyme polymorphism. Mere- pupae found in Ethiopia. Sinet: Ethiop. J. Sci. 2: dith and Townson...1970. Biology of immature stages of -of hlackflies in Simulium venustum and verecundum blackflies in parts of East Africa with special refer- species
Theobald) are herein des- cribed for the first time. Aedes vexans (Meigen) is the only other species in the subgenus Aedimorphus which has the eggs ...1972 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1972 to 00-00-1972 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Description of the Egg of Aedes (Aedimorphus) domesticus...ANSI Std Z39-18 60 Description of the Egg of Aedes (Aedimorphus) domesticus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae)l John F. Reinert* Department of
Çalışkan, Hakan; Şahin, Yalçın
Abstract Background This paper includes 2742 specimens of 18 species of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) collected from 132 lotic sites in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, in the early summer of 2002 and 2003 and the spring of 2005 and 2006. New information All species are recorded from this region for the first time, and Metacnephia nigra (Rubtsov, 1940) is a new record for Turkey. Distributional and taxonomical remarks are given for each species. PMID:25941452
Slama, Darine; Khedher, Asma; Bdira, Sassi; Khayech, Fethi; Delecolle, Jean-claude; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Emna, Chaker
This study was carried out of the region of Monastir in Central Tunisia, between July and August 2010. Larvae were collected using a floatation technique with magnesium sulfate in mud samples. The fourth instar larva of Culicoides cataneii Clastrier, 1957 and Culicoides sahariensis Callot, Kremer, Bailly-Choumara, 1970 are described, illustrated and drawn. Measurements of instars IV are also presented. This is the first record of Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to Tunisia.
Reemer, Menno; Morales, Mirian N
The hoverfly species Palpada panorama sp. n. (Diptera: Syrphidae) is described based on specimens from Peru and Suriname. It belongs to the scutellaris species group and it is most similar to P. erratica (Curran, 1930), from which it differs most notably by the strongly enlarged ommatidia in the upper half of the eye. Additional differences between these two species and an adjustment for the latest identification key for the species of the scutellaris group are given.
Petersen, Matthew J.; Parker, Charles R.; Bernard, Ernest
The list of crane flies (Diptera: Ptychopteridae, Tipuloidea, Trichoceridae) known from Great Smoky Mountains National Park is updated. Sampling in association with the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of Great Smoky Mountains National Park resulted in the addition of 107 new Park records, bringing the current list to 250 species. This species assemblage is much richer than those of surrounding areas, although similar in composition. Total richness is estimated to be between 450 and 500 species for Great Smoky Mountains National Park.
Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Chuntian; Wang, Xinhua
The genus Parerigone (Diptera, Tachinidae) is reviewed. Five new species from China, P. atrisetosa sp. nov., P. flava sp. nov., P. flavisquama sp. nov., P. laxifrons sp. nov. and P. wangi sp. nov., are described and illustrated. Parerigone flavihirta (Chao & Sun) is proposed as a new synonym of P. takanoi Mesnil. Diagnosis of species examined and a key to the 15 species of Parerigone are provided.
Am. Entomol. Inst. (Ann Arbor) 1(2):1-17. 1967. Estudios sobre mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae). Ia. Un proyecto para un estudio sistematico de los...subgenero Nyssorhynchus do Brasil. Arq. Hig. Saude Publica 8:141-162. 1950. Do diagnostico diferencial entre A (N) strodel e A (N) pessoai na fase larvaria...Mex. , D. F. , Secr. Salubr. Asist. 181 p. Vargas V. M. 1956. Clave numerica para identificacion de larvas en cuarta fase de Anophelini en Costa Rica
Middle America. Contrib. Am. Entomol. Inst. (Ann Arbor) 1(2):1-17. 1967. Estudios sobre mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae). Ia. Un proyecto para un estudio...N) pessoai na fase larvaria. Rev. Bras. Malariol. 2:38-48. Galvao, A. L. A. and F. A. D. Amaral 1938. Sobre urn novo anofelino de Campos do Jordao...Salubr. Taxonomia y distribution. Mex., D. F., P* identification de larvas en cuarta fase de Rev. Biol. Trop. 4:27-34. identification de larvas
Rossi, Gustavo C; Stein, Marina; Almirón, Walter R
Psorophora (Grabhamia) varinervis Edwards (Diptera: Culicidae) is redescribed in the adult stage. Pupa and fourth-stage larva are described and illustrated for the first time. Information about distribution, bionomics, and taxonomy also is included. Adults of Ps. varinervis can be separated from the closely related species Ps. (Gra.) discolor (Coquillett) on the basis of the wing characters, and the larva by the siphon and antenna characters.
Faran 1979:27 (d*, ?*, P*, L*). Type-lot: 1.5 km S of Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador (USNM). Name Rejected Anopheles subpictus var. vadakadiensis...25. Type Depositories AMC. Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Medical Science, P.L.A., People’s Republic of China. BMC...YeZanoconion) from Bolivia and Ecuador (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 11:135-138. Sirivanakarn, S. 1982 (1983). A review of the systematics and
populations of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) nuneztovari Gabaldón (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia Mayury Fajardo Ramos, Ranulfo González Obando/+, Marco...Fidel Suárez, David López, Richard Wilkerson1, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum2 Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas y Facultad de Salud , AA 25623...Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia 1Division of Entomology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, US 2Departamento de
sandflies based on total collections in the area. Solid black bars. on R. H. and temperature rows represent average daily minimums per month and...and other arthropods of pUblic health and veterinary significance. DECK 2 PHLEBOTOMUS SANDFLIES OF THE PALOICH AREA IN THE SUDAN (DIPTERA...PSYCHODIDAE)’ 2860 By Laurence W. Quate2 Abstract: This report describes results of field studies on Phlebotomus sandflies from August 1962 to October
Calhau, Julia; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo
Mapinguari Papavero & Wilcox, 1974 (Diptera, Mydidae, Mydinae) is a very rare monotypic genus, with the type-species, M. politus (Wiedemann, 1828), occurring exclusively in Amazonia. With the description of Mapinguari uai sp. nov. from a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, the distribution of the genus is greatly expanded. In addition, an updated diagnosis for the genus and its type-species is provided.
DeCherney, A H; Berkowitz, G S
Studies have shown that fertility (defined as number of live births) declines with age in women. However, it is not known to what extent other factors, such as male reproductive capacity and coital patterns affect this decrease. Male fecundity may also decline with age, and coital frequency is believed to decline with length of marriage. All these factors are closely related to the woman's age. The effects of male fecundity and coital frequency can be eliminated in evaluating female fecundity by studying patients who have received artificial insemination and restricting the group to those with azoospermic husbands. In 2193 patients drawn from 11 centers in France that offer artificial insemination with frozen donor semen, women over 30 exhibited a marked decline in fecundity. The cumulative success rate after 12 cycles of insemination was 73% for those under 25, 74.1% for the 26-30 age group, 61.5% for those 31-35 years old, and 53.6% for those over 35 years. The difference in fecundity with age was consistent across the centers, an important factor to note since the mean success rate per cycle differed considerably among the participating centers. The decreased fecundity in women over 30 may be attributed to gynecologic diseases, or effects of age on the incidence of tubal deciliation and occurrence of ovulatory disorders. New guidelines for counseling on reproduction may be needed for women over 30. Currently, counseling regarding reproduction and maternal age is limited to increased risks of Down's syndrome and other genetic abnormalities and risks of spontaneous abortion and perinatal deaths. The age of a woman should be considered when deciding when to start an infertility workup or stop treatment for infertility, and in selecting appropriate candidates for tubal surgery and in vitro fertilization. There is also a need to reevaluate individual and societal goals regarding childbearing to accommodate women's desires to have both a family and a career.
Robacker, David C; Thomas, Donald B
Feral Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), were trapped in a citrus orchard in Mexico by using two types of synthetic food-odor lures, the AFF lure (Anastrepha fruit fly lure, APTIV, Inc., Portland, OR) and the BioLure (two-component MFF lure, Suterra LLC, Inc., Bend, OR). In Multilure traps (Better World Manufacturing, Inc., Miami, FL) containing water, BioLures captured about the same numbers of flies as AFF lures. In Multilure traps containing antifreeze solution, BioLures captured 2 and 5 times more flies than AFF lures in two experiments. BioLures, and AFF lures did not differ in attractiveness when used on sticky traps (Intercept trap, APTIV, Inc.; and sticky cylinder trap). Multilure traps captured >4 times as many flies as sticky traps with the exception that captures of females did not differ between Multilure and sticky traps baited with AFF lures. The percentage of females captured in Multilure traps was greater when traps were baited with BioLures compared with AFF lures, but the reverse was true for sticky traps. Sticky cylinder traps captured a higher percentage of females than Multilure traps. The most effective trap/lure combination was the Multilure trap baited with BioLure and antifreeze. In comparison with tests of these two lures in Texas, results were similar for Multilure traps, but they differed for sticky cylinder traps in that AFF lures were consistently more attractive than BioLures in Texas, but not in Mexico.
Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.
Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968
Chahad-Ehlers, S; Arthur, L P; Lima, A L A; Gesto, J S M; Torres, F R; Peixoto, A A; de Brito, R A
We expanded the view of Clock (Clk) and cycle (cyc) gene evolution in Diptera by studying the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Afra), a Brachycera. Despite the high conservation of clock genes amongst insect groups, striking structural and functional differences of some clocks have appeared throughout evolution. Clk and cyc nucleotide sequences and corresponding proteins were characterized, along with their mRNA expression data, to provide an evolutionary overview in the two major groups of Diptera: Lower Diptera and Higher Brachycera. We found that AfraCYC lacks the BMAL (Brain and muscle ARNT-like) C-terminus region (BCTR) domain and is constitutively expressed, suggesting that AfraCLK has the main transactivation function, which is corroborated by the presence of poly-Q repeats and an oscillatory pattern. Our analysis suggests that the loss of BCTR in CYC is not exclusive of drosophilids, as it also occurs in other Acalyptratae flies such as tephritids and drosophilids, however, but it is also present in some Calyptratae, such as Muscidae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae. This indicates that BCTR is missing from CYC of all higher-level Brachycera and that it was lost during the evolution of Lower Brachycera. Thus, we can infer that CLK protein may play the main role in the CLK\\CYC transcription complex in these flies, like in its Drosophila orthologues.
Vasconcelos, S D; Salgado, R L; Barbosa, T M; Souza, J R B
The diversity of necrophagous Diptera is largely unknown in seasonally dry tropical forests, despite their medical, veterinary, and forensic relevance. We performed a study in the dry Caatinga forest exclusive to Brazil in order to assess the diversity and temporal pattern of Diptera species using pig carcasses as substrates. Adults were collected daily until complete skeletonization. We collected 17,142 adults from 18 families, 10 of which comprise species with known necrophagous habits. The most abundant families were Calliphoridae (47.3% of specimens), Sarcophagidae (20.8%), and Muscidae (15.5%), whereas Sarcophagidae stood out in terms of richness with 21 species. The native Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the invasive Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedmann) (Calliphoridae) were the dominant species. A total of 18 species reached the carcass during the first 48 h postdeath. The bloated and active decay stages had the highest richness and abundance of dipterans. From a forensic standpoint, C. macellaria and C. albiceps are likely to aid in establishing postmortem interval due to their early arrival and high abundance on the carcass. Despite harsh environmental conditions, the Caatinga harbors a rich assemblage of dipterans that play a key role in carrion decomposition. Their medico-veterinary importance is strengthened by the poor local sanitary conditions.
Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Rafinejad, Javad; Nozari, Jamasb; Rassi, Yavar; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Hosseini, Mostafa
Background: Bait-trapping appears to be a generally useful method of studying fly populations. The aim of this study was to construct a new adult flytrap by some modifications in former versions and to evaluate its applicability in a subtropical zone in southern Iran. Methods: The traps were constructed with modification by adding some equipment to a polyethylene container (18× 20× 33 cm) with lid. The fresh sheep meat was used as bait. Totally 27 adult modified traps were made and tested for their efficacies to attract adult flies. The experiment was carried out in a range of different topographic areas of Fars Province during June 2010. Results: The traps were able to attract various groups of adult flies belonging to families of: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, and Faniidae. The species of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) include the majority of the flies collected by this sheep-meat baited trap. Conclusion: This adult flytrap can be recommended for routine field sampling to study diversity and population dynamics of flies where conducting of daily collection is difficult. PMID:23378969
Jackson, B T; Stone, C M; Ebrahimi, B; Briët, O J T; Foster, W A
A large-scale mesocosm was constructed and tested for its effectiveness for use in experiments on behaviour, reproduction and adult survivorship in the Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in temperate climates. The large space (82.69 m(3) ) allowed for semi-natural experiments that increased demand on a mosquito's energetic reserves in an environment of widely distributed resources. A one-piece prefabricated enclosure, made with white netting and vinyl, prevented the ingress of predators and the egress of mosquitoes. Daylight and white materials prompted the mosquitoes to seclude themselves in restricted daytime resting sites and allowed the easy collection of dead bodies so that daily mortality could be assessed accurately using a method that accounts for the loss of a proportion of bodies. Here, daily, age-dependent mortality rates of males and females were estimated using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. In overnight experiments, mosquitoes successfully located plants and took sugar meals. A 3-week survival trial with a single cohort demonstrated successful mating, blood feeding, oviposition and long life. The relatively low cost of the mesocosm and the performance of the mosquitoes in it make it a viable option for any behavioural or ecological study of tropical mosquitoes in which space and seasonal cold are constraining factors.
Smith, J L; Wells, J D
Being able to efficiently differentiate between male and female individuals in the immature forms of insects allows for investigations into sexually dimorphic patterns of growth rates and gene expression. For species lacking sex-specific morphological characteristics during these periods, alternative methods must be devised. Commonly, isolation of sex determination genes reveals sex-specific band patterns and allows for markers that can be used in insect control. For blow flies, a family that includes flies of medical and forensic importance, sex has previously been identified in some members using the male-specific exon in the transformer gene. This gene is relatively conserved between members of the genera Cochliomyia and Lucilia (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and we isolated a portion of this gene in an additional forensically and medically important blow fly genus using the widespread Chrysomya megacephala (F.). We found a relatively high level of conservation between exons 1 and 2 of transformer and were able to amplify a region containing the male-specific exon in C. megacephala A sex-specific molecular diagnostic test based on the presence of sexually dimorphic PCR product bands showed the expected genotype for adults and intrapuparial period specimens of known sex. The same result could be obtained from single third-instar larval specimens, opening up the possibility to not only determine if development rates are sex dependent, but also to investigate the development of sexually dimorphic traits of interest in C. megacephala.
Oliveira, Diego L; Soares, Thiago F; Vasconcelos, Simão D
Insects associated with carrion can have parasitological importance as vectors of several pathogens and causal agents of myiasis to men and to domestic and wild animals. We tested the attractiveness of animal baits (chicken liver) at different stages of decomposition to necrophagous species of Diptera (Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Phoridae and Sarcophagidae) in a rainforest fragment in Brazil. Five types of bait were used: fresh and decomposed at room temperature (26 °C) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. A positive correlation was detected between the time of decomposition and the abundance of Calliphoridae and Muscidae, whilst the abundance of adults of Phoridae decreased with the time of decomposition. Ten species of calliphorids were registered, of which Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Chloroprocta idioidea showed a positive significant correlation between abundance and decomposition. Specimens of Sarcophagidae and Fanniidae did not discriminate between fresh and highly decomposed baits. A strong female bias was registered for all species of Calliphoridae irrespective of the type of bait. The results reinforce the feasibility of using animal tissues as attractants to a wide diversity of dipterans of medical, parasitological and forensic importance in short-term surveys, especially using baits at intermediate stages of decomposition.
Rama, Aarti; Kesari, Shreekant; Das, Pradeep; Kumar, Vijay
Extensive application of routine insecticide i.e., Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to control Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae), the proven vector of Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India, had evoked the problem of resistance/ tolerance against DDT, eventually nullifying the DDT dependent strategies to handle the nuisance caused by them. Because tolerating an hour exposure of DDT is not so challenging for resistant P. argentipes, estimating susceptibility by exposing sand flies to insecticide for just an hour becomes trivial and futile task.Therefore, present bioassay study was carried out to investigate the maximum limit of exposure time to which DDT resistant P. argentipes combat its effect for their survival. The mortality rate of laboratory reared DDT resistant strain P. argentipes exposed to DDT was studied at discriminating time intervals of 60 minutes and concluded that highly resistant sand flies can withstand up to 420 minutes of this insecticide exposure. Also, the Lethal time (LT) for female P. argentipes were observed to be higher than that of male suggesting its nature of being highly resistant to its toxicity. The result is supportive for monitoring the tolerance limit with respect to time and hence attribute towards an urgent need of change in rhetoric form of WHO protocol for susceptibility identification in resistant P. argentipes.
Grootaert, Patrick; Shamshev, Igor
Thirty-two species of Hybotidae (Diptera: Empidoidea) were collected during the Boyekoli Ebale Congo 2010 Expedition that took place in the Democratic Republic of Congo along the Congo River between Kisangani and Bumba. Only four species were known previously. Here we present new records for Syndyas crisis Garrett Jones, 1940 and Crossopalpus aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830). In addition Syneches elevatus Bezzi, 1908 and Crossopalpus quadrispina (Collart, 1934) are re-described based on the type material as well as on new material. Elaphropeza ghesquierei (Collart, 1934) and E. plagiata (Bezzi, 1908) were not found during the expedition, but are also re-described. Twenty-five species are described as new to science: Crossopalpus yaekela sp. nov., Drapetis congoensis sp. nov., D. yaekelaensis sp. nov., D. zamba sp. nov., Elaphropeza angulata sp. nov., E. baeloi sp. nov., E. congoensis sp. nov., E. excavata sp. nov., E. furcata sp. nov., E. incerta sp. nov., E. infuscata sp. nov., E. interrupta sp. nov., E. juakalyi sp. nov., E. kona sp. nov., E. laudisoitae sp. nov., E. mai sp. nov., E. monoseta sp. nov., E. motane sp. nov., E. moyindo sp. nov., E. nuda sp. nov., E. yaekela sp. nov., E. zamba sp. nov., Stilpon congoensis sp. nov., S. variabilis sp. nov. and Syndyas zamba sp. nov. A species of Drapetis and Crossopalpus recorded from females only are diagnosed, but not named.
Smith, Joshua L; Palermo, Nicholas A; Theobald, Jamie C; Wells, Jeffrey D
One factor that influences estimates of time since death using entomological evidence is whether or not blow flies nocturnally oviposit. Field studies focusing on egg laying have found it occurs on an inconsistent basis. A key but poorly understood factor in nocturnal oviposition is a blow fly's ability to locate carrion under low light levels. It has been speculated that blow flies are more likely to walk than fly to carrion during the night, but this has not been empirically tested. We directly compared guided walking versus flying using infrared sensors under low light levels in laboratory conditions for Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a blow fly previously described to be nocturnal. We found C. megacephala is more likely to walk than fly toward carrion under low light levels (p=0.016). We did not, however, find differences between males and females for walking (p=0.48) or flying (p=0.42) despite male C. megacephala possessing eyes better suited for increased light capture. These results demonstrate the need to better understand where blow flies go at night, as bodies found within a fly's walking distance are more likely to be colonized.
Jackson, Bryan T.; Stone, Christopher M.; Ebrahimi, Babak; Briët, Olivier J.T.; Foster, Woodbridge A.
A large-scale mesocosm was constructed and tested for its effectiveness for experiments on behaviour, reproduction, and adult survivorship of the Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in temperate climates. The large space (82.69 m3) allowed for semi-natural experiments that increased demand on a mosquito’s energetic reserves in an environment of widely distributed resources. A one-piece prefabricated enclosure, made with white netting and vinyl, prevented the ingress of predators and the egress of mosquitoes. Daylight and white materials prompted the mosquitoes to seclude themselves in restricted daytime resting sites and allowed easy collection of dead bodies so that daily mortality could be assessed accurately, using a method that accounts for a proportion of bodies being lost. Here, daily, age-dependent mortality rates of males and females were estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. In overnight experiments, mosquitoes successfully located plants and took sugar meals. A 3-week survival trial with a single-cohort demonstrated successful mating, blood feeding, oviposition, and long life. The relatively low cost of the mesocosm and the performance of the mosquitoes in it make it a viable option for any behavioural or ecological study of tropical mosquitoes where space and seasonal cold are constraining factors. PMID:25294339
Russell, Curtis B; Hunter, Fiona F
In an effort to determine whether female Culex pipiens L. and Culex restuans Theobald mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are attracted to crow, Corvus brachyrhynchus, uropygial gland secretions, CDC miniature light traps (baited with CO2 but with the lights removed) were placed at approximately 1.5- and 5-m elevations, in 10 trees in awoodlot near Niagara Falls, Canada. These traps were assigned either a bird odor or a blank control. Bird odors were created by attaching cotton swabs coated with crow uropygial gland secretions to the trap intake. A significantly greater number of Cx. pipiens/ restuans were found in the 5-m traps compared with 1.5-m traps, with a significant number attracted to the bird odor over the no odor traps at the 5-m elevation, but not at 1.5 m. We also found more Aedes vexans (Meigen) in the 1.5-m traps than the 5-m traps; however, presence or absence of bird odor did not influence the distribution of Ae. vexans.
Rádrová, Jana; Mračková, Marie; Galková, Zdenka; Lamka, Jírí; Račka, Karol; Barták, Pavel; Votýpka, Jan
In the light of the emergence of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses in northern and central Europe, an extensive entomological survey within the framework of a bluetongue control program was undertaken from 2008 to 2013 in the Czech Republic to investigate Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected in close proximity of domestic livestock and semiwild ruminants. Insects were sampled using CDC black-light suction traps placed overnight near ruminants in farms or in forest game preserves to provide data on Culicoides fauna collected near these two groups of hosts inhabiting different environments. From almost a half million biting midge specimens collected at 41 sampling sites, 34 species were identified including three species newly recorded for the Czech Republic: Culicoides (Oecacta) clastrieri Callot, Kremer & Deduit, Culicoides (Oecacta) odiatus Austen, and Culicoides (Pontoculicoides) saevus Kieffer. The Culicoides obsoletus species group, incriminated as a bluetongue virus vector, was predominant in both domestic livestock (91%) and semiwild game (52%). A relatively high proportion (around 30%) of C. obsoletus Meigen females with pigmented abdomen (= more likely parous) was observed from spring till autumn. In contrast, adult biting midges were found to be largely absent during at least three winter months, approximately December till March, which could be considered as the biting midge vector-free period.
Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor
Although research has provided evidence to document a relation between parental psychopathology and female delinquency, the dimensions of that relationship are unclear. Adjudicated delinquent females (N=48) completed a general social history interview and three psychological instruments. Probation records were used to analyze subjects' delinquent…
Discussed are several myths and stereotypes about female physiology. Also included are new technical advances concerning the female reproduction physiology, new techniques in hormone measurement, hypotholomic-pituitary-ovarian axis, hormones and the monthly cycles, dysmenorrhea, menopause, infertility, and future areas for investigation about the…
Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia
A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…
The purpose of this study was to investigate, through narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000), the leadership evolution of five female superintendents in California with longevity of 5 or more years in their current school district positions. The research question addressed was, "How do California female superintendents evolve to…
Earle, Janice; Roach, Virginia
Early socialization, cognitive differences, treatment by teachers, and curricular choices have a negative effect on both the self-esteem and academic achievement of young females. Program designers and policymakers should incorporate the following approaches into female dropout prevention programs: (1) academic encouragement; (2) counseling to…
Mishra, Vineet V.; Nanda, Sakshi; Vyas, Bhumika; Aggarwal, Rohina; Choudhary, Sumesh; Saini, Suwa Ram
Background: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is described as difficulty experienced by a female during any stage of a normal sexual activity including physical pleasure, desire, arousal, or orgasm. There are various factors responsible for FSD including psychological status of a person, gynecological or medical problems, long use of certain drugs, and social beliefs. Objectives: To study the prevalence and various factors associated with FSD. Materials and Methods: Study Design - This study design was a cross-sectional observational study conducted at Tertiary Care Centre, in Ahmedabad from June 2015 to March 2016. Sample Size - One hundred and fifty-three fertile females in reproductive age group (20–47 years) were included in the study. Written and informed consent was obtained from all the females. Methods - FSD was assessed with a detailed 19-item female sexual function index questionnaire. All six domains of sexual dysfunction, i.e., desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were studied. Various associated factors such as gynecological or psychological problems were also studied. Exclusion - Infertile patients were excluded from the study. Results: The prevalence of FSD was 55.55% among 153 fertile females. FSD was more prevalent in the age group of 26–30 years and with duration of marriage >16 years. FSD was also more common in females with middle education and those belonging to upper middle socioeconomic status. Psychological stress was significantly associated with FSD. Conclusion: It is right of every female to lead healthy sexual life as it is key to happiness in marriage. Females with FSD can be managed with proper counseling and treating the underlying etiology. PMID:28096637
Paquette, Sébastien Rioux; Garant, Dany; Pelletier, Fanie; Bélisle, Marc
In many parts of the world, farmland bird species are declining at faster rates than other birds. For aerial insectivores, this decline has been related to a parallel reduction in the abundance of their invertebrate prey in agricultural landscapes. While the effects of agricultural intensification (AI) on arthropod communities at the landscape level have been substantially studied in recent years, seasonal variation in these impacts has not been investigated. To assess the contention that intensive cultures negatively impact food resources for aerial insectivorous birds, we analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of Diptera, the main food resource for breeding tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor), across a gradient of AI in southeastern Quebec, Canada. Linear mixed models computed from a data set of 5000 samples comprising >150,000 dipterans collected over three years (2006-2008) suggest that both Diptera abundance and biomass varied greatly during swallow breeding season, following a quadratic curve. Globally, AI had a negative effect on Diptera abundance (but not biomass), but year-by-year analyses showed that in one of three years (2008), dipterans were more abundant in agro-intensive landscapes. Analyses also revealed a significant interaction between the moment in the season and AI: In early June, Diptera abundances were similar regardless of the landscape, but differences increased as the season progressed, with highly intensive landscapes harboring fewer prey, possibly creating an "ecological trap" for aerial insectivores. While global trends in our results are in agreement with expectations (negative impact of Al on insect abundance), strong discrepancies in 2008 highlight the difficulty of predicting the abundance of insect communities. Our study indicates that predicting the effects of AI may prove more challenging than generally assumed, even when large data sets are collected, and that temporal variation within a season is important to take into
Rull, Juan; Encarnación, Nery; Birke, Andrea
As an initial step to improve the efficiency of the sterile insect technique applied to eradicate, suppress, and control wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango producing areas of Mexico, the effect of radiation dose and mass rearing history on male mating performance was examined. Field cage tests in which both male and female laboratory flies were irradiated at different doses (0, 40, and 80 Gy) were released with cohorts of wild flies of both sexes, revealing that both mass rearing history and irradiation affected male mating performance. Laboratory males were accepted for copulation by wild females less frequently than wild males. Copulations involving laboratory males were shorter than those involving wild males. Irradiated males mated less frequently with wild females than wild males, and irradiated females appeared to be less able to reject courting males of both origins. High levels of fertility for untreated laboratory females crossed with males irradiated at different doses may reflect problems in mass rearing affecting homogeneity of pupal age before irradiation, and possibly masked a dose effect. Proposed remedial measures to improve male mating performance are discussed. PMID:22957485