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Sample records for macquart females diptera

  1. Extraction of gunshot residues from the larvae of the forensically important blowfly Calliphora dubia (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Roeterdink, Evan M; Dadour, Ian R; Watling, R John

    2004-04-01

    Whole body concentrations of lead (Pb), barium (Ba) and antimony (Sb) were determined in larvae of the blowfly Calliphora dubia (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) removed from a piece of beef shot and contaminated with gunshot residue and compared with the concentrations detected within larvae feeding on a control piece of beef. Whole larvae were taken into solution and analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significantly higher concentrations of Pb, Ba and Sb were detected within the larvae feeding on the shot piece of beef compared with larvae that were feeding on the control piece of beef. Initial results indicate that the concentrations of Pb and Sb within the larvae decrease as the duration of feeding increases, whereas Ba concentrations appear to increase, suggesting a bioaccumulation of Ba within the larvae. The second part of this experiment investigated the depuration of Pb, Ba and Sb from the larvae following removal of the gunshot residue source. A significant reduction in Pb, Ba and Sb concentrations within the larvae was observed following the transfer of larvae from the shot piece of beef to the control piece of beef.

  2. Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) tibialis Macquart 1851 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): micromorphology of preimaginal stages of a fly of medical and veterinary interest.

    PubMed

    Paños-Nicolás, Ángela; Arnaldos, M Isabel; García, Ma Dolores; Ubero-Pascal, Nicolás

    2015-11-01

    Sarcophagids are a large family of Diptera, with a worldwide distribution. They are related to decomposing organic matter and are very interesting for health science and in forensic cases since many species produce myiasis and occur in human corpses. This family is considered difficult to study, particularly with regard to their immature stages, to which little attention has been paid. Genus Sarcophaga Meigen, 1826 is composed of species of very similar morphology, making very difficult to distinguish. Knowledge of the immature stages of this genus is important because such stages occupy the greater part of the life cycle, so that establishing a basis for their identification will increase their usefulness in systematic and applied sciences. This contribution presents a detailed study of the morphological features, both external and internal, of the preimaginal stages of Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) tibialis Macquart, 1851, providing a taxonomical context for the correct identification of Liosarcophaga species of forensic interest in the Iberian Peninsula. Both light and scanning electron microscopy were applied. Complete descriptions of every stage are provided and illustrated, and their usefulness for species comparison, taking into account our uneven knowledge of morphologically immature stages of this subgenus, is indicated. Features of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, such as the shape of the mouth hook and the intermediate and basal sclerites, and external morphology, such as the pattern of spinose band and anterior and posterior spiracles, proved useful for separating species. Finally, tentative identification keys based on light microscopy observation to distinguish S. (L.) tibialis from other species of forensic interest belonging to Liosarcophaga subgenus are proposed for every immature stage. PMID:26227140

  3. Study on the pupal morphogenesis of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for postmortem interval estimation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ting; Huang, Jia; Wang, Jiang-Feng

    2015-08-01

    Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) is one of the most common species of blow flies at the scene of death in Southern China. Pupae are useful in postmortem interval (PMI) estimation due to their sedentary nature and longer duration of association with the corpse. However, to determine the age of a pupa is more difficult than that of a larva, due to the fact that morphological changes are rarely visible during pupal development. In this study, eggs of C. rufifacies were reared in climatic chambers under four different constant temperatures (20, 24, 28 and 32°C each±1°C, respectively) with same rearing conditions such as foodstuff, substrate, photoperiod and relative humidity. Ten duplicate pupae were sampled at 8-h intervals from prepupae to emergence under the different constant temperatures, respectively. The pupae were sampled, killed, fixed, dissected and with the puparium removed, the external morphological changes of the pupae were observed, recorded and photographed. The morphological characters of C. rufifacies pupae were described. Based on the visible external morphological characters during pupal morphogenesis at 28°C±1°C, the developmental period of C. rufifacies was divided into nine developmental stages and recorded in detailed description. Based on above-mentioned nine developmental stages, some visible external morphological characters were selected as indications for developmental stages. These indications mapped to 8-h sampling intervals at the four different constant temperatures were also described in this study. It is demonstrated that generally the duration of each developmental stage of C. rufifacies pupae is inversely correlated to appropriate developmental temperatures. This study provides relatively systematic pupal developmental data of C. rufifacies for the estimation of PMI. In addition, further work may improve by focus on other environmental factors, histological analysis, more thorough external examination by shortening sampling

  4. Neotropical Copestylum Macquart (Diptera: Syrphidae) Breeding in Fruits and Flowers, Including 7 New Species

    PubMed Central

    Ricarte, Antonio; Marcos-García, M. Ángeles; Hancock, E. Geoffrey; Rotheray, Graham E.

    2015-01-01

    Ten species of Copestylum (Diptera: Syrphidae) were reared from fruits and flowers in Costa Rica, Ecuador and Trinidad. Seven were new and in this paper, we describe them, their development sites and the third stage larva and/or the puparium of all ten species. One new synonym is proposed, Copestylum pinkusi (Curran) [= Copestylum cinctiventre (Curran)]. Similarities and differences between these new and other Copestylum species, suggest they separate into two groups, referred to as the Vagum and Cinctiventre species groups. Features characterising these groups for both adult and early stages are assessed. Each species was also distinguished using adult and early stage characters. Within the Vagum group, adults were more disparate morphologically than the larval stage; this was reversed in the Cinctiventre group. Adult colour patterns are probably cryptic in function and for disguise. Vagum species have disruptive marks, while the Cinctiventre species have reflective colours. Biologically, the groups are almost distinguished by larval development sites. Vagum species use predominantly fruits and have a larval stage that is relatively generalised in form and habit. Cinctiventre species are confined to developing in flowers and the larva is more specialised. A key to both adult and early stages of all ten species is provided. PMID:26580811

  5. One new species of the subgenus Hexatoma (Eriocera) Macquart (Diptera, Limoniidae) from China with a key to Chinese species.

    PubMed

    Men, Qiu-Lei; Yu, Dao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    One new species of the subgenus Eriocera Macquart, 1838, Hexatoma (Eriocera) cleopatroides Men, sp. n. (Southern China: Anhui) is described and illustrated. A key to all of 78 known species from China in the subgenus is provided, which was solely based on literatures. The new species is similar to Hexatoma (Eriocera) cleopatra Alexander, 1933, but distinguishes from the latter by the prescutum entirely black with two ill-defined gray stripes, by the legs with fore and middle femora brown in basal half, black in apical half, with hind femora brown in basal one-fourth, and by the wings with cells c and sc more yellowish brown than the ground color.

  6. Cool-weather activity of the forensically important hairy maggot blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on carrion in Upstate South Carolina, United States.

    PubMed

    Cammack, Jonathan A; Nelder, Mark P

    2010-02-25

    The hairy maggot blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has expanded its range in the United States since its introduction into Texas (ca. 1980) and has been collected in 15 states. We investigated the bionomics of immature and adult C. rufifacies collected from carcasses of a raccoon Procyon lotor (Linnaeus) and white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman in Upstate South Carolina during November 2007, and used these insects to estimate the minimum period of insect activity. Puparia of C. rufifacies were collected from deer carrion; 28% were parasitized by Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). The mean daily ambient temperature during this study was 11.4+/-1.02 degrees C, representing the lowest recorded mean temperature for adult activity of C. rufifacies; adults of C. rufifacies were observed flying among the carcasses at 9.0 degrees C. Although C. rufifacies is considered a warm-weather blow fly, researchers should be aware of its activity at suboptimal conditions, behavior that might aid its expansion into more northern areas. PMID:20042303

  7. Cool-weather activity of the forensically important hairy maggot blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on carrion in Upstate South Carolina, United States.

    PubMed

    Cammack, Jonathan A; Nelder, Mark P

    2010-02-25

    The hairy maggot blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has expanded its range in the United States since its introduction into Texas (ca. 1980) and has been collected in 15 states. We investigated the bionomics of immature and adult C. rufifacies collected from carcasses of a raccoon Procyon lotor (Linnaeus) and white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman in Upstate South Carolina during November 2007, and used these insects to estimate the minimum period of insect activity. Puparia of C. rufifacies were collected from deer carrion; 28% were parasitized by Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). The mean daily ambient temperature during this study was 11.4+/-1.02 degrees C, representing the lowest recorded mean temperature for adult activity of C. rufifacies; adults of C. rufifacies were observed flying among the carcasses at 9.0 degrees C. Although C. rufifacies is considered a warm-weather blow fly, researchers should be aware of its activity at suboptimal conditions, behavior that might aid its expansion into more northern areas.

  8. A review of the genera Cleigastra Macquart, Gonarcticus Becker, Gonatherus Rondani, Hexamitocera Becker, Nanna Strobl, Orthacheta Becker and Spathephilus Becker (Diptera, Scathophagidae) of Russia.

    PubMed

    Ozerov, A L; Krivosheina, M G

    2015-09-03

    Flies of the genera Cleigastra Macquart, 1835, Gonarcticus Becker, 1894, Gonatherus Rondani, 1856, Hexamitocera Becker, 1894, Nanna Strobl, 1894, Orthacheta Becker, 1894 and Spathephilus Becker, 1894 (all Scathophagidae) of the fauna of Russia are reviewed. Key to genera, generic descriptions and keys for determination of species are given, and data on geographical distribution are summarized. One species, Nanna cryophila sp. nov., is described as new to science. One new synonymy is proposed: Nanna kamtschatkense (Hendel, 1930) = Nanna tibiella (Zetterstedt, 1838). Orthacheta cornuta (Loew, 1863) is recorded from Europe for the first time. Gonarcticus arcticus (Becker, 1907) is newly recorded from the Palaearctic Region and Russia. Additionally, Nanna flavipes (Fallén, 1819) is newly recorded from China, and Spathephilus nigriventris (Loew, 1864) is newly recorded from Kazakhstan.

  9. A new species of Cordyligaster Macquart, reared from caterpillars in Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Aj; Wood, D Monty; Smith, M Alex; Janzen, Daniel; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of Cordyligaster Macquart (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. Cordyligastercapellii sp. n., is described and photographed. All specimens of C.capellii were reared from Syngamiaflorella (Stoll, 1781) (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae), a leaf-rolling caterpillar collected in ACG rain forest. By coupling morphology, photographic documentation, life history and molecular data, we provide a clear and concise description of this new species. In addition the authors provide new distribution and host records for C.fuscipennis (Macquart) reared in ACG.

  10. A new species of Cordyligaster Macquart, reared from caterpillars in Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Wood, D Monty; Smith, M Alex; Janzen, Daniel; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Cordyligaster Macquart (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. Cordyligaster capellii sp. n., is described and photographed. All specimens of C. capellii were reared from Syngamia florella (Stoll, 1781) (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae), a leaf-rolling caterpillar collected in ACG rain forest. By coupling morphology, photographic documentation, life history and molecular data, we provide a clear and concise description of this new species. In addition the authors provide new distribution and host records for C. fuscipennis (Macquart) reared in ACG. PMID:25535485

  11. Transcriptome analyses of blood and sugar digestive processes in female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) midges vector numerous diseases impacting livestock and humans. The molecular physiology of this midge has been under-studied, so our approach was to gain an understanding of basic processes of blood and sucrose digestion using tra...

  12. Gene discovery and differential expression analysis of humoral immune response elements in female Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of pathogens that impact livestock and wildlife in the United States. Little is known about their molecular functioning, including components of their immune system. Because the insect immune response is involved ...

  13. A revision of Afrotropical Quasimodo flies (Diptera: Schizophora; Curtonotidae). Part IV—the continental Afrotropical species of Curtonotum Macquart, with descriptions of thirteen new species and a combined phylogenetic analysis of the Curtonotidae.

    PubMed

    Kirk-Spriggs, Ashley H; Wiegmann, Brian M

    2013-01-01

    specific name, as Parapsinota sublineata (Duda, 1939). The continental Afrotropical fauna of the genus Curtonotum Macquart, 1844 is revised and a diagnosis of the genus is provided. Known biology, behaviour and published information on immature stages of the genus are briefly reviewed. Type material of 12 of the 13 named species (C. angolense Tsacas, C. campsiphallum Tsacas, C. cuthbertsoni Duda, C. herrero Tsacas, C. pauliani Tsacas, C. platyphallum Tsacas, C. quinquevittatum Curran, C. saheliense Tsacas, C. sao Tsacas, C. simile Tsacas, C. striatifrons Malloch and C. tigrinum Séguy), was studied and errors in previous interpretations and designation of type specimens are resolved. Curtonotum pauliani is the only species occurring on both the continental African mainland and Madagascar. The type spec-imen of C. maculiventris (Enderlein) is lost and a neotype is here designated. One species synonymy is proposed: C. tigrinum Séguy, 1933 = C. maculiventris (Enderlein, 1917), syn. n. Additional material of the aforementioned species is noted, substantially increasing their known distributions. Thirteen species are described as new, namely: C. bicuspis Kirk- Spriggs, sp. n., C. cimbebas Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. constance Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. freidberg Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. gonzo Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. hay Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. litoralis Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. marriott Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. mcgregor Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. moffatt Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. tsacas Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. uncinatum Kirk- Spriggs, sp. n. and C. unicuspis Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n. The head and thorax, frons, wing, fifth sternite and hypandrium of the male of the 25 named species are illustrated for the first time, as well as the highly diagnostic male phallus, from both the right and left sides laterally. A key to species based on male characters is provided, and species distributions are mapped and interpreted according to major vegetation types, topography and humidity zones. The

  14. Male irradiation affects female remating behavior in Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2016-02-01

    Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids. PMID:26616467

  15. A new Lampromyia Macquart from Europe (Diptera: Vermileonidae).

    PubMed

    Kehlmaier, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Lampromyia bellasiciliae sp. n. is described from Sicily, Italy. The new species belongs to the pallida subgroup and is differentiated from related taxa in a dichotomous identification key. DNA barcodes for eight of the currently recognised ten Palaearctic species of Lampromyia are provided, and the calculated genetic distances between the taxa and species groups/subgroups are discussed. New distributional data for additional species of Lampromyia are presented and the occurrence of the Palaearctic taxa is depicted in a distribution map. 

  16. Ammonium acetate enhances the attractiveness of a variety of protein-based baits to female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used largely by female fruit 32 flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally-based control strategies such a food-based lures a...

  17. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  18. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." PMID:26470226

  19. Ammonium Acetate Enhances the Attractiveness of a Variety of Protein-Based Baits to Female Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Piñero, Jaime C; Souder, Steven K; Smith, Trevor R; Fox, Abbie J; Vargas, Roger I

    2015-04-01

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used by female fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally based control strategies such as food-based lures and insecticidal baits targeting pestiferous fruit fly species. In field cage studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioral response of laboratory-reared male and female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), to seven commercially available protein baits and to beer waste, a relatively inexpensive and readily available substance. Each material was tested alone or in combination with either ammonium acetate or ammonium carbonate. For the majority of baits evaluated, the presence of ammonium acetate, but not ammonium carbonate, elicited a significantly greater level of response of female C. capitata compared with the protein baits alone. The addition of ammonium acetate to selected baits increased bait attractiveness to a level comparable with that elicited by the most widely used spinosad-based protein bait, GF-120. Our findings indicate that the addition of ammonium acetate to commercially available proteinaceous baits and to beer waste can greatly improve their attractiveness to C. capitata, potentially increasing the bait's effectiveness for fruit fly monitoring and suppression.

  20. Carambola Cultivar, Fruit Ripeness, and Damage by Conspecific Larvae Influence the Host-Related Behaviors of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    López-Ley, Jorge Ulises; Toledo, Jorge; Malo, Edi A; Gomez, Jaime; Santiesteban, Antonio; Rojas, Julio C

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of cultivar type, fruit ripeness, and damage by conspecific larvae on the attraction of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to and oviposition on carambola fruit (Averroha carambola L.). The attraction of both sexes of A. obliqua to fruit of different quality was evaluated through cage experiments in the field, and the oviposition preferences of mated females were examined in laboratory tests. Both sexes, mated or virgin, were more attracted to the "Maha" fruit than to the "Golden Star" fruit, and the females oviposited more frequently on the Maha cultivar than the Golden Star cultivar. Both sexes were more attracted to ripe and half-ripe Maha fruits than to mature green fruit, and although females did not show a preference for ovipositing on half-ripe or ripe fruits, they did not oviposit on mature green fruits. Males did not show a preference for the volatiles from uninfested, artificially damaged, or infested Maha fruits, but females were more attracted to uninfested fruits than to artificially damaged and infested Maha fruits. Furthermore, females preferred to oviposit on uninfested fruits compared with artificially damaged fruit, and they did not oviposit on infested fruits.

  1. Flight Capacity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Adult Females Based on Flight Mill Studies and Flight Muscle Ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Yuan, Ruiling; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions worldwide. To better comprehend flight capacity of B. dorsalis and its physiological basis, a computer-monitored flight mill was used to study flight capacity of B. dorsalis adult females of various ages, and the changes of its flight muscle ultrastructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The flight capacity (both speed and distance) changed significantly with age of B. dorsalis female adults, peaking at about 15 d; the myofibril diameter of the flight muscle of test insects at 15-d old was the longest, up to 1.56 µm, the sarcomere length at 15-d old was the shortest, averaging at 1.37 µm, volume content of mitochondria of flight muscle at 15-d old reached the peak, it was 32.64%. This study provides the important scientific data for better revealing long-distance movement mechanism of B. dorsalis. PMID:26450591

  2. Flight capacity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) adult females based on flight mill studies and flight muscle ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Chen, Peng; Ye, Hui; Yuan, Ruiling; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions worldwide. To better comprehend flight capacity of B. dorsalis and its physiological basis, a computer-monitored flight mill was used to study flight capacity of B. dorsalis adult females of various ages, and the changes of its flight muscle ultrastructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The flight capacity (both speed and distance) changed significantly with age of B. dorsalis female adults, peaking at about 15 d; the myofibril diameter of the flight muscle of test insects at 15-d old was the longest, up to 1.56 µm, the sarcomere length at 15-d old was the shortest, averaging at 1.37 µm, volume content of mitochondria of flight muscle at 15-d old reached the peak, it was 32.64%. This study provides the important scientific data for better revealing long-distance movement mechanism of B. dorsalis.

  3. [Effect of lethal ovitrap on the longevity of females of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)].

    PubMed

    Gama, Renata Antonaci; Eiras, Alvaro Eduardo; Resende, Marcelo Carvalho de

    2007-01-01

    Oviposition traps with added insecticide may work as a new method for controlling the females of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Females of Aedes aegypti were placed in contact with lethal ovitraps with aging. The mortality rate ranged from 60.3% to 100%. The effect of aging the slats impregnated with deltamethrin was significant in relation to the percentage mortality among Aedes aegypti females. PMID:18200416

  4. Identification of Culex (Melanoconion) species of the United States using female cibarial armature (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Williams, Martin R; Savage, Harry M

    2009-07-01

    Species within the subgenus Culex (Melanoconion) Theobald are the primary enzootic vectors of viruses in the Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex including Everglades virus, and probable enzootic vectors of eastern equine encephalitis and West Nile viruses. Adult females of this subgenus are often difficult or impossible to identify to species based on external morphological characters. The use of female cibarial armature allows for the identification of field-collected adult female specimens of Culex (Melanoconion). The cibarial armatures are described and illustrated for all species from the United States and a key to species using this character is presented.

  5. Review of the European Greenomyia Brunetti (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) with new descriptions of females

    PubMed Central

    Kurina, Olavi; Hedmark, Kjell; Karström, Mats; Kjærandsen, Jostein

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The females of the four continental Greenomyia Brunetti species in Europe are associated with the males, diagnosed and keyed, providing the first association and description of the females of Greenomyia baikalica Zaitzev, 1994 and Greenomyia stackelbergi Zaitzev, 1982. Colour photographs of their habitus and line drawings of their female terminalia are provided. Greenomyia mongolica Laštovka & Matile, 1974 is found to be a senior synonym of Greenomyia theresae Matile, 2002. syn. n. The diagnostic characters used to distinguish between Greenomyia and Neoclastobasis Ostroverkhova in keys did not hold up to a closer scrutiny and leave the status of Neoclastobasis as separate genus questionable. PMID:21594150

  6. Bloodmeal host congregation and landscape structure impact the estimation of female mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance using dry ice-baited traps.

    PubMed

    Thiemann, Tara; Nelms, Brittany; Reisen, William K

    2011-05-01

    Vegetation patterns and the presence of large numbers of nesting herons and egrets significantly altered the number of host-seeking Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae) collected at dry ice-baited traps. The numbers of females collected per trap night at traps along the ecotone of Eucalyptus stands with and without a heron colony were always greater or equal to numbers collected at traps within or under canopy. No Cx. tarsalis were collected within or under Eucaplytus canopy during the peak heron nesting season, even though these birds frequently were infected with West Nile virus and large number of engorged females could be collected at resting boxes. These data indicate a diversion of host-seeking females from traps to nesting birds reducing sampling efficiency.

  7. Bloodmeal Host Congregation and Landscape Structure Impact the Estimation of Female Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Abundance Using Dry Ice-Baited Traps

    PubMed Central

    THIEMANN, TARA; NELMS, BRITTANY; REISEN, WILLIAM K.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation patterns and the presence of large numbers of nesting herons and egrets significantly altered the number of host-seeking Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae) collected at dry ice-baited traps. The numbers of females collected per trap night at traps along the ecotone of Eucalyptus stands with and without a heron colony were always greater or equal to numbers collected at traps within or under canopy. No Cx. tarsalis were collected within or under Eucaplytus canopy during the peak heron nesting season, even though these birds frequently were infected with West Nile virus and large number of engorged females could be collected at resting boxes. These data indicate a diversion of host-seeking females from traps to nesting birds reducing sampling efficiency. PMID:21661310

  8. Alternative to sentinel animals for collecting egg masses from wild females of the screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Parker, F D; Welch, J B

    1991-10-01

    Egg masses from wild populations of the screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), were obtained by collecting females from rotted liver, holding them for 3 d until egg maturation and then placing them on heated ground beef for oviposition. Nearly 50% of the females oviposited. Fertility of egg masses was 66 and 95% at the two collection sites. Decreased fertility was associated with collections of virgin females. Average weight +/- SD of the egg masses was 13.7 +/- 1.40 mg; the number of eggs per mass averaged 343. This method of obtaining egg masses from wild screwworm females is a cost-effective, sensitive alternative to the use of sentinel animals in the field. The use of rotted liver costs less, takes less time, and takes less equipment than the traditional sentinel animal technique. PMID:1744297

  9. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance.

  10. Microarray analysis of female- and larval-specific gene expression in the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Felix D; Dowd, Scot E; Sun, Yan; Saldivar, Leonel; Wiley, Graham B; Macmil, Simone L; Najar, Fares; Roe, Bruce A; Foil, Lane D

    2009-03-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans L., is an obligate blood-feeding parasite of cattle, and control of this pest is a continuing problem because the fly is becoming resistant to pesticides. Dominant conditional lethal gene systems are being studied as population control technologies against agricultural pests. One of the components of these systems is a female-specific gene promoter that drives expression of a lethality-inducing gene. To identify candidate genes to supply this promoter, microarrays were designed from a horn fly expressed sequence tag (EST) database and probed to identify female-specific and larval-specific gene expression. Analysis of dye swap experiments found 432 and 417 transcripts whose expression levels were higher or lower in adult female flies, respectively, compared with adult male flies. Additionally, 419 and 871 transcripts were identified whose expression levels were higher or lower in first-instar larvae compared with adult flies, respectively. Three transcripts were expressed more highly in adult females flies compared with adult males and also higher in the first-instar larval lifestage compared with adult flies. One of these transcripts, a putative nanos ortholog, has a high female-to-male expression ratio, a moderate expression level in first-instar larvae, and has been well characterized in Drosophila. melanogaster (Meigen). In conclusion, we used microarray technology, verified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and massively parallel pyrosequencing, to study life stage- and sex-specific gene expression in the horn fly and identified three gene candidates for detailed evaluation as a gene promoter source for the development of a female-specific conditional lethality system.

  11. [Periodicity of oviposition of females of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae) in laboratory and field].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Adriana Dos Santos; de Sá Sciavico, Célia J; Eiras, Alvaro Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The object of this work was to determine of gonotrophic diel pattern of female Aedes aegypti in laboratory and field conditions. Three day-old female mosquitoes were the fed on chicken blood and transferred to bioassay cages. Four oviposition substrates were offered: paper sulfite, filter, butter and towel. The results showed that filter paper received a significantly higher (40.4%) percentage of deposited eggs than the other oviposition substrates. After their first blood meal, females started to oviposit on the 3rd model day; 35.7% of the total number of eggs deposited. The oviposition diel patterns of females were observed every two hours during the photoperiod in the laboratory and in the field. In the laboratory, the periodicity of oviposition showed that the highest egg deposition occurred during the 9th- 12th h of photophase and 1st - 2nd h of scotophase. In the field, the highest egg deposition occurred during the 9th - 12th h of photophase and 1st - 4th h of scotophase. These results point out that Aedes aegypti showed an oviposition periodicity pattern that can subsidize monitoring and or control of vector insect. itis suggested that ovitraps should be placed in the field during the morning hours since the captures occur during afternoon. PMID:17119745

  12. Effective sampling range of food-based attractants for female Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Release/recapture studies were conducted with both feral and sterile females of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), to determine sampling range for a liquid protein bait (hydrolyzed torula yeast) and for a two-component synthetic lure (ammonium acetate and putrescine). Tests were d...

  13. The Siren's Song: Exploitation of Female Flight Tones to Passively Capture Male Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brian J; Ritchie, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    The need to capture male mosquitoes has intensified recently as a result of a number of male-based sterile insect technique (SIT) and population-modification programs focused on Aedes aegypti (L.) having initiated field releases. Here, we report the results of the successful exploitation of the attraction of male Ae. aegypti to female flight tones to enhance male collections in nonmechanical passive (nonbattery powered) Gravid Aedes Traps (GAT). Prior to field studies, male attraction to female flight tones of 484 and 560 Hz, as well as to a male flight tone of 715 Hz, were assessed in a series of controlled release-recapture and semifield trials. These trials determined that a pure tone of 484 Hz was significantly more attractive to free-flying males than the other flight tones and enabled their collection in sound-baited GATs (ca. 95% capture rate after 2 h; 484 Hz at 65 dB). In contrast, gravid females were unresponsive to male or female flight tones and were evenly distributed among sound-baited and control GATs. Importantly, under normal field conditions sound-baited GATs (484 Hz at 70 dB) captured significantly more male Ae. aegypti per 24-h trap interval (1.3 ± 0.37) than controls (0.2 ± 0.13). Overall, sound-bated GATs captured approximately twice as many Ae. aegypti (male and female; 3.0 ± 0.68 per interval, 30 total) than controls (1.5 ± 0.56 per interval, 15 total). These results reveal that sound-baited GATs are a simple and effective surveillance tool for Ae. aegypti that would allow current male-based SIT and population-modification programs to effectively monitor males in their target populations. PMID:26502754

  14. The Siren's Song: Exploitation of Female Flight Tones to Passively Capture Male Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brian J; Ritchie, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    The need to capture male mosquitoes has intensified recently as a result of a number of male-based sterile insect technique (SIT) and population-modification programs focused on Aedes aegypti (L.) having initiated field releases. Here, we report the results of the successful exploitation of the attraction of male Ae. aegypti to female flight tones to enhance male collections in nonmechanical passive (nonbattery powered) Gravid Aedes Traps (GAT). Prior to field studies, male attraction to female flight tones of 484 and 560 Hz, as well as to a male flight tone of 715 Hz, were assessed in a series of controlled release-recapture and semifield trials. These trials determined that a pure tone of 484 Hz was significantly more attractive to free-flying males than the other flight tones and enabled their collection in sound-baited GATs (ca. 95% capture rate after 2 h; 484 Hz at 65 dB). In contrast, gravid females were unresponsive to male or female flight tones and were evenly distributed among sound-baited and control GATs. Importantly, under normal field conditions sound-baited GATs (484 Hz at 70 dB) captured significantly more male Ae. aegypti per 24-h trap interval (1.3 ± 0.37) than controls (0.2 ± 0.13). Overall, sound-bated GATs captured approximately twice as many Ae. aegypti (male and female; 3.0 ± 0.68 per interval, 30 total) than controls (1.5 ± 0.56 per interval, 15 total). These results reveal that sound-baited GATs are a simple and effective surveillance tool for Ae. aegypti that would allow current male-based SIT and population-modification programs to effectively monitor males in their target populations.

  15. Larvicidal activity of some secondary lichen metabolites against the mosquito Culiseta longiareolata Macquart (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Cetin, H; Tufan-Cetin, O; Turk, A O; Tay, T; Candan, M; Yanikoglu, A; Sumbul, H

    2012-01-01

    The larvicidal activity of some lichen metabolites, (+)-usnic acid, atranorin, 3-hydroxyphysodic acid and gyrophoric acid, against the second and third instar larvae of the mosquito Culiseta longiareolata were studied. All metabolites caused high larvicidal activities. When metabolites were compared on the basis of their LC(50) values, the order of increasing toxicity was as follows: gyrophoric acid (0.41 ppm) > (+)-usnic acid (0.48 ppm) > atranorin (0.52 ppm) > 3-hydroxyphysodic acid (0.97 ppm). However, when LC(90) values were compared, the order of toxicity was (+)-usnic acid (1.54 ppm) > gyrophoric acid (1.93 ppm) > 3-hydroxyphysodic acid (4.33 ppm) > atranorin (5.63 ppm). In conclusion, our results found that lichen secondary metabolites may have a promising role as potential larvicides.

  16. Larvicidal activity of some secondary lichen metabolites against the mosquito Culiseta longiareolata Macquart (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Cetin, H; Tufan-Cetin, O; Turk, A O; Tay, T; Candan, M; Yanikoglu, A; Sumbul, H

    2012-01-01

    The larvicidal activity of some lichen metabolites, (+)-usnic acid, atranorin, 3-hydroxyphysodic acid and gyrophoric acid, against the second and third instar larvae of the mosquito Culiseta longiareolata were studied. All metabolites caused high larvicidal activities. When metabolites were compared on the basis of their LC(50) values, the order of increasing toxicity was as follows: gyrophoric acid (0.41 ppm) > (+)-usnic acid (0.48 ppm) > atranorin (0.52 ppm) > 3-hydroxyphysodic acid (0.97 ppm). However, when LC(90) values were compared, the order of toxicity was (+)-usnic acid (1.54 ppm) > gyrophoric acid (1.93 ppm) > 3-hydroxyphysodic acid (4.33 ppm) > atranorin (5.63 ppm). In conclusion, our results found that lichen secondary metabolites may have a promising role as potential larvicides. PMID:21452097

  17. World's Youth Connect through Global Nomads Group: An Interview with GNG's David Macquart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.; Macquart, David

    2006-01-01

    Editor-in-chief James L. Morrison talks with David Macquart, co-founder of the Global Nomads Group (GNG), a group dedicated to improving children's cultural understanding by bringing the world into the classroom using videoconferencing technology. GNG moderates video conferences between K-12 classes in different countries, organizes virtual…

  18. Description of the female of the Peruvian sand fly Lutzomyia reclusa (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Cáceres, Abraham G

    2011-03-01

    The female of the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia reclusa Fernández & Rogers 1991 [= Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) reclusa (Fernández & Rogers) sensu Galati], is described for the first time, based on specimens collected in the Department of Cajamarca, in northern Peru. The female can be recognized from other species of the series pia, species group Verrucarum, by wing venation with beta shorter than half of alpha, labrum just shorter than head width but longer than flagellomere 1, palpomere 5 much longer than palpomere 3, arrangement of cibarial armature, and form of spermathecae and relative size of spermathecal ducts. Diagnostic characters and measurements of the male of Lu. reclusa are provided as well.

  19. Differentiation of females in Sergentomyia sensu stricto (Diptera: Psychodidae) using scanning electron microscopy of pharyngeal armatures.

    PubMed

    Benabdennbi, I; Bombard, S; Braverman, Y; Pesson, B

    1996-03-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of external ornamentation and internal armature of the pharynx was used to identify females of Sergentomyia sensu stricto. Five species from the eastern Mediterranean basin were compared; S. minuta clearly was separated from species of the fallax-group. Within the fallax-group, S. fallax was distinguished readily by its heart-shaped pharynx and the difference in armature between the dorsal and lateral plates.

  20. Why do female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) feed preferentially and frequently on human blood?

    PubMed

    Harrington, L C; Edman, J D; Scott, T W

    2001-05-01

    Adult female Aedes aegypti (L.), the vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses, have an affinity for feeding on human blood and a tendency to forego feeding on sugar. This observation challenges two tenets of mosquito biology: (1) mosquitoes imbibe plant carbohydrates for synthesis of energy reserves and blood for reproduction and (2) egg production is reduced when mosquitoes feed on human blood compared with blood from other species. Sub-optimal amounts of the amino acid isoleucine in human blood (particularly free isoleucine in plasma) are thought to be responsible for lowered egg production when human blood is ingested. We tested the hypothesis that feeding on human blood is associated with a selective advantage for Ae. aegypti and is an underlying reason for this mosquito's intimate and epidemiologically important relationship with human beings. Our five experiments examined the effects of different isoleucine concentrations on accumulated energy reserves, frequency of host contact, survival, and egg production. When mosquitoes imbibed blood meals over a 7- to 10-d period and were not fed sugar, increased isoleucine concentration decreased energy reserves and did not increase egg production. Aedes aegypti took smaller but more frequent blood meals when feeding on a low-isoleucine human host daily compared with a high-isoleucine mouse host. Previous reports that isoleucine enhances egg production were confirmed only when females were fed sugar, an unusual behavior for most domestic Ae. aegypti populations. Females fed human blood and water had greater age-specific survival (l(x)), reproductive output (m(x)), and cumulative net replacement (R0) than cohorts fed human blood plus sugar or isoleucine-rich mouse blood with or without access to sugar. The unique isoleucine concentration of human blood is associated with Ae. aegypti's unusual propensity to feed preferentially and frequently on humans--a behavior that increases this mosquito's fitness, synthesis of

  1. Traumatic Myiasis Caused by an Association of Sarcophaga tibialis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Domestic Cat in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Margherita; Leis, Marilena

    2015-01-01

    We describe here a rare case of traumatic myiasis occurred in August 2014, caused by an association of 2 Diptera species, Sarcophaga tibialis Macquart (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in a domestic cat in northern Italy. Species identification was based on adult male morphology. The present case is the first report of S. tibialis as an agent of myiasis in Italy, and also the first ever report of myiasis caused by an association of S. tibialis and L. sericata. The cat developed an extensive traumatic myiasis in a large wound on the rump, which was treated pharmacologically and surgically. The biology, ecology, and distribution of S. tibialis and L. sericata are also discussed. A literature review is provided on cases of myiasis caused by S. tibialis, and cases of myiasis by L. sericata involving cats worldwide and humans and animals in Italy. PMID:26323846

  2. Traumatic Myiasis Caused by an Association of Sarcophaga tibialis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Domestic Cat in Italy.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Margherita; Leis, Marilena

    2015-08-01

    We describe here a rare case of traumatic myiasis occurred in August 2014, caused by an association of 2 Diptera species, Sarcophaga tibialis Macquart (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in a domestic cat in northern Italy. Species identification was based on adult male morphology. The present case is the first report of S. tibialis as an agent of myiasis in Italy, and also the first ever report of myiasis caused by an association of S. tibialis and L. sericata. The cat developed an extensive traumatic myiasis in a large wound on the rump, which was treated pharmacologically and surgically. The biology, ecology, and distribution of S. tibialis and L. sericata are also discussed. A literature review is provided on cases of myiasis caused by S. tibialis, and cases of myiasis by L. sericata involving cats worldwide and humans and animals in Italy.

  3. Reproductive biology in Anophelinae mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae): Fine structure of the female accessory gland.

    PubMed

    Laghezza Masci, Valentina; Di Luca, Marco; Gambellini, Gabriella; Taddei, Anna Rita; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Guerra, Laura; Mazzini, Massimo; Fausto, Anna Maria

    2015-07-01

    The morphology and ultrastructure of female accessory reproductive glands of Anopheles maculipennis s.s., Anopheles labranchiae and Anopheles stephensi were investigated by light and electron microscopy. The reproductive system in these species is characterized by two ovaries, two lateral oviducts, a single spermatheca and a single accessory gland. The gland is globular and has a thin duct which empties into the vagina, near the opening of the spermathecal duct. Significant growth of the accessory reproductive gland is observed immediately after blood meal, but not at subsequent digestion steps. At ultrastructural level, the gland consists of functional glandular units belonging to type 3 ectodermal glands. The secretory cells are elongated and goblet shaped, with most of their cytoplasm and large nucleus in the basal part, close to the basement lamella. Finely fibrous electron-transparent material occupies the secretory cavity that is in contact with the end of a short efferent duct (ductule) emerging from the gland duct. The present study is the first detailed description of female accessory gland ultrastructure in Anophelinae and provides insights into the gland's functional role in the reproductive biology of these insects.

  4. Frequency tuning of individual auditory receptors in female mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Lapshin, D N; Vorontsov, D D

    2013-08-01

    The acoustic sensory organs in mosquitoes (Johnston organs) have been thoroughly studied; yet, to date, no data are available on the individual tuning properties of the numerous receptors that convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signals. All previous measurements of frequency tuning in mosquitoes have been based on the acoustically evoked field potentials recorded from the entire Johnston organ. Here, we present evidence that individual receptors have various frequency tunings and that differently tuned receptors are unequally represented within the Johnston organ. We devised a positive feedback stimulation paradigm as a new and effective approach to test individual receptor properties. Alongside the glass microelectrode technique, the positive feedback stimulation paradigm has allowed us to obtain data on receptor tuning in females from three mosquito species: Anopheles messeae, Aedes excrucians and Culex pipiens pipiens. The existence of individually tuned auditory receptors implies that frequency analysis in mosquitoes may be possible.

  5. Female reproductive system of the decapitating fly Pseudacteon wasmanni Schmitz (Diptera: Phoridae).

    PubMed

    Zacaro, Adilson A; Porter, Sanford D

    2003-04-01

    Pseudacteon wasmanni is a South American decapitating fly that parasitizes workers of Solenopsis fire ants. We used light microscopy (historesin serial-sectioning stained with Haematoxylin/Eosin) and scanning electron microscopy to show and analyze internal and whole external views of the female reproductive system. All specimens analyzed (n=9) by light microscopy showed post-vitellogenic oocytes inside the ovaries. The lack of typical follicles (oocyte-nurse cell complexes) in all specimens suggests that oogenesis occurs during the pupal stage. The total number of eggs found ranged from 31 to 280 (X=142+/-73, SD). The egg has a slugform or torpedo shape (about 130 by 20 microm) with a pointed apex at the posterior pole as defined by the fly; the micropyle appears to be in a depression or invagination at the anterior pole. An acute hypodermic-like ovipositor is evaginated from the hard sclerotized external genitalia during egg laying. The existence of a muscular bulb associated with the end of the common oviduct suggests that the egg is injected into the ant's body by a strong contraction of the bulb which probably is stimulated by bending of several ventral sensilla. During contraction, the abdomen extends out along a large fold between the sixth and seventh tergites in such a way that the sclerotized genitalia is rotated ventrally into a slightly anterior orientation in preparation for oviposition.

  6. Herniosina Roháček: revised concept, two new species, new key and atlas of male and female terminalia (Diptera, Sphaeroceridae).

    PubMed

    Roháček, Jindřich

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic concept of Herniosina Roháček, 1983 (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) is revised on the basis of five W. Palaearctic species, thus excluding the E. Nearctic Herniosina voluminosa Marshall, 1987 whose inclusion caused the paraphyly of the genus. Two new species, Herniosina erymantha sp. n. (male only, Greece: Peloponnese) and Herniosina hamata sp. n. (both sexes, Cyprus), are described and illustrated, and the other three species, Herniosina bequaerti (Villeneuve, 1917), Herniosina horrida (Roháček, 1978) and Herniosina pollex Roháček, 1993, are diagnosed with an atlas of their male and female terminalia. The relationships of the redefined genus and of all its species are discussed, and their biology and distribution are reviewed. A new illustrated key to Herniosina species is given. PMID:27563273

  7. Herniosina Roháček: revised concept, two new species, new key and atlas of male and female terminalia (Diptera, Sphaeroceridae)

    PubMed Central

    Roháček, Jindřich

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomic concept of Herniosina Roháček, 1983 (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) is revised on the basis of five W. Palaearctic species, thus excluding the E. Nearctic Herniosina voluminosa Marshall, 1987 whose inclusion caused the paraphyly of the genus. Two new species, Herniosina erymantha sp. n. (male only, Greece: Peloponnese) and Herniosina hamata sp. n. (both sexes, Cyprus), are described and illustrated, and the other three species, Herniosina bequaerti (Villeneuve, 1917), Herniosina horrida (Roháček, 1978) and Herniosina pollex Roháček, 1993, are diagnosed with an atlas of their male and female terminalia. The relationships of the redefined genus and of all its species are discussed, and their biology and distribution are reviewed. A new illustrated key to Herniosina species is given. PMID:27563273

  8. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger.

    PubMed

    Piñero, J C; Mau, R F L; Vargas, R I

    2011-08-01

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources, and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioural response of wild female oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)), melon fly (B. cucurbitae (Coquillett)), and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) to spinosad-based GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait(©) formulated to contain either 0, 1 or 2% ammonium acetate. Use of visually-attractive yellow bait stations for bait application in the field allowed for proper comparisons among bait formulations. Field cage tests were also conducted to investigate, using a comparative behavioural approach, the effects of female age and protein starvation on the subsequent response of F1 generation B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis to the same three bait formulations that were evaluated in the field. Our field results indicate a significant positive effect of the presence, regardless of amount, of AA in GF-120 for B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae. For C. capitata, there was a significant positive linear relationship between the relative amounts of AA in bait and female response. GF-120 with no AA was significantly more attractive to female C. capitata, but not to female B. dorsalis or B. cucurbitae, than the control treatment. Our field cage results indicate that the effects of varying amounts of AA present in GF-120 can be modulated by the physiological stage of the female flies and that the response of female B. cucurbitae to GF-120 was consistently greater than that of B. dorsalis over the various ages and levels of protein starvation regimes evaluated. Results are discussed in light of their applications for effective fruit fly suppression.

  9. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae) from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera) that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic Anabarhynchus kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001), but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113. PMID:25349526

  10. Susceptibility of 15 mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) cultivars to the attack by Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the role of underdeveloped fruit as pest reservoirs: management implications.

    PubMed

    Aluja, M; Arredondo, J; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Birke, A; Rull, J; Niogret, J; Epsky, N

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the susceptibility of 15 mango cultivars to the attack of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the main tephritid pests of this crop in Mexico. In a field experiment, bagged fruit-bearing branches were exposed to gravid females of both fly species. Infestation rates, developmental time, adult eclosion, and F1 adult longevity, fecundity, and fertility were recorded, ranking cultivars in terms of susceptibility to fly attack and development. We also compared the volatile profile in selected resistant and susceptible cultivars in search of possible correlations. In a second experiment, clutch size for A. ludens was determined in each cultivar. Infestation rates, developmental time, and F1 demographic parameters varied sharply among cultivars and between fly species for bagged fruit. Cultivars 'Vishi,' '74-82,' and 'Brooks' were most susceptible to A. ludens infestation while "Tommy,' 'Sensation,' and 'Ataulfo "niño"' (parthenocarpic fruit) were most susceptible to A. obliqua infestation. 'Edward,' 'Kent,' 'Brooks late,' 'Palmer, and 'Ataulfo' exhibited tolerance to attack of both fly species. Fruit of susceptible and resistant cultivars exhibited unique volatile profiles. Fly development and F1 adult demographic parameters varied significantly among cultivars. A. ludens females laid larger clutches in larger and harder fruit. We highlight the important role of Ataulfo "niño" as pest reservoir if fruit is left unharvested on trees. We discuss the possible use of highly resistant cultivars as trap crops or egg sinks. PMID:24665723

  11. Susceptibility of 15 mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) cultivars to the attack by Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the role of underdeveloped fruit as pest reservoirs: management implications.

    PubMed

    Aluja, M; Arredondo, J; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Birke, A; Rull, J; Niogret, J; Epsky, N

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the susceptibility of 15 mango cultivars to the attack of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the main tephritid pests of this crop in Mexico. In a field experiment, bagged fruit-bearing branches were exposed to gravid females of both fly species. Infestation rates, developmental time, adult eclosion, and F1 adult longevity, fecundity, and fertility were recorded, ranking cultivars in terms of susceptibility to fly attack and development. We also compared the volatile profile in selected resistant and susceptible cultivars in search of possible correlations. In a second experiment, clutch size for A. ludens was determined in each cultivar. Infestation rates, developmental time, and F1 demographic parameters varied sharply among cultivars and between fly species for bagged fruit. Cultivars 'Vishi,' '74-82,' and 'Brooks' were most susceptible to A. ludens infestation while "Tommy,' 'Sensation,' and 'Ataulfo "niño"' (parthenocarpic fruit) were most susceptible to A. obliqua infestation. 'Edward,' 'Kent,' 'Brooks late,' 'Palmer, and 'Ataulfo' exhibited tolerance to attack of both fly species. Fruit of susceptible and resistant cultivars exhibited unique volatile profiles. Fly development and F1 adult demographic parameters varied significantly among cultivars. A. ludens females laid larger clutches in larger and harder fruit. We highlight the important role of Ataulfo "niño" as pest reservoir if fruit is left unharvested on trees. We discuss the possible use of highly resistant cultivars as trap crops or egg sinks.

  12. Description of the female, pupa and gall of Pisphondylia brasiliensis Couri and Maia, 1992 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, Schizomyiina) with new records.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Fleury, G; Soares, G L G; Isaias, R M S

    2010-11-01

    The gall of Pisphondylia brasiliensis on Guapira opposita, its female and pupa are described and illustrated. The geographic distribution of this species is now widened to Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). For the first time, a female of the genus is described.

  13. Species of tribe Mansoniini (Diptera: Culicidae: Culicinae) with published illustrations and/or descriptions of female genitalia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Examples are provided for species of the mosquito tribe Mansoniini with published illustrations and/or descriptions of the female genitalia and include corresponding literature citations. Most species of Mansonia Blanchard have only the tergum VIII illustrated and/or described for the female genital...

  14. Baeopterogyna mihalyii Matile (Diptera, Mycetophilidae): association of sexes using morphological and molecular approaches with the first description of females

    PubMed Central

    Kurina, Olavi; Õunap, Erki; Ramel, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Both males and females of Baeopterogyna mihalyiiMatile, 1975 are recorded from northern Greece. Females are described for the first time providing photographs of the general facies and terminalia. In contrast to the single congener with stenopterous females – Baeopterogyna nudipes Vockeroth, 1972 – Baeopterogyna mihalyii is shown to have normally developed wings in both sexes. Association of sexes is based on both morphological characters and sequence data from cytochrome oxidase subunit one (COI). DNA sequences are used for the first time for the association of sexes in Mycetophilidae. PMID:21976994

  15. Species of tribes Aedeomyiini, Culisetini and Ficalbiini (Diptera: Culicidae: Culicinae) with published illustrations and/or descriptions of female genitalia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Examples are provided for species of the mosquito tribes Aedeomyiini, Culisetini and Ficalbiini with published illustrations and/or descriptions of the female genitalia and include corresponding literature citations....

  16. Egg-laying preference of female fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Diptera: Sciaridae) on three different soilless substrates.

    PubMed

    Meers, Theresa L; Cloyd, Raymond A

    2005-12-01

    Fungus gnats, Bradysia spp., are major insect pests in greenhouses. Adult female fungus gnats prefer to lay eggs in growing medium that is microbially active or that contains high amounts of peat moss or hardwood bark. However, egg-laying preference has not been demonstrated quantitatively. This study was designed to determine whether fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila females prefer any of the three soilless growing media provided. The three soilless growing media tested were Metro-Mix 560 with Scott's Coir, Sunshine LC1 Mix, and Universal SB 300 Mix. Initially, the egg-laying potential of the fungus gnat species used in this study was assessed by dissecting mated females after 24, 48, and 72 h. For the egg-laying preference experiment, adults that emerged from pupae were aspirated into a plastic vial, sexed, and then allowed to mate for 24 h. Individual mated females were released into an experimental chamber (15 by 15 by 5-cm plastic container) consisting of four 6-cm petri dishes, three of which contained soilless growing media and one with filter paper (control). In total, there were 50 experimental chambers, with each chamber representing a replication. Females remained in the experimental chambers for 48 h after which the growing media were processed using a flotation/extraction method. The number of eggs laid by female fungus gnats ranged from 21 to 217 with most eggs recovered after 48 h (141.0 +/- 9.3). There were no significant differences among the three soilless growing media in terms of number of eggs laid, although all three growing media were significantly different from the filter paper with higher numbers of eggs laid in the soilless growing media than the filter paper. Despite no significant difference among the growing media in the number of eggs laid, fungus gnat females tended to lay eggs more often, based on the number of petri dishes in which at least one egg was laid, in Metro-Mix 560 (86%) than Sunshine LC1 (66%), Universal SB 300 (52

  17. [Ceratopogonidae (Diptera) of the Congolese Mayombe. I. Daily pattern of the biting activity of female Culicoides grahamii Austen, 1909].

    PubMed

    Vattier-Bernard, G; Itoua, A; Trouillet, J; Lallemant, M

    1986-01-01

    Owing to appropriate sampling methods, the study of the daily pattern of biting of female "Culicoides grahamii Austen, 1909" was achieved in the Congolese Mayombe. It was discovered that this pattern was rhythmical in close connection with the sunrise and sunset. Many climatic parameters were simultaneously studied (temperature, hygrometry, brightness). This starting factor of this rhythmical pattern seems to be a brightness which agrees to a total shortwave radiation on the ground, equal or inferior to 25 cal x m-2 x h-1. It seems that the temperature does not play any role.

  18. Description of male, pupa and larva of Psorophora (Grabhamia) paulli and redescription of the female (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Stein, Marina; Carlos Rossi, Gustavo; Ricardo Almirón, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The female of Psorophora (Grabhamia) paulli Paterson & Shannon is redescribed, and the pupa, fourth-instar larva and male genitalia are described and illustrated for the first time. Information about the distribution, bionomics and taxonomy is also included. Adults of Ps. paulli can be separated from the other species of the genus and subgenus by its small size. The larva of Ps. paulli is similar to that of Ps. varinervis Edwards and Ps. discolor (Coquillett) but can be separated based on the development of setae 1-X and 5-VIII, the length of the anal papillae and the comb on a sclerotized area.

  19. Leishmania amazonensis DNA in wild females of Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Everton Falcão de; Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Mateus, Nathália Lopes Fontoura; Murat, Paula Guerra; Fernandes, Wagner Souza; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2015-12-01

    Studies on natural infection by Leishmania spp of sandflies collected in endemic and nonendemic areas can provide important information on the distribution and intensity of the transmission of these parasites. This study sought to investigate the natural infection by Leishmaniain wild female sandflies. The specimens were caught in the city of Corumbá, state of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil) between October 2012-March 2014, and dissected to investigate flagellates and/or submitted to molecular analysis to detect Leishmania DNA. A total of 1,164 females (77.56% of which were Lutzomyia cruzi) representing 11 species were investigated using molecular analysis; 126 specimens of Lu. cruziwere dissected and also submitted to molecular analysis. The infection rate based on the presence of Leishmania DNA considering all the sandfly species analysed was 0.69%; only Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis was identified in Lu. cruzi by the molecular analysis. The dissections were negative for flagellates. This is the first record of the presence of L. (L.) amazonensis DNA in Lu. cruzi, and the first record of this parasite in this area. These findings point to the need for further investigation into the possible role of this sandfly as vector of this parasite.

  20. Leishmania amazonensis DNA in wild females of Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Everton Falcão; Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Mateus, Nathália Lopes Fontoura; Murat, Paula Guerra; Fernandes, Wagner Souza; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2015-01-01

    Studies on natural infection by Leishmania spp of sandflies collected in endemic and nonendemic areas can provide important information on the distribution and intensity of the transmission of these parasites. This study sought to investigate the natural infection by Leishmaniain wild female sandflies. The specimens were caught in the city of Corumbá, state of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil) between October 2012-March 2014, and dissected to investigate flagellates and/or submitted to molecular analysis to detect Leishmania DNA. A total of 1,164 females (77.56% of which were Lutzomyia cruzi) representing 11 species were investigated using molecular analysis; 126 specimens of Lu. cruziwere dissected and also submitted to molecular analysis. The infection rate based on the presence of Leishmania DNA considering all the sandfly species analysed was 0.69%; only Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis was identified in Lu. cruzi by the molecular analysis. The dissections were negative for flagellates. This is the first record of the presence of L. (L.) amazonensis DNA in Lu. cruzi, and the first record of this parasite in this area. These findings point to the need for further investigation into the possible role of this sandfly as vector of this parasite. PMID:26602870

  1. Morphological and protein analyses of adult female salivary glands of Anopheles barbirostris species A1 (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Phattanawiboon, B; Jariyapan, N; Roytrakul, S; Paemanee, A; Sor-suwan, S; Intakhan, N; Chanmol, W; Siriyasatien, P; Saeung, A; Choochote, W

    2014-12-01

    Morphology and protein profiles of female salivary glands of Anopheles barbirostris species A1 were analyzed. Female glands consisted of a distinctive tri-lobed structure connected to a main salivary canal, a single medial and two lateral lobes with proximal and distal portions. Cellular architecture was similar among the lobes, with secretory material appearing as large masses. Cells of the proximal-lateral lobes contained secretory masses with a finely filamentous aspect. In the distal-lateral lobes, cells had a dense secretory product with mottled pattern. Cells of the medial lobe had secretory masses which were uniformly stained and highly electron dense. Following emergence, the glands accumulated secretory material rapidly and developed completely within three days. Degenerative changes including loss of stored secretion and increase of cytoplasmic vacuolation and concentric lamellar structures were observed from day 16 post emergence that correlated with total amount of the salivary gland proteins determined during development. SDS-PAGE, nanoLC-MS, and glycoprotein analysis revealed at least eleven major protein bands, of which each morphological region contained different major proteins. Two glycoproteins, apyrase/5'-nucleotidase and D7, were identified. These results form a basis for further studies on details of cytopathological changes of malarial infected glands and roles of the proteins in disease transmission.

  2. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  3. Salivary Gland Proteome during Adult Development and after Blood Feeding of Female Anopheles dissidens Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Jariyapan, Narissara; Mano, Chonlada; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Sor-Suwan, Sriwatapron; Sriwichai, Patchara; Saeung, Atiporn; Bates, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding changes in mosquito salivary proteins during the time that sporozoite maturation occurs and after blood feeding may give information regarding the roles of salivary proteins during the malarial transmission. Anopheles dissidens (formerly Anopheles barbirostris species A1) is a potential vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand. In this study, analyses of the proteomic profiles of female An. dissidens salivary glands during adult development and after blood feeding were carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed at least 17 major salivary gland proteins present from day one to day 21 post emergence at 8 different time points sampled. Although there was variation observed, the patterns of protein expression could be placed into one of four groups. Fifteen protein spots showed significant depletion after blood feeding with the percentages of the amount of depletion ranging from 8.5% to 68.11%. The overall results identified various proteins, including a putative mucin-like protein, an anti-platelet protein, a long form D7 salivary protein, a putative gVAG protein precursor, a D7-related 3.2 protein, gSG7 salivary proteins, and a gSG6 protein. These results allow better understanding of the changes of the salivary proteins during the adult mosquito development. They also provide candidate proteins to investigate any possible link or not between sporozoite maturation, or survival of skin stage sporozoites, and salivary proteins. PMID:27669021

  4. Nonhost status of commercial Persea americana 'Hass' to Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina, and Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Martín; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the host status in Mexico of commercially cultivated and marketed avocado, Persea americana (Mill.), 'Hass' to Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Experiments in Michoacán, Mexico, were carried out in six orchards located at three altitudes above sea level during two times (August-October 2001 and April-June 2002). They included choice ('Hass' avocado plus natural host) and no-choice foraging behavior tests on trees under field cages; no-choice, forced infestation trials on caged, fruit-bearing branches in the field, and with individual fruit under laboratory conditions; infestation trials using 'Hass' avocados left unprotected over 1 and 7 d on the ground of orchards; studies to ascertain depth of oviposition and determine egg hatchability; and experiments to determine susceptibility by using time elapsed since removal of fruit from tree as the experimental variable. We trapped adult Anastrepha (n = 7,936) in all orchards and dissected fruit (n = 7,695) from orchards and packing houses (n = 1,620) in search of eggs or larvae. Most (96.7%) A. ludens, A. obliqua, A. striata, and A. serpentina adults were captured in low-elevation orchards. No eggs or larvae were detected in any of the fruit from foraging behavior studies or dissected fruit from orchards or packing houses. Of 5,200 mature, intact fruit on trees in the field forcibly exposed to no-choice female oviposition activity (five females/fruit), we only found four fruit infested by A. ludens but no adults emerged. 'Hass' avocados only became marginally susceptible to attack by A. ludens (but not A. obliqua, A. serpentina, and A. striata) 24 h after being removed from the tree. Fruit placed on the ground in orchards (n = 3,600) were occasionally infested by Neosilba batesi (Curran) (Diptera: Lonchaeidae), a decomposer, but not Anastrepha spp. Based on our

  5. Patterns of oviposition and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on burned rabbit carcasses.

    PubMed

    Mahat, N A; Zainol-Abidin, N L; Nordin, N H; Abdul-Wahab, R; Jayaprakash, P T

    2016-03-01

    Considering that crimes against animals such as illegal killing and cruelty have been alarmingly increasing and since burning is one of the common ways for disposing cadavers, ability to estimate minimum postmortem interval (PMI) using entomological data merits consideration. Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies are common necrophagous species recovered from cadavers in many countries including Malaysia. Specific studies focusing on the oviposition and developmental patterns of both species on cadavers manifesting different levels of burn as described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) remain scarce. In four replicates, rabbit carcasses were burned to CGS levels #1, #2 and #3 by varying the amount of petrol used and duration of burning. Oviposition by C. megacephala and C. rufifacies was delayed by one day in the case of carcasses burned to the CGS level #3 (p<0.05) when compared with that of controls. Such delay in oviposition was not observed in the CGS level #1 and #2 carcasses. No significant differences (p>0.05) in the duration of development were found between control and burned carcasses. These findings deserve consideration while estimating minimum PMI since burning as a mean for disposing animal and human cadavers is gaining popularity. PMID:26779962

  6. Oviposition preferences of two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and implications for postmortem interval estimation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Tsai; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2012-03-01

    Necrophagous blow fly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are the most important agents for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) in forensic entomology. Nevertheless, the oviposition preferences of blow flies may cause a bias of PMI estimations because of a delay or acceleration of egg laying. Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and C. rufifacies (Macquart) are two predominant necrophagous blow fly species in Taiwan. Their larvae undergo rather intense competition, and the latter one can prey on the former under natural conditions. To understand the oviposition preferences of these two species, a dual-choice device was used to test the choice of oviposition sites by females. Results showed when pork liver with and without larvae of C. rufifacies was provided, C. megacephala preferred to lay eggs on the liver without larvae. However, C. megacephala showed no preference when pork liver with and without conspecific larvae or larvae of Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) was provided. These results indicate that females of C. megacephala try to avoid laying eggs around larvae of facultatively predaceous species of C. rufifacies. However, C. rufifacies showed significant oviposition preference for pork liver with larvae of C. megacephala or conspecific ones when compared with pork liver with no larvae. These results probably imply that conspecific larvae or larvae of C. megacephala may potentially be alternative food resources for C. rufifacies, so that its females prefer to lay eggs in their presence. When considering the size of the oviposition media, pork livers of a relatively small size were obviously unfavorable to both species. This may be because females need to find sufficient resources to meet the food demands of their larvae. In another experiment, neither blow fly species showed an oviposition preference for pork livers of different stages of decay. In addition, the oviposition preferences of both species to those media with larvae were greatly disturbed in a dark

  7. Forensically important calliphoridae (diptera) associated with pig carrion in rural north-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phoenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September. ?? 2007 Entomological Society of America.

  8. Terrestrial arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. IV. Asilidae and other Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jeffrey K.; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P. G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the fourth in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months in 2013 using twelve trap types, including Malaise and canopy traps, Lindgren multifunnel traps, and pan traps. New information We provide collection records for 38 species of Asilidae and other Diptera, 7 of which are new state records for Arkansas: (Asilidae) Lasiopogon opaculus Loew, 1874; (Lygistorrhinidae) Lygistorrhina sancthecatharinae Thompson, 1975; (Stratiomyidae) Cephalochrysa nigricornis (Loew, 1866), Gowdeyana punctifera (Malloch, 1915), Sargus decorus Say, 1824; (Ulidiidae) Callopistromyia annulipes Macquart, 1855; and (Xylophagidae) Rachicerus obscuripennis Loew, 1863.

  9. Blow fly maggots (Diptera: Calliphoridae)from a human corpse in a vehicle.

    PubMed

    Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Monum, Tawachai; Wannasan, Anchalee; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-09-01

    Correct species identification and development data of insects associated with a cadaver can help estimate the time of colonization which could be used to infer a minimal post-mortem interval (minPMI) for forensic investigations. Human remains are found in a variety of locations ranging from open fields to inside automobiles. We report the investigation of blow fly larvae collected from a decomposing body located in the trunk of a car. There were two blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species: Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Blow flies can enter the vehicle and colonize human remains. Based on age estimations of third stage larvae of A. rufifacies, the minPMI was estimated to be 4-5 days, which was within the range of 3-5 days estimated by other forensically relevant information.

  10. Terrestrial arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. IV. Asilidae and other Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jeffrey K.; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P. G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the fourth in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months in 2013 using twelve trap types, including Malaise and canopy traps, Lindgren multifunnel traps, and pan traps. New information We provide collection records for 38 species of Asilidae and other Diptera, 7 of which are new state records for Arkansas: (Asilidae) Lasiopogon opaculus Loew, 1874; (Lygistorrhinidae) Lygistorrhina sancthecatharinae Thompson, 1975; (Stratiomyidae) Cephalochrysa nigricornis (Loew, 1866), Gowdeyana punctifera (Malloch, 1915), Sargus decorus Say, 1824; (Ulidiidae) Callopistromyia annulipes Macquart, 1855; and (Xylophagidae) Rachicerus obscuripennis Loew, 1863. PMID:27660536

  11. Remating behavior in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) females is affected by male juvenile hormone analog treatment but not by male sterilization.

    PubMed

    Abraham, S; Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Peralta, P A; Yusef, V; Ruiz, J; Cladera, J L; Vera, M T; Segura, D F

    2013-06-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been proposed as an area-wide method to control the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). This technique requires sterilization, a procedure that affects, along with other factors, the ability of males to modulate female sexual receptivity after copulation. Numerous pre-release treatments have been proposed to counteract the detrimental effects of irradiation, rearing and handling and increase SIT effectiveness. These include treating newly emerged males with a juvenile hormone mimic (methoprene) or supplying protein to the male's diet to accelerate sexual maturation prior to release. Here, we examine how male irradiation, methoprene treatment and protein intake affect remating behavior and the amount of sperm stored in inseminated females. In field cage experiments, we found that irradiated laboratory males were equally able to modulate female remating behavior as fertile wild males. However, females mated with 6-day-old, methoprene-treated males remated more and sooner than females mated with naturally matured males, either sterile or wild. Protein intake by males was not sufficient to overcome reduced ability of methoprene-treated males to induce refractory periods in females as lengthy as those induced by wild and naturally matured males. The amount of sperm stored by females was not affected by male irradiation, methoprene treatment or protein intake. This finding revealed that factors in addition to sperm volume intervene in regulating female receptivity after copulation. Implications for SIT are discussed.

  12. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species. PMID:27395675

  13. Nectar-related vs. human-related volatiles: behavioural response and choice by female and male Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) between emergence and first feeding.

    PubMed

    Foster, W A; Takken, W

    2004-04-01

    The close association of Anopheles gambiae Giles with humans and its females' ability to live on human blood alone suggest that females may ignore sources of sugar in favour of human blood as a source of energy. They have limited energy reserves at emergence, and at 27 degrees C both sexes generally die if they do not feed during night 1, 24-36 h after emergence. Food preferences during this critical period were tested by measuring responses to volatiles from honey and soiled socks, which served as surrogates for nectar-related and human-related volatiles in a wind-tunnel olfactometer. Both sexes responded more strongly to honey than to human volatiles, and given a choice, preferred honey over human volatiles. After 5 days of sugar access and maturation, males continued to prefer honey volatiles, whereas females changed behaviour, responding almost exclusively to human volatiles. Night 1 experiments also demonstrated that: (i). females previously having had sugar during the night of emergence responded more strongly to human volatiles; (ii). large-bodied mosquitoes of both sexes responded more strongly to honey than small-bodied ones; and (iii). females were equally responsive to honey in both early and late scotophase but were slightly more responsive to human volatiles in late scotophase. These results indicate that for a female's first meal, sugar is a viable option and is preferred when nectar-related stimuli are strong. This supports field evidence that sugar-feeding is a significant component of A. gambiae female behaviour.

  14. The armature in the genital atrium as a new taxonomic character distinguishing females of Phlebotomus papatasi and P. duboscqi (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Pesson, B; Madulo-Leblond, G; Killick-Kendrick, M; Tang, Y; Killick-Kendrick, R

    1994-10-01

    Descriptions are given of armatures in the genital atria of females of the two morphologically similar sandfly species, Phlebotomus papatasi and P. duboscqi. The species are distinguishable by the size and shape of the armature, the grouping of the spines in the armature and the length and shape of the spines. These characters have been shown to separate females of other closely related species of phlebotomine sandflies.

  15. Effects of the Botanical Insecticide, Toosendanin, on Blood Digestion and Egg Production by Female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): Topical Application and Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    ZHIQING, MA; GULIA-NUSS, MONIKA; ZHANG, XING; BROWN, MARK R.

    2014-01-01

    Botanical insecticides offer novel chemistries and actions that may provide effective mosquito control. Toosendanin (TSN, 95% purity) is one such insecticide used to control crop pests in China, and in this study, it was evaluated for lethal and sublethal effects on larvae and females of the yellowfever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.). TSN was very toxic to first instar larvae after a 24 h exposure (LC50 = 60.8 μg/ml) and to adult females up to 96 h after topical treatment (LD50 = 4.3 μg/female) or ingestion in a sugar bait (LC50 = 1.02 μg/μl). Treatment of first instars for 24 h with a range of sublethal doses (6.3–25 μg/ml) delayed development to pupae by 1 to 2 d. Egg production and larval hatching from eggs were dose dependently reduced (>45%) by TSN doses (1.25–10.0 μg) topically applied to females 24 h before or 1 h after a bloodmeal. Ingestion of TSN (0.031–0.25 μg/μl of sugar bait) by females 24 h before a bloodmeal also greatly reduced egg production and larval hatch; no eggs were oviposited by females ingesting the highest dose. Further studies revealed that topical or ingested TSN dose-dependently disrupted yolk deposition in oocytes, blood ingestion and digestion, and ovary ecdysteroid production in blood-fed females. Overall, our results indicate that TSN is an effective insecticide for Ae. aegypti larvae and adults, because of its overt toxicity at high doses and disruption of development and reproduction at sublethal doses. PMID:23427659

  16. Density-Dependent Oviposition by Female Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Spreads Eggs Among Containers During the Summer but Accumulates Them in the Fall.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, D M; Kaplan, L R; Heiry, R A; Strickman, D

    2015-07-01

    When possible, oviparous females should deposit eggs in sites that maximize the future performance of their offspring. Therefore, studies of oviposition behavior may uncover parameters important to offspring fitness. Gravid female Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were given a choice of containers with leaf infusion or plain water, either open or with a cover with a small opening, and their behavior was compared under summer (long day, higher temperature) or fall (short day, lower temperature) regimes. Open containers with leaf infusion were always preferred, but over time, summer females expanded their choices to oviposit in all containers and follow-up experiments indicated that the number of eggs laid was inversely correlated to the number of eggs present. In contrast, fall females laying diapausing eggs that do not hatch until the spring, accumulated eggs in open containers with food resulting in high egg densities. Combined, these results demonstrate a seasonal shift that suggests either high winter egg mortality or safety in numbers. It also demonstrates that female Ae. albopictus change their behavior based on cues associated with expected added risk, which varies across time and space. The wide distribution of summer eggs across container types may contribute to the fast expansion of Ae. albopictus across its invasive range, but egg accumulation in the fall may be exploited for control. PMID:26335478

  17. Thermoregulation in larval aggregations of carrion-feeding blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Slone, D H; Gruner, S V

    2007-05-01

    The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormnia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.

  18. Thermoregulation in larval aggregations of carrion-feeding blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slone, D.H.; Gruner, Susan V.

    2007-01-01

    The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.

  19. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXVI. Genus Collessius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Collessius was conducted and a composite description is provided. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Co. macfarlanei (Edwards), are illustrated. Collessius is divided into two subgenera, Alloeom...

  20. Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus (Diptera: Culicidae), not the malaria vector we thought it was: Revised male and female morphology; larva, pupa, and male genitalia characters; and molecular verification

    PubMed Central

    HARRISON, BRUCE A.; RUIZ-LOPEZ, FREDDY; FALERO, GUILLERMO CALDERON; SAVAGE, HARRY M.; PECOR, JAMES E.; WILKERSON, RICHARD C.

    2015-01-01

    The name Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus Zavortink, commonly used for an important malaria vector in the eastern cordillera of the Andes, is here corrected to An. pholidotus Zavortink. We discovered that An. (Ker.) specimens from Peru, and reared-associated specimens from Ecuador, had unambiguous habitus characters that matched those on the male holotype of An. lepidotus. However, the specimens do not exhibit characters of the female allotype and female paratypes of An. lepidotus, which are actually An. pholidotus. Our specimens are the first correctly associated females of An. lepidotus, which allow us to provide a new morphological interpretation for the adult habitus of this species. This finding is also corroborated by molecular data from a portion of the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene and ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (rDNA ITS2). The pupal stage of An. lepidotus is described for the first time, and additional larval characters are also noted. Diagnostic morphological characters for the adult, pupal, and larval stages of An. pholidotus are provided to separate the two species. All stages of An. lepidotus are easily separated from other currently known species in subgenus Kerteszia and a new key to the females of An. (Kerteszia) is given. Previously published distribution, bionomics, and medical significance data are corrected and enhanced. PMID:26726290

  1. Effects of azadirachtin on the biology of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) adult female, the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    De Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia Alves; De Souza, Nataly Araujo; Silva, Vanderlei Campos; Souza, Adelson A; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2014-07-01

    The effects of azadirachtin A added to the sucrose diet of the adult females on the mortality, oviposition, and hatching of the sand fly vector of American visceral leishmaniasis Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) were investigated. Concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 microg/mg of azadirachtin significantly increased insect mortality in comparison with control insects. The same dose also significantly reduced oviposition but not hatching. After a long development period, significantly fewer adult insects were obtained from eggs hatching by azadirachtin-treated females in a dose-response manner. These results indicate that azadirachtin is a potent sterilizer that could be used against the development of Lu. longipalpis populations and as a tool for studying physiological and biochemical processes in phlebotomine species. PMID:25118426

  2. Effects of azadirachtin on the biology of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) adult female, the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    De Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia Alves; De Souza, Nataly Araujo; Silva, Vanderlei Campos; Souza, Adelson A; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2014-07-01

    The effects of azadirachtin A added to the sucrose diet of the adult females on the mortality, oviposition, and hatching of the sand fly vector of American visceral leishmaniasis Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) were investigated. Concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 microg/mg of azadirachtin significantly increased insect mortality in comparison with control insects. The same dose also significantly reduced oviposition but not hatching. After a long development period, significantly fewer adult insects were obtained from eggs hatching by azadirachtin-treated females in a dose-response manner. These results indicate that azadirachtin is a potent sterilizer that could be used against the development of Lu. longipalpis populations and as a tool for studying physiological and biochemical processes in phlebotomine species.

  3. Contribution to the knowledge of Stenochironomus Kieffer (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Brazil: seven new species and description of females and immatures of some previously known species.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Galileu P S; Hamada, Neusa; Mendes, Humberto F

    2016-01-01

    Twenty two species of Stenochironomus Kieffer are known from Brazil, 19 of which occur in the Amazon region. In order to increase knowledge of the taxonomy of this genus in the Amazon region, collections were carried out in streams located in Presidente Figueiredo, Manaus and Itacoatiara municipalities, Amazonas State. Leaves and wood mined by Stenochironomus larvae were collected and transported to the laboratory where they were kept until adult emergence. Seven new species were found, one of which is described in the immature stages and as adults of both sexes (S. amazonicus sp. n.), one as immatures and adult male (S. liviae sp. n.), four as male and pupa (S. bare sp. n., S. figueiredoensis sp. n., S. gracilis sp. nov. and S. manauara sp. n.) and one only as male (S. suzanae sp. n.). Additionally, the female, pupa and larva of S. impendens Borkent, pupa and larva of S. jubatus Borkent, female and pupa of S. zonarius Borkent and female of S. palliaculeatus Borkent were described. PMID:27395156

  4. A new species of the predaceous midge genus Brachypogon Kieffer from the Neotropical Region and first description of the female of Brachypogon (Isohelea) cuacuahuitlus Huerta & Borkent (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Huerta, Herón; Spinelli, Gustavo R

    2016-01-01

    The predaceous midge genus Brachypogon Kieffer is presently known in Mexico by Brachypogon (Brachypogon) fuscivenosus (Lutz, 1914), B. (B.) bimaculatus Spinelli & Grogan, 1998, B. (B.) woodruffi Spinelli & Grogan, 1998 and B. (Isohelea) cuacuahuitlus Huerta & Borkent, 2005. In this contribution a new species, Brachypogon (Brachypogon) ginue, is described and illustrated from a male specimen collected in Tlanchinol, State of Hidalgo, Mexico. This new species belongs to the impar species group. The first description of the female of Brachypogon (Isohelea) cuacuahuitlus Huerta & Borkent is also provided. PMID:27395848

  5. Larval distribution and behavior of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera:Calliphoridae) relative to other species on Florida black bear(Carnivora:Ursidae) carcasses decompsing in North Central Florida.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larval interactions of blow flies were documented daily temporally and spatially on 5 black bear carcasses from June – November, 2002. Cochliomyia macellaria or Chrysomya megacephala larvae were collected first, then Chrysomya rufifacies oviposited in multiple locations on the carcasses uninhabited...

  6. Analysis of ovary-specific genes in relation to egg maturation and female nutritional condition in the mosquitoes Georgecraigius atropalpus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Telang, Aparna; Rechel, Julie A.; Brandt, Jessica R.; Donnell, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the reproductive physiology of anautogenous mosquitoes at the molecular level is complicated by the simultaneity of ovarian maturation and the digestion of a blood meal. In contrast to anautogenous mosquitoes, autogenous female mosquitoes can acquire greater nutrient stores as larvae and exhibit higher ovarian production of ecdysteroids at adult eclosion. These features essentially replace the role of a blood meal in provisioning the first batch of eggs and initiating egg development. To gain insight into the process of ovary maturation we first performed a transcript analysis of the obligatory autogenous mosquito Georgecraigius atropalpus (formerly Ochlerotatus atropalpus). We identified ESTs using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) of transcripts from ovaries at critical times during oogenesis in the absence of blood digestion. Preliminary expression studies of genes such as apolipophorin III (APO) and oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) suggested these genes might be cued to female nutritional status. We then applied our findings to the medically important anautogenous mosquito Aedes aegypti. RNAi-based analyses of these genes in Ae. aegypti revealed a reduction in APO transcripts leads to reduced lipid levels in carcass and ovaries and that OSBP may play a role in overall lipid and sterol homeostasis. In addition to expanding our understanding of mosquito ovarian development, the continued use of a comparative approach between autogenous and anautogenous species may provide novel intervention points for the regulation of mosquito egg production. PMID:23238126

  7. Analysis of ovary-specific genes in relation to egg maturation and female nutritional condition in the mosquitoes Georgecraigius atropalpus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Telang, Aparna; Rechel, Julie A; Brandt, Jessica R; Donnell, David M

    2013-03-01

    Analysis of the reproductive physiology of anautogenous mosquitoes at the molecular level is complicated by the simultaneity of ovarian maturation and the digestion of a blood meal. In contrast to anautogenous mosquitoes, autogenous female mosquitoes can acquire greater nutrient stores as larvae and exhibit higher ovarian production of ecdysteroids at adult eclosion. These features essentially replace the role of a blood meal in provisioning the first batch of eggs and initiating egg development. To gain insight into the process of ovary maturation we first performed a transcript analysis of the obligatory autogenous mosquito Georgecraigius atropalpus (formerly Ochlerotatus atropalpus). We identified ESTs using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) of transcripts from ovaries at critical times during oogenesis in the absence of blood digestion. Preliminary expression studies of genes such as apolipophorin III (APO) and oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) suggested these genes might be cued to female nutritional status. We then applied our findings to the medically important anautogenous mosquito Aedes aegypti. RNAi-based analyses of these genes in Ae. aegypti revealed a reduction in APO transcripts leads to reduced lipid levels in carcass and ovaries and that OSBP may play a role in overall lipid and sterol homeostasis. In addition to expanding our understanding of mosquito ovarian development, the continued use of a comparative approach between autogenous and anautogenous species may provide novel intervention points for the regulation of mosquito egg production.

  8. Phlebotomine sandflies of Kenya (Diptera: Psychodidae). IV. The armature in the genital atrium of female Larroussius as a means of identification.

    PubMed

    Killick-Kendrick, R; Tang, Y; Killick-Kendrick, M

    1994-08-01

    Descriptions are given of armatures in the genital atria of the six known Kenyan species of phlebotomine sandflies of the subgenus, Larroussius, namely Phlebotomus aculeatus, P. elgonensis, P. guggisbergi, P. longipes, P. orientalis and P. pedifer. Phlebotomus aculeatus, P. longipes and P. pedifer can be recognized by the shapes of their armatures. Differences in the length and arrangement of the spines in the armature of P. elgonensis and P. longipes are diagnostic features. The distinguishing feature of P. guggisbergi is a wide variation in spine thickness. The most notable feature of P. orientalis is the angle at which the spines lie. The appearance of the base of the spermathecal duct remains the method of choice for the identification of all six but, if this feature is not well displayed in dissected females, they can be distinguished by the armature. It is suggested that descriptions of new species should include an illustration of the armature in the genital atrium.

  9. Numerous transitions of sex chromosomes in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-04-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.

  10. Numerous Transitions of Sex Chromosomes in Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa. PMID:25879221

  11. New species and redescriptions of the New Zealand genus Exsul Hutton (Diptera: Muscidae: Coenosiinae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Leandro Silva; Couri, Márcia Souto

    2013-01-01

    Exsul Hutton (Diptera, Muscidae) is revised and the genus diagnosis is enlarged. The female of Exsul singularis Hutton is described for the first time. The male and female terminalia of all species are described and illustrated. Exsul alfredoi sp. n. is described and illustrated and compared with the other known species. A key to separate the species is given.

  12. Rhipidia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time. PMID:27395731

  13. Nomenclatural Studies Toward a World List of Diptera Genus-Group Names. Part IV: Charles Henry Tyler Townsend.

    PubMed

    Evenhuis, Neal L; Pont, Adrian C; Whitmore, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The Diptera genus-group names of Charles Henry Tyler Townsend are reviewed and annotated. A total of 1506 available genus-group names in 12 families of Diptera are listed alphabetically for each name, giving author, year and page of original publication, originally included species, type species and method of fixation, current status of the name, family placement, and a list of any emendations of it that have been found in the literature. Remarks are given to clarify nomenclatural and/or taxonomic information. In addition, an index to all the species-group names of Diptera proposed by Townsend (1595, of which 1574 are available names) is given with bibliographic reference (year and page) to each original citation. An appendix with a full bibliography of almost 650 papers written by Townsend is presented with accurate dates of publication.        Two new replacement names are proposed for preoccupied genus-group names and both are named to honor our good friend and colleague, James E. O'Hara, for his decades of work on tachinids: Oharamyia Evenhuis, Pont & Whitmore, n. name, for Lindigia Townsend, 1931 [Tachinidae] (preoccupied by Karsten, 1858); Jimimyia Evenhuis, Pont & Whitmore, n. name, for Siphonopsis Townsend, 1916 [Tachinidae] (preoccupied by Agassiz, 1846).        Earlier dates of availability are found for the following: Eucnephalia Townsend, 1892 [Tachinidae]; Gabanimyia Townsend, 1914 [Tachinidae]; Incamyia Townsend, 1912 [Tachinidae]; Muscopteryx Townsend, 1892 [Tachinidae]; Philippolophosia Townsend, 1927 [Tachinidae]; Pseudokea Townsend, 1927 [Tachinidae].        Corrected or clarified included species and/or corrected or clarified type-species and methods of typification are given for: Alitophasia Townsend, 1934 [Tachinidae]; Almugmyia Townsend, 1911 [Tachinidae]; Arachnidomyia Townsend, 1934 [Sarcophagidae]; Austenina Townsend, 1921 [Glossinidae]; Austrohartigia Townsend, 1937 [Sarcophagidae]; Awatia Townsend, 1921 [Muscidae

  14. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  15. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    PubMed

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  16. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    PubMed

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  17. Picture-winged fly (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp.; Diptera: Ulidiidae) semiochemical investigations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Picture-winged flies (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp., Diptera: Ulidiidae) are severe primary pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Females oviposit in silks and larvae consume the silks and kernels, rendering the ear unmarketable. Growers treat their fields with numerous broad spectrum insecticide ap...

  18. First North American record of the Palaearctic rhinophorid Stevenia deceptoria (Loew) (Diptera: Rhinophoridae).

    PubMed

    O'hara, James E; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Dahlem, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    The Rhinophoridae (Diptera) have a cosmopolitan distribution and a known fauna of about 150 species (Cerretti & Pape 2007). So far as known, all species are parasitoids of terrestrial woodlice (sow bugs) of the order Isopoda (Oniscoidea) (Pape 2010). Female rhinophorids lay eggs in the vicinity of potential hosts and the planidial first instars parasitize sow bugs as they pass by (Pape 1998). PMID:26701527

  19. Catalogue of the type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the Instituto Evandro Chagas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Pinheiro, Maria Sueli Barros; de Andrade, Andrey José

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The available type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the “Coleção de Flebotomíneos” of the Instituto Evandro Chagas (ColFleb IEC) is now presented in an annotated catalogue comprising a total of 121 type specimens belonging to 12 species as follow: Nyssomyia richardwardi (2 female paratypes), Nyssomyia shawi (9 male and 25 female paratypes), Nyssomyia umbratilis (female holotype and 1 female paratype), Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (1 male and 1 female paratypes), Pintomyia gruta (1 male and 2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus lainsoni (2 male syntypes), Psychodopygus leonidasdeanei (male holotype, female “allotype” and 45 female paratypes), Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi (2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus wellcomei (1 male and 4 female “syntypes”), Trichophoromyia readyi (male holotype, female “allotype” and 1 male paratype), Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (male holotype, 13 male 5 female paratypes), and Trichophoromyia brachipyga (1 male paratype). PMID:24715786

  20. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  1. Impact of abiotic factor changes in blowfly, Achoetandrus rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Sukontason, Kom; Ngoen-klan, Ratchadawan; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Irvine, Kim N; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Prangkio, Chira; Sanit, Sangob; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-04-01

    Understanding how medically important flies respond to abiotic factor changes is necessary for predicting their population dynamics. In this study, we investigated the geographical distribution of the medically important blowfly, Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and ascertained the response to climatic and physio-environmental factors in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. Adult fly surveys were carried out every 2 weeks from May 2009 to May 2010 at 18 systematically randomized study sites in three districts of Chiang Mai province (Mueang Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, and Hang Dong), using reconstructable funnel traps with 1-day tainted beef offal as bait. During the study period, 8,861 adult A. rufifacies were captured, with peak densities being observed at the end of winter (i.e., late February) and throughout most of the summer (May to March). Population density had a weak but significant (α = 0.05) positive correlation with temperature (r = 0.329) and light intensity (r = 0.231), and a weak but significant (α = 0.05) negative correlation with relative humidity (r = -0.236). From the six ecological land use types (disturbed mixed deciduous forest, mixed deciduous forest, mixed orchard, lowland village, city town, and paddy field), greater fly densities were observed generally in the disturbed mixed deciduous forest and lowland village, but not in the paddy fields. In conclusion, A. rufifacies are abundant from the end of winter and throughout most of the summer in northern Thailand, with population density being weakly positively correlated with temperature and light intensity, but weakly negatively correlated with relative humidity. The greatest densities of this fly species were collected in disturbed mixed deciduous forest and lowland village land uses. The prediction of annual and season specific distributions of A. rufifacies were provided in each season and all-year patterns using a co-kriging approach (ArcGIS9.2).

  2. A new genus and species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) from leaf blister galls on Ribes (Grosulariaceae)in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ribesia sarae Gagné, new genus, new species(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from simple leaf blister galls on Ribes aureum(Grossulariaceae) from Montana. The female abdomen is superficially similar to that of CystiphoraKieffer and SackenomyiaFelt. The three genera are compared. Because of stro...

  3. Simulium (Inaequalium) marins, a new species of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) from inselbergs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pepinelli, Mateus; Hamada, Neusa; Currie, Douglas C

    2009-08-01

    A new species of black fly, Simulium (Inaequalium) marins (Diptera: Simuliidae), is described based on the male, female, pupa and larva. This new species was collected from two localities: a small stream on the Pico dos Marins, a high mountain with granite outcrops in Piquete County, state of São Paulo, and in a small stream in the Serra dos Orgãos National Park, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  4. Camptotarsopoda annulitarsis Stein: redescription, description of terminalia and new record to South Africa (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Couri, Márcia Souto

    2014-01-01

    Camptotarsopoda Strand (Diptera, Muscidae) comprises five species restricted to the Afrotropical region. The genus belongs to the subfamily Coenosiinae and tribe Limnophorini. The type-species, C. annulitarsis (Stein), is redescribed and the male and female terminalia are described and illustrated for the first time. The species is newly recorded from South Africa. The systematic placement of the genus is confirmed among the basal Limnophorini.

  5. Low Diversity Bacterial Community and the Trapping Activity of Metabolites from Cultivable Bacteria Species in the Female Reproductive System of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhanghong; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and evaluate the chemotaxis of B. dorsalis to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were assigned to the five bacterial classes Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria. Nine OTUs were assigned to Gammaproteobacteria, which was the most highly represented class. Enterobacteriaceae constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including Enterobacter sakazakii, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Raoultella terrigena and Enterobacter amnigenus. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by R. terrigena, K. oxytoca and K. pneumoniae were attractive to the B. dorsalis adults, and in field studies, B. dorsalis adults were most attracted to K. oxytoca. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly. PMID:22754363

  6. New data on Philornis seguyi Garcia (1952) (Diptera, Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Couri, M S; Rabuffetti, F L; Reboreda, J C

    2005-11-01

    Philornis Meinert is a very interesting Muscidae (Diptera) genus whose larvae are associated with a wide range of bird species. The existing description of Philornis seguyi Garcia (1952), which was reported in Argentina, so far involves only the female. During the 2000-2002 breeding seasons, we collected Philornis flies from six bird species in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. All the flies were identified as P. seguyi. Based on this material, we describe the larva, puparium, adult male, and male and female terminalia. All the host associations presented here--Mimus saturninus (Mimidae), Troglodytes aedon (Troglodytidae), Pitangus sulfuratus (Tyrannidae), Pyrocephalus rubinus (Tyrannidae), Satrapa icterophrys (Tyrannidae) and Molothrus bonariensis (Icteridae) in nests of M. saturninus and Troglodytes aedon--are new for P. seguyi. We also present some data on the biology of the species.

  7. Seasonal and Geographic Variation in Biodiversity of Forensically Important Blow Flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in New Jersey, USA.

    PubMed

    Weidner, L M; Jennings, D E; Tomberlin, J K; Hamilton, G C

    2015-09-01

    Determining the time of colonization of human or other animal remains by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) can play an important role in criminal investigations. However, blow fly presence in a given area is strongly influenced by abiotic and biotic variables such as temperature and habitat. We wanted to assess the biodiversity of adult blow flies in New Jersey, USA, where very little is known about these taxa. Toward that end we collected adult blow flies biweekly from traps baited with bovine liver and placed across three regions in New Jersey over a 2-yr period (2011-2013). We collected and identified 9,257 adult calliphorids, comprising six genera and 12 species. Blow fly assemblages composed of these species varied by season, but community composition did not vary among regions within a given season. Three species, Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), and Phormia regina (Meigen) comprised 88.5% of all adult blow flies collected (42.6, 25.9, 20.0%, respectively). Combining all regions, the dominant species for both spring and summer was L. coeruleiviridis comprising 35.1% of all adults caught in spring and 64.1% in summer. P. regina was the dominant species in fall, totaling 40.1% of all adults caught and Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) was the dominant species for winter, totaling 44.8% of all adults caught. Our findings provide the first assessment of blow fly communities in New Jersey, and these results can be applied to surrounding states where data are severely lacking for forensic application.

  8. Detection of insemination status in live Aedes aegypti females

    PubMed Central

    Carrasquilla, María C.; Lounibos, L. Philip

    2015-01-01

    Using the technique described in this report, the presence or absence of sperm in spermathecae of female Aedes aegypti is detectable without dissection. Spermathecae of a lightly anesthetized female can be visualized by phase contrast microscopy through the distended abdomen, after the intersegmental membranes are stretched by ventral placement of a glass cover slip. Most females recovered after the procedure were capable of subsequent reproductive activities. Albeit tedious, this technique preserves the female alive for subsequent experiments or observations. Its extension to other mosquito species, or other Diptera and insects, will depend on spermathecal and sperm visibility through the distended abdomen. PMID:25721054

  9. A new record of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera:Fanniidae) from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Omar, B; Kurahashi, H; Jeffery, J; Yasohdha, N; Lau, S Y; John, M C; Marwi, M A; Zuha, R M; Ahmad, M S

    2007-12-01

    Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) is newly recorded from Malaysia. This record is based on 1male symbol 1female symbol from Sarawak, east Malaysia and 1male symbol 2female symbol from Selangor, peninsular Malaysia. It is included in the pusio group of Fannia wherein are included Fannia femoralis (Stein), Fannia howardi Malloch, Fannia trimaculata (Stein), Fannia leucosticta (Meigen) and Fannia punctiventris Malloch. The male of Fannia pusio is differentiated from other members of the group by the following features: hind femur with a swelling bearing a number of setae that are usually curled at tip; squamae creamy; tergite 1+2 broadly grey dusted at sides.

  10. First description of the male and additional data on the female morphology of Aprostocetus rubi Graham (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The previously unknown male of Aprostocetus rubi Graham (Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) was reared, together with females, from galls of the raspberry gall midge Lasioptera rubi (Schrank) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) collected in Central Poland. The male is described and illustrated for the first time, and additional information provided on the morphology of the female. PMID:27395694

  11. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Segura, D.; Petit-Marty, N.; Cladera, J.; Sciurano, R.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Vera, T.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-03-15

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author) [Spanish] Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) presenta un sistema de apareamiento tipo lek. Los machos forman grupos y, en forma conjunta, emiten senales (acusticas, visuales, o quimicas) para

  12. Effect of Quorum Sensing by Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Attraction Response of Female Adult Yellow Fever Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), to a Blood-Feeding Source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyang; Crippen, Tawni L; Coates, Craig J; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths annually. Compounds such as carbon dioxide, amino acids, fatty acids and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been widely studied for their role in attracting Ae. aegypti to hosts. Many VOCs from humans are produced by associated skin microbiota. Staphyloccocus epidermidis, although not the most abundant bacteria according to surveys of relative 16S ribosomal RNA abundance, commonly occurs on human skin. Bacteria demonstrate population level decision-making through quorum sensing. Many quorum sensing molecules, such as indole, volatilize and become part of the host odor plum. To date, no one has directly demonstrated the link between quorum sensing (i.e., decision-making) by bacteria associated with a host as a factor regulating arthropod vector attraction. This study examined this specific question with regards to S. epidermidis and Ae. aegypti. Pairwise tests were conducted to examine the response of female Ae. aegypti to combinations of tryptic soy broth (TSB) and S. epidermidis wildtype and agr- strains. The agr gene expresses an accessory gene regulator for quorum sensing; therefore, removing this gene inhibits quorum sensing of the bacteria. Differential attractiveness of mosquitoes to the wildtype and agr- strains was observed. Both wildtype and the agr- strain of S. epidermidis with TSB were marginally more attractive to Ae. aegypti than the TSB alone. Most interestingly, the blood-feeder treated with wildtype S. epidermidis/TSB attracted 74% of Ae. aegypti compared to the agr- strain of S. epidermidis/TSB (P ≤ 0.0001). This study is the first to suggest a role for interkingdom communication between host symbiotic bacteria and mosquitoes. This may have implications for mosquito decision-making with regards to host detection, location and acceptance. We speculate that mosquitoes "eavesdrop" on the chemical discussions occurring between

  13. Effect of Quorum Sensing by Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Attraction Response of Female Adult Yellow Fever Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), to a Blood-Feeding Source

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyang; Crippen, Tawni L.; Coates, Craig J.; Wood, Thomas K.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths annually. Compounds such as carbon dioxide, amino acids, fatty acids and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been widely studied for their role in attracting Ae. aegypti to hosts. Many VOCs from humans are produced by associated skin microbiota. Staphyloccocus epidermidis, although not the most abundant bacteria according to surveys of relative 16S ribosomal RNA abundance, commonly occurs on human skin. Bacteria demonstrate population level decision-making through quorum sensing. Many quorum sensing molecules, such as indole, volatilize and become part of the host odor plum. To date, no one has directly demonstrated the link between quorum sensing (i.e., decision-making) by bacteria associated with a host as a factor regulating arthropod vector attraction. This study examined this specific question with regards to S. epidermidis and Ae. aegypti. Pairwise tests were conducted to examine the response of female Ae. aegypti to combinations of tryptic soy broth (TSB) and S. epidermidis wildtype and agr- strains. The agr gene expresses an accessory gene regulator for quorum sensing; therefore, removing this gene inhibits quorum sensing of the bacteria. Differential attractiveness of mosquitoes to the wildtype and agr- strains was observed. Both wildtype and the agr- strain of S. epidermidis with TSB were marginally more attractive to Ae. aegypti than the TSB alone. Most interestingly, the blood-feeder treated with wildtype S. epidermidis/TSB attracted 74% of Ae. aegypti compared to the agr- strain of S. epidermidis/TSB (P ≤ 0.0001). This study is the first to suggest a role for interkingdom communication between host symbiotic bacteria and mosquitoes. This may have implications for mosquito decision-making with regards to host detection, location and acceptance. We speculate that mosquitoes “eavesdrop” on the chemical discussions occurring

  14. Fauna Europaea: Diptera – Brachycera

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I.; Ozerov, Andrey L.; Woźnica, Andrzej J.; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K.; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T.; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C. D.; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L.; Chandler, Peter J.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A.; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N.; Mathis, Wayne N.; Hubenov, Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera–Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera–Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger

  15. Culicoides hildebrandoi, a new species of the reticulatus species group from the Brazilian Amazon Region (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Farias, Emanuelle de Sousa; Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Santarém, Maria Clara Alves

    2016-01-01

    A new species of biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), Culicoides hildebrandoi sp. n., is described and illustrated based on female and male specimens from the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil. This new species belongs to the reticulatus species group and differs from the 24 other species of this group by the elongate slightly swollen 3(rd) palpal segment with scattered capitate sensilla but lacking a sensory pit. PMID:27110160

  16. Culicoides hildebrandoi, a new species of the reticulatus species group from the Brazilian Amazon Region (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Emanuelle de Sousa; Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Santarém, Maria Clara Alves

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), Culicoides hildebrandoi sp. n., is described and illustrated based on female and male specimens from the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil. This new species belongs to the reticulatus species group and differs from the 24 other species of this group by the elongate slightly swollen 3rd palpal segment with scattered capitate sensilla but lacking a sensory pit. PMID:27110160

  17. Repellent response of female agromyzid flies to leafminer-infested bean plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, L. trifolii (Burgess) and L. huidobrensis (Blanchard) are three invasive leafminer species (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in China that have caused significant economic damage on vegetables and ornamental plants. In the current study, the repellent responses of female adults to ...

  18. The roles of predators, competitors, and secondary salinization in structuring mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) assemblages in ephemeral water bodies of the Wheatbelt of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Carver, Scott; Spafford, Helen; Storey, Andrew; Weinstein, Philip

    2010-06-01

    Studies that consider both biotic and abiotic determinants of organisms are rare, but critical to delineate underlying determinants of community richness (number of taxa) and abundance (number of larvae per water body). In this study, we consider the importance of disturbance (salinity) and predator and competitor variables on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in small ephemeral water bodies across the Wheatbelt of Western Australia. Similar to mosquitoes, and contrary to general perceptions, nonculicid aquatic fauna (aquatic fauna) had a common occurrence (number or percentage of water bodies occupied) and were abundant (average density) in ephemeral water bodies, albeit with a simplified trophic structure. The occurrence and density (number per unit area) of aquatic fauna between water bodies were highly variable, but general relationships of aquatic fauna with rainfall, water body surface area, salinity, and mosquitoes were apparent. In contrast to mosquitoes, the density of aquatic fauna declined with recent rainfall, implying mosquitoes may colonize newly created water bodies more quickly than aquatic fauna. Assemblages (richness and density of taxa) of aquatic fauna changed along a salinity gradient, as did mosquitoes, and this was pronounced for predator groups. Densities of mosquitoes were not limited by any single taxonomic group, by a negative relationship. However, the density and richness of mosquitoes generally declined in association with increased richness of predators and density of all other taxa (taxa not specifically classified as predators or competitors of mosquitoes). These relationships may account for higher densities of mosquitoes in smaller water bodies, where richness of predators is reduced and the density of other taxa does not differ from larger water bodies. Our results also suggest salinity in the Western Australia Wheatbelt may facilitate greater abundance of halotolerant mosquitoes, Aedes alboannulatus Macquart and Aedes

  19. The laying of live larvae by the blowfly Calliphora varifrons (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Cook, David F; Voss, Sasha C; Dadour, Ian R

    2012-11-30

    This study examined larviposition in Calliphora varifrons Malloch (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an ovoviviparous blowfly of forensic importance in Western Australia. Females took 1.5 min (mean 89±10.0s, n=42) to deposit their live, first instar larvae (average body length 2.5 mm) on fresh liver in the laboratory. Females laid an average of 30 live larvae (mean of 29.9±1.2, n=50) at a rate of 1 larva every 2 s (mean of 0.46±0.05 larvae/s, n=42). Most females (66%) laid live larvae only, but 18% laid fully developed eggs (half of the egg masses laid by individual females were viable) and 16% laid live larvae and some eggs at the same time. Females laying only eggs laid a mean of 24.1±3.0, n=10 eggs on each occasion. Field females carried between 20 and 44 live larvae (mean of 33.4±1.0, n=49) with a strong linear relationship between female size and number of live larvae. In the laboratory, females typically laid larvae in multiple locations. Very few females (<8%) retained some larvae in their ovisacs, retaining on average, half of their complement of developed larvae. Those larvae retained had begun to be resorbed by the female with necrosis evident on the posterior segments.

  20. New locality record of Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo.

    PubMed

    Heo, C C; Aisha, S; Kurahashi, H; Omar, B

    2013-03-01

    Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia. We collected one male and two females during a field trip conducted at Genting Highland, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia in May 2011. A 3-day old cow liver was offered as attractant and dipterans collected were transferred to the laboratory for specimens processing and identification. The adults of I. paurogonita were attracted to the odour and then captured by using a sweep net. Isomyia paurogonita was also recorded from two other localities in Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo, namely Gombak Utara, Selangor and Sibu, Sarawak.

  1. Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    62nd Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America 16-19 November 2014; Portland, OR Title: Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Nancy D. Epsky, Micah A. Gill, C. Teri Allen, Dong H. Cha, and Peter J. Landolt Nancy D. Epsky USDA-ARS, Subtropical Horticulture...

  2. Mushroom host influence on Lycoriella mali (Diptera: Sciaridae) life cycle.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, L; Keil, C B

    2005-04-01

    Lycoriella mali Fitch (Diptera: Sciaridae) infests mushroom crops early in the crop cycle. Recent observations in mushroom houses indicated a difference in emergence time and size of adult L. mali developing on various strains of commercial mushrooms. Samples of adult flies from isolated mushroom houses growing Portabella mushrooms were significantly heavier then those from oyster mushroom houses, whereas flies from shiitake mushroom houses were lightest in weight. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on four strains and species of Agaricus and Pleurotus mushrooms. After the adults emerged, females were weighed, mated, and allowed to oviposit. The number of eggs laid increased as the weight of the female increased. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on eight strains and species of mushrooms. Flies were reared for four generations on each host mushroom mycelium then switched to different host mushrooms. Overall, the hybrid strain of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricomycetideae) was the most favorable host for L. mali, whereas the wild strain of A. bisporus was the least favorable host. Mushroom hosts influence developmental time, survivorship, weight, and reproduction of L. mali. PMID:15889722

  3. Response of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to Screwworm Oviposition Attractant.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Skoda, S R

    2015-07-01

    The sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. Female flies are attracted to sheep following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Earlier workers attempted to reduce fly population in the field, with some success, using traps baited with various attractants. This research was conducted to determine if L. sericata would respond to a recently developed synthetic attractant that has attracted gravid screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, and stimulated them to oviposit. Results of the laboratory bioassays demonstrated that gravid females L. sericata were attracted to substrates treated with the synthetic screwworm attractant composed of five compounds--dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, p-cresol, and indole. Tests with various combinations of these compounds suggest that the sulfur compounds and indole are the most important compounds to elicit attraction and stimulate oviposition, while phenol and p-cresol may have minor roles. Semiochemical baits based on these compounds may be useful in the field to trap gravid L. sericata.

  4. Behavioral evidence for the presence of a sex pheromone in male Phlebotomus papatasi scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Chelbi, I; Zhioua, E; Hamilton, J G C

    2011-05-01

    Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the Old World sand fly vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major (Trypanosomatidae: Kinetoplastida), a debilitating and disfiguring protist parasitic disease prevalent throughout southern Mediterranean countries, the Middle East, as well as southern and eastern European countries, where it is regarded as a serious public health problem. Little is known of the mating ecology of P. papatasi, and, in particular, the role (if any) of pheromones is not known. In this laboratory- and field-based study, we have shown that a male-produced sex pheromone exists in P. papatasi. Young female P. papatasi are attracted to the headspace volatiles of small groups of males, males and females together, but not females alone. Males were not attracted to males, females, or mixed groups of males and females in the laboratory. Larger groups of males or males and females together were repellent in the laboratory study. Field experiments showed that Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps baited with small groups of males and females together were attractive to females, but not males. CDC traps baited with large groups of males and females together caught significantly fewer females and males than the control traps; however, the proportion of females caught compared with males overall was much higher than with CDC traps baited with small numbers of males and females. These results suggest that females may be attracted in preference to males to the vicinity of the baited traps and are highly sensitive to the concentration of male pheromone. It also suggests that P. papatasi mating behavior is fundamentally different from that of Lutzomyia longipalpis, where large mating aggregations of males and females occur. PMID:21661311

  5. Species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) captured in a guava orchard (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae) in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Deus, E G; Ronchi-Teles, B; Adaime, R; Silva Júnior, R J

    2013-11-01

    The guava fruit (Psidium guajava) is among the most strongly affected by fruit flies in Brazil. In the Brazilian Amazon, 11 species of Anastrepha have been reported in guava orchards to date. This work aimed to identify the species of Anastrepha present in a guava orchard in the municipality of Boa Vista, determine the species infesting the fruits, and identify any parasitoids present. Two McPhail traps with food bait were installed and weekly collections were made between January and December 2008. Fruits were also collected systematically during this period, with a view to determining the association between host plant and tephritid species. Nine species of Anastrepha were identified, in addition to one specimen belonging to a probable new species. Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) were the dominant species in the orchard, accounting for 84.8% of all captured individuals. All females collected directly from fruits were A. striata. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was the only parasitoid species obtained. In this work, Anastrepha ethalea (Walker) is reported for the first time in the state of Roraima.

  6. Dispersal and longevity of wild and mass-reared Anastrepha Ludens and Anastrepha Obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, E.; Orozco, D.; Flores Breceda, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-03-15

    The rates of dispersal and survival of sterile mass-reared laboratory flies and sterile wild flies of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) were estimated and compared with a regular rectangular array of 64 food-baited traps spaced 60 m between traps around the release point in Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. The traps were scored every day during the first week, and then every 3 d over a 30-d period. For A. obliqua, the number of males recaptured was higher than that of females, while for A. ludens, females were recaptured more frequently than males. The recapture rate for the wild strains ranged from 0.6-24.8% for A. ludens and 1.3-16.2% for A. obliqua and the corresponding ranges for the mass-reared strains were 0.5-7.1% and 0.5-3.0% respectively. The life expectancy was 4.7 d for wild and 4.3 d for mass-reared A. obliqua males but 3 and 2 d, respectively, for wild and mass-reared A. ludens males. The net displacement of A. ludens and A. obliqua ranged approximately from 100-250 m and took place mostly on the first day. Wild A. ludens moved to the northwest from the release point while the mass-reared strain moved to the west. The A. obliqua wild flies moved to the west, while the mass-reared strain shifted to the southwest. We discuss the implications of our findings as to the spacing and frequency of sterile fly releases for the suppression of wild populations. (author) [Spanish] La dispersion y longevidad de las moscas esteriles silvestres y de cria masiva de Anastrepha ludens (Loew) y A. obliqua (Macquart) fueron determinadas y comparadas utilizando un arreglo rectangular de 64 trampas espaciadas a 60 metros entre trampas alrededor del punto de liberacion en Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. Las trampas fueron revisadas y evaluadas diariamente durante la primera semana y despues cada tres dias hasta completar 30 dias. Para A. obliqua la cantidad de machos capturados fue mayor que la cantidad de hembras; mientras que para A. ludens las hembras fueron

  7. Revision of Ephydrini Zetterstedt (Diptera: Ephydridae) from the Americas south of the United States.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Wayne N; Marinoni, Luciane

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical genera and species of the tribe Ephydrini are revised and include nine genera and 33 species. Of the nine genera, Setacera Cresson, Cirrula Cresson, Dimecoenia Cresson, Paracoenia Cresson and Ephydra Fallén are mostly temperate in distribution, primarily in the Northern Hemisphere. The other four genera, which are exclusively Neotropical, include two, Austrocoenia and Notiocoenia, that were treated previously in the tribe Scatellini, and two recently described genera: Paraephydra (type species: Paraephydra freitasi (Oliveira)) and Neoephydra (type species: Neoephydra araucaria Mathis). New species described herein are: Neoephydra neotropica (Chile), N. dasycephala (Argentina and Peru), N. mallonota (Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile), N. shewelli (Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile), N. inca (Argentina, Bolivia, Peru), N. penai (Chile) and N. trichina (Argentina and Chile). New synonyms are (cited in their original combinations): Ephydra densepilosa Hendel = E. ciligena Rondani, Dimecoenia grumanni Oliveira = E. ciligena Rondani, D. coltaensis Cresson = D. zurcheri Hendel, D. carrerai Oliveira = D. zurcheri Hendel, D. lopesi = E. ciligena Rondani, D. travassosi Mello and Oliveira = E. prionoptera Thomson. A neotype is designated for E. caesia Wulp, and the following lectotype designations have also been made to better stabilize nomenclature (here cited in their original combination): Ephydra chilensis Macquart, Ephydra densepilosa Hendel, Ephydra pravoneura Hendel, Ephydra prionoptera Thomson, and Dimecoenia zurcheri Hendel. Dimecoenia venteli Oliveira is listed as a species inquirenda, as the type series includes only female specimens that we cannot presently recognize. Although the genera and subgenera are fairly easily distinguished, the included species are frequently difficult to separate, and we have generally relied on characters of the male terminalia to determine a species identity. Illustrations of male terminalia and distribution maps are

  8. Olfaction in the female sheep botfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddighe, Simone; Dekker, Teun; Scala, Antonio; Angioy, Anna Maria

    2010-09-01

    The nasal botfly Oestrus ovis (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha: Oestridae) is a myiasis-causing insect species, which affects the health of sheep, goats and humans. Gravid females are viviparous and larviposit into the animal’s nostrils. Host-searching and larvipositing flies are visually guided and influenced by climatic conditions, whereas olfaction seemed to play no role in this process. However, here, we show that the antennae of adult O. ovis female flies are relatively small but well developed and inhabited by several types of olfactory sensilla. Further, we show that the antennal lobes of this species receive input from antennal afferents and consist of a clearly defined glomerular organisation. We also give the first evidence of the fly’s ability to detect several synthetic odour compounds. Our findings provide a morpho-functional basis for future investigations on olfactory-mediated behaviour of this insect pest.

  9. Cladistic analysis of Subfamily Bruchomyiinae (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Rüdiger; Stuckenberg, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Subfamily Bruchomyiinae is comprised of 60 species and has been referred to as the most primitive within the Psychodidae. The assumed sister-group relationship with Phlebotominae is based on ecological constraints of their environment. A cladistics analysis based on 29 characters and 52 species revealed the distinction of an Old World clade characterized by males with elongate, narrow vasa deferentia, and a New World clade with males having shorter and basally widened vasa deferentia. The Old World clade consists of the genera Nemopalpus Macquart (9 species), and Eutonnoiria Alexander (1 species). The New World clade includes Bruchomyia Alexander (10 species), Boreofairchildia genus nov. (13 species), Laurenceomyia genus nov. (5 species), and Notofairchildia genus nov. (15 species). Parsimony and Bayesian analyses resulted in trees that generally support this generic classification; however, with some species groups less resolved. Diagnostic features for genera are provided. In contrast to the other New World genera, Notofairchildia is paraphyletic with the provisional inclusion of at least the Australasian taxa. PMID:27394447

  10. Cladistic analysis of Subfamily Bruchomyiinae (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Rüdiger; Stuckenberg, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Subfamily Bruchomyiinae is comprised of 60 species and has been referred to as the most primitive within the Psychodidae. The assumed sister-group relationship with Phlebotominae is based on ecological constraints of their environment. A cladistics analysis based on 29 characters and 52 species revealed the distinction of an Old World clade characterized by males with elongate, narrow vasa deferentia, and a New World clade with males having shorter and basally widened vasa deferentia. The Old World clade consists of the genera Nemopalpus Macquart (9 species), and Eutonnoiria Alexander (1 species). The New World clade includes Bruchomyia Alexander (10 species), Boreofairchildia genus nov. (13 species), Laurenceomyia genus nov. (5 species), and Notofairchildia genus nov. (15 species). Parsimony and Bayesian analyses resulted in trees that generally support this generic classification; however, with some species groups less resolved. Diagnostic features for genera are provided. In contrast to the other New World genera, Notofairchildia is paraphyletic with the provisional inclusion of at least the Australasian taxa.

  11. Sex-Biased Captures of Sarcosaprophagous Diptera in Carrion-Baited Traps

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Vega, Daniel; Baz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The use of carrion-baited traps is a common and widely extended practice in the study of sarcosaprophagous Diptera. However, it implies different areas of bias, one of them being the different responses of males and females to carrion bait, which results in possible biased sex ratios in the captures. In the present study, the use of carrion-baited traps revealed significant female-biased captures in the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae, whereas the collected species of the families Piophilidae, Heleomyzidae, and Ulidiidae showed different patterns in the observed sex ratios. Possible explanations according to existing literature and the types of mating behaviors of the different families are discussed. PMID:23885859

  12. Capture of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae) with multilure traps and biolure attractants in Guatemala

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.J.; Salinas, E.J.; Rendon, P.

    2007-03-15

    Two trapping systems were compared in a study in Guatemala during the wet season, May through Dec 2001. Trap/lure combinations consisting of green or yellow-based plastic McPhail-like traps baited with a synthetic 2-component lure (putrescine and ammonium acetate) and 300 mL of propylene glycol antifreeze as a preservative were compared to the traditional glass McPhail baited with torula yeast/borax and 300 mL of water. Both systems captured several key Anastrepha species including Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus Weidemann as well as Ceratitis capitata Weidemann. Additionally, 13 other Anastrepha spp. were captured with the synthetic lure. The plastic traps captured more key flies than the McPhail trap except for A. distincta where there were no significant differences between the yellow-based plastic trap and the McPhail trap and no significant differences between any trap and lure for trapping A. fraterculus. The synthetic lure lasted 10 weeks. The sex ratio was female-biased for almost all captured key species in both systems. Moreover, there were significant numbers of captured nontarget insects in all traps; however, the captured flies in those traps with the synthetic lure were not adversely affected by these insects. Propylene glycol-based antifreeze was a superior preservative when compared to borax/water. (author) [Spanish] En Guatemala, se compararon dos sistemas de trampeo durante la epoca lluviosa de Mayo a Deciembre, 2001. Combinaciones de trampa/atrayente que consistieron de trampas de plastico con bases verdes o amarillos y con atrayentes sinteticos (acetate de amoniaco y putrecina) fueron comparadas con el sistema de trampeo tradicional McPhail de vidrio cebada con torula y borax en agua. Los dos sistemas capturaron moscas del genero Anastrepha incluyendo Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A

  13. Blood meal analysis of culicoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae) in central Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females' midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia.

  14. New species and records of Pseudacteon Coquillett, 1907 (Diptera, Phoridae), parasitoids of the fire ant Solenopsis geminata group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Thalles Platiny Lavinscky; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Bravo, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    The genus Pseudacteon Coquillett (Diptera, Phoridae) has a worldwide distribution and comprises parasitic myrmecophilous species that decapitate host ants. Seventy one species are known in the genus, 41 of them occur in the Neotropical Region and are 25 from Brazil. In northeastern Brazil, there are only records for two species, Pseudacteon dentiger Borgmeier and Pseudacteon antiguensis Malloch. In this paper, two new species of the genus are described from female specimens, Pseudacteon pesqueroi new spec. and Pseudacteon plowesi new spec., and also, new records of three Pseudacteon species for the Brazilian Northeast are given. PMID:26624156

  15. A Sex Pheromone Receptor in the Hessian Fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Martin N.; Corcoran, Jacob A.; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Hillbur, Ylva; Newcomb, Richard D.; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1–2 days) and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR) family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1) are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogs, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogs together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the Cecidomyiidae

  16. A Sex Pheromone Receptor in the Hessian Fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Martin N.; Corcoran, Jacob A.; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Hillbur, Ylva; Newcomb, Richard D.; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1–2 days) and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR) family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1) are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogs, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogs together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the Cecidomyiidae

  17. A Sex Pheromone Receptor in the Hessian Fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Andersson, Martin N; Corcoran, Jacob A; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Hillbur, Ylva; Newcomb, Richard D; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1-2 days) and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR) family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1) are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogs, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogs together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the Cecidomyiidae

  18. Oviposition in Delia platura (Diptera, Anthomyiidae): the role of volatile and contact cues of bean.

    PubMed

    Gouinguené, Sandrine P; Städler, Erich

    2006-07-01

    The choice of a suitable oviposition site by female insects is essential for survival of their progeny. Both olfactory and contact cues of the oviposition site may mediate this choice. The polyphagous Delia platura (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), a severe agricultural pest of numerous crops, lays eggs in the soil close to germinating seeds. Maggots feed upon the cotyledons. Only little is known about the cues guiding oviposition behavior. In this study, the effects of both olfactory and contact cues of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) on oviposition of D. platura females were tested. Egg deposition on germinated beans was preferred to egg deposition on ungerminated beans or on beans in different postgerminating developmental stages. Olfactory cues of germinating beans alone stimulated female flies to lay eggs. Additional contact cues of germinating beans seemed to enhance the response, but the difference was not significant. Surface extracts of germinating beans sprayed on surrogate beans showed that both polar and nonpolar substances stimulated oviposition of D. platura flies. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection recordings of head space samples of germinating beans showed positive response of females to different compounds. We conclude that olfaction plays a major role when D. platura females are searching for oviposition sites. Volatile compounds released from germinating beans such as 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, 1-hepten-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, and 3-octanone should be considered as key compounds that mediate oviposition behavior. The use of different sensory modalities by closely related species of Delia is discussed.

  19. Generic classification of the Archiborborinae (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae), with a revision of Antrops Enderlein, Coloantrops gen. nov., Maculantrops gen. nov., Photoantrops gen. nov., and Poecilantrops gen. nov.

    PubMed

    Kits, Joel H; Marshall, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    , Poecilantrops crocidosternum, Poecilantrops dominicus, Poecilantrops flavifemur, Poecilantrops marensis, Poecilantrops plaumanni, Poecilantrops psilosternum, Poecilantrops stellans, Poecilantrops vittifrons, all sp. nov.). Six additional species of Antrops and two of Poecilantrops known from females only are diagnosed but not described. The genus Boreantrops is described for two species (Boreantrops mexicanus (Steyskal) comb. nov., and Boreantrops calceatus (Duda) comb. nov.). Boreantrops includes a number of new species but is not fully revised here. New synonyms at the species level are: Antrops femoralis (Blanchard 1852) = Archiborborus argentinensis Papp 1977, and Archiborborus submaculatus Duda 1921, both syn. nov.; Antrops hirtus (Bigot 1888) = Archiborborus edwardsi Richards 1931, syn. nov.; Antrops quadrinotus (Bigot 1888) = Archiborborus albicans Richards 1931, Archiborborus chilensis Richards 1931, Archiborbo-rus koenigi Duda 1932, all syn. nov.; Maculantrops hirtipes (Macquart 1844) = Copromyza alternata Rondani 1868, syn. nov. PMID:26146681

  20. New records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) from Romania

    PubMed Central

    Dvořák, Libor; Beuk, Paul LT

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Anisopodidae (window gnats or wood gnats) is a small family of nematocerous Diptera. Until now only Sylvicola (Anisopus) punctatus (Fabricius, 1787) and Sylvicola (Sylvicola) fenestralis (Scopoli, 1763)​ were reported from Romania. New information New faunistic records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) are presented. Sylvicola (Sylvicola) cinctus (Fabricius, 1787) and S. (Anisopus) fuscatus (Fabricius, 1775) are recorded from Romania for the first time. An identification key and illustrations of Romanian Sylvicola species are presented. PMID:26929721

  1. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  2. New species of Afrotropical Muscidae (Diptera: Muscoidea).

    PubMed

    Couri, Márcia; Pont, Adrian C

    2014-01-01

    The study of recently collected Afrotropical Muscidae (Diptera) from Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and South Africa has revealed ten new species which are described herein: Coenosia duomaculata sp. nov., C. nigromaculata sp. nov., C. fragilis sp. nov., Helina harrisorum sp. nov., H. ferfriniorum sp. nov., Hydrotaea tantula sp. nov., Limnophora diminuta sp. nov., L. antennalis sp. nov., Spilogona brunnea sp. nov. and S. bella sp. nov. Coenosia, Helina and Limnophora are speciose muscid genera, found throughout the Afrotropical Region, while Hydrotaea and Spilogona have a more restricted geographic distribution and include some 20 species each. 

  3. [Urogenital Myiasis Caused by Psychoda albipennis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Woman in Siirt].

    PubMed

    Beyhan, Yunus Emre; Yılmaz, Hasan; Baran, Ali İrfan; Taş Cengiz, Zeynep; Yakan, Ümit; Ekici, Abdurrahman

    2015-12-01

    Urogenital myiasis cases occurring with the settlement of larvae of flies belonging to the order Diptera are facultative and are rarely encountered in humans. In this study, urogenital myiasis caused by Psychoda albipennis in a 20-year-old female patient was presented. The patient was admitted to our hospital with complaints of nausea, vomiting, and dysuria and claimed that she saw motile larvae in her urine. Five larvae collected from the patient's urine were microscopically examined, and they were identified as fourth-stage larvae of Psychoda albipennis. Complaints of the patient ceased after the application of an antibiotic and urinary antiseptic. It was concluded that myiasis should be considered in patients with urogenital complaints.

  4. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Possible Functions of Antennal Sensilla of Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm' bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors. PMID:27623751

  5. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Possible Functions of Antennal Sensilla of Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm’ bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors.

  6. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Possible Functions of Antennal Sensilla of Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm’ bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors. PMID:27623751

  7. Recombination rate predicts inversion size in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, M; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A

    1999-09-01

    Most species of the Drosophila genus and other Diptera are polymorphic for paracentric inversions. A common observation is that successful inversions are of intermediate size. We test here the hypothesis that the selected property is the recombination length of inversions, not their physical length. If so, physical length of successful inversions should be negatively correlated with recombination rate across species. This prediction was tested by a comprehensive statistical analysis of inversion size and recombination map length in 12 Diptera species for which appropriate data are available. We found that (1) there is a wide variation in recombination map length among species; (2) physical length of successful inversions varies greatly among species and is inversely correlated with the species recombination map length; and (3) neither the among-species variation in inversion length nor the correlation are observed in unsuccessful inversions. The clear differences between successful and unsuccessful inversions point to natural selection as the most likely explanation for our results. Presumably the selective advantage of an inversion increases with its length, but so does its detrimental effect on fertility due to double crossovers. Our analysis provides the strongest and most extensive evidence in favor of the notion that the adaptive value of inversions stems from their effect on recombination.

  8. Recombination rate predicts inversion size in Diptera.

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, M; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A

    1999-01-01

    Most species of the Drosophila genus and other Diptera are polymorphic for paracentric inversions. A common observation is that successful inversions are of intermediate size. We test here the hypothesis that the selected property is the recombination length of inversions, not their physical length. If so, physical length of successful inversions should be negatively correlated with recombination rate across species. This prediction was tested by a comprehensive statistical analysis of inversion size and recombination map length in 12 Diptera species for which appropriate data are available. We found that (1) there is a wide variation in recombination map length among species; (2) physical length of successful inversions varies greatly among species and is inversely correlated with the species recombination map length; and (3) neither the among-species variation in inversion length nor the correlation are observed in unsuccessful inversions. The clear differences between successful and unsuccessful inversions point to natural selection as the most likely explanation for our results. Presumably the selective advantage of an inversion increases with its length, but so does its detrimental effect on fertility due to double crossovers. Our analysis provides the strongest and most extensive evidence in favor of the notion that the adaptive value of inversions stems from their effect on recombination. PMID:10471710

  9. Establishment of the west indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)in the Dominican Republic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), infests numerous fruit species, particularly Anacardiaceae and most importantly mango (Mangifera indica L.). Widespread in the Neotropics, it was first reported in Hispaniola nearly 70 years ago. Continental populations are attacked by the op...

  10. Three species of blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) collected from a human stillborn infant in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado.

    PubMed

    Adair, T W

    1999-05-01

    In July of 1997, the remains of a human stillborn infant were found at an elevation of 2,835 m in Summit County, CO. Larvae recovered from the infant were reared to adulthood and identified as Calliphora terraenovae (Macquart), Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy), and Phormia regina (Meigen). These represent new county records for high elevation species in Colorado. PMID:10337090

  11. Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P; Kumar, N Pradeep

    2014-09-01

    Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae), from the Kani tribal settlements, Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, southern India was described. These settlements were located in the Western Ghats, which is one of the 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. Morphological characters of male and female specimens of Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola were described with illustrations and its taxonomic position is defined within the genus. The DNA barcode analysis showed that both male and female specimens of the species were belonging to a single taxonomic category. The genetic distance with the most similar taxonomic neighbour was 14.61%, which confirms its distinctness from its congeners. Voucher specimens of the new species were deposited at the museum, Vector Control Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Puducherry, India, Zoological Survey of India, India and Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), Washington, D.C., USA.

  12. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  13. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  14. Stabilizing sexual selection for female ornaments in a dance fly.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, J; Gwynne, D T; Bussière, L F

    2012-07-01

    Ornamental traits function by improving attractiveness and are generally presumed to experience directional selection for mating success. However, given the greater investment of females in offspring than males, female-specific ornaments can in theory signal fecundity yet be constrained by fecundity costs. Theoretical work predicts that such constraints can lead to stabilizing selection via male choice for intermediately ornamented females. Female dance flies Rhamphomyia longicauda (Diptera: Empididae) display two female-specific ornaments in mating swarms - inflatable abdominal sacs and pinnate tibial scales. We investigated the intensity and form of sexual selection on female traits including ornaments and found no evidence for directional sexual selection. Instead, we found marginally nonsignificant quadratic selection for all three measures of ornament expression. Canonical analysis confirmed that the strongest vectors of nonlinear selection were associated with ornamental traits, although the significance of the quadratic coefficients associated with these vectors depended on the statistical approach. Direct Mitchell-Olds and Shaw tests for the location of the maximum fitted fitness value for both raw morphological traits and canonical axes revealed only one marginally nonsignificant result for the multivariate axis loading most heavily on pinnate leg scales. Together, these results provide the first tentative support for stabilizing selection on female-specific ornaments.

  15. Is aggregated oviposition by the blow flies Lucilia sericata and Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) really pheromone-mediated?

    PubMed

    Brodie, Bekka S; Wong, Warren H L; VanLaerhoven, Sherah; Gries, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    When female blow flies Lucilia sericata and Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) oviposit in aggregations on carrion, even-aged larval offspring reportedly develop faster, and fewer are parasitized or preyed upon. The benefits of aggregated oviposition equally affect con- and heterospecific larvae sharing a resource. The benefits imply that female blow flies engage in coordinated, pheromone-mediated oviposition behavior. Yet, repeated attempts to identify oviposition pheromones have failed invoking doubt that they exist. Simply by regurgitating and feeding on carrion, flies may produce attractive semiochemicals. If flies were to aggregate in response to feeding flies rather than ovipositing flies, then the semiochemical cue(s) may be associated with the salivary gland. Working with L. sericata and P. regina and using liver as a surrogate oviposition medium, we test the hypotheses, and present data in their support, that (i) gravid or nongravid females ovipositing and/or feeding on liver enhance its attractiveness to gravid and nongravid females; (ii) females respond to semiochemicals from feeding heterospecific females; (iii) females respond equally well to semiochemicals from feeding con- and heterospecific females; (iv) macerated head tissues of females applied to liver enhance its attractiveness; and (v) females in direct contact with and feeding on liver, but not when next to yet physically separated from liver, enhance attraction of flies. We conclude that oviposition site-seeking females do not respond to an oviposition pheromone. Instead, they appear to coopt semiochemicals associated with feeding flies as resource indicators, taking chances that resources are suitable for oviposition, and that ovipositing flies are present.

  16. Forensic entomology of high-rise buildings in Malaysia: Three case reports.

    PubMed

    Syamsa, R A; Omar, B; Zuha, R M; Faridah, M N; Swarhib, M S; Hidayatulfathi, O; Shahrom, A W

    2015-06-01

    The distributions of flies are not only confined to ground level but can also be at higher altitudes. Here, we report three forensic cases involving dipterans in high-rise buildings in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Case 1 involved a corpse of adult female found at the top floor of a fifteen-story apartment. Case 2 dealt with a body of a 75-year-old female discovered in a bedroom on the eleventh floor of an eighteen-story building, while Case 3 was a 52-year-old male found in his fifth floor shop house. Interestingly, entomological analysis revealed that all corpses were infested with similar Dipterans: Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) (Diptera: Muscidae) and sarcophagid (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). The first two species were commonly associated with corpses found indoors at ground level. We noted the additional occurrence of blowflies Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae in Case 2 and Case 3, respectively. Findings from this study are significant as they demonstrate that certain groups of fly can locate dead bodies even in high-rise buildings. Forensic entomofauna research on corpses found at high elevation is scarce and our study has highlighted the peculiarity of the fly species involved in Malaysia.

  17. Laboratory and field evaluation of an oviposition trap for Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Rosângela M R; Souto, Antonio; Eiras, Alvaro E; Regis, Lêda

    2007-06-01

    An ovitrap (BR-OVT) based on physical and chemical stimuli for attracting gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) females was developed and evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Attractants were assayed using alternative chamber bioassays prior to being used in the BR-OVT oviposition trap. A significant preference of gravid females for sites containing conspecific egg rafts was observed, as a response to the natural oviposition pheromone, as well as for sites treated with the synthetic pheromone erythro-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide. Five- to 20-day old grass infusion was strongly attractive to gravid females for laying eggs. On the other hand, entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) did not influence the choice of an oviposition site when used in combination with grass infusion and can therefore be used as a larvicide in ovitraps. Results from field trials showed that the BR-OVT with grass infusion and with or without Bs works as a preferred oviposition site for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The BR-OVT was more effective for egg collection when placed indoors and comparison with the number of egg rafts laid in cesspits over 40 days indicates that this very simple ovitrap may be a useful tool for monitoring populations of the most important of the vectors of bancroftian filariasis. PMID:17612774

  18. Olfactory response of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava and sweet orange volatiles.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A

    2016-10-01

    The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations.

  19. Olfactory response of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava and sweet orange volatiles.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A

    2016-10-01

    The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations. PMID:25800723

  20. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  1. Mosquito repellent attracts Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Mullens, B A

    1999-01-01

    A plant-derived mosquito repellent, based on the oil of Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora Hook, was evaluated against the biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer. Suction black light-traps covered with repellent-impregnated polyester mesh and deployed near horses attracted large numbers of C. imicola, which were seen near the treated net within a few minutes of the start of the experiment. Initial collections in the traps were approximately 3 times as large as those in control traps with untreated mesh. Numbers collected in treated traps were similar to untreated control traps after 4 h. Traps with mesh treated with DEET or another plant-derived (Meliaceae) proprietary product, AG1000, acted as repellents relative to the control. The differential activity of repellents against blood-feeding Diptera is discussed. PMID:10071502

  2. History of tachinid classification (Diptera, Tachinidae).

    PubMed

    O'Hara, James E

    2013-01-01

    The history of the classification of the Tachinidae (Diptera) is traced from Meigen to the present. The contributions of Robineau-Desvoidy, Townsend, Villeneuve, Mesnil, Herting, Wood and many others are discussed within a chronological, taxonomic, and geographic context. The gradual development of the Tachinidae into its modern concept as a family of the Oestroidea and the emergence of the classificatory scheme of tribes and subfamilies in use today are reviewed. Certain taxa that have in the past been difficult to place, or continue to be of uncertain affinity, are considered and some are given in a table to show their varied historical treatments. The more significant systematic works published on the Tachinidae in recent decades are enumerated chronologically. PMID:23878512

  3. Female condoms.

    PubMed

    Bounds, W

    1997-06-01

    Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will

  4. Overwintering Biology of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in the Sacramento Valley of California

    PubMed Central

    NELMS, BRITTANY M.; MACEDO, PAULA A.; KOTHERA, LINDA; SAVAGE, HARRY M.; REISEN, WILLIAM K.

    2014-01-01

    At temperate latitudes, Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes typically overwinter as adult females in reproductive arrest and also may serve as reservoir hosts for arboviruses when cold temperatures arrest viral replication. To evaluate their role in the persistence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Sacramento Valley of California, the induction and termination of diapause were investigated for members of the Culex pipiens (L.) complex, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and Culex stigmatosoma Dyar under field, seminatural, and experimental conditions. All Culex spp. remained vagile throughout winter, enabling the collection of 3,174 females and 1,706 males from diverse habitats during the winters of 2010–2012. Overwintering strategies included both quiescence and diapause. In addition, Cx. pipiens form molestus Forskäl females remained reproductively active in both underground and aboveground habitats. Some blood-fed, gravid, and parous Cx. tarsalis and Cx. pipiens complex females were collected throughout the winter period. Under both field and experimental conditions, Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females exposed to autumnal conditions arrested primary follicular maturation at previtellogenic stage I, with primary to secondary follicular ratios <1.5 (indicative of a hormonally induced diapause). In contrast, most Cx. pipiens complex females did not enter reproductive diapause and ovarian follicles matured to ≥stage I–II (host-seeking arrest) or were found in various stages of degeneration. Diapause was initiated in the majority of Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females by mid-late October and was terminated after the winter solstice, but host-seeking seemed limited by temperature. An accrual of 97.52 ± 30.7 and 162.85 ± 79.3 degree-days after the winter solstice was estimated to be necessary for diapause termination in Cx. tarsalis under field and seminatural conditions, respectively. An increase in the proportion of blood-fed Culex females in resting

  5. Feeding and breeding aspects of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Salem, A.; Franc, M.; Jacquiet, P.; Bouhsira, E.; Liénard, E.

    2012-01-01

    Bionomic aspects of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) were studied under laboratory conditions. For this reason, laboratory-rearing techniques were optimized at the National Veterinary School of Toulouse. The colony was maintained at 25 ± 2 °C, 50 ± 10% RH under a 12-hour light cycle and observed daily. The size of each adult cage is 30 x 30 x 30 cm and designed to house about 500-1,000 flies. The average cycle from egg to adult was 19.2 ± 1.7 days. The mean longevity of imagos was 9.3 ± 5.8 days and not significantly different between sexes. Stable flies were split into two groups; the first was fed with blood, honey and water, and the second was fed only with honey and water. The mean weight of a blood meal was 11.1 ± 3.8 mg with no significant differences between males and females. The mean longevity of non-blood fed flies was found to be significantly higher (10.4 ± 3.9 days) than those fed with blood. The maximum lifespan was shorter for non-blood fed males (17 days) and females (18 days) than for those fed with blood (females: 24 days, males: 23 days). Under these laboratory conditions, S. calcitrans rearing was successfully established. In the end, the number of expected generations of S. calcitrans and the net reproduction rate were estimated to be 11.8 generations/year and 16.2 living females per female respectively. PMID:23193515

  6. Correlation of molecular expression with diel rhythm of oviposition in Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and implications for forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Toop, Tes

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the molecular mechanisms potentially underlying blow fly nocturnal oviposition. A behavioral study revealed that Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) possesses a diel rhythm of oviposition in light under 12:12 light/dark conditions. Reversal to 12:12 dark/light resulted in oviposition behavior changing to align with the adjusted regime in most females, but four of 59 experimental females lacked a diel rhythm of oviposition (were arrhythmic). Real-time PCR was used to monitor the molecular expression levels of known circadian genes per and tim in C. vicina to determine whether gene expression and behavior correlated. As with behavior, reversing light/dark conditions changed rhythmic gene expression to align with an adjusted light regime. This suggests that although it is unlikely that C. vicina will colonize dead bodies at night, arrhythmic females and oviposition in the dark was demonstrated.

  7. Susceptibility of cranberries to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii Mastsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted-wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the U.S. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies ...

  8. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  9. Cryopreservation of embryos of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Embryos of Lucilia (Phaenicia) sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), the green blowfly, were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification in liquid nitrogen and stored for 8 yr. Embryos incubated at 19 deg. C for 17 h after oviposition were found to be the most appropriate stage to cryopreserve...

  10. Development of Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae) in crabapple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Curran, 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Ait.) Borkh. (Rosaceae), in Washington state, U.S.A. Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (...

  11. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  12. Descriptions of two new species of Afrotropical Psychodidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Ježek, Jan; Oboňa, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Psychodinae) are described and illustrated on the basis of male morphological characters. Neoarisemus nyahururuensis sp. nov. was collected in the vicinity of Thomson's Falls (Nyahururu) in Kenya and Tonnoiriella veronikae sp. nov. in Toamasina province, Madagascar, Analamazaotra 1.4 km SSW Andasibe vill. (Périnet). PMID:27470871

  13. Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 crane flies (Diptera: Pediciidae) of Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Podeniene, Virginija; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The Korean crane fly species of the genus Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 (Diptera: Pediciidae) is taxonomically revised. H. gloriosus gloriosus (Alexander, 1924) is redescribed. A new species Heterangaeus koreanus n. sp., which is the first species of Pediciidae from South Korea, is described and illustrated.

  14. Frass semiochemicals important to corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several similarly appearing species of silk fly (Diptera: Ulidiidae) are extremely destructive pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Currently, silk flies are managed solely with multiple broad spectrum insecticide applications, and there is concern that some species are developing resistance to ...

  15. World catalog of extant and fossil Corethrellidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Borkent, Art

    2014-01-01

    A world catalog of extant and fossil frog-biting midges (Diptera: Corethrellidae) provides full type information, known life stages, and distribution of each species. There are 105 extant and seven fossil species of Corethrellidae but unnamed species are known from Costa Rica, Colombia and Madagascar. New information on types and other important specimens are provided.

  16. Checklist of the family Syrphidae (Diptera) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Haarto, Antti; Kerppola, Sakari

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the Syrphidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland. Three species of Syrphidae, Platycheirus modestus Ide, 1926, Cheilosia barovskii (Stackelberg, 1930) and Mallota tricolor Loew, 1871, are published as new to the Finnish fauna. Platycheirus modestus is also new to the Palaearctic. PMID:25337020

  17. Ultrastructure of the Antennal Sensillae of Male and Female Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Azza A.; Ali, Nashat A.; Mohamed, Hend O.

    2014-01-01

    Antennal morphology and funicular sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study focused on the sensillae found on the antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus that bears the arista) of B. zonata. Antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of the males. The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, were heavily covered with microtrichia and bear bristles. Numerous microtrichia as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic, clavate, and coeloconic sensillae were observed on the funiculus. SEM studies showed some differences in size and also in position of some sensillae on the antennae of the females of B. zonata. The sensillae found on the funiculus, such as trichoid and basiconic sensillae, were significantly larger in females. PMID:25373192

  18. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... the egg or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  19. Near Infrared Imaging As a Method of Studying Tsetse Fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) Pupal Development.

    PubMed

    Moran, Zelda R; Parker, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption. PMID:27402791

  20. Ventral polarization vision in tabanids: horseflies and deerflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) are attracted to horizontally polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Gábor; Majer, József; Horváth, Loránd; Szivák, Ildikó; Kriska, György

    2008-11-01

    Adult tabanid flies (horseflies and deerflies) are terrestrial and lay their eggs onto marsh plants near bodies of fresh water because the larvae develop in water or mud. To know how tabanids locate their host animals, terrestrial rendezvous sites and egg-laying places would be very useful for control measures against them, because the hematophagous females are primary/secondary vectors of some severe animal/human diseases/parasites. Thus, in choice experiments performed in the field we studied the behavior of tabanids governed by linearly polarized light. We present here evidence for positive polarotaxis, i.e., attraction to horizontally polarized light stimulating the ventral eye region, in both males and females of 27 tabanid species. The novelty of our findings is that positive polarotaxis has been described earlier only in connection with the water detection of some aquatic insects ovipositing directly into water. A further particularity of our discovery is that in the order Diptera and among blood-sucking insects the studied tabanids are the first known species possessing ventral polarization vision and definite polarization-sensitive behavior with known functions. The polarotaxis in tabanid flies makes it possible to develop new optically luring traps being more efficient than the existing ones based on the attraction of tabanids by the intensity and/or color of reflected light.

  1. Effect of age on cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in adult Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho; Blomquist, Gary James

    2016-02-01

    A species-specific complex mixture of highly stable cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) covers the external surface of all insects. Components can be readily analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to obtain a cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which may be used as an additional tool for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and also for the determination of the age and sex of adult and immature forms. We used GC-MS to identify and quantify the CHCs of female and male Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from one to five days old. CHCs ranged from C21 to C35 for females and from C21 to C37 in males. Major compounds were the same for both sexes and were 2-MeC28, C29:1, n-C29, 15-,13-MeC29, 2-MeC30, C31:1, n-C31 and 15-,13-MeC31. The relative abundance of each component, however, varied with age. Cluster Analysis using Bray-Curtis measure for abundance showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are a strong and useful tool for the determination of age in adult C. putoria. PMID:26775199

  2. Effect of age on cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in adult Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho; Blomquist, Gary James

    2016-02-01

    A species-specific complex mixture of highly stable cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) covers the external surface of all insects. Components can be readily analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to obtain a cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which may be used as an additional tool for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and also for the determination of the age and sex of adult and immature forms. We used GC-MS to identify and quantify the CHCs of female and male Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from one to five days old. CHCs ranged from C21 to C35 for females and from C21 to C37 in males. Major compounds were the same for both sexes and were 2-MeC28, C29:1, n-C29, 15-,13-MeC29, 2-MeC30, C31:1, n-C31 and 15-,13-MeC31. The relative abundance of each component, however, varied with age. Cluster Analysis using Bray-Curtis measure for abundance showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are a strong and useful tool for the determination of age in adult C. putoria.

  3. Near Infrared Imaging As a Method of Studying Tsetse Fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) Pupal Development

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Zelda R.; Parker, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption. PMID:27402791

  4. Morphometric Analysis of Longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) Complex Populations in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mirella F C; Andrade Filho, José D; Fernandes, Carlos E S; Mateus, Nathália L F; Eguchi, Gabriel U; Fernandes, Wedson D; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Oliveira, Everton F; Oliveira, Alessandra G

    2015-05-01

    Owing to the existence of cryptic species that are difficult to distinguish morphologically, the search for new taxonomic characters and methods for identifying and classifying sand flies continues. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) (Diptera: Psychodidae) are two such species that occur in sympatry in some regions of Mato Grosso do Sul State (MS). Twenty females and twenty males from each of the five populations of Lu. longipalpis and one population of Lu. cruzi from MS were examined. An outlying population of Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, State of Alagoas, was used to compare the degree of divergence among the groups in MS. Specimens were cleared, mounted on slides, identified, and measured using LAS-Leica. The principal component analysis of morphometric characters showed a high degree of variation among females, while males varied to a lower degree. The populations of Alagoas and Miranda demonstrated the greatest variation. The first region, Alagoas, is geographically distant from the others and occurs under distinctly different ecological conditions, which likely accounts for the variation. Further studies should be made to elucidate the factors that contribute to the differences found between the populations of MS.

  5. Effects of foliar surfactants on host plant selection behavior of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    PubMed

    McKee, Fraser R; Levac, Joshua; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2009-10-01

    The pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae), is a highly polyphagous insect pest of global distribution. L. huidobrensis feeds and lays its eggs on leaf tissue and reduces crop marketability because of stippling and mining damage. In field insecticide trials, it was observed that stippling was reduced on plants treated with surfactant alone. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of surfactants on host selection behaviors of female L. huidobrensis and to assess the phytotoxicity of two common surfactants to test plants. The application of the surfactant Sylgard 309 to celery (Apium graveolens) caused a significant reduction in stippling rates. The application of Agral 90 to cucumber leaves (Cucumis sativus) resulted in changes to the amount of effort invested by females in specific host plant selection behaviors, as well as causing a significant reduction in the amount of stippling damage. The recommended dose of Sylgard 309 does not induce phytotoxicity on celery over a range of age classes nor does Agral 90 cause a phytotoxic effect in 35-d-old cucumber. Thus, reductions in observed stippling and changes to host selection behaviors were caused by an antixenotic effect of the surfactant on L. huidobrensis rather than a toxic effect of the surfactant on the plant. The presence of surfactant on an otherwise acceptable host plant seems to have masked host plant cues and prevented host plant recognition. Results indicate that surfactants may be used to reduce leafminer damage to vegetable crops, potentially reducing the use of insecticides.

  6. The forgotten flies: the importance of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Orford, Katherine A.; Vaughan, Ian P.; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found no significant difference in pollen-loads between the syrphid and non-syrphid Diptera. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the level of specialization between the two groups in the pollen-transport networks, though the Syrphidae had significantly greater visitation evenness. Flower visitation data from 33 farms showed that non-syrphid Diptera made up the majority of the flower-visiting Diptera in the agricultural studies (on average 82% abundance and 73% species richness), and we estimate that non-syrphid Diptera carry 84% of total pollen carried by farmland Diptera. As important pollinators, such as bees, have suffered serious declines, it would be prudent to improve our understanding of the role of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators. PMID:25808886

  7. The forgotten flies: the importance of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators.

    PubMed

    Orford, Katherine A; Vaughan, Ian P; Memmott, Jane

    2015-04-22

    Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found no significant difference in pollen-loads between the syrphid and non-syrphid Diptera. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the level of specialization between the two groups in the pollen-transport networks, though the Syrphidae had significantly greater visitation evenness. Flower visitation data from 33 farms showed that non-syrphid Diptera made up the majority of the flower-visiting Diptera in the agricultural studies (on average 82% abundance and 73% species richness), and we estimate that non-syrphid Diptera carry 84% of total pollen carried by farmland Diptera. As important pollinators, such as bees, have suffered serious declines, it would be prudent to improve our understanding of the role of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators.

  8. [Cutaneous myiasis by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera Calliphoridae) in Hospital Universidad del Norte, Soledad, Atlántico].

    PubMed

    de la Ossa, Napoleón; Castro, Luis Eduardo; Visbal, Lila; Santos, Ana María; Díaz, Esther; Romero-Vivas, Claudia M E

    2009-03-01

    Human myiasis is the parasitism of human tissues by fly larvae. Diagnoses are based on clinical pattern of tissue damage and presence of insect stages. Herein, a case myiasis is described in a seven-year-old female child. She presented with fever associated with abscessed scalp lesions containing exposed larvae. Severe pediculosis was also observed. The patient was hospitalized and treated with clindamycin, gentamicin (for bacterial secondary infections) and ivermectin (treatment for lice) after which the patient showed clinical improvement and was discharged four days later. Since human myiasis can be caused by a number of different species, larvae were collected from the patient and identified as those of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Because other cases of coinfestation of flies and lice are on record, health workers are to be alerted about the possible pediculosis-myasis risk. PMID:19753834

  9. [Cutaneous myiasis by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera Calliphoridae) in Hospital Universidad del Norte, Soledad, Atlántico].

    PubMed

    de la Ossa, Napoleón; Castro, Luis Eduardo; Visbal, Lila; Santos, Ana María; Díaz, Esther; Romero-Vivas, Claudia M E

    2009-03-01

    Human myiasis is the parasitism of human tissues by fly larvae. Diagnoses are based on clinical pattern of tissue damage and presence of insect stages. Herein, a case myiasis is described in a seven-year-old female child. She presented with fever associated with abscessed scalp lesions containing exposed larvae. Severe pediculosis was also observed. The patient was hospitalized and treated with clindamycin, gentamicin (for bacterial secondary infections) and ivermectin (treatment for lice) after which the patient showed clinical improvement and was discharged four days later. Since human myiasis can be caused by a number of different species, larvae were collected from the patient and identified as those of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Because other cases of coinfestation of flies and lice are on record, health workers are to be alerted about the possible pediculosis-myasis risk.

  10. Species Diversity and Seasonal Distribution of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Jeju-do, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heung Chul; Bellis, Glenn A.; Kim, Myung-Soon; Klein, Terry A.; Gopurenko, David; Cai, Du-Cheng; Seo, Hyun-Ji; Cho, In-Soo; Park, Jee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Biting midges belonging to the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected by Mosquito Magnet® and black light traps at 5 sites on Jeju-do, Republic of Korea (Korea), from May-November 2013 to determine species diversity and seasonal distribution. A total of 4,267 specimens were collected, of which 99.9% were female. The most common species was Culicoides tainanus (91.8%), followed by C. lungchiensis (7.2%) and C. punctatus (0.6%), while the remaining 4 species accounted for <0.5% of all Culicoides spp. that were collected. High numbers of C. tainanus were collected in May, followed by decreasing numbers through August, and then increasing numbers through November when surveillance was terminated. Peak numbers of C. lungchiensis were collected during September, with low numbers collected from May-August and October-November. The presence of C. lungchiensis in Korea was confirmed by morphological and molecular analyses. PMID:26323852

  11. Larvicide and oviposition deterrent effects of fruit and leaf extracts from Melia azedarach L. on Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Coria, C; Almiron, W; Valladares, G; Carpinella, C; Ludueña, F; Defago, M; Palacios, S

    2008-05-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main urban vector of dengue, has developed resistance to various insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. We explored the effects of Argentine Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) fruit and senescent leaf extracts on Ae. aegypti larval development and survival, by rearing cohorts of first instar mosquitoes in water with different extract concentrations. We also analysed oviposition deterrent activity in choice tests with extract-treated ovitraps. The leaf extract showed a strong larvicide activity, with all larvae dying before pupation, and significantly delayed development time. It strongly inhibited oviposition by Ae. aegypti females. The fruit extract showed much weaker effects. This first report of highly effective larvicidal, growth regulating and oviposition deterrent activity of a senescent leaf extract of M. azedarach against Ae. aegypti, suggests that such extract could represent a promising tool in the management of this mosquito pest.

  12. Species Diversity and Seasonal Distribution of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Jeju-do, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Chul; Bellis, Glenn A; Kim, Myung-Soon; Klein, Terry A; Gopurenko, David; Cai, Du-Cheng; Seo, Hyun-Ji; Cho, In-Soo; Park, Jee-Yong

    2015-08-01

    Biting midges belonging to the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected by Mosquito Magnet(®) and black light traps at 5 sites on Jeju-do, Republic of Korea (Korea), from May-November 2013 to determine species diversity and seasonal distribution. A total of 4,267 specimens were collected, of which 99.9% were female. The most common species was Culicoides tainanus (91.8%), followed by C. lungchiensis (7.2%) and C. punctatus (0.6%), while the remaining 4 species accounted for <0.5% of all Culicoides spp. that were collected. High numbers of C. tainanus were collected in May, followed by decreasing numbers through August, and then increasing numbers through November when surveillance was terminated. Peak numbers of C. lungchiensis were collected during September, with low numbers collected from May-August and October-November. The presence of C. lungchiensis in Korea was confirmed by morphological and molecular analyses.

  13. Brain plasticity in Diptera and Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Groh, Claudia; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    To mediate different types of behaviour, nervous systems must coordinate the proper operation of their neural circuits as well as short- and long-term alterations that occur within those circuits. The latter ultimately devolve upon specific changes in neuronal structures, membrane properties and synaptic connections that are all examples of plasticity. This reorganization of the adult nervous system is shaped by internal and external influences both during development and adult maturation. In adults, behavioural experience is a major driving force of neuronal plasticity studied particularly in sensory systems. The range of adaptation depends on features that are important to a particular species, so that learning is essential for foraging in honeybees, while regenerative capacities are important in hemimetabolous insects with long appendages. Experience is usually effective during a critical period in early adult life, when neural function becomes tuned to future conditions in an insect's life. Changes occur at all levels, in synaptic circuits, neuropile volumes, and behaviour. There are many examples, and this review incorporates only a select few, mainly those from Diptera and Hymenoptera. PMID:20036946

  14. [Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae) in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Del Ventura, Fabiola; Zorrilla, Adriana; Liria, Jonathan

    2010-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9,607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3,133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles--subgenera Kerteszia--with the upper limit of 2,680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2,550 m were the highest records in the Central-Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2,252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2,000 m.

  15. Sex- and tissue-specific profiles of chemosensory gene expression in a herbivorous gall-inducing fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The chemical senses of insects mediate behaviors that are closely linked to survival and reproduction. The order Diptera contains two model organisms, the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, whose chemosensory genes have been extensively studied. Representing a third dipteran lineage with an interesting phylogenetic position, and being ecologically distinct by feeding on plants, the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor Say, Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) genome sequence has recently become available. Among plant-feeding insects, the Hessian fly is unusual in ‘reprogramming’ the plant to create a superior food and in being the target of plant resistance genes, a feature shared by plant pathogens. Chemoreception is essential for reproductive success, including detection of sex pheromone and plant-produced chemicals by males and females, respectively. Results We identified genes encoding 122 odorant receptors (OR), 28 gustatory receptors (GR), 39 ionotropic receptors (IR), 32 odorant binding proteins, and 7 sensory neuron membrane proteins in the Hessian fly genome. We then mapped Illumina-sequenced transcriptome reads to the genome to explore gene expression in male and female antennae and terminal abdominal segments. Our results reveal that a large number of chemosensory genes have up-regulated expression in the antennae, and the expression is in many cases sex-specific. Sex-specific expression is particularly evident among the Or genes, consistent with the sex-divergent olfactory-mediated behaviors of the adults. In addition, the large number of Ors in the genome but the reduced set of Grs and divergent Irs suggest that the short-lived adults rely more on long-range olfaction than on short-range gustation. We also report up-regulated expression of some genes from all chemosensory gene families in the terminal segments of the abdomen, which play important roles in reproduction. Conclusions We show that a large number of the

  16. Host-feeding patterns of Culex pipiens and other potential mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) of West Nile virus (Flaviviridae) collected in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Osório, Hugo Costa; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Alves, Maria João

    2012-05-01

    The host blood-feeding patterns of mosquito vectors affects the likelihood of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens, including West Nile Virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV). In Portugal, data are unavailable regarding the blood-feeding habits of common mosquito species, including Culex pipiens L., considered the primary vector of WNV to humans. The sources of bloodmeals in 203 blood-fed mosquitoes of nine species collected from June 2007 to November 2010 in 34 Portuguese counties were analyzed by sequencing cytochrome-b partial fragments. Cx. pipiens was the most common species collected and successfully analyzed (n = 135/78). In addition, blood-fed females of the following species were analyzed: Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas (n = 20), Culex theileri Theobald (n = 16), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (n = 10), Culiseta longiareolata Macquart (n = 7), Aedes aegypti L. (n = 6), Culex perexiguus Theobald (n = 3), Culiseta annulata Schrank (n = 3), and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday (n = 3). The Cx. pipiens mosquitoes fed predominantly on birds (n = 55/78, 70.5%), with a high diversity of avian species used as hosts, although human blood was identified in 18 specimens (18/78, 23.1%). No significant differences were found between the host-feeding patterns of blood-fed Cx. pipiens collected in residential and nonresidential habitats. The occurrence of human derived blood meals and the presence of a mix avian-human bloodmeal accordingly suggest this species as a potential vector of WNV. Therefore, in Portugal, Cx. pipiens may play a role both in the avian-to-avian enzootic WNV cycle and in the avian-to-mammal transmission. In this context, the identity of Cx. pipiens (considering the forms molestus and pipiens) and the potential consequence on feeding behavior and WNV transmission are discussed.

  17. Comments on the association of immatures of Hemerodromia (Diptera, Empididae) and Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae), and first record of this association in the Atlantic Forest (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Sánchez Molina, Óscar; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Larvae of Empididae (Diptera) prey on black fly immatures and its pupae can be collected from pupal cases of Simuliidae (Diptera). The aim of our work was to report the second record of association between immatures of Empididae and Simuliidae in the Neotropical Region and the first for the Atlantic Forest (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). We collected 4982 pupae and exuviae of Simulium Latreille, (Diptera, Simuliidae) and found three with a pupa of Hemerodromia Meigen (Diptera, Empididae) inside. This shows that the use of black flies cocoons by dance flies occurs at extremely low frequencies, which might explain why this association is so rarely recorded. Our results are relevant for a better comprehension of the predator-prey relationship between these families.

  18. Comments on the association of immatures of Hemerodromia (Diptera, Empididae) and Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae), and first record of this association in the Atlantic Forest (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Sánchez Molina, Óscar; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Larvae of Empididae (Diptera) prey on black fly immatures and its pupae can be collected from pupal cases of Simuliidae (Diptera). The aim of our work was to report the second record of association between immatures of Empididae and Simuliidae in the Neotropical Region and the first for the Atlantic Forest (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). We collected 4982 pupae and exuviae of Simulium Latreille, (Diptera, Simuliidae) and found three with a pupa of Hemerodromia Meigen (Diptera, Empididae) inside. This shows that the use of black flies cocoons by dance flies occurs at extremely low frequencies, which might explain why this association is so rarely recorded. Our results are relevant for a better comprehension of the predator-prey relationship between these families. PMID:27456938

  19. Change of name for the Oriental robber fly Nyssomyia Hull, 1962 (Diptera: Asilidae, Asilinae), nec Nyssomyia Barretto, 1962 (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Fisher, Eric

    2015-08-14

    A new name for the Oriental genus Nyssomyia Hull, 1962 (Diptera: Asilidae) is proposed. Homonymy exists between this Oriental robber fly genus and the more senior Neotropical phlebotomine sand fly genus Nyssomyia Barretto, 1962 (sensu Galati 2003) (Diptera: Psychodidae), and the following replacement name is proposed: Ekkentronomyia nom. nov. for Nyssomyia Hull (nec Barretto 1962). Accordingly, a new combination is herein proposed for the only species currently included in this genus: Ekkentronomyia ochracea (Hull, 1962) comb. nov.

  20. Risk-spreading larviposition behaviour of female nose bot flies (Cephenemyia) attacking black-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R

    2013-06-01

    While baited deer models were under observation nine Cephenemyia jellisoni Townsend (Diptera: Oestridae) females and seven C. apicata Bennett & Sabrosky engaged in a risk-spreading larviposition behaviour by larvipositing on models only once and then flying away. Additionally, analysis of 225 unobserved larvipostions in which larvae were trapped in adhesive on the muzzles of deer models showed that 94% of C. apicata and 95% of C. jellisoni larviposited on a model only once. The number of single larvipositions was highly significant for both species. The principal adaptive significance of such risk-spreading larviposition behaviour is that it spreads the reproductive output of a female among many hosts, and in years when adult eclosion and survival rates are low, it ensures that the larvae of the few surviving females will be distributed among a maximum number of hosts. Several other benefits of such behaviour also are discussed.

  1. Microsporidium Infecting Anopheles supepictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, Seyed-Mohammad; Moosavi, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Manouchehri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Microsporidia are known to infect a wide variety of animals including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). In a recent study on the mosquito fauna of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari Province, at the central western part of Iran, a few larvae of Anopheles superpictus were infected with a microsporidium-resembled microorganism. Current investigation deals with the identification of the responsible microorganism at the genus level. Methods: Fresh infected larvae were collected from the field. After determining the species identity they were dissected to extract their infective contents. Wet preparations were checked for general appearance and the size of the pathogenic microorganism. Fixed preparations were stained with Geimsa and Ryan-Blue modified Trichrome techniques to visualize further morphological characters. The obtained light microscopy data were used in the identification process. Results: The infected larvae were bulged by a whitish material filling the involved segments corresponding to a microsporidium infection. Bottle-shaped semioval spores ranged 4.33±0.19×2.67±0.12 and 4.18±0.43×2.45±0.33 micron in wet and fixed preparations, respectively. They were mostly arranged in globular structures comprised of 8 spores. These data was in favor of a species from the genus Parathelohania in the family Ambliosporidae. Conclusion: This is the first report of a microsporidium infection in An. superpictus. The causative agent is diagnosed as a member of the genus Parathelohania. Further identification down to the species level needs to determine its ultrastructural characteristics and the comparative analysis of ss rRNA sequence data. It is also necessary to understand the detail of the components of the transmission cycle. PMID:27308299

  2. Effects of adhesive powders on the mating and flight behavior of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Armsworth, Clare G; Baxter, Ian H; Barton, Lucy E E; Poppy, Guy M; Nansen, Christian

    2006-08-01

    Powders that adhere to insect cuticle can be used as carrier particles for synthetic insecticides, entomopathogens, or pheromones in insect control systems, and insects can be lured into contact with such powder mixtures by using attractants. Secondary transfer of adhesive powders to conspecifics during social interactions has been reported; however, this transfer relies on insects leaving the source of powder and continuing normal behavior when contaminated. We examined the ability of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae), to fly and mate after being contaminated with one of two adhesive powders: an electrostatic wax powder, Entostat, and a proprietary metallic powder, Entomag. During continuous observations for 1 h in a flight tunnel, male C. capitata made significantly more flights than females. Treating C. capitata with either powder significantly suppressed the flight activity of male C. capitata compared with untreated controls, whereas powder treatment had a negligible effect on female flight activity. Within 1 h, male C. capitata treated with Entomag recovered normal flight activity, but Entostat-treated males were not fully recovered. Virgin male C. capitata treated with either Entostat or Entomag were able to mate with virgin female C. capitata, but the onset of mating was delayed compared with control C. capitata by approximately 1 h. Even though the effect of powder uptake on behavior seemed to be temporary, scanning electron micrograph images of treated C. capitata showed that both powders were retained for > 24 h on most body parts. The adhesive powders showed potential for use as carrier particles for pesticides, entomopathogens, or pheromones in novel C. capitata control systems.

  3. Comparative efficacy of three suction traps for collecting phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in open habitats.

    PubMed

    Faiman, Roy; Cuño, Ruben; Warburg, Alon

    2009-06-01

    The efficacy of three suction traps for trapping phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) was compared. Traps were baited with Co(2) and used without any light source. CO(2)-baited CDC traps were evaluated either in their standard downdraft orientation or inverted (iCDC traps). Mosquito Magnet-X (MMX) counterflow geometry traps were tested in the updraft orientation only. Both updraft traps (iCDC and MMX) were deployed with their opening ∼10 cm from the ground while the opening of the downdraft (CDC) trap was ∼40 cm above ground. Comparisons were conducted in two arid locations where different sand fly species prevail. In the Jordan Valley, 3,367 sand flies were caught, 2,370 of which were females. The predominant species was Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi, Scopoli 1786 (>99%). The updraft-type traps iCDC and MMX caught an average of 118 and 67.1 sand flies per trap night, respectively. The CDC trap caught 32.9 sand flies on average per night, significantly less than the iCDC traps. In the Judean desert, traps were arranged in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. A total of 565 sand flies were caught, 345 of which were females. The predominant species was P. (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti Parrot 1917 (87%). The updraft traps iCDC and MMX caught an average of 25.6 and 17.9 sand flies per trap per night, respectively. The CDC trap caught 7.8 sand flies on average per night, significantly less than the iCDC traps. The female to male ratio was 1.7 on average for all trap types. In conclusion, updraft traps deployed with their opening close to the ground are clearly more effective for trapping sand flies than downdraft CDC traps in open habitats.

  4. Developmental Acclimation of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and Its Effect on Diapause and Winter Stress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wallingford, Anna K; Loeb, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the influence of developmental conditions on adult morphology, reproductive arrest, and winter stress tolerance of the invasive pest of small fruit, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Cooler rearing temperatures (15 °C) resulted in larger, darker "winter morph" (WM) adults than "summer morph" flies reared at optimal temperatures (25 °C). Abdominal pigmentation scores and body size measurements of laboratory-reared WMs were similar to those of D. suzukii females captured in late autumn in Geneva, NY. We evaluated reproductive diapause and cold hardiness in live-captured D. suzukii WMs as well as WMs reared in the laboratory from egg to adult under four developmental conditions: static cool temperatures (SWM; 15 °C, 12:12 h L:D), fluctuating temperatures (FWM; 20 °C L: 10 °C D, 12:12 h L:D), and static cool temperatures (15 °C, 12:12 h L:D) followed by posteclosion chilling (CWM; 10 °C) under short-day (SD; 12:12 h L:D) or long-day photoperiods (LD; 16:8 h L:D). Live-captured D. suzukii WMs and CWMs had longer preoviposition times than newly eclosed summer morph adults, indicating a reproductive diapause that was not observed in SWMs or FWMs. Additionally, recovery after acute freeze stress was not different between CWM-SD females and live captured WM females. More 7-d-old CWMs survived 0, -1, or - 3 °C freeze stress than summer morph adults, and more CWM-SD adults survived -3 °C freeze stress than CWM-LD adults. Survival after -3 °C freeze stress was significantly higher in diapausing, CWMs than nondiapausing SWMs and FWMs. PMID:27412194

  5. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...

  6. Interspecific competition of a new invasive mosquito, Culex coronator, and two container mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), across different detritus environments.

    PubMed

    Yee, D A; Skiff, J F

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Culex coronator (Dyar and Knab) (Diptera: Culicidae) has undergone rapid range expansion in the United States since 2003, with its historical distribution in the southwest expanding eastward to the Atlantic coast. Although Cx. coronator nominally use small natural aquatic habitats for development, the use of containers (e.g., tires) makes it potentially important as container invasive. To determine the potential ecological effects of Cx. coronator on resident container species, we conducted a laboratory experiment to assess its competitive ability with two common tire-inhabiting species, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae were reared under a factorial design with each species alone and in combination (Cx. coronator + Ae. albopictus, Cx. coronator + Cx. quinquefasciatus) across three different resource environments (leaf detritus only, animal detritus only, animal + leaf). Mosquito performance (survival, adult male and female mass, and development time) was measured for each species across treatments. Female Cx. coronator developed slowest when grown with Ae. albopictus, or when grown with leaves only regardless of species combinations; similar patterns emerged for males although species effects were restricted to mass. Few differences were evident in performance for male and female Cx. coronator across detritus environments when grown with Cx. quinquefasciatus. Cx. quinquefasciatus did not vary in mass or development time in the presence of Cx. coronator compared with when grown alone. Ae. albopictus female mass was 15% lower in the presence of Cx. coronator. Survival of Cx. coronator was highest in animal and leaf detritus containers, although survival was generally lower when larvae were grown with Ae. albopictus. These findings suggest that the performance of Cx. coronator is similar to that of Cx. quinquefasciatus but it suffers in the presence of Ae. albopictus under some resource environments.

  7. Sarcosaprophagous Diptera assemblages in natural habitats in central Spain: spatial and seasonal changes in composition.

    PubMed

    Martín-Vega, D; Baz, A

    2013-03-01

    The composition and spatial distribution of sarcosaprophagous Diptera assemblages were studied using carrion-baited traps along a bioclimatic gradient of natural habitats in central Spain throughout the different seasons during 1 year. Calliphoridae and Muscidae were the most abundant families, accounting for, respectively, 41.9% and 35.1% of all Diptera specimens collected. Other abundant families were Heleomyzidae (8.4%), Sarcophagidae (6.9%) and Piophilidae (5.1%). Fly assemblage compositions differed among bioclimatic levels, with Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) being the dominant species in mesomediterranean habitats, Muscina levida (Harris) (Diptera: Muscidae) the dominant species in supramediterranean habitats, and Prochyliza nigrimana (Meigen) (Diptera: Piophilidae) the dominant species in oromediterranean habitats. Differences in assemblage composition were also found among seasons. Thermophobic species such as Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and some species of Heleomyzidae were well represented during autumn, winter and spring in the three bioclimatic levels sampled. By contrast, thermophilic species such as Ch. albiceps and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and most Muscidae and Sarcophagidae species were more abundant during summer and in mesomediterranean habitats located at lower elevations. Knowledge of the preferences of some species for certain habitats may be of ecological and forensic value and may establish a starting point for further research.

  8. The mitochondrial genome of the blowfly Chrysomya chloropyga (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Ana Carolina M; Lessinger, Ana Cláudia; Torres, Tatiana Teixeira; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Vettore, André Luiz; Arruda, Paulo; Azeredo Espin, Ana Maria L

    2004-09-15

    In view of the medical, sanitary and forensic importance of Chrysomya species, a knowledge of their nucleotide sequences would be useful for the molecular characterization of this genus, and would help in designing primers and in improving the molecular identification of Calliphoridae species. In this work, the mitochondrial genome of the blowfly Chrysomya chloropyga (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was completely sequenced. The entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule was 15,837 bp long and was sequenced using the shotgun approach. The overall nucleotide composition was heavily biased towards As and Ts, which accounted for 76.7% of the whole genome. The cox1 gene had a serine as the start codon, while incomplete termination codons mediated by tRNA signals were found for cox2, nd4 and nd5. The C. chloropyga genes were in the same order and orientation as the mitochondrial genome of other dipteran species, except for the occurrence of a 123 bp region that included a complete duplication of tRNA(Ile) and a partial duplication of tRNA(Gln) genes. C. chloropyga is the first species of Diptera with 23 tRNA genes instead of the usual 22 already described. A phylogenetic analysis showed a split of Brachycera into Calyptratae and Acalyptratae subdivisions. The complete sequence of C. chloropyga mtDNA described here will be a useful source of sequence information for general molecular and evolutionary studies in Diptera.

  9. Unveiling of a cryptic Dicranomyia (Idiopyga) from northern Finland using integrative approach (Diptera, Limoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kaunisto, Kari M; Vahtera, Varpu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The subgenus Idiopyga Savchenko, 1987 is a northern hemisphere group of short-palped crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae). In the current article we describe a new species, Dicranomyia (I.) boreobaltica Salmela sp.n., and redescribe the male and female post-abdomen of a closely related species, D. (I.) intricata Alexander. A standard DNA barcoding fragment of 5′ region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene of the new species is presented, whilst the K2P minimum distances between the new species and 10 other species of the subgenus were found to range from 5.1 to 15.7 % (mean 11.2 %). Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony and maximum likelihood) based on COI sequences support the identity of the new species and its close relationship with D. (I.) intricata and D. (I.) esbeni (Nielsen). The new species is known from the northern Baltic area of Finland. The new species has been mostly collected from Baltic coastal meadows but an additional relict population is known from a calcareous rich fen that was estimated to have been at sea level circa 600-700 years ago. Dicranomyia (I.) intricata (syn. D. suecica Nielsen) is a Holarctic species, occurring in the north boreal and subarctic vegetation zones in Fennoscandia. PMID:25535487

  10. First overview of the Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) livestock associated species of Reunion Island, Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Desvars, A; Grimaud, Y; Guis, H; Esnault, O; Allène, X; Gardès, L; Balenghien, T; Baldet, T; Delécolle, J C; Garros, C

    2015-02-01

    This study establishes the first faunistic inventory of livestock associated Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species of Reunion Island (Indian Ocean), where bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease are regularly recorded. Single night-catches were performed at 41 sites using light suction traps at altitudes ranging from 0 to 1525 m, from March to April 2005. Five species were recorded: Culicoides imicola, Culicoides bolitinos, Culicoides enderleini, Culicoides grahamii, and Culicoides kibatiensis, among which at least the first three species are known to be involved in virus transmission to ruminants and equids. This is the first record of C. bolitinos, C. kibatiensis, and C. enderleini on the island. C. imicola was the most abundant species along the sea coast. C. bolitinos was more abundant inland and on two sites on the east coast. C. kibatiensis and C. grahamii were less abundant than the other three species and limited to two foci. Spatial distribution analysis of the different species showed that C. bolitinos, C. enderleini and C. imicola were collected at low altitudes, while the other two species were found at higher altitude. A morphological identification key for adult females and males is given, as well as cytochrome oxydase subunit I sequences. Phylogenetic reconstructions showed a clear divergence between C. bolitinos from Reunion Island and mainland Africa. This monograph will help to identify the Culicoides species in the poorly known entomological fauna of the south-western Indian Ocean region.

  11. Association between Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) oviposition and structural features of belowground stormwater treatment devices.

    PubMed

    Harbison, Justin E; Metzger, Marco E; Hu, Renjie

    2010-01-01

    Belowground stormwater treatment devices referred to as Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be persistent sources of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes and in urban environments necessitate routine monitoring and insecticide treatment for control. The design of certain structural features of BMPs may discourage mosquito entry and oviposition, potentially reducing the need for control measures. From August 2007 to November 2008, 29 BMPs were intermittently monitored for the presence of mosquitoes and compared against selected structural features. A bucket ovitrap was developed to estimate entry of oviposition-site-seeking females into BMPs via egg raft counts. The number of egg rafts collected was positively associated with larger diameters and shorter lengths of conveyance pipe from the nearest inlet or outlet and with increasing number of pickholes in BMP manhole covers. In contrast, the number of days pickholes were sealed against adult mosquito entry was negatively associated with eggs rafts. Findings suggest that the design of belowground BMPs and their conveyance systems can influence mosquito oviposition inside these structures. Specific design criteria with the greatest potential to minimize mosquito production and provide safe access for monitoring and control activities are discussed. PMID:20180310

  12. Ecological and epidemiological status of species of the Phlebotomus perniciosus complex (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Zarrouk, Asmae; Kahime, Kholoud; Boussaa, Samia; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2016-03-01

    Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection is transmitted by an infected female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) of the subgenus Larroussius: Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, the vectorial role of P. ariasi was demonstrated, while that of P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus is not elucidated. In addition, Moroccan P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus populations present a higher morphologic and genetic variability. It was classified as P. perniciosus complex, including typical (PN) and atypical (PNA) morphs of P. perniciosus, P. longicuspis sensu stricto (LCss), and a sibling species of P. longicuspis (LCx). With the aim to study the ecological and epidemiological status of P. perniciosus complex species in Morocco, entomological surveys were carried out during three entomological seasons (2012, 2013, and 2014). We collected a total of 6298 specimens from 81 localities of northern, central, and southern Morocco. After describing the geographical distribution of P. perniciosus complex trough Morocco according to many variables (altitude, latitude, and longitude), we discuss the resulting epidemiological implications of its species. Our results highlight the geographical distribution of the two morphs of P. perniciosus through Morocco: PN is limited to the north, while PNA is widespread in northern, central, and southern Morocco. In terms of vectorial role, we hypothesize the potential involvement of PN, LCss, and LCx, at least, with P. ariasi, in the epidemiological cycle of L. infantum in Morocco. PMID:26593735

  13. Alightment of Spotted Wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on Odorless Disks Varying in Color

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, D. M.; McGhee, P. S.; Hermann, S. L.; Gut, L. J.; Miller, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Methods for trapping spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsmura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), have not yet been optimized for detecting this devastating pest of soft-skinned fruits. Here, we report outcomes of choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays quantifying the rates of spotted wing drosophila alightment on 5-cm-diameter sticky disks of various colors, but no fruit odors. Red, purple, and black disks captured the most spotted wing drosophila when presented against a white background. Male and female spotted wing drosophila responded identically in these tests. Significantly more D. suzukii were captured on the red and yellow disks than those presenting the corresponding grayscale for that color, proving that D. suzukii perceives colors and not just the level of target brightness. Fluorescent red is the best candidate for trap color, while clear and white are the least desirable. However, when the background was switched to black, all nonfluorescent colors were equally acceptable to spotted wing drosophila, suggesting that background must be specified when reporting spotted wing drosophila color preference. Additional spotted wing drosophila research is justified on the effects of target color against natural backgrounds. PMID:26475826

  14. Ecological and epidemiological status of species of the Phlebotomus perniciosus complex (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Zarrouk, Asmae; Kahime, Kholoud; Boussaa, Samia; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2016-03-01

    Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection is transmitted by an infected female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) of the subgenus Larroussius: Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, the vectorial role of P. ariasi was demonstrated, while that of P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus is not elucidated. In addition, Moroccan P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus populations present a higher morphologic and genetic variability. It was classified as P. perniciosus complex, including typical (PN) and atypical (PNA) morphs of P. perniciosus, P. longicuspis sensu stricto (LCss), and a sibling species of P. longicuspis (LCx). With the aim to study the ecological and epidemiological status of P. perniciosus complex species in Morocco, entomological surveys were carried out during three entomological seasons (2012, 2013, and 2014). We collected a total of 6298 specimens from 81 localities of northern, central, and southern Morocco. After describing the geographical distribution of P. perniciosus complex trough Morocco according to many variables (altitude, latitude, and longitude), we discuss the resulting epidemiological implications of its species. Our results highlight the geographical distribution of the two morphs of P. perniciosus through Morocco: PN is limited to the north, while PNA is widespread in northern, central, and southern Morocco. In terms of vectorial role, we hypothesize the potential involvement of PN, LCss, and LCx, at least, with P. ariasi, in the epidemiological cycle of L. infantum in Morocco.

  15. Scanning electron microscopy of antennal sensory organs of the cattle grub, Hypoderma lineatum (Diptera: Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Li, X Y; Liu, X H; Ge, Y Q; Zhang, D

    2015-10-01

    Hypoderma lineatum (Villers, 1789) (Diptera: Oestridae) is a hypodermosis fly that has resulted in great economic losses worldwide. The antennae of cattle grub males and females were examined through stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to reveal the general morphology, combined with distribution, type, size, and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. All of the three antennal segments (antennal scape, pedicel, and funiculus) possess microtrichiae on their surface. Mechanoreceptors only exist on the antennal scape and pedicel. The antennal funiculus presents four types of antennal sensilla: trichoid, basiconic, coeloconic, and clavate sensilla. Three distinctive characters of H. lineatum are obvious: (1) the relatively slender, flexible, and equal-height mechanoreceptors; (2) the enlarged antennal pedicel, and numerous antennal sensory pits and pit sensilla on the antennal funiculus; and (3) all types of antennal sensilla clustered in sensory pits, respectively. Additionally, the enlarged antennal pedicel and abundant sensory pits and pit sensilla might facilitate odor detection, enhance olfactory sensitivity and accuracy, and also protect the fragile antennal sensilla from mechanical irritation or damage. PMID:26193822

  16. Conochironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia: new and redescribed species and vouchering issues.

    PubMed

    Cranston, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the Afro-Australian genus Conochironomus Freeman, 1961 (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia has been recognised only informally. An unpublished thesis included Conochironomus from Singapore, and the genus has been keyed from Malaysia without named species. Here, the Sumatran Conochironomus tobaterdecimus (Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980) comb. n. is recorded from Singapore and Thailand. The species is transferred from Sumatendipes Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980, rendering the latter a junior synonym (syn. n.) of Conochironomus Freeman. Conochironomus nuengthai sp. n. and Conochironomus sawngthai sp. n. are described as new to science, based on adult males from Chiang Mai, Thailand. All species conform to existing generic diagnoses for all life stages, with features from male and female genitalia, pupal cephalic tubercles and posterolateral 'spurs' of tergite VIII providing evidence for species distinction. Some larvae are linked to C. tobaterdecimus through molecular barcoding. Variation in other larvae, which clearly belong to Conochironomus and are common throughout Thailand, means that they cannot be segregated to species. Larval habitats include pools in river beds, urban storage reservoirs, drains with moderately high nutrient loadings, and peat swamps. Endochironomus effusus Dutta, 1994 from north-eastern India may be a congener but may differ in adult morphology, thereby precluding formal new combination until discrepancies can be reconciled. Many problems with vouchering taxonomic and molecular material are identified that need to be rectified in the future. PMID:27394867

  17. Sexual selection on multivariate phenotypes in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Sciurano, R.; Rodriguero, M.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.L.; Allinghi, Armando

    2007-03-15

    Despite the interest in applying environmentally friendly control methods such as sterile insect technique (SIT) against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), information about its biology, taxonomy, and behavior is still insufficient. To increase this information, the present study aims to evaluate the performance of wild flies under field cage conditions through the study of sexual competitiveness among males (sexual selection). A wild population from Horco Molle, Tucuman, Argentina was sampled. Mature virgin males and females were released into outdoor field cages to compete for mating. Morphometric analyses were applied to determine the relationship between the multivariate phenotype and copulatory success. Successful and unsuccessful males were measured for 8 traits: head width (HW), face width (FW), eye length (EL), thorax length (THL), wing length (WL), wing width (WW), femur length (FL), and tibia length (TIL). Combinations of different multivariate statistical methods and graphical analyses were used to evaluate sexual selection on male phenotype. The results indicated that wing width and thorax length would be the most probable targets of sexual selection. They describe a non-linear association between expected fitness and each of these 2 traits. This non-linear relation suggests that observed selection could maintain the diversity related to body size. (author) [Spanish] A pesar del interes por la aplicacion de metodos de control de bajo impacto ambiental sobre Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae), como la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE), no existe aun informacion suficiente sobre su biologia, taxonomia y comportamiento. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar el desempeno de moscas en jaulas de campo a traves del estudio de la competitividad sexual entre machos salvajes (seleccion sexual). Para ello, se muestreo una poblacion de Horco Molle, Tucuman (Argentina). En jaulas de campo se liberaron machos y hembras adultos

  18. Adult Fannia benjamini complex (Diptera: Muscidae) activity in southern California and use of CO2 as an attractant.

    PubMed

    Gerry, Alec C; Mullens, Bradley A

    2006-05-01

    Diurnal activity of host-seeking "canyon flies" (Fannia benjamini complex) (Diptera: Muscidae) was determined on a warm, sunny day during their peak seasonal activity period (early July) in the coastal mountain community of La Habra Heights in Los Angeles County, California. High levels of activity persisted for several hours in the morning and evening, but peak abundance was within an hour after sunrise and an hour before sunset, when >600 flies (mainly Fannia conspicua Malloch) could be collected in 5 min from a person using a sweep net. Host-seeking activity was low during midday hours, when flies apparently were seeking shelter from the heat, and activity ceased after sunset. Potential bait materials, including some known to elicit a response by other host-seeking Diptera (water, rabbit feces, egg bait, milk bait, Limburger cheese, ethanol, and CO2) were tested for "canyon fly" response using CDC-type suction traps (without light). CO2 resulted in significantly higher capture of female "canyon flies" (up to approximately 2,000 flies per trap in a 6-h period) relative to traps baited with other materials or with no bait. Host-seeking activity in relation to distance from a putative developmental site was evaluated. The proportional capture of flies in CO2-baited suction traps was significantly explained by distance from a residential area planted with Aptenia cordifolia (L.) (Aizoaceae; red apple), a ground cover plant that is a developmental site for F. conspicua. Proportional trap capture rapidly decreased as distance from the residential area increased. Implications of these studies for "canyon fly" control are discussed.

  19. Revision of the Genus Physiphora Fallén 1810 (Diptera: Ulidiidae: Ulidiinae).

    PubMed

    Kameneva, Elena P; Korneyev, Valery A

    2016-01-01

    The genus Physiphora includes at least 29 species, most of them occurring predominantly in the Afrotropical Region and a few species native to the other regions of the Old World. At least P. alceae (Preyssler 1791) and P. clausa (Macquart 1843) are subcosmopolitan species unintentionally introduced into the Australasian, Nearctic, and Neotropical Regions. Twelve new species from the Afrotropical Region are described: P. hendeli sp. n., P. igniceps sp. n., P. kirki sp. n., P. maraisi sp. n., P. meyi sp. n., P. opalizana sp. n., P. orinigra sp. n., P. polita sp. n., P. rugosa sp. n., P. spriggsi sp. n., P. steyskali sp. n., and P. virens sp. n. Detailed illustrated descriptions and a key for identification are provided for all the species of Physiphora. Analysis of the new and previously known biological data shows that larvae of most Physiphora species are saprophagous associated with rotting tissues of palms (apparently infested by the palm weevils), giant Euphorbia, and even baobabs and poplars. Some species are attracted to (and as larvae possibly can develop in) the dung of ungulates. The following synonymy is established: Physiphora clausa (Macquart 1843) = Physiphora hainanensis Chen in Chen & Kameneva 2007: 24, syn. n.; Physiphora flavipes (Karsch 1888) = Chrysomyza africana Hendel 1909, syn. n., = Cliochloria senegalensis Enderlein 1927, syn. n. PMID:27394323

  20. Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), a new parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae) from the Azores

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Kees; Teixeira, Tânia; Oliveira, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new gregarious larval-pupal endoparasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is described and illustrated: Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini). PMID:23129984

  1. Adulticide effect of Monticalia greenmaniana (Asteraceae) against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, José; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Nieves, Elsa

    2012-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a public health problem that has been increasing year by year, with the further difficulty that an efficient control system is not available. Therefore, it is necessary to search for less contaminating and dangerous alternatives for controlling Leishmania transmitting sandflies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of Monticalia greenmaniana (Asteraceae) extracts and essential oil as an adulticide against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, from a laboratory colony, in experimental conditions. Dry aerial parts of M. greenmaniana (Hieron) Jeffrey were used. Methanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared, and essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. Adulticide tests in pots, adulticide tests in cages, and knocked-down effects were determined. The results obtained demonstrated that methanolic and aqueous extracts produced adulticide activity. The essential oil from M. greenmaniana was proved to be the most toxic against L. migonei, with a 95 % death rate at a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml during a 1-h exposure. The essential oil showed a DL50 = 0.0050 and DL98 = 0.0066 mg/ml. The methanolic extract was DL50 = 0.130 and DL98 = 1.016 mg/ml, and the aqueous extract, DL50 = 0.487 and DL98 10.924 mg/ml. The knocked-down effect for the M. greenmaniana oil showed a KDTL50 = 48.6 and KDTL98 = 90.1 min. It was concluded that the essential oil from M. greenmaniana showed a strong insecticide effect against L. migonei females, which encourages us to continue these studies in search for control alternatives against sandflies.

  2. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae) as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Boakye, Daniel A; Fokam, Eric; Ghansah, Anita; Amakye, Josef; Wilson, Michael D; Brown, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn) in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae). Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments). Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum. PMID:19393069

  3. New neotropical species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns are described from the Neotropical Region: T. dimorphica (Argentina), T. fasciata (Argentina), T. polita (Argentina and Bolivia), and T. trivittata (Argentina). Celidosphenella Hendel, 1914 and Melanotrypana Hering, 1944 are ...

  4. Revision of the key characters for the Thricops nigrifrons species-group (Diptera, Muscidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vikhrev, Nikita

    2010-01-01

    Abstract An analysis of key characters for the separation of Thricops nigrifrons and Thricops longipes (Diptera, Muscidae) is given. A revised key for Thricops nigrifrons and related species, including two species recently described from the Caucasus, is proposed. PMID:21594046

  5. Checklist of the leaf-mining flies (Diptera, Agromyzidae) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the Agromyzidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. 279 (or 280) species are currently known from the country. Phytomyza linguae Lundqvist, 1947 is recorded as new to Finland. PMID:25337025

  6. Fluctuation of diptera larvae in phytotelmata and relation with climate variation in West Sumatra Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Emantis; Dahelmi; Salmah, Siti; Syamsuardi

    2014-07-01

    Research of fluctuations in Diptera's larvae in Phytotelmata had been conducted at three locations in West Sumatra, Indonesia; Padang, Bukittinggi and Payakumbuh; which aimed to determine the number and fluctuations Diptera larvae in Phytotelmata. The results obtained; the highest number of individual larvae Diptera in Phytotelmata was 7109 Aedes albopictus larvae (49.56%), followed by larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus with 2409 individuals (16.80%). Larvae fluctuated every month and tent to increase in November and December. There was no difference in the number of Diptera larvae individuals inhabiting pandan, taro, and pineapple, but there were significant differences between the three types of Phytotelmata (pandanus, taro and pineapple) with bamboo (p < 0.05). Number of individual larvae in Phytotelmata negatively correlated with temperature and rainfall, but positively correlated with humidity (r = 0.44: p < 0.05). PMID:26035947

  7. Honeydew sugars in wild-caught female horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae).

    PubMed

    Hunter, F F; Ossowski, A M

    1999-11-01

    Three species of horse fly, Hybomitra illota (Osten Sacken), H. affinis (Kirby), and H. zonalis (Kirby), were collected by sweep-netting around human bait at 2 sites (abandoned airfield and Davies Bog) in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario. There were 3 times more horse flies collected at Davies Bog than at the abandoned airfield. The crop contents of all specimens were identified by thin-layer chromatography. Using melezitose and stachyose as honeydew indicator sugars, the relative importance of homopteran honeydew and floral nectar as carbohydrate sources for these flies was determined. Of flies testing sugar-positive, 42.0% of H. illota (n = 50), 52.8% of H. affinis (n = 36), and 100% of H. zonalis (n = 4) had recently fed on honeydew. Pooled data for the 3 species showed that 38.9% of flies at the abandoned airfield (n = 18) and 51.4% of flies at Davies Bog (n = 72) were honeydew-fed. There were no significant differences among species or between sites. These findings are compared with recent black fly and deer fly studies from the same sites. PMID:10593099

  8. Identification of microorganisms in partially fed female horn flies, Haematobia irritans.

    PubMed

    Torres, Lorena; Almazán, Consuelo; Ayllón, Nieves; Galindo, Ruth C; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Quiroz-Romero, Héctor; Gortazar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2012-09-01

    The horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of cattle. The parasitism of horn flies interferes with cattle feeding, thus reducing weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aims of this study were to identify microorganisms in partially fed female horn flies through mining of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and to characterize microorganism prevalence using real-time RT-PCR. Seven unigenes containing 24 ESTs were homologous to infectious agents. Microorganisms identified in partially fed female horn flies ESTs included Nora virus (3 unigenes; 8 ESTs), Wolbachia endosymbionts (3 unigenes; 3 ESTs), and Mycobacterium bovis (1 unigene; 13 ESTs). These results expanded the repertoire of microorganisms that could cause persistent infections or be mechanically transmitted by horn flies and support further studies on the role of horn flies in the epidemiology of these pathogens in Mexico.

  9. Incidence of Non-Immunological Defenses of Soil White Grubs on Parasitism Success of Mallophora ruficauda Larva (Diptera: Asilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Castelo, Marcela K.; Crespo, José E.

    2012-01-01

    White grubs are larvae of Coleoptera of the family Scarabaeidae. They are known because of their intensive feeding habits on crop roots. Mallophora ruficauda (Diptera: Asilidae) is a dipteran parasitoid whose larva is a natural enemy for white grubs. This species is a solitary ectoparasitoid, where both female and larva realize different steps in the host location process. Female place its eggs in high grasslands and then, the larva finds and parasitizes the host in the ground. There are nine potential hosts in the area of action of this parasitoid; however a high preference for Cyclocephala signaticollis has been observed (87% of field parasitism). It is known that many insects have developed defensive and immunological mechanisms when attacked by a parasitoid, which can be behavioral, physiological, chemical or genetic. The objectives of this work were to investigate what kind of defense and non-immunological associated mechanisms the white grubs have against this parasitoid and to understand why M. ruficauda have such a high preference for masked chafer grubs or Cyclocephala species. In particular, for each white grub species, we asked: (1) If there is a differential behavioral reaction when a parasitoid attack is simulated; (2) If body attributes of white grubs species have influence on defense behavior, and particularly for the masked chafer C. signaticollis; and (3) Why this species is the most selected by M. ruficauda. It was found that behavioral defenses of white grubs would explain the parasitism pattern of M. ruficauda larvae and its preference for C. signaticollis. PMID:26466623

  10. Experimental Assessment of the Impacts of Northern Long-Eared Bats on Ovipositing Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Reiskind, Michael H.; Wund, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of predation as a mortality factor in adult mosquitoes has received only limited attention in the scientific literature. Despite the lack of consensus among researchers as to whether bats are important predators of mosquitoes, there have been no attempts to directly document the effect of bats on mosquito populations or behavior. We conducted an enclosure experiment to test the hypothesis that bats reduce the local abundance of ovipositing female mosquitoes by examining whether the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis Trouessart) had an effect on Culex spp. (Diptera: Culicidae) oviposition, using naturally occurring mosquitoes, either through direct predation or trait mediated effects on mosquito behavior. We found a signiÞcant, 32% reduction in egg-laying activity associated with bat predation. Artificial oviposition habitats directly outside bat enclosures experienced no reduction in oviposition; we attributed the observed reduction in egg-laying activity to direct predation on ovipositing females by bats and not changes in mosquito behavior. In addition, we noted a decrease in the number of larval mosquitoes in enclosures exposed to bat predation. These results suggest the impact of aerial predators on pathogen transmission may be large, and warrants further scientific investigation. PMID:19769034

  11. Female Prisoners in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teh, Yik Koon

    2006-01-01

    This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

  12. New African species of Helina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Couri, Márcia; Pont, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The study of Afrotropical Muscidae deposited in the Natural History Museum (BMNH), London, United Kingdom, revealed four new species of Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, herein described and illustrated. Helina duocolorata sp. nov. is described from Kenya, Helina longicerca sp. nov. and Helina sexnotata sp. nov. from Nigeria, and Helina mediomaculata sp. nov. from Angola. All types are deposited in the collection of the BMNH. Some corrections are made to the entries under Helina in the Catalogue of the Diptera of the Afrotropical Region (Pont 1980).

  13. New African species of Helina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Couri, Márcia; Pont, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The study of Afrotropical Muscidae deposited in the Natural History Museum (BMNH), London, United Kingdom, revealed four new species of Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, herein described and illustrated. Helina duocolorata sp. nov. is described from Kenya, Helina longicerca sp. nov. and Helina sexnotata sp. nov. from Nigeria, and Helina mediomaculata sp. nov. from Angola. All types are deposited in the collection of the BMNH. Some corrections are made to the entries under Helina in the Catalogue of the Diptera of the Afrotropical Region (Pont 1980). PMID:27394742

  14. [Hematophagous diptera arbovirus vectors in Africa (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rickenbach, A; Mouchet, J

    1981-01-01

    The authors, in a first part, show the general arthropods-viruses-vertebrates relationships and specially the different conditions of virus maintenance in the selvatic foci. Then they succinctly give the main characteristics of the vectors bioecology useful for understanding the epidemiology of arbovirus diseases of man and domestic animals. Thus diptera vectors of o'nyong-nyong and chikungunya fevers, yellow fever, dengue fever, Wesselsbron, Sindbis, and West Nile viruses, Rift Valley fever, sandfly fevers, bluetongue and african horsesickness are recorded. Lastly some attention is given to the range of virus-vector specificity and to the virulence variability of virus according to the vector.

  15. Phylogenetic inference of calyptrates, with the first mitogenomes for Gasterophilinae (Diptera: Oestridae) and Paramacronychiinae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included. PMID:27019632

  16. Ammonium carbonate loss rates from lures differentially affect trap captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) and non-target flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of cherry (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be monitored using traps baited with ammonia. However, ammonia-based attractants also attract non-target Diptera that clutter traps. Here, the hypothe...

  17. Taxonomic redescription and biological notes on Diaugia angusta (Diptera, Tachinidae): parasitoid of the palm boring weevils Metamasius ensirostris and M. hemipterus (Coleoptera, Dryophthoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Pavarini, Ronaldo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Diaugia angusta Perty, 1833 is a Neotropical species of Tachinidae (Diptera) reported here as a parasitoid of Metamasius ensirostris (Germar, 1824) and Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) in Brazil. Several species of Dryophthoridae and Curculionidae cause damage to bromeliad and palm species, and most are regarded as pests. In the present study, the male and female of Diaugia angusta are morphologically characterized and illustrated to provide a means for the identification of this parasitoid. Data obtained from preliminary field research show that natural parasitism of Metamasius pupae by Diaugia angusta varies by year but can reach nearly 30%. A network of parasitoid-host interactions among tachinid parasitoids and coleopteran hosts reported as bromeliad and palm pests (Dryophthoridae and Curculionidae) in the Americas indicates that the species of the tribe Dexiini sensu lato (including Diaugia angusta) might be promising as biological control agents of these pests. PMID:21594164

  18. Evaluation of rhodamine B as an orally delivered biomarker for rodents and a feed-through transtadial biomarker for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Mascari, T M; Foil, L D

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of rhodamine B as an orally delivered biomarker for rodents and a feed-through transtadial biomarker for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae). Rhodamine B-treated hamsters were visibly marked for up to 8 wk, and their feces were fluorescent when examined under a fluorescence microscope. The development and survival of sand fly larvae fed feces of rhodamine B-treated hamsters were not significantly different from control sand flies. Adult male and female sand flies, that had been fed as larvae the feces of rhodamine B-treated hamsters, were fluorescent when examined using fluorescent microscopy and could be distinguished from control sand flies. Adult female sand flies that took bloodmeals from rhodamine B-treated hamsters were fluorescent when examined immediately after feeding. Rhodamine B incorporated rodent baits could be used to detect adult male and female sand flies that fed on the feces of baited rodents as larvae, or adult female sand flies that have taken a bloodmeal from bait-fed rodents. This would allow the delineation of specific foci with rodent-sand fly associations that would be susceptible to control by using feed-through or systemic insecticides.

  19. The Female Gametophyte

    PubMed Central

    Drews, Gary N.; Koltunow, Anna M.G

    2011-01-01

    The angiosperm female gametophyte is critical for plant reproduction. It contains the egg cell and central cell that become fertilized and give rise to the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. Female gametophyte development begins early in ovule development with the formation of a diploid megaspore mother cell that undergoes meiosis. One resulting haploid megaspore then develops into the female gametophyte. Genetic and epigenetic processes mediate specification of megaspore mother cell identity and limit megaspore mother cell formation to a single cell per ovule. Auxin gradients influence female gametophyte polarity and a battery of transcription factors mediate female gametophyte cell specification and differentiation. The mature female gametophyte secretes peptides that guide the pollen tube to the embryo sac and contains protein complexes that prevent seed development before fertilization. Post-fertilization, the female gametophyte influences seed development through maternal-effect genes and by regulating parental contributions. Female gametophytes can form by an asexual process called gametophytic apomixis, which involves formation of a diploid female gametophyte and fertilization-independent development of the egg into the embryo. These functions collectively underscore the important role of the female gametophyte in seed and food production. PMID:22303279

  20. Acetylcholinesterase genes within the Diptera: takeover and loss in true flies

    PubMed Central

    Huchard, Elise; Martinez, Michel; Alout, Haoues; Douzery, Emmanuel J.P; Lutfalla, Georges; Berthomieu, Arnaud; Berticat, Claire; Raymond, Michel; Weill, Mylène

    2006-01-01

    It has recently been reported that the synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in mosquitoes is encoded by the ace-1 gene, distinct and divergent from the ace-2 gene, which performs this function in Drosophila. This is an unprecedented situation within the Diptera order because both ace genes derive from an old duplication and are present in most insects and arthropods. Nevertheless, Drosophila possesses only the ace-2 gene. Thus, a secondary loss occurred during the evolution of Diptera, implying a vital function switch from one gene (ace-1) to the other (ace-2). We sampled 78 species, representing 50 families (27% of the Dipteran families) spread over all major subdivisions of the Diptera, and looked for ace-1 and ace-2 by systematic PCR screening to determine which taxonomic groups within the Diptera have this gene change. We show that this loss probably extends to all true flies (or Cyclorrhapha), a large monophyletic group of the Diptera. We also show that ace-2 plays a non-detectable role in the synaptic AChE in a lower Diptera species, suggesting that it has non-synaptic functions. A relative molecular evolution rate test showed that the intensity of purifying selection on ace-2 sequences is constant across the Diptera, irrespective of the presence or absence of ace-1, confirming the evolutionary importance of non-synaptic functions for this gene. We discuss the evolutionary scenarios for the takeover of ace-2 and the loss of ace-1, taking into account our limited knowledge of non-synaptic functions of ace genes and some specific adaptations of true flies. PMID:17002944

  1. Female feticide in India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  2. Contribution to the knowledge of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) host preferences in France.

    PubMed

    Ninio, Camille; Augot, Denis; Delecolle, Jean-Claude; Dufour, Barbara; Depaquit, Jerome

    2011-03-01

    Knowledge on host-feeding pattern of blood-sucking insects helps to understand the epidemiology of a vector-born disease. We determined blood meal origin from blood-fed Culicoides thanks to molecular techniques. A set of primers was used to selectively amplify segment of vertebrates' prepronociceptin gene from abdomen of engorged Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Vertebrate DNA was successfully amplified in 91% of blood-fed Culicoides assayed. Direct sequencing and comparison of resultant sequences with sequences in GenBank, using BLAST, lead to the specific identification of the host in 100% of the cases. A total of 157 blood-fed females belonging to 13 different Culicoides' species were captured thanks to light traps in different areas of France between 2008 and 2009. Blood meal origin was determined for 143 blood-fed midges: 59 Culicoides obsoletus, 18 Culicoides dewulfi, 16 Culicoides scoticus, 11 Culicoides chiopterus, 10 Culicoides lupicaris, 1 Culicoides pulicaris, 8 Culicoides punctatus, 10 Culicoides pallidicornis, 3 Culicoides achrayi, 2 Culicoides furcillatus, 3 Culicoides brunnicans, 1 Culicoides picturatus and 1 Culicoides poperinghensis. The predominant species in our study belong to the C. obsoletus complex; they are considered as putative vectors of Bluetongue virus in the north of Europe. C. chiopterus sampled fed only on cattle, while blood meal origin of C. dewulfi, C. obsoletus and C. scoticus was diversified. In our sampling, we found that midges were fed mainly on cattle (54%), rabbits (20%), horses (17%), sheep (4%), pigs or wild boars (4%) and human (1%). Cattle DNA was found in at least 11 different species of Culicoides assayed.

  3. Dispersal of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Hawaiian rain forest.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, D A

    2008-07-01

    Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies.

  4. Diversity of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2011-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists.

  5. Dispersal of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Hawaiian rain forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapointe, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies.

  6. Effect of livestock manures on the fitness of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Akram, Waseem

    2012-09-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the major pests of confined and pastured livestock worldwide. Livestock manures play an important role in the development and spread of M. domestica. In the present study, we investigated the impact of different livestock manures on the fitness and relative growth rate of M. domestica and intrinsic rate of natural increase. We tested the hypotheses by studying life history parameters including developmental time from egg to adult's eclosion, fecundity, longevity, and survival on manures of buffalo, cow, nursing calf, dog, horse, poultry, sheep, and goat, which revealed significant differences that might be associated with fitness costs. The maggots reared on poultry manure developed faster compared to any other host manure. The total developmental time was the shortest on poultry manure and the longest on horse manure. The fecundity by females reared on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures was greater than on any other host manures. Similarly, percent survival of immature stages, pupal weight, eggs viability, adults' eclosion, survival and longevity, intrinsic rate of natural increase, and biotic potential were significantly higher on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures compared to any other livestock manures tested. However, the sex ratio of adult flies remained the same on all types of manures. The low survival on horse, buffalo, cow, sheep, and goat manures suggest unsuitability of these manures, while the higher pupal weight on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures suggest that these may provide better food quality to M. domestica compared with any other host manures. Our results point to the role of livestock manures in increasing local M. domestica populations. Such results could help to design cultural management strategies which may include sanitation, moisture management, and manure removal.

  7. Tympanal hearing in tachinid flies (Diptera, Tachinidae, Ormiini): the comparative morphology of an innovation.

    PubMed

    Robert, D; Edgecomb, R S; Read, M P; Hoy, R R

    1996-06-01

    Tympanal hearing organs have been reported only recently for Diptera. All the cases documented so far relate to parasitoid tachinid flies of the ormiine tribe. In the ormiine flies, the presence of tympanal hearing is functionally linked to their reproductive behavior. Indeed, female ormiine flies detect and localize their host, typically singing orthopterans, by hearing their calling songs. The three ormiine fly species investigated here at the comparative level share the key morphological features associated with tympanal hearing. The extent of these structural modifications becomes evident in the light of comparison with the closely related atympanate tachinid Myiopharus doryphorae. We document a series of eight characters that constitute specialized modifications of the ventral prothorax: (1) an inflation of the probasisternum, providing a rigid frame to span the large tympanal membranes; (2) an increased surface area of the prosternal membranes that constitute very thin, corrugated tympanal membranes; (3) a forked, broad presternum with tympanal pits to which the sensory organs directly attach; (4) several modifications of the tracheal system comprising the enlargement of the prosternal air sac, a supplementary tracheal tube to the prosternal air sac accompanied by a subpartioning of the spiracular atrium, and larger mesothoracic spiracles; (5) the presence of two scolopophorous chordotonal organs in the unpartitioned prosternal air sac; (6) stiff cuticular apodemes linking the chordotonal organs to the presternum; (7) reduction in size of the cervical sclerites; and (8) several structural modifications of the prosternal apophyses, creating new attachment sites for neck muscles. This comparative approach brings out differences and similarities of the homologous cuticular structures found on the ventral prothorax of both tympanate and atympanate tachinids. It is proposed that, given the degree of similarity between the ormiine hearing organs, the ormiine tribe

  8. Export of commercial Hass avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation.

    PubMed

    Villagrán, M Elvira; Willink, Eduardo; Vera, M Teresa; Follett, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries. PMID:22928296

  9. Adulticidal and repellent properties of indigenous plant extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2012-05-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikunguniya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The adulticidal and repellent activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Eclipta alba and Andrographis paniculata were assayed for their toxicity against two important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of A. paniculata against the adults of C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti with the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 149.81, 172.37 ppm and 288.12, 321.01 ppm, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extract of E. alba and A. paniculata plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito adulticidal and repellent activities of the reported E. alba and A. paniculata plants.

  10. Export of commercial Hass avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation.

    PubMed

    Villagrán, M Elvira; Willink, Eduardo; Vera, M Teresa; Follett, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries.

  11. Taxonomic revision of Richardiodes Hendel (Diptera, Richardiidae).

    PubMed

    Wendt, Lisiane Dilli; Ale-Rocha, Rosaly

    2016-01-01

    Richardiodes Hendel is a genus scarcely known taxonomically and two species are recognized: Richardiodes rectinervis Hendel from Brazilian Amazon and R. trimaculata Hennig from Peru. Herein, these two species are revised and illustrated. Examination of non-type specimens revealed considerable variation in the general body color, and the geographic distribution of each species has been expanded, especially of R. rectinervis. The limits of the genus are revised and better supported with the addition of new diagnostic characters. The male and female terminalia are described and illustrated for the first time. PMID:27394237

  12. Fumigant Toxicity of Phenylpropanoids Identified in Asarum sieboldii Aerial Parts to Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Diptera: Scatopsidae).

    PubMed

    Yi, Jee Hwan; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Sankarapandian, Karuppasamy; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2015-06-01

    Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Meigen) (Diptera: Scatopsidae) are two of the most economically important insect pests of cultivated mushrooms. The toxicities to the fly larvae of the three phenylpropanoids (methyleugenol, myristicin, and safrole) from aerial parts of Asarum sieboldii Miquel (Aristolochiaceae) were compared with those of the currently available carbamate insecticide benfuracarb. In a contact+fumigant mortality bioassay with L. ingenua and C. fuscipes larvae, methyleugenol (1.46 and 2.33 µg/cm2) was the most toxic compound, followed by safrole (2.03 and 2.59 µg/cm2) and myristicin (3.59 and 4.96 µg/cm2), based on 24-h LC50 values. The phenylpropanoids were less toxic than benfuracarb (LC50, 0.75 and 0.55 µg/cm2). In vapor-phase mortality tests with the larvae, the phenylpropanoids were consistently more toxic in closed versus open containers, indicating that the effect of the compounds was largely a result of vapor action. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on A. sieboldii plant-derived products as potential fumigants for the control of mushroom fly populations in mushroom houses and mushroom compost.

  13. Species composition of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) through space and time.

    PubMed

    Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed.

  14. Male-female conflict and genitalia: failure to confirm predictions in insects and spiders.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, William G

    2004-02-01

    Some recent models suggest a new role for evolutionary arms races between males and females in sexual selection. Female resistance to males is proposed to be driven by the direct advantage to the female of avoiding male-imposed reductions in the number of offspring she can produce, rather than by the indirect advantage of selecting among possible sires for her offspring, as in some traditional models of sexual selection by female choice. This article uses the massive but hitherto under-utilized taxonomic literature on genitalic evolution to test, in a two-step process, whether such new models of arms races between males and females have been responsible for rapid divergent evolution of male genitalia. The test revolves around the prediction that 'new arms races' are less likely to occur in species in which females are largely or completely protected from unwanted sexual attentions from males (e.g. species which mate in leks or in male swarms, in which males attract females from a distance, or in which females initiate contact by attracting males from a distance). The multiple possible mechanical functions of male genitalia are summarized, and functions of male genitalic structures in 43 species in 21 families of Diptera are compiled. Functions associated with intromission and insemination (e.g. seizing and positioning the female appropriately, pushing past possible barriers within the female, orienting within the female to achieve sperm transfer), which are unlikely to be involved in new arms races when females are protected, are shown to be common (> 50 % of documented cases). This information is then used to generate the new arms race prediction: differences in genitalic form among congeneric species in which females are protected should be less common than differences among congeneric species in which females are vulnerable to harassment by males. This prediction was tested using a sample of 361 genera of insects and spiders. The prediction clearly failed, even

  15. Female competition in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Pusey, Anne E; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission-fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans.

  16. Biodiversity and bionomics of the black flies (Diptera: simuliidae) of northeastern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Cherairia, Mouna; Adler, Peter H; Samraoui, Boudjéma

    2014-05-16

    Black flies in the Seybouse River Basin in northeastern Algeria were sampled at 31 sites along the main river and its tributaries across all seasons from 2011 to 2013. Eight nominal species and species complexes in three genera were identified among more than 31,000 specimens. Urosimulium faurei (Bernard, Grenier & Bailly-Choumara), Simulium (Eusimulium) mellah Giudicelli & Bouzidi, and Simulium (Nevermania) lundstromi (Enderlein) were recorded for the first time in northeastern Algeria. Three cytoforms of the Simulium (Eusimulium) velutinum complex and two morphoforms of Simulium (Nevermannia) ruficorne Macquart were found. The most abundant and ubiquitous taxon, Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Segúy, representing nearly 80% of collected specimens, occupied the widest range of habitats, including those with anthropogenic influences.

  17. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae.

  18. Methyl 6-methylsalicylate: a female-produced pheromone component of the parasitoid wasp Spalangia endius.

    PubMed

    Nichols, William J; Cossé, Allard A; Bartelt, Robert J; King, Bethia H

    2010-10-01

    Sex-pheromone-related behavior and chemistry were studied in the wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a pupal parasitoid of the house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Males responded behaviorally to female extracts by arrestment, whereas females did not arrest to male extracts. In a comparison of male and female extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), two female-specific compounds were found. One was identified as methyl 6-methylsalicylate (gas chromatographic retention time and mass spectrum versus an authentic standard), but the chemical structure of the second compound is still unknown. Male antennae were sensitive to both compounds in electrophysiological tests (GC-EAD). Males responded behaviorally to methyl 6-methylsalicylate by arrestment, but did not arrest to the second compound. Methyl 6-methylsalicylate has been reported previously from some ant and beetle species, but never from the Pteromalidae. Chemical analysis of the extracts and the male behavioral results are consistent with the hypothesis that methyl 6-methylsalicylate functions as a female-emitted pheromone component at short range, but the exact role of both compounds in intersexual interactions in S. endius remains to be determined. PMID:20820889

  19. Sperm survival in female stalk-eyed flies depends on seminal fluid and meiotic drive.

    PubMed

    Fry, Catherine L; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2004-07-01

    Sperm competition is common in many insect species; however, the mechanisms underlying differences in sperm precedence are not well understood. In the stalk-eyed fly, Cyrtodiopsis whitei (Diptera, Diopsidae), sperm precedence is influenced by the presence of sex chromosome meiotic drive. When drive-carrying males compete with non-driving males for fertilizations within a female, the number of progeny sired by drive males is significantly fewer than predicted by sperm mixing alone. Thus, drive males apparently suffer not only a reduction in the number of viable sperm produced, but also a reduction in sperm competitive ability. In this study, we manipulated the amount and source of seminal fluid and sperm received by females by interrupting copulations before sperm, but after seminal fluid, was transferred. We find that seminal fluid from another male influences the number of progeny sired by a drive-carrying male when both males mate with the same female. Sperm viability staining reveals that sperm from drive males are incapacitated by seminal fluid from other males within the female reproductive tract. These results suggest that multiple mating by females enables seminal fluid products to interact differentially with sperm and may reduce the transmission advantage of the drive chromosome. PMID:15341165

  20. Checklist of the Diptera (Insecta) of Finland: an introduction and a summary of results

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nearly thirty-five years have passed since Hackman published his “Check list of the Finnish Diptera” (1980). The number of true flies (Diptera) known from Finland has increased by more than two thousand species since then. At the same time, hundreds of erroneous records have been recognized and purged from the checklist. ZooKeys issue 441 provides a new checklist of the Diptera species of the Republic of Finland. This introductory paper presents the rationale behind the project, provides technical documentation on the checklist format and sources used, and summarizes the results. The remaining papers in this issue cover one or more Diptera families in detail. Two electronic appendices are provided: supporting data (additional references to first published records and the previous checklist) and a complete list of Finnish Diptera taxa in Darwin Core compliant format for easy computer access and processing. The new checklist records 6920 fly species from Finland, 2932 belonging to the nematoceran or lower flies and 3989 to the suborder Brachycera. The changes since 1980 are most prominent in the Lower Diptera. For example, more than 400 non-biting midges (Chironomidae) have been added since 1980, and the number of moth flies (Psychodidae) known from Finland has more than tripled. Among the larger families, large increases in known Finnish species are also seen in Cecidomyiidae (161% increase), Pipunculidae (98%), and Chironomidae (90%). PMID:25337004

  1. Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.

    PubMed

    Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-04-01

    Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity.

  2. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior

    PubMed Central

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In this study, we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae's ability to inhibit female remating. While 14-d-old females were fed on protein diet, 6-d-old males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (i) topical application of methoprene and fed on a protein diet; (ii) no methoprene but fed on a protein diet; (iii) methoprene and sugar-fed only; and (iv) sugar-fed, 14-d-old males acted as controls. Treatments had no effect on a male's ability to depress the female remating receptivity in comparison to the control. Females mated with protein-deprived males showed higher remating receptivity than females first mated with protein-fed males. Methoprene and protein diet interaction had a positive effect on male mating success during the first and second mating of females. Significantly more females first mated with sugar-fed males remated with protein-fed males and females first mated with methoprene treated and protein-fed males were more likely to remate with similarly treated males. Females mating latency (time to start mating) was significantly shorter with protein-fed males, and mating duration was significantly longer with protein-fed males compared with protein-deprived males. These results are discussed in the context of methoprene and/or dietary protein as prerelease treatment of sterile males in area-wide control of melon fly integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT). PMID:24376160

  3. [Female sexual disorders nowadays].

    PubMed

    Rajtman, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions. PMID:24260752

  4. [Female sexual disorders nowadays].

    PubMed

    Rajtman, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions.

  5. The Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  6. The female athlete.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, D L; Wiggins, M E

    1997-10-01

    Women's participation in sporting activities is now diverse with new opportunities arising yearly. As a result, care of the the female athlete's unique medical concerns has become an important challenge and issue to the primary care physician. The major focus when caring for the female athlete should be the diagnosis and treatment of the female athlete triad. The components of the triad--disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis--can have serious implications for the health of the female athlete. Appropriate prevention and screening methods for early diagnosis of the female athlete triad require future study and improvement. Healthy pregnant, postpartum, and breastfeeding women can continue to maintain physical activity. Musculoskeletal injuries from sports are, in general, not gender specific but are more often sport specific. One exception is the increased prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries occurring in women soccer and basketball players. The exact cause of this is unknown but is continuing to be investigated.

  7. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. PMID:26759415

  8. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences.

  9. Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.

    PubMed

    Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations. PMID:19617877

  10. Evaluation of four sampling techniques for surveillance of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquitoes in African rice agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Mwangangi, Joseph; Shililu, Josephat; Muriu, Simon; Jacob, Benjamin; Mbogo, Charles M; John, Githure; Novak, Robert

    2007-05-01

    Field studies were conducted in a rice, Oryza sativa L., agroecosystem in Mwea Kenya to compare the efficiency of CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps against nonbaited CDC light traps and gravid traps against oviposition traps in outdoor collection of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquitoes. Collectively, 21 mosquito species from the genera Culex, Anopheles, Mansonia, Ficalbia, and Aedes were captured during the 10-wk study period. Cx. quinquefasciatus was the predominant species in all trap types with proportions ranging from 57% in the nonbaited CDC light traps to 95% in the gravid traps. Significantly higher numbers of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Culex annulioris Theobald were collected in the CO2-baited CDC light traps than in the nonbaited CDC light traps, but the numbers of other mosquito species, including malaria vectors Anopheles arabiensis Patton and Anopheles funestus Giles did not differ significantly between the two trap types. More Cx. quinquefasciatus females were collected in grass infusion-baited gravid traps than egg rafts of this species in oviposition traps containing the same infusion. Although most mosquitoes captured in CO,-baited and nonbaited CDC light traps were unfed, most of those collected in gravid traps were gravid. From these findings, it is concluded that at least in the rice-growing area of Mwea Kenya, CO2-baited CDC light traps in conjunction with gravid traps can be used in monitoring of Cx. quinquefasciatus both for control and disease surveillance.

  11. Comparison of Hydrolyzed Protein Baits and Various Grape Juice Products as Attractants for Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Herrera, F; Miranda, E; Gómez, E; Presa-Parra, E; Lasa, R

    2016-02-01

    Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew; Diptera: Tephritidae), have traditionally been trapped in citrus orchards in Mexico using protein hydrolysates as bait. Recently, CeraTrap(®), an enzymatic hydrolyzed protein, has emerged as an effective lure for monitoring A. ludens at the orchard level and is currently being used by growers in the region of Veracruz. Several studies have revealed that grape juice is highly attractive to A. ludens, and recent work supports its potential use for regulation purposes. In our study, the attraction of A. ludens to different grape products was evaluated in citrus orchards and in comparison to other Anastrepha species in an area composed of mango and chicozapote orchards. Attraction to grape lures was compared with CeraTrap and the standard protein Captor +borax trap. In general, CeraTrap was more attractive than different commercial grape products in several experiments. Only Jumex, a commercial grape juice, did not differ significantly from CeraTrap in the capture of A. ludens males and females in a citrus crop. However, several drawbacks were detected when using Jumex grape juice: 1) higher tendency to capture males, 2) less selectivity against non-targeted insects, 3) higher capture of beneficial lacewings, and iv) the need to re-bait weekly owing to lower stability. In the area containing mango and chicozapote, CeraTrap was more attractive than Captor + borax for Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina, followed by grape juice products, which were the least attractive for these fruit fly species. PMID:26396199

  12. Using sex pheromone trapping to explore threats to wheat from Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in the Upper Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K M; Hillbur, Y; Reber, J; Hanson, B; Ashley, R O; Harris, M O

    2012-12-01

    Before embarking on the 5-10 yr effort it can take to transfer plant resistance (R) genes to adapted crop cultivars, a question must be asked: is the pest a sufficient threat to warrant this effort? We used the recently discovered female-produced sex pheromone of the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae),to explore this question for populations in the Upper Great Plains. Methods for pheromone trapping were established and trapping data were used to explore geographic distribution, phenology, and density. The pheromone lure remained attractive for up to 10 d and only attracted male Hessian flies. Traps placed within the crop canopy caught flies but traps placed above the crop canopy did not. Hessian flies were trapped throughout North Dakota starting in the spring and continuing through the summer and autumn. Densities were low in the spring but increased greatly during the early part of the summer, with peak adult emergence taking place at a time (July/August) when spring wheat was being harvested and winter wheat had not yet been planted. In the autumn, adults were found at a time when winter wheat seedlings are growing. The discovery of flies on Conservation Reserve Program land supports the idea that pasture grasses serve as alternate hosts. We conclude that the Hessian fly is a risk to wheat in the Upper Great Plains and predict that global warming and the increasing cultivation of winter wheat will add to this risk.

  13. Wing morphometrics as a possible tool for the diagnosis of the Ceratitis fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Van Cann, Joannes; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Jordaens, Kurt; De Meyer, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous attempts to resolve the Ceratitis FAR complex (Ceratitis fasciventris, Ceratitis anonae, Ceratitis rosa, Diptera, Tephritidae) showed contrasting results and revealed the occurrence of five microsatellite genotypic clusters (A, F1, F2, R1, R2). In this paper we explore the potential of wing morphometrics for the diagnosis of FAR morphospecies and genotypic clusters. We considered a set of 227 specimens previously morphologically identified and genotyped at 16 microsatellite loci. Seventeen wing landmarks and 6 wing band areas were used for morphometric analyses. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance detected significant differences both across morphospecies and genotypic clusters (for both males and females). Unconstrained and constrained ordinations did not properly resolve groups corresponding to morphospecies or genotypic clusters. However, posterior group membership probabilities (PGMPs) of the Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC) allowed the consistent identification of a relevant proportion of specimens (but with performances differing across morphospecies and genotypic clusters). This study suggests that wing morphometrics and PGMPs might represent a possible tool for the diagnosis of species within the FAR complex. Here, we propose a tentative diagnostic method and provide a first reference library of morphometric measures that might be used for the identification of additional and unidentified FAR specimens. PMID:26798274

  14. Chemosterilant bait stations coupled with sterile insect technique: an integrated strategy to control the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Navarro-Llopis, V; Vacas, S; Sanchis, J; Primo, J; Alfaro, C

    2011-10-01

    During 2008 and 2009, the efficacy of the combination of two Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), control techniques, sterile insect technique (SIT) and a chemosterilant bait station system (Adress), was tested in three crops: citrus (Citrus spp.), stone fruit (Prunus spp.), and persimmon (Diospyros spp.). Two thousand sterile males were released per ha each week in the whole trial area (50,000 ha, SIT area). For 3,600 ha, within the whole trial area, 24 Adress traps per ha were hung (SIT + Adress area). Ten SIT + Adress plots and 10 SIT plots in each of three different fruit crops were arranged to assess Mediterranean fruit fly population densities and fruit damage throughout the trial period. To evaluate the efficacy of each treatment, the male and female populations were each monitored from August 2008 to November 2009, and injured fruit was assessed before harvest. Results showed a significant reduction in the C. capitata population in plots treated with both techniques versus plots treated only with the SIT. Likewise, a corresponding reduction in the percentage of injured fruit was observed. These data indicate the compatibility of these techniques and suggest the possibility of using Adress coupled with SIT to reduce C. capitata populations in locations with high population densities, where SIT alone is not sufficiently effective to suppress fruit fly populations to below damaging levels. PMID:22066195

  15. Wing morphometrics as a possible tool for the diagnosis of the Ceratitis fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa complex (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Van Cann, Joannes; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Jordaens, Kurt; De Meyer, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Previous attempts to resolve the Ceratitis FAR complex (Ceratitis fasciventris, Ceratitis anonae, Ceratitis rosa, Diptera, Tephritidae) showed contrasting results and revealed the occurrence of five microsatellite genotypic clusters (A, F1, F2, R1, R2). In this paper we explore the potential of wing morphometrics for the diagnosis of FAR morphospecies and genotypic clusters. We considered a set of 227 specimens previously morphologically identified and genotyped at 16 microsatellite loci. Seventeen wing landmarks and 6 wing band areas were used for morphometric analyses. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance detected significant differences both across morphospecies and genotypic clusters (for both males and females). Unconstrained and constrained ordinations did not properly resolve groups corresponding to morphospecies or genotypic clusters. However, posterior group membership probabilities (PGMPs) of the Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC) allowed the consistent identification of a relevant proportion of specimens (but with performances differing across morphospecies and genotypic clusters). This study suggests that wing morphometrics and PGMPs might represent a possible tool for the diagnosis of species within the FAR complex. Here, we propose a tentative diagnostic method and provide a first reference library of morphometric measures that might be used for the identification of additional and unidentified FAR specimens.

  16. Comparison of Hydrolyzed Protein Baits and Various Grape Juice Products as Attractants for Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Herrera, F; Miranda, E; Gómez, E; Presa-Parra, E; Lasa, R

    2016-02-01

    Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew; Diptera: Tephritidae), have traditionally been trapped in citrus orchards in Mexico using protein hydrolysates as bait. Recently, CeraTrap(®), an enzymatic hydrolyzed protein, has emerged as an effective lure for monitoring A. ludens at the orchard level and is currently being used by growers in the region of Veracruz. Several studies have revealed that grape juice is highly attractive to A. ludens, and recent work supports its potential use for regulation purposes. In our study, the attraction of A. ludens to different grape products was evaluated in citrus orchards and in comparison to other Anastrepha species in an area composed of mango and chicozapote orchards. Attraction to grape lures was compared with CeraTrap and the standard protein Captor +borax trap. In general, CeraTrap was more attractive than different commercial grape products in several experiments. Only Jumex, a commercial grape juice, did not differ significantly from CeraTrap in the capture of A. ludens males and females in a citrus crop. However, several drawbacks were detected when using Jumex grape juice: 1) higher tendency to capture males, 2) less selectivity against non-targeted insects, 3) higher capture of beneficial lacewings, and iv) the need to re-bait weekly owing to lower stability. In the area containing mango and chicozapote, CeraTrap was more attractive than Captor + borax for Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina, followed by grape juice products, which were the least attractive for these fruit fly species.

  17. Evolution of cis-regulatory sequence and function in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Wittkopp, P J

    2006-09-01

    Cis-regulatory sequences direct patterns of gene expression essential for development and physiology. Evolutionary changes in these sequences contribute to phenotypic divergence. Despite their importance, cis-regulatory regions remain one of the most enigmatic features of the genome. Patterns of sequence evolution can be used to identify cis-regulatory elements, but the power of this approach depends upon the relationship between sequence and function. Comparative studies of gene regulation among Diptera reveal that divergent sequences can underlie conserved expression, and that expression differences can evolve despite largely similar sequences. This complex structure-function relationship is the primary impediment for computational identification and interpretation of cis-regulatory sequences. Biochemical characterization and in vivo assays of cis-regulatory sequences on a genomic-scale will relieve this barrier.

  18. Intraguild predation influences oviposition behavior of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Galindo, Luciane A; Moral, Rafael A; Moretti, Thiago C; Godoy, Wesley A C; Demétrio, Clarice G B

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are able to identify larvae of an intraguild predator species in the substrate and avoid laying eggs there. Blow flies oviposited in traps with different treatments: substrate only and substrate with larvae of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), or Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830). Ch. megacephala, Ch. putoria, and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819) avoided laying eggs in the trap containing Ch. albiceps larvae. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) did not oviposit differently in each substrate but had overall low abundance. The prevalence of species on corpses may be influenced by the ability of the species to detect the presence of other species, mainly predators. In this sense, intraguild predation may result in misinterpretations of a crime scene and should be considered when assessing the minimum postmortem interval. PMID:26888288

  19. Volatile Components Emitted from the Liverwort Marchantia paleacea subsp. diptera.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kazutoshi; Tomiyama, Kenichi; Kawakami, Yukihiko; Ochiai, Nozomi; Yabe, Shigeki; Nakagawa, Tomomi; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2016-02-01

    The volatile components from the thalloid liverwort, Marchantia paleacea subsp. diptera were investigated by HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. The monocyclic monoterpene aldehyde, perillaldehyde was identified for the first time as the major component and its content was about 50% of the volatiles, along with β-pinene, limonene, β-caryophyllene, α-selinene and β-selinene as minor volatiles. Using MD (Multi-dimensional) GC-MS analysis equipped with a chiral column as the second column, the chirality was determined of both perillaldehyde and limonene, which was considered as the precursor of perillaldehyde. Both compounds were (S)-(-)-enantiomers (over 99.0 %) and (R)-enantiomers (less than 0.5 %). This is the first report of the existence of perillaldehyde in liverworts. PMID:27032216

  20. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  1. Influence of resources on Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larval development.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2013-07-01

    Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains. PMID:23926790

  2. Influence of resources on Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larval development.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2013-07-01

    Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains.

  3. Intraguild predation influences oviposition behavior of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Galindo, Luciane A; Moral, Rafael A; Moretti, Thiago C; Godoy, Wesley A C; Demétrio, Clarice G B

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are able to identify larvae of an intraguild predator species in the substrate and avoid laying eggs there. Blow flies oviposited in traps with different treatments: substrate only and substrate with larvae of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), or Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830). Ch. megacephala, Ch. putoria, and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819) avoided laying eggs in the trap containing Ch. albiceps larvae. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) did not oviposit differently in each substrate but had overall low abundance. The prevalence of species on corpses may be influenced by the ability of the species to detect the presence of other species, mainly predators. In this sense, intraguild predation may result in misinterpretations of a crime scene and should be considered when assessing the minimum postmortem interval.

  4. Volatile Components Emitted from the Liverwort Marchantia paleacea subsp. diptera.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kazutoshi; Tomiyama, Kenichi; Kawakami, Yukihiko; Ochiai, Nozomi; Yabe, Shigeki; Nakagawa, Tomomi; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2016-02-01

    The volatile components from the thalloid liverwort, Marchantia paleacea subsp. diptera were investigated by HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. The monocyclic monoterpene aldehyde, perillaldehyde was identified for the first time as the major component and its content was about 50% of the volatiles, along with β-pinene, limonene, β-caryophyllene, α-selinene and β-selinene as minor volatiles. Using MD (Multi-dimensional) GC-MS analysis equipped with a chiral column as the second column, the chirality was determined of both perillaldehyde and limonene, which was considered as the precursor of perillaldehyde. Both compounds were (S)-(-)-enantiomers (over 99.0 %) and (R)-enantiomers (less than 0.5 %). This is the first report of the existence of perillaldehyde in liverworts.

  5. Effectiveness of wound cleansing treatments on maggot (Diptera, Calliphoridae) mortality.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Mollie D; Merritt, Richard W; Kolar, Rebecca E; Kimbirauskas, Ryan K

    2011-07-15

    Myiasis is defined as an infestation of the organs and/or tissues of human and other animals by fly maggots. Fly species that normally breed in meat or carrion (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae) may become involved in cutaneous myiasis by colonizing preexisting wounds. Reports of human wound myiasis contracted in hospitals and nursing homes, especially when patients are chronically ill or bed-ridden, are not uncommon across North America and often result in cases of neglect and civil litigation. Based on a case history dealing with this latter situation and circumstances surrounding the treatment of maggot infestation, we designed an experiment to assess the effectiveness of wound cleansing solutions on maggot mortality. Treatments, consisting of four commonly used cleaning solutions (isopropyl alcohol, Dakin's solution, iodine, and hydrogen peroxide) and a control (deionized water), were applied to experimental units (n=5), with each unit consisting of groups of actively feeding Lucilia sericata maggots (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Every 24h, treatments were applied and mortality was assessed for the duration of the study (14 days). Total mean mortality increased over the duration of the experiment, with an initial large increase (10-25%) after the first treatment application, followed by a gradual increase over the remainder of the study. General differences among treatments indicated greatest mean total mortality for Dakin's solution (sodium hypochlorite) (46%), followed by isopropyl alcohol (42%), Betadine (37%), hydrogen peroxide (33%) and lowest mortality for the control (25%); however, no statistically significant differences were observed among treatments and no treatment resulted in 100% maggot mortality. Traditional wound cleansing solutions may not be sufficient for maggot infestations of pre-existing wounds and supplemental treatments may be necessary to effectively treat cases of wound myiasis.

  6. Congruence and controversy: toward a higher-level phylogeny of Diptera.

    PubMed

    Yeates, D K; Wiegmann, B M

    1999-01-01

    The order Diptera (true flies) is one of the most species-rich and ecologically diverse clades of insects. The order probably arose in the Permian, and the main lineages of flies were present in the Triassic. A novel recent proposal suggests that Strepsiptera are the sister-order to Diptera. Within Diptera, evidence is convincing for the monophyly of Culicomorpha, Blephariceromorpha, and Tipulomorpha but weak for the monophyly of the other basal infraorders and for the relationships among them. The lower Diptera (Nematocera) is paraphyletic with respect to Brachycera, and morphological evidence suggests the sister-group of Brachycera lies in the Psychodomorpha. Recent analyses suggest Tipulomorpha are closer to the base of Brachycera than to the base of Diptera. Brachycera are undoubtedly monophyletic, but relationships between the basal lineages of this group are poorly understood. The monophyly of Stratiomyomorpha, Xylophagomorpha, Tabanomorpha, and Muscomorpha is well supported. Eremoneura, and its constituent clades Empidoidea and Cyclorrhapha, are monophyletic. The sister-group of Eremoneura is likely to be part or all of Asiloidea. Several viewpoints on the homology of the male genitalia of eremoneuran flies are discussed. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that lower Cyclorrhapha (Aschiza) are paraphyletic; however, schizophoran monophyly is well supported. The monophyly of Acalyptratae is not well-founded and the relationships between acalyptrate superfamilies remain obscure. Recent advances document the monophyly of the families of Calyptratae and the relationships among them. Areas critical to future advances in understanding dipteran phylogeny include the relationships among the basal infraorders of Diptera and Brachycera and the relationships between the superfamilies of acalyptrates. Progress in dipteran phylogenetics will accelerate with the exploration of novel data sources and the formulation of hypotheses in an explicitly quantitative framework. PMID

  7. Ideal female brow aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Garrett R; Kim, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    The concept of the ideal female eyebrow has changed over time. Modern studies examining youthful brow aesthetics are reviewed. An analysis of ideal female brow characteristics as depicted in the Western print media between 1945 and 2011 was performed. This analysis provided objective evidence that the ideal youthful brow peak has migrated laterally over time to lie at the lateral canthus. There has been a nonstatistically significant trend toward lower and flatter brows. These findings are discussed in relation to current concepts of female brow aging, with repercussions regarding endoscopic brow lift and aesthetic forehead surgery.

  8. Gonotrophic development in Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Cepeda-Palacios, R; Scholl, P J

    1999-07-01

    Microanatomical characteristics and the size of the ovaries of Oestrus ovis L. during development were related to the intrapuparial-phenological stadia. Mature 3rd instars were collected from the head cavities of slaughtered goats, and pupae were reared under laboratory conditions. The length of freshly dissected ovaries and follicles were measured daily after pupal-adult apolysis to emergence. Ovarian tissue was stained using the PAS-Picroindigocarmine techniques. Oocyte development was classified according to a six-stage scale previously used in oestrid species. Shortly after pupal-adult apolysis, the single primary follicle is still unseparated from the germarium. In early white-eyed pharate adults, the primary follicle of stage 1 separates from the germarium, the nurse cells and oocyte are surrounded by a layer of cuboidal follicular cells, and the remaining oogonia degenerate. Oocytes in stage 2 initiate yolk deposition becoming ovoid, and this occurs when pharate adults have white-yellow to orange eyes. Oocytes in stage 3 are mainly vitellogenic, during the orange to red-eye stage. In stage 4, oocytes complete vitellogenesis and nurse cells degenerate when pupae achieve 90-96% of development. Mature oocytes of stage 5 can be found at emergence. Ovaries and ovarioles increase in size because of yolk deposition. O. ovis begins oogenesis as pharate adults, whereas vitellogenesis occurs during 55-96% of pupal development. Females emerge with one life-long complement of eggs ready to be fertilized, similar to other species of the Family Oestridae.

  9. Inbreeding promotes female promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Michalczyk, Łukasz; Millard, Anna L; Martin, Oliver Y; Lumley, Alyson J; Emerson, Brent C; Chapman, Tracey; Gage, Matthew J G

    2011-09-23

    The widespread phenomenon of polyandry (mating by females with multiple males) is an evolutionary puzzle, because females can sustain costs from promiscuity, whereas full fertility can be provided by a single male. Using the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we identify major fitness benefits of polyandry to females under inbreeding, when the risks of fertilization by incompatible male haplotypes are especially high. Fifteen generations after inbred populations had passed through genetic bottlenecks, we recorded increased levels of female promiscuity compared with noninbred controls, most likely due to selection from prospective fitness gains through polyandry. These data illustrate how this common mating pattern can evolve if population genetic bottlenecks increase the risks of fitness depression due to fertilization by sperm carrying genetically incompatible haplotypes.

  10. Female pattern baldness

    MedlinePlus

    Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women; Hereditary balding or thinning in women ... male hormones). For example, after reaching menopause , many women find that the hair on their head is ...

  11. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be fertilized by sperm, provide a favorable environment for the developing fetus , move the fetus to the outside at the end of the development period, and produce the female sex hormones. The ...

  12. [Comments on female homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Honsberg, L

    1989-03-01

    The author explores to what extent the first gender-identical love between mother and daughter shapes female self representation and becomes influential for later homosexual relations among women. Literary examples and case vignettes illustrate the connection. PMID:2652196

  13. Female Pattern Alopecia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cyproterone acetate (not available in the US). Finasteride, also an oral medication, is approved for male ... show no effect for female pattern hair loss. Finasteride, spironolactone, and cyproterone should not be used in ...

  14. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  15. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624

  16. Engineered female-specific lethality for control of pest Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li; Walker, Adam S; Fu, Guoliang; Harvey-Samuel, Timothy; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Miles, Andrea; Marubbi, Thea; Granville, Deborah; Humphrey-Jones, Nerys; O'Connell, Sinead; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2013-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy involving the mass release of radiation-sterilized insects, which reduce the target population through nonviable matings. In Lepidoptera, SIT could be more broadly applicable if the deleterious effects of sterilization by irradiation could be avoided. Moreover, male-only release can improve the efficacy of SIT. Adequate methods of male-only production in Lepidoptera are currently lacking, in contrast to some Diptera. We describe a synthetic genetic system that allows male-only moth production for SIT and also replaces radiation sterilization with inherited female-specific lethality. We sequenced and characterized the doublesex (dsx) gene from the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Sex-alternate splicing from dsx was used to develop a conditional lethal genetic sexing system in two pest moths: the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and pink bollworm. This system shows promise for enhancing existing pink bollworm SIT, as well as broadening SIT-type control to diamondback moth and other Lepidoptera.

  17. Differences in Antennal Sensillae of Male and Female Peach Fruit Flies in Relation to Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Azza A.; Mohamed, Hend O.; Ali, Nashat A.

    2015-01-01

    Antennal sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), obtained from three different host fruit species (guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae); peach, Prunus persica (L.) Stokes (Rosales: Rosaceae); and orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Sapindales: Rutaceae)), were studied with scanning electron microscopy. This study was carried out to describe the different types of sensillae present on the three antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus) of both sexes of B. zonata on different host fruit. The antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of males feeding on peach and guava fruit. On orange, both sexes were similar (no significant differences were found). The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, are reinforced by some bristles and have different types of sensillae, including trichoid I, II, S; basiconic II; and sensilla chaetica in different numbers on different host fruit species. Numerous microtrichia, as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic (I), clavate, and coeloconic (I, II) sensillae were observed on the funiculus with a great variation in number and length. As a result of feeding on different hosts, differences were found between sexes and some plasticity in size, number, distribution, and position of some sensillae, including trichoid, basiconic, chaetica, and clavate on the antennae of the female B. zonata. These sensillae were significantly larger in females. Also, some morphological and morphemetric differences have been found according to their feeding on different host fruit. PMID:25688086

  18. Structure and function of the spermathecal complex in the phlebotomine sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae): I. ultrastructure and histology.

    PubMed

    Ilango, K

    2005-12-01

    Females of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) possess highly variable spermathecae that present several important taxonomic characters. The cause of this diversity remains a neglected field of sandfly biology, but may possibly be due to female post-mating sexual selection. To understand this diversity, a detailed study of the structure and function of the spermathecal complex in at least one of the species was a prerequisite. Using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, described here is ultrastructure of the spermathecal complex in the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli. The spermathecal complexes are paired; each consists of a long spermathecal duct, a cylindrical spermathecal body, and a spherical spermathecal gland. Muscle fibres, nerves, tracheoles, and vascular sinuses connect the spermathecal body and duct through the epithelial layers. Spermathecal gland is formed by a typical insect epidermis and consisting of an epithelial layer of class-1 epidermal cells and elaborate glandular cells of class-3 epidermal cells, each having both receiving and conducting ductules (i.e. "end apparatus") and a "cytological apodeme", which is a newly described cell structure. The spermathecal body and duct are lined by class-1 epidermal cells and a cuticle, and are enveloped by a super-contracting visceral muscular system. The cuticle consists of rubber-like resilin, and its fibrillar arrangement and chemical nature are described. A well-developed neuromuscular junction exists between the spermathecal gland and the spermathecal body, which are connected to each other by a nerve and a muscle. The spermathecal complexes of the sandfly are compared with those of other insect species. The physiological role and possible evolutionary significance of the different parts of spermathecal complex in the sandfly are inferred from the morphology and behaviour. Post-mating sexual selection may be responsible for the structural uniqueness of the spermathecal complex

  19. Strongygaster triangulifera (Diptera: Tachinidae) as a parasitoid of adults of the invasive Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) in Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strongygaster triangulifera (Loew) (Diptera:Tachinidae) is reported for the first time as a parasitoid of Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Plataspidae), the kudzu bug, an introduced pest of soybeans and other legume crops in the southeastern U.S....

  20. An emerging example of tritrophic coevolution between flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) on Myrtaceae host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...

  1. Promoting the female condom.

    PubMed

    Cornman, H

    1997-01-01

    AIDS is spreading most rapidly among women, who often cannot negotiate the use of a male condom with reluctant partners. Recent findings from 6 countries, however, indicate that women can draw upon peer support to help them negotiate female condom use with reluctant partners. These findings come from Family Health International's (FHI) AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's introduction of the female condom to women through peer support groups in Kenya and Brazil, and the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS' (UNAIDS) coordinated studies in Costa Rica, Indonesia, Mexico, and Senegal on sexual negotiation, women's empowerment, and the female condom, also using group education sessions. The US Agency for International Development recently committed $100,000 toward the purchase of 150,000 female condoms for operations research and familiarization in countries where officials have not been exposed to the method. More than 130 participants from 19 countries attended FHI's May 1-2, 1997, conference on the female condom convened in Arlington, Virginia. PMID:12292734

  2. Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

  3. Female athlete triad update.

    PubMed

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  4. The female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Horn, Elizabeth; Gergen, Nicole; McGarry, Kelly A

    2014-11-01

    The female athlete triad is a spectrum of interrelated pathophysiologic consequences of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. Components of the triad are not only counterproductive to athletic performance goals, but can lead to serious long-term negative health outcomes. Practitioners caring for female athletes play an important role detecting at-risk athletes early in their course along the disease spectrum. Importantly, women who are evaluated for one component of the triad should always be screened for the other two. Detecting the disorder early is the most important factor for preventing the potentially severe consequences, and requires heightened vigilance on the part of all those who work with this special patient population. In this article, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of the female athlete triad. PMID:25365814

  5. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Dimitrios; Lazaridou, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss, or female pattern androgenetic alopecia, is a nonscarring alopecia with a multi-factorial etiology that mostly affects postmenopausal women and is characterized by a reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp. The clinical picture is characterized by a diffuse rarefaction of scalp hair over the mid-frontal scalp and a more-or-less intact frontal hairline without any signs of inflammation or scarring. Although the disease poses only a cosmetic concern, it is chronic and may have a significant negative psychological impact on the affected person. The aim of treating female pattern hair loss is to reduce hair loss and, to a certain extent, succeed in promoting hair regrowth. Various treatment methods are available, but it remains unclear which are the most effective. Early initiation of treatment and the combination of various modalities seem to be more efficacious than monotherapy. PMID:26370643

  6. Tripius gyraloura n. sp. (Aphelenchoidea: Sphaerulariidae) parasitic in the gall midge Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new nematode, Tripius gyraloura sp. n., is described from the arundo gall midge, Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). This gall midge is being considered as a biological control agent for use in North America against the introduced giant reed, Arundo donax (L.) (Poaceae: Cyperales)....

  7. Laboratory effects of two organically-certified insecticides on Trichopoda pennipes (Diptera:Tachinidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this laboratory study was to determine the effects of two organically-certified insecticides, azadirachtin and spinosad, on the stink bug parasitoid Trichopoda pennipes (Fab.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) in residual, topical, and oral toxicity tests. The insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin was...

  8. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Euphorbia tehuacana (Euphorbiaceae) in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed....

  9. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Euphorbia tehuacana (Euphorbiaceae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Norrbom, Allen L; Castillo-Meza, Ana Lucía; García-Chávez, Juan Héctor; Aluja, Martín; Rull, Juan

    2014-03-24

    Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed.

  10. Annotated world bibliography of host fruits of Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infests many solanaceous plant species, some of which are important horticultural crop species. It has also been found to infest a number of cucurbitaceous plant species as well as a few plant species in other plant families. B. latifrons is of ...

  11. Pollinating flies (Diptera): A major contribution to plant diversity and agricultural production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diptera are one of the three largest and most diverse animal groups of the world. As an often neglected, but important group of pollinators, they play a significant role in agrobiodiversity and biodiversity of plants everywhere. Flies are present in almost all habitats and biomes and for many food p...

  12. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.

  13. Trapping African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae) with combinations of vinegar and wine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States. Tests were conducted in southern Florida that recorded the response of Z. indianus to baits that included Merlot wine, rice vinegar, et...

  14. A four-component synthetic attractant for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) isolated from fermented bait headspace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: A mixture of wine and vinegar is highly attractive to spotted wing drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and ethanol and acetic acid are considered key to SWD attraction to such materials. In addition to ethanol and acetic acid, thirteen other wine an...

  15. Wine and vinegar-based attractants for the African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The African fig fly (AFF), Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States after first being detected in Florida in 2005. This drosophilid is a primary pest of figs in Brazil, so there were initial concern...

  16. Effects of new dietary ingredients used in artificial diet for screwworm larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood, dry poultry egg, and a dry milk substitute are the constituents of the standard artificial diet currently used for mass rearing screwworm larvae, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Due to high cost and uncertainty of the commercial supply of ...

  17. A metagenomic assessment of the bacteria associated with Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a blow fly genus of forensic, medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. Both species of this genus causes myiasis and are vectors of disease causing bacteria. This genus is also famous because of its beneficial uses in maggot therapy. ...

  18. Detection/monitoring of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae): assessing the potential of prospective new lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera latifrons is a tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) which has a host list of 59 plant species from 14 plant families, with over 70% of the host plant species coming from the plant families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Bactrocera latifrons is of primarily Asian distribution, but it...

  19. Effects of Melezitose and Stachyose on Adult Longevity and Virus Persistence in Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wide variety of blood feeding Diptera feed on extrafloral sugar sources such as homopteran honeydew. he significance of these sugar sources to insect survival and disease transmission are poorly known. Culicoides sonorensis can survive on plant sugars but might feed on homopteran honeydew. The su...

  20. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult Horn Flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.); Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing ca...

  1. Effectiveness of genes for Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) resistance in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is the most important insect pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum) in the southeastern United States, and the deployment of genetically resistant wheat is the most effective control. However, the use of resistant w...

  2. A remarkable new species of Eutrichopoda Townsend, 1908 (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae).

    PubMed

    Dios, Rodrigo De Vilhena Perez; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo

    2016-01-01

    A new Tachinidae species, Eutrichopoda flavipenna sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae), from Brazil and Paraguay is described and illustrated by photographs and line drawings. The remarkable yellow, feather-like setae on the hind tibia distinguishes the new species from all other species in the tribe Trichopodini. PMID:27395220

  3. Dewatered sewage biosolids provide a productive larval habitat for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species diversity and seasonal abundance of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in biosolid cake (dewatered biosolids) stored at a wastewater treatment facility in northeastern Kansas was evaluated. Emergence traps were deployed 19 May-20 Oct 2009 (22 wk) and 27 May-18 Nov 2010 (25 wk). A t...

  4. The oldest accurate record of Scenopinidae in the Lowermost Eocene amber of France (Diptera: Brachycera).

    PubMed

    Garrouste, Romain; Azar, Dany; Nel, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Eocenotrichia magnifica gen. et sp. nov. (Diptera: Scenopinidae: Metatrichini) is described and illustrated from the Lowermost Eocene amber of Oise (France) and represents the oldest definitive window fly fossil. The present discovery in the Earliest Eocene supports the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene age currently proposed for the emergence of Metatrichini. PMID:27394507

  5. Effect of surround WP on behavior and mortality of the apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a key pest in apple production areas located in the northeastern and midwestern United States and the eastern provinces of Canada. The development of Surround WP has offered a new approach for controlling apple maggot fly...

  6. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity. PMID:24472199

  7. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD) and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinica...

  8. New genera, species and host plant records of Nearctic and Neotropical Tephritidae (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new genera and 5 new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) are described from the Nearctic and Neotropical Regions. The new genera are: Agallamyia Norrbom (type species: A. pendula Norrbom, n. sp.), Neosphaeniscus Norrbom (type species: Euribia m-nigrum Hendel), and Phacelochaeta Norrbom (type spec...

  9. Molecular species identification of cryptic apple and snowberry maggots (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Western and Central Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Washington state, identification of the quarantine apple pest Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is complicated by the presence of the cryptic species R. zephyria Snow (Diptera: Tephritidae). Distinguishing the two flies is important because there is a zero tolerance policy for R. pomonella in apple p...

  10. New combinations and changes in the classification of Ceratopogonidae (Diptera, biting midges).

    PubMed

    Borkent, Art

    2015-01-01

    This short article contains some necessary taxonomic changes prior to the publication of a chapter on the Ceratopogonidae by the author for the upcoming Manual of Afrotropical Diptera and spearheaded by Ashley Kirk-Spriggs. Some additional placements of three genera to a recently redefined tribe are also included. PMID:26249516

  11. [Specificity of female unemployment].

    PubMed

    Saint-pierre, M H

    1985-10-01

    The author develops the argument that "female unemployment should not be tackled in the same way as male unemployment because women's situation within the family and in the labor market is different. The author proposes a new vision of female unemployment, taking into account the dialectical situation experienced by women because of their double role, in the sphere of reproduction as well as in the sphere of economic production." The primary geographic focus is on the situation in Quebec. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  12. Female hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments.

  13. Resolution of inter and intra-species relationships of the West Indian fruit fly Anastrepha obliqua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest that inhabits areas of South and Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean with occasional infestations in the southern United States. We examine intra-specific variation within Anastre...

  14. Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.

    PubMed

    Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-04-01

    Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity. PMID:24394862

  15. Female Reproductive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, N. J.

    This autoinstructional lesson can be used with health education and/or biology classes in a high school curriculum. It deals with the study of human development with emphasis on the female reproductive organs and cycles. The behavioral objectives are given, and the materials and equipment needed to gain these objectives are itemized. Fifteen…

  16. Female genital actinomycosis.

    PubMed

    Beedham, T; Ellice, R; Smith, H; Usherwood, M M

    1979-10-01

    Four cases of female genital actinomycosis are added to the reported total of about 300. The relationship of the disease to the normal microbial flora, intrauterine contraceptive device usage and pelvic sepsis is explored. It is suggested that the disease may be more frequent than hitherto realized.

  17. Functional female pelvic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Klutke, C G; Siegel, C L

    1995-08-01

    This article reviews important aspects of female pelvic anatomy with particular emphasis on the structures important for pelvic organ support and urinary control. The pelvis and supporting structures, the pelvic floor, and the relationships of the pelvic organs are described and illustrated by MR imaging.

  18. Growing up Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecroyd, Catherine Ann

    1989-01-01

    Claims that too many authors of young adult fiction do not use females in the main character roles. Provides examples of novels which are written by women and focus on a girl's coming of age, without falling back on stereotypes. (MG)

  19. Female Physicist Doctoral Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why…

  20. The female athlete.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, K E

    1998-05-01

    Although there are many similarities between men and women involved in sport activities, certain issues are unique to the female athlete. This article presents and brings to light some of the more important concerns that are specific to women engaged in sports. PMID:9626483

  1. Understanding the Female Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, the author explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female…

  2. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  3. Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…

  4. Female access and diet affect insemination success, senescence, and the cost of reproduction in male Mexican fruit flies Anastrepha ludens

    PubMed Central

    HARWOOD, JAMES F.; CHEN, KEHUI; LIEDO, PABLO; MÜLLER, HANS-GEORG; WANG, JANE-LING; MORICE, AMY E.; CAREY, JAMES R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypotheses exploring the influence of dietary conditions on the life history trade-off between survival and reproductive success are extensively tested in female insects, but are rarely explored in males. Here, the impact of dietary quality and female access on age-specific reproduction and survival of male Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), are examined. There is a clear cost of female access for males with access to dietary protein, measurable as a decrease in life expectancy, which is further influenced by the age when females are introduced. A protein deficient diet reduces the lifespan benefit of virginity and masks the detrimental effect of female access on male life expectancy. Dietary protein is not necessary for reproductive success, but access to protein at eclosion improves the lifetime reproductive success of males compared to when it is delayed. Overall, reproductive success diminishes as the male flies age, regardless of the dietary conditions, providing evidence for reproductive senescence in males. Delaying the males’ access to a protein source fails to influence the negative effect of age on reproductive ability. Because age specific reproductive rates decline with age, regardless of diet, male fitness does not benefit from lifespan extension. Therefore, males can be expected to allocate available resources towards reproductive effort in favour of extended lifespan, regardless of mate and protein availability. PMID:25709143

  5. Assessment of vector/host contact: comparison of animal-baited traps and UV-light/suction trap for collecting Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), vectors of Orbiviruses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence and massive spread of bluetongue in Western Europe during 2006-2008 had disastrous consequences for sheep and cattle production and confirmed the ability of Palaearctic Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to transmit the virus. Some aspects of Culicoides ecology, especially host-seeking and feeding behaviors, remain insufficiently described due to the difficulty of collecting them directly on a bait animal, the most reliable method to evaluate biting rates. Our aim was to compare typical animal-baited traps (drop trap and direct aspiration) to both a new sticky cover trap and a UV-light/suction trap (the most commonly used method to collect Culicoides). Methods/results Collections were made from 1.45 hours before sunset to 1.45 hours after sunset in June/July 2009 at an experimental sheep farm (INRA, Nouzilly, Western France), with 3 replicates of a 4 sites × 4 traps randomized Latin square using one sheep per site. Collected Culicoides individuals were sorted morphologically to species, sex and physiological stages for females. Sibling species were identified using a molecular assay. A total of 534 Culicoides belonging to 17 species was collected. Abundance was maximal in the drop trap (232 females and 4 males from 10 species) whereas the diversity was the highest in the UV-light/suction trap (136 females and 5 males from 15 species). Significant between-trap differences abundance and parity rates were observed. Conclusions Only the direct aspiration collected exclusively host-seeking females, despite a concern that human manipulation may influence estimation of the biting rate. The sticky cover trap assessed accurately the biting rate of abundant species even if it might act as an interception trap. The drop trap collected the highest abundance of Culicoides and may have caught individuals not attracted by sheep but by its structure. Finally, abundances obtained using the UV-light/suction trap did not estimate accurately Culicoides

  6. Effect of cold storage on larval and adult Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) viability in commercially ripe, artificially infested Persea americana 'Hass'.

    PubMed

    Aluja, M; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Arredondo, J; Valle-Mora, J; Rull, J

    2010-12-01

    Commercially ripe 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Mill, artificially exposed to wild Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) females 24 h after harvest were placed in a cold storage facility to determine the effect of low temperature on larval survival and adult viability. Fruit were left for 3, 6, 9, and 12 d in a cold room at 5 degrees C followed by a 20-25-d period at ambient temperature to allow for larval development and pupation. Hass avocados and grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfadyen, maintained at ambient temperature served as controls. Overall, only 0.23% of the Hass avocados and 19.30% of the grapefruit were infested. The number of infested fruit increased with decreasing exposure time to cold. Puparia from cold-treated Hass avocados were significantly smaller than those stemming from cold-treated grapefruit. Hass avocados exposed for 12 d to 5 degrees C yielded no puparia, and those exposed for 6 and 9 d yielded 22 and two puparia, respectively, but no adults. Although Hass avocados exposed to cold temperature for 3 d yielded adults that reached sexual maturity (N = 16), females laid inviable eggs. Grapefruit exposed to cold for 12 d yielded normal-sized puparia (but no adults), whereas those exposed over 9 d yielded females able to lay viable eggs. We conclude that exposing fruit to cold storage after packing and during transport represents an effective risk-mitigating procedure in the highly improbable event that a gravid A. ludens female might lay eggs in a commercially ripe Hass avocado that had been left unprotected in a packinghouse.

  7. Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) taxonomy: Current challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Harrup, L.E.; Bellis, G.A.; Balenghien, T.; Garros, C.

    2015-01-01

    Culicoides Latreille biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) cause a significant biting nuisance to humans, livestock and equines, and are the biological vectors of a range of internationally important pathogens of both veterinary and medical importance. Despite their economic significance, the delimitation and identification of species and evolutionary relationships between species within this genus remains at best problematic. To date no phylogenetic study has attempted to validate the subgeneric classification of the genus and the monophyly of many of the subgenera remains doubtful. Many informal species groupings are also known to exist but few are adequately described, further complicating accurate identification. Recent contributions to Culicoides taxonomy at the species level have revealed a high correlation between morphological and molecular analyses although molecular analyses are revealing the existence of cryptic species. This review considers the methods for studying the systematics of Culicoides using both morphological and genetic techniques, with a view to understanding the factors limiting our current understanding of Culicoides biology and hence arbovirus epidemiology. In addition, we examine the global status of Culicoides identification, highlighting areas that are poorly addressed, including the potential implementation of emerging technologies. PMID:25535946

  8. Marking Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) With Rubidium or 15N.

    PubMed

    Klick, J; Yang, W Q; Bruck, D J

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has caused significant economic damage to berry and stone fruit production regions. Markers that are systemic in plants and easily transferred to target organisms are needed to track D. suzukii exploitation of host resources and trophic interactions. High and low concentrations of the trace element, rubidium (Rb), and the stable isotope, 15N, were tested to mark D. suzukii larvae feeding on fruits of enriched strawberry plants grown in containers under greenhouse conditions. Fly marker content and proportion of flies marked 1, 7, and 14 d after emergence from enriched fruits and fly dry mass were analyzed. Nearly 100% of the flies analyzed 14 d after emerging from 15N-enriched plants were marked, whereas only 30-75% and 0-3% were marked 14 d after emerging from high and low Rb concentration plants, respectively. Rapid Rb decay, strong 15N persistence, and the economics of using these markers in the field to elucidate D. suzukii pest ecology are discussed. PMID:26470275

  9. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860

  10. Sampling strategies for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Alten, B; Ozbel, Y; Ergunay, K; Kasap, O E; Cull, B; Antoniou, M; Velo, E; Prudhomme, J; Molina, R; Bañuls, A-L; Schaffner, F; Hendrickx, G; Van Bortel, W; Medlock, J M

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of phlebotomine sand flies is widely reported to be changing in Europe. This can be attributed to either the discovery of sand flies in areas where they were previously overlooked (generally following an outbreak of leishmaniasis or other sand fly-related disease) or to true expansion of their range as a result of climatic or environmental changes. Routine surveillance for phlebotomines in Europe is localized, and often one of the challenges for entomologists working in non-leishmaniasis endemic countries is the lack of knowledge on how to conduct, plan and execute sampling for phlebotomines, or how to adapt on-going sampling strategies for other haematophagous diptera. This review brings together published and unpublished expert knowledge on sampling strategies for European phlebotomines of public health concern in order to provide practical advice on: how to conduct surveys; the collection and interpretation of field data; suitable techniques for the preservation of specimens obtained by different sampling methods; molecular techniques used for species identification; and the pathogens associated with sand flies and their detection methods.

  11. Identification of Belgian mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Versteirt, V; Nagy, Z T; Roelants, P; Denis, L; Breman, F C; Damiens, D; Dekoninck, W; Backeljau, T; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2015-03-01

    Since its introduction in 2003, DNA barcoding has proven to be a promising method for the identification of many taxa, including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Many mosquito species are potential vectors of pathogens, and correct identification in all life stages is essential for effective mosquito monitoring and control. To use DNA barcoding for species identification, a reliable and comprehensive reference database of verified DNA sequences is required. Hence, DNA sequence diversity of mosquitoes in Belgium was assessed using a 658 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and a reference data set was established. Most species appeared as well-supported clusters. Intraspecific Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances averaged 0.7%, and the maximum observed K2P distance was 6.2% for Aedes koreicus. A small overlap between intra- and interspecific K2P distances for congeneric sequences was observed. Overall, the identification success using best match and the best close match criteria were high, that is above 98%. No clear genetic division was found between the closely related species Aedes annulipes and Aedes cantans, which can be confused using morphological identification only. The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex, that is Anopheles maculipennis s.s. and An. messeae, were weakly supported as monophyletic taxa. This study showed that DNA barcoding offers a reliable framework for mosquito species identification in Belgium except for some closely related species.

  12. The larval head of Exechia (Mycetophilidae) and Bibio (Bibionidae) (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Bauernfeind, René; Schneeberg, Katharina; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2015-07-01

    Exechia and Bibio have retained several plesiomorphic groundplan features of Diptera and Bibionomorpha, including a fully exposed and sclerotized head capsule, the transverse undivided labrum, the absence of movable premandibles, and undivided mandibles without combs. The fusion of the hypostomal bridge with the head capsule and largely reduced antennae are derived features shared by both taxa. The absence of teeth at the anterior hypostomal margin is a potential autapomorphy of Bibionomorpha. A basal position of Anisopodidae is suggested by a number of plesiomorphies retained in this family. Apomorphies of Bibionomorpha excluding Anisopodidae are the reduction of tentorial elements, the partial fusion of the labrum and clypeus, one-segmented antennae, the absence of a separate submental sclerite, the loss of the labial palpus, and the reduction of the pharyngeal filter apparatus. Head structures of Bibio are largely unmodified. The subprognathous orientation is one of few autapomorphic features. In contrast, the mouthparts of Exechia are highly modified in correlation with the specialized food uptake. The rasping counterrotating movements of maxillae and mandibles with teeth oriented in opposite directions are carried out by strongly developed extensors and flexors of the paired mouthparts. The modified labium mechanically supports the "drill head" formed by the mandibles und maxillae. The necessary stability of the head capsule is provided by the hypostomal bridge which also compensates the far-reaching reduction of the tentorium.

  13. A New Visual Trap for Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Daniel, Claudia; Mathis, Samuel; Feichtinger, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of sweet cherries in Europe. The aim of our experiments was to develop a new, cost-efficient, lead chromate-free and more eco-friendly trap for monitoring and mass trapping of R. cerasi. Five different-colored yellow panels and three different trap shapes were compared to a standard Rebell(®) amarillo trap in three experimental orchards in 2012. Trap color F, with a strong increase in reflectance at 500-550 nm and a secondary peak in the UV-region at 300-400 nm, captured significantly more flies than the standard Rebell(®) amarillo trap. Yellow traps with increased reflectance in the blue region (400-500 nm) were least attractive. Trap shape was of minor importance, as long as the object was three-dimensional and visible from all directions. Based on economic and practical considerations, a cylinder-shaped trap "UFA-Samen Kirschenfliegenfalle" was developed for commercial use and is currently under on-farm evaluation. PMID:26462825

  14. A New Visual Trap for Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Claudia; Mathis, Samuel; Feichtinger, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of sweet cherries in Europe. The aim of our experiments was to develop a new, cost-efficient, lead chromate-free and more eco-friendly trap for monitoring and mass trapping of R. cerasi. Five different-colored yellow panels and three different trap shapes were compared to a standard Rebell® amarillo trap in three experimental orchards in 2012. Trap color F, with a strong increase in reflectance at 500–550 nm and a secondary peak in the UV-region at 300–400 nm, captured significantly more flies than the standard Rebell® amarillo trap. Yellow traps with increased reflectance in the blue region (400–500 nm) were least attractive. Trap shape was of minor importance, as long as the object was three-dimensional and visible from all directions. Based on economic and practical considerations, a cylinder-shaped trap “UFA-Samen Kirschenfliegenfalle” was developed for commercial use and is currently under on-farm evaluation. PMID:26462825

  15. Sampling strategies for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Alten, B; Ozbel, Y; Ergunay, K; Kasap, O E; Cull, B; Antoniou, M; Velo, E; Prudhomme, J; Molina, R; Bañuls, A-L; Schaffner, F; Hendrickx, G; Van Bortel, W; Medlock, J M

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of phlebotomine sand flies is widely reported to be changing in Europe. This can be attributed to either the discovery of sand flies in areas where they were previously overlooked (generally following an outbreak of leishmaniasis or other sand fly-related disease) or to true expansion of their range as a result of climatic or environmental changes. Routine surveillance for phlebotomines in Europe is localized, and often one of the challenges for entomologists working in non-leishmaniasis endemic countries is the lack of knowledge on how to conduct, plan and execute sampling for phlebotomines, or how to adapt on-going sampling strategies for other haematophagous diptera. This review brings together published and unpublished expert knowledge on sampling strategies for European phlebotomines of public health concern in order to provide practical advice on: how to conduct surveys; the collection and interpretation of field data; suitable techniques for the preservation of specimens obtained by different sampling methods; molecular techniques used for species identification; and the pathogens associated with sand flies and their detection methods. PMID:26271257

  16. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Robert Liu, Fu-Guo; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events. PMID:26078303

  17. Host plant susceptibility to the swede midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Hallett, Rebecca H

    2007-08-01

    The relative resistance and susceptibility of various cruciferous plants to swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), damage was investigated to provide growers with planting recommendations and to identify potential sources of resistance to the swede midge. Broccoli cultivars experienced more severe damage than cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. The broccoli 'Paragon', 'Eureka', and 'Packman' are highly susceptible to the swede midge, whereas 'Triathlon' and 'Regal' showed reduced susceptibility to damage and slower development of damage symptoms. No differences were found between normal and red cultivars of cabbage and cauliflower in damage severity and progression of damage symptoms. Four new plant species (Brassica juncea Integlifolia group, Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O. E. Shulz., Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br., and Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic.) are reported as hosts of the swede midge. The weed species Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb, Camelina microcarpa Andrz. ex Dc., and Erysimum cheiranthoides L. exhibited no damage symptoms, and they seem to be nonhost crucifers for the swede midge. PMID:17849887

  18. Susceptibility of cranberries to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Steffan, Shawn A; Lee, Jana C; Singleton, Merritt E; Vilaire, Auriel; Walsh, Doug B; Lavine, Laura S; Patten, Kim

    2013-12-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the United States. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies were conducted to assess whether cranberries may serve as hosts for D. suzukii. In the first study, the suitability of ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were assayed by examining adult oviposition and larval development in no-choice trials. In the second study, wounded and unwounded fruit were examined as potential hosts in choice and no-choice trials. Our first study showed that ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were unsuitable hosts (few eggs were laid, with no surviving puparia). In the wounded and unwounded berry study, no larvae survived to adulthood among unwounded berries. Within wounded fruit, D. suzukii readily fed and developed into adults. Together, these results suggest that unwounded cranberries--whether ripe, unripe, or over-ripe--are unsuitable as hosts for D. suzukii. Wounded rotting cranberries, however, can serve as hosts. Across the landscape, cranberry marshes with rotting fruit may contribute to D. suzukii source-sink dynamics.

  19. Blood Meal Analysis of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females’ midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia. PMID:25793285

  20. Histopathological changes in third-instar and adult Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) after in vitro heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Caro-Corrales, Lorena; Caro-Corrales, Jose; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Lopez-Valenzuela, Jose; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Coronado-Velazquez, Daniel; Hernandez-Ortiz, Emilio; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most harmful pests of mango causing direct damage by oviposition on the fruit pulp. Mango for export is subjected to hydrothermal treatment as a quarantine method for the control of this pest, but exposure to heat for long periods of time reduces considerably the quality and shelf-life of treated fruit. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes of third-instar larvae and adults of A. ludens after in vitro exposure to high temperature at sublethal times. A heating block system was used to expose larvae at 46.1°C for 19.6 and 12.9 min, producing 94.6 and 70% mortality, respectively. Treated larvae were processed for optical microscopy. A fraction of surviving treated larvae was separated into containers with artificial diet to allow development into adults. Adult sexual organs were dissected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Results showed that 94.6% of the treated larvae died at 46.1°C for 19.6 min and none of the surviving larvae eclosed to adulthood, as they developed as malformed puparia. For the in vitro treatment at 46.1°C during 12.9 min, 70% of the treated larvae died and only 3.75% reached the adult stage, but ultrastructural damage in the male testes and in the female ovaries was observed. Additionally, 11.1% of the adult flies from the in vitro treatment also showed wing malformation and were incapable of flying. The analysis showed that surviving flies were unable to reproduce.

  1. Repellency to Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) of plant essential oils alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum nut oil.

    PubMed

    Hieu, Tran Trung; Kim, Soon-Il; Lee, Sang-Guei; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2010-07-01

    The repellency to female Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) of 21 essential oils (EOs) alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Clusiaceae) nut oil (tamanu oil) was examined using an exposed human hand bioassay. Results were compared with those of commonly used repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). In tests with six human male volunteers at a dose of 0.5 mg/cm2, patchouli (protection time [PT], 3.67 h) was the most effective EO but less active than DEET (4.47 h), as judged by the PT to first bite. Very strong repellency also was produced by clove bud, lovage root, and clove leaf EOs (PT, 3.50-3.25 h), whereas strong repellency was obtained from thyme white EO (2.12 h). Thyme red, oregano, and geranium EOs exhibited moderate repellency (PT, 1.24-1.11 h). At 0.25 mg/cm2, protection time of clove bud, clove leaf, and lovage root EOs (PT, approximately equal to 1 h) was shorter than that of DEET (2.17 h). An increase in the protection time was produced by binary mixtures (PT, 2.68-2.04 h) of five EOs (clove bud, clove leaf, thyme white, patchouli, and savory) and tamanu oil (0.25:2.0 mg/cm2) compared with that of either the constituted essential oil or tamanu oil alone (PT, 0.56 h). The protection time of these binary mixtures was comparable with that of DEET. With the exception of savory EO, the other EOs, tamanu oil, and binary mixtures did not induce any adverse effects on the human volunteers at 0.5 mg/cm2. Thus, binary mixtures of essential oils and tamanu oil described merit further study as potential repellents for protection from humans and domestic animals from biting and nuisance caused by S. calcitrans. PMID:20695272

  2. Orientation behaviour of Culicoides obsoletus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a relevant virus vector in northern Europe, toward host-associated odorant cues.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Verheggen, François J; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2015-07-30

    Some Culicoides biting midge species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological virus vectors worldwide and have recently been associated with outbreaks of important epizootic diseases such as bluetongue and Schmallenberg in northern Europe. These diseases, which affect domestic and wild ruminants, have caused considerable economic losses. Knowledge of host preferences of these biting midges - especially of the relevant vectors of arboviruses near farms, such as Culicoides obsoletus in northern Europe - is essential to understand pathogen transmission cycles and the epidemiology of associated diseases. This study aimed to determine host preferences of C. obsoletus using an in-field flight tunnel containing pairs of calf, sheep, chicken, and human hosts (and controls) and a laboratory two-choice bioassay containing volatile extracts of host skin (and controls). Behavioural responses of nulliparous C. obsoletus females in the in-field flight tunnel showed a preference for human (but also calf and sheep) hosts, probably due to their exhalation of greater quantities of carbon dioxide. The laboratory experiment revealed that volatile organic compounds released from the skin of chicken and sheep seemed to attract this species. Culicoides obsoletus, thus, seems to have a wide host range and to be particularly attracted by humans under field conditions. A better understanding of vector-host interaction could enable the development of control strategies against adult biting midges, by exploiting insect-repelling or -attractive semiochemicals. Volatile extracts of chicken and/or sheep skin could be used to identify volatile compounds attractive to C. obsoletus, which in turn could be used in baited traps.

  3. Histopathological Changes in Third-Instar and Adult Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) After in vitro Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Caro-Corrales, Lorena; Caro-Corrales, Jose; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Lopez-Valenzuela, Jose; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Coronado-Velazquez, Daniel; Hernandez-Ortiz, Emilio; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most harmful pests of mango causing direct damage by oviposition on the fruit pulp. Mango for export is subjected to hydrothermal treatment as a quarantine method for the control of this pest, but exposure to heat for long periods of time reduces considerably the quality and shelf-life of treated fruit. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes of third-instar larvae and adults of A. ludens after in vitro exposure to high temperature at sublethal times. A heating block system was used to expose larvae at 46.1°C for 19.6 and 12.9 min, producing 94.6 and 70% mortality, respectively. Treated larvae were processed for optical microscopy. A fraction of surviving treated larvae was separated into containers with artificial diet to allow development into adults. Adult sexual organs were dissected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Results showed that 94.6% of the treated larvae died at 46.1°C for 19.6 min and none of the surviving larvae eclosed to adulthood, as they developed as malformed puparia. For the in vitro treatment at 46.1°C during 12.9 min, 70% of the treated larvae died and only 3.75% reached the adult stage, but ultrastructural damage in the male testes and in the female ovaries was observed. Additionally, 11.1% of the adult flies from the in vitro treatment also showed wing malformation and were incapable of flying. The analysis showed that surviving flies were unable to reproduce. PMID:25797796

  4. Female-female aggression and female mate choice on black grouse leks.

    PubMed

    Karvonen; Rintamäki; Alatalo

    2000-05-01

    We studied female-female aggression in relation to female mate choice in black grouse, Tetrao tetrix, in central Finland, in 1994-1998. Aggression occurred on average every other minute when there was more than one female on a territory, and aggressive behaviour was most prominent when several females attended the lek. Interactions tended to be proportionally most frequent on the territories of the highest-ranking males, although not significantly so. Females that were chased by other females did not mate with lower-ranking males than their aggressors did. Furthermore, chased females were only rarely (6% of cases) forced to move off the territory by agonistic interactions and copulations were disrupted by other females even less often (3% of cases). The choice of a mating territory did not depend on the outcome of aggression even though the aggressors were more likely to mate on the territory where aggression occurred than elsewhere. There was a marginally significant tendency for aggressors to mate earlier in the season. Females placed themselves further away from other females on the territory when soliciting a copulation than just before aggression. Our results suggest that aggression between females does not effectively constrain female choice in black grouse. Its function may be to aid females to secure undisturbed mating opportunities for themselves rather than to prevent others from mating with a particular male. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  5. Female-pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Female-pattern baldness is a pattern of hair loss (alopecia) caused by hormones, aging and genetics. Unlike male-pattern baldness, female-pattern baldness is an over-all thinning which maintains the normal ...

  6. The current and future potential geographic range of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Fu, Liao; Li, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Guan-Sheng; Wu, Xing-Xia; Ni, Wen-Long; Qü, Wei-Wei

    2014-04-01

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), is one of the most important pests throughout the Americas. CLIMEX 3.0 and ArcGIS 9.3 were used to model the current and future potential geographical distribution of this pest. Under current climatic conditions, A. obliqua is predicted to be able to establish throughout much of the tropics and subtropics, including not only North and South America, where it has been reported, but also southern Asia, northeastern Australia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The main factors limiting the pest's range expansion may be cold stress. Climate change expands the potential distribution of A. obliqua poleward as cold stress boundaries recede, but the predicted distribution in northwestern Australia and northern parts of Sub-Saharan Africa will decrease because of heat stress. Considering the widely suitable range for A. obliqua globally and in China, enhanced quarantine and monitoring measures should be implemented in areas that are projected to be suitable for the establishment of the pest under current and future climatic conditions.

  7. A New Adult Diet Formulation for Sterile Males of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Quintero-Fong, Luis

    2015-08-01

    A new adult diet formulation was evaluated for sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) males at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The formulation consists of hydrolyzed protein, sugar, juvenile hormone analogue methoprene, and water. The proportion of the ingredients between the solute (4% hydrolyzed protein and 96% sugar) and solvent (10% methoprene and 90% water) was 5:1. This new formulation was called the 1:24 formulation. The main objectives of this study were to develop a simple way to supply the 1:24 formulation to adults and to compare the sexual performance of these flies with the performance of flies fed a standard diet (called the Mubarqui formulation) used at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The preparation, time, and cost also were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in the sexual behaviors of the males (number of males mating, number of males calling, mating latency, and mating duration) between the 1:24 formulation and the Mubarqui formulation. However, the cost and the required preparation time are much lower for the 1:24 formulation process than for the Mubarqui formulation process. Based on these results, we recommend the 1:24 formulation as an additional adult diet option in the handling of sterile flies. Its application is practical and does not require changes in packaging systems. The contribution of our findings and their potential application to the improvement of the sterile insect technique are discussed.

  8. Hiring and Recruiting Female Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime; Bers, Trudy

    2010-01-01

    Community colleges are generally more inclusive to female faculty as compared to four-year institutions. Women represent 49 percent of fulltime and 50 percent of part-time community college faculty, a stark contrast to the low numbers of female faculty in four-year institutions. Female faculty at community colleges also receive similar rates of…

  9. The young female athlete.

    PubMed

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life. PMID:20118893

  10. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    PubMed

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  11. The decomposition of rabbit carcasses and associated necrophagous Diptera in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Mesbah, Hanadi; Moffatt, Colin; El-Azazy, Osama M E; Majeed, Qais A H

    2012-04-10

    Rabbit carcasses were used to compare rates of decomposition and associated assemblages of Diptera at four discernable habitat types in Kuwait; a country of a region with a paucity of such reference data. Carcasses in an urban habitat showed faster decomposition (as measured by percentage weight loss) than in agricultural, coastal or desert habitats, even with accumulated degree days (ADD) as the explanatory variable (t=2.73, df=34, p=0.010) to compensate for temperature differences. Taxa of Diptera at the four habitats became more similar as decomposition progressed, suggesting such differences between habitats were not marked. The occurrence of Chrysomyia megacephala and Lucilia sericata had not previously been recorded in Kuwait. PMID:22018747

  12. First Report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Commercial Fruits and Vegetables in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Biddinger, David J.; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed. PMID:25434039

  13. First report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in commercial fruits and vegetables in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Biddinger, David J; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed. PMID:25434039

  14. The Effect of Clothing on the Rate of Decomposition and Diptera Colonization on Sus scrofa Carcasses.

    PubMed

    Card, Allison; Cross, Peter; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

    2015-07-01

    Twenty Sus scrofa carcasses were used to study the effect the presence of clothing had on decomposition rate and colonization locations of Diptera species; 10 unclothed control carcasses were compared to 10 clothed experimental carcasses over 58 days. Data collection occurred at regular accumulated degree day intervals; the level of decomposition as Total Body Score (TBSsurf ), pattern of decomposition, and Diptera present was documented. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in the rate of decomposition, (t427  = 2.59, p = 0.010), with unclothed carcasses decomposing faster than clothed carcasses. However, the overall decomposition rates from each carcass group are too similar to separate when applying a 95% CI, which means that, although statistically significant, from a practical forensic point of view they are not sufficiently dissimilar as to warrant the application of different formulae to estimate the postmortem interval. Further results demonstrated clothing provided blow flies with additional colonization locations.

  15. Psorophora (Grabhamia) varinervis (Diptera: Culicidae) morphological description including pupa and fourth-stage larva previously unknown.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gustavo C; Stein, Marina; Almirón, Walter R

    2008-05-01

    Psorophora (Grabhamia) varinervis Edwards (Diptera: Culicidae) is redescribed in the adult stage. Pupa and fourth-stage larva are described and illustrated for the first time. Information about distribution, bionomics, and taxonomy also is included. Adults of Ps. varinervis can be separated from the closely related species Ps. (Gra.) discolor (Coquillett) on the basis of the wing characters, and the larva by the siphon and antenna characters.

  16. Human external ophthalmomyiasis caused by Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae)--a green bottle fly.

    PubMed

    Kalezić, Tanja; Stojković, Milenko; Vuković, Ivana; Spasić, Radoslava; Andjelkovic, Marko; Stanojlović, Svetlana; Božić, Marija; Džamić, Aleksandar

    2014-07-01

    Ophthalmomyiasis externa is the result of infestation of the conjunctiva by the larval form or maggots of flies from the order Diptera. If not recognized and managed appropriately, it can be complicated by the potentially fatal condition ophthalmomyiasis interna. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is mainly caused by the sheep bot fly (Oestrus ovis). We present the first case, to our knowledge, of ophthalmomyiasis externa in an elderly woman from Belgrade caused by Lucilia sericata Meigen--a green bottle fly.

  17. Four cases of pediculosis caused by Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) from peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Pakeer, O; Jeffery, J; Mohamed, A M; Ahmad, F; Baharudin, O

    2007-12-01

    Four cases of pediculosis, two in adults and two in children, caused by the crab-louse, Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) is reported from peninsular Malaysia. This is the second report of the problem to be documented from the country. Although P. pubis is closely associated with genital hairs, it is, however, also found to occur on the eyelashes, eyebrows, hairs of the body, head and axilla. The few reported cases of pthiriasis probably do not reflect the true situation.

  18. Morphological description of the fourth instar larva: Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Slama, Darine; Khedher, Asma; Bdira, Sassi; Khayech, Fethi; Delecolle, Jean-claude; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Emna, Chaker

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out of the region of Monastir in Central Tunisia, between July and August 2010. Larvae were collected using a floatation technique with magnesium sulfate in mud samples. The fourth instar larva of Culicoides cataneii Clastrier, 1957 and Culicoides sahariensis Callot, Kremer, Bailly-Choumara, 1970 are described, illustrated and drawn. Measurements of instars IV are also presented. This is the first record of Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to Tunisia.

  19. Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Turkish Thrace, with a new record for Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Çalışkan, Hakan; Şahin, Yalçın

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper includes 2742 specimens of 18 species of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) collected from 132 lotic sites in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, in the early summer of 2002 and 2003 and the spring of 2005 and 2006. New information All species are recorded from this region for the first time, and Metacnephia nigra (Rubtsov, 1940) is a new record for Turkey. Distributional and taxonomical remarks are given for each species. PMID:25941452

  20. First crane fly from the Upper Jurassic of Australia (Diptera: Limoniidae).

    PubMed

    Oberprieler, Stefanie K; Krzemiński, Wiesław; Hinde, Jack; Yeates, David K

    2015-01-01

    The first crane fly (Diptera: Tipuloidea) fossil discovered in the Upper Jurassic Talbragar Fish Bed in Australia is described and illustrated. Eotipula grangeri sp. nov., described from a single specimen, is assigned to the family Limoniidae based primarily on the conformation of wing veins. It is the second and oldest record of Limoniidae from Australia, and the first of Jurassic age from the southern hemisphere. PMID:26624125

  1. The Community of Hymenoptera Parasitizing Necrophagous Diptera in an Urban Biotope

    PubMed Central

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. The use of Hymenoptera parasitoids in forensic entomology can be relevant to evaluate the time of death. Hymenoptera parasitoids of the larvae and pupae of flies may play an important role in the estimation of the post-mortem period because their time of attack is often restricted to a small, well-defined window of time in the development of the host insect. However, these parasitoids can interfere with the developmental times of colonizing Diptera, and therefore a better understanding of their ecology is needed. The work reported here monitored the presence of adult Hymenoptera parasitoids on decaying pig carcasses in an urban biotope during the summer season (from May to September). Six families and six species of parasitoids were recorded in the field: Aspilota fuscicornis Haliday (Braconidae), Alysia manducator Panzer, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae), Trichopria sp. (Diapriidae), and Figites sp. (Figitidae). In the laboratory, five species emerged from pupae collected in the field: Trichopria sp., Figites sp., A. manducator, N. vitripennis, and T. zealandicus. These five species colonize a broad spectrum of Diptera hosts, including those species associated with decomposing carcasses, namely those from the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, and Sarcophagidae. PMID:23895458

  2. Structure and evolution of the mitochondrial genome of Exorista sorbillans: the Tachinidae (Diptera: Calyptratae) perspective.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuan-jun; Hu, Xian-qiong; Peng, Guang-da; Wang, Rui-xian; Gao, Rui-na; Lin, Chao; Shen, Wei-de; Li, Rui; Li, Bing

    2012-12-01

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Tachinidae Exorista sorbillans (Diptera) is sequenced by PCR-based approach. The circular mitogenome is 14,960 bp long and has the representative mitochondrial gene (mt gene) organization and order of Diptera. All protein-coding sequences are initiated with ATN codon; however, the only exception is Cox I gene, which has a 4-bp ATCG putative start codon. Ten of the thirteen protein-coding genes have a complete termination codon (TAA), but the rest are seated on the H strand with incomplete codons. The mitogenome of E. sorbillans is biased toward A+T content at 78.4 %, and the strand-specific bias is in reflection of the third codon positions of mt genes, and their T/C ratios as strand indictor are higher on the H strand more than those on the L strand pointing at any strain of seven Diptera flies. The length of the A+T-rich region of E. sorbillans is 106 bp, including a tandem triple copies of a13-bp fragment. Compared to Haematobia irritans, E. sorbillans holds distant relationship with Drosophila. Phylogenetic topologies based on the amino acid sequences, supporting that E. sorbillans (Tachinidae) is clustered with strains of Calliphoridae and Oestridae, and superfamily Oestroidea are polyphyletic groups with Muscidae in a clade.

  3. Development of the gravid Aedes trap for the capture of adult female container-exploiting mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Eiras, Alvaro E; Buhagiar, Tamara S; Ritchie, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring dengue vector control by sampling adult Aedes aegypti (L.) recently has been used to replace both larval and pupal surveys. We have developed and evaluated the Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) through a sequential behavioral study. The GAT does not require electricity to function, and trapped mosquitoes are identified easily during trap inspections. The GAT concept relies on visual and olfactory cues to lure gravid Ae. aegypti and an insecticide to kill trapped mosquitoes. Gravid mosquitoes are lured to a black bucket base containing oviposition attractant (infusion) and are trapped in a translucent chamber impregnated with a pyrethroid insecticide where they are killed within 3-15 min. In semifield observations, the GAT captured a significantly higher proportion of gravid mosquitoes than the double sticky ovitrap. We also demonstrated that the visual cues of the prototype GAT-LgBF (large black base bucket with a black funnel at the top of the translucent chamber) captured a significantly higher proportion of gravid mosquitoes than the other prototypes. The visual contrast created by the addition of a white lid to the top of the black funnel significantly increased the number of captured gravid mosquitoes when compared with the GAT-LgBF in semifield trials. We conclude that the GAT is more efficient in recapturing gravid Ae. aegypti when compared with sticky ovitraps. The GAT is an effective, practical, low cost, and easily transportable trap, features that are essential in large-scale monitoring programs, particularly in areas where funding is limited. PMID:24605470

  4. Development of the gravid Aedes trap for the capture of adult female container-exploiting mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Eiras, Alvaro E; Buhagiar, Tamara S; Ritchie, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring dengue vector control by sampling adult Aedes aegypti (L.) recently has been used to replace both larval and pupal surveys. We have developed and evaluated the Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) through a sequential behavioral study. The GAT does not require electricity to function, and trapped mosquitoes are identified easily during trap inspections. The GAT concept relies on visual and olfactory cues to lure gravid Ae. aegypti and an insecticide to kill trapped mosquitoes. Gravid mosquitoes are lured to a black bucket base containing oviposition attractant (infusion) and are trapped in a translucent chamber impregnated with a pyrethroid insecticide where they are killed within 3-15 min. In semifield observations, the GAT captured a significantly higher proportion of gravid mosquitoes than the double sticky ovitrap. We also demonstrated that the visual cues of the prototype GAT-LgBF (large black base bucket with a black funnel at the top of the translucent chamber) captured a significantly higher proportion of gravid mosquitoes than the other prototypes. The visual contrast created by the addition of a white lid to the top of the black funnel significantly increased the number of captured gravid mosquitoes when compared with the GAT-LgBF in semifield trials. We conclude that the GAT is more efficient in recapturing gravid Ae. aegypti when compared with sticky ovitraps. The GAT is an effective, practical, low cost, and easily transportable trap, features that are essential in large-scale monitoring programs, particularly in areas where funding is limited.

  5. Sympatric occurrence of Culex pipiens (Diptera, Culicidae) biotypes pipiens, molestus and their hybrids in Portugal, Western Europe: feeding patterns and habitat determinants.

    PubMed

    Osório, H C; Zé-Zé, L; Amaro, F; Nunes, A; Alves, M J

    2014-03-01

    Culex (Culex) pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) has two recognized biotypes, pipiens and molestus, which differ in physiology and behaviour; this difference may influence vectorial capacity for West Nile virus (WNV). Our goal was first to determine the presence of Cx. pipiens populations in 31 locations in Portugal and to subsequently analyse their host-feeding preferences and habitat determinants. Molecular identification of Cx. pipiens forms and their hybrids was performed in 97 females; bloodmeal sources were identified in 59 engorged specimens. Overall, 61.9% of specimens were identified as Cx. pipiens f. pipiens, 20.6% as Cx. pipiens f. molestus, and 17.5% as hybrid forms. Culex pipiens f. pipiens fed preferentially on birds, and Cx. pipiens f. molestus on humans. Hybrid forms fed mostly on birds, but human bloodmeals were common. With reference to habitat, Cx. pipiens f. pipiens and hybrid forms were positively correlated with peri-urban habitats. Our results confirm the sympatric presence of different Cx. pipiens biotypes in 14 of the 31 locations studied. Peri-urban areas were a common habitat of all biotypes and may represent zones of hybridization. The feeding preferences and sympatric distribution of the Cx. pipiens biotypes observed in Portugal favour the epizootic circulation of WNV and the occurrence of disease outbreaks of WNV.

  6. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) population size survey in the 2007 Chikungunya outbreak area in Italy. I. Characterization of breeding sites and evaluation of sampling methodologies.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, M; Angelini, P; Venturelli, C; Maccagnani, B; Bellini, R

    2011-11-01

    The population of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) was measured in four towns in northern Italy by means of Stegomyia indices (house index: percentage of houses with at least one active breeding site; container index: percentage of containers with larvae; and Breteau index: number of active breeding sites per premises), pupae per premises index (PPI), pupae per hectare index (PHI), and ovitrap monitoring. A detailed investigation on types and number of productive or potential larval habitats in the inspected premises was performed. Catch basins were the most productive breeding sites in both private and public areas. The influence of the premises maintenance and premises shading indices (PMI and PSI) on the population indices and the correlations between the latter and egg density were assessed. The highest PPI was found in badly maintained premises, most times combined with shady coverage. Stegomyia indices and PPI were well correlated with each other, but not with the PHI, which also included the pupae collected in public areas. We obtained a highly positive correlation (R = 0.86) between the PHI and weekly mean egg density estimated 7-14 d after inspection of the premises. The number of females per hectare, calculated using the Focks model, was correlated with the mean egg density of the week after sampling (R = 0.79), and we propose that ovitrap monitoring can be used to evaluate the efficiency of the control activities or to determine a mean egg density threshold for epidemic risk evaluation. PMID:22238882

  7. A low-cost mesocosm for the study of behaviour and reproductive potential of Afrotropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of malaria

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Bryan T.; Stone, Christopher M.; Ebrahimi, Babak; Briët, Olivier J.T.; Foster, Woodbridge A.

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale mesocosm was constructed and tested for its effectiveness for experiments on behaviour, reproduction, and adult survivorship of the Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in temperate climates. The large space (82.69 m3) allowed for semi-natural experiments that increased demand on a mosquito’s energetic reserves in an environment of widely distributed resources. A one-piece prefabricated enclosure, made with white netting and vinyl, prevented the ingress of predators and the egress of mosquitoes. Daylight and white materials prompted the mosquitoes to seclude themselves in restricted daytime resting sites and allowed easy collection of dead bodies so that daily mortality could be assessed accurately, using a method that accounts for a proportion of bodies being lost. Here, daily, age-dependent mortality rates of males and females were estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. In overnight experiments, mosquitoes successfully located plants and took sugar meals. A 3-week survival trial with a single-cohort demonstrated successful mating, blood feeding, oviposition, and long life. The relatively low cost of the mesocosm and the performance of the mosquitoes in it make it a viable option for any behavioural or ecological study of tropical mosquitoes where space and seasonal cold are constraining factors. PMID:25294339

  8. Effect of bait decomposition on the attractiveness to species of Diptera of veterinary and forensic importance in a rainforest fragment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Diego L; Soares, Thiago F; Vasconcelos, Simão D

    2016-01-01

    Insects associated with carrion can have parasitological importance as vectors of several pathogens and causal agents of myiasis to men and to domestic and wild animals. We tested the attractiveness of animal baits (chicken liver) at different stages of decomposition to necrophagous species of Diptera (Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Phoridae and Sarcophagidae) in a rainforest fragment in Brazil. Five types of bait were used: fresh and decomposed at room temperature (26 °C) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. A positive correlation was detected between the time of decomposition and the abundance of Calliphoridae and Muscidae, whilst the abundance of adults of Phoridae decreased with the time of decomposition. Ten species of calliphorids were registered, of which Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Chloroprocta idioidea showed a positive significant correlation between abundance and decomposition. Specimens of Sarcophagidae and Fanniidae did not discriminate between fresh and highly decomposed baits. A strong female bias was registered for all species of Calliphoridae irrespective of the type of bait. The results reinforce the feasibility of using animal tissues as attractants to a wide diversity of dipterans of medical, parasitological and forensic importance in short-term surveys, especially using baits at intermediate stages of decomposition. PMID:26547564

  9. Effect of bait decomposition on the attractiveness to species of Diptera of veterinary and forensic importance in a rainforest fragment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Diego L; Soares, Thiago F; Vasconcelos, Simão D

    2016-01-01

    Insects associated with carrion can have parasitological importance as vectors of several pathogens and causal agents of myiasis to men and to domestic and wild animals. We tested the attractiveness of animal baits (chicken liver) at different stages of decomposition to necrophagous species of Diptera (Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Phoridae and Sarcophagidae) in a rainforest fragment in Brazil. Five types of bait were used: fresh and decomposed at room temperature (26 °C) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. A positive correlation was detected between the time of decomposition and the abundance of Calliphoridae and Muscidae, whilst the abundance of adults of Phoridae decreased with the time of decomposition. Ten species of calliphorids were registered, of which Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Chloroprocta idioidea showed a positive significant correlation between abundance and decomposition. Specimens of Sarcophagidae and Fanniidae did not discriminate between fresh and highly decomposed baits. A strong female bias was registered for all species of Calliphoridae irrespective of the type of bait. The results reinforce the feasibility of using animal tissues as attractants to a wide diversity of dipterans of medical, parasitological and forensic importance in short-term surveys, especially using baits at intermediate stages of decomposition.

  10. Attraction of Culex pipiens/restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes to bird uropygial gland odors at two elevations in the Niagara region of Ontario.

    PubMed

    Russell, Curtis B; Hunter, Fiona F

    2005-05-01

    In an effort to determine whether female Culex pipiens L. and Culex restuans Theobald mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are attracted to crow, Corvus brachyrhynchus, uropygial gland secretions, CDC miniature light traps (baited with CO2 but with the lights removed) were placed at approximately 1.5- and 5-m elevations, in 10 trees in awoodlot near Niagara Falls, Canada. These traps were assigned either a bird odor or a blank control. Bird odors were created by attaching cotton swabs coated with crow uropygial gland secretions to the trap intake. A significantly greater number of Cx. pipiens/ restuans were found in the 5-m traps compared with 1.5-m traps, with a significant number attracted to the bird odor over the no odor traps at the 5-m elevation, but not at 1.5 m. We also found more Aedes vexans (Meigen) in the 1.5-m traps than the 5-m traps; however, presence or absence of bird odor did not influence the distribution of Ae. vexans. PMID:15962778

  11. Seasonal Dynamics, Parity Rate, and Composition of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Occurring in the Vicinity of Wild and Domestic Ruminants in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Rádrová, Jana; Mračková, Marie; Galková, Zdenka; Lamka, Jírí; Račka, Karol; Barták, Pavel; Votýpka, Jan

    2016-03-01

    In the light of the emergence of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses in northern and central Europe, an extensive entomological survey within the framework of a bluetongue control program was undertaken from 2008 to 2013 in the Czech Republic to investigate Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected in close proximity of domestic livestock and semiwild ruminants. Insects were sampled using CDC black-light suction traps placed overnight near ruminants in farms or in forest game preserves to provide data on Culicoides fauna collected near these two groups of hosts inhabiting different environments. From almost a half million biting midge specimens collected at 41 sampling sites, 34 species were identified including three species newly recorded for the Czech Republic: Culicoides (Oecacta) clastrieri Callot, Kremer & Deduit, Culicoides (Oecacta) odiatus Austen, and Culicoides (Pontoculicoides) saevus Kieffer. The Culicoides obsoletus species group, incriminated as a bluetongue virus vector, was predominant in both domestic livestock (91%) and semiwild game (52%). A relatively high proportion (around 30%) of C. obsoletus Meigen females with pigmented abdomen (= more likely parous) was observed from spring till autumn. In contrast, adult biting midges were found to be largely absent during at least three winter months, approximately December till March, which could be considered as the biting midge vector-free period.

  12. A low-cost mesocosm for the study of behaviour and reproductive potential in Afrotropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of malaria.

    PubMed

    Jackson, B T; Stone, C M; Ebrahimi, B; Briët, O J T; Foster, W A

    2015-03-01

    A large-scale mesocosm was constructed and tested for its effectiveness for use in experiments on behaviour, reproduction and adult survivorship in the Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in temperate climates. The large space (82.69 m(3) ) allowed for semi-natural experiments that increased demand on a mosquito's energetic reserves in an environment of widely distributed resources. A one-piece prefabricated enclosure, made with white netting and vinyl, prevented the ingress of predators and the egress of mosquitoes. Daylight and white materials prompted the mosquitoes to seclude themselves in restricted daytime resting sites and allowed the easy collection of dead bodies so that daily mortality could be assessed accurately using a method that accounts for the loss of a proportion of bodies. Here, daily, age-dependent mortality rates of males and females were estimated using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. In overnight experiments, mosquitoes successfully located plants and took sugar meals. A 3-week survival trial with a single cohort demonstrated successful mating, blood feeding, oviposition and long life. The relatively low cost of the mesocosm and the performance of the mosquitoes in it make it a viable option for any behavioural or ecological study of tropical mosquitoes in which space and seasonal cold are constraining factors.

  13. Seasonal Dynamics, Parity Rate, and Composition of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Occurring in the Vicinity of Wild and Domestic Ruminants in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Rádrová, Jana; Mračková, Marie; Galková, Zdenka; Lamka, Jírí; Račka, Karol; Barták, Pavel; Votýpka, Jan

    2016-03-01

    In the light of the emergence of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses in northern and central Europe, an extensive entomological survey within the framework of a bluetongue control program was undertaken from 2008 to 2013 in the Czech Republic to investigate Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected in close proximity of domestic livestock and semiwild ruminants. Insects were sampled using CDC black-light suction traps placed overnight near ruminants in farms or in forest game preserves to provide data on Culicoides fauna collected near these two groups of hosts inhabiting different environments. From almost a half million biting midge specimens collected at 41 sampling sites, 34 species were identified including three species newly recorded for the Czech Republic: Culicoides (Oecacta) clastrieri Callot, Kremer & Deduit, Culicoides (Oecacta) odiatus Austen, and Culicoides (Pontoculicoides) saevus Kieffer. The Culicoides obsoletus species group, incriminated as a bluetongue virus vector, was predominant in both domestic livestock (91%) and semiwild game (52%). A relatively high proportion (around 30%) of C. obsoletus Meigen females with pigmented abdomen (= more likely parous) was observed from spring till autumn. In contrast, adult biting midges were found to be largely absent during at least three winter months, approximately December till March, which could be considered as the biting midge vector-free period. PMID:26701798

  14. The structure of the USP/RXR of Xenos pecki indicates that Strepsiptera are not closely related to Diptera.

    PubMed

    Hayward, D C; Trueman, J W H; Bastiani, M J; Ball, E E

    2005-04-01

    The receptor for the insect molting hormone, ecdysone, is a heterodimer consisting of the Ecdysone Receptor and Ultraspiracle (USP) proteins. The ligand binding domain sequences of arthropod USPs divide into two distinct groups. One group consists of sequences from members of the holometabolous Lepidoptera and Diptera, while the other arthropod sequences group with vertebrate retinoid-X-receptors (RXRs). We therefore wondered whether USP/RXR structure could be used to clarify the contentious phylogenetic position of the order Strepsiptera, which has proposed affinities with either Diptera or Coleoptera. We have cloned and sequenced the USP/RXR from the strepsipteran Xenos pecki. Phylogenetic analyses are not consistent with a close affinity between Strepsiptera and Diptera. PMID:15660250

  15. Intron insertion as a phylogenetic character: the engrailed homeobox of Strepsiptera does not indicate affinity with Diptera.

    PubMed

    Rokas, A; Kathirithamby, J; Holland, P W

    1999-11-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the order Strepsiptera are unclear. Affiliation to Coleoptera has been proposed, however this implies that dipteran halteres and strep-sipteran haltere-like organs evolved convergently. An alternative is a sister group relationship with Diptera. In this case, halteres could be homologous but a radical homeotic mutation may have switched their position to the Strepsipteran mesothorax. Ribosomal DNA sequence analysis has been used to support Dipteran affiliation, although this is controversial. Here we investigate the potential of an intron insertion site as a phylogenetic character. We find that the en homeobox gene of the strepsipteran Stichotrema dallatorreanum lacks a derived intron insertion shared by representatives of Diptera and Lepidoptera. We argue against a close affiliation between Strepsiptera and Diptera. PMID:10620047

  16. The morphology and evolution of the female postabdomen of Holometabola (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Hünefeld, Frank; Missbach, Christine; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2012-07-01

    In the present article homology issues, character evolution and phylogenetic implications related to the female postabdomen of the holometabolan insects are discussed, based on an earlier analysis of a comprehensive morphological data set. Hymenoptera, the sistergroup of the remaining Holometabola, are the only group where the females have retained a fully developed primary ovipositor of the lepismatid type. There are no characters of the female abdomen supporting a clade Coleopterida + Neuropterida. The invagination of the terminal segments is an autapomorphy of Coleoptera. The ovipositor is substantially modified in Raphidioptera and distinctly reduced in Megaloptera and Neuroptera. The entire female abdomen is extremely simplified in Strepsiptera. The postabdomen is tapering posteriorly in Mecopterida and retractile in a telescopic manner (oviscapt). The paired ventral sclerites of segments VIII and IX are preserved, but valvifers and valvulae are not distinguishable. In Amphiesmenoptera sclerotizations derived from the ventral appendages VIII are fused ventromedially, forming a solid plate, and the appendages IX are reduced. The terminal segments are fused and form a terminal unit which bears the genital opening subapically. The presence of two pairs of apophyses and the related protraction of the terminal unit by muscle force are additional autapomorphies, as is the fusion of the rectum with the posterior part of the genital chamber (cloaca). Antliophora are supported by the presence of a transverse muscle between the ventral sclerites of segment VIII. Secondary egg laying tubes have evolved independently within Boreidae (absent in Caurinus) and in Tipulomorpha. The loss of two muscle associated with the genital chamber are likely autapomorphies of Diptera. The secondary loss of the telescopic retractability of the postabdomen is one of many autapomorphies of Siphonaptera. PMID:22583791

  17. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25-26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color gradient

  18. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25–26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color

  19. Melatonin and female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field.

  20. Female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Erdogan; Fynes, Michelle

    2008-02-01

    Female sexual dysfunction is a common problem with detrimental effects on woman's quality of life. It also has an economical and societal impact. It is defined as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and sexual pain, which lead to personal distress. The etiology of sexual dysfunction is frequently multifactorial as it relates to general physical and mental well-being, quality of relationship, past sexual functioning, social class, education, employment, life stressors, personality factors, the presence of a sexual partner, and partner's age and health. It is very important to adopt the most efficient approach to gather information, and this may be achieved via standardized questionnaires or open-ended questions. Therapy should be tailored according to the patient's needs and may involve a multidisciplinary team approach including psychosexual counselor/sexologist/therapist and the physician. There is still more work needed to optimize the care of women with this problem. Priority should be given to international standardization and training of health care professionals.

  1. The Female Athlete Triad.

    PubMed

    Weiss Kelly, Amanda K; Hecht, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    The number of girls participating in sports has increased significantly since the introduction of Title XI in 1972. As a result, more girls have been able to experience the social, educational, and health-related benefits of sports participation. However, there are risks associated with sports participation, including the female athlete triad. The triad was originally recognized as the interrelationship of amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and disordered eating, but our understanding has evolved to recognize that each of the components of the triad exists on a spectrum from optimal health to disease. The triad occurs when energy intake does not adequately compensate for exercise-related energy expenditure, leading to adverse effects on reproductive, bone, and cardiovascular health. Athletes can present with a single component or any combination of the components. The triad can have a more significant effect on the health of adolescent athletes than on adults because adolescence is a critical time for bone mass accumulation. This report outlines the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the triad conditions. PMID:27432852

  2. Nurturing and Individuation in Female/Female Therapy Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Sandra Beth

    As therapy relationships between female therapists and female clients become more prevalent, there is a need to address the attributes of these relationships. Psychoanalytic object relations theory and feminist theory can be used to arrive at a meaningful context for viewing the dimension of intimacy. Psychoanalytic literature on the mother/infant…

  3. Weight differences of male and female pupae of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) and host-sex preference by two parasitoid species Lymantrichneumon disparis and Exorista larvarum.

    PubMed

    Babaei, Mohammad-Reza; Barari, H; Kara, K

    2009-03-01

    Weight differences of male and female pupae of gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)] and its two parasitoids Lymantrichneumon disparis (Poda) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and Exorista larvarum (L.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) host preference were examined in this study. Lymantria dispar pupae were collected from trunks and branches of 20 Ironwood trees (Parotia persica) in two sampling dates, 10 July 2005 and 24 July 2005. The pest pupae were weighted and then saved at room temperature until adults of gypsy moth or its parasitoids emerged. The most L. dispar pupae collected in the first sampling were male whereas those in the second one were female and both male and female pupae in the second sampling were smaller than those in first sampling. The majority of male pupae (98.29%) were less than 0.6 g and most of female pupae (79.39%) were more than 0.6 g in weight. The most of L. disparis emerged from male pupae of L. dispar, whereas the majority of E. larvarum emerged from female pupae. Implications of the results for biological control strategy of gypsy moth are discussed.

  4. Female Sexual Arousal in Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.

    2010-01-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968

  5. Female sexual arousal in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S

    2011-05-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal.

  6. Isolation of a Female-Emitted Sex Pheromone Component of the Fungus Gnat, Lycoriella ingenua, Attractive to Males.

    PubMed

    Andreadis, Stefanos S; Cloonan, Kevin R; Myrick, Andrew J; Chen, Haibin; Baker, Thomas C

    2015-12-01

    Lycoriella ingenua Dufour (Diptera: Sciaridae) is acknowledged as the major pest species of the white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, throughout the world. Components of the female-produced sex pheromone of this species were identified previously as C15-C18 n-alkanes, with the major component n-heptadecane, and shown to be attractive to L. mali. However, a subsequent report could not repeat this work. We reinvestigated the sex pheromone of this species by confirming that virgin females were attractive to males in a Y-tube bioassay and by collection of extracts from virgin females. Extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection, and by the less widely-used technique of gas chromatography coupled to a behavioral bioassay to detect compounds causing wing-fanning and copulatory abdomen curling in males. A single, behaviorally-active pheromone component was isolated and characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. This component was definitively not n-heptadecane or any of the other C15-C19 n-alkanes reported previously, but is proposed to be a sesquiterpene alcohol having analytical characteristics that closely matched those of reference germacradienols. PMID:26585193

  7. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Sonthalia, Sidharth; Verma, Prashant

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients. PMID:23974580

  8. Reduced productivity in adult yellowfever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, P.H.; Hamm, W.J.; Garcia, F.; Garcia, M.; Schirf, V.

    1989-04-01

    Male and female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes of the laboratory strain ROCK were irradiated with 130 mw of argon 514.5 nm laser microbeams for 0.04, 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5 s, respectively. Egg production, percentage hatch, and productivity (average number of adults surviving after 3 wk) were used to assess mutagenic effects. Mortality was high for males in all laser radiation groups and increased with time of exposure. Except for the group treated for 0.25 s, significant reductions in total F1 progeny also were demonstrated for all other experimentals when male parents were exposed to laser radiation. Females showed a high mortality when subjected to 0.4- and 0.5-s laser radiation. No F1 progeny were produced when parental females were exposed for 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5 s. Numbers of F1 progeny from females exposed to 0.04 s of laser radiation were significantly reduced. A comparison of weekly mean number of progeny showed that the important differences in productivity occurred during the first and second week, respectively, when either male or female adult parents were subjected to laser radiation.

  9. Psychopathology in Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Angela; Howie, Pauline; Starling, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio-demographic, family and trauma variables. Method: One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and…

  10. Female Dropouts: A New Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, Janice; Roach, Virginia

    Early socialization, cognitive differences, treatment by teachers, and curricular choices have a negative effect on both the self-esteem and academic achievement of young females. Program designers and policymakers should incorporate the following approaches into female dropout prevention programs: (1) academic encouragement; (2) counseling to…

  11. Female Adolescent Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, Max, Ed.

    This book emphasizes female adolescents' healthy development within a psychoanalytic frame of reference for what is normative, that also indicates the boundaries of and transitions to what is deviant. The book's 12 articles relate to 3 general topics. The two articles in part 1 of the book, which addresses biological issues, are "Female Pubertal…

  12. Dispelling Myths about Female Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Ethel

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are several myths and stereotypes about female physiology. Also included are new technical advances concerning the female reproduction physiology, new techniques in hormone measurement, hypotholomic-pituitary-ovarian axis, hormones and the monthly cycles, dysmenorrhea, menopause, infertility, and future areas for investigation about the…

  13. Female Superintendent Longevity in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlfing, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, through narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000), the leadership evolution of five female superintendents in California with longevity of 5 or more years in their current school district positions. The research question addressed was, "How do California female superintendents evolve to…

  14. Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

  15. OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JEFFS, GEORGE A.

    OCCUPATIONAL TITLES USABLE IN ASSESSING OCCUPATIONAL GOALS OFSENIOR HIGH SCHOOL FEMALES WERE SELECTED AS THE FIRST STEP IN ESTABLISHING AN OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES. A LIST OF 117 OCCUPATIONAL TITLES, COMPILED FROM THREE PREVIOUS STUDIES AND "THE DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES," WAS RATED ON A SIX-LEVEL SCALE AS TO ITS GENERAL…

  16. Implications of Rhagoletis zephyria, 1894 (Diptera: Tephritidae), captures for apple maggot surveys and fly ecology in Washington state, U.S.A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an introduced quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in Washington state, U.S.A. A morphologically similar native fly, Rhagoletis zephyria Snow, 1894, infests snowberries (Symphoricarpos spp.) ...

  17. Checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland: Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere; Winqvist, Kaj; Zeegers, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae, Asilidae, Athericidae, Bombyliidae, Mythicomyiidae, Rhagionidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae. PMID:25337015

  18. Desire and the female analyst.

    PubMed

    Schaverien, J

    1996-04-01

    The literature on erotic transference and countertransference between female analyst and male patient is reviewed and discussed. It is known that female analysts are less likely than their male colleagues to act out sexually with their patients. It has been claimed that a) male patients do not experience sustained erotic transferences, and b) female analysts do not experience erotic countertransferences with female or male patients. These views are challenged and it is argued that, if there is less sexual acting out by female analysts, it is not because of an absence of eros in the therapeutic relationship. The literature review covers material drawn from psychoanalysis, feminist psychotherapy, Jungian analysis, as well as some sociological and cultural sources. It is organized under the following headings: the gender of the analyst, sexual acting out, erotic transference, maternal and paternal transference, gender and power, countertransference, incest taboo--mothers and sons and sexual themes in the transference. PMID:8666556

  19. Effect of feeding by larvae of Inopus rubriceps (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) on development and growth of sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Samson, R I

    2001-10-01

    Pot experiments were used to investigate the effect of root-feeding larvae of the soldier fly Inopus rubriceps (Macquart) on shoot production from sugarcane planting pieces (setts) and on growth and ratooning of sugarcane plants. Shoot elongation was inhibited while setts were exposed to larvae, and it resumed when larvae were removed. Infested setts produced a greater weight of roots than uninfested setts. Similar symptoms were induced by mechanical root pruning, suggesting that the effect of soldier fly larvae on setts may be a redirection of growth from the shoot to roots due to root damage. Larvae had a greater effect on shoot production at lower temperature, particularly in cultivar 'Q151', which had a higher temperature threshold than 'CP44-101'. Temperature and cultivar may influence the harmful effect of soldier fly larvae on sett germination by changing the differential rates of plant growth and larval feeding. When growing plants were exposed to larvae, the infested plants were slightly smaller at harvest and subsequently produced many fewer ratoon shoots from underground buds than uninfested plants. Shoot elongation from buds was also inhibited in setts cut from the above-ground stalks of infested plants. Analysis of nutrient levels in plants did not indicate the mechanism for ratooning inhibition, because levels of time 10 elements analyzed were at least as high or higher in infested plants. Infestation was associated with an increased level of sucrose and a reduced level of fructose in stalks. The inhibitory effect of larval feeding on ratooning was not reversed when larvae were removed from pots 10 wk before harvest. However, new stubble produced from infested plants then ratooned normally after a second harvest, provided the new roots were not attacked. The symptoms of larval feeding in growing plants are unexplained, but may be caused by the prolonged withdrawal of sap from roots or the injection of some inhibitory substance by larvae. PMID:11681671

  20. Types of Neotropical Mycetophilidae (Diptera) at the Natural History Museum collection, London.

    PubMed

    De Souza Amorim, Dalton; Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira

    2013-01-01

    The primary types, secondary types, and some other identified specimens of 407 Neotropical species of Mycetophilidae at the Natural History Museum, London were examined. Notes were made on the condition of the primary types, their labels, and presence of other specimens in the type series. Additional comments are made about types, secondary types and some few other cases worth of note mistakenly determined to be at the NHM. Lectotypes are designated for syntypes of 17 species: Epicypta insipiens (Williston), Epicypta dolosa (Williston), Leia amabilis Williston, Leia concinna(Williston), Leia nitens (Williston), Megalopelma cellularis Edwards, Megalopelma fraudulenta (Williston), Megalopelma platyura Edwards, Mycetophila borgmeieri Edwards, Mycomya meridionalis Johannsen, Monoclona digitata Edwards, Mycomya peruviana Edwards, Neoempheria maculipennis Williston, Procycloneura paranensisEdwards, Stenophragma nigricauda Edwards, Tetragoneura simplex Edwards, Trizygia nitens Edwards. Three species–Leia biamputata Edwards, Leia fuscicornis Edwards, and Neallodia flavida Edwards–previously considered subjective junior synonyms in the literature were revalidated. Mycetophila rufoides nom. nov. is proposed for Mycetophila rufaLane (preocc. Macquart 1826). Mycetophila dolosa Williston is transferred to Epicypta, without being assigned to a particular subgenus. The type of Sceptonia paiaguensis Freeman is formally considered lost. Photographs taken of holotypes and lectotypes are included, helping taxonomic documentation and in some extent, species identification. After the nomenclatural acts in this paper, the Natural History Museum, London, now holds holotypes of 292 Neotropical species of the Mycetophilidae, 23 lectotypes, syntypes of 3 species that have syntypes in other collections, paratypes of 81 species that have holotypes in other collections, identified specimens of 5 species with types lost and specimens of three species which fit in other cases.

  1. Behavioral responses of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to visual stimuli under laboratory, semi-field, and field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in the United States that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistenc...

  2. Sucrose mixed with spinosad enhances kill and reduces oviposition of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under low-food conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whether sugar mixed with insecticides enhances kill of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), may depend on insecticide rate and food availability. Here, the hypothesis that sucrose mixed with the insecticide spinosad (in the Entrust® SC formulation) enhance...

  3. Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

  4. Three new genera and three new species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Rubiaceae from Guadeloupe, French West Indies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new genera of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Faramitella Gagné, Anapeza Gagné and Pellacara Gagné, each with one new species, are described. The new species are from leaf galls on Rubiaceae collected in Guadeloupe, F.W.I.: Faramitella planicauda Gagné, new species, was reared from Fara...

  5. House fly (Musca domestica) (Diptera: Muscidae) mortality after exposure to commercial fungal formulations in a sugar bait

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several strains are commercially available. Three str...

  6. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current artificial diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae is a semi-solid medium consisting of dry whole bovine blood, poultry egg powder and a milk substitute mixed with a bulking and solidifying agent and water. To reduce the mass r...

  7. An annotated checklist of the horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon with remarks on ecology and zoogeography: Pangoniinae and Chrysopsinae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon is fragmentary while in most neighboring countries it has been fairly well researched. Therefore USDA-CMAVE scientists and Israeli scientists worked cooperatively to survey the species of horse flies in the Lebanon. Chrysops flavipes ...

  8. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  9. Assessment of Navel oranges, Clementine tangerines and Rutaceous fruits as hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Export of Citrus spp., widely cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics, may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. Two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have...

  10. Temperature-mediated kill and oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the presence of Spinosad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the...

  11. Activity patterns and parasitism rates of fire ant decapitating flies (Diptera:Phoridae:Pseudacteon spp.) in their native Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: This work describes the annual and daily activity patterns of two parasitoid fly communities of the fire ant S. invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in their native Argentina. Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae) flies were censused monthly for one year at two sites in northwestern Corr...

  12. The geographic distribution of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the western United States: Introduced species or native population?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of commercially grown domesticated apple (Malus domestica) in North America. The shift of the fly from its native host hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple in the eastern U.S. is often cited as an example of inc...

  13. New records of Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their host plants in western Montana, U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information exists concerning the distribution of Rhagoletis fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the state of Montana in the western U.S.A. In this study, the presence of and host plant use by Rhagoletis species are documented in northwestern Montana. The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagolet...

  14. Phytomyza omlandi spec. nov. – the first species of Agromyzidae (Diptera: Schizophora) reared from the family Gelsemiaceae (Asteridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of leafmining fly in the genus Phytomyza Fallén (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is described from Gelsemium Juss, representing the first known instance of an agromyzid feeding on Gelsemiaceae (Asteridae). The host plant, G. sempervirens (L.) (the “evening trumpetflower”), and possibly also G. r...

  15. Identification of female-produced sex pheromone of the honey locust gall midge, Dasineura gleditchiae.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Béla; Kárpáti, Zsolt; Szocs, Gábor; Hall, David R

    2009-06-01

    The honey locust gall midge, Dasineura gleditchiae Osten Sacken 1866 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is the main pest of ornamental varieties of the honey locust tree, Gleditsia triacanthos L., in North America, and is now becoming a pest of concern in Europe. Female midges were observed to emerge in the early morning with their ovipositor extended until they mated. Volatiles were collected from virgin females in a closed-loop stripping apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to electroantennographic (EAG) recording from the antenna of a male midge. A single EAG response was observed, which was assumed to be to the major component of the female sex pheromone. This was identified as (Z)-2-acetoxy-8-heptadecene by comparison of its mass spectrum and GC retention times on different columns with those of synthetic standards and by micro-analytical reactions. This compound was synthesized, and the individual enantiomers were produced by kinetic resolution with lipase from Candida antarctica. Analysis of the naturally-produced compound on a cyclodextrin GC column indicated it was the (R)-enantiomer. In EAG dose-response measurements, the (R)-enantiomer alone or in the racemic mixture evoked significant responses from the antennae of male D. gleditchiae, whereas the (S)-enantiomer did not. In field trapping tests, the (R)-enantiomer attracted male D. gleditchiae. The racemic compound was equally attractive, but the (S)-enantiomer was not attractive. Both the pure (R)-enantiomer or racemic (Z)-2-acetoxy-8-heptadecene, applied to red rubber septa in a dose range of 3-30 microg, constitute a strongly attractive bait in sticky traps for monitoring the flight of D. gleditchiae. PMID:19459010

  16. Breakfast of champions or kiss of death? Survival and sexual performance of protein-fed, sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Yuval, B.; Maor, M.; Levy, K.; Kaspi, R.; Taylor, P.; Shelly, T.

    2007-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is increasingly being used around the world to control Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mediterranean fruit fly as part of an area-wide integrated approach. One option that may improve the effectiveness of the SIT, by increasing the sexual competitiveness of released sterile males, consists of feeding males protein during the post-teneral stage, a diet that increases sexual performance of wild males. We examine the effects of diet on the successive hurdles males must overcome in order to inseminate females, i.e., joining leks, copulating females, having their sperm stored and inhibition of female remating. In addition, we address the effects of diet on post-release foraging success, longevity, and the ability to withstand starvation. While protein feeding universally increases the sexual success of wild males, its effect on sterile males varies with strain, experimental settings, and environmental conditions. In some cases, treatments that resulted in the best sexual performance were significantly associated with increased vulnerability to starvation. However, no particular diet affected the ability of sterile males to find nutrients in the field when these where available. We suggest it may be better to release relatively short-lived flies that are highly competitive, rather than long-lived, sexually ineffective ones. (author) [Spanish] El uso de la tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) esta aumentando alrededor del mundo para el control de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), la mosca mediterranea de la fruta como parte de un enfoque integrado por toda el area. Una opcion que puede mejorar la eficiencia de TIE, por medio del aumento de la capacidad de los machos esteriles liberados para competir, consiste en la alimentacion de los machos con proteina durante la etapa de pos-teneral, una dieta que aumenta el desempeno sexual de los machos naturales. Nosotros examinamos los efectos de la

  17. Revision of the Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch (Diptera: Periscelididae).

    PubMed

    Ale-Rocha, Rosaly; Freitas, Geovânia; Mathis, Wayne N

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch is revised and now includes 3 species: Marbenia cinerea, sp. nov., Marbenia pallida, sp. nov. and Marbenia peculiaris Malloch, 1931. The genus is herein recorded from the amazonian region of South America (Bolivia, Brazil and Ecuador), and characters of male and female terminalia are illustrated for the first time.

  18. Revision of the Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch (Diptera: Periscelididae).

    PubMed

    Ale-Rocha, Rosaly; Freitas, Geovânia; Mathis, Wayne N

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch is revised and now includes 3 species: Marbenia cinerea, sp. nov., Marbenia pallida, sp. nov. and Marbenia peculiaris Malloch, 1931. The genus is herein recorded from the amazonian region of South America (Bolivia, Brazil and Ecuador), and characters of male and female terminalia are illustrated for the first time. PMID:25544089

  19. Ammonia Formulations and Capture of Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha, especially the reproductive age females, are attracted in numbers to protein baits. Synthetic lures based on the principle components of protein degradation, especially ammonia along with acetic acid, were tested against three of the most economically important ...

  20. Phylogeny and classification of tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phylogeny and classification of tribe Aedini are delineated based on a cladistic analysis of 336 characters from eggs, fourth-instar larvae, pupae, adult females and males, and immature stage habitat coded for 270 exemplar species, including an outgroup of four species from different non-aedine ...

  1. The culture of female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Morris, R

    1996-12-01

    The issue of female circumcision takes on special significance as more women migrate to the United States from countries where the practice has religious and traditional underpinnings. Female circumcision is a problem unfamiliar to most Western health care practitioners. This article describes an ethnographic study of the types of female circumcision, the reasons for and against the practice, the health implications of this practice, and cultural attitudes of circumcised women both in Western Africa and as migrant refugees living in the United States. Ethical dilemmas in dealing with this practice and implications for nurses and health care providers are discussed.

  2. The female runner: gender specifics.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Stacy L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2010-07-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of female runners of all ages and abilities in the past 35 years. Women who participate in running and sports are generally healthier and have higher self-esteem. However, unique medical and orthopedic issues exist for the female runner. This article reviews the history of women in sports, physiologic and biomechanic differences between genders, the pregnant runner, knee osteoarthritis, an update on the female athlete triad and the relationship between amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction associated with athletics. PMID:20610034

  3. How Much Can Diptera-Borne Viruses Persist over Unfavourable Seasons?

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Maud V. P.; Balenghien, Thomas; Seegers, Henri; Langlais, Michel; Ezanno, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Diptera are vectors of major human and animal pathogens worldwide, such as dengue, West-Nile or bluetongue viruses. In seasonal environments, vector-borne disease occurrence varies with the seasonal variations of vector abundance. We aimed at understanding how diptera-borne viruses can persist for years under seasonal climates while vectors overwinter, which should stop pathogen transmission during winter. Modeling is a relevant integrative approach for investigating the large panel of persistence mechanisms evidenced through experimental and observational studies on specific biological systems. Inter-seasonal persistence of virus may occur in hosts due to viremia duration, chronic infection, or vertical transmission, in vector resistance stages, and due to a low continuous transmission in winter. Using a generic stochastic modeling framework, we determine the parameter ranges under which virus persistence could occur via these different mechanisms. The parameter ranges vary according to the host demographic regime: for a high host population turnover, persistence increases with the mechanism parameter, whereas for a low turnover, persistence is maximal for an optimal range of parameter. Persistence in hosts due to long viremia duration in a few hosts or due to vertical transmission is an effective strategy for the virus to overwinter. Unexpectedly, a low continuous transmission during winter does not give rise to certain persistence, persistence barely occurring for a low turnover of the susceptible population. We propose a generic framework adaptable to most diptera-borne diseases. This framework allows ones to assess the plausibility of each persistence mechanism in real epidemiological situations and to compare the range of parameter values theoretically allowing persistence with the range of values determined experimentally. PMID:24023929

  4. A transgenic embryonic sexing system for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Schetelig, Marc F; Handler, Alfred M

    2012-10-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is a highly successful biologically-based strategy to control pest insect populations that relies on the large-scale release of sterilized males to render females in the field non-reproductive. For medfly, a mutant-based sexing system is available as well as a transgenic system where a tetracycline-suppressible (Tet-off) toxic molecule is female-specifically produced. However, the former classical genetic system took many years to refine, and the latter system results in female death by a poorly understood mechanism, primarily in the pupal stage after rearing costs have been incurred. Here we describe a Tet-off transgenic embryonic sexing system (TESS) for Anastrepha suspensa that uses a driver construct having the promoter from the embryo-specific A. suspensa serendipity α gene, linked to the Tet-transactivator. This was used to drive the expression of a phospho-mutated variant of the pro-apoptotic cell death gene, Alhid, from Anastrepha ludens. The system uses a sex-specific intron splicing cassette linked to a cell death gene lethal effector. Progeny from TESS strains heterozygous for the transgene combination were 80-100% males, whereas four double homozygous TESS strains had 100% male-only progeny, with female death limited primarily to embryogenesis. In a large-scale test, more than 30,000 eggs from two strains resulted in 100% male-only progeny. The transgenic sexing approach described here is highly effective and cost-efficient by eliminating most, if not all, female insects early in embryogenesis using a well-characterized apoptotic mechanism. PMID:22858603

  5. The Biting Midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Is Capable of Developing Late Stage Infections of Leishmania enriettii

    PubMed Central

    Seblova, Veronika; Sadlova, Jovana; Vojtkova, Barbora; Votypka, Jan; Carpenter, Simon; Bates, Paul Andrew; Volf, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite their importance in animal and human health, the epidemiology of species of the Leishmania enriettii complex remains poorly understood, including the identity of their biological vectors. Biting midges of the genus Forcipomyia (Lasiohelea) have been implicated in the transmission of a member of the L. enriettii complex in Australia, but the far larger and more widespread genus Culicoides has not been investigated for the potential to include vectors to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Females from colonies of the midges Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen and C. sonorensis Wirth & Jones and the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Nevia (Diptera: Psychodidae) were experimentally infected with two different species of Leishmania, originating from Australia (Leishmania sp. AM-2004) and Brazil (Leishmania enriettii). In addition, the infectivity of L. enriettii infections generated in guinea pigs and golden hamsters for Lu. longipalpis and C. sonorensis was tested by xenodiagnosis. Development of L. enriettii in Lu. longipalpis was relatively poor compared to other Leishmania species in this permissive vector. Culicoides nubeculosus was not susceptible to infection by parasites from the L. enriettii complex. In contrast, C. sonorensis developed late stage infections with colonization of the thoracic midgut and the stomodeal valve. In hamsters, experimental infection with L. enriettii led only to mild symptoms, while in guinea pigs L. enriettii grew aggressively, producing large, ulcerated, tumour-like lesions. A high proportion of C. sonorensis (up to 80%) feeding on the ears and nose of these guinea pigs became infected. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that L. enriettii can develop late stage infections in the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis. This midge was found to be susceptible to L. enriettii to a similar degree as Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum in South America. Our results support the hypothesis that some

  6. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-12-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland.

  7. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen☆

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-01-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland. PMID:24533338

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic midge Parochlus steinenii (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghee; Kim, Hanna; Shin, Seung Chul

    2016-09-01

    Parochlus steinenii is a winged midge found in the Antarctic Peninsula and its offshore islands. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. steinenii, which is comprised of 16 803 nucleotides and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and the large (rrnL) and small (rrnS) rRNA genes. Its total A + T content is 72.5%. The PCG arrangement of P. steinenii is identical to that of the ancestral Diptera ground pattern. This is the first report on the mitogenome sequence of an Antarctic midge, and provides insights into the evolution of dipterans in Antarctica. PMID:26642812

  9. A Case of Oral Myiasis Caused by Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Mun; Ryu, Seung-Min; Kwon, Sang-Chang; Ha, Jun-Ouk; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Soon-Myung; Lee, Soon-Il; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Cha, Hee-Jae

    2013-01-01

    We report here a case of oral myiasis in the Republic of Korea. The patient was a 37-year-old man with a 30-year history of Becker's muscular dystrophy. He was intubated due to dyspnea 8 days prior to admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). A few hours after the ICU admission, 43 fly larvae were found during suction of the oral cavity. All maggots were identified as the third instars of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by morphology. We discussed on the characteristics of myiasis acquired in Korea, including the infection risk and predisposing factors. PMID:23467858

  10. Preservation of iridescent colours in Phorinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera: Tachinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Downes, Stephen; Simonis, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Iridescent blue-green colours are exhibited by various organisms including several taxa in the Tachinidae (Diptera) with notable examples within the Afrotropical members of the genus Phorinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. The vivid colouration observed in life quickly fades to a dull golden-yellow when a specimen is dried. Although well known, no published explanation has been given for this phenomenon. New information We illustrate the mechanism associated with this colour change. We also test and propose technical alternatives to retain the living colours in dried specimens. PMID:26929707

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic midge Parochlus steinenii (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghee; Kim, Hanna; Shin, Seung Chul

    2016-09-01

    Parochlus steinenii is a winged midge found in the Antarctic Peninsula and its offshore islands. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. steinenii, which is comprised of 16 803 nucleotides and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and the large (rrnL) and small (rrnS) rRNA genes. Its total A + T content is 72.5%. The PCG arrangement of P. steinenii is identical to that of the ancestral Diptera ground pattern. This is the first report on the mitogenome sequence of an Antarctic midge, and provides insights into the evolution of dipterans in Antarctica.

  12. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia. PMID:15831010

  13. New neotropical species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns.

    PubMed

    Norrbom, Allen L; Neder, Lilia Estela

    2014-06-24

    Four species of Trupanea Shrank (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns are described from the Neotropical Region: T. dimorphica (Argentina), T. fasciata (Argentina), T. polita (Argentina and Bolivia), and T. trivittata (Argentina). Celidosphenella Hendel, 1914 and Melanotrypana Hering, 1944 are considered new synonyms of Trupanea, and the following species are transferred from Celidosphenella to Trupanea: Acinia bella Blanchard, 1852; Acanthiophilus benoisti Séguy, 1933; Tephritis diespasmena Schiner, 1868; Celidosphenella maculata Hendel, 1914; Sphenella poecila Schiner, 1868; Trypanea simulata Malloch, 1933; Trupanea stonei Stuardo, 1946; and Trypanea vidua Hering, 1942. Aphyllocladus spartioides Wedd. (Asteraceae: Mutisieae) is reported as a probable host plant for Trupanea dimorphica.

  14. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia.

  15. Host Plant Record for the Fruit Flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S.; Lima, Rita C. A.; Zucchi, Roberto A.

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the “Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce”. This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed. PMID:20302458

  16. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-12-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland. PMID:24533338

  17. [Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of Smir marshes (northwest of Morocco): inventory and biotypology].

    PubMed

    El Joubari, M; Louah, A; Himmi, O

    2014-02-01

    The Smir marshes are a favorable environment for the growth of many mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae). The inventory of Culicidae species reveals 14 species, is 33% of the species of Morocco, distributed in four genera: Culex, Culiseta, Ochlerotatus and Anopheles (with 5, 2, 5 and 2 species respectively) which Anopheles labranchiae, vector of the agent of the malaria in Morocco until 2004. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal mesological affinities and we tried to explain the biotypology of mosquito populations of the site. These analyzes revealed several groups of stations and species according to various parameters, especially salinity.

  18. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene): the genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken, 1860.

    PubMed

    Kania, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    A revision of the genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Four species--E. baltica Alexander, E. brevipalpa Loew, E. longirostris Loew, and E. pulchella Loew--are redescribed and documented with photographs and drawings. In addition, two new species of the genus are described: Elephantomyia bozenae sp. nov., and Elephantomyia irinae sp. nov. All these fossil species are placed within the subgenus Elephantomyia. A key to the extinct species of Elephantomyia is provided, and the genus' ecological pattern and evolutionary aspects are discussed. PMID:25706127

  19. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic Amber (Eocene): The Genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken, 1860

    PubMed Central

    Kania, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    A revision of the genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Four species—E. baltica Alexander, E. brevipalpa Loew, E. longirostris Loew, and E. pulchella Loew—are redescribed and documented with photographs and drawings. In addition, two new species of the genus are described: Elephantomyia bozenae sp. nov., and Elephantomyia irinae sp. nov. All these fossil species are placed within the subgenus Elephantomyia. A key to the extinct species of Elephantomyia is provided, and the genus’ ecological pattern and evolutionary aspects are discussed. PMID:25706127

  20. Comparison of emergence traps of different shape and translucency in the trapping of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Steinke, S; Lühken, R; Kroischke, F; Timmermann, E; Kiel, E

    2016-06-15

    Various types of emergence traps are available for investigations of the breeding habitats of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). In order to assess the potential impact of the trap design on the trapping success, we compared the efficiency of opaque and white (more translucent) emergence traps and two trap shapes (cone-shaped and quadratic), to sample Culicoides emerging from cowpats. Significantly higher numbers of Culicoides chiopterus and Culicoides dewulfi were trapped with opaque traps, while there was no obvious effect of the trap shape. There were no distinct differences in the microclimate among different trap types. PMID:27198792

  1. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E.

    2007-03-15

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [Spanish] La integracion de la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE) en el combate integrado de la mosca Sudamericana de la fruta, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), es una alternativa interesante para reemplazar al control quimico en aquellas zonas donde esta especie es simpatrica con Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) u otros tefritidos para los que ya se utiliza la TIE. La implementacion de la TIE requiere del desarrollo de un protocolo de cria masiva que sea costo-efectivo. En este trabajo presentamos parametros demograficos y de control de calidad de la cepa criada en la Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considerando a la jaula de cria como unidad reproductiva, se observo

  2. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement

  3. Building emissions: Female thermal demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hoof, Joost

    2015-12-01

    The temperature in many office buildings is set according to a method from the 1960s. Consideration of the different metabolic rates of male and females is necessary to increase comfort and reduce energy consumption.

  4. Eating Disorders among Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgen, Jorunn Sundgot; Corbin, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes a study of 168 college women to determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eating disorders are problems among female athletes. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  5. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C. PMID:23515242

  6. Female suicide bombers and burdensomeness.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2010-02-01

    Brief case descriptions from journalists are presented to illustrate the role of traumatic experiences, the sense of being a burden to their families, and shame and humiliation in female suicide bombers. PMID:20402439

  7. The functionality of female reciprocal calls in the Iberian midwife toad (Alytes cisternasii): female-female acoustic competition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Jaime

    2002-11-01

    Female midwife toads (genus Alytes) emit highly variable reciprocal calls of unclear function prior to and during courtship. In some species, female-female competition, expressed as physical fighting, has been reported. Males of Majorcan midwife toads (Alytes muletensis) show phonotactic response to female calls, and females of Iberian midwife toads (Alytes cisternasii) respond differently according to the male call characteristics. In this study, I test the hypothesis of female-female acoustic competition as an additional function of female reciprocal calls. Playback tests indicate that female calls are not clearly involved in female acoustic competition in the Iberian midwife toad, therefore female calls could be directed at males rather than towards competitive females.

  8. mei-38 Is Required for Chromosome Segregation During Meiosis in Drosophila Females

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Changjian; Singaram, Vinod; McKim, Kim S.

    2008-01-01

    Meiotic chromosome segregation occurs in Drosophila oocytes on an acentrosomal spindle, which raises interesting questions regarding spindle assembly and function. One is how to organize a bipolar spindle without microtubule organizing centers at the poles. Another question is how to orient the chromosomes without kinetochore capture of microtubules that grow from the poles. We have characterized the mei-38 gene in Drosophila and found it may be required for chromosome organization within the karyosome. Nondisjunction of homologous chromosomes occurs in mei-38 mutants primarily at the first meiotic division in females but not in males where centrosomes are present. Most meiotic spindles in mei-38 oocytes are bipolar but poorly organized, and the chromosomes appear disorganized at metaphase. mei-38 encodes a novel protein that is conserved in the Diptera and may be a member of a multigene family. Mei-38 was previously identified (as ssp1) due to a role in mitotic spindle assembly in a Drosophila cell line. MEI-38 protein localizes to a specific population of spindle microtubules, appearing to be excluded from the overlap of interpolar microtubules in the central spindle. We suggest MEI-38 is required for the stability of parallel microtubules, including the kinetochore microtubules. PMID:18757915

  9. Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) colonising large carcasses in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Mądra, Anna; Jarmusz, Mateusz; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2015-06-01

    Sarcophagidae are an important element of carrion insect community. Unfortunately, results on larval and adult Sarcophagidae from forensic carrion studies are virtually absent mostly due to the taxonomic problems with species identification of females and larvae. The impact of this taxon on decomposition of large carrion has not been reliably evaluated. During several pig carcass studies in Poland, large body of data on adult and larval Sarcophagidae was collected. We determined (1) assemblages of adult flesh flies visiting pig carrion in various habitats, (2) species of flesh flies which breed in pig carcasses, and (3) temporal distribution of flesh fly larvae during decomposition. Due to species identification of complete material, including larvae, females, and males, it was possible for the first time to reliably answer several questions related to the role of Sarcophagidae in decomposition of large carrion and hence define their forensic importance. Fifteen species of flesh flies were found to visit pig carcasses, with higher diversity and abundance in grasslands as compared to forests. Sex ratio biased towards females was observed only for Sarcophaga argyrostoma, S. caerulescens, S. similis and S. carnaria species group. Gravid females and larvae were collected only in the case of S. argyrostoma, S. caerulescens, S. melanura and S. similis. Sarcophaga caerulescens and S. similis bred regularly in carcasses, while S. argyrostoma was recorded only occasionally. First instar larvae of flesh flies were recorded on carrion earlier or concurrently with first instar larvae of blowflies. Third instar larvae of S. caerulescens were usually observed before the appearance of the third instar blowfly larvae. These results contest the view that flesh flies colonise carcasses later than blowflies. Sarcophaga caerulescens is designated as a good candidate for a broad forensic use in Central European cases.

  10. Photosynthesis modulates the plant feeding of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Schlein, Y; Jacobson, R L

    2000-05-01

    Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli), the vector of Leishmania major (Yakimoff & Schokhor), feeds on plants in desert habitats in the Jordan Valley. At the end of the dry summer, the life span of sand flies is short and the amount of sugars in their guts is small. In this season the plants are under the stress of heat and dehydration. This stress arrests the photosynthesis and decreases the amounts of the main end products, sucrose and starch. We presumed that the paucity of sugars in the sand fly plant tissue diet resulted from the arrest of photosynthesis. To test this assumption, we compared the feeding of sand flies on branches of Capparis spinosa (L.) that had been kept for 24 h in darkness and on branches cut after a normal day of photosynthesis. In darkness, the branches had lost more than half of their sugar content. Afterward they were fed upon overnight by 45.2% of female and 14.3% of male sand flies. A higher proportion of 81.0% females and 38.7% males fed on branches from natural conditions and these fed flies were significantly heavier. Laboratory experiments also showed that plant tissue meals of P. papatasi often include starch grains. Such grains were found also in 50% of field-caught males and females. The nutritive potential of plant tissues was demonstrated by the 33-d median survival of P. papatasi series that had been maintained on fresh C. spinosa branches and water.

  11. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    PubMed

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity.

  12. The mitochondrial genome of the garden pea leafminer Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851) (Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, You-Zhu; Jin, Gui-Hua; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Here we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the garden pea leafminer Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) (GenBank accession no. KR047789). This is the first species with sequenced mitochondrial genome from the genus Chromatomyia. The current length with partial A  +  T-rich region of this mitochondrial genome is 15,320 bp with an A  +  T content of 77.54%. All the 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes were sequenced, except for the A  +  T-rich region. As in most other sequenced mitochondrial genomes of Diptera, there is no rearrangement compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with the ATN start codon except for the gene cox1, which uses abnormal TTG. The A  +  T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnI with a sequenced length of 503 bp. Phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method based on the first and second codon positions of the 13 protein-coding genes recovered the monophyly of Agromyzidae with one species of Chromatomyia and four species of Liriomyza in our study. The superfamily Oestroidea (with Agromyzidae in analysis) is sister to the Opomyzoidea.

  13. Proteolytic activity regarding Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval excretions and secretions.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Yudi T; Moreno-Pérez, Darwin A; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Bello, Felio J

    2013-12-01

    Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a medically important necrophagous fly which is used for establishing the post-mortem interval. Diptera maggots release proteolytic enzymes contained in larval excretion and secretion (ES) products playing a key role in digestion. Special interest in proteolytic enzymes has also been aroused regarding understanding their role in wound healing since they degrade necrotic tissue during larval therapy. This study was thus aimed at identifying and characterising S. magellanica proteolytic enzyme ES products for the first time. These products were obtained from first-, second- and third-instar larvae taken from a previously-established colony. ES proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and their proteolytic activity was characterised by zymograms and inhibition assays involving BAPNA (Nα-benzoyl-dl-Arg-p-nitroanilide) and SAPNA substrates, using synthetic inhibitors. The protein profile ranged from ∼69kDa to ∼23kDa; several of them coincided with the Lucilia sericata ES protein profile. Serine-protease hydrolysis activity (measured by zymogram) was confirmed when a ∼25kDa band disappeared upon ES incubation with PMSF inhibitor at pH 7.8. Analysis of larval ES proteolytic activity on BAPNA and SAPNA substrates (determined by using TLCK and TPCK specific inhibitors) suggested a greater amount of trypsin-like protease. These results support the need for further experiments aimed at validating S. magellanica use in larval therapy.

  14. Identification through DNA barcoding of Tabanidae (Diptera) vectors of surra disease in India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Dhriti; Kumar, Vikas; Maity, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Biswatosh; Tyagi, Kaomud; Singha, Devkant; Kundu, Shantanu; Laskar, Boni Amin; Naskar, Atanu; Rath, Shibananda

    2015-10-01

    Horse flies and deer flies are common names applied to members of the family Tabanidae (Diptera). Tabanid flies are pestiferous and of veterinary and medical importance, with about 244 species in India. They are major vectors of Trypanosoma evansi that causes trypanosomiasis (surra disease). Lack of stable morphological characters, and scarcity of taxonomic expertise, is major impediments for accurate species identification of these important pest and disease vectors. Molecular data, especially DNA barcode data, has been widely used in the identification of Diptera of economic importance. We evaluated the utility of DNA barcode data to discriminate the vectors of surra disease (trypanosomiasis) from India. We used barcode gap and reciprocal monophyly (neighbor-joining and Bayesian tree) criteria to analyze barcode data. A total of 46 specimens belonging to 7 species under four genera in two subfamilies were used for this study. DNA barcode data was not available previously for these species. Analysis revealed that all morphologically identifiable species can be discriminated using DNA barcoding data. Further, our study clearly demonstrated the presence of cryptic species in Chrysops dispar. Moreover, we revealed that closely related species without stable taxonomic distinguishing characters in the "Tabanus striatus species complex" can be discriminated using DNA barcode data. PMID:26126785

  15. Octenol as attractant to Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera:Psychodidae:Phlebotominae) in the field.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M C; Barbieri, K; Silva, M C E; Graminha, M A S; Casanova, C; Andrade, A J; Eiras, A E

    2011-01-01

    The kairomone octenol is known as attractive to hematophagous Diptera such as mosquitoes, tsetse flies, and midges. There is little evidence that traps baited with octenol are also effective in attracting phlebotomine sand flies. The present report evaluated octenol in modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps in two experiments: 1) modified CDC trap without light and 2) modified CDC trap with light. The traps were baited with octenol at concentrations of 0.5, 27, and 43 mg/h in Rincão locality, São Paulo, Brazil. Traps without octenol were used as controls. The sand fly Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto) (= Lutzomyia neivai) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) was the prevalent species (99.9%) in both experiments. The results of the experiments showed that traps baited with octenol at 27 and 43 mg/h caught significantly more N. neivai than control and octenol at 0.5 mg/h with and without light. This is the first report that shows that octenol itself is attractive to N. neivai and associated with light traps significantly increases the catches.

  16. Genomic and bioinformatic analysis of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Suwanchaichinda, C; Brattsten, L B

    2014-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) enzyme system is a major mechanism of xenobiotic biotransformation. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is required for transfer of electrons from NADPH to P450. One CPR gene was identified in the genome of the malaria-transmitting mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). The gene encodes a polypeptide containing highly conserved flavin mononucleotide-, flavin adenine dinucleotide-, and NADPH-binding domains, a unique characteristic of the reductase. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. stephensi and other known mosquito CPRs belong to a monophyletic group distinctly separated from other insects in the same order, Diptera. Amino acid residues of CPRs involved in binding of P450 and cytochrome c are conserved between A. stephensi and the Norway rat Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout (Rodentia: Muridae). However, gene structure particularly within the coding region is evidently different between the two organisms. Such difference might arise during the evolution process as also seen in the difference of P450 families and isoforms found in these organisms. CPR in the mosquito A. stephensi is expected to be active and serve as an essential component of the P450 system.

  17. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Taret, Gustavo; Haq, Ihsan Ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8-1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8-1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8-1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8-1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were equally

  18. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J. B.

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8–1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8–1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8–1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8–1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were

  19. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Taret, Gustavo; Haq, Ihsan Ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8-1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8-1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8-1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8-1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were equally

  20. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Brazdova, Andrea; Senechal, Helene; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility. PMID:27123194

  1. African Perceptions of Female Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J.; Greeff, Jaco M.; Lefevre, Carmen E.; Re, Daniel E.; Perrett, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness. PMID:23144734

  2. Female circumcision: Limiting the harm

    PubMed Central

    Kandil, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To review the strength of evidence that links many health hazards to female genital cutting. Material and methods: Literature search in Medline/Pubmed and Google scholar. Results: Female genital cutting is still practiced secretly in both underdeveloped and developed countries due to prevailing strong traditional beliefs. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that genital cutting is a harmful procedure if performed by experienced personnel in a suitable theatre with facilities for pain control and anesthesia. Cutting, however, is advised not to go beyond type I. Conclusion: Law makers around the globe are invited to review the legal situation in relation to female genital cutting. Proper counseling of parents about possible risks is a must in order to make informed decision about circumcising their daughters. The procedure should be offered to parents who insist on it; otherwise, they will do it illegally, exposing their daughters to possible complications. PMID:24627762

  3. Knee injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, M R; Ireland, M L

    1995-04-01

    Female athletes are at increased risk for certain sports-related injuries, particularly those involving the knee. Factors that contribute to this increased risk are the differences in sports undertaken and in gender anatomy and structure. Gender differences include baseline level of conditioning, lower extremity alignment, physiological laxity, pelvis width, tibial rotation and foot alignment. Sports like gymnastics and cheerleading create a noncontact environment, but can result in significant knee injuries. In quick stopping and cutting sports, females have an increased incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by noncontact mechanisms. Patellofemoral (PF) disorders are also very common in female athletes. Awareness of these facts helps the sports medicine professional make an accurate diagnosis and institute earlier treatment-focused rehabilitation with or without surgery. Further prospective and retrospective research is needed in areas of epidemiology, mechanisms, severity and types of knee injuries. The goal is to lessen the severity of certain knee injuries and to prevent others. PMID:7604201

  4. The influence of host fruit and temperature on the body size of adult Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) under laboratory and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Campos, C; Martínez-Ferrer, M T; Campos, J M; Fibla, J M; Alcaide, J; Bargues, L; Marzal, C; Garcia-Marí, F

    2011-08-01

    The adult body size of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), varies in natural conditions. Body size is an important fitness indicator in the Mediterranean fruit fly; larger individuals are more competitive at mating and have a greater dispersion capacity and fertility. Both temperature during larval development and host fruit quality have been cited as possible causes for this variation. We studied the influence of host fruit and temperature during larval development on adult body size (wing area) in the laboratory, and determined body size variation in field populations of the Mediterannean fruit fly in eastern Spain. Field flies measured had two origins: 1) flies periodically collected throughout the year in field traps from 32 citrus groves, during the period 2003-2007; and 2) flies evolved from different fruit species collected between June and December in 2003 and 2004. In the lab, wing area of male and female adults varied significantly with temperature during larval development, being larger at the lowest temperature. Adult size also was significantly different depending on the host fruit in which larvae developed. The size of the flies captured at the field, either from traps or from fruits, varied seasonally showing a gradual pattern of change along the year. The largest individuals were obtained during winter and early spring and the smallest during late summer. In field conditions, the size of the adult Mediterannean fruit fly seems apparently more related with air temperature than with host fruit. The implications of this adult size pattern on the biology of C. capitata and on the application of the sterile insect technique are discussed.

  5. Relay cropping cauliflower with lettuce as a means to manage first-generation cabbage maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) and minimize cauliflower yield loss.

    PubMed

    Parsons, C K; Dixon, P L; Colbo, M

    2007-06-01

    First-generation cabbage maggot, Delia radicum (L.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), can cause extensive damage to newly transplanted brassica crops. This study investigated the use of relay cropping, a form of intercropping that involves overlapping two crops in the same field for a short period, as a means to 1) reduce first-generation D. radicum egg numbers by disrupting female host finding and 2) minimize yield loss by reducing the time that crops overlap. Because of the high incidence of two other Delia species, Delia platura (Meigen) and Delia florilega (Zetterstedt), treatment effects on these insects also were considered. In both years of the study (2003 and 2004), there were fewer D. radicum eggs collected from the base of cauliflower, Brassica oleracea variety botrytis, plants relay cropped with lettuce, Lactuca sativa L., than in monoculture. D. platura/D. florilega also laid fewer eggs on cauliflower in the relay crop than in monoculture in 2003, but in 2004 the opposite was true, there were more D. platura/D. florilega eggs laid on the relay-cropped cauliflower. After peak D. radicum oviposition, the lettuce was harvested. Cauliflower curd weights and diameters were comparable between treatments in both years. Plant loss because of D. platura/ D. florilega feeding in the 2004 relay-cropped plots resulted in reduced yields in these plots compared with the monoculture. Although further investigation is needed into the effects of relay cropping on other pests within this system, this is the first study to demonstrate that relay cropping can reduce egg laying by D. radicum at the scale studied while minimizing competition between component crops for key resources. PMID:17598546

  6. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values.

  7. New World species of Asymphyloptera Collin (Diptera: Empididae: Clinocerinae).

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    Eight species are recognized among New World species of Asymphyloptera Collin, including seven new species (A. cajanuma sp. nov. (Ecuador), A. chilensis sp. nov. (Chile), A. chiricahua sp. nov. (USA: Arizona), A. dominica sp. nov. (Dominica), A. havasu sp. nov. (USA: Arizona), A. lutea sp. nov. (Costa Rica) and A. mexicana sp. nov. (Mexico)). The new species are described, male terminalia illustrated, distributions mapped and a key to species is presented. Two additional undescribed species based on single females, are known from Ecuador and Venezuela. PMID:26624767

  8. New World species of Asymphyloptera Collin (Diptera: Empididae: Clinocerinae).

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    Eight species are recognized among New World species of Asymphyloptera Collin, including seven new species (A. cajanuma sp. nov. (Ecuador), A. chilensis sp. nov. (Chile), A. chiricahua sp. nov. (USA: Arizona), A. dominica sp. nov. (Dominica), A. havasu sp. nov. (USA: Arizona), A. lutea sp. nov. (Costa Rica) and A. mexicana sp. nov. (Mexico)). The new species are described, male terminalia illustrated, distributions mapped and a key to species is presented. Two additional undescribed species based on single females, are known from Ecuador and Venezuela.

  9. Simulium (Gomphostilbia) merapiense sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Low, Van Lun; Zaid, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) merapiense sp. nov. is described based on females, males, pupae, and mature larvae from Yagyakarta, Java, Indonesia. This new species is placed in the Simulium epistum species-group, and is characterized by the pupal gill with eight short filaments all arising at the same level from a short stalk, somewhat enlarged basal fenestra, entirely bare pupal head and thoracic integument, and small and short larval postgenal cleft. These characters rarely are found in the subgenus. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from related species of the S. epistum species-group.

  10. Female physicists in Ugandan universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'ujanga, Florence M.; Ssentongo, Grace Spencer; Ayugi, Gertrude; Akoba, Rashida; Saphina, Biira

    2015-12-01

    For a long time, only one public university in Uganda had a department of physics. Several women graduated from this department, but not many showed much interest in pursuing higher degrees in physics. Currently, there are five public universities in Uganda with departments of physics, and there has been an increase in the number of female graduates in physics. At the same time, the number of women pursuing higher degrees in physics has increased, and the universities have registered an increase in female physics lecturers.

  11. A molecular phylogeny for the Tribe Dacini (Diptera: Tephritidae): systematic and biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Krosch, Matthew N; Schutze, Mark K; Armstrong, Karen F; Graham, Glenn C; Yeates, David K; Clarke, Anthony R

    2012-09-01

    With well over 700 species, the Tribe Dacini is one of the most species-rich clades within the dipteran family Tephritidae, the true fruit flies. Nearly all Dacini belong to one of two very large genera, Dacus Fabricius and Bactrocera Macquart. The distribution of the genera overlap in or around the Indian subcontinent, but the greatest diversity of Dacus is in Africa and the greatest diversity of Bactrocera is in south-east Asia and the Pacific. The monophyly of these two genera has not been rigorously established, with previous phylogenies only including a small number of species and always heavily biased to one genus over the other. Moreover, the subgeneric taxonomy within both genera is complex and the monophyly of many subgenera has not been explicitly tested. Previous hypotheses about the biogeography of the Dacini based on morphological reviews and current distributions of taxa have invoked an out-of-India hypothesis; however this has not been tested in a phylogenetic framework. We attempted to resolve these issues with a dated, molecular phylogeny of 125 Dacini species generated using 16S, COI, COII and white eye genes. The phylogeny shows that Bactrocera is not monophyletic, but rather consists of two major clades: Bactrocera s.s. and the 'Zeugodacus group of subgenera' (a recognised, but informal taxonomic grouping of 15 Bactrocera subgenera). This 'Zeugodacus' clade is the sister group to Dacus, not Bactrocera and, based on current distributions, split from Dacus before that genus moved into Africa. We recommend that taxonomic consideration be given to raising Zeugodacus to genus level. Supportive of predictions following from the out-of-India hypothesis, the first common ancestor of the Dacini arose in the mid-Cretaceous approximately 80mya. Major divergence events occurred during the Indian rafting period and diversification of Bactrocera apparently did not begin until after India docked with Eurasia (50-35mya). In contrast, diversification in Dacus

  12. A molecular phylogeny for the Tribe Dacini (Diptera: Tephritidae): systematic and biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Krosch, Matthew N; Schutze, Mark K; Armstrong, Karen F; Graham, Glenn C; Yeates, David K; Clarke, Anthony R

    2012-09-01

    With well over 700 species, the Tribe Dacini is one of the most species-rich clades within the dipteran family Tephritidae, the true fruit flies. Nearly all Dacini belong to one of two very large genera, Dacus Fabricius and Bactrocera Macquart. The distribution of the genera overlap in or around the Indian subcontinent, but the greatest diversity of Dacus is in Africa and the greatest diversity of Bactrocera is in south-east Asia and the Pacific. The monophyly of these two genera has not been rigorously established, with previous phylogenies only including a small number of species and always heavily biased to one genus over the other. Moreover, the subgeneric taxonomy within both genera is complex and the monophyly of many subgenera has not been explicitly tested. Previous hypotheses about the biogeography of the Dacini based on morphological reviews and current distributions of taxa have invoked an out-of-India hypothesis; however this has not been tested in a phylogenetic framework. We attempted to resolve these issues with a dated, molecular phylogeny of 125 Dacini species generated using 16S, COI, COII and white eye genes. The phylogeny shows that Bactrocera is not monophyletic, but rather consists of two major clades: Bactrocera s.s. and the 'Zeugodacus group of subgenera' (a recognised, but informal taxonomic grouping of 15 Bactrocera subgenera). This 'Zeugodacus' clade is the sister group to Dacus, not Bactrocera and, based on current distributions, split from Dacus before that genus moved into Africa. We recommend that taxonomic consideration be given to raising Zeugodacus to genus level. Supportive of predictions following from the out-of-India hypothesis, the first common ancestor of the Dacini arose in the mid-Cretaceous approximately 80mya. Major divergence events occurred during the Indian rafting period and diversification of Bactrocera apparently did not begin until after India docked with Eurasia (50-35mya). In contrast, diversification in Dacus

  13. Isolation and detection of ingested DNA from the immature stages of Calliphora dubia (diptera: Calliphoridae) : A forensically important blowfly.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Filipa; Dadour, Ian R; Groth, David M; Harvey, Michelle L

    2005-12-01

    The forensic entomologist frequently bases time since death (TSD) estimation on fly larvae. In some cases, the food source on which these larvae have completed their development may be questionable, and requires verification to ensure the accuracy of the TSD estimation. Ingested DNA may be isolated from the alimentary canal of immature insects. Previous studies have confirmed the ability to extract ingested DNA from the alimentary tract of third instar blowfly larvae. This study considers the potential to detect ingested DNA from immature stages of the blue-bodied blowfly Calliphora dubia (Macquart) that had fed on sheep liver. Individuals from early first instar larvae through day 3 pupae were surface decontaminated, followed by DNA isolation and detection by amplifying the sheep satellite I region. Fragments of 197 basepairs (bp) and 87 bp were successfully isolated and detected in all stages of immatures until 2-day-old pupae, with detection at this stage being unsuccessful on 3-day-old pupae. This study presents a suitable protocol for the isolation and detection of ingested DNA from immature stages of C. dubia.

  14. Television and the Female Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Denise, Ed.; Spigel, Lynn, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This special issue brings together an editorial, six articles, and three book reviews that focus on the relationship between television and the female audience. The articles are: (1) "Installing the Television Set: Popular Discourses on Television and Domestic Space, 1948-1955" (Lynn Spigel); (2) "The Spectacularization of Everyday Life: Recycling…

  15. An Update on Gifted Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Carolyn M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses selected issues and literature concerning gifted female students, examining achievement and aptitude, career choice, self-perceptions of ability, course taking, parental influences, the glamorization of sex differences, stereotyping, effects of classroom groupings and teaching strategies, and effects of single-sex schools and…

  16. Enticing Mature Females into College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loseth, Lexie; Moreau, Linda

    Following a review of the literature on mature female students, this paper examines enrollment trends in a selection of colleges in Alberta (Canada) and presents the findings of a survey of returning women students at Red Deer College. The literature review highlights factors related to the personal and professional development of women graduates…

  17. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  18. Archetypes of Outstanding Female Superintendents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Carole; Pankake, Anita; Schroth, Gwen

    This report documents a study of women superintendents. Specifically, the study identified professional and personal characteristics and styles of leadership to develop archetypes of six outstanding female superintendents in Texas. The intent of the research was also to reveal similarities between and among these superintendents that could provide…

  19. HIV and female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Estébanez, P; Fitch, K; Nájera, R

    1993-01-01

    In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers.

  20. HIV and female sex workers.

    PubMed Central

    Estébanez, P.; Fitch, K.; Nájera, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers. PMID:8324860