Sample records for macromolecules

  1. Analysis of macromolecules, ligands and macromolecule-ligand complexes

    DOEpatents

    Von Dreele, Robert B [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-12-23

    A method for determining atomic level structures of macromolecule-ligand complexes through high-resolution powder diffraction analysis and a method for providing suitable microcrystalline powder for diffraction analysis are provided. In one embodiment, powder diffraction data is collected from samples of polycrystalline macromolecule and macromolecule-ligand complex and the refined structure of the macromolecule is used as an approximate model for a combined Rietveld and stereochemical restraint refinement of the macromolecule-ligand complex. A difference Fourier map is calculated and the ligand position and points of interaction between the atoms of the macromolecule and the atoms of the ligand can be deduced and visualized. A suitable polycrystalline sample of macromolecule-ligand complex can be produced by physically agitating a mixture of lyophilized macromolecule, ligand and a solvent.

  2. Crystallization of Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, David; Messick, Troy; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2014-01-01

    X-ray crystallography has evolved into a very powerful tool to determine the three-dimensional structure of macromolecules and macromolecular complexes. The major bottleneck in structure determination by X-ray crystallography is the preparation of suitable crystalline samples. This unit outlines steps for the crystallization of a macromolecule, starting with a purified, homogeneous sample. The first protocols describe preparation of the macromolecular sample (i.e., proteins, nucleic acids, and macromolecular complexes). The preparation and assessment of crystallization trials is then described, along with a protocol for confirming whether the crystals obtained are composed of macromolecule as opposed to a crystallization reagent . Next, the optimization of crystallization conditions is presented. Finally, protocols that facilitate the growth of larger crystals through seeding are described. PMID:22045560

  3. Polyacid macromolecule primers

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1989-01-01

    Hydrophylic polyacids, such as macromolecules of polyitaconic acid and polyacrylic acid, where such macromolecules have molecular weights >50,000 as primers between a polymeric top coating, such as polyurethane, and an oxidized aluminum or aluminum alloy. A near monolayer of primer is used in polymeric adhesive/oxidized aluminum adhered joint systems in 0.05% primer concentration to give superior results in standard peel tests.

  4. Polyacid macromolecule primers

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-12-26

    Hydrophilic polyacids are described, such as macromolecules of polyitaconic acid and polyacrylic acid, where such macromolecules have molecular weights >50,000 as primers between a polymeric top coating, such as polyurethane, and an oxidized aluminum or aluminum alloy. A near monolayer of primer is used in polymeric adhesive/oxidized aluminum adhered joint systems in 0.05% primer concentration to give superior results in standard peel tests. 2 figs.

  5. Contact Kinetics in Fractal Macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Dolgushev, Maxim; Guérin, Thomas; Blumen, Alexander; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël

    2015-11-13

    We consider the kinetics of first contact between two monomers of the same macromolecule. Relying on a fractal description of the macromolecule, we develop an analytical method to compute the mean first contact time for various molecular sizes. In our theoretical description, the non-Markovian feature of monomer motion, arising from the interactions with the other monomers, is captured by accounting for the nonequilibrium conformations of the macromolecule at the very instant of first contact. This analysis reveals a simple scaling relation for the mean first contact time between two monomers, which involves only their equilibrium distance and the spectral dimension of the macromolecule, independently of its microscopic details. Our theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with numerical stochastic simulations.

  6. Diffusion of macromolecules through sclera.

    PubMed

    Miao, Heng; Wu, Bi-Dong; Tao, Yong; Li, Xiao-Xin

    2013-02-01

    To quantify the in vitro permeability coefficient over different topographical locations of porcine sclera to macromolecules with different molecular weight. Fresh equatorial and posterior superotemporal porcine sclera was mounted in a two-chamber diffusion apparatus, and its permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated dextrans ranging in molecular weight from 40 kDa to 150 kDa was determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry. The sclera was processed as frozen sections and viewed with a fluorescence microscope. The thickness of the area and the thickness that macromolecules enriched in the surface of sclera were measured. The permeability coefficient (Pc) of porcine sclera to macromolecules was significantly higher (40 kDa, p = 0.028; 70 kDa, p = 0.033; 150 kDa, p = 0.007) in equatorial region than posterior, which could be attributed to the significant difference of thickness (p < 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis) between them. Moreover, linear regression indicated a significant negative relationship (40 kDa, p < 0.001; 70 kDa, p = 0.015; 150 kDa, p < 0.001) between scleral permeability coefficient and thickness. Also, Pc declined significantly with increasing molecular weight (MW, p < 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis). The area that the macromolecules enriched in the scleral surface was thicker for those with larger MW (p < 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis). The maximum MW and size for equatorial and posterior superotemporal scleral tissue were 185.01 KDa and 180.42 KDa, 9.92 nm and 9.67 nm, respectively. The permeability coefficient of porcine sclera has a significant negative relationship with scleral thickness and MW of macromolecules. Larger macromolecules are more likely to accumulate in scleral surface. The difference between topographical locations may have pharmacokinetic implications when considering transscleral diffusion of macromolecules. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  7. INFLUENCE OF MACROMOLECULES ON CHEMICAL TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macromolecules in the pore fluid influence the mobility of hydrophobic compounds through soils. his study evaluated the significance of macromolecules in facilitating chemical transport under laboratory conditions. Partition coefficients between 14C-labeled hexachlorobenzene and ...

  8. Macromolecules Inquiry: Transformation of a Standard Biochemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Identification of macromolecules in food is a standard introductory high school biology lab. The intent of this article is to describe the conversion of this standard cookbook lab into an inquiry investigation. Instead of verifying the macromolecules found in food, students use their knowledge of the macromolecules in food to determine the…

  9. Macromolecule diffusion and confinement in prokaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Mika, Jacek T; Poolman, Bert

    2011-02-01

    We review recent observations on the mobility of macromolecules and their spatial organization in live bacterial cells. We outline the major fluorescence microscopy-based methods to determine the mobility and thus the diffusion coefficients (D) of molecules, which is not trivial in small cells. The extremely high macromolecule crowding of prokaryotes is used to rationalize the reported lower diffusion coefficients as compared to eukaryotes, and we speculate on the nature of the barriers for diffusion observed for proteins (and mRNAs) in vivo. Building on in vitro experiments and modeling studies, we evaluate the size dependence of diffusion coefficients for macromolecules in vivo, in case of both water-soluble and integral membrane proteins. We comment on the possibilities of anomalous diffusion and provide examples where the macromolecule mobility may be limiting biological processes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Controlled doping by self-assembled dendrimer-like macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haigang; Guan, Bin; Sun, Yingri; Zhu, Yiping; Dan, Yaping

    2017-02-01

    Doping via self-assembled macromolecules might offer a solution for developing single atom electronics by precisely placing individual dopants at arbitrary location to meet the requirement for circuit design. Here we synthesize dendrimer-like polyglycerol macromolecules with each carrying one phosphorus atom in the core. The macromolecules are immobilized by the coupling reagent onto silicon surfaces that are pre-modified with a monolayer of undecylenic acid. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are employed to characterize the synthesized macromolecules and the modified silicon surfaces, respectively. After rapid thermal annealing, the phosphorus atoms carried by the macromolecules diffuse into the silicon substrate, forming dopants at a concentration of 1017 cm-3. Low-temperature Hall effect measurements reveal that the ionization process is rather complicated. Unlike the widely reported simple ionization of phosphorus dopants, nitrogen and carbon are also involved in the electronic activities in the monolayer doped silicon.

  11. MACROMOLECULES FACILITATE THE TRANSPORT OF TRACE ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macromolecules in the pore fluid of a soil may influence the mobility of hydrophobic compounds by their partitioning to the macromolecule, which moves with, or even faster than, the water. The mobility is described mathematically by a chemical transport model. The significance of...

  12. Molecular Imprinting of Macromolecules for Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Saylan, Yeşeren; Yilmaz, Fatma; Özgür, Erdoğan; Derazshamshir, Ali; Yavuz, Handan; Denizli, Adil

    2017-04-19

    Molecular recognition has an important role in numerous living systems. One of the most important molecular recognition methods is molecular imprinting, which allows host compounds to recognize and detect several molecules rapidly, sensitively and selectively. Compared to natural systems, molecular imprinting methods have some important features such as low cost, robustness, high recognition ability and long term durability which allows molecularly imprinted polymers to be used in various biotechnological applications, such as chromatography, drug delivery, nanotechnology, and sensor technology. Sensors are important tools because of their ability to figure out a potentially large number of analytical difficulties in various areas with different macromolecular targets. Proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids, antibodies, viruses and cells are defined as macromolecules that have wide range of functions are very important. Thus, macromolecules detection has gained great attention in concerning the improvement in most of the studies. The applications of macromolecule imprinted sensors will have a spacious exploration according to the low cost, high specificity and stability. In this review, macromolecules for molecularly imprinted sensor applications are structured according to the definition of molecular imprinting methods, developments in macromolecular imprinting methods, macromolecular imprinted sensors, and conclusions and future perspectives. This chapter follows the latter strategies and focuses on the applications of macromolecular imprinted sensors. This allows discussion on how sensor strategy is brought to solve the macromolecules imprinting.

  13. Molecular Imprinting of Macromolecules for Sensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Saylan, Yeşeren; Yilmaz, Fatma; Özgür, Erdoğan; Derazshamshir, Ali; Yavuz, Handan; Denizli, Adil

    2017-01-01

    Molecular recognition has an important role in numerous living systems. One of the most important molecular recognition methods is molecular imprinting, which allows host compounds to recognize and detect several molecules rapidly, sensitively and selectively. Compared to natural systems, molecular imprinting methods have some important features such as low cost, robustness, high recognition ability and long term durability which allows molecularly imprinted polymers to be used in various biotechnological applications, such as chromatography, drug delivery, nanotechnology, and sensor technology. Sensors are important tools because of their ability to figure out a potentially large number of analytical difficulties in various areas with different macromolecular targets. Proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids, antibodies, viruses and cells are defined as macromolecules that have wide range of functions are very important. Thus, macromolecules detection has gained great attention in concerning the improvement in most of the studies. The applications of macromolecule imprinted sensors will have a spacious exploration according to the low cost, high specificity and stability. In this review, macromolecules for molecularly imprinted sensor applications are structured according to the definition of molecular imprinting methods, developments in macromolecular imprinting methods, macromolecular imprinted sensors, and conclusions and future perspectives. This chapter follows the latter strategies and focuses on the applications of macromolecular imprinted sensors. This allows discussion on how sensor strategy is brought to solve the macromolecules imprinting. PMID:28422082

  14. Iontophoretic transport of charged macromolecules across human sclera.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Poonam; Hao, Jinsong; Li, S Kevin

    2010-03-30

    The mechanisms of transscleral iontophoresis have been investigated previously with small molecules in rabbit sclera. The objective of the present study was to examine transscleral iontophoretic transport of charged macromolecules across excised human sclera. Passive and 2mA iontophoretic transport experiments were conducted in side-by-side diffusion cells with human sclera. The effects of iontophoresis upon transscleral transport of model permeants bovine serum albumin (BSA) and polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSS) as well as a model drug bevacizumab (BEV) were determined. Passive and iontophoretic transport experiments of tetraethylammonium (TEA) and salicylic acid (SA) and passive transport experiments of the macromolecules served as the controls. The results of iontophoresis enhanced transport of TEA and SA across human sclera were consistent with those in a previous rabbit sclera study. For the iontophoretic transport of macromolecules BSA and BEV, higher iontophoretic fluxes were observed in anodal iontophoresis as compared to passive and cathodal iontophoresis. This suggests the importance of electroosmosis. For the polyelectrolyte PSS, higher iontophoretic flux was observed in cathodal iontophoresis compared to anodal iontophoresis. Both electroosmosis and electrophoresis affected iontophoretic fluxes of the macromolecules; the relative contributions of electroosmosis and electrophoresis were a function of molecular size and charge of the macromolecules. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Noise reduction methods for nucleic acid and macromolecule sequencing

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Balatsky, Alexander

    Methods, systems, and devices are disclosed for processing macromolecule sequencing data with substantial noise reduction. In one aspect, a method for reducing noise in a sequential measurement of a macromolecule comprising serial subunits includes cross-correlating multiple measured signals of a physical property of subunits of interest of the macromolecule, the multiple measured signals including the time data associated with the measurement of the signal, to remove or at least reduce signal noise that is not in the same frequency and in phase with the systematic signal contribution of the measured signals.

  16. A Course on Macromolecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horta, Arturo

    1985-01-01

    Describes a senior-level course that: (1) focuses on the structure and reactions of macromolecules; (2) treats industrial polymers in a unified way; and (3) uses analysis of conformation and conformational statistics as a unifying approach. Also discusses course topics, including polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, and others. (JN)

  17. Antimicrobial resistance challenged with metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Abd-El-Aziz, Alaa S; Agatemor, Christian; Etkin, Nola

    2017-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance threatens the achievements of science and medicine, as it deactivates conventional antimicrobial therapeutics. Scientists respond to the threat by developing new antimicrobial platforms to prevent and treat infections from these resistant strains. Metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules are emerging as an alternative to conventional platforms because they combine multiple mechanisms of action into one platform due to the distinctive properties of metals. For example, metals interact with intracellular proteins and enzymes, and catalyse various intracellular processes. The macromolecular architecture offers a means to enhance antimicrobial activity since several antimicrobial moieties can be conjugated to the scaffold. Further, these macromolecules can be fabricated into antimicrobial materials for contact-killing medical implants, fabrics, and devices. As volatilization or leaching out of the antimicrobial moieties from the macromolecular scaffold is reduced, these medical implants, fabrics, and devices can retain their antimicrobial activity over an extended period. Recent advances demonstrate the potential of metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules as effective platforms that prevent and treat infections from resistant strains. In this review these advances are thoroughly discussed within the context of examples of metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules, their mechanisms of action and biocompatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dermal and transdermal delivery of pharmaceutically relevant macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Münch, S; Wohlrab, J; Neubert, R H H

    2017-10-01

    The skin offers an attractive way for dermal and transdermal drug delivery that is why the drug still needs certain qualities to transcend the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum. The requirements are: drugs with a maximum molecular weight of 1kDa, high lipophilicity and a certain polarity. This would restrict the use of a transdermal delivery of macromolecules, which would make the drug more effective in therapeutic administration. Various studies have shown that macromolecules without support do not penetrate the human skin. This effect can be achieved using physical and chemical methods, as well as biological peptides. The most popular physical method is the use of microneedles to create micropores in the skin and release the active agent in different sections. But also, other methods have been tested. Microjets, lasers, electroporation, sonophoresis and iontophoresis are also promising methods to successfully deliver dermal and transdermal macromolecules. Additionally, there are different penetration enhancer groups and biological peptides, which are also considered to be interesting approaches of enabling macromolecules to travel along the skin. All these methods will be described and evaluated in this review article. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. PlaMoM: a comprehensive database compiles plant mobile macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Daogang; Yan, Bin; Thieme, Christoph; Hua, Jingmin; Zhu, Hailong; Boheler, Kenneth R.; Zhao, Zhongying; Kragler, Friedrich; Xia, Yiji; Zhang, Shoudong

    2017-01-01

    In plants, various phloem-mobile macromolecules including noncoding RNAs, mRNAs and proteins are suggested to act as important long-distance signals in regulating crucial physiological and morphological transition processes such as flowering, plant growth and stress responses. Given recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies, numerous mobile macromolecules have been identified in diverse plant species from different plant families. However, most of the identified mobile macromolecules are not annotated in current versions of species-specific databases and are only available as non-searchable datasheets. To facilitate study of the mobile signaling macromolecules, we compiled the PlaMoM (Plant Mobile Macromolecules) database, a resource that provides convenient and interactive search tools allowing users to retrieve, to analyze and also to predict mobile RNAs/proteins. Each entry in the PlaMoM contains detailed information such as nucleotide/amino acid sequences, ortholog partners, related experiments, gene functions and literature. For the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, protein–protein interactions of mobile transcripts are presented as interactive molecular networks. Furthermore, PlaMoM provides a built-in tool to identify potential RNA mobility signals such as tRNA-like structures. The current version of PlaMoM compiles a total of 17 991 mobile macromolecules from 14 plant species/ecotypes from published data and literature. PlaMoM is available at http://www.systembioinfo.org/plamom/. PMID:27924044

  20. PlaMoM: a comprehensive database compiles plant mobile macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Guan, Daogang; Yan, Bin; Thieme, Christoph; Hua, Jingmin; Zhu, Hailong; Boheler, Kenneth R; Zhao, Zhongying; Kragler, Friedrich; Xia, Yiji; Zhang, Shoudong

    2017-01-04

    In plants, various phloem-mobile macromolecules including noncoding RNAs, mRNAs and proteins are suggested to act as important long-distance signals in regulating crucial physiological and morphological transition processes such as flowering, plant growth and stress responses. Given recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies, numerous mobile macromolecules have been identified in diverse plant species from different plant families. However, most of the identified mobile macromolecules are not annotated in current versions of species-specific databases and are only available as non-searchable datasheets. To facilitate study of the mobile signaling macromolecules, we compiled the PlaMoM (Plant Mobile Macromolecules) database, a resource that provides convenient and interactive search tools allowing users to retrieve, to analyze and also to predict mobile RNAs/proteins. Each entry in the PlaMoM contains detailed information such as nucleotide/amino acid sequences, ortholog partners, related experiments, gene functions and literature. For the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, protein-protein interactions of mobile transcripts are presented as interactive molecular networks. Furthermore, PlaMoM provides a built-in tool to identify potential RNA mobility signals such as tRNA-like structures. The current version of PlaMoM compiles a total of 17 991 mobile macromolecules from 14 plant species/ecotypes from published data and literature. PlaMoM is available at http://www.systembioinfo.org/plamom/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Identifiability, reducibility, and adaptability in allosteric macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Bohner, Gergő; Venkataraman, Gaurav

    2017-05-01

    The ability of macromolecules to transduce stimulus information at one site into conformational changes at a distant site, termed "allostery," is vital for cellular signaling. Here, we propose a link between the sensitivity of allosteric macromolecules to their underlying biophysical parameters, the interrelationships between these parameters, and macromolecular adaptability. We demonstrate that the parameters of a canonical model of the mSlo large-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + (BK) ion channel are non-identifiable with respect to the equilibrium open probability-voltage relationship, a common functional assay. We construct a reduced model with emergent parameters that are identifiable and expressed as combinations of the original mechanistic parameters. These emergent parameters indicate which coordinated changes in mechanistic parameters can leave assay output unchanged. We predict that these coordinated changes are used by allosteric macromolecules to adapt, and we demonstrate how this prediction can be tested experimentally. We show that these predicted parameter compensations are used in the first reported allosteric phenomena: the Bohr effect, by which hemoglobin adapts to varying pH. © 2017 Bohner and Venkataraman.

  2. Identifiability, reducibility, and adaptability in allosteric macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Bohner, Gergő

    2017-01-01

    The ability of macromolecules to transduce stimulus information at one site into conformational changes at a distant site, termed “allostery,” is vital for cellular signaling. Here, we propose a link between the sensitivity of allosteric macromolecules to their underlying biophysical parameters, the interrelationships between these parameters, and macromolecular adaptability. We demonstrate that the parameters of a canonical model of the mSlo large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) ion channel are non-identifiable with respect to the equilibrium open probability-voltage relationship, a common functional assay. We construct a reduced model with emergent parameters that are identifiable and expressed as combinations of the original mechanistic parameters. These emergent parameters indicate which coordinated changes in mechanistic parameters can leave assay output unchanged. We predict that these coordinated changes are used by allosteric macromolecules to adapt, and we demonstrate how this prediction can be tested experimentally. We show that these predicted parameter compensations are used in the first reported allosteric phenomena: the Bohr effect, by which hemoglobin adapts to varying pH. PMID:28416647

  3. Perfect mixing of immiscible macromolecules at fluid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheiko, Sergei S.; Zhou, Jing; Arnold, Jamie; Neugebauer, Dorota; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Tsitsilianis, Constantinos; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Dobrynin, Andrey V.; Rubinstein, Michael

    2013-08-01

    The difficulty of mixing chemically incompatible substances—in particular macromolecules and colloidal particles—is a canonical problem limiting advances in fields ranging from health care to materials engineering. Although the self-assembly of chemically different moieties has been demonstrated in coordination complexes, supramolecular structures, and colloidal lattices among other systems, the mechanisms of mixing largely rely on specific interfacing of chemically, physically or geometrically complementary objects. Here, by taking advantage of the steric repulsion between brush-like polymers tethered to surface-active species, we obtained long-range arrays of perfectly mixed macromolecules with a variety of polymer architectures and a wide range of chemistries without the need of encoding specific complementarity. The net repulsion arises from the significant increase in the conformational entropy of the brush-like polymers with increasing distance between adjacent macromolecules at fluid interfaces. This entropic-templating assembly strategy enables long-range patterning of thin films on sub-100 nm length scales.

  4. Perfect mixing of immiscible macromolecules at fluid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheiko, Sergei; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Tsukruk, Vladimir; Carrillo, Jan-Michael; Rubinstein, Michael; Dobrynin, Andrey; Zhou, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Macromolecules typically phase separate unless their shapes and chemical compositions are tailored to explicitly drive mixing. But now our research has shown that physical constraints can drive spontaneous mixing of chemically different species. We have obtained long-range 2D arrays of perfectly mixed macromolecules having a variety of molecular architectures and chemistries, including linear chains, block-copolymer stars, and bottlebrush copolymers with hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and lipophobic chemical compositions. This is achieved by entropy-driven enhancement of steric repulsion between macromolecules anchored on a substrate. By monitoring the kinetics of mixing, we have proved that molecular intercalation is an equilibrium state. The array spacing is controlled by the length of the brush side chains. This entropic templating strategy opens new ways for generating patterns on sub-100 nm length scales with potential application in lithography, directed self-assembly, and biomedical assays. Financial support from the National Science Foundation DMR-0906985, DMR-1004576, DMR-1122483, and DMR-0907515.

  5. The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Protein Crystal Growth Archive

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, Gary L.; Tung, Michael; Ladner, Jane

    1996-01-01

    The NIST/NASA/CARB Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (BMCD), NIST Standard Reference Database 21, contains crystal data and crystallization conditions for biological macromolecules. The database entries include data abstracted from published crystallographic reports. Each entry consists of information describing the biological macromolecule crystallized and crystal data and the crystallization conditions for each crystal form. The BMCD serves as the NASA Protein Crystal Growth Archive in that it contains protocols and results of crystallization experiments undertaken in microgravity (space). These database entries report the results, whether successful or not, from NASA-sponsored protein crystal growth experiments in microgravity and from microgravity crystallization studies sponsored by other international organizations. The BMCD was designed as a tool to assist x-ray crystallographers in the development of protocols to crystallize biological macromolecules, those that have previously been crystallized, and those that have not been crystallized. PMID:11542472

  6. Induced liquid-crystalline ordering in solutions of stiff and flexible amphiphilic macromolecules: Effect of mixture composition

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Glagolev, Mikhail K.; Vasilevskaya, Valentina V., E-mail: vvvas@polly.phys.msu.ru; Khokhlov, Alexei R.

    Impact of mixture composition on self-organization in concentrated solutions of stiff helical and flexible macromolecules was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulation. The macromolecules were composed of identical amphiphilic monomer units but a fraction f of macromolecules had stiff helical backbones and the remaining chains were flexible. In poor solvents the compacted flexible macromolecules coexist with bundles or filament clusters from few intertwined stiff helical macromolecules. The increase of relative content f of helical macromolecules leads to increase of the length of helical clusters, to alignment of clusters with each other, and then to liquid-crystalline-like ordering along a singlemore » direction. The formation of filament clusters causes segregation of helical and flexible macromolecules and the alignment of the filaments induces effective liquid-like ordering of flexible macromolecules. A visual analysis and calculation of order parameter relaying the anisotropy of diffraction allow concluding that transition from disordered to liquid-crystalline state proceeds sharply at relatively low content of stiff components.« less

  7. An Overview of Biological Macromolecule Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Irene Russo; Merlino, Antonello; Vergara, Alessandro; Sica, Filomena

    2013-01-01

    The elucidation of the three dimensional structure of biological macromolecules has provided an important contribution to our current understanding of many basic mechanisms involved in life processes. This enormous impact largely results from the ability of X-ray crystallography to provide accurate structural details at atomic resolution that are a prerequisite for a deeper insight on the way in which bio-macromolecules interact with each other to build up supramolecular nano-machines capable of performing specialized biological functions. With the advent of high-energy synchrotron sources and the development of sophisticated software to solve X-ray and neutron crystal structures of large molecules, the crystallization step has become even more the bottleneck of a successful structure determination. This review introduces the general aspects of protein crystallization, summarizes conventional and innovative crystallization methods and focuses on the new strategies utilized to improve the success rate of experiments and increase crystal diffraction quality. PMID:23727935

  8. High and low thermal conductivity of amorphous macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xu; Yang, Kexin; Li, Dongyao; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Shin, Jungwoo; Braun, Paul V.; Cahill, David G.

    2017-01-01

    We measure the thermal conductivity, heat capacity and sound velocity of thin films of five polymers, nine polymer salts, and four caged molecules to advance the fundamental understanding of the lower and upper limits to heat conduction in amorphous macromolecules. The thermal conductivities vary by more than one order of magnitude, from 0.06 W m-1K-1 for [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester to 0.67 W m-1K-1 for poly(vinylphosphonic acid calcium salt). Minimum thermal conductivity calculated from the measured sound velocity and effective atomic density is in good agreement with the thermal conductivity of macromolecules with various molecular structures and intermolecular bonding strength.

  9. Development for equipment of the milk macromolecules content detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guochao; Li, Weimin; Shang, Tingyi; Xi, Yang; Gao, Yunli; Zhou, Zhen

    Developed an experimental device for rapid and accurate detection of milk macromolecular content. This device developed based on laser scattered through principle, the principle use of the ingredients of the scattered light and transmitted light ratio characterization of macromolecules. Peristaltic pump to achieve automatic input and output of the milk samples, designing weak signal detection amplifier circuit for detecting the ratio with ICL7650. Real-time operating system μC / OS-II is the core design of the software part of the whole system. The experimental data prove that the device can achieve a fast real-time measurement of milk macromolecules.

  10. Scalable synthesis of sequence-defined, unimolecular macromolecules by Flow-IEG

    PubMed Central

    Leibfarth, Frank A.; Johnson, Jeremiah A.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    We report a semiautomated synthesis of sequence and architecturally defined, unimolecular macromolecules through a marriage of multistep flow synthesis and iterative exponential growth (Flow-IEG). The Flow-IEG system performs three reactions and an in-line purification in a total residence time of under 10 min, effectively doubling the molecular weight of an oligomeric species in an uninterrupted reaction sequence. Further iterations using the Flow-IEG system enable an exponential increase in molecular weight. Incorporating a variety of monomer structures and branching units provides control over polymer sequence and architecture. The synthesis of a uniform macromolecule with a molecular weight of 4,023 g/mol is demonstrated. The user-friendly nature, scalability, and modularity of Flow-IEG provide a general strategy for the automated synthesis of sequence-defined, unimolecular macromolecules. Flow-IEG is thus an enabling tool for theory validation, structure–property studies, and advanced applications in biotechnology and materials science. PMID:26269573

  11. High throughput screening of ligand binding to macromolecules using high resolution powder diffraction

    DOEpatents

    Von Dreele, Robert B.; D'Amico, Kevin

    2006-10-31

    A process is provided for the high throughput screening of binding of ligands to macromolecules using high resolution powder diffraction data including producing a first sample slurry of a selected polycrystalline macromolecule material and a solvent, producing a second sample slurry of a selected polycrystalline macromolecule material, one or more ligands and the solvent, obtaining a high resolution powder diffraction pattern on each of said first sample slurry and the second sample slurry, and, comparing the high resolution powder diffraction pattern of the first sample slurry and the high resolution powder diffraction pattern of the second sample slurry whereby a difference in the high resolution powder diffraction patterns of the first sample slurry and the second sample slurry provides a positive indication for the formation of a complex between the selected polycrystalline macromolecule material and at least one of the one or more ligands.

  12. Macromolecule mapping of the brain using ultrashort-TE acquisition and reference-based metabolite removal.

    PubMed

    Lam, Fan; Li, Yudu; Clifford, Bryan; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2018-05-01

    To develop a practical method for mapping macromolecule distribution in the brain using ultrashort-TE MRSI data. An FID-based chemical shift imaging acquisition without metabolite-nulling pulses was used to acquire ultrashort-TE MRSI data that capture the macromolecule signals with high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) efficiency. To remove the metabolite signals from the ultrashort-TE data, single voxel spectroscopy data were obtained to determine a set of high-quality metabolite reference spectra. These spectra were then incorporated into a generalized series (GS) model to represent general metabolite spatiospectral distributions. A time-segmented algorithm was developed to back-extrapolate the GS model-based metabolite distribution from truncated FIDs and remove it from the MRSI data. Numerical simulations and in vivo experiments have been performed to evaluate the proposed method. Simulation results demonstrate accurate metabolite signal extrapolation by the proposed method given a high-quality reference. For in vivo experiments, the proposed method is able to produce spatiospectral distributions of macromolecules in the brain with high SNR from data acquired in about 10 minutes. We further demonstrate that the high-dimensional macromolecule spatiospectral distribution resides in a low-dimensional subspace. This finding provides a new opportunity to use subspace models for quantification and accelerated macromolecule mapping. Robustness of the proposed method is also demonstrated using multiple data sets from the same and different subjects. The proposed method is able to obtain macromolecule distributions in the brain from ultrashort-TE acquisitions. It can also be used for acquiring training data to determine a low-dimensional subspace to represent the macromolecule signals for subspace-based MRSI. Magn Reson Med 79:2460-2469, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Organometallic macromolecules with piano stool coordination repeating units: chain configuration and stimulated solution behaviour.

    PubMed

    Cao, Kai; Ward, Jonathan; Amos, Ryan C; Jeong, Moon Gon; Kim, Kyoung Taek; Gauthier, Mario; Foucher, Daniel; Wang, Xiaosong

    2014-09-11

    Theoretical calculations illustrate that organometallic macromolecules with piano stool coordination repeating units (Fe-acyl complex) adopt linear chain configuration with a P-Fe-C backbone surrounded by aromatic groups. The macromolecules show molecular weight-dependent and temperature stimulated solution behaviour in DMSO.

  14. Intramolecular Charge Transfer of Conjugated Liquid Crystal Ferrocene Macromolecules - Synthesis and Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-12

    AFRL-AFOSR-CL-TR-2016-0012 Intramolecular Charge Transfer of Conjugated Liquid Crystal Ferrocene Macromolecules Ronald Ziolo CIQA Final Report 07/07...3. DATES COVERED (From - To)  15 Aug 2014 to 14 Jan 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Intramolecular Charge Transfer of Conjugated Liquid Crystal Ferrocene...characterization of a new series of conjugated macromolecules bearing ferrocene as a highly efficient electron donor material coupled to 2,5-di(alcoxy) benzene

  15. Ice nucleation rates of single protein complexes and single macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratmann, F.; Wex, H.; Niedermeier, D.; Hartmann, S.; Augustin, S.; Clauss, T.; Voigtlaender, J.; Pummer, B.; Grothe, H.

    2012-12-01

    With our flow-tube LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol cloud Interaction Simulator), we measured immersion freezing of droplets containing biological ice nucleating (IN) agents. From our measurements, we were able to deduce ice nucleation rates for single IN protein complexes (for Snomax) and for IN macromolecules (in the case of Birch pollen). For the measurements, aerosol particles were produced from solutions/suspensions of either Snomax (deadened and partly fractionalized pseudomonas syringae bacteria) or of Birch pollen washing water (BW in the following). All particles were dried and size selected before entering LACIS. In LACIS, particles were activated to droplets, and we measured the fraction of all droplets that froze (F(ice)) as function of temperature. For Snomax, a strong increase in F(ice) was observed around -7 to -10°C, for BW around -19 to -25°C, respectively. After this initial steep increase, F(ice) stayed constant for both examined substances down to -35°C. We found that the values of F(ice) in the plateau region depended on the dry particle size. The initial solution used to generate the particles contained parts of bacteria with ice active protein complexes on them in the case of Snomax, or IN macromolecules in the case of BW (Pummer et al., 2011). We show that the distribution of the IN proteins or IN molecules in the aerosol particles follows the Poisson distribution. With this knowledge, derivation of the ice nucleation rates for single IN protein complexes or for single IN macromolecules is possible. Combining the Poisson distribution with a stochastic model and using the derived nucleation rates, we can reproduce not only our measurements for both examined substances, but also past measurements done for Snomax and even pseudomonas syringae bacteria. As an additional peculiarity, we seem to observe two different macromolecules being ice active for Birch trees growing in Central Europe or Northern Europe, with the latter initiating freezing at

  16. Measuring the shapes of macromolecules – and why it matters

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Mach, Paul; Koehl, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    The molecular basis of life rests on the activity of biological macromolecules, mostly nucleic acids and proteins. A perhaps surprising finding that crystallized over the last handful of decades is that geometric reasoning plays a major role in our attempt to understand these activities. In this paper, we address this connection between geometry and biology, focusing on methods for measuring and characterizing the shapes of macromolecules. We briefly review existing numerical and analytical approaches that solve these problems. We cover in more details our own work in this field, focusing on the alpha shape theory as it provides a unifying mathematical framework that enable the analytical calculations of the surface area and volume of a macromolecule represented as a union of balls, the detection of pockets and cavities in the molecule, and the quantification of contacts between the atomic balls. We have shown that each of these quantities can be related to physical properties of the molecule under study and ultimately provides insight on its activity. We conclude with a brief description of new challenges for the alpha shape theory in modern structural biology. PMID:24688748

  17. Isothermal titration calorimetry for measuring macromolecule-ligand affinity.

    PubMed

    Duff, Michael R; Grubbs, Jordan; Howell, Elizabeth E

    2011-09-07

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a useful tool for understanding the complete thermodynamic picture of a binding reaction. In biological sciences, macromolecular interactions are essential in understanding the machinery of the cell. Experimental conditions, such as buffer and temperature, can be tailored to the particular binding system being studied. However, careful planning is needed since certain ligand and macromolecule concentration ranges are necessary to obtain useful data. Concentrations of the macromolecule and ligand need to be accurately determined for reliable results. Care also needs to be taken when preparing the samples as impurities can significantly affect the experiment. When ITC experiments, along with controls, are performed properly, useful binding information, such as the stoichiometry, affinity and enthalpy, are obtained. By running additional experiments under different buffer or temperature conditions, more detailed information can be obtained about the system. A protocol for the basic setup of an ITC experiment is given.

  18. A new bead-spring model for simulation of semi-flexible macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, Amir; Khomami, Bamin

    2016-11-01

    A bead-spring model for semi-flexible macromolecules is developed to overcome the deficiencies of the current coarse-grained bead-spring models. Specifically, model improvements are achieved through incorporation of a bending potential. The new model is designed to accurately describe the correlation along the backbone of the chain, segmental length, and force-extension behavior of the macromolecule even at the limit of 1 Kuhn step per spring. The relaxation time of different Rouse modes is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the new model in predicting chain dynamics.

  19. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry for Measuring Macromolecule-Ligand Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Duff,, Michael R.; Grubbs, Jordan; Howell, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a useful tool for understanding the complete thermodynamic picture of a binding reaction. In biological sciences, macromolecular interactions are essential in understanding the machinery of the cell. Experimental conditions, such as buffer and temperature, can be tailored to the particular binding system being studied. However, careful planning is needed since certain ligand and macromolecule concentration ranges are necessary to obtain useful data. Concentrations of the macromolecule and ligand need to be accurately determined for reliable results. Care also needs to be taken when preparing the samples as impurities can significantly affect the experiment. When ITC experiments, along with controls, are performed properly, useful binding information, such as the stoichiometry, affinity and enthalpy, are obtained. By running additional experiments under different buffer or temperature conditions, more detailed information can be obtained about the system. A protocol for the basic setup of an ITC experiment is given. PMID:21931288

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of a Chondroitin Sulfate Based Hybrid Bio/Synthetic Biomimetic Aggrecan Macromolecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Sumona

    Lower back pain resulting from intervertebral disc degeneration is one of the leading musculoskeletal disorders confronting our health system. In order to mechanically stabilize the disc early in the degenerative cascade and prevent the need for spinal fusion surgeries, we have proposed the development of a hybrid-bio/synthetic biomimetic proteoglycan macromolecule for injection into the disc in the early stages of degeneration. The goal of this thesis was to incorporate natural chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains into bottle brush polymer synthesis strategies for the fabrication of CS-macromolecules which mimic the proteoglycan structure and function while resisting enzymatic degradation. Both the "grafting-to" and "grafting-through" techniques of bottle brush synthesis were explored. CS was immobilized via a terminal primary amine onto a model polymeric backbone (polyacrylic acid) for investigation of the "grafting-to" strategy and an epoxy-amine step-growth polymerization technique was utilized for the "grafting-through" synthesis of CS-macromolecules with polyethylene glycol backbone segments. Incorporation of a synthetic polymeric backbone at the terminal amine of CS was confirmed via biochemical assays, 1H-NMR and FTIR spectroscopy, and CS-macromolecule size was demonstrated to be higher than that of natural CS via gel permeation chromatography, transmission electron microscopy and viscosity measurements. Further analysis of CS-macromolecule functionality indicated maintenance of natural CS properties such as high fixed charge density, high osmotic potential and low cytotoxicity with nucleus pulposus cells. These studies are the first attempt at the incorporation of natural CS into biomimetic bottle brush structures. CS-macromolecules synthesized via the methods developed in these studies may be utilized in the treatment and prevention of debilitating back pain as well as act as mimetics for other proteoglycans implicated in cartilage, heart valve, and nervous

  1. Retention of 14C-labeled multiwall carbon nanotubes by humic acid and polymers: Roles of macromolecule properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qing; Petersen, Elijah J.; Cornelis, Geert; Wang, Xilong; Guo, Xiaoying; Tao, Shu; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    Developing methods to measure interactions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with soils and sediments and understanding the impact of soil and sediment properties on CNT deposition are essential for assessing CNT environmental risks. In this study, we utilized functionalized carbon-14 labeled nanotubes to systematically investigate retention of multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs) by 3 humic acids, 3 natural biopolymers, and 10 model solid-phase polymers, collectively termed macromolecules. Surface properties, rather than bulk properties of macromolecules, greatly influenced MWCNT retention. As shown via multiple linear regression analysis and path analysis, aromaticity and surface polarity were the two most positive factors for retention, suggesting retention was regulated by π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions. Moreover, MWCNT deposition was irreversible. These observations may explain the high retention of MWCNT in natural soils. Moreover, our findings on the relative contribution of each macromolecule property on CNT retention provide information on macromolecule selection for removal of MWCNTs from wastewater and provide a method for measuring CNT interactions with organic macromolecules. PMID:27458320

  2. Method for selective immobilization of macromolecules on self assembled monolayer surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Laskin, Julia [Richland, WA; Wang, Peng [Billerica, MA

    2011-11-29

    Disclosed is a method for selective chemical binding and immobilization of macromolecules on solid supports in conjunction with self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces. Immobilization involves selective binding of peptides and other macromolecules to SAM surfaces using reactive landing (RL) of mass-selected, gas phase ions. SAM surfaces provide a simple and convenient platform for tailoring chemical properties of a variety of substrates. The invention finds applications in biochemistry ranging from characterization of molecular recognition events at the amino acid level and identification of biologically active motifs in proteins, to development of novel biosensors and substrates for stimulated protein and cell adhesion.

  3. Surface Characteristics and Adhesion Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7: Role of Extracellular Macromolecules

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Surface macromolecule cleavage experiments were conducted on enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells to investigate the influence of these macromolecules on cell surface properties. Electrophoretic mobility, hydrophobicity, and titration experiments were carried out on proteinase K treate...

  4. Single molecule optical measurements of orientation and rotations of biological macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Shroder, Deborah Y; Lippert, Lisa G; Goldman, Yale E

    2016-01-01

    The subdomains of macromolecules often undergo large orientation changes during their catalytic cycles that are essential for their activity. Tracking these rearrangements in real time opens a powerful window into the link between protein structure and functional output. Site-specific labeling of individual molecules with polarized optical probes and measuring their spatial orientation can give insight into the crucial conformational changes, dynamics, and fluctuations of macromolecules. Here we describe the range of single molecule optical technologies that can extract orientation information from these probes, we review the relevant types of probes and labeling techniques, and we highlight the advantages and disadvantages of these technologies for addressing specific inquiries. PMID:28192292

  5. Single molecule optical measurements of orientation and rotations of biological macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Shroder, Deborah Y; Lippert, Lisa G; Goldman, Yale E

    2016-11-22

    Subdomains of macromolecules often undergo large orientation changes during their catalytic cycles that are essential for their activity. Tracking these rearrangements in real time opens a powerful window into the link between protein structure and functional output. Site-specific labeling of individual molecules with polarized optical probes and measurement of their spatial orientation can give insight into the crucial conformational changes, dynamics, and fluctuations of macromolecules. Here we describe the range of single molecule optical technologies that can extract orientation information from these probes, review the relevant types of probes and labeling techniques, and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of these technologies for addressing specific inquiries.

  6. A Method for Decomposition of the Basic Reaction of Biological Macromolecules into Exponential Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, Yu. M.; Lyamets, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    The structural and dynamical properties of biological macromolecules under non-equilibrium conditions determine the kinetics of their basic reaction to external stimuli. This kinetics is multiexponential in nature. This is due to the operation of various subsystems in the structure of macromolecules, as well as the effect of the basic reaction on the structure of macromolecules. The situation can be interpreted as a manifestation of the stationary states of macromolecules, which are represented by monoexponential components of the basic reaction (Monod-Wyman-Changeux model) Monod et al. (J Mol Cell Biol 12:88-118, 1965). The representation of multiexponential kinetics of the basic reaction in the form of a sum of exponential functions (A(t)={sum}_{i=1}^n{a}_i{e}^{-{k}_it}) is a multidimensional optimization problem. To solve this problem, a gradient method of optimization with software determination of the amount of exponents and reasonable calculation time is developed. This method is used to analyze the kinetics of photoinduced electron transport in the reaction centers (RC) of purple bacteria and the fluorescence induction in the granum thylakoid membranes which share a common function of converting light energy.

  7. Intracellular uptake of macromolecules by brain lymphatic endothelial cells during zebrafish embryonic development.

    PubMed

    van Lessen, Max; Shibata-Germanos, Shannon; van Impel, Andreas; Hawkins, Thomas A; Rihel, Jason; Schulte-Merker, Stefan

    2017-05-12

    The lymphatic system controls fluid homeostasis and the clearance of macromolecules from interstitial compartments. In mammals brain lymphatics were only recently discovered, with significant implications for physiology and disease. We examined zebrafish for the presence of brain lymphatics and found loosely connected endothelial cells with lymphatic molecular signature covering parts of the brain without forming endothelial tubular structures. These brain lymphatic endothelial cells (BLECs) derive from venous endothelium, are distinct from macrophages, and are sensitive to loss of Vegfc. BLECs endocytose macromolecules in a selective manner, which can be blocked by injection of mannose receptor ligands. This first report on brain lymphatic endothelial cells in a vertebrate embryo identifies cells with unique features, including the uptake of macromolecules at a single cell level. Future studies will address whether this represents an uptake mechanism that is conserved in mammals and how these cells affect functions of the embryonic and adult brain.

  8. Route of steroid-activated macromolecules through nuclear pores imaged with atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Oberleithner, H; Schäfer, C; Shahin, V; Albermann, L

    2003-02-01

    In eukaryotic cells, two concentric membranes, the nuclear envelope (NE), separate the nucleus from the cytoplasm. The NE is punctured by nuclear pore complexes (NPCs; molecular mass 120 MDa) that serve as regulated pathways for macromolecules entering and leaving the nuclear compartment. Transport across NPCs occurs through central channels. Such import and export of macromolecules through individual NPCs can be elicited in the Xenopus laevis oocyte by injecting the mineralocorticoid aldosterone and can be visualized with atomic force microscopy. The electrical NE resistance in intact cell nuclei can be measured in parallel. Resistance increases when macromolecules are engaged with the NPC. This article describe six observations made from these experiments and the conclusions that can be drawn from them. (i) A homogeneous population of macromolecules (approx. 100 kDa) attaches to the cytoplasmic face of the NPC 2 min after aldosterone injection. They are most likely to be aldosterone receptors. After a few minutes, they have disappeared. (ii) Large plugs (approx. molecular mass 1 MDa) appear in the central channels 20 min after hormone injection. They are most likely to be ribonucleoproteins exiting the nucleus. (iii) Electrical resistance measurements in isolated nuclei reveal transient electrical NE resistance peaks: an early (2 min) peak and a late (20 min) peak. Electrical peaks reflect macromolecule interaction with the NPC. (iv) Spironolactone blocks both the early and late peaks. This indicates that classic aldosterone receptors are involved in the pregenomic (early) and post-genomic (late) responses. (v) Actinomycin D and, independently, RNase A block the late electrical peak, confirming that plugs are genomic in nature. (vi) Intracellular calcium chelation blocks both early and late electrical peaks. Thus, the release of calcium from internal stores, which is known to be the first intracellular signal in response to aldosterone, is a prerequisite for the

  9. Intracellular uptake of macromolecules by brain lymphatic endothelial cells during zebrafish embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    van Lessen, Max; Shibata-Germanos, Shannon; van Impel, Andreas; Hawkins, Thomas A; Rihel, Jason; Schulte-Merker, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The lymphatic system controls fluid homeostasis and the clearance of macromolecules from interstitial compartments. In mammals brain lymphatics were only recently discovered, with significant implications for physiology and disease. We examined zebrafish for the presence of brain lymphatics and found loosely connected endothelial cells with lymphatic molecular signature covering parts of the brain without forming endothelial tubular structures. These brain lymphatic endothelial cells (BLECs) derive from venous endothelium, are distinct from macrophages, and are sensitive to loss of Vegfc. BLECs endocytose macromolecules in a selective manner, which can be blocked by injection of mannose receptor ligands. This first report on brain lymphatic endothelial cells in a vertebrate embryo identifies cells with unique features, including the uptake of macromolecules at a single cell level. Future studies will address whether this represents an uptake mechanism that is conserved in mammals and how these cells affect functions of the embryonic and adult brain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25932.001 PMID:28498105

  10. Ligand Binding to Macromolecules: Allosteric and Sequential Models of Cooperativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, V. L.; Szabo, Attila

    1979-01-01

    A simple model is described for the binding of ligands to macromolecules. The model is applied to the cooperative binding by hemoglobin and aspartate transcarbamylase. The sequential and allosteric models of cooperative binding are considered. (BB)

  11. Ocular delivery of macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoo-Chun; Chiang, Bryce; Wu, Xianggen; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals are making increasing impact on medicine, including treatment of indications in the eye. Macromolecular drugs are typically given by physician-administered invasive delivery methods, because non--invasive ocular delivery methods, such as eye drops, and systemic delivery, have low bioavailability and/or poor ocular targeting. There is a need to improve delivery of biopharmaceuticals to enable less-invasive delivery routes, less-frequent dosing through controlled-release drug delivery and improved drug targeting within the eye to increase efficacy and reduce side effects. This review discusses the barriers to drug delivery via various ophthalmic routes of administration in the context of macromolecule delivery and discusses efforts to develop controlled-release systems for delivery of biopharmaceuticals to the eye. The growing number of macromolecular therapies in the eye needs improved drug delivery methods that increase drug efficacy, safety and patient compliance. PMID:24998941

  12. Hollow Fiber Membrane Modification with Functional Zwitterionic Macromolecules for Improved Thromboresistance in Artificial Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Sang-Ho; Arazawa, David T.; Zhu, Yang; Shankarraman, Venkat; Malkin, Alexander D.; Kimmel, Jeremy D.; Gamble, Lara J.; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Federspiel, William J.; Wagner, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory assist devices seek optimized performance in terms of gas transfer efficiency and thromboresistance to minimize device size and reduce complications associated with inadequate blood biocompatibility. The exchange of gas with blood occurs at the surface of the hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) used in these devices. In this study, three zwitterionic macromolecules were attached to HFM surfaces to putatively improve thromboresistance: (1) carboxyl-functionalized zwitterionic phosphorylcholine (PC) and (2) sulfobetaine (SB) macromolecules (mPC or mSB-COOH) prepared by a simple thiol-ene radical polymerization and (3) a low-molecular weight sulfobetaine (SB)-co-methacrylic acid (MA) block copolymer (SBMAb-COOH) prepared by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Each macromolecule type was covalently immobilized on an aminated commercial HFM (Celg-A) by a condensation reaction, and HFM surface composition changes were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Thrombotic deposition on the HFMs was investigated after contact with ovine blood in vitro. The removal of CO2 by the HFMs was also evaluated using a model respiratory assistance device. The HFMs conjugated with zwitterionic macromolecules (Celg-mPC, Celg-mSB, and Celg-SBMAb) showed expected increases in phosphorus or sulfur surface content. Celg-mPC and Celg-SBMAb experienced rates of platelet deposition significantly lower than those of unmodified (Celg-A, >95% reduction) and heparin-coated (>88% reduction) control HFMs. Smaller reductions were seen with Celg-mSB. The CO2 removal rate for Celg-SBMAb HFMs remained comparable to that of Celg-A. In contrast, the rate of removal of CO2 for heparin-coated HFMs was significantly reduced. The results demonstrate a promising approach to modifying HFMs using zwitterionic macromolecules for artificial lung devices with improved thromboresistance without degradation of gas transfer. PMID:25669307

  13. Delta L: An Apparatus for Measuring Macromolecule Crystal Growth Rates in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Russell A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Strongly diffracting high quality macromolecule crystals of suitable volume are keenly sought for X-ray diffraction analysis so that high-resolution molecular structure data can be obtained. Such data is of tremendous value to medical research, agriculture and commercial biotechnology. In previous studies by many investigators microgravity has been reported in some instances to improve biological macromolecule X-ray crystal quality while little or no improvement was observed in other cases. A better understanding of processes effecting crystal quality improvement in microgravity will therefore be of great benefit in optimizing crystallization success in microgravity. In ground based research with the protein lysozyme we have previously shown that a population of crystals grown under the same solution conditions, exhibit a variation in X-ray diffraction properties (Judge et al., 1999). We have also observed that under the same solution conditions, individual crystals will grow at slightly different growth rates. This phenomenon is called growth rate dispersion. For small molecule materials growth rate dispersion has been directly related to crystal quality (Cunningham et al., 1991; Ristic et al., 1991). We therefore postulate that microgravity may act to improve crystal quality by reducing growth rate dispersion. If this is the case then as different, Materials exhibit different degrees of growth rate dispersion on the ground then growth rate dispersion could be used to screen which materials may benefit the most from microgravity crystallization. In order to assess this theory the Delta L hardware is being developed so that macromolecule crystal growth rates can be measured in microgravity. Crystal growth rate is defined as the change or delta in crystal size (defined as a characteristic length, L) over time; hence the name of the hardware. Delta L will consist of an optics, a fluids, and a data acquisition sub-assemblies. The optics assembly will consist of a

  14. Motion of single wandering diblock-macromolecules directed by a PTFE nano-fence: real time SFM observations.

    PubMed

    Gallyamov, Marat O; Qin, Shuhui; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Khokhlov, Alexei; Möller, Martin

    2009-07-21

    Using SFM we have observed a peculiar twisting motion of diblock macromolecules pre-collapsed in ethanol vapour during their subsequent spreading in water vapour. The intrinsic asymmetry of the diblock macromolecules has been considered to be the reason for such twisting. Further, friction-deposited PTFE nano-stripes have been employed as nano-trails with the purpose of inducing lateral directed motion of the asymmetric diblock macromolecules under cyclic impact from the changing vapour surroundings. Indeed, some of the macromolecules have demonstrated a certain tendency to orient along the PTFE stripes, and some of the oriented ones have moved occasionally in a directed manner along the trail. However, it has been difficult to reliably record such directed motion at the single molecule level due to some mobility of the PTFE nano-trails themselves in the changing vapour environment. In vapours, the PTFE stripes have demonstrated a distinct tendency towards conjunction. This tendency has manifested itself in efficient expelling of groups of the mobile brush-like molecules from the areas between two PTFE stripes joining in a zip-fastener manner. This different kind of vapour-induced cooperative macromolecular motion has been reliably observed as being directed. The PTFE nano-frame experiences some deformation when constraining the spreading macromolecules. We have estimated the possible force causing such deformation of the PTFE fence. The force has been found to be a few pN as calculated by a partial contribution from every single molecule of the constrained group.

  15. Basal-body-associated macromolecules: a continuing debate.

    PubMed

    Pierre Mignot, J; Brugerolle, G; Didier, P; Bornens, M

    1993-07-01

    Controversy over the possibility that centrioles/basal bodies contain nucleic acids has overshadowed results demonstrating other macromolecules in the lumen of these organelles. Glycogen particles, which are known to be present within the lumen of the centriole/basal body of sperm cells, have now been found in basal bodies of protists belonging to three different groups. Here, we extend the debate on a role for RNA in basal body/centriole function and speculate on the origin and the function of centriolar glycogen.

  16. Charging and Release Mechanisms of Flexible Macromolecules in Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Myong In; Consta, Styliani

    2017-08-01

    We study systematically the charging and release mechanisms of a flexible macromolecule, modeled by poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), in a droplet by using molecular dynamics simulations. We compare how PEG is solvated and charged by sodium Na+ ions in a droplet of water (H2O), acetonitrile (MeCN), and their mixtures. Initially, we examine the location and the conformation of the macromolecule in a droplet bearing no net charge. It is revealed that the presence of charge carriers do not affect the location of PEG in aqueous and MeCN droplets compared with that in the neutral droplets, but the location of the macromolecule and the droplet size do affect the PEG conformation. PEG is charged on the surface of a sodiated aqueous droplet that is found close to the Rayleigh limit. Its charging is coupled to the extrusion mechanism, where PEG segments leave the droplet once they coordinate a Na+ ion or in a correlated motion with Na+ ions. In contrast, as PEG resides in the interior of a MeCN droplet, it is sodiated inside the droplet. The compact macro-ion transitions through partially unwound states to an extended conformation, a process occurring during the final stage of desolvation and in the presence of only a handful of MeCN molecules. For charged H2O/MeCN droplets, the sodiation of PEG is determined by the H2O component, reflecting its slower evaporation and preference over MeCN for solvating Na+ ions. We use the simulation data to construct an analytical model that suggests that the droplet surface electric field may play a role in the macro-ion-droplet interactions that lead to the extrusion of the macro-ion. This study provides the first evidence of the effect of the surface electric field by using atomistic simulations. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. The spectral properties of DNA and RNA macromolecules at low temperatures: fundamental and applied aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy M.; Kudrya, Vladislav Yu

    2017-03-01

    This paper summarizes the results of studies of the spectral properties—optical absorption, fluorescence and phosphorescence—of DNA and RNA macromolecules and synthetic poly-, oligo- and mono-nucleotides, which have been carried out in our laboratory. The system of first excited singlet and triplet energy levels for DNA and RNA is evaluated using low-temperature (4.2 K-77 K) luminescent measurements. The traps of the singlet and triplet electronic excitations in these compounds are identified. An important self-protection mechanism against photo-damage of DNA and RNA by UV photons or penetrative radiation based on the capture of triplet electronic-energy excitations by the most photostable centers—in DNA, the complex formed by neighboring adenosine (A) and thymidine (T) links; in RNA, the adenosine links—is described. It is confirmed that despite similarities in the chemical and partly energy structures DNA is more stable than RNA. The spectral manifestation of the telomeres (the important functional system) in DNA macromolecules is examined. The results obtained on telomere fragments provide the possibility of finding the configuration peculiarities of the triplet excitations traps in DNA macromolecules. The resulting spreading length of the migrating singlet (l s) and triplet (l t) excitations for DNA and RNA macromolecules are evaluated.

  18. Self-assembly of an amphiphilic macromolecule under spherical confinement: An efficient route to generate hollow nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glagoleva, A. A.; Vasilevskaya, V. V.; Yoshikawa, K.; Khokhlov, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    In general, bio-macromolecules are composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties and are confined within small cavities, such as cell membranes and intracellular organelles. Here, we studied the self-organization of macromolecules having groups with different affinities to solvents under spherical nano-scale confinement by means of computer modeling. It is shown that depending on the interaction parameters of monomer units composed of side- and main-chain monomer groups along a single linear macromolecule and on cavity size, such amphiphilic polymers undergo the conformational transitions between hollow nanospheres, rod-like and folded cylindrical structures, and a necklace conformation with and without a particular ordering of beads. The diagram of the conformations in the variables the incompatibility parameter of monomer units and the cavity radius is constructed.

  19. Macromolecule Crystal Quality Improvement in Microgravity: The Role of Impurities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Russell A.; Snell, Edward H.; Pusey, Marc L.; Sportiello, Michael G.; Todd, Paul; Bellamy, Henry; Borgstahl, Gloria E.; Pokros, Matt; Cassanto, John M.

    2000-01-01

    While macromolecule impurities may affect crystal size and morphology the over-riding question is; "How do macromolecule impurities effect crystal X-ray quality and diffraction resolution?" In the case of chicken egg white lysozyme, crystals can be grown in the presence of a number of impurities without affecting diffraction resolution. One impurity however, the lysozyme dimer, does negatively impact the X-ray crystal properties. Crystal quality improvement as a result of better partitioning of this impurity during crystallization in microgravity has been reported'. In our recent experimental work dimer partitioning was found to be not significantly different between the two environments. Mosaicity analysis of pure crystals showed a reduced mosaicity and increased signal to noise for the microgravity grown crystals. Dimer incorporation however, did greatly reduce the resolution limit in both ground and microgravity grown crystals. These results indicate that impurity effects in microgravity are complex and may rely on the conditions or techniques employed.

  20. JAIL: a structure-based interface library for macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Günther, Stefan; von Eichborn, Joachim; May, Patrick; Preissner, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The increasing number of solved macromolecules provides a solid number of 3D interfaces, if all types of molecular contacts are being considered. JAIL annotates three different kinds of macromolecular interfaces, those between interacting protein domains, interfaces of different protein chains and interfaces between proteins and nucleic acids. This results in a total number of about 184,000 database entries. All the interfaces can easily be identified by a detailed search form or by a hierarchical tree that describes the protein domain architectures classified by the SCOP database. Visual inspection of the interfaces is possible via an interactive protein viewer. Furthermore, large scale analyses are supported by an implemented sequential and by a structural clustering. Similar interfaces as well as non-redundant interfaces can be easily picked out. Additionally, the sequential conservation of binding sites was also included in the database and is retrievable via Jmol. A comprehensive download section allows the composition of representative data sets with user defined parameters. The huge data set in combination with various search options allow a comprehensive view on all interfaces between macromolecules included in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The download of the data sets supports numerous further investigations in macromolecular recognition. JAIL is publicly available at http://bioinformatics.charite.de/jail.

  1. Loss of Urinary Macromolecules in Mice Causes Interstitial and Intratubular Renal Calcification Dependent on the Underlying Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xue-Ru; Lieske, John C.; Evan, Andrew P.; Sommer, Andre J.; Liaw, Lucy; Mo, Lan

    2008-09-01

    Urinary protein macromolecules have long been thought to play a role in influencing the various phases of urolithiasis including nucleation, growth, aggregation of mineral crystals and their subsequent adhesion to the renal epithelial cells. However, compelling evidence regarding their precise role was lacking, due partly to the fact that most prior studies were done in vitro and results were highly variable depending on the experimental conditions. The advent of genetic engineering technology has made it possible to study urinary protein macromolecules within an in vivo biological system. Indeed, recent studies have begun to shed light on the net effects of loss of one or more macromolecules on the earliest steps of urolithiasis. This paper focuses on the in vivo consequences of inactivating Tamm-Horsfall protein and/or osteopontin, two major urinary glycoproteins, using the knockout approach. The renal phenotypes of both single and double knockout mice under spontaneous or hyperoxaluric conditions will be described. The functional significance of the urinary macromolecules as critical defense factors against renal calcification will also be discussed.

  2. Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of the Murchison Organic Macromolecule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cody, G. D., III; Alexander, C. M. OD.; Tera, F.

    2001-01-01

    We have used high speed H-1 (DEPTH) and C-13 (VACP MAS-slow spinning) solid state NMR to determine the contributions of protonated vs non-protonated carbon in the Murchison Macromolecule. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Arachidonic acid with taurine enhances pulmonary absorption of macromolecules without any serious histopathological damages.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Masateru; Minami, Takanori; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Emoto, Chie; Mukai, Tadashi; Toguchi, Hajime

    2017-05-01

    Therapeutic peptides and protein are being used in several indications; however, their poor permeability still remains to be solved. This study focused on the pulmonary route of macromolecules. First, the effects of arachidonic acid (AA) as an absorption enhancer on drug serum concentration, after intratracheal administration, were investigated in rats. Second, the safety of AA was assessed in rats in an acute toxicity study for 7days. AA enhanced the exposure of both interferon-α (IFN-α) and fluorescein isothiocyanate 4000 (FD-4). In addition, the histopathological analysis indicated that AA caused alveolitis and bronchitis in rats. In combination with Taurine (Tau), these lung injuries were prevented through the histopathological analysis. The combined use of Tau with AA did not show any changes in the pharmacokinetics of FD-4. From these results, we suggest the combined use of AA with Tau as a novel formulation on the pulmonary route of macromolecule drugs. This formulation could improve the bioavailability of macromolecule drugs without any serious local damage to the lungs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mitochondrial transit peptide exhibits cell penetration ability and efficiently delivers macromolecules to mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jain, Aastha; Chugh, Archana

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial malfunction under various circumstances can lead to a variety of disorders. Effective targeting of macromolecules (drugs) is important for restoration of mitochondrial function and treatment of related disorders. We have designed a novel cell-penetrating mitochondrial transit peptide (CpMTP) for delivery of macromolecules to mitochondria. Comparison between properties of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and mitochondrial signal sequences enabled prediction of peptides with dual ability for cellular translocation and mitochondrial localization. Among the predicted peptides, CpMTP translocates across HeLa cells and shows successful delivery of noncovalently conjugated cargo molecules to mitochondria. CpMTP may have applications in transduction and transfection of mitochondria for therapeutics. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. Smooth deuterated cellulose films for the visualisation of adsorbed bio-macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jielong; Raghuwanshi, Vikram S.; Raverty, Warwick; Garvey, Christopher J.; Holden, Peter J.; Gillon, Marie; Holt, Stephen A.; Tabor, Rico; Batchelor, Warren; Garnier, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Novel thin and smooth deuterated cellulose films were synthesised to visualize adsorbed bio-macromolecules using contrast variation neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements. Incorporation of varying degrees of deuteration into cellulose was achieved by growing Gluconacetobacter xylinus in deuterated glycerol as carbon source dissolved in growth media containing D2O. The derivative of deuterated cellulose was prepared by trimethylsilylation(TMS) in ionic liquid(1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride). The TMS derivative was dissolved in toluene for thin film preparation by spin-coating. The resulting film was regenerated into deuterated cellulose by exposure to acidic vapour. A common enzyme, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), was adsorbed from solution onto the deuterated cellulose films and visualized by NR. The scattering length density contrast of the deuterated cellulose enabled accurate visualization and quantification of the adsorbed HRP, which would have been impossible to achieve with non-deuterated cellulose. The procedure described enables preparing deuterated cellulose films that allows differentiation of cellulose and non-deuterated bio-macromolecules using NR. PMID:27796332

  6. Advanced ensemble modelling of flexible macromolecules using X-ray solution scattering.

    PubMed

    Tria, Giancarlo; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Kachala, Michael; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2015-03-01

    Dynamic ensembles of macromolecules mediate essential processes in biology. Understanding the mechanisms driving the function and molecular interactions of 'unstructured' and flexible molecules requires alternative approaches to those traditionally employed in structural biology. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is an established method for structural characterization of biological macromolecules in solution, and is directly applicable to the study of flexible systems such as intrinsically disordered proteins and multi-domain proteins with unstructured regions. The Ensemble Optimization Method (EOM) [Bernadó et al. (2007 ▶). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 5656-5664] was the first approach introducing the concept of ensemble fitting of the SAXS data from flexible systems. In this approach, a large pool of macromolecules covering the available conformational space is generated and a sub-ensemble of conformers coexisting in solution is selected guided by the fit to the experimental SAXS data. This paper presents a series of new developments and advancements to the method, including significantly enhanced functionality and also quantitative metrics for the characterization of the results. Building on the original concept of ensemble optimization, the algorithms for pool generation have been redesigned to allow for the construction of partially or completely symmetric oligomeric models, and the selection procedure was improved to refine the size of the ensemble. Quantitative measures of the flexibility of the system studied, based on the characteristic integral parameters of the selected ensemble, are introduced. These improvements are implemented in the new EOM version 2.0, and the capabilities as well as inherent limitations of the ensemble approach in SAXS, and of EOM 2.0 in particular, are discussed.

  7. Flexible Charged Macromolecules on Mixed Fluid Lipid Membranes: Theory and Monte Carlo Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Tzlil, Shelly; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam

    2005-01-01

    Fluid membranes containing charged lipids enhance binding of oppositely charged proteins by mobilizing these lipids into the interaction zone, overcoming the concomitant entropic losses due to lipid segregation and lower conformational freedom upon macromolecule adsorption. We study this energetic-entropic interplay using Monte Carlo simulations and theory. Our model system consists of a flexible cationic polyelectrolyte, interacting, via Debye-Hückel and short-ranged repulsive potentials, with membranes containing neutral lipids, 1% tetravalent, and 10% (or 1%) monovalent anionic lipids. Adsorption onto a fluid membrane is invariably stronger than to an equally charged frozen or uniform membrane. Although monovalent lipids may suffice for binding rigid macromolecules, polyvalent counter-lipids (e.g., phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate), whose entropy loss upon localization is negligible, are crucial for binding flexible macromolecules, which lose conformational entropy upon adsorption. Extending Rosenbluth's Monte Carlo scheme we directly simulate polymer adsorption on fluid membranes. Yet, we argue that similar information could be derived from a biased superposition of quenched membrane simulations. Using a simple cell model we account for surface concentration effects, and show that the average adsorption probabilities on annealed and quenched membranes coincide at vanishing surface concentrations. We discuss the relevance of our model to the electrostatic-switch mechanism of, e.g., the myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate protein. PMID:16126828

  8. Formation and characterization of calcium orthophosphates in the presence of two different acidic macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelin, Irina M.; Maier, Vasilica; Suflet, Dana M.; Popescu, Irina; Darie-Nita, Raluca N.; Aflori, Magdalena; Butnaru, Maria

    2017-10-01

    The synthetic nanocrystalline calcium orthophosphates have a notable bioactivity due to the chemical similarity with biological apatite from calcified tissues. In mineralized tissues, the highly ordered structures come from organized assemblies of biomacromolecules and inorganic nanoparticles. One of the purposes of this work was to study the effect of two types of acidic macromolecules: atelocollagen and phosphorylated curdlan onto calcium orthophosphates formation after 30 days of maturation at 2 ± 2 °C. The resulted samples after a long aging time, either calcium orthophosphates or composites, were first investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry and the results indicated that precipitated hydroxyapatite with low crystallinity was obtained when the synthesis was performed in the presence of phosphorylated curdlan. The macromolecules influenced the morphology of the particles as shown by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of macromolecules as demonstrated by thermal investigation also influenced the rheological properties of the samples. The second purpose of the work was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the samples using the MTT assay, and the results revealed very good cells viability. The preliminary results are encouraging regarding the use of these materials for further tests in order to develop injectable bone substitutes.

  9. Quantification of in vivo short echo-time proton magnetic resonance spectra at 14.1 T using two different approaches of modelling the macromolecule spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudalbu, C.; Mlynárik, V.; Xin, L.; Gruetter, Rolf

    2009-10-01

    Reliable quantification of the macromolecule signals in short echo-time 1H MRS spectra is particularly important at high magnetic fields for an accurate quantification of metabolite concentrations (the neurochemical profile) due to effectively increased spectral resolution of the macromolecule components. The purpose of the present study was to assess two approaches of quantification, which take the contribution of macromolecules into account in the quantification step. 1H spectra were acquired on a 14.1 T/26 cm horizontal scanner on five rats using the ultra-short echo-time SPECIAL (spin echo full intensity acquired localization) spectroscopy sequence. Metabolite concentrations were estimated using LCModel, combined with a simulated basis set of metabolites using published spectral parameters and either the spectrum of macromolecules measured in vivo, using an inversion recovery technique, or baseline simulated by the built-in spline function. The fitted spline function resulted in a smooth approximation of the in vivo macromolecules, but in accordance with previous studies using Subtract-QUEST could not reproduce completely all features of the in vivo spectrum of macromolecules at 14.1 T. As a consequence, the measured macromolecular 'baseline' led to a more accurate and reliable quantification at higher field strengths.

  10. Impacts of Organic Macromolecules, Chlorophyll and Soot on Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunro, O. O.; Wingenter, O. W.; Elliott, S.; Flanner, M.; Dubey, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Recent intensification of Arctic amplification can be strongly connected to positive feedback relating black carbon deposition to sea ice surface albedo. In addition to soot deposition on the ice and snow pack, ice algal chlorophyll is likely to compete as an absorber and redistributor of energy. Hence, solar radiation absorption by chlorophyll and some components of organic macromolecules in/under the ice column is currently being examined to determine the level of influence on predicted rate of ice loss. High amounts of organic macromolecules and chlorophyll are produced in global sea ice by the bottom microbial community and also in vertically distributed layers where substantial biological activities take place. Brine channeling in columnar ice can allow for upward flow of nutrients which leads to greater primary production in the presence of moderate light. Modeling of the sea-ice processes in tandem with experiments and field observations promises rapid progress in enhancing Arctic ice predictions. We are designing and conducting global climate model experiments to determine the impact of organic macromolecules and chlorophyll on Arctic sea ice. Influences on brine network permeability and radiation/albedo will be considered in this exercise. Absorption by anthropogenic materials such as soot and black carbon will be compared with that of natural pigments. We will indicate areas of soot and biological absorption dominance in the sense of single scattering, then couple into a full radiation transfer scheme to attribute the various contributions to polar climate change amplification. The work prepares us to study more traditional issues such as chlorophyll warming of the pack periphery and chemical effects of the flow of organics from ice internal communities. The experiments started in the Arctic will broaden to include Antarctic sea ice and shelves. Results from the Arctic simulations will be presented.

  11. The renal excretion and retention of macromolecules: The chemical structure effect.

    PubMed

    Rypácek, F; Drobník, J; Chmelar, V; Kálal, J

    1982-01-01

    Five derivatives of polyaspartamide were used as macromolecular models to study the effect of chemical structure of macromolecules on their renal excretion and retention. The parent polymer was formed solely by N(2-hydroxyethyl)aspartamide units (I) and in its derivatives about 20% of 2-hydroxyethyl groups were randomly replaced by either n-butyl- (II), 2(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl- (III, N- dimethylamino propyl- (IV) or the aspartamide unit was modified to free aspartic acid carboxyl (V). The rate of clearance from the serum, the deposition in the kidney tissue in comparison with the deposition in reticuloendothelial system organs-liver and spleen, as well as tissue and cellular localisation of deposits were studied on rabbits and mice taking advantage of fluorescence labelling. The clearance of macromolecular models from the serum compartment by the glomerular filtration is mainly molecular weight controlled, while the retention of macromolecules possessing the same molecular weight by the kidney tubular epithelium is strongly affected chemical modification. About thirty and hundred times higher retentions due to reabsorption in proximal tubule were found with macromolecular models II and III respectively.

  12. Electric field mediated loading of macromolecules in intact yeast cells is critically controlled at the wall level.

    PubMed

    Ganeva, V; Galutzov, B; Teissié, J

    1995-12-13

    The mechanism of electric field mediated macromolecule transfer inside an intact yeast cell was investigated by observing, under a microscope, the fluorescence associated to cells after pulsation in a buffer containing two different hydrophilic fluorescent dyes. In the case of a small probe such as propidium iodide, a long lived permeabilized state was induced by the field as classically observed on wall free systems. Penetration of a 70 kDa FITC dextran was obtained only by using drastic conditions and only a very limited number of yeast cells which took up macromolecules remained viable. Most dextrans were trapped in the wall. A dramatic improvement in transfer of dextrans was observed when the cells were treated by dithiothreitol before pulsation. A cytoplasmic protein leakage was detected after the electric treatment suggesting that an irreversible damage took place in the walls of many pulsed cells. Electroloading of macromolecules in intact yeast cells appears to be controlled by a field induced short lived alteration of the envelope organization.

  13. COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR STUDYING THE INTERACTION BETWEEN POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computational Methods for Studying the Interaction between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Biological Macromolecules .

    The mechanisms for the processes that result in significant biological activity of PAHs depend on the interaction of these molecules or their metabol...

  14. Electric Birefringence: A Simple Apparatus for Determining Physical Parameters of Macromolecules and Colloids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimm, Harold H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes a birefringence apparatus that can be assembled for less than $100 and can be used to measure both the dimensions and dipole moments of many macromolecules. Details are given of the construction and manipulation of the apparatus. (JN)

  15. Membrane-active macromolecules kill antibiotic-tolerant bacteria and potentiate antibiotics towards Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Uppu, Divakara S. S. M.; Konai, Mohini M.; Sarkar, Paramita; Samaddar, Sandip; Fensterseifer, Isabel C. M.; Farias-Junior, Celio; Krishnamoorthy, Paramanandam; Shome, Bibek R.; Franco, Octávio L.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic bacterial biofilms place a massive burden on healthcare due to the presence of antibiotic-tolerant dormant bacteria. Some of the conventional antibiotics such as erythromycin, vancomycin, linezolid, rifampicin etc. are inherently ineffective against Gram-negative bacteria, particularly in their biofilms. Here, we report membrane-active macromolecules that kill slow dividing stationary-phase and antibiotic tolerant cells of Gram-negative bacteria. More importantly, these molecules potentiate antibiotics (erythromycin and rifampicin) to biofilms of Gram-negative bacteria. These molecules eliminate planktonic bacteria that are liberated after dispersion of biofilms (dispersed cells). The membrane-active mechanism of these molecules forms the key for potentiating the established antibiotics. Further, we demonstrate that the combination of macromolecules and antibiotics significantly reduces bacterial burden in mouse burn and surgical wound infection models caused by Acinetobacter baumannii and Carbapenemase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC) clinical isolate respectively. Colistin, a well-known antibiotic targeting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria fails to kill antibiotic tolerant cells and dispersed cells (from biofilms) and bacteria develop resistance to it. On the contrary, these macromolecules prevent or delay the development of bacterial resistance to known antibiotics. Our findings emphasize the potential of targeting the bacterial membrane in antibiotic potentiation for disruption of biofilms and suggest a promising strategy towards developing therapies for topical treatment of Gram-negative infections. PMID:28837596

  16. Multifunctional gadolinium-based dendritic macromolecules as liver targeting imaging probes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kui; Liu, Gang; He, Bin; Wu, Yao; Gong, Qingyong; Song, Bin; Ai, Hua; Gu, Zhongwei

    2011-04-01

    The quest for highly efficient and safe contrast agents has become the key factor for successful application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The gadolinium (Gd) based dendritic macromolecules, with precise and tunable nanoscopic sizes, are excellent candidates as multivalent MRI probes. In this paper, a novel series of Gd-based multifunctional peptide dendritic probes (generation 2, 3, and 4) possessing highly controlled structures and single molecular weight were designed and prepared as liver MRI probes. These macromolecular Gd-ligand agents exhibited up to 3-fold increase in T(1) relaxivity comparing to Gd-DTPA complexes. No obvious in vitro cytotoxicity was observed from the measured concentrations. These dendritic probes were further functionalized with multiple galactosyl moieties and led to much higher cell uptake in vitro as demonstrated in T(1)-weighted scans. During in vivo animal studies, the probes provided better signal intensity (SI) enhancement in mouse liver, especially at 60 min post-injection, with the most efficient enhancement from the galactosyl moiety decorated third generation dendrimer. The imaging results were verified with analysis of Gd content in liver tissues. The design strategy of multifunctional Gd-ligand peptide dendritic macromolecules in this study may be used for developing other sensitive MRI probes with targeting capability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Explicit Solvent Simulations of Friction between Brush Layers of Charged and Neutral Bottle-Brush Macromolecules

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Carrillo, Jan-Michael; Brown, W Michael; Dobrynin, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    We study friction between charged and neutral brush layers of bottle-brush macromolecules using molecular dynamics simulations. In our simulations the solvent molecules were treated explicitly. The deformation of the bottle-brush macromolecules under the shear were studied as a function of the substrate separation and shear stress. For charged bottle-brush layers we study effect of the added salt on the brush lubricating properties to elucidate factors responsible for energy dissipation in charged and neutral brush systems. Our simulations have shown that for both charged and neutral brush systems the main deformation mode of the bottle-brush macromolecule is associated with the backbonemore » deformation. This deformation mode manifests itself in the backbone deformation ratio, , and shear viscosity, , to be universal functions of the Weissenberg number W. The value of the friction coefficient, , and viscosity, , are larger for the charged bottle-brush coatings in comparison with those for neutral brushes at the same separation distance, D, between substrates. The additional energy dissipation generated by brush sliding in charged bottle-brush systems is due to electrostatic coupling between bottle-brush and counterion motion. This coupling weakens as salt concentration, cs, increases resulting in values of the viscosity, , and friction coefficient, , approaching corresponding values obtained for neutral brush systems.« less

  18. Supramolecular Assembly of Comb-like Macromolecules Induced by Chemical Reactions that Modulate the Macromolecular Interactions In Situ.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hongwei; Fu, Hailin; Zhang, Yanfeng; Shih, Kuo-Chih; Ren, Yuan; Anuganti, Murali; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Cheng, Jianjun; Lin, Yao

    2017-08-16

    Supramolecular polymerization or assembly of proteins or large macromolecular units by a homogeneous nucleation mechanism can be quite slow and require specific solution conditions. In nature, protein assembly is often regulated by molecules that modulate the electrostatic interactions of the protein subunits for various association strengths. The key to this regulation is the coupling of the assembly process with a reversible or irreversible chemical reaction that occurs within the constituent subunits. However, realizing this complex process by the rational design of synthetic molecules or macromolecules remains a challenge. Herein, we use a synthetic polypeptide-grafted comb macromolecule to demonstrate how the in situ modulation of interactions between the charged macromolecules affects their resulting supramolecular structures. The kinetics of structural formation was studied and can be described by a generalized model of nucleated polymerization containing secondary pathways. Basic thermodynamic analysis indicated the delicate role of the electrostatic interactions between the charged subunits in the reaction-induced assembly process. This approach may be applicable for assembling a variety of ionic soft matters that are amenable to chemical reactions in situ.

  19. Comparison of gold nanoparticle mediated photoporation: vapor nanobubbles outperform direct heating for delivering macromolecules in live cells.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ranhua; Raemdonck, Koen; Peynshaert, Karen; Lentacker, Ine; De Cock, Ine; Demeester, Jo; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Skirtach, Andre G; Braeckmans, Kevin

    2014-06-24

    There is a great interest in delivering macromolecular agents into living cells for therapeutic purposes, such as siRNA for gene silencing. Although substantial effort has gone into designing nonviral nanocarriers for delivering macromolecules into cells, translocation of the therapeutic molecules from the endosomes after endocytosis into the cytoplasm remains a major bottleneck. Laser-induced photoporation, especially in combination with gold nanoparticles, is an alternative physical method that is receiving increasing attention for delivering macromolecules in cells. By allowing gold nanoparticles to bind to the cell membrane, nanosized membrane pores can be created upon pulsed laser illumination. Depending on the laser energy, pores are created through either direct heating of the AuNPs or by vapor nanobubbles (VNBs) that can emerge around the AuNPs. Macromolecules in the surrounding cell medium can then diffuse through the pores directly into the cytoplasm. Here we present a systematic evaluation of both photoporation mechanisms in terms of cytotoxicity, cell loading, and siRNA transfection efficiency. We find that the delivery of macromolecules under conditions of VNBs is much more efficient than direct photothermal disturbance of the plasma membrane without any noticeable cytotoxic effect. Interestingly, by tuning the laser energy, the pore size could be changed, allowing control of the amount and size of molecules that are delivered in the cytoplasm. As only a single nanosecond laser pulse is required, we conclude that VNBs are an interesting photoporation mechanism that may prove very useful for efficient high-throughput macromolecular delivery in live cells.

  20. Steady-State Linear and Non-linear Optical Spectroscopy of Organic Chromophores and Bio-macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marazzi, Marco; Gattuso, Hugo; Monari, Antonio; Assfeld, Xavier

    2018-04-01

    Bio-macromolecules as DNA, lipid membranes and (poly)peptides are essential compounds at the core of biological systems. The development of techniques and methodologies for their characterization is therefore necessary and of utmost interest, even though difficulties can be experienced due to their intrinsic complex nature. Among these methods, spectroscopies, relying on optical properties are especially important to determine their macromolecular structures and behaviors, as well as the possible interactions and reactivity with external dyes – often drugs or pollutants – that can (photo)sensitize the bio-macromolecule leading to eventual chemical modifications, thus damages. In this review, we will focus on the theoretical simulation of electronic spectroscopies of bio-macromolecules, considering their secondary structure and including their interaction with different kind of (photo)sensitizers. Namely, absorption, emission and electronic circular dichroism (CD) spectra are calculated and compared with the available experimental data. Non-linear properties will be also taken into account by two-photon absorption, a highly promising technique (i) to enhance absorption in the red and infra-red windows and (ii) to enhance spatial resolution. Methodologically, the implications of using implicit and explicit solvent, coupled to quantum and thermal samplings of the phase space, will be addressed. Especially, hybrid quantum mechanics/ molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods are explored for a comparison with solely QM methods, in order to address the necessity to consider an accurate description of environmental effects on spectroscopic properties of biological systems.

  1. Validating metal binding sites in macromolecule structures using the CheckMyMetal web server

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Heping; Chordia, Mahendra D.; Cooper, David R.; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Müller, Peter; Sheldrick, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Metals play vital roles in both the mechanism and architecture of biological macromolecules. Yet structures of metal-containing macromolecules where metals are misidentified and/or suboptimally modeled are abundant in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). This shows the need for a diagnostic tool to identify and correct such modeling problems with metal binding environments. The "CheckMyMetal" (CMM) web server (http://csgid.org/csgid/metal_sites/) is a sophisticated, user-friendly web-based method to evaluate metal binding sites in macromolecular structures in respect to 7350 metal binding sites observed in a benchmark dataset of 2304 high resolution crystal structures. The protocol outlines how the CMM server can be used to detect geometric and other irregularities in the structures of metal binding sites and alert researchers to potential errors in metal assignment. The protocol also gives practical guidelines for correcting problematic sites by modifying the metal binding environment and/or redefining metal identity in the PDB file. Several examples where this has led to meaningful results are described in the anticipated results section. CMM was designed for a broad audience—biomedical researchers studying metal-containing proteins and nucleic acids—but is equally well suited for structural biologists to validate new structures during modeling or refinement. The CMM server takes the coordinates of a metal-containing macromolecule structure in the PDB format as input and responds within a few seconds for a typical protein structure modeled with a few hundred amino acids. PMID:24356774

  2. Self-assembly in densely grafted macromolecules with amphiphilic monomer units: diagram of states.

    PubMed

    Lazutin, A A; Vasilevskaya, V V; Khokhlov, A R

    2017-11-22

    By means of computer modelling, the self-organization of dense planar brushes of macromolecules with amphiphilic monomer units was addressed and their state diagram was constructed. The diagram of states includes the following regions: disordered position of monomer units with respect to each other, strands composed of a few polymer chains and lamellae with different domain spacing. The transformation of lamellae structures with different domain spacing occurred within the intermediate region and could proceed through the formation of so-called parking garage structures. The parking garage structure joins the lamellae with large (on the top of the brushes) and small (close to the grafted surface) domain spacing, which appears like a system of inclined locally parallel layers connected with each other by bridges. The parking garage structures were observed for incompatible A and B groups in selective solvents, which result in aggregation of the side B groups and dense packing of amphiphilic macromolecules in the restricted volume of the planar brushes.

  3. Macromolecule exchange in Cuscuta-host plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gunjune; Westwood, James H

    2015-08-01

    Cuscuta species (dodders) are parasitic plants that are able to grow on many different host plants and can be destructive to crops. The connections between Cuscuta and its hosts allow movement of not only water and small nutrients, but also macromolecules including mRNA, proteins and viruses. Recent studies show that RNAs move bidirectionally between hosts and parasites and involve a large number of different genes. Although the function of mobile mRNAs has not been demonstrated in this system, small RNAs are also transmitted and a silencing construct expressed in hosts is able to affect expression of the target gene in the parasite. High throughput sequencing of host-parasite associations has the potential to greatly accelerate understanding of this remarkable interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fluorescence Approaches to Growing Macromolecule Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc; Forsythe, Elizabeth; Achari, Aniruddha

    2006-01-01

    Trace fluorescent labeling, typically < 1%, can be a powerful aid in macromolecule crystallization. Precipitation concentrates a solute, and crystals are the most densely packed solid form. The more densely packed the fluorescing material, the more brightly the emission from it, and thus fluorescence intensity of a solid phase is a good indication of whether one has crystals or not. The more brightly fluorescing crystalline phase is easily distinguishable, even when embedded in an amorphous precipitate. This approach conveys several distinct advantages: one can see what the protein is doing in response to the imposed conditions, and distinguishing between amorphous and microcrystalline precipitated phases are considerably simpler. The higher fluorescence intensity of the crystalline phase led us to test if we could derive crystallization conditions from screen outcomes which had no obvious crystalline material, but simply "bright spots" in the precipitated phase. Preliminary results show that the presence of these bright spots, not observable under white light, is indeed a good indicator of potential crystallization conditions.

  5. Using a water-confined carbon nanotube to probe the electricity of sequential charged segments of macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Zhao, Yan-Jiao; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2012-07-01

    The detection of macromolecular conformation is particularly important in many physical and biological applications. Here we theoretically explore a method for achieving this detection by probing the electricity of sequential charged segments of macromolecules. Our analysis is based on molecular dynamics simulations, and we investigate a single file of water molecules confined in a half-capped single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) with an external electric charge of +e or -e (e is the elementary charge). The charge is located in the vicinity of the cap of the SWCNT and along the centerline of the SWCNT. We reveal the picosecond timescale for the re-orientation (namely, from one unidirectional direction to the other) of the water molecules in response to a switch in the charge signal, -e → +e or +e → -e. Our results are well understood by taking into account the electrical interactions between the water molecules and between the water molecules and the external charge. Because such signals of re-orientation can be magnified and transported according to Tu et al. [2009 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106 18120], it becomes possible to record fingerprints of electric signals arising from sequential charged segments of a macromolecule, which are expected to be useful for recognizing the conformations of some particular macromolecules.

  6. Food macromolecule based nanodelivery systems for enhancing the bioavailability of polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bing; Liu, Xixia; Zhang, Chunlan; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2017-01-01

    Diet polyphenols-primarily categorized into flavonoids (e.g., flavonols, flavones, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, flavanones, and isoflavones) and nonflavonoids (with major subclasses of stilbenes and phenolic acids)-are reported to have health-promoting effects, such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anticarcinoma, antimicrobial, antiviral, and cardioprotective properties. However, their applications in functional foods or medicine are limited because of their inefficient systemic delivery and poor oral bioavailability. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, curcumin, and resveratrol are the well-known representatives of the bioactive diet polyphenols but with poor bioavailability. Food macromolecule based nanoparticles have been fabricated using reassembled proteins, crosslinked polysaccharides, protein-polysaccharide conjugates (complexes), as well as emulsified lipid via safe procedures that could be applied in food. The human gastrointestinal digestion tract is the first place where the food grade macromolecule nanoparticles exert their effects on improving the bioavailability of diet polyphenols, via enhancing their solubility, preventing their degradation in the intestinal environment, elevating the permeation in small intestine, and even increasing their contents in the bloodstream. We contend that the stability and structure behaviors of nanocarriers in the gastrointestinal tract environment and the effects of nanoencapsulation on the metabolism of polyphenols warrant more focused attention in further studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Interspecies scaling and prediction of human clearance: comparison of small- and macro-molecule drugs

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Yeamin; Smith, David E.; Feng, Meihau Rose

    2014-01-01

    Human clearance prediction for small- and macro-molecule drugs was evaluated and compared using various scaling methods and statistical analysis.Human clearance is generally well predicted using single or multiple species simple allometry for macro- and small-molecule drugs excreted renally.The prediction error is higher for hepatically eliminated small-molecules using single or multiple species simple allometry scaling, and it appears that the prediction error is mainly associated with drugs with low hepatic extraction ratio (Eh). The error in human clearance prediction for hepatically eliminated small-molecules was reduced using scaling methods with a correction of maximum life span (MLP) or brain weight (BRW).Human clearance of both small- and macro-molecule drugs is well predicted using the monkey liver blood flow method. Predictions using liver blood flow from other species did not work as well, especially for the small-molecule drugs. PMID:21892879

  8. Rigidity of Glasses and Macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, M. F.

    1998-03-01

    The simple yet powerful ideas of percolation theory have found their way into many different areas of research. In this talk we show how RIGIDITY PERCOLATION can be studied at a similar level of sophistication, using a powerful new program THE PEBBLE GAME (D. J. Jacobs and M. F. Thorpe, Phys. Rev. E) 53, 3682 (1996). that uses an integer algorithm. This program can analyse the rigidity of two and three dimensional networks containing more than one million bars and joints. We find the total number of floppy modes, and find the critical behavior as the network goes from floppy to rigid as more bars are added. We discuss the relevance of this work to network glasses, and how it relates to experiments that involve the mechanical properties like hardness and elasticity of covalent glassy networks like Ge_xAs_ySe_1-x-y and dicuss recent experiments that suggest that the rigidity transition may be first order (Xingwei Feng, W. J.Bresser and P. Boolchand, Phys. Rev. Lett 78), 4422 (1997).. This approach is also useful in macromolecules and proteins, where detailed information about the rigid domain structure can be obtained.

  9. Modeling shape and topology of low-resolution density maps of biological macromolecules.

    PubMed Central

    De-Alarcón, Pedro A; Pascual-Montano, Alberto; Gupta, Amarnath; Carazo, Jose M

    2002-01-01

    In the present work we develop an efficient way of representing the geometry and topology of volumetric datasets of biological structures from medium to low resolution, aiming at storing and querying them in a database framework. We make use of a new vector quantization algorithm to select the points within the macromolecule that best approximate the probability density function of the original volume data. Connectivity among points is obtained with the use of the alpha shapes theory. This novel data representation has a number of interesting characteristics, such as 1) it allows us to automatically segment and quantify a number of important structural features from low-resolution maps, such as cavities and channels, opening the possibility of querying large collections of maps on the basis of these quantitative structural features; 2) it provides a compact representation in terms of size; 3) it contains a subset of three-dimensional points that optimally quantify the densities of medium resolution data; and 4) a general model of the geometry and topology of the macromolecule (as opposite to a spatially unrelated bunch of voxels) is easily obtained by the use of the alpha shapes theory. PMID:12124252

  10. Entropic trapping of macromolecules by mesoscopic periodic voids in a polymer hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Li, Pusheng; Asher, Sanford A.

    1999-01-01

    The separation of macromolecules such as polymers and DNA by means of electrophoresis, gel permeation chromatography or filtration exploits size-dependent differences in the time it takes for the molecules to migrate through a random porous network. Transport through the gel matrices, which usually consist of full swollen crosslinked polymers, depends on the relative size of the macromolecule compared with the pore radius. Sufficiently small molecules are thought to adopt an approximately spherical conformation when diffusing through the gel matrix, whereas larger ones are forced to migrate in a snake-like fashion. Molecules of intermediate size, however, can get temporarily trapped in the largest pores of the matrix, where the molecule can extend and thus maximize its conformational entropy. This `entropic trapping' is thought to increase the dependence of diffusion rate on molecular size. Here we report the direct experimental verification of this phenomenon. Bragg diffraction from a hydrogel containing a periodic array of monodisperse water voids confirms that polymers of different weights partition between the hydrogel matrix and the water voids according to the predictions of the entropic trapping theory. Our approach might also lead to the design of improved separation media based on entropic trapping.

  11. Diffusion profile of macromolecules within and between human skin layers for (trans)dermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Römgens, Anne M; Bader, Dan L; Bouwstra, Joke A; Baaijens, Frank P T; Oomens, Cees W J

    2015-10-01

    Delivering a drug into and through the skin is of interest as the skin can act as an alternative drug administration route for oral delivery. The development of new delivery methods, such as microneedles, makes it possible to not only deliver small molecules into the skin, which are able to pass the outer layer of the skin in therapeutic amounts, but also macromolecules. To provide insight into the administration of these molecules into the skin, the aim of this study was to assess the transport of macromolecules within and between its various layers. The diffusion coefficients in the epidermis and several locations in the papillary and reticular dermis were determined for fluorescein dextran of 40 and 500 kDa using a combination of fluorescent recovery after photobleaching experiments and finite element analysis. The diffusion coefficient was significantly higher for 40 kDa than 500 kDa dextran, with median values of 23 and 9 µm(2)/s in the dermis, respectively. The values only marginally varied within and between papillary and reticular dermis. For the 40 kDa dextran, the diffusion coefficient in the epidermis was twice as low as in the dermis layers. The adopted method may be used for other macromolecules, which are of interest for dermal and transdermal drug delivery. The knowledge about diffusion in the skin is useful to optimize (trans)dermal drug delivery systems to target specific layers or cells in the human skin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Versatile Technique for the In Vivo Imaging of Human Tumor Xenografts Using Near-Infrared Fluorochrome-Conjugated Macromolecule Probes

    PubMed Central

    Suemizu, Hiroshi; Kawai, Kenji; Higuchi, Yuichiro; Hashimoto, Haruo; Ogura, Tomoyuki; Itoh, Toshio; Sasaki, Erika; Nakamura, Masato

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present a versatile method for detecting human tumor xenografts in vivo, based on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, using near-infrared (NIR) fluorochrome-conjugated macromolecule probes. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and two immunoglobulins—an anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) monoclonal antibody and isotype control IgG2a—were labeled with XenoLight CF770 fluorochrome and used as NIR-conjugated macromolecule probes to study whole-body imaging in a variety of xenotransplantation mouse models. NIR fluorescent signals were observed in subcutaneously transplanted BxPC-3 (human pancreatic cancer) cells and HCT 116 (colorectal cancer) cells within 24 h of NIR-macromolecule probe injection, but the signal from the fluorochrome itself or from the NIR-conjugated small molecule (glycine) injection was not observed. The accuracy of tumor targeting was confirmed by the localization of the NIR-conjugated immunoglobulin within the T-HCT 116 xenograft (in which the orange-red fluorescent protein tdTomato was stably expressed by HCT 116 cells) in the subcutaneous transplantation model. However, there was no significant difference in the NIR signal intensity of the region of interest between the anti-HLA antibody group and the isotype control group in the subcutaneous transplantation model. Therefore, the antibody accumulation within the tumor in vivo is based on the EPR effect. The liver metastasis generated by an intrasplenic injection of T-HCT 116 cells was clearly visualized by the NIR-conjugated anti-HLA probe but not by the orange-red fluorescent signal derived from the tdTomato reporter. This result demonstrated the superiority of the NIR probes over the tdTomato reporter protein at enhancing tissue penetration. In another xenograft model, patient-derived xenografts (PDX) of LC11-JCK (human non-small cell lung cancer) were successfully visualized using the NIR-conjugated macromolecule probe without any genetic modification. These results

  13. Tonal Interface to MacroMolecules (TIMMol): A Textual and Tonal Tool for Molecular Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordes, Timothy J.; Carlson, C. Britt; Forest, Katrina T.

    2008-01-01

    We developed the three-dimensional visualization software, Tonal Interface to MacroMolecules or TIMMol, for studying atomic coordinates of protein structures. Key features include audio tones indicating x, y, z location, identification of the cursor location in one-dimensional and three-dimensional space, textual output that can be easily linked…

  14. Sparsity of the normal matrix in the refinement of macromolecules at atomic and subatomic resolution.

    PubMed

    Jelsch, C

    2001-09-01

    The normal matrix in the least-squares refinement of macromolecules is very sparse when the resolution reaches atomic and subatomic levels. The elements of the normal matrix, related to coordinates, thermal motion and charge-density parameters, have a global tendency to decrease rapidly with the interatomic distance between the atoms concerned. For instance, in the case of the protein crambin at 0.54 A resolution, the elements are reduced by two orders of magnitude for distances above 1.5 A. The neglect a priori of most of the normal-matrix elements according to a distance criterion represents an approximation in the refinement of macromolecules, which is particularly valid at very high resolution. The analytical expressions of the normal-matrix elements, which have been derived for the coordinates and the thermal parameters, show that the degree of matrix sparsity increases with the diffraction resolution and the size of the asymmetric unit.

  15. Mass Transport of Macromolecules within an In Vitro Model of Supragingival Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Thurnheer, Thomas; Gmür, Rudolf; Shapiro, Stuart; Guggenheim, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the diffusion of macromolecules through an in vitro biofilm model of supragingival plaque. Polyspecies biofilms containing Actinomyces naeslundii, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sobrinus, Veillonella dispar, and Candida albicans were formed on sintered hydroxyapatite disks and then incubated at room temperature for defined periods with fluorescent markers with molecular weights ranging from 3,000 to 900,000. Subsequent examination by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the mean square penetration depths for all tested macromolecules except immunoglobulin M increased linearly with time, diffusion coefficients being linearly proportional to the cube roots of the molecular weights of the probes (range, 10,000 to 240,000). Compared to diffusion in bulk water, diffusion in the biofilms was markedly slower. The rate of diffusion for each probe appeared to be constant and not a function of biofilm depth. Analysis of diffusion phenomena through the biofilms suggested tortuosity as the most probable explanation for retarded diffusion. Selective binding of probes to receptors present in the biofilms could not explain the observed extent of retardation of diffusion. These results are relevant to oral health, as selective attenuated diffusion of fermentable carbohydrates and acids produced within dental plaque is thought to be essential for the development of carious lesions. PMID:12620862

  16. A dural lymphatic vascular system that drains brain interstitial fluid and macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Antila, Salli; Proulx, Steven T.; Karlsen, Tine Veronica; Karaman, Sinem; Detmar, Michael; Wiig, Helge

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is considered an organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. Yet, part of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains into the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). The mechanism of CSF entry into the LNs has been unclear. Here we report the surprising finding of a lymphatic vessel network in the dura mater of the mouse brain. We show that dural lymphatic vessels absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid (ISF) via the glymphatic system. Dural lymphatic vessels transport fluid into deep cervical LNs (dcLNs) via foramina at the base of the skull. In a transgenic mouse model expressing a VEGF-C/D trap and displaying complete aplasia of the dural lymphatic vessels, macromolecule clearance from the brain was attenuated and transport from the subarachnoid space into dcLNs was abrogated. Surprisingly, brain ISF pressure and water content were unaffected. Overall, these findings indicate that the mechanism of CSF flow into the dcLNs is directly via an adjacent dural lymphatic network, which may be important for the clearance of macromolecules from the brain. Importantly, these results call for a reexamination of the role of the lymphatic system in CNS physiology and disease. PMID:26077718

  17. A dural lymphatic vascular system that drains brain interstitial fluid and macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Antila, Salli; Proulx, Steven T; Karlsen, Tine Veronica; Karaman, Sinem; Detmar, Michael; Wiig, Helge; Alitalo, Kari

    2015-06-29

    The central nervous system (CNS) is considered an organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. Yet, part of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains into the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). The mechanism of CSF entry into the LNs has been unclear. Here we report the surprising finding of a lymphatic vessel network in the dura mater of the mouse brain. We show that dural lymphatic vessels absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid (ISF) via the glymphatic system. Dural lymphatic vessels transport fluid into deep cervical LNs (dcLNs) via foramina at the base of the skull. In a transgenic mouse model expressing a VEGF-C/D trap and displaying complete aplasia of the dural lymphatic vessels, macromolecule clearance from the brain was attenuated and transport from the subarachnoid space into dcLNs was abrogated. Surprisingly, brain ISF pressure and water content were unaffected. Overall, these findings indicate that the mechanism of CSF flow into the dcLNs is directly via an adjacent dural lymphatic network, which may be important for the clearance of macromolecules from the brain. Importantly, these results call for a reexamination of the role of the lymphatic system in CNS physiology and disease. © 2015 Aspelund et al.

  18. A rapid and practical technique for real-time monitoring of biomolecular interactions using mechanical responses of macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarhan, Mehmet C.; Lafitte, Nicolas; Tauran, Yannick; Jalabert, Laurent; Kumemura, Momoko; Perret, Grégoire; Kim, Beomjoon; Coleman, Anthony W.; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Collard, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring biological reactions using the mechanical response of macromolecules is an alternative approach to immunoassays for providing real-time information about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Although force spectroscopy techniques, e.g. AFM and optical tweezers, perform precise molecular measurements at the single molecule level, sophisticated operation prevent their intensive use for systematic biosensing. Exploiting the biomechanical assay concept, we used micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) to develop a rapid platform for monitoring bio/chemical interactions of bio macromolecules, e.g. DNA, using their mechanical properties. The MEMS device provided real-time monitoring of reaction dynamics without any surface or molecular modifications. A microfluidic device with a side opening was fabricated for the optimal performance of the MEMS device to operate at the air-liquid interface for performing bioassays in liquid while actuating/sensing in air. The minimal immersion of the MEMS device in the channel provided long-term measurement stability (>10 h). Importantly, the method allowed monitoring effects of multiple solutions on the same macromolecule bundle (demonstrated with DNA bundles) without compromising the reproducibility. We monitored two different types of effects on the mechanical responses of DNA bundles (stiffness and viscous losses) exposed to pH changes (2.1 to 4.8) and different Ag+ concentrations (1 μM to 0.1 M).

  19. Diffusion within the cytoplasm: a mesoscale model of interacting macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Trovato, Fabio; Tozzini, Valentina

    2014-12-02

    Recent experiments carried out in the dense cytoplasm of living cells have highlighted the importance of proteome composition and nonspecific intermolecular interactions in regulating macromolecule diffusion and organization. Despite this, the dependence of diffusion-interaction on physicochemical properties such as the degree of poly-dispersity and the balance between steric repulsion and nonspecific attraction among macromolecules was not systematically addressed. In this work, we study the problem of diffusion-interaction in the bacterial cytoplasm, combining theory and experimental data to build a minimal coarse-grained representation of the cytoplasm, which also includes, for the first time to our knowledge, the nucleoid. With stochastic molecular-dynamics simulations of a virtual cytoplasm we are able to track the single biomolecule motion, sizing from 3 to 80 nm, on submillisecond-long trajectories. We demonstrate that the size dependence of diffusion coefficients, anomalous exponents, and the effective viscosity experienced by biomolecules in the cytoplasm is fine-tuned by the intermolecular interactions. Accounting only for excluded volume in these potentials gives a weaker size-dependence than that expected from experimental data. On the contrary, adding nonspecific attraction in the range of 1-10 thermal energy units produces a stronger variation of the transport properties at growing biopolymer sizes. Normal and anomalous diffusive regimes emerge straightforwardly from the combination of high macromolecular concentration, poly-dispersity, stochasticity, and weak nonspecific interactions. As a result, small biopolymers experience a viscous cytoplasm, while the motion of big ones is jammed because the entanglements produced by the network of interactions and the entropic effects caused by poly-dispersity are stronger. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reaction-Mediated Desorption of Macromolecules: Novel Phenomenon Enabling Simultaneous Reaction and Separation.

    PubMed

    Isakari, Yu; Kishi, Yuhi; Yoshimoto, Noriko; Yamamoto, Shuichi; Podgornik, Aleš

    2018-02-02

    Combining chemical reaction with separation offers several advantages. In this work possibility to induce spontaneous desorption of adsorbed macromolecules, once being PEGylated, through adjustment of the reagent composition is investigated. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and activated oligonucleotide, 9T, are used as the test molecules and 20 kDa linear activated PEG is used for their PEGylation. BSA solid-phase PEGylation is performed on Q Sepharose HP. Distribution coefficient of BSA and PEG-BSA as a function of NaCl is determined using linear gradient elution (LGE) experiments and Yamamoto model. According to the distribution coefficient the selectivity between BSA and PEG - BSA of around 15 is adjusted by using NaCl. Spontaneous desorption of PEG - BSA is detected with no presence of BSA. However, due to a rather low selectivity, also desorption of BSA occurred at high elution volume. A similar procedure is applied for activated 9T oligonucleotide, this time using monolithic CIM QA disk monolithic column for adsorption. Selectivity of over 2000 is obtained by proper adjustment of PEG reagent composition. High selectivity enables spontaneous desorption of PEG-9T without any desorption of activated 9T. Both experiments demonstrates that reaction-mediated desorption of macromolecules is possible when the reaction conditions are properly tuned. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Improved Measurement of B(sub 22) of Macromolecules in a Flow Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Wilbur; Fanguy, Joseph; Holman, Steven; Guo, Bin

    2008-01-01

    An improved apparatus has been invented for use in determining the osmotic second virial coefficient of macromolecules in solution. In a typical intended application, the macromolecules would be, more specifically, protein molecules, and the protein solution would be pumped through a flow cell to investigate the physical and chemical conditions that affect crystallization of the protein in question. Some background information is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the novel aspects of this apparatus. A method of determining B22 from simultaneous measurements of the static transmittance (taken as an indication of concentration) and static scattering of light from the same location in a flowing protein solution was published in 2004. The apparatus used to implement the method at that time included a dual-detector flow cell, which had two drawbacks: a) The amount of protein required for analysis of each solution condition was of the order of a milligram - far too large a quantity for a high-throughput analysis system, for which microgram or even nanogram quantities of protein per analysis are desirable. b) The design of flow cell was such that two light sources were used to probe different regions of the flowing solution. Consequently, the apparatus did not afford simultaneous measurements at the same location in the solution and, hence, did not guarantee an accurate determination of B22.

  2. Some Fundamental Molecular Mechanisms of Contractility in Fibrous Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Mandelkern, L.

    1967-01-01

    The fundamental molecular mechanisms of contractility and tension development in fibrous macromolecules are developed from the point of view of the principles of polymer physical chemistry. The problem is treated in a general manner to encompass the behavior of all macromolecular systems irrespective of their detailed chemical structure and particular function, if any. Primary attention is given to the contractile process which accompanies the crystal-liquid transition in axially oriented macromolecular systems. The theoretical nature of the process is discussed, and many experimental examples are given from the literature which demonstrate the expected behavior. Experimental attention is focused on the contraction of fibrous proteins, and the same underlying molecular mechanism is shown to be operative for a variety of different systems. PMID:6050598

  3. Coupled Segmentation of Nuclear and Membrane-bound Macromolecules through Voting and Multiphase Level Set

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Membrane-bound macromolecules play an important role in tissue architecture and cell-cell communication, and is regulated by almost one-third of the genome. At the optical scale, one group of membrane proteins expresses themselves as linear structures along the cell surface boundaries, while others are sequestered; and this paper targets the former group. Segmentation of these membrane proteins on a cell-by-cell basis enables the quantitative assessment of localization for comparative analysis. However, such membrane proteins typically lack continuity, and their intensity distributions are often very heterogeneous; moreover, nuclei can form large clump, which further impedes the quantification of membrane signals on a cell-by-cell basis. To tackle these problems, we introduce a three-step process to (i) regularize the membrane signal through iterative tangential voting, (ii) constrain the location of surface proteins by nuclear features, where clumps of nuclei are segmented through a delaunay triangulation approach, and (iii) assign membrane-bound macromolecules to individual cells through an application of multi-phase geodesic level-set. We have validated our method using both synthetic data and a dataset of 200 images, and are able to demonstrate the efficacy of our approach with superior performance. PMID:25530633

  4. Translational Diffusion of Macromolecule-sized Solutes in Cytoplasm and Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Seksek, Olivier; Biwersi, Joachim; Verkman, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) was used to quantify the translational diffusion of microinjected FITC-dextrans and Ficolls in the cytoplasm and nucleus of MDCK epithelial cells and Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. Absolute diffusion coefficients (D) were measured using a microsecond-resolution FRAP apparatus and solution standards. In aqueous media (viscosity 1 cP), D for the FITC-dextrans decreased from 75 to 8.4 × 10−7 cm2/s with increasing dextran size (4–2,000 kD). D in cytoplasm relative to that in water (D/Do) was 0.26 ± 0.01 (MDCK) and 0.27 ± 0.01 (fibroblasts), and independent of FITC-dextran and Ficoll size (gyration radii [RG] 40–300 Å). The fraction of mobile FITC-dextran molecules (fmob), determined by the extent of fluorescence recovery after spot photobleaching, was >0.75 for RG < 200 Å, but decreased to <0.5 for RG > 300 Å. The independence of D/Do on FITC-dextran and Ficoll size does not support the concept of solute “sieving” (size-dependent diffusion) in cytoplasm. Photobleaching measurements using different spot diameters (1.5–4 μm) gave similar D/Do, indicating that microcompartments, if present, are of submicron size. Measurements of D/Do and fmob in concentrated dextran solutions, as well as in swollen and shrunken cells, suggested that the low fmob for very large macromolecules might be related to restrictions imposed by immobile obstacles (such as microcompartments) or to anomalous diffusion (such as percolation). In nucleus, D/Do was 0.25 ± 0.02 (MDCK) and 0.27 ± 0.03 (fibroblasts), and independent of solute size (RG 40–300 Å). Our results indicate relatively free and rapid diffusion of macromolecule-sized solutes up to approximately 500 kD in cytoplasm and nucleus. PMID:9214387

  5. Is it Possible to have the Similar Unit Cell in Crystals of Different form from the same Macromolecule? (A Case Study of Ribosome Crystals)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpova, E. A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Three different types of ribosome crystals were grown by the vapor diffusion technique in hanging drops as described in (1,2). The ribosome is a large asymmetric RNA-protein complex (2.3 million Da), which is protein syntheses machinery of the cell. In this poster we would like to discuss the features of ribosome crystallization. Ribosomes were purified from the thermophilic bacteria Thermus thermophilus by centrifugation (3). Three types of crystals (needle, flat tetragonal and tetragonal-like pyramid) can be grown from the same solution; furthermore, in the same drop using 10-15% 2-methyl-2,4- pentanediol as a precipitant. The crystals appeared in 5-48 hours. The crystals were stable and can co-exist in solution over long period of time. The kinetics of appearance of different crystal forms was different: first the needle crystals were grown, then the tetragonal, and finally the tetragonal pyramids. Later studies of the process of ribosome crystal growth depending on supersaturation showed that low supersaturation results in the appearance of tetragonal plates or tetragonal-like pyramids. An electron microscopy study, together with computer modeling, has shown that crystals of different forms have a high probability of having the same unit cell parameters. According to these experiments the following conclusion can be dranvn: the level of supersaturation of the macromolecule in a crystallizing solution is one of the major factors for forming three-dimensional crystals convenient for X-rays diffraction analysis. From the same macromolecule solution, crystals of different forms can be grown at approximately the same conditions by varying the concentration of macromolecule in the solution. Ion-macromolecule and water-macromolecule interactions, apparently, play the main role in the formation of the unit cell of the crystals.

  6. Focal macromolecule delivery in neuronal tissue using simultaneous pressure ejection and local electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Matthew; Billups, Brian; Hamann, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Electroporation creates transient pores in the plasma membrane to introduce macromolecules within a cell or cell population. Generally, electrical pulses are delivered between two electrodes separated from each other, making electroporation less likely to be localised. We have developed a new device combining local pressure ejection with local electroporation through a double-barrelled glass micropipette to transfer impermeable macromolecules in brain slices or in cultured HEK293 cells. The design achieves better targeting of the site of pressure ejection with that of electroporation. With this technique, we have been able to limit the delivery of propidium iodide or dextran amine within areas of 100–200 μm diameter. We confirm that local electroporation is transient and show that when combined with pressure ejection, it allows local transfection of EGFP plasmids within HEK293 cells or within cerebellar and hippocampal slice cultures. We further show that local electroporation is less damaging when compared to global electroporation using two separate electrodes. Focal delivery of dextran amine dyes within trapezoid body fibres allowed tracing axonal tracts within brainstem slices, enabling the study of identified calyx of Held presynaptic terminals in living brain tissue. This labelling method can be used to target small nuclei in neuronal tissue and is generally applicable to the study of functional synaptic connectivity, or live axonal tracing in a variety of brain areas. PMID:19014970

  7. Enhanced Sampling Methods for the Computation of Conformational Kinetics in Macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazioli, Gianmarc

    Calculating the kinetics of conformational changes in macromolecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, is still very much an open problem in theoretical chemistry and computational biophysics. If it were feasible to run large sets of molecular dynamics trajectories that begin in one configuration and terminate when reaching another configuration of interest, calculating kinetics from molecular dynamics simulations would be simple, but in practice, configuration spaces encompassing all possible configurations for even the simplest of macromolecules are far too vast for such a brute force approach. In fact, many problems related to searches of configuration spaces, such as protein structure prediction, are considered to be NP-hard. Two approaches to addressing this problem are to either develop methods for enhanced sampling of trajectories that confine the search to productive trajectories without loss of temporal information, or coarse-grained methodologies that recast the problem in reduced spaces that can be exhaustively searched. This thesis will begin with a description of work carried out in the vein of the second approach, where a Smoluchowski diffusion equation model was developed that accurately reproduces the rate vs. force relationship observed in the mechano-catalytic disulphide bond cleavage observed in thioredoxin-catalyzed reduction of disulphide bonds. Next, three different novel enhanced sampling methods developed in the vein of the first approach will be described, which can be employed either separately or in conjunction with each other to autonomously define a set of energetically relevant subspaces in configuration space, accelerate trajectories between the interfaces dividing the subspaces while preserving the distribution of unassisted transition times between subspaces, and approximate time correlation functions from the kinetic data collected from the transitions between interfaces.

  8. Exciton scattering approach for optical spectra calculations in branched conjugated macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Wu, Chao; Malinin, Sergey V.; Tretiak, Sergei; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.

    2016-12-01

    The exciton scattering (ES) technique is a multiscale approach based on the concept of a particle in a box and developed for efficient calculations of excited-state electronic structure and optical spectra in low-dimensional conjugated macromolecules. Within the ES method, electronic excitations in molecular structure are attributed to standing waves representing quantum quasi-particles (excitons), which reside on the graph whose edges and nodes stand for the molecular linear segments and vertices, respectively. Exciton propagation on the linear segments is characterized by the exciton dispersion, whereas exciton scattering at the branching centers is determined by the energy-dependent scattering matrices. Using these ES energetic parameters, the excitation energies are then found by solving a set of generalized "particle in a box" problems on the graph that represents the molecule. Similarly, unique energy-dependent ES dipolar parameters permit calculations of the corresponding oscillator strengths, thus, completing optical spectra modeling. Both the energetic and dipolar parameters can be extracted from quantum-chemical computations in small molecular fragments and tabulated in the ES library for further applications. Subsequently, spectroscopic modeling for any macrostructure within a considered molecular family could be performed with negligible numerical effort. We demonstrate the ES method application to molecular families of branched conjugated phenylacetylenes and ladder poly-para-phenylenes, as well as structures with electron donor and acceptor chemical substituents. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is used as a reference model for electronic structure. The ES calculations accurately reproduce the optical spectra compared to the reference quantum chemistry results, and make possible to predict spectra of complex macromolecules, where conventional electronic structure calculations are unfeasible.

  9. The Question of Impurities in Macromolecule Crystal Quality Improvement in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Russell A.; Snell, Edward H.; Pusey, Marc L.; Sportiello, Michael G.; Todd, Paul; Bellamy, Henry; Borgstahl, Gloria E.; Pokros, Matthew; Cassanto, John M.

    2000-01-01

    While macromolecule impurities may affect crystal size and morphology the over-riding question is how do macromolecule impurities effect crystal X-ray quality and diffraction resolution. In the case of chicken egg white lysozyme previous researchers have reported that crystals grown in the presence of ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and turkey egg white lysozyme show no difference in diffraction resolution compared to those grown in pure solutions. One impurity however, a naturally occurring lysozyme dimer, does negatively impact the X-ray crystal properties. For this impurity it has been reported that crystal quality improvement in microgravity may be due to improved impurity partitioning during crystallization. In this study we have examined the incorporation of the dimer into lysozyme crystals, both on the ground and in microgravity experiments, and have performed detailed X-ray analysis of the crystals using a new technique for finely probing the mosaicity of the crystal at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Dimer partitioning was not significantly different in microgravity compared to the ground based experiments, although it is significantly better than that previously reported in microgravity. Mosaicity analysis of pure crystals, 1422 indexed reflections (microgravity) and 752 indexed reflections (ground), gave average results of 0.0066 and 0.0092 degrees (FWHM) respectively. The microgravity crystals also provided an increased signal to noise. Dimer incorporation increased the average mosaicity in microgravity but not on the ground. However, dimer incorporation did greatly reduce the resolution limit in both ground and microgravity grown crystals. The data is being treated anisotropically to explore these effects. These results indicate that impurity effects in microgravity are complex and that the conditions or techniques employed may greatly affect the role of impurities.

  10. ConSurf 2016: an improved methodology to estimate and visualize evolutionary conservation in macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Abadi, Shiran; Martz, Eric; Chay, Ofer; Mayrose, Itay; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2016-01-01

    The degree of evolutionary conservation of an amino acid in a protein or a nucleic acid in DNA/RNA reflects a balance between its natural tendency to mutate and the overall need to retain the structural integrity and function of the macromolecule. The ConSurf web server (http://consurf.tau.ac.il), established over 15 years ago, analyses the evolutionary pattern of the amino/nucleic acids of the macromolecule to reveal regions that are important for structure and/or function. Starting from a query sequence or structure, the server automatically collects homologues, infers their multiple sequence alignment and reconstructs a phylogenetic tree that reflects their evolutionary relations. These data are then used, within a probabilistic framework, to estimate the evolutionary rates of each sequence position. Here we introduce several new features into ConSurf, including automatic selection of the best evolutionary model used to infer the rates, the ability to homology-model query proteins, prediction of the secondary structure of query RNA molecules from sequence, the ability to view the biological assembly of a query (in addition to the single chain), mapping of the conservation grades onto 2D RNA models and an advanced view of the phylogenetic tree that enables interactively rerunning ConSurf with the taxa of a sub-tree. PMID:27166375

  11. Hypothesis on interactions of macromolecules based on molecular vibration patterns in cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Jaross, Werner

    2018-01-01

    The molecular vibration patterns of structure-forming macromolecules in the living cell create very specific electromagnetic frequency patterns which might be used for information on spatial position in the three-dimensional structure as well as the chemical characteristics. Chemical change of a molecule results in a change of the vibration pattern and thus in a change of the emitted electromagnetic frequency pattern. These patterns have to be received by proteins responsible for the necessary interactions and functions. Proteins can function as resonators for frequencies in the range of 1013-1015 Hz. The individual frequency pattern is defined by the amino acid sequence and the polarity of every amino acid caused by their functional groups. If the arriving electromagnetic signal pattern and the emitted pattern of the absorbing protein are matched in relevant parts and in opposite phase, photon energy in the characteristic frequencies can be transferred resulting in a conformational change of that molecule and respectively in an increase of its specific activity. The electromagnetic radiation is very weak. The possibilities to overcome intracellular distances are shown. The motor-driven directed transport of macromolecules starts in the Golgi apparatus. The relevance of molecular interactions based on this signaling for the induction and navigation in the intracellular transport is discussed.

  12. Role of tumor–host interactions in interstitial diffusion of macromolecules: Cranial vs. subcutaneous tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pluen, Alain; Boucher, Yves; Ramanujan, Saroja; McKee, Trevor D.; Gohongi, Takeshi; di Tomaso, Emmanuelle; Brown, Edward B.; Izumi, Yotaro; Campbell, Robert B.; Berk, David A.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2001-01-01

    The large size of many novel therapeutics impairs their transport through the tumor extracellular matrix and thus limits their therapeutic effectiveness. We propose that extracellular matrix composition, structure, and distribution determine the transport properties in tumors. Furthermore, because the characteristics of the extracellular matrix largely depend on the tumor–host interactions, we postulate that diffusion of macromolecules will vary with tumor type as well as anatomical location. Diffusion coefficients of macromolecules and liposomes in tumors growing in cranial windows (CWs) and dorsal chambers (DCs) were measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. For the same tumor types, diffusion of large molecules was significantly faster in CW than in DC tumors. The greater diffusional hindrance in DC tumors was correlated with higher levels of collagen type I and its organization into fibrils. For molecules with diameters comparable to the interfibrillar space the diffusion was 5- to 10-fold slower in DC than in CW tumors. The slower diffusion in DC tumors was associated with a higher density of host stromal cells that synthesize and organize collagen type I. Our results point to the necessity of developing site-specific drug carriers to improve the delivery of molecular medicine to solid tumors. PMID:11274375

  13. Critical considerations for developing nucleic acid macromolecule based drug products.

    PubMed

    Muralidhara, Bilikallahalli K; Baid, Rinku; Bishop, Steve M; Huang, Min; Wang, Wei; Nema, Sandeep

    2016-03-01

    Protein expression therapy using nucleic acid macromolecules (NAMs) as a new paradigm in medicine has recently gained immense therapeutic potential. With the advancement of nonviral delivery it has been possible to target NAMs against cancer, immunodeficiency and infectious diseases. Owing to the complex and fragile structure of NAMs, however, development of a suitable, stable formulation for a reasonable product shelf-life and efficacious delivery is indeed challenging to achieve. This review provides a synopsis of challenges in the formulation and stability of DNA/m-RNA based medicines and probable mitigation strategies including a brief summary of delivery options to the target cells. Nucleic acid based drugs at various stages of ongoing clinical trials are compiled. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of macromolecule-bound derivatives of a peptidyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine prodrug.

    PubMed

    Balajthy, Zoltan

    2008-04-01

    Macromolecule-bound Val-Leu-Lys-ara-C (1) prodrugs were synthesized with spacers (-HN-(CH(2))(x)-CO-; x =1,3,5) between the dextran carrier (T-70) and 1, in order to achieve a sustained-release drug delivery system dextran-NH-(CH(2))(x:1,3,5)-CO-Val-Leu-Lys-ara-C (5, 6 and 7). The conjugation increased the stability of 1 in aqueous buffer solutions by three times (t((1/2)) 53.0 h, pH 7.4). The length of spacer also regulated the rate of hydrolysis of the prodrugs in serum. The shortest spacer (-HN-(CH(2))-CO-, (2)) in 5 provided the best protection of 1 against the hydrolyzing ability of proteinase- alpha(2)-macroglobulin complexes, increasing its half-life approximately 30-fold. The conjugation procedure resulted in a growth arrest ability for macromolecular-bound prodrugs 5, 6 and 7 against L1210 with IC(50) of 0.01 microM in vitro, which is significantly lower than that of other ara-C-macromolecule conjugates. 5 and 6 arrested cell growth in a broader range of concentration, between 1 x 10(-5)-1.0 microM, than ara-C could.

  15. Catalytic Activity of a Binary Informational Macromolecule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reader, John S.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules are thought to have played a prominent role in the early history of life on Earth based on their ability both to encode genetic information and to exhibit catalytic function. The modern genetic alphabet relies on two sets of complementary base pairs to store genetic information. However, due to the chemical instability of cytosine, which readily deaminates to uracil, a primitive genetic system composed of the bases A, U, G and C may have been difficult to establish. It has been suggested that the first genetic material instead contained only a single base-pairing unie'. Here we show that binary informational macromolecules, containing only two different nucleotide subunits, can act as catalysts. In vitro evolution was used to obtain ligase ribozymes composed of only 2,6-diaminopurine and uracil nucleotides, which catalyze the template-directed joining of two RNA molecules, one bearing a 5'-triphosphate and the other a 3'-hydroxyl. The active conformation of the fastest isolated ribozyme had a catalytic rate that was about 36,000-fold faster than the uncatalyzed rate of reaction. This ribozyme is specific for the formation of biologically relevant 3',5'-phosphodiester linkages.

  16. Visualization of three pathways for macromolecule transport across cultured endothelium and their modification by flow.

    PubMed

    Ghim, Mean; Alpresa, Paola; Yang, Sung-Wook; Braakman, Sietse T; Gray, Stephen G; Sherwin, Spencer J; van Reeuwijk, Maarten; Weinberg, Peter D

    2017-11-01

    Transport of macromolecules across vascular endothelium and its modification by fluid mechanical forces are important for normal tissue function and in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the routes by which macromolecules cross endothelium, the hemodynamic stresses that maintain endothelial physiology or trigger disease, and the dependence of transendothelial transport on hemodynamic stresses are controversial. We visualized pathways for macromolecule transport and determined the effect on these pathways of different types of flow. Endothelial monolayers were cultured under static conditions or on an orbital shaker producing different flow profiles in different parts of the wells. Fluorescent tracers that bound to the substrate after crossing the endothelium were used to identify transport pathways. Maps of tracer distribution were compared with numerical simulations of flow to determine effects of different shear stress metrics on permeability. Albumin-sized tracers dominantly crossed the cultured endothelium via junctions between neighboring cells, high-density lipoprotein-sized tracers crossed at tricellular junctions, and low-density lipoprotein-sized tracers crossed through cells. Cells aligned close to the angle that minimized shear stresses across their long axis. The rate of paracellular transport under flow correlated with the magnitude of these minimized transverse stresses, whereas transport across cells was uniformly reduced by all types of flow. These results contradict the long-standing two-pore theory of solute transport across microvessel walls and the consensus view that endothelial cells align with the mean shear vector. They suggest that endothelial cells minimize transverse shear, supporting its postulated proatherogenic role. Preliminary data show that similar tracer techniques are practicable in vivo. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Solutes of increasing size crossed cultured endothelium through intercellular junctions, through tricellular

  17. Recent advances in jointed quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics calculations of biological macromolecules: schemes and applications coupled to ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Yohsuke; Tateno, Masaru

    2010-10-20

    We review the recent research on the functional mechanisms of biological macromolecules using theoretical methodologies coupled to ab initio quantum mechanical (QM) treatments of reaction centers in proteins and nucleic acids. Since in most cases such biological molecules are large, the computational costs of performing ab initio calculations for the entire structures are prohibitive. Instead, simulations that are jointed with molecular mechanics (MM) calculations are crucial to evaluate the long-range electrostatic interactions, which significantly affect the electronic structures of biological macromolecules. Thus, we focus our attention on the methodologies/schemes and applications of jointed QM/MM calculations, and discuss the critical issues to be elucidated in biological macromolecular systems. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd

  18. Anti-Arrhenius cleavage of covalent bonds in bottlebrush macromolecules on substrate.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, Natalia V; Nese, Alper; Sun, Frank C; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Sheiko, Sergei S

    2012-06-12

    Spontaneous degradation of bottlebrush macromolecules on aqueous substrates was monitored by atomic force microscopy. Scission of C ─ C covalent bonds in the brush backbone occurred due to steric repulsion between the adsorbed side chains, which generated bond tension on the order of several nano-Newtons. Unlike conventional chemical reactions, the rate of bond scission was shown to decrease with temperature. This apparent anti-Arrhenius behavior was caused by a decrease in the surface energy of the underlying substrate upon heating, which results in a corresponding decrease of bond tension in the adsorbed macromolecules. Even though the tension dropped minimally from 2.16 to 1.89 nN, this was sufficient to overpower the increase in the thermal energy (k(B)T) in the Arrhenius equation. The rate constant of the bond-scission reaction was measured as a function of temperature and surface energy. Fitting the experimental data by a perturbed Morse potential V = V(0)(1 - e(-βx))(2) - fx, we determined the depth and width of the potential to be V(0) = 141 ± 19 kJ/mol and β(-1) = 0.18 ± 0.03 Å, respectively. Whereas the V(0) value is in reasonable agreement with the activation energy E(a) = 80-220 kJ/mol of mechanical and thermal degradation of organic polymers, it is significantly lower than the dissociation energy of a C ─ C bond D(e) = 350 kJ/mol. Moreover, the force constant K(x) = 2β(2)V(0) = 1.45 ± 0.36 kN/m of a strained bottlebrush along its backbone is markedly larger than the force constant of a C ─ C bond K(l) = 0.44 kN/m, which is attributed to additional stiffness due to deformation of the side chains.

  19. A mathematical model for filtration and macromolecule transport across capillary walls.

    PubMed

    Facchini, L; Bellin, A; Toro, E F

    2014-07-01

    Metabolic substrates, such as oxygen and glucose, are rapidly delivered to the cells of large organisms through filtration across microvessels walls. Modelling this important process is complicated by the strong coupling between flow and transport equations, which are linked through the osmotic pressure induced by the colloidal plasma proteins. The microvessel wall is a composite media with the internal glycocalyx layer exerting a strong sieving effect on macromolecules, with respect to the external layer composed by the endothelial cells. The physiological structure of the microvessel is represented as the superimposition of two membranes with different properties; the inner membrane represents the glycocalyx, while the outer membrane represents the surrounding endothelial cells. Application of the mass conservation principle and thermodynamic considerations lead to a model composed of two coupled second-order ordinary differential equations for the hydrostatic and osmotic pressures, one, expressing volumetric mass conservation and the other, which is non-linear in the unknown osmotic pressure, expressing macromolecules mass conservation. Despite the complexity of the system, the assumption that the properties of the layers are piece-wise constant allows us to obtain analytical solutions for the two pressures. This solution is in agreement with experimental observations, which contrary to common belief, show that flow reversal cannot occur in steady-state conditions unless the hydrostatic pressure in the lumen drops below physiologically plausible values. The observed variations of the volumetric flux and the solute mass flux in case of a significant reduction of the hydrostatic pressure at the lumen are in qualitative agreement with observed variations during detailed experiments reported in the literature. On the other hand, homogenising the microvessel wall into a single-layer membrane with equivalent properties leads to a very different distribution of

  20. Efficient Intracellular siRNA Delivery by Ethyleneimine-Modified Amphiphilic Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Sarah M.; Waite, Carolyn L.; Harmon, Alexander M.; Nusblat, Leora M.; Roth, Charles M.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary New materials that can bind and deliver oligonucleotides such as short interfering RNA (siRNA) without toxicity are greatly needed to fulfill the promise of therapeutic gene silencing. Amphiphilic macromolecules (AMs) were functionalized with linear ethyleneimines to create cationic AMs capable of complexing with siRNA. Structurally, the parent AM is formed from a mucic acid backbone whose tetra-hydroxy groups are alkylated with 12-carbon aliphatic chains to form the hydrophobic component of the macromolecule. This alkylated mucic acid is then mono-functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a hydrophilic component. The resulting AM contains a free carboxylic acid within the hydrophobic domain. In this work, linear ethyleneimines were conjugated to the free carboxylic acid to produce an AM with one primary amine (1N) or one primary amine and four secondary amines (5N). Further, an AM with amine substitution both to the free carboxylic acid in the hydrophobic domain and also to the adjacent PEG was synthesized to produce a polymer with one primary amine and eight secondary amines (9N), four located on each side of the AM hydrophobic domain. All amine-functionalized AMs formed nanoscale micelles but only the 5N and 9N AMs had cationic zeta potentials, which increased with increasing number of amines. All AMs exhibited less inherent cytotoxicity than linear polyethyleneimine (L-PEI) at concentrations of 10 µM and above. By increasing the length of the cationic ethyleneimine chain and the total number of amines, successful siRNA complexation and cellular siRNA delivery was achieved in a malignant glioma cell line. In addition, siRNA-induced silencing of firefly luciferase was observed using complexes of siRNA with the 9N AM and comparable to L-PEI, yet showed better cell viability at higher concentrations (above 10 µM). This work highlights the promise of cationic AMs as safe and efficient synthetic vectors for siRNA delivery. Specifically, a novel

  1. Flocculation of colloidal clay by bacterial polysaccharides: effect of macromolecule charge and structure.

    PubMed

    Labille, J; Thomas, F; Milas, M; Vanhaverbeke, C

    2005-04-01

    The molecular mechanism of montmorillonite flocculation by bacterial polysaccharides was investigated, with special emphasis on the effect of carboxylic charges in the macromolecules on the mechanisms of interaction with the clay surface. An indirect way to quantify the energy of interaction was used, by comparing the flocculation ability of variously acidic polysaccharides. Data on tensile strength of aggregates in diluted suspension were collected by timed size measurements in the domain 0.1-600 microm, using laser diffraction. The flow behavior of settled aggregates was studied by rheology measurements. Flocculation of colloidal clay suspension by polysaccharides requires cancelling of the electrostatic repulsions by salts, which allows approach of clay surfaces close enough to be bridged by adsorbing macromolecules. The amount of acidic charges of the polysaccharides, and especially their location in the molecular structure, governs the bridging mechanism and the resulting tensile strength of the aggregates. The exposure of carboxylate groups located on side chains strongly promotes flocculation. In turn, charges located on the backbone of the polysaccharide are less accessible to interaction, and the flocculation ability of such polysaccharides is lowered. Measurements at different pH indicate that adsorption of acidic polysaccharides occurs via electrostatic interactions on the amphoteric edge surface of clay platelets, whereas neutral polysaccharides rather adsorb via weak interactions. Increased tensile strength in diluted aggregates due to strong surface interactions results in proportionally increased viscosity of the concentrated aggregates.

  2. Exciton Scattering approach for conjugated macromolecules: from electronic spectra to electron-phonon coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretiak, Sergei

    2014-03-01

    The exciton scattering (ES) technique is a multiscale approach developed for efficient calculations of excited-state electronic structure and optical spectra in low-dimensional conjugated macromolecules. Within the ES method, the electronic excitations in the molecular structure are attributed to standing waves representing quantum quasi-particles (excitons), which reside on the graph. The exciton propagation on the linear segments is characterized by the exciton dispersion, whereas the exciton scattering on the branching centers is determined by the energy-dependent scattering matrices. Using these ES energetic parameters, the excitation energies are then found by solving a set of generalized ``particle in a box'' problems on the graph that represents the molecule. All parameters can be extracted from quantum-chemical computations of small molecular fragments and tabulated in the ES library for further applications. Subsequently, spectroscopic modeling for any macrostructure within considered molecular family could be performed with negligible numerical effort. The exciton scattering properties of molecular vertices can be further described by tight-binding or equivalently lattice models. The on-site energies and hopping constants are obtained from the exciton dispersion and scattering matrices. Such tight-binding model approach is particularly useful to describe the exciton-phonon coupling, energetic disorder and incoherent energy transfer in large branched conjugated molecules. Overall the ES applications accurately reproduce the optical spectra compared to the reference quantum chemistry results, and make possible to predict spectra of complex macromolecules, where conventional electronic structure calculations are unfeasible.

  3. Permeation enhancing polymers in oral delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules: thiomer/GSH systems.

    PubMed

    Bernkop-Schnürch, A; Kast, C E; Guggi, D

    2003-12-05

    Thiolated polymers (= thiomers) in combination with reduced glutathione (GSH) were shown to improve the uptake of hydrophilic macromolecules from the GI tract. The mechanism responsible for this permeation enhancing effect seems to be based on the thiol groups of the polymer. These groups inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase, being involved in the closing process of tight junctions, via a GSH-mediated mechanism. The strong permeation enhancing effect of various thiomer/GSH systems such as poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine/GSH or chitosan-4-thio-butylamidine (chitosan-TBA)/GSH could be shown via permeation studies on freshly excised intestinal mucosa in Ussing-type chambers. Furthermore, the efficacy of the system was also shown in vivo. By utilizing poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine/GSH as carrier matrix, an absolute oral bioavailability for low molecular weight heparin of 19.9 +/- 9.3% and a pharmacological efficacy--calculated on the basis of the areas under the reduction in serum glucose levels of the oral formulation versus subcutaneous (s.c.) injection-for orally given insulin of 7% could be achieved. The incorporation of salmon calcitonin in chitosan-TBA/GSH led on the other hand to a pharmacological efficacy based on the areas under the reduction in plasma calcium levels of the oral thiomer formulation versus intravenous (i.v.) injection of 1.3%. Because of this high efficacy (i), the possibility to combine thiomer/GSH systems with additional low molecular weight permeation enhancers acting in other ways (ii) and minimal toxicological risks as these polymers are not absorbed from the GI tract (iii), thiolated polymers represent a promising novel tool for the oral administration of hydrophilic macromolecules.

  4. Application of fluorescently labeled tracer technique for detection of natural active macromolecules in Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiao-Hui; Zhang, Xue-Wu; Xu, Kai-Peng; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2014-02-01

    Active substances in traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) contain not only a variety of small molecules, but also many other macromolecules (TCMMs), such as proteins, peptides and polysaccharides. Active TCMM can achieve good therapeutic effects by regulating the body's overall function with lower side effects. This review summarized the literatures published in recent years on the application of fluorescently labeled tracer technique for detection of natural active macromolecules in TCM. Classified by fluorescent markers, applications of fluorescein, rhodamine, and quantum dots (QDs) in TCMM active tracer are reviewed, and the methods and principles of TCMM fluorescent marker are illustrated. Studies on active TCMMs and their action mechanism are quite difficult due to a multitarget, multicomponent, and multipath system of TCM. However, the development of fluorescently labeled active tracer technique (FLATT) provides this research with new tools. Traditional fluorescent markers have many deficiencies, such as easily quenched, short luminous cycle, and intrinsic toxicity. Relatively, FLATT has many obvious advantages, and its application in TCMM is still at the early stage. In order to improve the overall level of fluorescence labeling in TCMM active tracer, the improvement on FLATT's detection sensitivity and biological affinity is urgent and critical to allow study of these interesting molecules.

  5. Global distribution and surface activity of macromolecules in offline simulations of marine organic chemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Ogunro, Oluwaseun O.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott; ...

    2015-10-13

    Here, organic macromolecules constitute high percentage components of remote sea spray. They enter the atmosphere through adsorption onto bubbles followed by bursting at the ocean surface, and go on to influence the chemistry of the fine mode aerosol. We present a global estimate of mixed-layer organic macromolecular distributions, driven by offline marine systems model output. The approach permits estimation of oceanic concentrations and bubble film surface coverages for several classes of organic compound. Mixed layer levels are computed from the output of a global ocean biogeochemistry model by relating the macromolecules to standard biogeochemical tracers. Steady state is assumed formore » labile forms, and for longer-lived components we rely on ratios to existing transported variables. Adsorption is then represented through conventional Langmuir isotherms, with equilibria deduced from laboratory analogs. Open water concentrations locally exceed one micromolar carbon for the total of protein, polysaccharide and refractory heteropolycondensate. The shorter-lived lipids remain confined to regions of strong biological activity. Results are evaluated against available measurements for all compound types, and agreement is generally quite reasonable. Global distributions are further estimated for both fractional coverage of bubble films at the air-water interface and the two-dimensional concentration excess. Overall, we show that macromolecular mapping provides a novel tool for the comprehension of oceanic surfactant distributions. Results may prove useful in planning field experiments and assessing the potential response of surface chemical behaviors to global change.« less

  6. Freeze-thaw and high-voltage discharge allow macromolecule uptake into ileal brush-border vesicles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Donowitz, M.; Emmer, E.; McCullen, J.

    1987-06-01

    High-voltage discharge or one cycle of freeze-thawing are shown to transiently permeabilize rabbit ileal brush-border membrane vesicles to macromolecules. Uptake of the radiolabeled macromolecule dextran, mol wt 70,000, used as a marker for vesicle permeability, was determined by a rapid filtration technique, with uptake defined as substrate associated with the vesicle and releasable after incubation of vesicles with 0.1% saponin. Dextran added immediately after electric shock (2000 V) or at the beginning of one cycle of freeze-thawing was taken up approximately eightfold compared with control. ATP also was taken up into freeze-thawed vesicles, whereas there was no significant uptake intomore » control vesicles. The increase in vesicle permeability was reversible, based on Na-dependent D-glucose uptake being decreased when studied 5 but not 15 min after electric shock, and was not significantly decreased after completion of one cycle of freeze-thawing. In addition, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and Ca/sup 2 +/-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity were similar in control vesicles and vesicles exposed to high-voltage discharge or freeze-thawing. Also, vesicles freeze-thawed with (/sup 32/P)ATP demonstrated increased phosphorylation compared with nonfrozen vesicles, while freeze-thawing did not alter vesicle protein as judged by Coomassie blue staining. These techniques should allow intestinal membrane vesicles to be used for studies of intracellular control of transport processes, for instance, studies of protein kinase regulation of transport.« less

  7. The Electric Potential of a Macromolecule in a Solvent: A Fundamental Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juffer, André H.; Botta, Eugen F. F.; van Keulen, Bert A. M.; van der Ploeg, Auke; Berendsen, Herman J. C.

    1991-11-01

    A general numerical method is presented to compute the electric potential for a macromolecule of arbitrary shape in a solvent with nonzero ionic strength. The model is based on a continuum description of the dielectric and screening properties of the system, which consists of a bounded internal region with discrete charges and an infinite external region. The potential obeys the Poisson equation in the internal region and the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation in the external region, coupled through appropriate boundary conditions. It is shown how this three-dimensional problem can be presented as a pair of coupled integral equations for the potential and the normal component of the electric field at the dielectric interface. These equations can be solved by a straightforward application of boundary element techniques. The solution involves the decomposition of a matrix that depends only on the geometry of the surface and not on the positions of the charges. With this approach the number of unknowns is reduced by an order of magnitude with respect to the usual finite difference methods. Special attention is given to the numerical inaccuracies resulting from charges which are located close to the interface; an adapted formulation is given for that case. The method is tested both for a spherical geometry, for which an exact solution is available, and for a realistic problem, for which a finite difference solution and experimental verification is available. The latter concerns the shift in acid strength (pK-values) of histidines in the copper-containing protein azurin on oxidation of the copper, for various values of the ionic strength. A general method is given to triangulate a macromolecular surface. The possibility is discussed to use the method presented here for a correct treatment of long-range electrostatic interactions in simulations of solvated macromolecules, which form an essential part of correct potentials of mean force.

  8. Structural investigation of nonpolar sulfur cross-linked macromolecules in petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, P.; Schmid, J. C.; Mycke, B.; Strazielle, C.; Connan, J.; Huc, A.; Riva, A.; Albrecht, P.

    1993-07-01

    A novel hexane-soluble nonpolar macromolecular fraction (NPMF) has been found to occur in substantial amounts (up to 32%) in sulfur-rich crude oils and a rock extract. It is highly aliphatic and has a molecular weight culminating at several thousand mass units, as proven by spectroscopic and molecular weight studies. C-S bond hydrogenolysis of NPMF with Raney nickel as a catalyst yields high proportions of aliphatic hydrocarbons in which long linear, acyclic polyisoprenoid and carotenoid chains usually predominate (except in one case) over polycyclic structures, such as steroids and hopanoids. Hence, NPMF consists mainly of macromolecules composed of low molecular weight hydrocarbon subunits cross-linked with sulfide bridges. Use of deuterated Raney nickel indicated in one case (Rozel Point oil) that the long chains and some hopanoids are multiattached to the macromolecular network, whereas other structural subunits, such as steroids or gammacerane, are essentially monoattached. Detailed structural determinations of the hydrocarbon "building blocks" of NPMF give information on their origin and the mode of formation of these macromolecules in the subsurface. Indeed, most of the building blocks can be related to algal (e.g., long linear chains, steroids, β-carotene, and related carotenoids) or bacterial (e.g., acyclic and monocyclic carotenoids, long-chain acyclic isoprenoids) precursors which essentially exist in living organisms as monounsaturated or polyunsaturated species or are easily transformed into such species by diagenetic processes (e.g., steroids). It appears that these alkenes or polyenes become selectively trapped into a macromolecular network by reaction with inorganic sulfur species produced by bacteria in a kind of natural, low-temperature, vulcanization process. This process could start at early diagenesis already in the water column or eventually continue in the bottom sediment. Although its exact nature is yet unknown, it seems likely that the

  9. Anti-Arrhenius cleavage of covalent bonds in bottlebrush macromolecules on substrate

    PubMed Central

    Lebedeva, Natalia V.; Nese, Alper; Sun, Frank C.; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Sheiko, Sergei S.

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous degradation of bottlebrush macromolecules on aqueous substrates was monitored by atomic force microscopy. Scission of C─C covalent bonds in the brush backbone occurred due to steric repulsion between the adsorbed side chains, which generated bond tension on the order of several nano-Newtons. Unlike conventional chemical reactions, the rate of bond scission was shown to decrease with temperature. This apparent anti-Arrhenius behavior was caused by a decrease in the surface energy of the underlying substrate upon heating, which results in a corresponding decrease of bond tension in the adsorbed macromolecules. Even though the tension dropped minimally from 2.16 to 1.89 nN, this was sufficient to overpower the increase in the thermal energy (kBT) in the Arrhenius equation. The rate constant of the bond-scission reaction was measured as a function of temperature and surface energy. Fitting the experimental data by a perturbed Morse potential V = V0(1 - e-βx)2 - fx, we determined the depth and width of the potential to be V0 = 141 ± 19 kJ/mol and β-1 = 0.18 ± 0.03 Å, respectively. Whereas the V0 value is in reasonable agreement with the activation energy Ea = 80–220 kJ/mol of mechanical and thermal degradation of organic polymers, it is significantly lower than the dissociation energy of a C─C bond De = 350 kJ/mol. Moreover, the force constant Kx = 2β2V0 = 1.45 ± 0.36 kN/m of a strained bottlebrush along its backbone is markedly larger than the force constant of a C─C bond Kl = 0.44 kN/m, which is attributed to additional stiffness due to deformation of the side chains. PMID:22645366

  10. Ordered mesoporous polymer-silica hybrid nanoparticles as vehicles for the intracellular controlled release of macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Wan; Slowing, Igor I; Chung, Po-Wen; Lin, Victor Shang-Yi

    2011-01-25

    A two-dimensional hexagonal ordered mesoporous polymer-silica hybrid nanoparticle (PSN) material was synthesized by polymerization of acrylate monomers on the surface of SBA-15 mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The structure of the PSN material was analyzed using a series of different techniques, including transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and N(2) sorption analysis. These structurally ordered mesoporous polymer-silica hybrid nanoparticles were used for the controlled release of membrane-impermeable macromolecules inside eukaryotic cells. The cellular uptake efficiency and biocompatibility of PSN with human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) were investigated. Our results show that the inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of PSN is very high (>100 μg/mL per million cells), while the median effective concentration for the uptake (EC(50)) of PSN is low (EC(50) = 4.4 μg/mL), indicating that PSNs are fairly biocompatible and easily up-taken in vitro. A membrane-impermeable macromolecule, 40 kDa FITC-Dextran, was loaded into the mesopores of PSNs at low pH. We demonstrated that the PSN material could indeed serve as a transmembrane carrier for the controlled release of FITC-Dextran at the pH level inside live HeLa cells. We believe that further developments of this PSN material will lead to a new generation of nanodevices for intracellular controlled delivery applications.

  11. Application of flow field-flow fractionation for the characterization of macromolecules of biological interest: a review

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Rashid Nazir

    2010-01-01

    An overview is given of the recent literature on (bio) analytical applications of flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF). FlFFF is a liquid-phase separation technique that can separate macromolecules and particles according to size. The technique is increasingly used on a routine basis in a variety of application fields. In food analysis, FlFFF is applied to determine the molecular size distribution of starches and modified celluloses, or to study protein aggregation during food processing. In industrial analysis, it is applied for the characterization of polysaccharides that are used as thickeners and dispersing agents. In pharmaceutical and biomedical laboratories, FlFFF is used to monitor the refolding of recombinant proteins, to detect aggregates of antibodies, or to determine the size distribution of drug carrier particles. In environmental studies, FlFFF is used to characterize natural colloids in water streams, and especially to study trace metal distributions over colloidal particles. In this review, first a short discussion of the state of the art in instrumentation is given. Developments in the coupling of FlFFF to various detection modes are then highlighted. Finally, application studies are discussed and ordered according to the type of (bio) macromolecules or bioparticles that are fractionated. PMID:20957473

  12. Rate measurements of the hydrolysis of complex organic macromolecules in cold aqueous solutions: implications for prebiotic chemistry on the early Earth and Titan.

    PubMed

    Neish, C D; Somogyi, A; Imanaka, H; Lunine, J I; Smith, M A

    2008-04-01

    Organic macromolecules ("complex tholins") were synthesized from a 0.95 N(2)/0.05 CH(4) atmosphere in a high-voltage AC flow discharge reactor. When placed in liquid water, specific water soluble compounds in the macromolecules demonstrated Arrhenius type first order kinetics between 273 and 313 K and produced oxygenated organic species with activation energies in the range of approximately 60+/-10 kJ mol(-1). These reactions displayed half lives between 0.3 and 17 days at 273 K. Oxygen incorporation into such materials--a necessary step toward the formation of biological molecules--is therefore fast compared to processes that occur on geologic timescales, which include the freezing of impact melt pools and possible cryovolcanic sites on Saturn's organic-rich moon Titan.

  13. Rate Measurements of the Hydrolysis of Complex Organic Macromolecules in Cold Aqueous Solutions: Implications for Prebiotic Chemistry on the Early Earth and Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neish, C. D.; Somogyi, Á.; Imanaka, H .; Lunine, J. I.; Smith, M. A.

    2008-04-01

    Organic macromolecules (``complex tholins'') were synthesized from a 0.95 N2 / 0.05 CH4 atmosphere in a high-voltage AC flow discharge reactor. When placed in liquid water, specific water soluble compounds in the macromolecules demonstrated Arrhenius type first order kinetics between 273 and 313 K and produced oxygenated organic species with activation energies in the range of ~60 +/- 10 kJ mol-1. These reactions displayed half lives between 0.3 and 17 days at 273 K. Oxygen incorporation into such materials-a necessary step toward the formation of biological molecules-is therefore fast compared to processes that occur on geologic timescales, which include the freezing of impact melt pools and possible cryovolcanic sites on Saturn's organic-rich moon Titan.

  14. Long charged macromolecule in an entropic trap with rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mamasakhlisov, Yevgeni Sh; Hayryan, Shura; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2012-11-01

    The kinetics of the flux of a charged macromolecular solution through an environment of changing geometry with wide and constricted regions is investigated analytically. A model device consisting of alternating deep and shallow slits known as an "entropic trap" is used to represent the environment. The flux is supported by the external electrostatic field. The "wormlike chain" model is used for the macromolecule (dsDNA in the present study). The chain entropy in both the deep and the shallow slits, the work by the electric field, and the energy of the elastic bending of the chain are taken into account accurately. Based on the calculated free energy, the kinetics and the scaling behavior of the chain escaping from the entropic trap are studied. We find that the escape process occurs in two kinetic stages with different time scales and discuss the possible influence of the surface roughness. The scope of the accuracy of the proposed model is discussed.

  15. Digital X-ray camera for quality evaluation three-dimensional topographic reconstruction of single crystals of biological macromolecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borgstahl, Gloria (Inventor); Lovelace, Jeff (Inventor); Snell, Edward Holmes (Inventor); Bellamy, Henry (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention provides a digital topography imaging system for determining the crystalline structure of a biological macromolecule, wherein the system employs a charge coupled device (CCD) camera with antiblooming circuitry to directly convert x-ray signals to electrical signals without the use of phosphor and measures reflection profiles from the x-ray emitting source after x-rays are passed through a sample. Methods for using said system are also provided.

  16. Hydrodynamic chromatography of macromolecules using polymer monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Edam, Rob; Eeltink, Sebastiaan; Vanhoutte, Dominique J D; Kok, Wim Th; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2011-12-02

    The selectivity window of size-based separations of macromolecules was tailored by tuning the macropore size of polymer monolithic columns. Monolithic materials with pore sizes ranging between 75 nm and 1.2 μm were prepared in situ in large I.D. columns. The dominant separation mechanism was hydrodynamic chromatography in the flow-through pores. The calibration curves for synthetic polymers matched with the elution behavior by HDC separations in packed columns with 'analyte-to-pore' aspect ratios (λ) up to 0.2. For large-macropore monoliths, a deviation in retention behavior was observed for small polystyrene polymers (M(r)<20 kDa), which may be explained by a combined HDC-SEC mechanism for λ<0.02. The availability of monoliths with very narrow pore sizes allowed investigation of separations at high λ values. For high-molecular weight polymers (M(r)>300,000 Da) confined in narrow channels, the separation strongly depended on flow rate. Flow-rate dependent elution behavior was evaluated by calculation of Deborah numbers and confirmed to be outside the scope of classic shear deformation or slalom chromatography. Shear-induced forces acting on the periphery of coiled polymers in solution may be responsible for flow-rate dependent elution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Function of terahertz spectra in monitoring the decomposing process of biological macromolecules and in investigating the causes of photoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yuangang; Zhang, Shuai; Lian, Yuji; Kuang, Tingyun

    2017-03-01

    Chlorophyll a and β-carotene play an important role in harvesting light energy, which is used to drive photosynthesis in plants. In this study, terahertz (THz) and visible range spectra of chlorophyll a and β-carotene and their changes under light treatment were investigated. The results show that the all THz transmission and absorption spectra of chlorophyll a and β-carotene changed upon light treatment, with the maximum changes at 15 min of illumination indicating the greatest changes of the collective vibrational mode of chlorophyll a and β-carotene. The absorption spectra of chlorophyll a in the visible light region decreased upon light treatment, signifying the degradation of chlorophyll a molecules. It can be inferred from these results that the THz spectra are very sensitive in monitoring the changes of the collective vibrational mode, despite the absence of changes in molecular configuration. The THz spectra can therefore be used to monitor the decomposing process of biological macromolecules; however, visible absorption spectra can only be used to monitor the breakdown extent of biological macromolecules.

  18. Pulmonary vascular clearance of harmful endogenous macromolecules in a porcine model of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Nedredal, Geir I; Elvevold, Kjetil; Chedid, Marcio F; Ytrebø, Lars M; Rose, Christopher F; Sen, Sambit; Smedsrød, Bård; Jalan, Rajiv; Revhaug, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary complications are common in acute liver failure (ALF). The role of the lungs in the uptake of harmful soluble endogenous macromolecules was evaluated in a porcine model of ALF induced by hepatic devascularization (n = 8) vs. controls (n = 8). In additional experiments, pulmonary uptake was investigated in healthy pigs. Fluorochrome-labeled modified albumin (MA) was applied to investigate the cellular uptake. As compared to controls, the ALF group displayed a 4-fold net increased lung uptake of hyaluronan, and 5-fold net increased uptake of both tissue plasminogen activator and lysosomal enzymes. Anatomical distribution experiments in healthy animals revealed that radiolabeled MA uptake (taken up by the same receptor as hyaluronan) was 53% by the liver, and 24% by the lungs. The lung uptake of LPS was 14% whereas 60% remained in the blood. Both fluorescence and electron microscopy revealed initial uptake of MA by pulmonary endothelial cells (PECs) with later translocation to pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs). Moreover, the presence of PIMs was evident 10 min after injection. Systemic inflammatory markers such as leukopenia and increased serum TNF-α levels were evident after 20 min in the MA and LPS groups. Significant lung uptake of harmful soluble macromolecules compensated for the defect liver scavenger function in the ALF-group. Infusion of MA induced increased TNF-α serum levels and leukopenia, similar to the effect of the known inflammatory mediator LPS. These observations suggest a potential mechanism that may contribute to lung damage secondary to liver disease.

  19. Optimization of crystallization conditions for biological macromolecules.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Alexander; Cudney, Bob

    2014-11-01

    For the successful X-ray structure determination of macromolecules, it is first necessary to identify, usually by matrix screening, conditions that yield some sort of crystals. Initial crystals are frequently microcrystals or clusters, and often have unfavorable morphologies or yield poor diffraction intensities. It is therefore generally necessary to improve upon these initial conditions in order to obtain better crystals of sufficient quality for X-ray data collection. Even when the initial samples are suitable, often marginally, refinement of conditions is recommended in order to obtain the highest quality crystals that can be grown. The quality of an X-ray structure determination is directly correlated with the size and the perfection of the crystalline samples; thus, refinement of conditions should always be a primary component of crystal growth. The improvement process is referred to as optimization, and it entails sequential, incremental changes in the chemical parameters that influence crystallization, such as pH, ionic strength and precipitant concentration, as well as physical parameters such as temperature, sample volume and overall methodology. It also includes the application of some unique procedures and approaches, and the addition of novel components such as detergents, ligands or other small molecules that may enhance nucleation or crystal development. Here, an attempt is made to provide guidance on how optimization might best be applied to crystal-growth problems, and what parameters and factors might most profitably be explored to accelerate and achieve success.

  20. Optimization of crystallization conditions for biological macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, Alexander; Cudney, Bob

    2014-01-01

    For the successful X-ray structure determination of macromolecules, it is first necessary to identify, usually by matrix screening, conditions that yield some sort of crystals. Initial crystals are frequently microcrystals or clusters, and often have unfavorable morphologies or yield poor diffraction intensities. It is therefore generally necessary to improve upon these initial conditions in order to obtain better crystals of sufficient quality for X-ray data collection. Even when the initial samples are suitable, often marginally, refinement of conditions is recommended in order to obtain the highest quality crystals that can be grown. The quality of an X-ray structure determination is directly correlated with the size and the perfection of the crystalline samples; thus, refinement of conditions should always be a primary component of crystal growth. The improvement process is referred to as optimization, and it entails sequential, incremental changes in the chemical parameters that influence crystallization, such as pH, ionic strength and precipitant concentration, as well as physical parameters such as temperature, sample volume and overall methodology. It also includes the application of some unique procedures and approaches, and the addition of novel components such as detergents, ligands or other small molecules that may enhance nucleation or crystal development. Here, an attempt is made to provide guidance on how optimization might best be applied to crystal-growth problems, and what parameters and factors might most profitably be explored to accelerate and achieve success. PMID:25372810

  1. Channel-Forming Bacterial Toxins in Biosensing and Macromolecule Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gurnev, Philip A.; Nestorovich, Ekaterina M.

    2014-01-01

    To intoxicate cells, pore-forming bacterial toxins are evolved to allow for the transmembrane traffic of different substrates, ranging from small inorganic ions to cell-specific polypeptides. Recent developments in single-channel electrical recordings, X-ray crystallography, protein engineering, and computational methods have generated a large body of knowledge about the basic principles of channel-mediated molecular transport. These discoveries provide a robust framework for expansion of the described principles and methods toward use of biological nanopores in the growing field of nanobiotechnology. This article, written for a special volume on “Intracellular Traffic and Transport of Bacterial Protein Toxins”, reviews the current state of applications of pore-forming bacterial toxins in small- and macromolecule-sensing, targeted cancer therapy, and drug delivery. We discuss the electrophysiological studies that explore molecular details of channel-facilitated protein and polymer transport across cellular membranes using both natural and foreign substrates. The review focuses on the structurally and functionally different bacterial toxins: gramicidin A of Bacillus brevis, α-hemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus, and binary toxin of Bacillus anthracis, which have found their “second life” in a variety of developing medical and technological applications. PMID:25153255

  2. Dynamics of active sites in biological macromolecules using a Green-function approach: An application to heme vibrational dynamics in myoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Brajesh; Prohofsky, Earl

    2003-03-01

    Dynamics of functionally active regions of biological macromolecules can be studied using a Green-function technique. This approach uses the fact that in most cases one has a good set of force constants for active sites, and rather poorly defined force field parameters for other regions of the macromolecule. The Green-function method is applied to study the iron vibrational modes of the heme active site in myoglobin. In this approach, the heme active site is viewed as a system interacting with surrounding globin, which acts as an excitation bath. The normal modes of heme and globin are separately calculated using the best available force fields for the two entities. The iron vibrational spectrum of myoglobin is then obtained using the solutions of the heme and globin, and by considering physically meaningful interactions between the two units. The refinement of the Green-function calculations to the experimental data from an x-ray synchrotron-based Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy provides important insights into the character of iron normal modes of myoglobin.

  3. Application of pulsed field gradient NMR techniques for investigating binding of flavor compounds to macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Jung, Da-Mi; De Ropp, Jeffrey S; Ebeler, Susan E

    2002-07-17

    Two diffusion-based NMR techniques are presented and used to investigate the binding of selected flavor compounds to macromolecules. A pulsed field gradient NMR (PFG-NMR) method was applied to measure the apparent diffusion coefficients of four alkanone compounds as they associated with bovine serum albumin (BSA). The change in the apparent diffusion coefficient as a function of the BSA/alkanone ratio was fitted to yield binding constants (K(a)()) and binding stoichiometry (n) for each alkanone. The results showed that the apparent diffusion coefficients of alkanones increased with a decrease in the BSA/alkanone ratios, and the measured values of K(a)() and n were comparable with those obtained with other methods and depended on the alkanone structure. A diffusion-based nuclear Overhauser effect (called diffusion NOE pumping) method was also applied to screen mixtures of flavor compounds and identify those that have a binding affinity to complex macromolecules. Using this technique benzaldehyde and vanillin were observed to bind with bovine serum albumin, whereas 2-phenylethanol was identified as a nonbinding or weakly binding ligand with BSA. The diffusion NOE pumping method was also applied to a hydro alcoholic solution of cacao bean tannin extracts to which a mixture of ethylbenzoate, benzaldehyde, and 2-phenylethanol was added. The diffusion NOE pumping technique clearly indicated that ethylbenzoate had a stronger binding affinity to the polymeric (-)-epicatechin units of the cacao bean tannin extracts than the other two flavor compounds. The results successfully demonstrate the potential applications of diffusion-based NMR techniques for studying flavors and nonvolatile food matrix interactions.

  4. Medial frontal GABA is lower in older schizophrenia: a MEGA-PRESS with macromolecule suppression study.

    PubMed

    Rowland, L M; Krause, B W; Wijtenburg, S A; McMahon, R P; Chiappelli, J; Nugent, K L; Nisonger, S J; Korenic, S A; Kochunov, P; Hong, L E

    2016-02-01

    Gamma-butyric acid (GABA) dysfunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its cognitive deficits. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to test the hypothesis that older participants with schizophrenia have lower anterior cingulate GABA levels compared with older control participants. One-hundred forty-five participants completed this study. For detection of GABA, spectra were acquired from the medial frontal/anterior cingulate cortex using a macromolecule-suppressed MEGA-PRESS sequence. Patients were evaluated for psychopathology and all participants completed neuropsychological tests of working memory, processing speed and functional capacity. GABA levels were significantly lower in the older participants with schizophrenia (n=31) compared with the older control (n=37) group (P=0.003) but not between the younger control (n=40) and schizophrenia (n=29) groups (P=0.994). Age strongly predicted GABA levels in the schizophrenia group accounting for 42% of the variance, but the effect of age was less in the control group accounting for 5.7% of the variance. GABA levels were specifically related to working memory but not processing speed performance, functional capacity, or positive or negative symptom severity. This is the largest MRS study of GABA in schizophrenia and the first to examine GABA without macromolecule contamination, a potentially significant issue in previous studies. GABA levels more rapidly declined with advancing age in the schizophrenia compared with the control group. Interventions targeted at halting the decline or increasing GABA levels may improve functional outcomes and quality of life as patients with schizophrenia age.

  5. Medial Frontal GABA is Lower in Older Schizophrenia: A MEGA-PRESS with Macromolecule Suppression Study

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Laura M; Krause, Benjamin W.; Wijtenburg, S. Andrea; McMahon, Robert P.; Chiappelli, Joshua; Nugent, Katie L.; Nisonger, Sarah J.; Korenic, Stephanie A.; Kochunov, Peter; Hong, L. Elliot

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-butyric acid (GABA) dysfunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its cognitive deficits. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to test the hypothesis that older participants with schizophrenia have lower anterior cingulate GABA levels compared to older control participants. One-hundred and forty-five participants completed this study. For detection of GABA, spectra were acquired from the medial frontal/anterior cingulate cortex using a macromolecule-suppressed MEGA-PRESS sequence. Patients were evaluated for psychopathology and all participants completed neuropsychological tests of working memory, processing speed, and functional capacity. GABA levels were significantly lower in the older participants with schizophrenia(n=31) compared to the older control(n=37) group (p=0.003) but not between the younger control(n=40) and schizophrenia (n=29) groups (p=0.994). Age strongly predicted GABA levels in the schizophrenia group accounting for 42% of the variance, but the effect of age was less in the control group accounting for 5.7% of the variance. GABA levels were specifically related to working memory but not processing speed performance, functional capacity, or positive or negative symptom severity. This is the largest MRS study of GABA in schizophrenia and the first to examine GABA without macromolecule contamination, a potentially significant issue in previous studies. GABA levels more rapidly declined with advancing age in the schizophrenia compared to the control group. Interventions targeted at halting the decline or increasing GABA levels may improve functional outcomes and quality of life as patients with schizophrenia age. PMID:25824298

  6. Distribution volumes of macromolecules in human ovarian and endometrial cancers--effects of extracellular matrix structure.

    PubMed

    Haslene-Hox, Hanne; Oveland, Eystein; Woie, Kathrine; Salvesen, Helga B; Tenstad, Olav; Wiig, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Elements of the extracellular matrix (ECM), notably collagen and glucosaminoglycans, will restrict part of the space available for soluble macromolecules simply because the molecules cannot occupy the same space. This phenomenon may influence macromolecular drug uptake. To study the influence of steric and charge effects of the ECM on the distribution volumes of macromolecules in human healthy and malignant gynecologic tissues we used as probes 15 abundant plasma proteins quantified by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The available distribution volume (VA) of albumin was increased in ovarian carcinoma compared with healthy ovarian tissue. Furthermore, VA of plasma proteins between 40 and 190 kDa decreased with size for endometrial carcinoma and healthy ovarian tissue, but was independent of molecular weight for the ovarian carcinomas. An effect of charge on distribution volume was only found in healthy ovaries, which had lower hydration and high collagen content, indicating that a condensed interstitium increases the influence of negative charges. A number of earlier suggested biomarker candidates were detected in increased amounts in malignant tissue, e.g., stathmin and spindlin-1, showing that interstitial fluid, even when unfractionated, can be a valuable source for tissue-specific proteins. We demonstrate that the distribution of abundant plasma proteins in the interstitium can be elucidated by mass spectrometry methods and depends markedly on hydration and ECM structure. Our data can be used in modeling of drug uptake, and give indications on ECM components to be targeted to increase the uptake of macromolecular substances. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Electronic method for autofluorography of macromolecules on two-D matrices

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, Jackson B.; Case, Arthur L.

    1983-01-01

    A method for detecting, localizing, and quantifying macromolecules contained in a two-dimensional matrix is provided which employs a television-based position sensitive detection system. A molecule-containing matrix may be produced by conventional means to produce spots of light at the molecule locations which are detected by the television system. The matrix, such as a gel matrix, is exposed to an electronic camera system including an image-intensifier and secondary electron conduction camera capable of light integrating times of many minutes. A light image stored in the form of a charge image on the camera tube target is scanned by conventional television techniques, digitized, and stored in a digital memory. Intensity of any point on the image may be determined from the number at the memory address of the point. The entire image may be displayed on a television monitor for inspection and photographing or individual spots may be analyzed through selected readout of the memory locations. Compared to conventional film exposure methods, the exposure time may be reduced 100-1000 times.

  8. Molecular weight dependence of permselectivity to rat small intestinal blood-lymph barrier for exogenous macromolecules absorbed from lumen.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, H; Takada, K; Muranishi, S

    1984-01-01

    The permselectivity to the small intestinal blood-lymph barrier for the exogenous macromolecules absorbed from the lumen was investigated using in situ rat closed loop experiment. We chose the fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled dextran (FD) as macromolecule and lipid-surfactant mixed micelles as an absorption promoter. The mean molecular weights of FDs used were 10500, 17500, 39000 and 64200 (abbreviated: FD10 , 20, 40 and 70). The lymph/plasma ratios of FDs concentrations during 5 h post administration were 0.2-1.2 ( FD10 ), 0.4-1.3 ( FD20 ), 1.3-7.2 ( FD40 ) and 2.6-11.9 ( FD70 ), respectively. The FD40 and FD70 levels in the lymph were significantly higher than those in the plasma. The cumulative amounts (% of the absorbed quantity) of FDs in the lymph from the lumen of the small intestine for 5 h after administration were 0.46% ( FD10 ), 0.51% ( FD20 ), 1.17% ( FD40 ) and 1.89% ( FD70 ), respectively. These findings suggest that the threshold molecular weight of FD for the transfer into the lymphatics with higher level compared to the blood concentration from the lumen across the small intestinal blood-lymph barrier exists between 17500 and 39000.

  9. Optimization of input parameters of acoustic-transfection for the intracellular delivery of macromolecules using FRET-based biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sangpil; Wang, Yingxiao; Shung, K. K.

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic-transfection technique has been developed for the first time. We have developed acoustic-transfection by integrating a high frequency ultrasonic transducer and a fluorescence microscope. High frequency ultrasound with the center frequency over 150 MHz can focus acoustic sound field into a confined area with the diameter of 10 μm or less. This focusing capability was used to perturb lipid bilayer of cell membrane to induce intracellular delivery of macromolecules. Single cell level imaging was performed to investigate the behavior of a targeted single-cell after acoustic-transfection. FRET-based Ca2+ biosensor was used to monitor intracellular concentration of Ca2+ after acoustic-transfection and the fluorescence intensity of propidium iodide (PI) was used to observe influx of PI molecules. We changed peak-to-peak voltages and pulse duration to optimize the input parameters of an acoustic pulse. Input parameters that can induce strong perturbations on cell membrane were found and size dependent intracellular delivery of macromolecules was explored. To increase the amount of delivered molecules by acoustic-transfection, we applied several acoustic pulses and the intensity of PI fluorescence increased step wise. Finally, optimized input parameters of acoustic-transfection system were used to deliver pMax-E2F1 plasmid and GFP expression 24 hours after the intracellular delivery was confirmed using HeLa cells.

  10. Bacterial Translocation Ratchets: Shared Physical Principles with Different Molecular Implementations: How bacterial secretion systems bias Brownian motion for efficient translocation of macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Hepp, Christof; Maier, Berenike

    2017-10-01

    Secretion systems enable bacteria to import and secrete large macromolecules including DNA and proteins. While most components of these systems have been identified, the molecular mechanisms of macromolecular transport remain poorly understood. Recent findings suggest that various bacterial secretion systems make use of the translocation ratchet mechanism for transporting polymers across the cell envelope. Translocation ratchets are powered by chemical potential differences generated by concentration gradients of ions or molecules that are specific to the respective secretion systems. Bacteria employ these potential differences for biasing Brownian motion of the macromolecules within the conduits of the secretion systems. Candidates for this mechanism include DNA import by the type II secretion/type IV pilus system, DNA export by the type IV secretion system, and protein export by the type I secretion system. Here, we propose that these three secretion systems employ different molecular implementations of the translocation ratchet mechanism. © 2017 The Authors. BioEssays Published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Graphical Methods for Quantifying Macromolecules through Bright Field Imaging

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chang, Hang; DeFilippis, Rosa Anna; Tlsty, Thea D.

    Bright ?eld imaging of biological samples stained with antibodies and/or special stains provides a rapid protocol for visualizing various macromolecules. However, this method of sample staining and imaging is rarely employed for direct quantitative analysis due to variations in sample fixations, ambiguities introduced by color composition, and the limited dynamic range of imaging instruments. We demonstrate that, through the decomposition of color signals, staining can be scored on a cell-by-cell basis. We have applied our method to Flbroblasts grown from histologically normal breast tissue biopsies obtained from two distinct populations. Initially, nuclear regions are segmented through conversion of color imagesmore » into gray scale, and detection of dark elliptic features. Subsequently, the strength of staining is quanti?ed by a color decomposition model that is optimized by a graph cut algorithm. In rare cases where nuclear signal is significantly altered as a result of samplepreparation, nuclear segmentation can be validated and corrected. Finally, segmented stained patterns are associated with each nuclear region following region-based tessellation. Compared to classical non-negative matrix factorization, proposed method (i) improves color decomposition, (ii) has a better noise immunity, (iii) is more invariant to initial conditions, and (iv) has a superior computing performance« less

  12. Maximizing Macromolecule Crystal Size for Neutron Diffraction Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, R. A.; Kephart, R.; Leardi, R.; Myles, D. A.; Snell, E. H.; vanderWoerd, M.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A challenge in neutron diffraction experiments is growing large (greater than 1 cu mm) macromolecule crystals. In taking up this challenge we have used statistical experiment design techniques to quickly identify crystallization conditions under which the largest crystals grow. These techniques provide the maximum information for minimal experimental effort, allowing optimal screening of crystallization variables in a simple experimental matrix, using the minimum amount of sample. Analysis of the results quickly tells the investigator what conditions are the most important for the crystallization. These can then be used to maximize the crystallization results in terms of reducing crystal numbers and providing large crystals of suitable habit. We have used these techniques to grow large crystals of Glucose isomerase. Glucose isomerase is an industrial enzyme used extensively in the food industry for the conversion of glucose to fructose. The aim of this study is the elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism at the molecular level. The accurate determination of hydrogen positions, which is critical for this, is a requirement that neutron diffraction is uniquely suited for. Preliminary neutron diffraction experiments with these crystals conducted at the Institute Laue-Langevin (Grenoble, France) reveal diffraction to beyond 2.5 angstrom. Macromolecular crystal growth is a process involving many parameters, and statistical experimental design is naturally suited to this field. These techniques are sample independent and provide an experimental strategy to maximize crystal volume and habit for neutron diffraction studies.

  13. Measurement of drug and macromolecule diffusion across atherosclerotic rabbit aorta ex vivo by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palombo, Francesca; Danoux, Charlène B.; Weinberg, Peter D.; Kazarian, Sergei G.

    2009-07-01

    Diffusion of two model drugs-benzyl nicotinate and ibuprofen-and the plasma macromolecule albumin across atherosclerotic rabbit aorta was studied ex vivo by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) imaging. Solutions of these molecules were applied to the endothelial surface of histological sections of the aortic wall that were sandwiched between two impermeable surfaces. An array of spectra, each corresponding to a specific location in the section, was obtained at various times during solute diffusion into the wall and revealed the distribution of the solutes within the tissue. Benzyl nicotinate in Ringer's solution showed higher affinity for atherosclerotic plaque than for apparently healthy tissue. Transmural concentration profiles for albumin demonstrated its permeation across the section and were consistent with a relatively low distribution volume for the macromolecule in the middle of the wall. The ability of albumin to act as a drug carrier for ibuprofen, otherwise undetected within the tissue, was demonstrated by multivariate subtraction image analysis. In conclusion, ATR-FTIR imaging can be used to study transport processes in tissue samples with high spatial and temporal resolution and without the need to label the solutes under study.

  14. The Role of Hydrophobicity in the Cellular Uptake of Negatively Charged Macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Abou Matar, Tamara; Karam, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    It is generally accepted that positively charged molecules are the gold standard to by-pass the negatively charged cell membrane. Here, it is shown that cellular uptake is also possible for polymers with negatively charged side chains and hydrophobic backbones. Specifically, poly[5-methoxy-2-(3-sulfopropoxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene], a conjugated polyelectrolyte with sulfonate, as water-soluble functional groups, is shown to accumulate in the intracellular region. When the polymer hydrophobic backbone is dissolved using polyvinylpyrrolidone, an amphiphilic macromolecule, the cellular uptake is dramatically reduced. The report sheds light on the fine balance between negatively charged side groups and the hydrophobicity of polymers to either enhance or reduce cellular uptake. As a result, these findings will have important ramifications on the future design of targeted cellular delivery nanocarriers for imaging and therapeutic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Role of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems in optimizing the oral delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules and reducing interindividual variability.

    PubMed

    AboulFotouh, Khaled; Allam, Ayat A; El-Badry, Mahmoud; El-Sayed, Ahmed M

    2018-07-01

    Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) have been widely employed to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. In the past few years, SEDDS were extensively investigated to overcome various barriers encountered in the oral delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules (e.g., protein/peptide therapeutics and plasmid DNA (pDNA)), as well as in lowering the effect of food on drugs' bioavailability. However, the main mechanism(s) by which SEDDS could achieve such promising effects remains not fully understood. This review summarizes the recent progress in the use of SEDDS for protecting protein therapeutics and/or pDNA against enzymatic degradation and increasing the oral bioavailability of various drug substances regardless of the dietary condition. Understanding the underlying mechanism(s) of such promising applications will aid in the future development of rationally designed SEDDS. Entrapment of hydrophilic macromolecules in the oil phase of the formed emulsion is critical for protection of the loaded cargoes against enzymatic degradation and the enhancement of oral bioavailability. On the other hand, drug administration as a preconcentrated solution in the SEDDS preconcentrate allows the process of drug absorption to occur independently of the dietary condition, and thus reducing interindividual variability that results from concomitant food intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential scanning calorimetry: An invaluable tool for a detailed thermodynamic characterization of macromolecules and their interactions

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Michael H.; Prenner, Elmar J.

    2011-01-01

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is a highly sensitive technique to study the thermotropic properties of many different biological macromolecules and extracts. Since its early development, DSC has been applied to the pharmaceutical field with excipient studies and DNA drugs. In recent times, more attention has been applied to lipid-based drug delivery systems and drug interactions with biomimetic membranes. Highly reproducible phase transitions have been used to determine values, such as, the type of binding interaction, purity, stability, and release from a drug delivery mechanism. This review focuses on the use of DSC for biochemical and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:21430954

  17. Microvillus-Specific Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase SAP-1 Plays a Role in Regulating the Intestinal Paracellular Transport of Macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shingo; Kamei, Noriyasu; Murata, Yoji; Takayama, Kozo; Matozaki, Takashi; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2017-09-01

    The stomach cancer-associated protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SAP-1) is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase that is specifically expressed on the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelium. SAP-1 is known to maintain the balance of phosphorylation of proteins together with protein kinases; however, its biological function and impact on pharmacokinetics in the intestine remain unclear. The present study, therefore, aimed at clarifying the relationship between SAP-1 and the intestinal absorption behaviors of typical transporter substrates and macromolecules. The endogenous levels of glucose and total cholesterol in the blood were similar between wild-type and SAP-1-deficient mice (Sap1 -/- ), suggesting no contribution of SAP-1 to biogenic influx. Moreover, in vitro transport study with everted ileal sacs demonstrated that there was no difference in the absorption of breast cancer resistance protein, P-glycoprotein, and peptide transporter substrates between both mice. However, absorptive clearance of macromolecular model dextrans (FD-4 and FD-10) in Sap1 -/- mice was significantly higher than that in wild-type mice, and this was confirmed by the trend of increased FD-4 absorption from colonic loops of Sap1 -/- mice. Therefore, the results of this study suggest the partial contribution of SAP-1 to the regulated transport of hydrophilic macromolecules through paracellular tight junctions. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Conformational statistics of stiff macromolecules as solutions to partial differential equations on the rotation and motion groups

    PubMed

    Chirikjian; Wang

    2000-07-01

    Partial differential equations (PDE's) for the probability density function (PDF) of the position and orientation of the distal end of a stiff macromolecule relative to its proximal end are derived and solved. The Kratky-Porod wormlike chain, the Yamakawa helical wormlike chain, and the original and revised Marko-Siggia models are examples of stiffness models to which the present formulation is applied. The solution technique uses harmonic analysis on the rotation and motion groups to convert PDE's governing the PDF's of interest into linear algebraic equations which have mathematically elegant solutions.

  19. Role of endothelial permeability hotspots and endothelial mitosis in determining age-related patterns of macromolecule uptake by the rabbit aortic wall near branch points.

    PubMed

    Chooi, K Yean; Comerford, Andrew; Cremers, Stephanie J; Weinberg, Peter D

    2016-07-01

    Transport of macromolecules between plasma and the arterial wall plays a key role in atherogenesis. Scattered hotspots of elevated endothelial permeability to macromolecules occur in the aorta; a fraction of them are associated with dividing cells. Hotspots occur particularly frequently downstream of branch points, where lesions develop in young rabbits and children. However, the pattern of lesions varies with age, and can be explained by similar variation in the pattern of macromolecule uptake. We investigated whether patterns of hotspots and mitosis also change with age. Evans' Blue dye-labeled albumin was injected intravenously into immature or mature rabbits and its subsequent distribution in the aortic wall around intercostal branch ostia examined by confocal microscopy and automated image analysis. Mitosis was detected by immunofluorescence after adding 5-bromo-2-deoxiuridine to drinking water. Hotspots were most frequent downstream of branches in immature rabbits, but a novel distribution was observed in mature rabbits. Neither pattern was explained by mitosis. Hotspot uptake correlated spatially with the much greater non-hotspot uptake (p < 0.05), and the same pattern was seen when only the largest hotspots were considered. The pattern of hotspots changes with age. The data are consistent with there being a continuum of local permeabilities rather than two distinct mechanisms. The distribution of the dye, which binds to elastin and collagen, was similar to that of non-binding tracers and to lesions apart from a paucity at the lateral margins of branches that can be explained by lower levels of fibrous proteins in those regions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Controlled method of reducing electrophoretic mobility of macromolecules, particles, or cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanalstine, James M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method of reducing electrophoretic mobility of macromolecules, particles, cells, and other substances is provided which comprises interacting in a conventional electrophoretic separating procedure, the substances with a polymer-linked affinity compound comprised of a hydrophilic neutral polymer such as polyethylene glycol bound to a second component such as a hydrophobic compound, an immunocompound such as an antibody or antibody active fragment, or a ligand such as a hormone, drug, antigen, or a hapten. The reduction of electrophoretic mobility achieved is directly proportional to the concentration of the polymer-linked affinity compound employed, and such reduction can comprise up to 100 percent for particular particles and cells. The present invention is advantageous in that electrophoretic separation can now be achieved for substances whose native surface charge structure had prevented them from being separated by normal electrophoretic means. Depending on the affinity component utilized, separation can be achieved on the basis of the specific/irreversible, specific/reversible, semi-specific/reversible, relatively nonspecific/reversible, or relatively nonspecific/irreversible ligand-substance interactions.

  1. UVA radiation induced ultrafast electron transfer from a food carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene to organic molecules, biological macromolecules, and inorganic nano structures.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Soma; Sarkar, Soumik; Lakshman, Karthik; Dutta, Joydeep; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2013-04-11

    Reactions involving electron transfer (ET) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in carcinogenesis and cancer biochemistry. Our present study emphasizes UVA radiation induced ET reaction as one of the key aspects of a potential carcinogen, benzo[a]pyrene (BP), in the presence of a wide variety of molecules covering organic p-benzoquinone (BQ), biological macromolecules like calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA), human serum albumin (HSA) protein, and inorganic zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs). Steady-state and picosecond-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy have been used to monitor such ET reactions. Physical consequences of BP association with CT-DNA have been investigated through temperature-dependent circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The temperature-dependent steady-state, picosecond-resolved fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy studies reveal the effect of temperature on the perturbation of such ET reactions from BP to biological macromolecules, highlighting their temperature-dependent association. Furthermore, the electron-donating property of BP has been corroborated by measuring wavelength-dependent photocurrent in a BP-anchored ZnO NR-based photodevice, offering new physical insights for the carcinogenic study of BP.

  2. Measurement of Single Macromolecule Orientation by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Polarization Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Forkey, Joseph N.; Quinlan, Margot E.; Goldman, Yale E.

    2005-01-01

    A new approach is presented for measuring the three-dimensional orientation of individual macromolecules using single molecule fluorescence polarization (SMFP) microscopy. The technique uses the unique polarizations of evanescent waves generated by total internal reflection to excite the dipole moment of individual fluorophores. To evaluate the new SMFP technique, single molecule orientation measurements from sparsely labeled F-actin are compared to ensemble-averaged orientation data from similarly prepared densely labeled F-actin. Standard deviations of the SMFP measurements taken at 40 ms time intervals indicate that the uncertainty for individual measurements of axial and azimuthal angles is ∼10° at 40 ms time resolution. Comparison with ensemble data shows there are no substantial systematic errors associated with the single molecule measurements. In addition to evaluating the technique, the data also provide a new measurement of the torsional rigidity of F-actin. These measurements support the smaller of two values of the torsional rigidity of F-actin previously reported. PMID:15894632

  3. Improved data visualization techniques for analyzing macromolecule structural changes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Iyer, Vidyashankara; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, C Russell

    2012-10-01

    The empirical phase diagram (EPD) is a colored representation of overall structural integrity and conformational stability of macromolecules in response to various environmental perturbations. Numerous proteins and macromolecular complexes have been analyzed by EPDs to summarize results from large data sets from multiple biophysical techniques. The current EPD method suffers from a number of deficiencies including lack of a meaningful relationship between color and actual molecular features, difficulties in identifying contributions from individual techniques, and a limited ability to be interpreted by color-blind individuals. In this work, three improved data visualization approaches are proposed as techniques complementary to the EPD. The secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structural changes of multiple proteins as a function of environmental stress were first measured using circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and static light scattering, respectively. Data sets were then visualized as (1) RGB colors using three-index EPDs, (2) equiangular polygons using radar charts, and (3) human facial features using Chernoff face diagrams. Data as a function of temperature and pH for bovine serum albumin, aldolase, and chymotrypsin as well as candidate protein vaccine antigens including a serine threonine kinase protein (SP1732) and surface antigen A (SP1650) from S. pneumoniae and hemagglutinin from an H1N1 influenza virus are used to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each type of data visualization technique. Copyright © 2012 The Protein Society.

  4. Improved data visualization techniques for analyzing macromolecule structural changes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Iyer, Vidyashankara; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, C Russell

    2012-01-01

    The empirical phase diagram (EPD) is a colored representation of overall structural integrity and conformational stability of macromolecules in response to various environmental perturbations. Numerous proteins and macromolecular complexes have been analyzed by EPDs to summarize results from large data sets from multiple biophysical techniques. The current EPD method suffers from a number of deficiencies including lack of a meaningful relationship between color and actual molecular features, difficulties in identifying contributions from individual techniques, and a limited ability to be interpreted by color-blind individuals. In this work, three improved data visualization approaches are proposed as techniques complementary to the EPD. The secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structural changes of multiple proteins as a function of environmental stress were first measured using circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and static light scattering, respectively. Data sets were then visualized as (1) RGB colors using three-index EPDs, (2) equiangular polygons using radar charts, and (3) human facial features using Chernoff face diagrams. Data as a function of temperature and pH for bovine serum albumin, aldolase, and chymotrypsin as well as candidate protein vaccine antigens including a serine threonine kinase protein (SP1732) and surface antigen A (SP1650) from S. pneumoniae and hemagglutinin from an H1N1 influenza virus are used to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each type of data visualization technique. PMID:22898970

  5. Micropore surface area of alkali-soluble plant macromolecules (humic acids) drives their decomposition rates in soil.

    PubMed

    Papa, Gabriella; Spagnol, Manuela; Tambone, Fulvia; Pilu, Roberto; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies suggested that micropore surface area (MSA) of alkali-soluble bio-macromolecules of aerial plant residues of maize constitutes an important factor that explains their humification in soil, that is, preservation against biological degradation. On the other hand, root plant residue contributes to the soil humus balance, as well. Following the experimental design used in a previous paper published in this journal, this study shows that the biochemical recalcitrance of the alkali-soluble acid-insoluble fraction of the root plant material, contributed to the root maize humification of both Wild-type maize plants and its corresponding mutant brown midrib (bm3), this latter characterized by reduced lignin content. Humic acids (HAs) existed in root (root-HAs) were less degraded in soil than corresponding HAs existed in shoot (shoot-HAs): shoot-HAs bm3 (48%)>shoot-HAs Wild-type (37%)>root-HAs Wild-type (33%)>root-HAs bm3 (22%) (degradability shown in parenthesis). These differences were related to the MSA of HAs, that is, root-HAs having a higher MSA than shoot-HAs: shoot-HAs bm3 (41.43+/-1.2m(2)g(-1))macromolecules recalcitrance in soil.

  6. Absolute cross section for low-energy-electron damage to condensed macromolecules: A case study of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Cloutier, Pierre; Bass, Andrew D.; Michaud, Marc; Hunting, Darel J.; Sanche, Léon

    2013-01-01

    Cross sections (CSs) for the interaction of low-energy electrons (LEE) with condensed macromolecules are essential parameters for accurate modeling of radiation-induced molecular decomposition and chemical synthesis. Electron irradiation of dry nanometer-scale macromolecular solid films has often been employed to measure CSs and other quantitative parameters for LEE interactions. Since such films have thicknesses comparable with electron thermalization distances, energy deposition varies throughout the film. Moreover, charge accumulation occurring inside the films shields a proportion of the macromolecules from electron irradiation. Such effects complicate the quantitative comparison of the CSs obtained in films of different thicknesses and limit the applicability of such measurements. Here, we develop a simple mathematical model, termed the molecular survival model, that employs a CS for a particular damage process together with an attenuation length related to the total CS, to investigate how a measured CS might be expected to vary with experimental conditions. As a case study, we measure the absolute CS for the formation of DNA strand breaks (SBs) by electron irradiation at 10 and 100 eV of lyophilized plasmid DNA films with thicknesses between 10 and 30 nm. The measurements are shown to depend strongly on the thickness and charging condition of the nanometer-scale films. Such behaviors are in accord with the model and support its validity. Via this analysis, the CS obtained for SB damage is nearly independent of film thickness and charging effects. In principle, this model can be adapted to provide absolute CSs for electron-induced damage or reactions occurring in other molecular solids across a wider range of experimental conditions. PMID:23030950

  7. Enhancement of Cell Membrane Invaginations, Vesiculation and Uptake of Macromolecules by Protonation of the Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Dov, Nadav; Korenstein, Rafi

    2012-01-01

    The different pathways of endocytosis share an initial step involving local inward curvature of the cell’s lipid bilayer. It has been shown that to generate membrane curvature, proteins or lipids enforce transversal asymmetry of the plasma membrane. Thus it emerges as a general phenomenon that transversal membrane asymmetry is the common required element for the formation of membrane curvature. The present study demonstrates that elevating proton concentration at the cell surface stimulates the formation of membrane invaginations and vesiculation accompanied by efficient uptake of macromolecules (Dextran-FITC, 70 kD), relative to the constitutive one. The insensitivity of proton induced uptake to inhibiting treatments and agents of the known endocytic pathways suggests the entry of macromolecules to proceeds via a yet undefined route. This is in line with the fact that neither ATP depletion, nor the lowering of temperature, abolishes the uptake process. In addition, fusion mechanism such as associated with low pH uptake of toxins and viral proteins can be disregarded by employing the polysaccharide dextran as the uptake molecule. The proton induced uptake increases linearly in the extracellular pH range of 6.5 to 4.5, and possesses a steep increase at the range of 4> pH>3, reaching a plateau at pH≤3. The kinetics of the uptake implies that the induced vesicles release their content to the cytosol and undergo rapid recycling to the plasma membrane. We suggest that protonation of the cell’s surface induces local charge asymmetries across the cell membrane bilayer, inducing inward curvature of the cell membrane and consequent vesiculation and uptake. PMID:22558127

  8. Effect of Osmolytes on the Conformational Behavior of a Macromolecule in a Cytoplasm-like Crowded Environment: A Femtosecond Mid-IR Pump-Probe Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Achintya; Verma, Pramod Kumar; Cho, Minhaeng

    2018-02-15

    Osmolytes found endogenously in almost all living beings play an important role in regulating cell volume under harsh environment. Here, to address the longstanding questions about the underlying mechanism of osmolyte effects, we use femtosecond mid-IR pump-probe spectroscopy with two different IR probes that are the OD stretching mode of HDO and the azido stretching mode of azido-derivatized poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDME). Our experimental results show that protecting osmolytes bind strongly with water molecules and dehydrate polymer surface, which results in promoting intramolecular interactions of the polymer. By contrast, urea behaves like water molecules without significantly disrupting water H-bonding network and favors extended and random-coil segments of the polymer chain by directly participating in solvation of the polymer. Our findings highlight the importance of direct interaction between urea and macromolecule, while protecting osmolytes indirectly affect the macromolecule through enhancing the water-osmolyte interaction in a crowded environment, which is the case that is often encountered in real biological systems.

  9. Chemical composition, structural properties, and source apportionment of organic macromolecules in atmospheric PM10 in a coastal city of Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanting; Du, Wenjiao; Chen, Jinsheng; Hong, Youwei; Zhao, Jinping; Xu, Lingling; Xiao, Hang

    2017-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM 10 ) associated with the fractions of organic macromolecules, including humic acid (HA), kerogen + black carbon (KB), and black carbon (BC), was determined during summer and winter at urban and suburban sites in a coastal city of southeast China. The organic macromolecules were characterized by elemental analysis (EA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and their sources were identified by using stable carbon/nitrogen isotope (δ 13 C/δ 15 N) and the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Model. The results showed that HA, kerogen (K), and BC accounted for the range of 3.89 to 4.55 % in PM 10 , while they were the dominant fractions of total organic carbon (TOC), ranging from 64.70 to 84.99 %. SEM analysis indicated that BC particles were porous/nonporous and consisted of spherical and non-spherical (i.e., cylindrical and elongate) structures. The FTIR spectra of HA, KB, and BC exhibited similar functional groups, but the difference of various sites and seasons was observed. HA in PM 10 contained a higher fraction of aliphatic structures, such as long-chain fatty and carbohydrates with a carboxylic extremity. The C/N ratio, SEM, and δ 13 C/δ 15 N values provided reliable indicators of the sources of HA, K, and BC in PM 10 . The results suggested that HA and K majorly originated from terrestrial plants, and BC came from the mixture of combustion of terrestrial plants, fossil fuel, and charcoal. The air masses in winter originated from Mongolia (4 %), the northern area of China (48 %), and northern adjacent cities (48 %), suggesting the influence of anthropogenic sources through long-range transport, while the air masses for the summer period came from South China Sea (34 %) and Western Pacific Sea (66 %), representing clean marine air masses with low concentrations of organic macromolecules.

  10. Paleovegetation changes recorded by n-alkyl lipids bound in macromolecules of plant fossils and kerogens from the Cretaceous sediments in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Y.; Sawada, K.; Nakamura, H.; Takashima, R.; Takahashi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Resistant macromolecules composing living plant tissues tend to be preserved through degradation and diagenesis, hence constituate major parts of sedimentary plant-derived organic matter (kerogen), and their monomer compositions vary widely among different plant taxa, organs and growth stages. Thus, analysis of such macromolecule may serve as new technique for paleobotanical evaluation distinctive from classical paleobotnical studies depends on morphological preservation of fossils. In the present study, we analyzed plant fossils and kerogens in sediments from the Cretaceous strata in Japan to examine chemotaxonomic characteristics of fossil macromolecules and to reconstruct paleovegetation change by kerogen analysis. The kerogens were separated from the powdered sediments of Cretaceous Yezo Group, Hokkaido, Japan. All kerogens have been confirmed to be mostly originated from land plant tissues by microscopic observation. Mummified angiosperm and gymnosperm fossil leaves were separated from carbonaceous sandstone of the Cretaceous Ashizawa Formation, Futaba Group. The kerogens and plant fossils were extracted with methanol and dichloromethane, and were subsequently refluxed under 110°C to remove free compounds completely. The residues are hydrolyzed by KOH/methanol under 110°C. These released compounds are analyzed by GC-MS. As main hydrolyzed products (ester-bound molecular units) from all kerogens, C10-C28 n-alkanoic acids and C10-C30 n-alkanols were detected. Recent studies on the hydrolysis products of plant tissues suggested the long chain (>C20) n-alkanols were predominantly abundant in deciduous broadleaved angiosperms. Correspondingly, the stratigraphic variation of the ratios of long chain (>C20) n-alkanols to fatty acids was concordant with the variation of angiosperm/gymnosperm ratios recorded by land plant-derived terpenoid biomarkers. In addition, we found that the long chain n-alkanols/fatty acids ratio in the angiosperm fossil leaf was

  11. Quantitative determination of proteins at nanogram levels by the resonance light-scattering technique with macromolecules nanoparticles of PS-AA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leyu; Chen, Hongqi; Li, Ling; Xia, Tingting; Dong, Ling; Wang, Lun

    2004-03-01

    The polystyrene-acrylic acid (PS-AA) nanoparticles have been prepared by ultrasonic polymerization, characterized by FT-IR and TEM. It is the first report on the determination of proteins with macromolecules nanoparticles of PS-AA by resonance light-scattering (RLS). At pH 6.9, the RLS of macromolecules nanoparticles of PS-AA can be enhanced by proteins. Based on this, a novel quantitative assay of proteins at the nanogram levels has been proposed. At pH 6.9, the RLS signals of PS-AA were greatly enhanced by proteins in the region of 250-700 nm characterized by the peak at 342 nm. Under optimal conditions, the linear ranges of the calibration curves were 0.02-11.0 microgml-1, 0.04-10.0 microgml-1 and 0.03-10.0 microgml-1 for gamma-globulin (gamma-IgG), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA), respectively. The detection limits were 16.0 ngml-1, 19.0 ngml-1, and 15.0 ngml-1 for gamma-IgG, BSA and HSA, respectively. The method has been applied to the analysis of total proteins in human serum samples collected from the hospital and the results were in good agreement with those reported by the hospital, which indicates that the method presented here is not only sensitive, simple, but also reliable and suitable for practical application.

  12. Work of adhesion between mucin macromolecule and calcium-alginate gels on molecular level.

    PubMed

    Popeski-Dimovski, Riste

    2015-06-05

    The bioadhesion of biopolymers to mucus layers is of great interest for the development of drug delivery systems. Herein we use AFM force measurements to evaluate the interaction on molecular level between a mucin macromolecule attached to an AFM tip and a calcium-alginate gel layer. The total work of adhesion is measured from the AFM force curves depending on different parameters: time of contact, G/M ratio of the alginate, and crosslink ratio of the gel. The total work of adhesion is found to be in the range of 1×10(-19) to 6×10(-18)J. The results show that the work of adhesion increases with the time of contact but it is independent from the molecular mass of the alginate, the G/M ratio of the alginate and crosslink ratio of the gel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Long shelf-life streptavidin support-films suitable for electron microscopy of biological macromolecules

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Bong-Gyoon; Watson, Zoe; Kang, Hannah; ...

    2016-06-15

    We describe a rapid and convenient method of growing streptavidin (SA) monolayer crystals directly on holey-carbon EM grids. As expected, these SA monolayer crystals retain their biotin-binding function and crystalline order through a cycle of embedding in trehalose and, later, its removal. This fact allows one to prepare, and store for later use, EM grids on which SA monolayer crystals serve as an affinity substrate for preparing specimens of biological macromolecules. In addition, we report that coating the lipid-tail side of trehalose-embedded monolayer crystals with evaporated carbon appears to improve the consistency with which well-ordered, single crystals are observed tomore » span over entire, 2 μm holes of the support films. Randomly biotinylated 70S ribosomes are used as a test specimen to show that these support films can be used to obtain a high-resolution cryo-EM structure« less

  14. Molecular simulation of methane adsorption characteristics on coal macromolecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiyuan; He, Xiaoxiao; Meng, Zhuoyue; Xue, Wenying

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the molecular model of anthracite named Wender2 was selected to study the adsorption behaviour of single component CH4 and the competitive adsorption of CH4/CO2, CH4/H2O and CH4/N2. The molecular model of anthracite was established by molecular simulation software (Materials Studio 8.0), and Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were carried out to investigate the single and binary component adsorption. The effects of pressure and temperature on the adsorption position, adsorption energy and adsorption capacity were mainly discussed. The results show that for the single component adsorption, the adsorption capacity of CH4 increases rapidly with the pressure ascending, and then tends to be stable after the first step. The low temperature is favourable for the adsorption of CH4, and the high temperature promotes desorption quantity of CH4 from the coal. Adsorbent molecules are preferentially adsorbed on the edge of coal macromolecules. The order of adsorption capacity of CH4/CO2, CH4/H2O and CH4/N2 in the binary component is H2O>CO2>CH4>N2. The change of pressure has little effect on the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent in the competitive adsorption, but it has a great influence on the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent, and there is a positive correlation between them.

  15. Surface modification of a biodegradable magnesium alloy with phosphorylcholine (PC) and sulfobetaine (SB) functional macromolecules for reduced thrombogenicity and acute corrosion resistance.

    PubMed

    Ye, Sang-Ho; Jang, Yong-Seok; Yun, Yeo-Heung; Shankarraman, Venkat; Woolley, Joshua R; Hong, Yi; Gamble, Lara J; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Wagner, William R

    2013-07-02

    Siloxane functionalized phosphorylcholine (PC) or sulfobetaine (SB) macromolecules (PCSSi or SBSSi) were synthesized to act as surface modifying agents for degradable metallic surfaces to improve acute blood compatibility and slow initial corrosion rates. The macromolecules were synthesized using a thiol-ene radical photopolymerization technique and then utilized to modify magnesium (Mg) alloy (AZ31) surfaces via an anhydrous phase deposition of the silane functional groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analysis results indicated successful surface modification based on increased nitrogen and phosphorus or sulfur composition on the modified surfaces relative to unmodified AZ31. In vitro acute thrombogenicity assessment after ovine blood contact with the PCSSi and SBSSi modified surfaces showed a significant decrease in platelet deposition and bulk phase platelet activation compared with the control alloy surfaces. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data obtained from electrochemical corrosion testing demonstrated increased corrosion resistance for PCSSi- and SBSSi-modified AZ31 versus unmodified surfaces. The developed coating technique using PCSSi or SBSSi showed promise in acutely reducing both the corrosion and thrombotic processes, which would be attractive for application to blood contacting devices, such as vascular stents, made from degradable Mg alloys.

  16. Surface modification of a biodegradable magnesium alloy with phosphorylcholine (PC) and sulfobetaine (SB) functional macromolecules for reduced thrombogenicity and acute corrosion resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Sang-Ho; Jang, Yong-Seok; Yun, Yeo-Heung; Shankarraman, Venkat; Woolley, Joshua R.; Hong, Yi; Gamble, Lara J.; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Wagner, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Siloxane functionalized phosphorylcholine (PC) or sulfobetaine (SB) macromolecules (PCSSi or SBSSi) were synthesized to act as surface modifying agents for degradable metallic surfaces to improve acute blood compatibility and slow initial corrosion rates. The macromolecules were synthesized using a thiol-ene radical photopolymerization technique and then utilized to modify magnesium (Mg) alloy (AZ31) surfaces via an anhydrous phase deposition of the silane functional groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analysis results indicated successful surface modification based on increased nitrogen and phosphorus or sulfur composition on the modified surfaces relative to unmodified AZ31. In vitro acute thrombogenicity assessment after ovine blood contact with the PCSSi and SBSSi modified surfaces showed a significant decrease in platelet deposition and bulk phase platelet activation compared with the control alloy surfaces. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data obtained from electrochemical corrosion testing demonstrated increased corrosion resistance for PCSSi and SBSSi modified AZ31 versus unmodified surfaces. The developed coating technique using PCSSi or SBSSi showed promise in acutely reducing both the corrosion and thrombotic processes, which would be attractive for application to blood contacting devices, such as vascular stents, made from degradable Mg alloys. PMID:23705967

  17. Enhanced pulmonary absorption of a macromolecule through coupling to a sequence-specific phage display-derived peptide.

    PubMed

    Morris, Christopher J; Smith, Mathew W; Griffiths, Peter C; McKeown, Neil B; Gumbleton, Mark

    2011-04-10

    With the aim of identifying a peptide sequence that promotes pulmonary epithelial transport of macromolecule cargo we used a stringent peptide-phage display library screening protocol against rat lung alveolar epithelial primary cell cultures. We identified a peptide-phage clone (LTP-1) displaying the disulphide-constrained 7-mer peptide sequence, C-TSGTHPR-C, that showed significant pulmonary epithelial translocation across highly restrictive polarised cell monolayers. Cell biological data supported a differential alveolar epithelial cell interaction of the LTP-1 peptide-phage clone and the corresponding free synthetic LTP-1 peptide. Delivering select phage-clones to the intact pulmonary barrier of an isolated perfused rat lung (IPRL) resulted in 8.7% of lung deposited LTP-1 peptide-phage clone transported from the IPRL airways to the vasculature compared (p<0.05) to the cumulative transport of less than 0.004% for control phage-clone groups. To characterise phage-independent activity of LTP-1 peptide, the LTP-1 peptide was conjugated to a 53kDa anionic PAMAM dendrimer. Compared to respective peptide-dendrimer control conjugates, the LTP-1-PAMAM conjugate displayed a two-fold (bioavailability up to 31%) greater extent of absorption in the IPRL. The LTP-1 peptide-mediated enhancement of transport, when LTP-1 was either attached to the phage clone or conjugated to dendrimer, was sequence-dependent and could be competitively inhibited by co-instillation of excess synthetic free LTP-1 peptide. The specific nature of the target receptor or mechanism involved in LTP-1 lung transport remains unclear although the enhanced transport is enabled through a mechanism that is non-disruptive with respect to the pulmonary transport of hydrophilic permeability probes. This study shows proof-of principle that array technologies can be effectively exploited to identify peptides mediating enhanced transmucosal delivery of macromolecule therapeutics across an intact organ. Copyright

  18. Electronic method for autofluorography of macromolecules on two-D matrices. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, J.B.; Case, A.L.

    1981-12-30

    A method for detecting, localizing, and quantifying macromolecules contained in a two-dimensional matrix is provided which employs a television-based position sensitive detection system. A molecule-containing matrix may be produced by conventional means to produce spots of light at the molecule locations which are detected by the television system. The matrix, such as a gel matrix, is exposed to an electronic camera system including an image-intensifier and secondary electron conduction camera capable of light integrating times of many minutes. A light image stored in the form of a charge image on the camera tube target is scanned by conventional television techniques, digitized, and stored in a digital memory. Intensity of any point on the image may be determined from the number at the memory address of the point. The entire image may be displayed on a television monitor for inspection and photographing or individual spots may be analyzed through selected readout of the memory locations. Compared to conventional film exposure methods, the exposure time may be reduced 100 to 1000 times.

  19. Interactions between macromolecule-bound antioxidants and Trolox during liposome autoxidation: A multivariate approach.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Ecem Evrim; Rubio, Jose Manuel Amigo; Andersen, Mogens L; Gökmen, Vural

    2017-12-15

    The interactions between free and macromolecule-bound antioxidants were investigated in order to evaluate their combined effects on the antioxidant environment. Dietary fiber (DF), protein and lipid-bound antioxidants, obtained from whole wheat, soybean and olive oil products, respectively and Trolox were used for this purpose. Experimental studies were carried out in autoxidizing liposome medium by monitoring the development of fluorescent products formed by lipid oxidation. Chemometric methods were used both at experimental design and multivariate data analysis stages. Comparison of the simple addition effects of Trolox and bound antioxidants with measured values on lipid oxidation revealed synergetic interactions for DF and refined olive oil-bound antioxidants, and antagonistic interactions for protein and extra virgin olive oil-bound antioxidants with Trolox. A generalized version of logistic function was successfully used for modelling the oxidation curve of liposomes. Principal component analysis revealed two separate phases of liposome autoxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxidative damage to macromolecules in human Parkinson’s disease and the rotenone model

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Laurie H.; Greenamyre, J. Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD), the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, is associated with selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. While the underlying mechanisms contributing to neurodegeneration in PD appear to be multifactorial, mitochondrial impairment and oxidative stress are widely considered to be central to many forms of the disease. Whether oxidative stress is a cause or consequence of dopaminergic death, there is substantial evidence for oxidative stress in both human PD patients and in animal models of PD, especially using rotenone, a complex I inhibitor. There are many indices of oxidative stress, but this review covers the recent evidence for oxidative damage to nucleic acids, lipids and proteins in both the brain and peripheral tissues in human PD and in the rotenone model. Limitations of the existing literature and future perspectives are discussed. Understanding how each particular macromolecule is damaged by oxidative stress and the interplay of secondary damage to other biomolecules may help design better targets for treatment of PD. PMID:23328732

  1. Simultaneous optimization of biomolecular energy function on features from small molecules and macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hahnbeom; Bradley, Philip; Greisen, Per; Liu, Yuan; Mulligan, Vikram Khipple; Kim, David E.; Baker, David; DiMaio, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Most biomolecular modeling energy functions for structure prediction, sequence design, and molecular docking, have been parameterized using existing macromolecular structural data; this contrasts molecular mechanics force fields which are largely optimized using small-molecule data. In this study, we describe an integrated method that enables optimization of a biomolecular modeling energy function simultaneously against small-molecule thermodynamic data and high-resolution macromolecular structural data. We use this approach to develop a next-generation Rosetta energy function that utilizes a new anisotropic implicit solvation model, and an improved electrostatics and Lennard-Jones model, illustrating how energy functions can be considerably improved in their ability to describe large-scale energy landscapes by incorporating both small-molecule and macromolecule data. The energy function improves performance in a wide range of protein structure prediction challenges, including monomeric structure prediction, protein-protein and protein-ligand docking, protein sequence design, and prediction of the free energy changes by mutation, while reasonably recapitulating small-molecule thermodynamic properties. PMID:27766851

  2. Surface engineering of nanoparticles with macromolecules for epoxy curing: Development of super-reactive nitrogen-rich nanosilica through surface chemistry manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouyandeh, Maryam; Jazani, Omid Moini; Navarchian, Amir H.; Shabanian, Meisam; Vahabi, Henri; Saeb, Mohammad Reza

    2018-07-01

    Curing behavior of epoxy-based nanocomposites depends on dispersion state of nanofillers and their physical and chemical interactions with the curing moieties. In this work, a systematic approach was introduced for chemical functionalization of nanoparticles with macromolecules in order to enrich crosslinking potential of epoxy/amine systems, particularly at late stages of cure where the curing is diffusion-controlled. Super-reactive hyperbranched polyethylenimine (PEI)-attached nanosilica was materialized in this work to facilitate epoxy-amine curing. Starting from coupling [3-(2,3-epoxypropoxy) propyl] trimethoxysilane (EPPTMS) with hyperbranched PEI, a super-reactive macromolecule was obtained and subsequently grafted onto the nanosilica surface. Eventually, a thermally-stable highly-curable nanocomposite was attained by replacement of amine and imine groups of the PEI with imide and amide groups through the reaction with pyromellitic acid dianhydride. Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometry, X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy approved successful grafting of polymer chains onto the nanosilica surface. Thermogravimetric analyses approved a relatively high grafting ratio of ca. 21%. Curing potential of the developed super-reactive nanoparticle was uncovered through nonisothermal differential scanning calorimetry signifying an enthalpy rise of ca. 120 J/g by addition of 2 wt.% to epoxy at 5 °C/min heating rate. Even at low concentration of 0.5 wt.%, the glass transition temperature of epoxy increased from 128 to 156 °C, demonstrating prolonged crosslinking.

  3. Thermochemolysis: A New Sample Preparation Approach for the Detection of Organic Components of Complex Macromolecules in Mars Rocks via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry in SAM on MSL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eugenbrode, J.; Glavin, D.; Dworkin, J.; Conrad, P.; Mahaffy, P.

    2011-01-01

    Organic chemicals, when present in extraterrestrial samples, afford precious insight into past and modern conditions elsewhere in the Solar System . No single technology identifies all molecular components because naturally occurring molecules have different chemistries (e.g., polar vs. non-polar, low to high molecular weight) and interface with the ambient sample chemistry in a variety of modes (i.e., organics may be bonded, absorbed or trapped by minerals, liquids, gases, or other organics). More than 90% of organic matter in most natural samples on Earth and in meteorites is composed of complex macromolecules (e.g. biopolymers, complex biomolecules, humic substances, kerogen) because the processes that tend to break down organic molecules also tend towards complexation of the more recalcitrant components. Thus, methodologies that tap the molecular information contained within macromolecules may be critical to detecting extraterrestrial organic matter and assessing the sources and processes influencing its nature.

  4. Molar mass, radius of gyration and second virial coefficient from new static light scattering equations for dilute solutions: application to 21 (macro)molecules.

    PubMed

    Illien, Bertrand; Ying, Ruifeng

    2009-05-11

    New static light scattering (SLS) equations for dilute binary solutions are derived. Contrarily to the usual SLS equations [Carr-Zimm (CZ)], the new equations have no need for the experimental absolute Rayleigh ratio of a reference liquid and solely rely on the ratio of scattered intensities of solutions and solvent. The new equations, which are based on polarizability equations, take into account the usual refractive index increment partial differential n/partial differential rho(2) complemented by the solvent specific polarizability and a term proportional to the slope of the solution density rho versus the solute mass concentration rho(2) (density increment). Then all the equations are applied to 21 (macro)molecules with a wide range of molar mass (0.2macromolecules (M>500 kg mol(-1)), for which the scattered intensity is no longer independent of the scattering angle, the new equations give the same value of the radius of gyration as the CZ equation and consistent values of the second virial coefficient.

  5. Diffusion of macromolecules in self-assembled cellulose/hemicellulose hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia; Schuster, Erich; Wang, Dongjie; Gidley, Michael J; Strom, Anna

    2015-05-28

    Cellulose hydrogels are extensively applied in many biotechnological fields and are also used as models for plant cell walls. We synthesised model cellulosic hydrogels containing hemicelluloses, as a biomimetic of plant cell walls, in order to study the role of hemicelluloses on their mass transport properties. Microbial cellulose is able to self-assemble into composites when hemicelluloses, such as xyloglucan and arabinoxylan, are present in the incubation media, leading to hydrogels with different nano and microstructures. We investigated the diffusivities of a series of fluorescently labelled dextrans, of different molecular weight, and proteins, including a plant pectin methyl esterase (PME), using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). The presence of xyloglucan, known to be able to crosslink cellulose fibres, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and (13)C NMR, reduced mobility of macromolecules of molecular weight higher than 10 kDa, reflected in lower diffusion coefficients. Furthermore PME diffusion was reduced in composites containing xyloglucan, despite the lack of a particular binding motif in PME for this polysaccharide, suggesting possible non-specific interactions between PME and this hemicellulose. In contrast, hydrogels containing arabinoxylan coating cellulose fibres showed enhanced diffusivity of the molecules studied. The different diffusivities were related to the architectural features found in the composites as a function of polysaccharide composition. Our results show the effect of model hemicelluloses in the mass transport properties of cellulose networks in highly hydrated environments relevant to understanding the role of hemicelluloses in the permeability of plant cell walls and aiding design of plant based materials with tailored properties.

  6. [Diffusion and diffusion-osmosis models of the charged macromolecule transfer in barriers of biosystems].

    PubMed

    Varakin, A I; Mazur, V V; Arkhipova, N V; Serianov, Iu V

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical models of the transfer of charged macromolecules have been constructed on the basis of the classical equations of electromigration diffusion of Helmholtz-Smolukhovskii, Goldman, and Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz. It was shown that ion transfer in placental (mimicking lipid-protein barriers) and muscle barriers occurs by different mechanisms. In placental barriers, the electromigration diffusion occurs along lipid-protein channels formed due to the conformational deformation of phospholipid and protein molecules with the coefficients of diffusion D = (2.6-3.6) x 10(-8) cm2/s. The transfer in muscle barriers is due to the migration across charged interfibrillar channels with the negative diffusion activation energy, which is explained by changes in the structure of muscle fibers and expenditures of thermal energy for the extrusion of Cl- from channel walls with the diffusion coefficient D = (6.0-10.0) x 10(-6) cm2/s.

  7. The new program OPAL for molecular dynamics simulations and energy refinements of biological macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Luginbühl, P; Güntert, P; Billeter, M; Wüthrich, K

    1996-09-01

    A new program for molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and energy refinement of biological macromolecules, OPAL, is introduced. Combined with the supporting program TRAJEC for the analysis of MD trajectories, OPAL affords high efficiency and flexibility for work with different force fields, and offers a user-friendly interface and extensive trajectory analysis capabilities. Salient features are computational speeds of up to 1.5 GFlops on vector supercomputers such as the NEC SX-3, ellipsoidal boundaries to reduce the system size for studies in explicit solvents, and natural treatment of the hydrostatic pressure. Practical applications of OPAL are illustrated with MD simulations of pure water, energy minimization of the NMR structure of the mixed disulfide of a mutant E. coli glutaredoxin with glutathione in different solvent models, and MD simulations of a small protein, pheromone Er-2, using either instantaneous or time-averaged NMR restraints, or no restraints.

  8. A Mo-anode-based in-house source for small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of biological macromolecules

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bruetzel, Linda K.; Fischer, Stefan; Salditt, Annalena

    2016-02-15

    We demonstrate the use of a molybdenum-anode-based in-house small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) setup to study biological macromolecules in solution. Our system consists of a microfocus X-ray tube delivering a highly collimated flux of 2.5 × 10{sup 6} photons/s at a beam size of 1.2 × 1.2 mm{sup 2} at the collimation path exit and a maximum beam divergence of 0.16 mrad. The resulting observable scattering vectors q are in the range of 0.38 Å{sup −1} down to 0.009 Å{sup −1} in SAXS configuration and of 0.26 Å{sup −1} up to 5.7 Å{sup −1} in wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) mode. Tomore » determine the capabilities of the instrument, we collected SAXS data on weakly scattering biological macromolecules including proteins and a nucleic acid sample with molecular weights varying from ∼12 to 69 kDa and concentrations of 1.5–24 mg/ml. The measured scattering data display a high signal-to-noise ratio up to q-values of ∼0.2 Å{sup −1} allowing for an accurate structural characterization of the samples. Moreover, the in-house source data are of sufficient quality to perform ab initio 3D structure reconstructions that are in excellent agreement with the available crystallographic structures. In addition, measurements for the detergent decyl-maltoside show that the setup can be used to determine the size, shape, and interactions (as characterized by the second virial coefficient) of detergent micelles. This demonstrates that the use of a Mo-anode based in-house source is sufficient to determine basic geometric parameters and 3D shapes of biomolecules and presents a viable alternative to valuable beam time at third generation synchrotron sources.« less

  9. Spontaneous encapsulation and concentration of biological macromolecules in liposomes: an intriguing phenomenon and its relevance in origins of life.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Tereza Pereira; Fahr, Alfred; Luisi, Pier Luigi; Stano, Pasquale

    2014-12-01

    One of the main open questions in origin of life research focuses on the formation, by self-organization, of primitive cells composed by macromolecular compounds enclosed within a semi-permeable membrane. A successful experimental strategy for studying the emergence and the properties of primitive cells relies on a synthetic biology approach, consisting in the laboratory assembly of cell models of minimal complexity (semi-synthetic minimal cells). Despite the recent advancements in the construction and characterization of synthetic cells, an important physical aspect related to their formation is still not well known, namely, the mechanism of solute entrapment inside liposomes (in particular, the entrapment of macromolecules). In the past years, we have investigated this phenomenon and here we shortly review our experimental results. We show how the detailed cryo-transmission electron microscopy analyses of liposome populations created in the presence of ferritin (taken as model protein) or ribosomes have revealed that a small fraction of liposomes contains a high number of solutes, against statistical expectations. The local (intra-liposomal) macromolecule concentration in these liposomes largely exceeds the bulk concentration. A similar behaviour is observed when multi-molecular reaction mixtures are used, whereby the reactions occur effectively only inside those liposomes that have entrapped high number of molecules. If similar mechanisms operated in early times, these intriguing results support a scenario whereby the formation of lipid compartments plays an important role in concentrating the components of proto-metabolic systems-in addition to their well-known functions of confinement and protection.

  10. Role of macromolecules in the safety of use of body wash cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Bujak, Tomasz; Wasilewski, Tomasz; Nizioł-Łukaszewska, Zofia

    2015-11-01

    One of the most challenging problems related to the use of surfactants in body wash cosmetics is their potential to cause skin irritations. Surfactants can bind with proteins, remove lipids from the epidermal surface, contribute to the disorganization of liquid crystal structures in the intercellular lipids, and interact with living skin cells. These processes can lead to skin irritations and allergic reactions, and impair the epidermal barrier function. The present study is an attempt to assess the effect of polymers and hydrolysed proteins present in the formulations of model body wash cosmetics on product properties. Special attention was given to the safety of use of this product type. The study examined three macromolecules: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), hydrolysed wheat protein (HWP) and polyvinylpyrrolidone/hydrolysed wheat protein crosspolymer (PVP/HWP). The addition of the substances under study was found to improve the foaming properties of body wash cosmetics, increase their stability during storage, and contribute significantly to an improvement in the safety of product use by reducing the irritant potential. The strongest ability to reduce the skin irritation potential was determined for the formula enriched with the PVP/HWP crosspolymer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fast surface-based travel depth estimation algorithm for macromolecule surface shape description.

    PubMed

    Giard, Joachim; Alface, Patrice Rondao; Gala, Jean-Luc; Macq, Benoît

    2011-01-01

    Travel Depth, introduced by Coleman and Sharp in 2006, is a physical interpretation of molecular depth, a term frequently used to describe the shape of a molecular active site or binding site. Travel Depth can be seen as the physical distance a solvent molecule would have to travel from a point of the surface, i.e., the Solvent-Excluded Surface (SES), to its convex hull. Existing algorithms providing an estimation of the Travel Depth are based on a regular sampling of the molecule volume and the use of the Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm. Since Travel Depth is only defined on the molecular surface, this volume-based approach is characterized by a large computational complexity due to the processing of unnecessary samples lying inside or outside the molecule. In this paper, we propose a surface-based approach that restricts the processing to data defined on the SES. This algorithm significantly reduces the complexity of Travel Depth estimation and makes possible the analysis of large macromolecule surface shape description with high resolution. Experimental results show that compared to existing methods, the proposed algorithm achieves accurate estimations with considerably reduced processing times.

  12. The anchorless adhesin Eap (extracellular adherence protein) from Staphylococcus aureus selectively recognizes extracellular matrix aggregates but binds promiscuously to monomeric matrix macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Uwe; Hussain, Muzaffar; Villone, Daniela; Herrmann, Mathias; Robenek, Horst; Peters, Georg; Sinha, Bhanu; Bruckner, Peter

    2006-05-01

    Besides a number of cell wall-anchored adhesins, the majority of Staphylococcus aureus strains produce anchorless, cell wall-associated proteins, such as Eap (extracellular adherence protein). Eap contains four to six tandem repeat (EAP)-domains. Eap mediates diverse biological functions, including adherence and immunomodulation, thus contributing to S. aureus pathogenesis. Eap binding to host macromolecules is unusually promiscuous and includes matrix or matricellular proteins as well as plasma proteins. The structural basis of this promiscuity is poorly understood. Here, we show that in spite of the preferential location of the binding epitopes within triple helical regions in some collagens there is a striking specificity of Eap binding to different collagen types. Collagen I, but not collagen II, is a binding substrate in monomolecular form. However, collagen I is virtually unrecognized by Eap when incorporated into banded fibrils. By contrast, microfibrils containing collagen VI as well as basement membrane-associated networks containing collagen IV, or aggregates containing fibronectin bound Eap as effectively as the monomeric proteins. Therefore, Eap-binding to extracellular matrix ligands is promiscuous at the molecular level but not indiscriminate with respect to supramolecular structures containing the same macromolecules. In addition, Eap bound to banded fibrils after their partial disintegration by matrix-degrading proteinases, including matrix metalloproteinase 1. Therefore, adherence to matrix suprastructures by S. aureus can be supported by inflammatory reactions.

  13. From the Cover: Microfabricated needles for transdermal delivery of macromolecules and nanoparticles: Fabrication methods and transport studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Devin V.; Wang, Ping M.; Davis, Shawn P.; Park, Jung-Hwan; Canatella, Paul J.; Allen, Mark G.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2003-11-01

    Arrays of micrometer-scale needles could be used to deliver drugs, proteins, and particles across skin in a minimally invasive manner. We therefore developed microfabrication techniques for silicon, metal, and biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays having solid and hollow bores with tapered and beveled tips and feature sizes from 1 to 1,000 μm. When solid microneedles were used, skin permeability was increased in vitro by orders of magnitude for macromolecules and particles up to 50 nm in radius. Intracellular delivery of molecules into viable cells was also achieved with high efficiency. Hollow microneedles permitted flow of microliter quantities into skin in vivo, including microinjection of insulin to reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. transdermal drug delivery | skin | microelectromechanical systems | solid microneedle | hollow needle injection

  14. LORES: Low resolution shape program for the calculation of small angle scattering profiles for biological macromolecules in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J.; Deyhim, A.; Krueger, S.; Gregurick, S. K.

    2005-08-01

    A program for determining the low resolution shape of biological macromolecules, based on the optimization of a small angle neutron scattering profile to experimental data, is presented. This program, termed LORES, relies on a Monte Carlo optimization procedure and will allow for multiple scattering length densities of complex structures. It is therefore more versatile than utilizing a form factor approach to produce low resolution structural models. LORES is easy to compile and use, and allows for structural modeling of biological samples in real time. To illustrate the effectiveness and versatility of the program, we present four specific biological examples, Apoferritin (shell model), Ribonuclease S (ellipsoidal model), a 10-mer dsDNA (duplex helix) and a construct of a 10-mer DNA/PNA duplex helix (heterogeneous structure). These examples are taken from protein and nucleic acid SANS studies, of both large and small scale structures. We find, in general, that our program will accurately reproduce the geometric shape of a given macromolecule, when compared with the known crystallographic structures. We also present results to illustrate the lower limit of the experimental resolution which the LORES program is capable of modeling. Program summaryTitle of program:LORES Catalogue identifier: ADVC Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVC Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer:SGI Origin200, SGI Octane, SGI Linux, Intel Pentium PC Operating systems:UNIX64 6.5 and LINUX 2.4.7 Programming language used:C Memory required to execute with typical data:8 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:2270 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:13 302 Distribution format:tar.gz External subprograms used:The entire code must be linked with the MATH library

  15. Creatine, Glutamine plus Glutamate, and Macromolecules Are Decreased in the Central White Matter of Premature Neonates around Term

    PubMed Central

    Le Fur, Yann; Viout, Patrick; Ratiney, Hélène; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Girard, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth represents a high risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities when associated with white-matter damage. Recent studies have reported cognitive deficits in children born preterm without brain injury on MRI at term-equivalent age. Understanding the microstructural and metabolic underpinnings of these deficits is essential for their early detection. Here, we used diffusion-weighted imaging and single-voxel 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to compare brain maturation at term-equivalent age in premature neonates with no evidence of white matter injury on conventional MRI except diffuse excessive high-signal intensity, and normal term neonates. Thirty-two infants, 16 term neonates (mean post-conceptional age at scan: 39.8±1 weeks) and 16 premature neonates (mean gestational age at birth: 29.1±2 weeks, mean post-conceptional age at scan: 39.2±1 weeks) were investigated. The MRI/MRS protocol performed at 1.5T involved diffusion-weighted MRI and localized 1H-MRS with the Point RESolved Spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence. Preterm neonates showed significantly higher ADC values in the temporal white matter (P<0.05), the occipital white matter (P<0.005) and the thalamus (P<0.05). The proton spectrum of the centrum semiovale was characterized by significantly lower taurine/H2O and macromolecules/H2O ratios (P<0.05) at a TE of 30 ms, and reduced (creatine+phosphocreatine)/H2O and (glutamine+glutamate)/H2O ratios (P<0.05) at a TE of 135 ms in the preterm neonates than in full-term neonates. Our findings indicate that premature neonates with normal conventional MRI present a delay in brain maturation affecting the white matter and the thalamus. Their brain metabolic profile is characterized by lower levels of creatine, glutamine plus glutamate, and macromolecules in the centrum semiovale, a finding suggesting altered energy metabolism and protein synthesis. PMID:27547969

  16. Needle-free delivery of macromolecules through the skin using controllable jet injectors.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Nora C; Taberner, Andrew J; Jones, Lynette A; Hunter, Ian W

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal delivery of drugs has a number of advantages in comparison to other routes of administration. The mechanical properties of skin, however, impose a barrier to administration and so most compounds are administered using hypodermic needles and syringes. In order to overcome some of the issues associated with the use of needles, a variety of non-needle devices based on jet injection technology has been developed. Jet injection has been used primarily for vaccine administration but has also been used to deliver macromolecules such as hormones, monoclonal antibodies and nucleic acids. A critical component in the more recent success of jet injection technology has been the active control of pressure applied to the drug during the time course of injection. Jet injection systems that are electronically controllable and reversible offer significant advantages over conventional injection systems. These devices can consistently create the high pressures and jet speeds necessary to penetrate tissue and then transition smoothly to a lower jet speed for delivery of the remainder of the desired dose. It seems likely that in the future this work will result in smart drug delivery systems incorporated into personal medical devices and medical robots for in-home disease management and healthcare.

  17. Differential coloring reveals that plastids do not form networks for exchanging macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Schattat, Martin H; Griffiths, Sarah; Mathur, Neeta; Barton, Kiah; Wozny, Michael R; Dunn, Natalie; Greenwood, John S; Mathur, Jaideep

    2012-04-01

    Stroma-filled tubules named stromules are sporadic extensions of plastids. Earlier, photobleaching was used to demonstrate fluorescent protein diffusion between already interconnected plastids and formed the basis for suggesting that all plastids are able to form networks for exchanging macromolecules. However, a critical appraisal of literature shows that this conjecture is not supported by unequivocal experimental evidence. Here, using photoconvertible mEosFP, we created color differences between similar organelles that enabled us to distinguish clearly between organelle fusion and nonfusion events. Individual plastids, despite conveying a strong impression of interactivity and fusion, maintained well-defined boundaries and did not exchange fluorescent proteins. Moreover, the high pleomorphy of etioplasts from dark-grown seedlings, leucoplasts from roots, and assorted plastids in the accumulation and replication of chloroplasts5 (arc5), arc6, and phosphoglucomutase1 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana suggested that a single plastid unit might be easily mistaken for interconnected plastids. Our observations provide succinct evidence to refute the long-standing dogma of interplastid connectivity. The ability to create and maintain a large number of unique biochemical factories in the form of singular plastids might be a key feature underlying the versatility of green plants as it provides increased internal diversity for them to combat a wide range of environmental fluctuations and stresses.

  18. A polymeric micelle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent reveals blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability for macromolecules in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Kouichi; Wang, Zuojun; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Aoki, Ichio; Yokoyama, Masayuki

    2017-05-10

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening is a key phenomenon for understanding ischemia-reperfusion injuries that are directly linked to hemorrhagic transformation. The recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA) increases the risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhages. Recent imaging technologies have advanced our understanding of pathological BBB disorders; however, an ongoing challenge in the pre-"rtPA treatment" stage is the task of developing a rigorous method for hemorrhage-risk assessments. Therefore, we examined a novel method for assessment of rtPA-extravasation through a hyper-permeable BBB. To examine the image diagnosis of rtPA-extravasation for a rat transient occlusion-reperfusion model, in this study we used a polymeric micelle MRI contrast-agent (Gd-micelles). Specifically, we used two MRI contrast agents at 1h after reperfusion. Gd-micelles provided very clear contrast images in 15.5±10.3% of the ischemic hemisphere at 30min after i.v. injection, whereas a classic gadolinium chelate MRI contrast agent provided no satisfactorily clear images. The obtained images indicate both the hyper-permeable BBB area for macromolecules and the distribution area of macromolecules in the ischemic hemisphere. Owing to their large molecular weight, Gd-micelles remained in the ischemic hemisphere through the hyper-permeable BBB. Our results indicate the feasibility of a novel clinical diagnosis for evaluating rtPA-related hemorrhage risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The highly efficient T7 RNA polymerase: A wonder macromolecule in biological realm.

    PubMed

    Borkotoky, Subhomoi; Murali, Ayaluru

    2018-05-27

    The study of bacteriophage has always been of keen interest for biologists to understand the fundamentals of biology. Bacteriophage T7 was first isolated in 1945 and its first comprehensive genetic map of was published in 1969. Since then, it gained immense attention of researchers and became a prime model system for experimental biologists. The major gene product of T7 phage, T7 RNA polymerase (T7RNAP), continues to attract researchers since a long time due to its high and specific processivity with a single subunit structure and its capability of transcribing a complete gene without additional proteins. Since the first review article in 1993 there has been around nine reviews on this polymerase till year 2009, most of which focussed on particular aspects of T7RNAP such as structure and function. However, this review encapsulates a broad view on T7RNAP, one of the simplest macromolecule catalyzing RNA synthesis including recent updates on its applications, structure, activators and inhibitors. Thus this brief review bridges the huge gap on the recent updates on this polymerase and will help the biologists in their endeavours that include the use of T7RNAP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Size-distribution analysis of macromolecules by sedimentation velocity ultracentrifugation and lamm equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Schuck, P

    2000-03-01

    A new method for the size-distribution analysis of polymers by sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation is described. It exploits the ability of Lamm equation modeling to discriminate between the spreading of the sedimentation boundary arising from sample heterogeneity and from diffusion. Finite element solutions of the Lamm equation for a large number of discrete noninteracting species are combined with maximum entropy regularization to represent a continuous size-distribution. As in the program CONTIN, the parameter governing the regularization constraint is adjusted by variance analysis to a predefined confidence level. Estimates of the partial specific volume and the frictional ratio of the macromolecules are used to calculate the diffusion coefficients, resulting in relatively high-resolution sedimentation coefficient distributions c(s) or molar mass distributions c(M). It can be applied to interference optical data that exhibit systematic noise components, and it does not require solution or solvent plateaus to be established. More details on the size-distribution can be obtained than from van Holde-Weischet analysis. The sensitivity to the values of the regularization parameter and to the shape parameters is explored with the help of simulated sedimentation data of discrete and continuous model size distributions, and by applications to experimental data of continuous and discrete protein mixtures.

  1. Insights into the key roles of epigenetics in matrix macromolecules-associated wound healing.

    PubMed

    Piperigkou, Zoi; Götte, Martin; Theocharis, Achilleas D; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2017-10-24

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic network of macromolecules, playing a regulatory role in cell functions, tissue regeneration and remodeling. Wound healing is a tissue repair process necessary for the maintenance of the functionality of tissues and organs. This highly orchestrated process is divided into four temporally overlapping phases, including hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and tissue remodeling. The dynamic interplay between ECM and resident cells exerts its critical role in many aspects of wound healing, including cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, survival, matrix degradation and biosynthesis. Several epigenetic regulatory factors, such as the endogenous non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs), are the drivers of the wound healing response. microRNAs have pivotal roles in regulating ECM composition during wound healing and dermal regeneration. Their expression is associated with the distinct phases of wound healing and they serve as target biomarkers and targets for systematic regulation of wound repair. In this article we critically present the importance of epigenetics with particular emphasis on miRNAs regulating ECM components (i.e. glycoproteins, proteoglycans and matrix proteases) that are key players in wound healing. The clinical relevance of miRNA targeting as well as the delivery strategies designed for clinical applications are also presented and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nanoscale amphiphilic macromolecules with variable lipophilicity and stereochemistry modulate inhibition of oxidized low-density lipoprotein uptake.

    PubMed

    Poree, Dawanne E; Zablocki, Kyle; Faig, Allison; Moghe, Prabhas V; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2013-08-12

    Amphiphilic macromolecules (AMs) based on carbohydrate domains functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol) can inhibit the uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and counteract foam cell formation, a key characteristic of early atherogenesis. To investigate the influence of lipophilicity and stereochemistry on the AMs' physicochemical and biological properties, mucic acid-based AMs bearing four aliphatic chains (2a) and tartaric acid-based AMs bearing two (2b and 2l) and four aliphatic chains (2g and 2k) were synthesized and evaluated. Solution aggregation studies suggested that both the number of hydrophobic arms and the length of the hydrophobic domain impact AM micelle sizes, whereas stereochemistry impacts micelle stability. 2l, the meso analogue of 2b, elicited the highest reported oxLDL uptake inhibition values (89%), highlighting the crucial effect of stereochemistry on biological properties. This study suggests that stereochemistry plays a critical role in modulating oxLDL uptake and must be considered when designing biomaterials for potential cardiovascular therapies.

  3. GABA editing with macromolecule suppression using an improved MEGA-SPECIAL sequence.

    PubMed

    Gu, Meng; Hurd, Ralph; Noeske, Ralph; Baltusis, Laima; Hancock, Roeland; Sacchet, Matthew D; Gotlib, Ian H; Chin, Frederick T; Spielman, Daniel M

    2018-01-01

    The most common γ-aminobutyric-acid (GABA) editing approach, MEGA-PRESS, uses J-editing to measure GABA distinct from larger overlapping metabolites, but suffers contamination from coedited macromolecules (MMs) comprising 40 to 60% of the observed signal. MEGA-SPECIAL is an alternative method with better MM suppression, but is not widely used primarily because of its relatively poor spatial localization. Our goal was to develop an improved MM-suppressed GABA editing sequence at 3 Tesla. We modified a single-voxel MEGA-SPECIAL sequence with an oscillating readout gradient for improved spatial localization, and used very selective 30-ms editing pulses for improved suppression of coedited MMs. Simulation and in vivo experiments confirmed excellent MM suppression, insensitive to the range of B 0 frequency drifts typically encountered in vivo. Both intersubject and intrasubject studies showed that MMs, when suppressed by the improved MEGA-SPECIAL method, contributed approximately 40% to the corresponding MEGA-PRESS measurements. From the intersubject study, the coefficient of variation for GABA+/Cre (MEGA-PRESS) was 11.2% versus 7% for GABA/Cre (improved MEGA-SPECIAL), demonstrating significantly reduced variance (P = 0.005), likely coming from coedited MMs. This improved MEGA-SPECIAL sequence provides unbiased GABA measurements with reduced variance as compared with conventional MEGA-PRESS. This approach is also relatively insensitive to the range of B 0 drifts typically observed in in vivo human studies. Magn Reson Med 79:41-47, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Characterizing Flexible and Instrinsically Unstructured Biological Macromolecules by SAS using the Porod-Debye Law

    PubMed Central

    Rambo, Robert P.; Tainer, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Unstructured proteins, RNA or DNA components provide functionally important flexibility that is key to many macromolecular assemblies throughout cell biology. As objective, quantitative experimental measures of flexibility and disorder in solution are limited, small angle scattering (SAS), and in particular small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), provides a critical technology to assess macromolecular flexibility as well as shape and assembly. Here, we consider the Porod-Debye law as a powerful tool for detecting biopolymer flexibility in SAS experiments. We show that the Porod-Debye region fundamentally describes the nature of the scattering intensity decay, which captures information needed for distinguishing between folded and flexible particles. Particularly for comparative SAS experiments, application of the law, as described here, can distinguish between discrete conformational changes and localized flexibility relevant to molecular recognition and interaction networks. This approach aids insightful analyses of fully and partly flexible macromolecules that is more robust and conclusive than traditional Kratky analyses. Furthermore, we demonstrate for prototypic SAXS data that the ability to calculate particle density by the Porod-Debye criteria, as shown here, provides an objective quality assurance parameter that may prove of general use for SAXS modeling and validation. PMID:21509745

  5. DelPhi webserver: Comprehensive suite for electrostatic calculations of biological macromolecules and their complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witham, Shawn; Boylen, Brett; Owesen, Barr; Rocchia, Walter; Alexov, Emil

    2011-03-01

    Electrostatic forces and energies are two of the major components that contribute to the stability, function and interaction of biological macromolecules. The calculations of the electrostatic potential distribution in such systems, which are comprised of irregularly shaped objects immersed in a water phase, is not a trivial task. In addition, an accurate model requires any missing hydrogen atoms of the corresponding structural files (Protein Data Bank, or, PDB files) to be generated in silico and, if necessary, missing atoms or residues to be predicted as well. Here we report a comprehensive suite, an academic DelPhi webserver, which allows the users to upload their structural file, calculate the components of the electrostatic energy, generate the corresponding potential (and/or concentration/dielectric constant) distribution map, and choose the appropriate force field. The webserver utilizes modern technology to take user input and construct an algorithm that suits the users specific needs. The webserver uses Clemson University's Palmetto Supercomputer Cluster to handle the DelPhi calculations, which can range anywhere from small and short computation times, to extensive and computationally demanding runtimes. The work was supported by a grant from NIGMS, NIH, grant number 1R01GM093937-01.

  6. Identification of Characteristic Macromolecules of Escherichia coli Genotypes by Atomic Force Microscope Nanoscale Mechanical Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Alice Chinghsuan; Liu, Bernard Haochih

    2018-02-01

    The categorization of microbial strains is conventionally based on the molecular method, and seldom are the morphological characteristics in the bacterial strains studied. In this research, we revealed the macromolecular structures of the bacterial surface via AFM mechanical mapping, whose resolution was not only determined by the nanoscale tip size but also the mechanical properties of the specimen. This technique enabled the nanoscale study of membranous structures of microbial strains with simple specimen preparation and flexible working environments, which overcame the multiple restrictions in electron microscopy and label-enable biochemical analytical methods. The characteristic macromolecules located among cellular surface were considered as surface layer proteins and were found to be specific to the Escherichia coli genotypes, from which the averaged molecular sizes were characterized with diameters ranging from 38 to 66 nm, and the molecular shapes were kidney-like or round. In conclusion, the surface macromolecular structures have unique characteristics that link to the E. coli genotype, which suggests that the genomic effects on cellular morphologies can be rapidly identified using AFM mechanical mapping. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Modeling steady-state dynamics of macromolecules in exponential-stretching flow using multiscale molecular-dynamics-multiparticle-collision simulations.

    PubMed

    Ghatage, Dhairyasheel; Chatterji, Apratim

    2013-10-01

    We introduce a method to obtain steady-state uniaxial exponential-stretching flow of a fluid (akin to extensional flow) in the incompressible limit, which enables us to study the response of suspended macromolecules to the flow by computer simulations. The flow field in this flow is defined by v(x) = εx, where v(x) is the velocity of the fluid and ε is the stretch flow gradient. To eliminate the effect of confining boundaries, we produce the flow in a channel of uniform square cross section with periodic boundary conditions in directions perpendicular to the flow, but simultaneously maintain uniform density of fluid along the length of the tube. In experiments a perfect elongational flow is obtained only along the axis of symmetry in a four-roll geometry or a filament-stretching rheometer. We can reproduce flow conditions very similar to extensional flow near the axis of symmetry by exponential-stretching flow; we do this by adding the right amounts of fluid along the length of the flow in our simulations. The fluid particles added along the length of the tube are the same fluid particles which exit the channel due to the flow; thus mass conservation is maintained in our model by default. We also suggest a scheme for possible realization of exponential-stretching flow in experiments. To establish our method as a useful tool to study various soft matter systems in extensional flow, we embed (i) spherical colloids with excluded volume interactions (modeled by the Weeks-Chandler potential) as well as (ii) a bead-spring model of star polymers in the fluid to study their responses to the exponential-stretched flow and show that the responses of macromolecules in the two flows are very similar. We demonstrate that the variation of number density of the suspended colloids along the direction of flow is in tune with our expectations. We also conclude from our study of the deformation of star polymers with different numbers of arms f that the critical flow gradient ε

  8. In vivo skin penetration of macromolecules in irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Mottaleb, Mona M A; Lamprecht, Alf

    2016-12-30

    Recently, a selective preferential accumulation of polymeric nanoparticles (in the size range around 100nm) has been observed in the follicular system of dermatitis skin. The present investigation aimed at clearly investigating the effect of irritant contact dermatitis on the barrier permeability for colloidal systems below this size range, namely quantum dots and hydrophilic macromolecules. Irritant dermatitis was induced in mice and the penetrability of quantum dots (5nm) and hydrophilic dextran molecules has been tracked in both healthy and inflamed skin using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The selective accumulation of the quantum dots was clearly observed in inflamed skin while hydrophilic dextran behaved similarly in both healthy and inflamed skin. The therapeutic potential for the transdermal delivery of peptide drugs through inflamed skin has been also tested in rats. Results revealed that the transdermal permeation of insulin and calcitonin was not significantly enhanced in dermatitis compared to healthy skin. On the other side, permeation through stripped skin was significantly higher. However, the effect was limited and shorter compared to the SC injection where t min was 0.5h and 2h with a 70% and 46% reduction in blood glucose levels for the stripped skin and the SC injection respectively. Similarly, t min was 4h and 8h with area under the curve of 161±65% and 350±97% for the stripped skin and the SC injection respectively. In conclusion, the changes in skin permeability accompanied with skin inflammation did not affect its permeability to peptide drugs. Our findings also underline that experiments with the tape stripped skin model as a surrogate for inflamed skin can risk misleading conclusions due to significant difference of skin permeability between the tape stripped skin and inflamed skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Interstitial distribution of charged macromolecules in the dog lung: a kinetic model.

    PubMed

    Parker, J C; Miniati, M; Pitt, R; Taylor, A E

    1987-01-01

    A mathematic model was constructed to investigate conflicting physiologic data concerning the charge effect of continuous capillaries to macromolecules in the lung. We simulated the equilibration kinetics of lactate dehydrogenase (MR 4.2 nM) isozymes LDH 1 (pI = 5.0) and LDH 5 (pI = 7.9) between plasma and lymph using previously measured permeability coefficients, lung tissue distribution volumes (VA) and plasma concentrations (CP) in lung tissue. Our hypothesis is that the fixed anionic charges in interstitium, basement membrane, and cell surfaces determine equilibration rather than charged membrane effects at the capillary barrier, so the same capillary permeability coefficients were used for both isozymes. Capillary filtration rates and protein fluxes were calculated using conventional flux equations. Initial conditions at baseline and increased left atrial pressures (PLA) were those measured in animal studies. Simulated equilibration of isozymes over 30 h in the model at baseline capillary pressures accurately predicted the observed differences in lymph/plasma concentration ratios (CL/CP) between isotopes at 4 h and equilibration of these ratios at 24 h. Quantitative prediction of isozyme CL/CP ratios was also obtained at increased PLA. However, an additional cation selective compartment representing the surface glycocalyx was required to accurately simulate the initial higher transcapillary clearances of cationic LDH 5. Thus experimental data supporting the negative barrier, positive barrier, and no charge barrier hypotheses were accurately reproduced by the model using only the observed differences in interstitial partitioning of isozymes without differences in capillary selectivity.

  10. Direct analysis of intact biological macromolecules by low-energy, fiber-based femtosecond laser vaporization at 1042 nm wavelength with nanospray postionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fengjian; Flanigan, Paul M; Archer, Jieutonne J; Levis, Robert J

    2015-03-17

    A fiber-based laser with a pulse duration of 435 fs and a wavelength of 1042 nm was used to vaporize biological macromolecules intact from the condensed phase into the gas phase for nanospray postionization and mass analysis. Laser vaporization of dried standard protein samples from a glass substrate by 10 Hz bursts of 20 pulses having 10 μs pulse separation and <50 μJ pulse energy resulted in signal comparable to a metal substrate. The protein signal observed from an aqueous droplet on a glass substrate was negligible compared to either a droplet on metal or a thin film on glass. The mass spectra generated from dried and aqueous protein samples by the low-energy, fiber laser were similar to the results from high-energy (500 μJ), 45-fs, 800-nm Ti:sapphire-based femtosecond laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) experiments, suggesting that the fiber-based femtosecond laser desorption mechanism involves a nonresonant, multiphoton process, rather than thermal- or photoacoustic-induced desorption. Direct analysis of whole blood performed without any pretreatment resulted in features corresponding to hemoglobin subunit-heme complex ions. The observation of intact molecular ions with low charge states from protein, and the tentatively assigned hemoglobin α subunit-heme complex from blood suggests that fiber-based femtosecond laser vaporization is a "soft" desorption source at a laser intensity of 2.39 × 10(12) W/cm(2). The low-energy, turnkey fiber laser demonstrates the potential of a more robust and affordable laser for femtosecond laser vaporization to deliver biological macromolecules into the gas phase for mass analysis.

  11. Nanometer-scale structure of alkali-soluble bio-macromolecules of maize plant residues explains their recalcitrance in soil.

    PubMed

    Adani, Fabrizio; Salati, Silvia; Spagnol, Manuela; Tambone, Fulvia; Genevini, Pierluigi; Pilu, Roberto; Nierop, Klaas G J

    2009-07-01

    The quantity and quality of plant litter in the soil play an important role in the soil organic matter balance. Besides other pedo-climatic aspects, the content of recalcitrant molecules of plant residues and their chemical composition play a major role in the preservation of plant residues. In this study, we report that intrinsically resistant alkali-soluble bio-macromolecules extracted from maize plant (plant-humic acid) (plant-HA) contribute directly to the soil organic matter (OM) by its addition and conservation in the soil. Furthermore, we also observed that a high syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio in the lignin residues comprising the plant tissue, which modifies the microscopic structure of the alkali-soluble plant biopolymers, enhances their recalcitrance because of lower accessibility of molecules to degrading enzymes. These results are in agreement with a recent study, which showed that the humic substance of soil consists of a mixture of identifiable biopolymers obtained directly from plant tissues that are added annually by maize plant residues.

  12. Combining Graphical and Analytical Methods with Molecular Simulations To Analyze Time-Resolved FRET Measurements of Labeled Macromolecules Accurately

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements from a donor, D, to an acceptor, A, fluorophore are frequently used in vitro and in live cells to reveal information on the structure and dynamics of DA labeled macromolecules. Accurate descriptions of FRET measurements by molecular models are complicated because the fluorophores are usually coupled to the macromolecule via flexible long linkers allowing for diffusional exchange between multiple states with different fluorescence properties caused by distinct environmental quenching, dye mobilities, and variable DA distances. It is often assumed for the analysis of fluorescence intensity decays that DA distances and D quenching are uncorrelated (homogeneous quenching by FRET) and that the exchange between distinct fluorophore states is slow (quasistatic). This allows us to introduce the FRET-induced donor decay, εD(t), a function solely depending on the species fraction distribution of the rate constants of energy transfer by FRET, for a convenient joint analysis of fluorescence decays of FRET and reference samples by integrated graphical and analytical procedures. Additionally, we developed a simulation toolkit to model dye diffusion, fluorescence quenching by the protein surface, and FRET. A benchmark study with simulated fluorescence decays of 500 protein structures demonstrates that the quasistatic homogeneous model works very well and recovers for single conformations the average DA distances with an accuracy of < 2%. For more complex cases, where proteins adopt multiple conformations with significantly different dye environments (heterogeneous case), we introduce a general analysis framework and evaluate its power in resolving heterogeneities in DA distances. The developed fast simulation methods, relying on Brownian dynamics of a coarse-grained dye in its sterically accessible volume, allow us to incorporate structural information in the decay analysis for heterogeneous cases by relating dye states

  13. Delivery of macromolecules into the endothelium of whole ex vivo human cornea by femtosecond laser-activated carbon nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jumelle, Clotilde; Mauclair, Cyril; Houzet, Julien; Bernard, Aurélien; He, Zhiguo; Forest, Fabien; Perrache, Chantal; Gain, Philippe; Thuret, Gilles

    2016-08-01

    The targeted delivery of drugs or genes into corneal endothelial cells (ECs) during eye banking could help improve graft quality and quantity. Physical methods raising less safety concerns than viral ones, we previously adapted, for in vitro ECs, a recent innovative technique of drug delivery based on the activation of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) by a femtosecond laser (fsL). The aim of the present pilot study was to adapt this method to enable molecule delivery into the intact endothelium of ex vivo human corneas. ECs from 40 organ-cultured corneas were perforated by photoacoustic reaction induced by irradiation of CNPs by a fsL. This enabled intracellular delivery of Alexa Fluor 488 dextran, a 4000 Da fluorescent macromolecule. The influence of increasing laser fluences (15, 20, 30 and 40 mJ/cm(2)) and of protective additives (ROCK inhibitor and poloxamer 407) on delivery and mortality rates was quantified using ImageJ. No dextran was delivered with a fluence lower than 20 mJ/cm(2). Dextran was delivered into 3% (range 0%-7%) of cells at 20 mJ/cm(2), 7% (range 2%-12%) at 30 mJ/cm(2) and reaching a median 13% (range 3%-24%) for 40 mJ/cm(2), showing that dextran uptake by ECs increased significantly with fluence. Induced mortality varied from 0% to 53% irrespective of fluence, but likely to be related with the endothelial status (EC density and morphometry, donor age, storage duration and presence of Descemet's folds). ROCK inhibitor slightly increased uptake efficiency, unlike poloxamer. However, none of them decreased the mortality induced by laser. This study shows that a macromolecule can be delivered specifically into ECs of a whole organ-cultured human cornea, using fsL-activated CNPs. The delivery rate was relatively high for a non-viral method. Further optimisation is required to understand and reduce variability in cell mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  14. Film Self-Assembly of Oppositely Charged Macromolecules Triggered by Electrochemistry through a Morphogenic Approach.

    PubMed

    Dochter, Alexandre; Garnier, Tony; Pardieu, Elodie; Chau, Nguyet Trang Thanh; Maerten, Clément; Senger, Bernard; Schaaf, Pierre; Jierry, Loïc; Boulmedais, Fouzia

    2015-09-22

    The development of new surface functionalization methods that are easy to use, versatile, and allow local deposition represents a real scientific challenge. Overcoming this challenge, we present here a one-pot process that consists in self-assembling, by electrochemistry on an electrode, films made of oppositely charged macromolecules. This method relies on a charge-shifting polyanion, dimethylmaleic-modified poly(allylamine) (PAHd), that undergoes hydrolysis at acidic pH, leading to an overall switching of its charge. When a mixture of the two polyanions, PAHd and poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS), is placed in contact with an electrode, where the pH is decreased locally by electrochemistry, the transformation of PAHd into a polycation (PAH) leads to the continuous self-assembly of a nanometric PAH/PSS film by electrostatic interactions. The pH decrease is obtained by the electrochemical oxidation of hydroquinone, which produces protons locally over nanometric distances. Using a negatively charged enzyme, alkaline phosphatase (AP), instead of PSS, this one-pot process allows the creation of enzymatically active films. Under mild conditions, self-assembled PAH/AP films have an enzymatic activity which is adjustable simply by controlling the self-assembly time. The selective functionalization of microelectrode arrays by PAH/AP was achieved, opening the route toward miniaturized biosensors.

  15. Differential Coloring Reveals That Plastids Do Not Form Networks for Exchanging Macromolecules[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Schattat, Martin H.; Griffiths, Sarah; Mathur, Neeta; Barton, Kiah; Wozny, Michael R.; Dunn, Natalie; Greenwood, John S.; Mathur, Jaideep

    2012-01-01

    Stroma-filled tubules named stromules are sporadic extensions of plastids. Earlier, photobleaching was used to demonstrate fluorescent protein diffusion between already interconnected plastids and formed the basis for suggesting that all plastids are able to form networks for exchanging macromolecules. However, a critical appraisal of literature shows that this conjecture is not supported by unequivocal experimental evidence. Here, using photoconvertible mEosFP, we created color differences between similar organelles that enabled us to distinguish clearly between organelle fusion and nonfusion events. Individual plastids, despite conveying a strong impression of interactivity and fusion, maintained well-defined boundaries and did not exchange fluorescent proteins. Moreover, the high pleomorphy of etioplasts from dark-grown seedlings, leucoplasts from roots, and assorted plastids in the accumulation and replication of chloroplasts5 (arc5), arc6, and phosphoglucomutase1 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana suggested that a single plastid unit might be easily mistaken for interconnected plastids. Our observations provide succinct evidence to refute the long-standing dogma of interplastid connectivity. The ability to create and maintain a large number of unique biochemical factories in the form of singular plastids might be a key feature underlying the versatility of green plants as it provides increased internal diversity for them to combat a wide range of environmental fluctuations and stresses. PMID:22474180

  16. How Does a Hydrophobic Macromolecule Respond to Mixed Osmolyte Environment?

    PubMed

    Tah, Indrajit; Mondal, Jagannath

    2016-10-04

    The role of the protecting osmolyte Trimethyl N-oxide (TMAO) in counteracting the denaturing effect of urea on a protein is quite well established. However, the mechanistic role of osmolytes on the hydrophobic interaction underlying protein folding is a topic of contention and is emerging as a key area of biophysical interest. Although recent experiment and computer simulation have established that individual aqueous solution of TMAO and urea respectively stabilizes and destabilizes the collapsed conformation of a hydrophobic polymer, it remains to be explored how a mixed aqueous solution of protecting and denaturing osmolytes influences the conformations of the polymer. In order to bridge the gap, we have simulated the conformational behavior of both a model hydrophobic polymer and a synthetic polymer polystyrene in an aqueous mixture of TMAO and urea. Intriguingly, our free energy based simulations on both the systems show that even though a pure aqueous solution of TMAO stabilizes the collapsed or globular conformation of the hydrophobic polymer, addition of TMAO to an aqueous solution of urea further destabilizes the collapsed conformation of the hydrophobic polymer. We also observe that the extent of destabilization in a mixed osmolyte solution is relatively higher than that in pure aqueous urea solution. The reinforcement of the denaturation effect of the hydrophobic macromolecule in a mixed osmolyte solution is in stark contrast to the well-known counteracting role of TMAO in proteins under denaturing condition of urea. In both model and realistic systems, our results show that in a mixed aqueous solution, greater number of cosolutes preferentially bind to the extended conformation of the polymer relative to that in the collapsed conformation, thereby complying with Tanford-Wyman preferential solvation theory disfavoring the collapsed conformation. The results are robust across a range of osmolyte concentrations and multiple cosolute forcefields. Our

  17. Stellate macroporous silica nanospheres in bio-macromolecules encapsulation and delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Hao-Hsin

    This project focused on using mesoporous silica as a solid support to encapsulate enzymes for operating a highly economic, and recyclable biomass processing system. The main objective is to turn non-food biomass sources into food products. Enzymes are macromolecules with the structural backbone of proteins or ribonucleic acid sequences (RNAs) which work as catalysts in living organisms. Enzymes have the advantage of being the least contaminating catalyst due to normal catalyst might generate toxic by-product, and preferable to organic and inorganic catalysts, especially when used for product related to human used, which require biocompatibility of final product. However, there are several disadvantages in enzyme utilization. Their fabrication is time-consuming and requires elaborated molecular biology processes. Most of the enzymes need well-defined reaction conditions to be functional and operate at high yield. Unfortunately, although they are reusable as normal catalysts, it proves difficult to extract or reuse the enzymes from a reaction. Also, enzyme molecules are easily degradable and demand proper storage. To overcome some of the disadvantages, especially regarding stability to degradation, recovery, and reusability, immobilization of enzyme on solid support has become a thriving methodology. In recent years, mesoporous silica nanomaterials(MSN) have been at the forefront of enzyme immobilization given their extensive surface area, which provides capability to increase enzyme loading and for their demonstrate ability to protect enzyme from degradation, thus enabling high recyclability. Mesoporous silica is biocompatible and has already been used for several applications included. Catalysis, drug delivery, and Bio-imaging. Previously published research utilized mesoporous silica to deliver drugs, DNAs, RNAs or encapsulate single enzyme. The objective of this research is completed to develop a new porous silica platform that is unique in its porosity structure

  18. Microfiberoptic fluorescence photobleaching reveals size-dependent macromolecule diffusion in extracellular space deep in brain.

    PubMed

    Zador, Zsolt; Magzoub, Mazin; Jin, Songwan; Manley, Geoffrey T; Papadopoulos, Marios C; Verkman, A S

    2008-03-01

    Diffusion in brain extracellular space (ECS) is important for nonsynaptic intercellular communication, extracellular ionic buffering, and delivery of drugs and metabolites. We measured macromolecular diffusion in normally light-inaccessible regions of mouse brain by microfiberoptic epifluorescence photobleaching, in which a fiberoptic with a micron-size tip is introduced deep in brain tissue. In brain cortex, the diffusion of a noninteracting molecule [fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran, 70 kDa] was slowed 4.5 +/- 0.5-fold compared with its diffusion in water (D(o)/D), and was depth-independent down to 800 microm from the brain surface. Diffusion was significantly accelerated (D(o)/D of 2.9+/-0.3) in mice lacking the glial water channel aquaporin-4. FITC-dextran diffusion varied greatly in different regions of brain, with D(o)/D of 3.5 +/- 0.3 in hippocampus and 7.4 +/- 0.3 in thalamus. Remarkably, D(o)/D in deep brain was strongly dependent on solute size, whereas diffusion in cortex changed little with solute size. Mathematical modeling of ECS diffusion required nonuniform ECS dimensions in deep brain, which we call "heterometricity," to account for the size-dependent diffusion. Our results provide the first data on molecular diffusion in ECS deep in brain in vivo and demonstrate previously unrecognized hindrance and heterometricity for diffusion of large macromolecules in deep brain.

  19. QM/MM hybrid calculation of biological macromolecules using a new interface program connecting QM and MM engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Yohsuke; Ohta, Takehiro; Tateno, Masaru

    2009-02-01

    An interface program connecting a quantum mechanics (QM) calculation engine, GAMESS, and a molecular mechanics (MM) calculation engine, AMBER, has been developed for QM/MM hybrid calculations. A protein-DNA complex is used as a test system to investigate the following two types of QM/MM schemes. In a 'subtractive' scheme, electrostatic interactions between QM/MM regions are truncated in QM calculations; in an 'additive' scheme, long-range electrostatic interactions within a cut-off distance from QM regions are introduced into one-electron integration terms of a QM Hamiltonian. In these calculations, 338 atoms are assigned as QM atoms using Hartree-Fock (HF)/density functional theory (DFT) hybrid all-electron calculations. By comparing the results of the additive and subtractive schemes, it is found that electronic structures are perturbed significantly by the introduction of MM partial charges surrounding QM regions, suggesting that biological processes occurring in functional sites are modulated by the surrounding structures. This also indicates that the effects of long-range electrostatic interactions involved in the QM Hamiltonian are crucial for accurate descriptions of electronic structures of biological macromolecules.

  20. Structural properties of the intrinsically disordered, multiple calcium ion-binding otolith matrix macromolecule-64 (OMM-64).

    PubMed

    Poznar, Monika; Hołubowicz, Rafał; Wojtas, Magdalena; Gapiński, Jacek; Banachowicz, Ewa; Patkowski, Adam; Ożyhar, Andrzej; Dobryszycki, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    Fish otoliths are calcium carbonate biominerals that are involved in hearing and balance sensing. An organic matrix plays a crucial role in their formation. Otolith matrix macromolecule-64 (OMM-64) is a highly acidic, calcium-binding protein (CBP) found in rainbow trout otoliths. It is a component of high-molecular-weight aggregates, which influence the size, shape and polymorph of calcium carbonate in vitro. In this study, a protocol for the efficient expression and purification of OMM-64 was developed. For the first time, the complete structural characteristics of OMM-64 were described. Various biophysical methods were combined to show that OMM-64 occurs as an intrinsically disordered monomer. Under denaturing conditions (pH, temperature) OMM-64 exhibits folding propensity. It was determined that OMM-64 binds approximately 61 calcium ions with millimolar affinity. The folding-unfolding experiments showed that calcium ions induced the collapse of OMM-64. The effect of other counter ions present in trout endolymph on OMM-64 conformational changes was studied. The significance of disordered properties of OMM-64 and the possible function of this protein is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Co-elution effects can influence molar mass determination of large macromolecules with asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to multiangle light scattering.

    PubMed

    Perez-Rea, Daysi; Zielke, Claudia; Nilsson, Lars

    2017-07-14

    Starch and hence, amylopectin is an important biomacromolecule in both the human diet as well as in technical applications. Therefore, accurate and reliable analytical methods for its characterization are needed. A suitable method for analyzing macromolecules with ultra-high molar mass, branched structure and high polydispersity is asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) in combination with multiangle light scattering (MALS) detection. In this paper we illustrate how co-elution of low quantities of very large analytes in AF4 may cause disturbances in the MALS data which, in turn, causes an overestimation of the size. Furthermore, it is shown how pre-injection filtering of the sample can improve the results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Perspective: On the importance of hydrodynamic interactions in the subcellular dynamics of macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    An outstanding challenge in computational biophysics is the simulation of a living cell at molecular detail. Over the past several years, using Stokesian dynamics, progress has been made in simulating coarse grained molecular models of the cytoplasm. Since macromolecules comprise 20%-40% of the volume of a cell, one would expect that steric interactions dominate macromolecular diffusion. However, the reduction in cellular diffusion rates relative to infinite dilution is due, roughly equally, to steric and hydrodynamic interactions, HI, with nonspecific attractive interactions likely playing rather a minor role. HI not only serve to slow down long time diffusion rates but also cause a considerable reduction in the magnitude of the short time diffusion coefficient relative to that at infinite dilution. More importantly, the long range contribution of the Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa diffusion tensor results in temporal and spatial correlations that persist up to microseconds and for intermolecular distances on the order of protein radii. While HI slow down the bimolecular association rate in the early stages of lipid bilayer formation, they accelerate the rate of large scale assembly of lipid aggregates. This is suggestive of an important role for HI in the self-assembly kinetics of large macromolecular complexes such as tubulin. Since HI are important, questions as to whether continuum models of HI are adequate as well as improved simulation methodologies that will make simulations of more complex cellular processes practical need to be addressed. Nevertheless, the stage is set for the molecular simulations of ever more complex subcellular processes. PMID:27634243

  3. Imaging System For Measuring Macromolecule Crystal Growth Rates in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corder, Eric L.; Briscoe, Jeri

    2004-01-01

    In order to determine how macromolecule crystal quality improvement in microgravity is related to crystal growth characteristics, a team of scientists and engineers at NASA's Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed flight hardware capable of measuring the crystal growth rates of a population of crystals growing under the same conditions. As crystal growth rate is defined as the change or delta in a defined dimension or length (L) of crystal over time, the hardware was named Delta-L. Delta-L consists of three sub assemblies: a fluid unit including a temperature-controlled growth cell, an imaging unit, and a control unit (consisting of a Data Acquisition and Control Unit (DACU), and a thermal control unit). Delta-L will be used in connection with the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT) inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), onboard the International Space Station. This paper will describe the Delta-L imaging system. The Delta-L imaging system was designed to locate, resolve, and capture images of up to 10 individual crystals ranging in size from 10 to 500 microns with a point-to-point accuracy of +/- 2.0 microns within a quartz growth cell observation area of 20 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm. The optical imaging system is comprised of a video microscope camera mounted on computer controlled translation stages. The 3-axis translation stages and control units provide crewmembers the ability to search throughout the growth cell observation area for crystals forming in size of approximately 10 microns. Once the crewmember has selected ten crystals of interest, the growth of these crystals is tracked until the size reaches approximately 500 microns. In order to resolve these crystals an optical system with a magnification of 10X was designed. A black and white NTSC camera was utilized with a 20X microscope objective and a 0.5X custom designed relay lens with an inline light to meet the magnification requirement. The design allows a 500 pm

  4. Prevention by thioethers of the hepatotoxicity and covalent binding to macromolecules of N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene and its sulfate ester in rat liver in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    van den Goorbergh, J A; de Wit, H; Tijdens, R B; Mulder, G J; Meerman, J H

    1987-02-01

    In order to find potentially effective compounds that could prevent the covalent binding of the carcinogen N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (N-OH-AAF) to rat liver macromolecules in vivo, the prevention of the covalent binding to RNA of the sulfate ester of the carcinogen N-OH-AAF by a series of thioethers was investigated in vitro. The most effective thioethers, which inhibited the covalent binding by 70% or more, were studied for their protection against acute hepatotoxicity of N-OH-AAF in the rat in vivo. Three of these thioethers, thiazolidine, methyl 4-(methylthio)benzoate, and 2-(methylthio)benzimidazole significantly decreased the hepatoxicity of N-OH-AAF, by 45, 71 and 83%, respectively. The effects of these thioethers on the covalent binding of N-OH-AAF to cellular macromolecules in vivo were also studied. Methyl 4-(methylthio)benzoate and 2-(methylthio)benzimidazole decreased the adduct formation of N-OH-AAF to DNA by 54 and 44%, respectively, but had no effect on protein adduct formation. Only 2-(methylthio)benzimidazole caused a slight decrease (23%) in the AAF-- protein adduct formation. 2-Acetylaminofluorene (AAF) and methyl 4-(methyl-sulfinyl)benzoate were the main products in the incubation of methyl 4-(methylthio)benzoate with AAF-N-sulfate in vitro. This suggests that the thioether attacks the nitrenium ion which is formed by spontaneous breakdown of AAF-N-sulfate; the formation of a sulfonium--AAF conjugate is postulated which decomposes into AAF and a sulfinyl compound.

  5. Labrasol® and Salts of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids Can Be Combined in Low Concentrations to Increase the Permeability of a Macromolecule Marker Across Isolated Rat Intestinal Mucosae.

    PubMed

    Heade, Joanne; Maher, Sam; Bleiel, Sinead B; Brayden, David J

    2018-06-01

    In addition to their solubilizing properties, excipients used in lipid-based formulations can improve intestinal permeability of macromolecules. We determined whether admixing of medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) permeation enhancers with a lipoidal excipient (Labrasol ® ) could potentiate transepithelial flux of a poorly permeable macromolecule (fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran 4 kDa [FD4]) across rat intestinal mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers. Low concentrations of sodium caprate (C 10 ), sodium undecylenate (C 11:1 ), or sodium laurate (C 12 ) combined with Labrasol ® increased the apparent permeability coefficient (P app ) of FD4 to values typically seen with higher concentrations of MCFAs or Labrasol ® alone. For example, combination of C 11:1 (0.5 mg/mL) with Labrasol ® (1 mg/mL) increased the P app of FD4 by 10- and 11-fold over the respective individual agents at the same concentrations where no enhancement was evident. The increased enhancement ratios seen with the combinations were associated with some perturbation in intestinal histology and with attenuation of an epithelial functional measure, carbachol-stimulated inward short-circuit current. In conclusion, combining three MCFAs separately with Labrasol ® increased the P app of FD4 to values greater than those seen for MCFAs or Labrasol ® alone. Ultimately, this may permit lower concentrations of MCFA to be used in combination with other excipients in oral formulations of poorly permeable molecules. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Movement of protein and macromolecules between host plants and the parasitic weed Phelipanche aegyptiaca Pers.

    PubMed

    Aly, Radi; Hamamouch, Noureddine; Abu-Nassar, Jacklin; Wolf, Shmuel; Joel, Daniel M; Eizenberg, Hanan; Kaisler, Efrat; Cramer, Carole; Gal-On, Amit; Westwood, James H

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about the translocation of proteins and other macromolecules from a host plant to the parasitic weed Phelipanche spp. Long-distance movement of proteins between host and parasite was explored using transgenic tomato plants expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in their companion cells. We further used fluorescent probes of differing molecular weights to trace vascular continuity between the host plant and the parasite. Accumulation of GFP was observed in the central vascular bundle of leaves and in the root phloem of transgenic tomato plants expressing GFP under the regulation of AtSUC2 promoter. When transgenic tomato plants expressing GFP were parasitized with P. aegyptiaca, extensive GFP was translocated from the host phloem to the parasite phloem and accumulated in both Phelipanche tubercles and shoots. No movement of GFP to the parasite was observed when tobacco plants expressing GFP targeted to the ER were parasitized with P. aegyptiaca. Experiments using fluorescent probes of differing molecular weights to trace vascular continuity between the host plant and the parasite demonstrated that Phelipanche absorbs dextrans up to 70 kDa in size from the host and that this movement can be bi-directional. In the present study, we prove for the first time delivery of proteins from host to the parasitic weed P. aegyptiaca via phloem connections, providing information for developing parasite resistance strategies.

  7. Efficient gaussian density formulation of volume and surface areas of macromolecules on graphical processing units.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baofeng; Kilburg, Denise; Eastman, Peter; Pande, Vijay S; Gallicchio, Emilio

    2017-04-15

    We present an algorithm to efficiently compute accurate volumes and surface areas of macromolecules on graphical processing unit (GPU) devices using an analytic model which represents atomic volumes by continuous Gaussian densities. The volume of the molecule is expressed by means of the inclusion-exclusion formula, which is based on the summation of overlap integrals among multiple atomic densities. The surface area of the molecule is obtained by differentiation of the molecular volume with respect to atomic radii. The many-body nature of the model makes a port to GPU devices challenging. To our knowledge, this is the first reported full implementation of this model on GPU hardware. To accomplish this, we have used recursive strategies to construct the tree of overlaps and to accumulate volumes and their gradients on the tree data structures so as to minimize memory contention. The algorithm is used in the formulation of a surface area-based non-polar implicit solvent model implemented as an open source plug-in (named GaussVol) for the popular OpenMM library for molecular mechanics modeling. GaussVol is 50 to 100 times faster than our best optimized implementation for the CPUs, achieving speeds in excess of 100 ns/day with 1 fs time-step for protein-sized systems on commodity GPUs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. PDB_Hydro: incorporating dipolar solvents with variable density in the Poisson-Boltzmann treatment of macromolecule electrostatics.

    PubMed

    Azuara, Cyril; Lindahl, Erik; Koehl, Patrice; Orland, Henri; Delarue, Marc

    2006-07-01

    We describe a new way to calculate the electrostatic properties of macromolecules which eliminates the assumption of a constant dielectric value in the solvent region, resulting in a Generalized Poisson-Boltzmann-Langevin equation (GPBLE). We have implemented a web server (http://lorentz.immstr.pasteur.fr/pdb_hydro.php) that both numerically solves this equation and uses the resulting water density profiles to place water molecules at preferred sites of hydration. Surface atoms with high or low hydration preference can be easily displayed using a simple PyMol script, allowing for the tentative prediction of the dimerization interface in homodimeric proteins, or lipid binding regions in membrane proteins. The web site includes options that permit mutations in the sequence as well as reconstruction of missing side chain and/or main chain atoms. These tools are accessible independently from the electrostatics calculation, and can be used for other modeling purposes. We expect this web server to be useful to structural biologists, as the knowledge of solvent density should prove useful to get better fits at low resolution for X-ray diffraction data and to computational biologists, for whom these profiles could improve the calculation of interaction energies in water between ligands and receptors in docking simulations.

  9. Permeation of macromolecules into the renal glomerular basement membrane and capture by the tubules

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Marlon G.; Altenburg, Michael K.; Sanford, Ryan; Willett, Julian D.; Bleasdale, Benjamin; Ballou, Byron; Wilder, Jennifer; Li, Feng; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Berg, Ulla B.; Smithies, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    How the kidney prevents urinary excretion of plasma proteins continues to be debated. Here, using unfixed whole-mount mouse kidneys, we show that fluorescent-tagged proteins and neutral dextrans permeate into the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), in general agreement with Ogston's 1958 equation describing how permeation into gels is related to molecular size. Electron-microscopic analyses of kidneys fixed seconds to hours after injecting gold-tagged albumin, negatively charged gold nanoparticles, and stable oligoclusters of gold nanoparticles show that permeation into the lamina densa of the GBM is size-sensitive. Nanoparticles comparable in size with IgG dimers do not permeate into it. IgG monomer-sized particles permeate to some extent. Albumin-sized particles permeate extensively into the lamina densa. Particles traversing the lamina densa tend to accumulate upstream of the podocyte glycocalyx that spans the slit, but none are observed upstream of the slit diaphragm. At low concentrations, ovalbumin-sized nanoparticles reach the primary filtrate, are captured by proximal tubule cells, and are endocytosed. At higher concentrations, tubular capture is saturated, and they reach the urine. In mouse models of Pierson’s or Alport’s proteinuric syndromes resulting from defects in GBM structural proteins (laminin β2 or collagen α3 IV), the GBM is irregularly swollen, the lamina densa is absent, and permeation is increased. Our observations indicate that size-dependent permeation into the lamina densa of the GBM and the podocyte glycocalyx, together with saturable tubular capture, determines which macromolecules reach the urine without the need to invoke direct size selection by the slit diaphragm. PMID:28246329

  10. One-pot synthesis of star-shaped macromolecules containing polyglycidol and poly(ethylene oxide) arms.

    PubMed

    Lapienis, Grzegorz; Penczek, Stanislaw

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of fully hydrophilic star-shaped macromolecules with different kinds of arms (A(x)B(y)C(z)) based on polyglycidol (PGL, A(x)) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO, C(z)) arms and diepoxy compounds (diglycidyl ethers of ethylene glycol (DGEG) or neopentyl glycol (DGNG) in the core, B(y)) forming the core is described. Precursors of arms were prepared by polymerization of glycidol with protected -OH groups. The first-generation stars were formed in the series of consecutive-parallel reactions of arms A(x) with diepoxy compounds (B). These first-generation stars (A(x)B(y)), having approximately O-, Mt+ groups on the cores, were used as multianionic initiators for the second generation of arms (C(z)) built by polymerization of ethylene oxide. The products with M(n) up to 10(5) and having up to approximately 40 arms were obtained. The number of arms (f) was determined by direct measurements of M(n) of the first-generation stars (M(n) of arms A(x) is known), compared with f calculated from the branching index g, determined from R(g) measured with size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) triple detection with TriSEC software. The progress of the star formation was monitored by 1H NMR and SEC. These novel water-soluble stars, having a large number of hydroxyl groups, both at the ends of PEO arms as well as within the PGL arms, can be functionalized and further used for attaching compounds of interest. This approach opens, therefore, a new way of "multiPEGylation".

  11. The role of the extracellular matrix in tissue distribution of macromolecules in normal and pathological tissues: potential therapeutic consequences.

    PubMed

    Wiig, Helge; Gyenge, Christina; Iversen, Per Ole; Gullberg, Donald; Tenstad, Olav

    2008-05-01

    The interstitial space is a dynamic microenvironment that consists of interstitial fluid and structural molecules of the extracellular matrix, such as glycosaminoglycans (hyaluronan and proteoglycans) and collagen. Macromolecules can distribute in the interstitium only in those spaces unoccupied by structural components, a phenomenon called interstitial exclusion. The exclusion phenomenon has direct consequences for plasma volume regulation. Early studies have assigned a major role to collagen as an excluding agent that accounts for the sterical (geometrical) exclusion. More recently, it has been shown that the contribution of negatively charged glycosaminoglycans might also be significant, resulting in an additional electrostatical exclusion effect. This charge effect may be of importance for drug uptake and suggests that either the glycosaminoglycans or the net charge of macromolecular substances to be delivered may be targeted to increase the available volume and uptake of macromolecular therapeutic agents in tumor tissue. Here, we provide an overview of the structural components of the interstitium and discuss the importance the sterical and electrostatical components have on the dynamics of transcapillary fluid exchange.

  12. Detection of Macromolecules in Desert Cyanobacteria Mixed with a Lunar Mineral Analogue After Space Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baqué, Mickael; Verseux, Cyprien; Rabbow, Elke; de Vera, Jean-Pierre Paul; Billi, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    In the context of future exposure missions in Low Earth Orbit and possibly on the Moon, two desert strains of the cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis, strains CCMEE 029 and 057, mixed or not with a lunar mineral analogue, were exposed to fractionated fluencies of UVC and polychromatic UV (200-400 nm) and to space vacuum. These experiments were carried out within the framework of the BIOMEX (BIOlogy and Mars EXperiment) project, which aims at broadening our knowledge of mineral-microorganism interaction and the stability/degradation of their macromolecules when exposed to space and simulated Martian conditions. The presence of mineral analogues provided a protective effect, preserving survivability and integrity of DNA and photosynthetic pigments, as revealed by testing colony-forming abilities, performing PCR-based assays and using confocal laser scanning microscopy. In particular, DNA and pigments were still detectable after 500 kJ/m2 of polychromatic UV and space vacuum (10-4 Pa), corresponding to conditions expected during one-year exposure in Low Earth Orbit on board the EXPOSE-R2 platform in the presence of 0.1 % Neutral Density (ND) filter. After exposure to high UV fluencies (800 MJ/m2) in the presence of minerals, however, altered fluorescence emission spectrum of the photosynthetic pigments were detected, whereas DNA was still amplified by PCR. The present paper considers the implications of such findings for the detection of biosignatures in extraterrestrial conditions and for putative future lunar missions.

  13. Detection of macromolecules in desert cyanobacteria mixed with a lunar mineral analogue after space simulations.

    PubMed

    Baqué, Mickael; Verseux, Cyprien; Rabbow, Elke; de Vera, Jean-Pierre Paul; Billi, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    In the context of future exposure missions in Low Earth Orbit and possibly on the Moon, two desert strains of the cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis, strains CCMEE 029 and 057, mixed or not with a lunar mineral analogue, were exposed to fractionated fluencies of UVC and polychromatic UV (200-400 nm) and to space vacuum. These experiments were carried out within the framework of the BIOMEX (BIOlogy and Mars EXperiment) project, which aims at broadening our knowledge of mineral-microorganism interaction and the stability/degradation of their macromolecules when exposed to space and simulated Martian conditions. The presence of mineral analogues provided a protective effect, preserving survivability and integrity of DNA and photosynthetic pigments, as revealed by testing colony-forming abilities, performing PCR-based assays and using confocal laser scanning microscopy. In particular, DNA and pigments were still detectable after 500 kJ/m(2) of polychromatic UV and space vacuum (10(-4) Pa), corresponding to conditions expected during one-year exposure in Low Earth Orbit on board the EXPOSE-R2 platform in the presence of 0.1 % Neutral Density (ND) filter. After exposure to high UV fluencies (800 MJ/m(2)) in the presence of minerals, however, altered fluorescence emission spectrum of the photosynthetic pigments were detected, whereas DNA was still amplified by PCR. The present paper considers the implications of such findings for the detection of biosignatures in extraterrestrial conditions and for putative future lunar missions.

  14. FUNCTION OF PHLOEM-BORNE INFORMATION MACROMOLECULES IN INTEGRATING PLANT GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    William J. Lucas

    2012-11-12

    Studies on higher plants have revealed the operation of cell-to-cell and long-distance communication networks that mediate the transport of information macromolecules, such as proteins and RNA. Based on the findings from this DOE-funded project and results from other groups, it is now well established that the enucleate sieve tube system of the angiosperms contains a complex set of proteins including RNA binding proteins as well as a unique population of RNA molecules, comprised of both mRNA and small RNA species. Hetero-grafting experiments demonstrated that delivery of such RNA molecules, into the scion, is highly correlated with changes in developmental phenotypes.more » Furthermore, over the course of this project, our studies showed that plasmodesmata and the phloem are intimately involved in the local and systemic spread of sequence-specific signals that underlie gene silencing in plants. Major advances were also made in elucidating the underlying mechanisms that operate to mediate the selective entry and exit of proteins and RNA into and out of the phloem translocation stream. Our pioneering studies identified the first plant protein with the capacity to both bind specifically to small RNA molecules (si-RNA) and mediate in the cell-to-cell movement of such siRNA. Importantly, studies conducted with support from this DOE program also yielded a detailed characterization of the first phloem-mobile RNP complex isolated from pumpkin, namely the CmRBP50-RNP complex. This RNP complex was shown to bind, in a sequence-specific manner, to a set of transcripts encoding for transcription factors. The remarkable stability of this CmRBP50-RNP complex allows for long-distance delivery of bound transcripts from mature leaves into developing tissues and organs. Knowledge gained from this project can be used to exert control over the long-distance signaling networks used by plants to integrate their physiological and developmental programs at a whole plant level. Eventually

  15. Formation of macromolecules in wheat gluten/starch mixtures during twin-screw extrusion: effect of different additives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaiqiang; Li, Cheng; Wang, Bingzhi; Yang, Wen; Luo, Shuizhong; Zhao, Yanyan; Jiang, Shaotong; Mu, Dongdong; Zheng, Zhi

    2017-12-01

    Wheat gluten comprises a good quality and inexpensive vegetable protein with an ideal amino acid composition. To expand the potential application of wheat gluten in the food industry, the effect of different additives on the physicochemical and structural properties of wheat gluten/starch mixtures during twin-screw extrusion was investigated. Macromolecules were observed to form in wheat gluten/starch mixtures during twin-screw extrusion, which may be attributed to the formation of new disulfide bonds and non-covalent interactions, as well as Maillard reaction products. Additionally, the water retention capacity and in vitro protein digestibility of all extruded wheat gluten/starch products significantly increased, whereas the nitrogen solubility index and free sulfhydryl group (SH) content decreased, during twin-screw extrusion. Secondary structural analysis showed that α-helices disappeared with the concomitant increase of antiparallel β-sheets, demonstrating the occurrence of protein aggregation. Microstructures suggested that the irregular wheat gluten granular structure was disrupted, with additive addition favoring transformation into a more layered or fibrous structure during twin-screw extrusion. The findings of the present study demonstrate that extrusion might affect the texture and quality of extruded wheat gluten-based foods and suggest that this process might serve as a basis for the high-value application of wheat gluten products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Modeling Reactivity to Biological Macromolecules with a Deep Multitask Network

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    -level, the model’s performances significantly outperformed reactivity indices derived from quantum simulations that are reported in the literature. Moreover, we developed and applied a selectivity score to assess preferential reactions with the macromolecules as opposed to the common screening traps. For the entire data set of 2803 molecules, this approach yielded totals of 257 (9.2%) and 227 (8.1%) molecules predicted to be reactive only with DNA and protein, respectively, and hence those that would be missed by standard reactivity screening experiments. Site of reactivity data is an underutilized resource that can be used to not only predict if molecules are reactive, but also show where they might be modified to reduce toxicity while retaining efficacy. The XenoSite reactivity model is available at http://swami.wustl.edu/xenosite/p/reactivity. PMID:27610414

  17. Macromolecule simulation and CH4 adsorption mechanism of coal vitrinite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Song; Yan-ming, Zhu; Wu, Li

    2017-02-01

    The microscopic mechanism of interactions between CH4 and coal macromolecules is of significant practical and theoretical importance in CBM development and methane storage. Under periodic boundary conditions, the optimal energy configuration of coal vitrinite, which has a higher torsion degree and tighter arrangement, can be determined by the calculation of molecular mechanics (MM) and molecular dynamics (MD), and annealing kinetics simulation based on ultimate analysis, 13C NMR, FT IR and HRTEM. Macromolecular stabilization is primarily due to the van der Waals energy and covalent bond energy, mainly consisting of bond torsion energy and bond angle energy. Using the optimal configuration as the adsorbent, GCMC simulation of vitrinite adsorption of CH4 is conducted. A saturated state is reached after absorbing 17 CH4s per coal vitrinite molecule. CH4 is preferentially adsorbed on the edge, and inclined to gathering around the branched chains of the inner vitrinite sites. Finally, the adsorption parameters are calculated through first principle DFT. The adsorbability order is as follows: aromatic structure> heteroatom rings > oxygen functional groups. The adsorption energy order is as follows: Top < Bond < Center, Up < Down. The order of average RDF better reflects the adsorption ability and that of [-COOH] is lower than those of [sbnd Cdbnd O] and [Csbnd Osbnd C]. CH4 distributed in the distance of 0.99-16 Å to functional groups in the type of monolayer adsorption and the average distance order manifest as [sbnd Cdbnd O] (1.64 Å) < [Csbnd Osbnd C] (1.89 Å) < [sbnd COOH] (3.78 Å) < [-CH3] (4.11 Å) according to the average RDF curves. CH4 enriches around [sbnd Cdbnd O] and [Csbnd O-C] whereas is rather dispersed about [-COOH] and [CH3]. Simulation and experiment data are both in strong agreement with the Langmuir and D-A isothermal adsorption model and the D-A model fit better than Langmuir model. Preferential adsorption sites and orientations in vitrinite are

  18. Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (EW-CRDS) as a probe of macromolecule adsorption kinetics at functionalized interfaces.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Michael A; de Cuendias, Anne; Gayet, Florence; Shirley, Ian M; Mackenzie, Stuart R; Haddleton, David M; Unwin, Patrick R

    2012-05-01

    Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (EW-CRDS) has been employed to study the interfacial adsorption kinetics of coumarin-tagged macromolecules onto a range of functionalized planar surfaces. Such studies are valuable in designing polymers for complex systems where the degree of interaction between the polymer and surface needs to be tailored. Three tagged synthetic polymers with different functionalities are examined: poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(3-sulfopropyl methacrylate, potassium salt) (PSPMA), and a mannose-modified glycopolymer. Adsorption transients at the silica/water interface are found to be characteristic for each polymer, and kinetics are deduced from the initial rates. The chemistry of the adsorption interfaces has been varied by, first, manipulation of silica surface chemistry via the bulk pH, followed by surfaces modified by poly(L-glutamic acid) (PGA) and cellulose, giving five chemically different surfaces. Complementary atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging has been used for additional surface characterization of adsorbed layers and functionalized interfaces to allow adsorption rates to be interpreted more fully. Adsorption rates for PSPMA and the glycopolymer are seen to be highly surface sensitive, with significantly higher rates on cellulose-modified surfaces, whereas PAA shows a much smaller rate dependence on the nature of the adsorption surface.

  19. Amelioration of oxidative stress in bio-membranes and macromolecules by non-toxic dye from Morinda tinctoria (Roxb.) roots.

    PubMed

    Bhakta, Dipita; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2012-06-01

    Plant dyes have been in use for coloring and varied purposes since prehistoric times. A red dye found in the roots of plants belonging to genus Morinda is a well recognized coloring ingredient. The dye fraction obtained from the methanolic extract of the roots of Morinda tinctoria was explored for its role in attenuating damages caused by H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress. The antioxidant potential of the dye fraction was assessed through DPPH radical scavenging, deoxyribose degradation and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in mice liver. It was subsequently screened for its efficiency in extenuating damage incurred to biomembrane (using erythrocytes and their ghost membranes) and macromolecules (pBR322 DNA, lipids and proteins) from exposure to hydrogen peroxide. In addition, the non-toxic nature of the dye was supported by the histological evaluation conducted on the tissue sections from the major organs of Swiss Albino mice as well as effect on Hep3B cell line (human hepatic carcinoma). The LC-MS confirms the dye fraction to be morindone. Our study strongly suggests that morindone present in the root extracts of M. tinctoria, in addition to being a colorant, definitely holds promise in the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantifying Glomerular Permeability of Fluorescent Macromolecules Using 2-Photon Microscopy in Munich Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Ruben M.; Molitoris, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Kidney diseases involving urinary loss of large essential macromolecules, such as serum albumin, have long been thought to be caused by alterations in the permeability barrier comprised of podocytes, vascular endothelial cells, and a basement membrane working in unison. Data from our laboratory using intravital 2-photon microscopy revealed a more permeable glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) than previously thought under physiologic conditions, with retrieval of filtered albumin occurring in an early subset of cells called proximal tubule cells (PTC)1,2,3. Previous techniques used to study renal filtration and establishing the characteristic of the filtration barrier involved micropuncture of the lumen of these early tubular segments with sampling of the fluid content and analysis4. These studies determined albumin concentration in the luminal fluid to be virtually non-existent; corresponding closely to what is normally detected in the urine. However, characterization of dextran polymers with defined sizes by this technique revealed those of a size similar to serum albumin had higher levels in the tubular lumen and urine; suggesting increased permeability5. Herein is a detailed outline of the technique used to directly visualize and quantify glomerular fluorescent albumin permeability in vivo. This method allows for detection of filtered albumin across the filtration barrier into Bowman's space (the initial chamber of urinary filtration); and also allows quantification of albumin reabsorption by proximal tubules and visualization of subsequent albumin transcytosis6. The absence of fluorescent albumin along later tubular segments en route to the bladder highlights the efficiency of the retrieval pathway in the earlier proximal tubule segments. Moreover, when this technique was applied to determine permeability of dextrans having a similar size to albumin virtually identical permeability values were reported2. These observations directly support the need to expand

  1. A simple model for electrical charge in globular macromolecules and linear polyelectrolytes in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, M.

    2017-05-01

    We present a model for calculating the net and effective electrical charge of globular macromolecules and linear polyelectrolytes such as proteins and DNA, given the concentration of monovalent salt and pH in solution. The calculation is based on a numerical solution of the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation using a finite element discretized continuum approach. The model simultaneously addresses the phenomena of charge regulation and renormalization, both of which underpin the electrostatics of biomolecules in solution. We show that while charge regulation addresses the true electrical charge of a molecule arising from the acid-base equilibria of its ionizable groups, charge renormalization finds relevance in the context of a molecule's interaction with another charged entity. Writing this electrostatic interaction free energy in terms of a local electrical potential, we obtain an "interaction charge" for the molecule which we demonstrate agrees closely with the "effective charge" discussed in charge renormalization and counterion-condensation theories. The predictions of this model agree well with direct high-precision measurements of effective electrical charge of polyelectrolytes such as nucleic acids and disordered proteins in solution, without tunable parameters. Including the effective interior dielectric constant for compactly folded molecules as a tunable parameter, the model captures measurements of effective charge as well as published trends of pKa shifts in globular proteins. Our results suggest a straightforward general framework to model electrostatics in biomolecules in solution. In offering a platform that directly links theory and experiment, these calculations could foster a systematic understanding of the interrelationship between molecular 3D structure and conformation, electrical charge and electrostatic interactions in solution. The model could find particular relevance in situations where molecular crystal structures are not available or

  2. Fabrication of a novel biosensor for macromolecules detection through molecular imprinting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yingjie

    There is an increasing need for precise molecular detection as a diagnostic tool for early identification of diseases, pathogens, and abnormal protein levels in the body. Typical chemical analytical methods are generally costly, unstable, and time-consuming. Molecular imprinting (MI) technique, based on the "lock and key model", could be a simple method to overcome those shortcomings. In this study, a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was employed as a platform to fabricate MI biosensor for detection of macromolecules. I demonstrated that, when the monolayer was formed on a rough surface, this method was in fact templating molecules in three dimensions, and hence was not limited by the height of the monolayer, but rather by the height of the roughness. This hypothesis was tested on biomolecules of multiple length scales. The SAM is assembled on the walls of the niche, forming a 3D pattern of the analyte uniquely molded to its contour. The surfaces with multi-scale roughness were prepared by evaporation of gold onto electropolished (smooth) and unpolished (rough) Si wafers, where the native roughness was found to have a normal distribution centered around 5 and 90 nm respectively. Our studies, using molecules, such as proteins, i.e., hemoglobin, ranging from a few nanometers, to viruses (i.e. polio, adenovirus), ranging from several tens of nanometers, and protein complexes ranging from several hundred nanometers, showed that when the size of the analyte matched the roughness of the gold surface, this method was very effective and could detect even small changes in the configuration, such as those induced by changes in the pH of the system. The detection method was further quantified by applying it to the detection of CEA in pancreatic cyst fluid obtained from 18 patients under IRB 95867-6. The results of the MI biosensor were directly compared with those obtained using ELISA in the hospital pathology laboratory with excellent agreement, except that the MI biosensor

  3. Investigation of the optical properties of novel organic macromolecules for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegoke, Oluwasegun Oluwasina

    The search for renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuel has been a major research focus in the energy sector. The sun, with its vast amount of energy, remains the most abundant and ubiquitous energy source that far exceeds the world energy demand. The ability to effectively capture and convert energy from the sun in the form of photons will be the key to its effective utilization. Organic macromolecules have tremendous potentials to replace and out-perform existing materials, due to their low-cost, ease of tunability, high absorption coefficient and "green" nature. In this dissertation, spectroscopic techniques of steady state absorption and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy were used to show the improved absorption of the oligothiophene-functionalized ZnPc through ultrafast energy transfer. ZnPc is known for its chemical and thermal stability. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) in ZnPc-based solar devices is however, very low because of the poor absorption of ZnPc in the 300 - 550 nm region of the solar spectrum. Oligothiophenes have good absorption in the spectral region where the absorption of ZnPc is poor. Other groups of organic compounds that have gained prominence in the study for the design of efficient active materials for photovoltaic cells are the polymers. In the dissertation, different factors which can affect the performance of organic polymers in photovoltaics systems were investigated and analyzed. The effects of the alteration of conjugation, donor-acceptor groups, heteroatoms and alkyl side chains on the photophysical properties and ultimately the performance of organic polymers in organic photovoltaics were investigated. The different effects were investigated using ultrafast spectroscopic techniques which are capable of providing insight of fluorescence decay dynamics at very short times in a time scale of femtosecond. The electronic structure calculations of the polymers were carried out to provide further evidence to the

  4. Enkephalinase inhibitors potentiate tackykinin-induced release of /sup 35/SO/sub 4/-labeled macromolecules from ferret trachea

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Borson, D.B.; Gold, M.; Varsano, S.

    1986-03-01

    To study the roles of tachykinins and endogenous proteinases in regulating secretion from ferret tracheal glands, the authors measured the release of /sup 35/SO/sub 4/-labeled macromolecules after incubating segments of trachea in Ussing chambers in the presence of /sup 35/SO/sub 4/. 85% of the total macromolecular radioactivity was in fractions of molecular weights greater than or equal to 10/sup 6/. The response to substance P (SP) was concentration-dependent, with a threshold of 10/sup -9/ M, and responses to 10/sup -6/M and 10/sup -5/M of 87 +/- 9 and 156 +/- 26 pmol/cm/sup 2//h, respectively (n = 6 ea). The enkephalinasemore » inhibitor, thiorphan, increased the secretory response to SP (10/sup -6/M) in a concentration-dependent fashion, with a threshold of 10/sup -8/M, and a response to SP after 10/sup -4/M thiorphan of 268 +/- 58 pmol/cm/sup 2//h (p < 0.05; n = 6). Phosphoramidon also increased SP-induced secretion to 334 +/- 69 pmol/cm/sup 2//h (p < 0.005; n = 4), and also potentiated the secretory responses to neurokinins A and B, physalaemin, eledoisin, and kassinin, but did not potentiate the secretory responses to either bradykinin or vasoactive intestinal peptide. Other proteinase inhibitors did not potentiate SP-induced secretion. These results suggest that enkephalinase in the airway degrades tachykinins, and may therefore play a role in regulating tachykinin-induced effects.« less

  5. Upgrade of MacCHESS facility for X-ray scattering of biological macromolecules in solution

    PubMed Central

    Acerbo, Alvin Samuel; Cook, Michael J.; Gillilan, Richard Edward

    2015-01-01

    X-ray scattering of biological macromolecules in solution is an increasingly popular tool for structural biology and benefits greatly from modern high-brightness synchrotron sources. The upgraded MacCHESS BioSAXS station is now located at the 49-pole wiggler beamline G1. The 20-fold improved flux over the previous beamline F2 provides higher sample throughput and autonomous X-ray scattering data collection using a unique SAXS/WAXS dual detectors configuration. This setup achieves a combined q-range from 0.007 to 0.7 Å−1, enabling better characterization of smaller molecules, while opening opportunities for emerging wide-angle scattering methods. In addition, a facility upgrade of the positron storage ring to continuous top-up mode has improved beam stability and eliminated beam drift over the course of typical BioSAXS experiments. Single exposure times have been reduced to 2 s for 3.560 mg ml−1 lysozyme with an average quality factor I/σ of 20 in the Guinier region. A novel disposable plastic sample cell design that incorporates lower background X-ray window material provides users with a more pristine sample environment than previously available. Systematic comparisons of common X-ray window materials bonded to the cell have also been extended to the wide-angle regime, offering new insight into best choices for various q-space ranges. In addition, a quantitative assessment of signal-to-noise levels has been performed on the station to allow users to estimate necessary exposure times for obtaining usable signals in the Guinier regime. Users also have access to a new BioSAXS sample preparation laboratory which houses essential wet-chemistry equipment and biophysical instrumentation. User experiments at the upgraded BioSAXS station have been on-going since commissioning of the beamline in Summer 2013. A planned upgrade of the G1 insertion device to an undulator for the Winter 2014 cycle is expected to further improve flux by an order of magnitude. PMID

  6. The interstitial distribution of macromolecules in rat tumours is influenced by the negatively charged matrix components

    PubMed Central

    Wiig, Helge; Gyenge, Christina C; Tenstad, Olav

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of macromolecular distribution volumes is essential in understanding fluid transport within normal and pathological tissues. In this study in vivo we determined the distribution volumes of several macromolecules, including one monoclonal antibody, in tumours and tested whether charges associated with the tumour extracellular matrix influence their available volumes. Steady state levels of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) (pI = 9.2), IgG (pI = 7.6) as well as native (pI = 5.0) and cationized albumin (pI = 7.6) were established in rats bearing dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumours by continuous infusion using osmotic minipumps. After a 5–7 day infusion period, the rats were nephrectomized and the extracellular volume was determined with 51Cr-labelled EDTA. Plasma volumes were measured with 125I-labelled human serum albumin or rat IgM in a separate series. Steady state concentrations of probes were determined in the interstitial fluid that was isolated by centrifugation from tumours or by post mortem wick implantation in the back skin. Calculations were made for interstitial fluid volume (Vi), along with the available (Va/Vi) and excluded (Ve/Vi) relative interstitial volume fractions. The Ve/Vi for the positively charged trastuzumab in tumours averaged 0.29 ± 0.03 (n = 16), a value which was significantly lower than the corresponding one for IgG of 0.36 ± 0.02 (n = 16). Native albumin was excluded from 38% of the tumour interstitial fluid, whereas cationization of albumin reduced the excluded volume by ∼50%. Our experiments suggest that the tumour interstitium acts as a negatively charged matrix and is an important factor in determining the macromolecular distribution volume. PMID:15994186

  7. The interstitial distribution of macromolecules in rat tumours is influenced by the negatively charged matrix components.

    PubMed

    Wiig, Helge; Gyenge, Christina C; Tenstad, Olav

    2005-09-01

    Knowledge of macromolecular distribution volumes is essential in understanding fluid transport within normal and pathological tissues. In this study in vivo we determined the distribution volumes of several macromolecules, including one monoclonal antibody, in tumours and tested whether charges associated with the tumour extracellular matrix influence their available volumes. Steady state levels of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) (pI = 9.2), IgG (pI = 7.6) as well as native (pI = 5.0) and cationized albumin (pI = 7.6) were established in rats bearing dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumours by continuous infusion using osmotic minipumps. After a 5-7 day infusion period, the rats were nephrectomized and the extracellular volume was determined with 51Cr-labelled EDTA. Plasma volumes were measured with 125I-labelled human serum albumin or rat IgM in a separate series. Steady state concentrations of probes were determined in the interstitial fluid that was isolated by centrifugation from tumours or by post mortem wick implantation in the back skin. Calculations were made for interstitial fluid volume (Vi), along with the available (Va/Vi) and excluded (Ve/Vi) relative interstitial volume fractions. The Ve/Vi for the positively charged trastuzumab in tumours averaged 0.29 +/- 0.03 (n = 16), a value which was significantly lower than the corresponding one for IgG of 0.36 +/- 0.02 (n = 16). Native albumin was excluded from 38% of the tumour interstitial fluid, whereas cationization of albumin reduced the excluded volume by approximately 50%. Our experiments suggest that the tumour interstitium acts as a negatively charged matrix and is an important factor in determining the macromolecular distribution volume.

  8. Perspectives in biological physics: the nDDB project for a neutron Dynamics Data Bank for biological macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Rusevich, Leonid; García Sakai, Victoria; Franzetti, Bruno; Johnson, Mark; Natali, Francesca; Pellegrini, Eric; Peters, Judith; Pieper, Jörg; Weik, Martin; Zaccai, Giuseppe

    2013-07-01

    Neutron spectroscopy provides experimental data on time-dependent trajectories, which can be directly compared to molecular dynamics simulations. Its importance in helping us to understand biological macromolecules at a molecular level is demonstrated by the results of a literature survey over the last two to three decades. Around 300 articles in refereed journals relate to neutron scattering studies of biological macromolecular dynamics, and the results of the survey are presented here. The scope of the publications ranges from the general physics of protein and solvent dynamics, to the biologically relevant dynamics-function relationships in live cells. As a result of the survey we are currently setting up a neutron Dynamics Data Bank (nDDB) with the aim to make the neutron data on biological systems widely available. This will benefit, in particular, the MD simulation community to validate and improve their force fields. The aim of the database is to expose and give easy access to a body of experimental data to the scientific community. The database will be populated with as much of the existing data as possible. In the future it will give value, as part of a bigger whole, to high throughput data, as well as more detailed studies. A range and volume of experimental data will be of interest in determining how quantitatively MD simulations can reproduce trends across a range of systems and to what extent such trends may depend on sample preparation and data reduction and analysis methods. In this context, we strongly encourage researchers in the field to deposit their data in the nDDB.

  9. Simulation Studies of LCST-like Phase Transitions in Elastin-like Polypeptides (ELPs) and Conjugates of ELP with Rigid Macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, Joshua; Martin, Tyler; Jayaraman, Arthi

    We use atomistic (AA) and coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the thermodynamic driving forces governing lower critical solution temperature (LCST)-like phase transition exhibited by elastin-like peptides (ELPs) and conjugates of ELP with other macromolecules. In the AA simulations, we study ELP oligomers in explicit water, and mark the transition as the temperature at which they undergo a change in ``hydration'' state. While AA simulations are restricted to small systems of short ELPs and do not capture the chain aggregation observed in experiments of ELPs, they guide the phenomenological CG model development by highlighting the solvent induced polymer-polymer effective interactions with changing temperature. In the CG simulations, we capture the LCST polymer aggregation by increasing polymer-polymer effective attractive interactions in an implicit solvent. We examine the impact of conjugating a block of LCST polymer to another rigid unresponsive macromolecular block on the LCST-like transition. We find that when multiple LCST polymers are conjugated to a rigid polymer block, increased crowding of the LCST polymers shifts the onset of chain aggregation to smaller effective polymer-polymer attraction compared to the free LCST polymers. These simulation results provide guidance on the design of conjugated bio-mimetic thermoresponsive materials, and shape the fundamental understanding of the impact of polymer crowding on phase behavior in thermoresponsive LCST polymer systems.

  10. Regulation of protein multipoint adsorption on ion-exchange adsorbent and its application to the purification of macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongdong; Bi, Jingxiu; Zhao, Lan; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2010-12-01

    Ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) using commercial ionic absorbents is a widely used technique for protein purification. Protein adsorption onto ion-exchange adsorbents often involves a multipoint adsorption. In IEC of multimeric proteins or "soft" proteins, the intense multipoint binding would make the further desorption difficult, even lead to the destruction of protein structure and the loss of its biological activity. In this paper, DEAE Sepharose FF adsorbents with controllable ligand densities from 0.020 to 0.183 mmol/ml were synthesized, and then the effect of ligand density on the static ion-exchange adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto DEAE Sepharose FF was studied by batch adsorption technique. Steric mass-action (SMA) model was employed to analyze the static adsorption behavior. The results showed that the SMA model parameters, equilibrium constant (K(a)), characteristic number of binding sites (υ) and steric factor (σ), increased gradually with ligand density. Thus, it was feasible to regulate BSA multipoint adsorption by modulating the ligand density of ion-exchange adsorbent. Furthermore, IEC of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using DEAE Sepharose FF adsorbents with different ligand densities was carried out, and the activity recovery of HBsAg was improved from 42% to 67% when the ligand density was decreased from 0.183 to 0.020 mmol/ml. Taking the activity recovery of HBsAg, the purification factor and the binding capacity into account, DEAE Sepharose FF with a ligand density of 0.041 mmol/ml was most effective for the purification of HBsAg. Such a strategy may also be beneficial for the purification of macromolecules and multimeric proteins. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of torrefaction temperature on lignin macromolecule and product distribution from HZSM-5 catalytic pyrolysis

    DOE PAGES

    Mahadevan, Ravishankar; Adhikari, Sushil; Shakya, Rajdeep; ...

    2016-10-27

    Torrefaction is a low-temperature process considered as an effective pretreatment technique to improve the grindability of biomass as well as enhance the production of aromatic hydrocarbons from Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis (CFP). For this paper, this study was performed to understand the effect of torrefaction temperature on structural changes in the lignin macromolecule and its subsequent influence on in-situ CFP process. Lignin extracted from southern pine and switchgrass (via organosolv treatment) was torrefied at four different temperatures (150, 175, 200 and 225 °C) in a tubular reactor. Between the two biomass types studied, lignin from pine appeared to have greater thermalmore » stability during torrefaction when compared with switchgrass lignin. The structural changes in lignin as a result of torrefaction were followed by using FTIR spectroscopy, solid state CP/MAS 13C NMR, 31P NMR spectroscopy and it was found that higher torrefaction temperature (200 and 225 °C) caused polycondensation and de-methoxylation of the aromatic units of lignin. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that polycondensation during torrefaction resulted in an increase in the molecular weight and polydispersity of lignin. The torrefied lignin was subsequently used in CFP experiments using H +ZSM-5 catalyst in a micro-reactor (Py-GC/MS) to understand the effect of torrefaction on the product distribution from pyrolysis. It was observed that although the selectivity of benzene-toluene-xylene compounds from CFP of pine improved from 58.3% (torrefaction temp at 150 °C) to 69.0% (torrefaction temp at 225 °C), the severity of torrefaction resulted in a loss of overall aromatic hydrocarbon yield from 11.6% to 4.9% under same conditions. Torrefaction at higher temperatures also increased the yield of carbonaceous residues from 63.9% to 72.8%. Finally, overall, torrefying lignin caused structural transformations in both type of lignins (switchgrass and pine), which is ultimately

  12. Hindered transport of macromolecules in isolated glomeruli. II. Convection and pressure effects in basement membrane.

    PubMed

    Edwards, A; Daniels, B S; Deen, W M

    1997-01-01

    The filtration rates for water and a polydisperse mixture of Ficoll across films of isolated glomerular basement membrane (GBM) were measured to characterize convective transport across this part of the glomerular capillary wall. Glomeruli were isolated from rat kidneys and the cells were removed by detergent lysis, leaving a preparation containing almost pure GBM that could be consolidated into a layer at the base of a small ultrafiltration cell. A Ficoll mixture with Stokes-Einstein radii ranging from about 2.0 to 7.0 nm was labeled with fluorescein, providing a set of rigid, spherical test macromolecules with little molecular charge. Filtration experiments were performed at two physiologically relevant hydraulic pressure differences (delta P), 35 and 60 mmHg. The sieving coefficient (filtrate-to-retentate concentration ratio) for a given size of Ficoll tended to be larger at 35 than at 60 mmHg, the changes being greater for the smaller molecules. The Darcy permeability also varied inversely with pressure, averaging 1.48 +/- 0.10 nm2 at 35 mmHg and 0.82 +/- 0.07 nm2 at 60 mmHg. Both effects could be explained most simply by postulating that the intrinsic permeability properties of the GBM change in response to compression. The sieving data were consistent with linear declines in the hindrance factors for convection and diffusion with increasing pressure, and correlations were derived to relate those hindrance factors to molecular size and delta P. Comparisons with previous Ficoll sieving data for rats in vivo suggest that the GBM is less size-restrictive than the cell layers, but that its contribution to the overall size selectivity of the barrier is not negligible. Theoretical predictions of the Darcy permeability based on a model in which the GBM is a random fibrous network consisting of two populations of fibers were in excellent agreement with the present data and with ultrastructural observations in the literature.

  13. Effect of torrefaction temperature on lignin macromolecule and product distribution from HZSM-5 catalytic pyrolysis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mahadevan, Ravishankar; Adhikari, Sushil; Shakya, Rajdeep

    Torrefaction is a low-temperature process considered as an effective pretreatment technique to improve the grindability of biomass as well as enhance the production of aromatic hydrocarbons from Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis (CFP). For this paper, this study was performed to understand the effect of torrefaction temperature on structural changes in the lignin macromolecule and its subsequent influence on in-situ CFP process. Lignin extracted from southern pine and switchgrass (via organosolv treatment) was torrefied at four different temperatures (150, 175, 200 and 225 °C) in a tubular reactor. Between the two biomass types studied, lignin from pine appeared to have greater thermalmore » stability during torrefaction when compared with switchgrass lignin. The structural changes in lignin as a result of torrefaction were followed by using FTIR spectroscopy, solid state CP/MAS 13C NMR, 31P NMR spectroscopy and it was found that higher torrefaction temperature (200 and 225 °C) caused polycondensation and de-methoxylation of the aromatic units of lignin. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that polycondensation during torrefaction resulted in an increase in the molecular weight and polydispersity of lignin. The torrefied lignin was subsequently used in CFP experiments using H +ZSM-5 catalyst in a micro-reactor (Py-GC/MS) to understand the effect of torrefaction on the product distribution from pyrolysis. It was observed that although the selectivity of benzene-toluene-xylene compounds from CFP of pine improved from 58.3% (torrefaction temp at 150 °C) to 69.0% (torrefaction temp at 225 °C), the severity of torrefaction resulted in a loss of overall aromatic hydrocarbon yield from 11.6% to 4.9% under same conditions. Torrefaction at higher temperatures also increased the yield of carbonaceous residues from 63.9% to 72.8%. Finally, overall, torrefying lignin caused structural transformations in both type of lignins (switchgrass and pine), which is ultimately

  14. Investigation of chemical modifications of micro- and macromolecules in bio-oil during hydrodeoxygenation with Pd/C catalyst in supercritical ethanol.

    PubMed

    Oh, Shinyoung; Hwang, Hyewon; Choi, Hang Seok; Choi, Joon Weon

    2014-12-01

    Miscanthus bio-oil was subjected to hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) with Pd/C at different temperatures (250, 300 and 350°C) and times (30, 45 and 60 min) to investigate the chemical modification of micro- and macromolecules in bio-oil. Four main products - char, gas and two immiscible oils (light and heavy oil) - were obtained from the HDO reaction. Yields of heavy oil as a targeting product of HDO varied from 60% to 13%, whereas those of gas and char were ranged from 7% to 36% and 6% to 17%, respectively. Water content was estimated to<1% and heating value was 26-31 MJ kg(-1). Reduction of unstable oxygen-containing compounds such as acids (2-hydroxy-butanoic acid), aldehydes (furfural), alcohols (butanedial) and sugars (levoglucosan) were characteristic in heavey oil. Apart from hydrogenation and deoxygenation, micromolecules in bio-oil were plausibly modified to stable ketones, esters and saturated components via demethoxylation, dealkylation, decarbonylation, dehydroxylation and ring opening. Macromolecular lignin fragments (referred to as pyrolytic lignins in bio-oil and phenol polymers in heavy oil) were extracted and subjected to several analyses. Approximately 60% of the pyrolytic lignins were decomposed into low molecular weight compounds during HDO reaction. Moreover, essential functional groups, OCH3 and phen-OH groups attached to pyrolytic lignin, were severely modified during HDO reaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of the molar mass distribution of macromolecules in beer for different mashing processes using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with multiple detectors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaeyeong; Zielke, Claudia; Nilsson, Lars; Lee, Seungho

    2017-07-01

    The macromolecular composition of beer is largely determined by the brewing and the mashing process. It is known that the physico-chemical properties of proteinaceous and polysaccharide molecules are closely related to the mechanism of foam stability. Three types of "American pale ale" style beer were prepared using different mashing protocols. The foam stability of the beers was assessed using the Derek Rudin standard method. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) in combination with ultraviolet (UV), multiangle light scattering (MALS) and differential refractive index (dRI) detectors was used to separate the macromolecules present in the beers and the molar mass (M) and molar mass distributions (MD) were determined. Macromolecular components were identified by enzymatic treatments with β-glucanase and proteinase K. The MD of β-glucan ranged from 10 6 to 10 8  g/mol. In addition, correlation between the beer's composition and foam stability was investigated (increased concentration of protein and β-glucan was associated with increased foam stability).

  16. Multifunctional Macromolecules

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    wash bottles. This converts the highly toxic HCN into relatively harmless sodium cyanate . Draege tube "sniffers" were used inside the hood to detect...thickness of 4 pm and metallized with a 100 nm thick gold electrode. Using a dc power supply and a picoammeter, steady state photoconduction...analyze the data obtained using P2ANS in this work. I An 8 pm sample of 50/50 P2ANS/MMA was metallized and poled at 100 V/pm for 5 minutes at 140*C. The

  17. Angle-Dependent Atomic Force Microscopy Single-Chain Pulling of Adsorbed Macromolecules from Planar Surfaces Unveils the Signature of an Adsorption-Desorption Transition.

    PubMed

    Grebíková, Lucie; Whittington, Stuart G; Vancso, Julius G

    2018-05-23

    The adsorption-desorption behavior of polymer chains is at the heart of macromolecular surface science and technology. With the current developments in atomic force microscopy (AFM), it has now become possible to address the desorption problem from the perspective of a single macromolecule. Here, we report on desorption of single polymer chains on planar surfaces by AFM-based single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) as a function of the pulling angle with respect to the surface-normal direction. SMFS experiments were performed in water with various substrates using different polymers covalently attached to the AFM probe tip. End-grafting at the AFM tip was achieved by surface-initiated polymerization using initiator functionalized tips. We found that the desorption force increases with a decreasing pulling angle, i.e., an enhanced adhesion of the polymer chain was observed. The magnitude of the desorption force shows a weak angular dependence at pulling angles close to the surface normal. A significant increase of the force is observed at shallower pulling from a certain pulling angle. This behavior carries the signature of an adsorption-desorption transition. The angular dependence of the normalized desorption force exhibits a universal behavior. We compared and interpreted our results using theoretical predictions for single-chain adsorption-desorption transitions.

  18. Angle-Dependent Atomic Force Microscopy Single-Chain Pulling of Adsorbed Macromolecules from Planar Surfaces Unveils the Signature of an Adsorption–Desorption Transition

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The adsorption–desorption behavior of polymer chains is at the heart of macromolecular surface science and technology. With the current developments in atomic force microscopy (AFM), it has now become possible to address the desorption problem from the perspective of a single macromolecule. Here, we report on desorption of single polymer chains on planar surfaces by AFM-based single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) as a function of the pulling angle with respect to the surface-normal direction. SMFS experiments were performed in water with various substrates using different polymers covalently attached to the AFM probe tip. End-grafting at the AFM tip was achieved by surface-initiated polymerization using initiator functionalized tips. We found that the desorption force increases with a decreasing pulling angle, i.e., an enhanced adhesion of the polymer chain was observed. The magnitude of the desorption force shows a weak angular dependence at pulling angles close to the surface normal. A significant increase of the force is observed at shallower pulling from a certain pulling angle. This behavior carries the signature of an adsorption–desorption transition. The angular dependence of the normalized desorption force exhibits a universal behavior. We compared and interpreted our results using theoretical predictions for single-chain adsorption–desorption transitions. PMID:29712430

  19. Modeling salt-mediated electrostatics of macromolecules: the discrete surface charge optimization algorithm and its application to the nucleosome.

    PubMed

    Beard, D A; Schlick, T

    2001-01-01

    Much progress has been achieved on quantitative assessment of electrostatic interactions on the all-atom level by molecular mechanics and dynamics, as well as on the macroscopic level by models of continuum solvation. Bridging of the two representations-an area of active research-is necessary for studying integrated functions of large systems of biological importance. Following perspectives of both discrete (N-body) interaction and continuum solvation, we present a new algorithm, DiSCO (Discrete Surface Charge Optimization), for economically describing the electrostatic field predicted by Poisson-Boltzmann theory using a discrete set of Debye-Hückel charges distributed on a virtual surface enclosing the macromolecule. The procedure in DiSCO relies on the linear behavior of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation in the far zone; thus contributions from a number of molecules may be superimposed, and the electrostatic potential, or equivalently the electrostatic field, may be quickly and efficiently approximated by the summation of contributions from the set of charges. The desired accuracy of this approximation is achieved by minimizing the difference between the Poisson-Boltzmann electrostatic field and that produced by the linearized Debye-Hückel approximation using our truncated Newton optimization package. DiSCO is applied here to describe the salt-dependent electrostatic environment of the nucleosome core particle in terms of several hundred surface charges. This representation forms the basis for modeling-by dynamic simulations (or Monte Carlo)-the folding of chromatin. DiSCO can be applied more generally to many macromolecular systems whose size and complexity warrant a model resolution between the all-atom and macroscopic levels. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Is the Fractional Laser Still Effective in Assisting Cutaneous Macromolecule Delivery in Barrier-Deficient Skin? Psoriasis and Atopic Dermatitis as the Disease Models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Sung, Calvin T; Liu, Pei-Ying; Fang, Jia-You

    2018-04-26

    Most of the investigations into laser-assisted skin permeation have used the intact skin as the permeation barrier. Whether the laser is effective in improving cutaneous delivery via barrier-defective skin is still unclear. In this study, ablative (Er:YAG) and non-ablative (Er:glass) lasers were examined for the penetration of peptide and siRNA upon topical application on in vitro skin with a healthy or disrupted barrier. An enhanced peptide flux (6.9 fold) was detected after tape stripping of the pig stratum corneum (SC). A further increase of flux to 11.7 fold was obtained after Er:YAG laser irradiation of the SC-stripped skin. However, the application of Er:glass modality did not further raise the flux via the SC-stripped skin. A similar trend was observed in the case of psoriasiform skin. Conversely, the flux was enhanced 3.7 and 2.6 fold after treatment with the Er:YAG and the Er:glass laser on the atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin. The 3-D skin structure captured by confocal microscopy proved the distribution of peptide and siRNA through the microchannels and into the surrounding tissue. The fractional laser was valid for ameliorating macromolecule permeation into barrier-disrupted skin although the enhancement level was lower than that of normal skin.

  1. The effect of serum on the secretion of radiolabeled mucous macromolecules into the lumen of the cat trachea

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Peatfield, A.C.; Hall, R.L.; Richardson, P.S.

    1982-02-01

    We studied the effect of placing serum within a segment of trachea on secretion into its lumen in the cat. A segment of cervical trachea was isolated from the rest of the airway in situ. Secretions were radiolabeled biosynthetically by the administration of two radiolabeled precursors: (35S)sodium sulphate and (3H)glucose. Autologous serum placed in the segment at a dilution of 1 in 8 increased the output of radiolabeled macromolecules: (35S) by 80% and (3H) by 159% (p less than 0.001). At a dilution of 1 in 24, serum still increased the output of both isotopes. At dilutions of 1 inmore » 48 and 1 in 80 the increases were significant for (35S) but not for (3H). Heating the serum to 90 degrees C diminished its effects. Fractionating the serum by dialysis and gel filtration showed that the components of molecular weight less than about 13,000 daltons had no effect on secretion, whereas three higher molecular weight fractions all increased secretion. Two alien proteins (horseradish peroxidase and bovine serum albumin) stimulated secretion but a large molecular weight carbohydrate (carboxymethyl cellulose) did not. Atropine and propranolol, at doses that greatly reduced the effect of parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activity, did not diminish the effects of serum, which therefore appeared to be independent of nerve activity. Gel filtration of the secretions elicited by serum showed that the predominant component was excluded even by Sepharose CL-2B and thus had a high molecular weight. We conclude that there are several components of serum that promote the secretion of mucus glycoproteins into the cat trachea. The relevance of these findings to diseases of human airways is considered.« less

  2. Calculation of site affinity constants and cooperativity coefficients for binding of ligands and/or protons to macromolecules. II. Relationships between chemical model and partition function algorithm.

    PubMed

    Fisicaro, E; Braibanti, A; Lamb, J D; Oscarson, J L

    1990-05-01

    macromolecule or receptor M with four classes of sites; and (4) the binding to a macromolecule M of ligand A which is in turn a receptor for proton H. With reference to a specific example, it is shown how a computer program for least-squares refinement of variables kappa j and bj can be organized. The chemical model from the free components M, A, and H to the saturated macrospecies MpAQHR, with possible complex macrospecies MpAq and AHR, is defined first.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Photophysical Behavior and Computational Investigation of Novel 1,4-Bis(2-(2-Phenylpyrimido[1,2-a]Benzimidazol-4-Yl)Phenoxy)Butan (BPPB) Macromolecule.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Tamer S; Hussein, Mahmoud A; Osman, Osman I; Alamry, Khalid A; Mekky, Ahmed E M; Asiri, Abdullah M; El-Daly, Samy A

    2016-09-01

    A new macromolecule pyrimido[l,2-a]benzimidazole derivative named 1,4-bis(2-(2-phenylpyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazol-4-yl)phenoxy)butan (BPPB) has been synthesized in accepted yield using microwave assistance. The new compound BPPB has been formed by the interaction of 3,3'-((butane-1,4-diylbis(oxy))bis(2,1-phenylene))bis(1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one) (3) with 2- aminobenzimidazole (4) in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a basic catalyst in dimethylformamide (DMF) under microwave radiation for 20 min. The chemical structure of this novel compound was elucidated by elemental and spectral techniques including: FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and mass spectra. The electronic absorption and emission spectra of BPPB were measured in different solvents. BPPB displayed a solvatochromic effect of the emission spectrum that is reflected by red shifts of its fluorescence emission maxima on increasing the solvent polarity, indicating a change of electronic charge distribution upon excitation. BPPB crystalline solids gave excimer-like emission at 535 nm with a bandwidth of ca. 60 nm. Ground and excited states electronic geometry optimizations using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), respectively, complemented these spectral findings. The intramolecular charge transfer was investigated by natural bond orbital (NBO) technique.

  4. Development and characterisation of chitosan films impregnated with insulin loaded PEG-b-PLA nanoparticles (NPs): a potential approach for buccal delivery of macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Giovino, Concetta; Ayensu, Isaac; Tetteh, John; Boateng, Joshua S

    2012-05-30

    Mucoadhesive chitosan based films, incorporated with insulin loaded nanoparticles (NPs) made of poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether-block-polylactide (PEG-b-PLA) have been developed and characterised. Blank-NPs were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation technique with varying concentrations of the copolymer (5 and 10%, w/v). The optimised formulation was loaded with insulin (model protein) at initial loadings of 2, 5 and 10% with respect to copolymer weight. The developed NPs were analysed for size, size distribution, surface charge, morphology, encapsulation efficiency and drug release. NPs showing negative (ζ)-potential (<-6 mV) with average diameter> 300 nm and a polydispersity index (P.I.) of ≈ 0.2, irrespective of formulation process, were achieved. Insulin encapsulation efficiencies of 70% and 30% for NPs-Insulin-2 and NPs-Insulin-5 were obtained, respectively. The in vitro release behaviour of both formulations showed a classic biphasic sustained release of protein over 5 weeks which was influenced by pH of the release medium. Optimised chitosan films embedded with 3mg of insulin loaded NPs were produced by solvent casting with homogeneous distribution of NPs in the mucoadhesive matrix, which displayed excellent physico-mechanical properties. The drug delivery system has been designed as a novel platform for potential buccal delivery of macromolecules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of hesperidin on renal cell surface glycoprotein content, nucleic acids, lysosomal enzymes and macromolecules against 7, 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene induced experimental breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Natarajan; Jayaprakash, Ramachandran; Balasubramanian, Maruthaiveeran Periyasamy

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic substances may reduce the risk of developing cancer by modulating the factors responsible for carcinogenesis. To evaluate these hypotheses, the present study was designed to investigate the modulatory effect of bioflavonoid "Hesperidin" against DMBA induced experimental breast cancer with reference to renal cell surface glycoproteins, nucleic acids, protein content, lipid profile and lysosomal enzymes. The female sprague-dawley rats were orally administered with single dose of 7, 12-DMBA to induce breast cancer and were treated with hesperidin [30 mg/kg/body weight] for a consecutive 45 days. The results revealed that there was a significant elevation in the levels of glycoproteins, nucleic acids, lysosomal enzymes and also significant alterations in macromolecules in renal tissues of cancer bearing animals. Interestingly, the altered levels of these parameters were remarkably reverted back to near normal in hesperidin treatment. The histopathological analysis of liver and kidney tissues were well supported the biochemical alterations and inevitably proves the protective role of hesperidin. It is proposed that, the effect of hesperidin during DMBA induced breast cancer could be due to the intervention strategies of hesperidin in the protein, nucleic acid biosynthesis, membrane stabilizing potentials on lysosomal compartment and inhibitory effect on cell surface glycoproteins and bio-fuel such as lipids.

  6. Thermally stable macromolecules.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pezdirtz, G. F.; Johnston, N. J.

    1972-01-01

    Man-made polymers are compared with certain naturally occurring polymers which have long been used at elevated temperatures. The pyrolysis of model compounds is discussed together with aspects of thermogravimetric analysis, torsional braid analysis, and questions of chemical and radiation stability. Some structure-property relationships are examined, giving attention to asbestos, mica, graphite, and diamond. Questions of bond strengths are investigated along with the stability of ladder polymers and some fundamental concepts in the synthesis of aromatic and heteroaromatic polymers. The substances considered include aromatic single-strand polymers, heteroaromatic polymers, polymers obtained by addition polymerizations, and nonhydrogen-containing polymers. Future trends are also explored.

  7. Highly Regioregular Polythiophenes for Magneto-Optical Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Macromolecules, 2007, 40, 8142-8150 Lieven De Cremer et.al., Macromolecules, 2008, 41, 568-578 Lieven De Cremer et.al., Macromolecules, 2008, 41, 591-598 Marnix...Vangheluwe et.al., Macromolecules, 2008, 41, 1041-1044 David Cornelis et.al., Chem. Mater. 2008, 20, 2133-2143 Palash Gangopadhyay et.al., J. Phys

  8. Zinc ions regulate opening of tight junction favouring efflux of macromolecules via the GSK3β/snail-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ruyue; Yuan, Lan; He, Weijiang; Yang, Xiaoda

    2018-01-24

    Zinc is an essential trace element presenting in particularly high concentration in the brain. In some regions, e.g. lateral amygdala, subiculum and hippocampus, rapidly-exchangeable zinc may transiently reach even up to 600 μM. To explore the possible roles of high-concentration Zn 2+ in regulating the blood-brain barrier (BBB), we investigated the effects of Zn 2+ on the functions and structures of the tight junction (TJ) with an in vitro model of a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayer. The experimental results indicated that high concentrations (>200 μM) of Zn 2+ can affect the TJ integrity in a polarized manner. Basolateral addition of Zn 2+ led to reversible TJ opening with pore paths of r ∼ 2 nm or more depending on Zn 2+ concentration. The efflux/influx ratios of different sized probes were found to be ∼4.6 for FD4 (M W 4000) and ∼1.8 for Eu-DTPA (M W 560), suggesting that the Zn 2+ -induced paracelluar channels favour efflux especially for macromolecules. Further mechanistic studies revealed that the elevated intracellular Zn 2+ taken from the basolateral side can increase phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3β, primarily due to the inhibition of calcineurin (CaN), thus resulting in the elevation of the snail transcriptional repressors. Subsequently, Zn 2+ can cause the down-regulation of claudin-1, breakage of occludin and ZO-1 rings, and collapse of basolateral F-actin structures. These overall factors result in the formation of a trumpet-like paracellular channel, which allows asymmetric solute permeation. The ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 pathways may also be involved in the Zn 2+ -induced TJ opening process, while the activation of matrix metalloproteinase was not observed. Our results may suggest a potential role of zinc in regulation of BBB permeability associated with brain clearance of metabolites through the glymphatic system.

  9. S-protected thiolated chitosan for oral delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules: evaluation of permeation enhancing and efflux pump inhibitory properties.

    PubMed

    Dünnhaupt, Sarah; Barthelmes, Jan; Rahmat, Deni; Leithner, Katharina; Thurner, Clemens C; Friedl, Heike; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2012-05-07

    The objective of this study was the investigation of permeation enhancing and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition effects of a novel thiolated chitosan, the so-named S-protected thiolated chitosan. Mediated by a carbodiimide, increasing amounts of thioglycolic acid (TGA) were covalently bound to chitosan (CS) in the first step of modification. In the second step, these thiol groups of thiolated chitosan were protected by disulfide bond formation with the thiolated aromatic residue 6-mercaptonicotinamide (6-MNA). Mucoadhesive properties of all conjugates were evaluated in vitro on porcine intestinal mucosa based on tensile strength investigations. Permeation enhancing effects were evaluated ex vivo using rat intestinal mucosa and in vitro via Caco-2 cells using the hydrophilic macromolecule FD(4) as the model drug. Caco-2 cells were further used to show P-gp inhibition effects by using Rho-123 as P-gp substrate. Apparent permeability coefficients (P(app)) were calculated and compared to values obtained from each buffer control. Three different thiolated chitosans were generated in the first step of modification, which displayed increasing amounts of covalently attached free thiol groups on the polymer backbone. In the second modification step, more than 50% of these free thiol groups were covalently linked with 6-MNA. Within 3 h of permeation studies on excised rat intestine, P(app) values of all S-protected chitosans were at least 1.3-fold higher compared to those of corresponding thiomers and more than twice as high as that of unmodified chitosan. Additional permeation studies on Caco-2 cells confirmed these results. Because of the chemical modification and higher amount of reactive thiol groups, all S-protected thiolated chitosans exhibit at least 1.4-fold pronounced P-gp inhibition effects in contrast to their corresponding thiomers. These features approve S-protected thiolated chitosan as a promising excipient for various drug delivery systems providing improved

  10. Controls of ionic strength and macromolecule chemistry on calcite nucleation: Salinity and ion hydration as levers for regulating biomineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, P. M.; Giuffre, A. J.; Mergelsberg, S. T.; Han, N.; De Yoreo, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Organisms form shells and skeletons with remarkable fidelity by controlling the timing and placement of the minerals that nucleate and subsequently grow. An extensive effort has identified features of the organic matrix that regulate this process. Recent measurements from our group show the energy barrier to nucleation onto polysaccharide (PS) substrates is dependent upon hydrophilicity through functional group chemistry and suggest that free energy of the macromolecule-liquid interface influences where and when mineral nucleation occurs (Giuffre et al., 2013, PNAS). The importance of interfacial free energy in regulating nucleation raises the question of whether local changes in salinity or electrolyte composition can be tuned to further modulate the onset of calcite nucleation. Using alginate (negatively charged by carboxyl groups) and chitosan (small positive charge by amine groups), the rate of calcite nucleation was measured at controlled supersaturations and pH as a function of NaCl concentration (65-600 mM). Analyses of the data show the thermodynamic barrier to calcite nucleation onto both types of PS increases with ionic strength. The evidence suggests this effect arises from an increasing concentration of solvated ions at the PS-water interface while also increasing the hydrophilic character of that interface; thus decreasing the substrate-liquid interfacial free energy. To test this explanation, a second group of nucleation experiments used a suite of electrolytes (alkali chlorides for alginate and sodium halides for chitosan) while holding ionic strength constant. Indeed, the nucleation barriers for calcite formation are electrolyte-specific and correlated with the hydration free energy of the ion. This suggests solvated electrolyte ions indirectly regulate calcite nucleation onto substrates through their competition with the substrate for water thereby influencing net interfacial free energy. These effects are consistent with the long

  11. A mechanism enhancing macromolecule transport through paracellular spaces induced by Poly-L-Arginine: Poly-L-Arginine induces the internalization of tight junction proteins via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Tsutomu; Kamiya, Yusuke; Ohtake, Kazuo; Uchida, Masaki; Seki, Toshinobu; Ueda, Hideo; Kobayashi, Jun; Morimoto, Yasunori; Natsume, Hideshi

    2014-09-01

    Poly-L-arginine (PLA) enhances the paracellular permeability of the Caco-2 cell monolayer to hydrophilic macromolecules by disappearance of tight junction (TJ) proteins from cell-cell junctions. However, the mechanism of the disappearance of TJ proteins in response to PLA has been unclear. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of disappearance of TJ proteins from cell-cell junctions after the application of PLA to Caco-2 cell monolayers. The membrane conductance (Gt), FITC-dextran (FD-4) permeability, and localization of TJ proteins were examined after the treatment of Caco-2 cell monolayers with PLA in the presence of various endocytosis inhibitors. In addition, the localization of endosome marker proteins was also observed. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitors suppressed the increase in Gt and Papp of FD-4 induced by PLA, and also significantly suppressed the disappearance of TJ proteins induced by PLA. Furthermore, occludin, one of the TJ proteins, colocalized with early endosome and recycling endosomes after the internalization of occludin induced by PLA, and then was recycled to the cell-cell junctions. PLA induced the transient internalization of TJ proteins in cell-cell junctions via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, subsequently increasing the permeability of the Caco-2 cell monolayer to FD-4 via a paracellular route.

  12. Effects of hydration on steric and electric charge-induced interstitial volume exclusion--a model.

    PubMed

    Øien, Alf H; Justad, Sigrid R; Tenstad, Olav; Wiig, Helge

    2013-09-03

    The presence of collagen and charged macromolecules like glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the interstitial space limits the space available for plasma proteins and other macromolecules. This phenomenon, known as interstitial exclusion, is of importance for interstitial fluid volume regulation. Physical/mathematical models are presented for calculating the exclusion of electrically charged and neutral macromolecules that equilibrate in the interstitium under various degrees of hydration. Here, a central hypothesis is that the swelling of highly electrically charged GAGs with increased hydration shields parts of the neutral collagen of the interstitial matrix from interacting with electrically charged macromolecules, such that exclusion of charged macromolecules exhibits change due to steric and charge effects. GAGs are also thought to allow relatively small neutral, but also charged macromolecules neutralized by a very high ionic strength, diffuse into the interior of GAGs, whereas larger macromolecules may not. Thus, in the model, relatively small electrically charged macromolecules, such as human serum albumin, and larger neutral macromolecules such as IgG, will have quite similar total volume exclusion properties in the interstitium. Our results are in agreement with ex vivo and in vivo experiments, and suggest that the charge of GAGs or macromolecular drugs may be targeted to increase the tissue uptake of macromolecular therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adsorption of polymethacrylic acid from aqueous solutions on disperse titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaremko, Z. M.; Tkachenko, N. G.; Fedushinskaya, L. B.

    2011-10-01

    The state of macromolecules of polymethacrylic acid adsorbed on the surface of disperse titanium dioxide was assessed using a combination of the differential concentration approach to the determination of adsorption and methods for determining the size of disperse adsorbents by dynamic light scattering and sedimentation analysis in the field of centrifugal forces. Three sections were found on the isotherm of adsorption: in the first, isolated islands of adsorbed macromolecules formed; in the second, layers of macromolecules with a different degree of deformation were observed; in the third, determining the adsorption of macromolecules is complicated by other accompanying processes, and assessing the state of macromolecules in the adsorption layer becomes difficult.

  14. Comprehensive approach to intrinsic charge carrier mobility in conjugated organic molecules, macromolecules, and supramolecular architectures.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Akinori; Koizumi, Yoshiko; Aida, Takuzo; Seki, Shu

    2012-08-21

    Si-based inorganic electronics have long dominated the semiconductor industry. However, in recent years conjugated polymers have attracted increasing attention because such systems are flexible and offer the potential for low-cost, large-area production via roll-to-roll processing. The state-of-the-art organic conjugated molecular crystals can exhibit charge carrier mobilities (μ) that nearly match or even exceed that of amorphous silicon (1-10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)). The mean free path of the charge carriers estimated from these mobilities corresponds to the typical intersite (intermolecular) hopping distances in conjugated organic materials, which strongly suggests that the conduction model for the electronic band structure only applies to μ > 1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for the translational motion of the charge carriers. However, to analyze the transport mechanism in organic electronics, researchers conventionally use a disorder formalism, where μ is usually less than 1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and dominated by impurities, disorders, or defects that disturb the long-range translational motion. In this Account, we discuss the relationship between the alternating-current and direct-current mobilities of charge carriers, using time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) and other techniques including field-effect transistor, time-of-flight, and space-charge limited current. TRMC measures the nanometer-scale mobility of charge carriers under an oscillating microwave electric field with no contact between the semiconductors and the metals. This separation allows us to evaluate the intrinsic charge carrier mobility with minimal trapping effects. We review a wide variety of organic electronics in terms of their charge carrier mobilities, and we describe recent studies of macromolecules, molecular crystals, and supramolecular architecture. For example, a rigid poly(phenylene-co-ethynylene) included in permethylated cyclodextrin shows a high intramolecular hole mobility of 0.5 cm(2) V

  15. Rheology of biological macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyaratne, Amila Dinesh

    Proteins have interesting mechanical properties in addition to the remarkable functionality. For example, Guanylate kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes Guano- sine monophosphate (GMP) to Guanosine diphosphate (GDP) conversion and this enzyme is approximately 5 nm in size. A gold nano particle of similar size shows linear elasticity for strains up to ˜ 0.1% and shows plastic deformation beyond that, whereas the enzyme Guanylate kinase can have strains up to 1 % with reversible deformation. Our experiments show many different regimes of the mechanical response before the plastic deformation of these proteins. In this dissertation, I study the materials properties of two classes of proteins, an ion channel protein and a transferase, which is a globular protein. The experimental techniques to study the materials properties of these proteins were uniquely developed at the Zocchi lab. Therefore, we were able to observe previously unknown characteristics of these folded proteins. The mechanical properties of the voltage gated potassium channel KvAP was studied by applying AC depolarizing voltages. This technique gave new information about the system that was not seen in the previous studies. These previous experiments were based on applying DC depolarizing voltage steps across the membrane to study the ionic current. By monitoring the ionic current at different depolarizing voltage steps, the DC gating process of the channel could be under- stood. We probed the channel using AC depolarizing signals instead of DC pulses and the ionic current revealed new behaviors, which cannot be predicted with the DC response. We found that the conformational motion of the voltage sensing domain of the ion channel shows internal dissipation. Further, a new non linearity in the dissipation parameter was found in which the dissipation parameter increased with the shear rate of the applied force. Previous studies at the Zocchi lab used a nano rheology experiment on the protein Guanylate kinase to study the mechanical properties of a globular protein. The protein was subjected to a mechanical force and the deformation was measured with sub-Angstrom resolution. We found that the protein shows a linear elasticity regime for low forcing and viscoelastic behavior for high forcing. The internal viscosity of the protein is due to the internal dissipation of the protein. This dissertation takes the work on nano rheology of proteins further by studying the temperature effect on the materials properties of the protein and the contribution of the surface of the protein to the observed mechanics. In addition to studying the materials properties of proteins, we used proteins to design new biomimetic systems. The first system covered in this dissertation is the development of a novel sensor platform for molecules. In this sensor, we detect the change in the stiffness of the substrate upon binding a target rather than the usual scheme of detecting the change in mass upon binding of a target. By combining the nano rheology setup with localized surface plasmon resonance, this sensor platform yields a very robust signal. The other biomimetic system that is discussed here is an artificial axon is constructed with ion channels and lipid bilayers.

  16. An investigation into the role of macromolecules of different polarity as passivating agent on the physical, chemical and structural properties of fluorescent carbon nanodots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alas, Melis Ozge; Genc, Rukan

    2017-05-01

    In this study, comparative evaluation of fluorescent carbon nanodots (C-Dots) prepared using carob molasses was reported by screening various biocompatible macromolecules as passivating agent (PA). Incorporation of PAs with different molecular weight, polarity, and chemical structure was examined, and compared with the polyethylene glycol (PEG, Mn = 10 kN) passivated and pristine C-Dots. Not only the fluorescence properties but also many other features including size, crystal structure, colloidal conductivity, resistance to photobleaching, quantum yield, and UV-modulated surface interaction of them with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as ROS production were investigated. Photoluminescence (PL) capacity of C-Dots was found to be associated with the number of surface alkyl groups and polymeric hydrogen bounding present on the C-Dot surface (increased number is associated with decreased PL) while surface conductivity of C-Dots in water was proportional to the PL intensity. More importantly, C-Dots with relatively poorer fluorescent were investigated in various organic solvents (hexane, methanol, acetone, ethanol, dimethylformamide (DMF), and DMSO). As happens with the fluorescent dyes, their PL intensities were significantly enhanced (even for pristine C-Dots) depending on the solvent characteristics. All of the C-Dots synthesized were further evaluated by means of UV-induced generation of ROS and inhibition of ROS by using H2O2 as model. In contrary to other carbonaceous nanomaterials, they did not show any ROS generation, on the contrary, they showed ROS scavenging activity that can be modulated by UV-irradiation ( λ exc = 365 nm). PEG and alginate passivated C-Dots inhibited H2O2 activity at LC50 values below 10 mg/mL.

  17. New Directions in Biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The macromolecule crystallization program within NASA is undergoing considerable pressure, particularly budgetary pressure. While it has shown some successes, they have not lived up to the expectations of others, and technological advances may rapidly overtake the natural advantages offered by crystallization in microgravity. Concomitant with the microgravity effort has been a research program to study the macromolecule crystallization process. It was believed that a better understanding of the process would lead to growth of improved crystals for X-ray diffraction studies. The results of the various research efforts have been impressive in improving our understanding of macromolecule crystallization, but have not led to any improved structures. Macromolecule crystallization for structure determination is "one of", the job being unique for every protein and finished once a structure is obtained. However, the knowledge gained is not lost, but instead lays the foundation for developments in new areas of biotechnology and nanotechnology. In this it is highly analogous to studies into small molecule crystallization, the results of which have led to our present day microelectronics-based society. We are conducting preliminary experiments into areas such as designed macromolecule crystals, macromolecule-inorganic hybrid structures, and macromolecule-based nanotechnology. In addition, our protein crystallization studies are now being directed more towards industrial and new approaches to membrane protein crystallization.

  18. Characterization of Nylon 6 by 15N Solid State NMR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-31

    M.; Ritchey, W.; de Boer, E. Macromolecules, 1979, 12, 924. 2. Garroway , A. N.; Ritchey, W. M.; Moniz, W. B.; Macromolecules, 1982, It, 1051. 3...E. Macromolecules, 1982, 15, 1406. 23. Veeman, W. S.; Menger, E. M. Bull. Magn. Reson., 1980,2,77. 24. VanderHart, D. L.; Garroway , A. N. J. Chem

  19. Radiolysis of lignin: Prospective mechanism of high-temperature decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    The range of the radiation-thermal processes resulting in conversion of lignin into monomeric phenols is considered. Statistically the most probable places of macromolecule ionization are aromatic units. Release of phenolic products from a lignin macromolecule is the multistage process beginning via fragmentation of primary cation-radicals. Reactions of electrons and small radicals with macromolecules, also as degradation of cation-radicals, result in formation of phenoxyl radicals. Macroradicals possess lower heat stability in comparison with macromolecules. Thermal decomposition of macroradicals leads to release of monohydric and dihydric phenols. The probability of benzenediols formation increases in the presence of alkanes. As noted, partial transformation of lignin into charcoal is inevitable.

  20. Novel fluorescent core-shell nanocontainers for cell membrane transport.

    PubMed

    Yin, Meizhen; Kuhlmann, Christoph R W; Sorokina, Ksenia; Li, Chen; Mihov, George; Pietrowski, Eweline; Koynov, Kaloian; Klapper, Markus; Luhmann, Heiko J; Müllen, Klaus; Weil, Tanja

    2008-05-01

    The synthesis and characterization of novel core-shell macromolecules consisting of a fluorescent perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxdiimide chromophore in the center surrounded by a hydrophobic polyphenylene shell as a first and a flexible hydrophilic polymer shell as a second layer was presented. Following this strategy, several macromolecules bearing varying polymer chain lengths, different polymer shell densities, and increasing numbers of positive and negative charges were achieved. Because all of these macromolecules reveal a good water solubility, their ability to cross cellular membranes was investigated. In this way, a qualitative relationship between the molecular architecture of these macromolecules and the biological response was established.

  1. Influence of Biological Macromolecules and Aquatic Chemistries on the Inhibition of Nitrifying Bacteria by Silver Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radniecki, T. S.; Anderson, J. W.; Schneider, M. C.; Stankus, D. P.; Nason, J. A.; Semprini, L.

    2010-12-01

    -NP solution even in the presence of divalent cations. This stable Ag-NP/NOM dispersion resulted in higher toxicity in the presence of divalent cations than Ag-NP alone. This work also examined the effect of the presence of biological macromolecules, including proteins and lipopolysaccharides, on Ag-NP stability and toxicity. Acknowledgements We would like to thank nanoComposix, Inc. for donating the Ag-NPs. This research was funded through an Oregon Nanoscience and Microtechnologies Institute/United State Air Force Research Labs grant # 235271B, Amend. No. 5. References (1) Wijnhoven, S.; Peijnenburg, W.; Herberts, C.; Hagens, W.; Werner, I.; Oomen, A.; Heugens, E.; Roszek, B.; Bisschops, J.; Gosens, I.; van de Meent, D.; Kekkers, S.; de Jong, W.; van Zijverden, M.; Sips, A.; Geertsma, R., Nano-silver - a review of available data and knowledge gaps in human and environmental risk assessment. Nanotoxicology 2009 1:1-30. (2) Choi, O.; Cleuenger, T. E.; Deng, B. L.; Surampalli, R. Y.; Ross, L.; Hu, Z. Q., Role of sulfide and ligand strength in controlling nanosilver toxicity. Water Research 2009 43(7):1879-1886.

  2. Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, S.; Wex, H.; Niedermeier, D.; Pummer, B.; Grothe, H.; Hartmann, S.; Tomsche, L.; Clauss, T.; Voigtländer, J.; Ignatius, K.; Stratmann, F.

    2013-11-01

    Birch pollen grains are known to be ice nucleating active biological particles. The ice nucleating activity has previously been tracked down to biological macromolecules that can be easily extracted from the pollen grains in water. In the present study, we investigated the immersion freezing behavior of these ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules. Therefore we measured the frozen fractions of particles generated from birch pollen washing water as a function of temperature at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). Two different birch pollen samples were considered, with one originating from Sweden and one from the Czech Republic. For the Czech and Swedish birch pollen samples, freezing was observed to start at -19 and -17 °C, respectively. The fraction of frozen droplets increased for both samples down to -24 °C. Further cooling did not increase the frozen fractions any more. Instead, a plateau formed at frozen fractions below 1. This fact could be used to determine the amount of INA macromolecules in the droplets examined here, which in turn allowed for the determination of nucleation rates for single INA macromolecules. The main differences between the Swedish birch pollen and the Czech birch pollen were obvious in the temperature range between -17 and -24 °C. In this range, a second plateau region could be seen for Swedish birch pollen. As we assume INA macromolecules to be the reason for the ice nucleation, we concluded that birch pollen is able to produce at least two different types of INA macromolecules. We were able to derive parameterizations for the heterogeneous nucleation rates for both INA macromolecule types, using two different methods: a simple exponential fit and the Soccer ball model. With these parameterization methods we were able to describe the ice nucleation behavior of single INA macromolecules from both the Czech and the Swedish birch pollen.

  3. Application of water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol-based film patches on laser microporated skin facilitates intradermal macromolecule and nanoparticle delivery.

    PubMed

    Engelke, Laura; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia

    2018-07-01

    The intradermal delivery of biologics has long been recognized as attractive approach for cutaneous immunotherapy, particularly vaccination. Although intradermal (i.d.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection provide reproducible dosing and good cost- and delivery efficiency, the major objective to avoid sharps and the need for enhanced storage stability have renewed the interest in alternative needle-free delivery strategies. This study presents a new concept for the delivery of macromolecules and nanoparticles to viable skin layers with a high density of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Stable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer films as well as PVA blends with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or cross-linked carbomer were prepared using an easily-scalable film casting technique. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and rhodamine B-labeled dextrane 70 kDa (RD70), used as small and macromolecular model substances, or polystyrene (PS)-nano- and microparticles with diameters of 0.5 µm and 5 µm were directly incorporated into the polymer formulations at varying concentrations. The assembly of the polymer films with an occlusive backing tape created a film patch that provided a fast drug release upon dissolution of the water-soluble film and facilitated an intradermal drug delivery on laser microporated skin. The minimally-invasive P.L.E.A.S.E.® laser poration system (Pantec Biosolutions, Ruggell, Liechtenstein) provided access to viable skin layers by thermally ablating the superficial tissue with a pulsed Er:YAG laser (λ = 2.94 µm). In our in vitro study using excised pig skin, laser microporation induced a 4- to 5-fold increase of water transport (TEWL) through excised skin in a Franz diffusion cell compared to intact skin. The TEWL values detected were comparable to in vivo human skin. The increased water transport facilitated the dissolution of all topically applied dry PVA-based film formulations within 6 h. No dissolution of the films was seen on

  4. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ortoleva, Peter J.

    Illustrative embodiments of systems and methods for the deductive multiscale simulation of macromolecules are disclosed. In one illustrative embodiment, a deductive multiscale simulation method may include (i) constructing a set of order parameters that model one or more structural characteristics of a macromolecule, (ii) simulating an ensemble of atomistic configurations for the macromolecule using instantaneous values of the set of order parameters, (iii) simulating thermal-average forces and diffusivities for the ensemble of atomistic configurations, and (iv) evolving the set of order parameters via Langevin dynamics using the thermal-average forces and diffusivities.

  5. Brain GABA Detection in vivo with the J-editing 1H MRS Technique: A Comprehensive Methodological Evaluation of Sensitivity Enhancement, Macromolecule Contamination and Test-Retest Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Shungu, Dikoma C.; Mao, Xiangling; Gonzales, Robyn; Soones, Tacara N.; Dyke, Jonathan P.; van der Veen, Jan Willem; Kegeles, Lawrence S.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in brain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. However, in vivo GABA detection by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) presents significant challenges arising from low brain concentration, overlap by much stronger resonances, and contamination by mobile macromolecule (MM) signals. This study addresses these impediments to reliable brain GABA detection with the J-editing difference technique on a 3T MR system in healthy human subjects by (a) assessing the sensitivity gains attainable with an 8-channel phased-array head coil, (b) determining the magnitude and anatomic variation of the contamination of GABA by MM, and (c) estimating the test-retest reliability of measuring GABA with this method. Sensitivity gains and test-retest reliability were examined in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), while MM levels were compared across three cortical regions: the DLPFC, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the occipital cortex (OCC). A 3-fold higher GABA detection sensitivity was attained with the 8-channel head coil compared to the standard single-channel head coil in DLPFC. Despite significant anatomic variation in GABA+MM and MM across the three brain regions (p < 0.05), the contribution of MM to GABA+MM was relatively stable across the three voxels, ranging from 41% to 49%, a non-significant regional variation (p = 0.58). The test-retest reliability of GABA measurement, expressed either as ratios to voxel tissue water (W) or total creatine, was found to be very high for both the single-channel coil and the 8-channel phased-array coil. For the 8-channel coil, for example, Pearson’s correlation coefficient of test vs. retest for GABA/W was 0.98 (R2 = 0.96, p = 0.0007), the percent coefficient of variation (CV) was 1.25%, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.98. Similar reliability was also found for the co-edited resonance of combined glutamate and

  6. Quantifying Nucleic Acid Ensembles with X-ray Scattering Interferometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuesong; Bonilla, Steve; Herschlag, Daniel; Harbury, Pehr

    2015-01-01

    The conformational ensemble of a macromolecule is the complete description of the macromolecule's solution structures and can reveal important aspects of macromolecular folding, recognition, and function. However, most experimental approaches determine an average or predominant structure, or follow transitions between states that each can only be described by an average structure. Ensembles have been extremely difficult to experimentally characterize. We present the unique advantages and capabilities of a new biophysical technique, X-ray scattering interferometry (XSI), for probing and quantifying structural ensembles. XSI measures the interference of scattered waves from two heavy metal probes attached site specifically to a macromolecule. A Fourier transform of the interference pattern gives the fractional abundance of different probe separations directly representing the multiple conformation states populated by the macromolecule. These probe-probe distance distributions can then be used to define the structural ensemble of the macromolecule. XSI provides accurate, calibrated distance in a model-independent fashion with angstrom scale sensitivity in distances. XSI data can be compared in a straightforward manner to atomic coordinates determined experimentally or predicted by molecular dynamics simulations. We describe the conceptual framework for XSI and provide a detailed protocol for carrying out an XSI experiment. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles exposed to non-heating alternating magnetic field in biochemical applications: theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovin, Yuri I.; Gribanovsky, Sergey L.; Golovin, Dmitry Y.; Zhigachev, Alexander O.; Klyachko, Natalia L.; Majouga, Alexander G.; Sokolsky, Marina; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2017-02-01

    In the past decade, magneto-nanomechanical approach to biochemical systems stimulation has been studied intensively. This method involves macromolecule structure local deformation via mechanical actuation of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (f-MNPs) by non-heating low frequency (LF) alternating magnetic field (AMF). Specificity at cellular or molecular level and spatial locality in nanometer scale are its key advantages as compared to magnetic fluid hyperthermia. However, current experimental studies have weak theoretical basis. Several models of magneto-nanomechanical actuation of macromolecules and cells in non-heating uniform LF AMF are presented in the article. Single core-shell spherical, rod-like, and Janus MNPs, as well as dimers consisting of two f-MNPs with macromolecules immobilized on their surfaces are considered. AMF-induced rotational oscillations of MNPs can affect properties and functioning of macromolecules or cellular membranes attached to them via periodic deformations in nanometer scale. This could be widely used in therapy, in particular for targeted drug delivery, controlled drug release, and cancer cell killing. An aggregate composed of MNPs can affect associated macromolecules by force up to several hundreds of piconewton in the case of MNPs of tens of nanometers in diameter and LF AMF below 1 T. AMF parameters and MNP design requirements for effective in vitro and in vivo magneto-nanomechanical treatment are presented.

  8. Coding and decoding libraries of sequence-defined functional copolymers synthesized via photoligation

    PubMed Central

    Zydziak, Nicolas; Konrad, Waldemar; Feist, Florian; Afonin, Sergii; Weidner, Steffen; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Designing artificial macromolecules with absolute sequence order represents a considerable challenge. Here we report an advanced light-induced avenue to monodisperse sequence-defined functional linear macromolecules up to decamers via a unique photochemical approach. The versatility of the synthetic strategy—combining sequential and modular concepts—enables the synthesis of perfect macromolecules varying in chemical constitution and topology. Specific functions are placed at arbitrary positions along the chain via the successive addition of monomer units and blocks, leading to a library of functional homopolymers, alternating copolymers and block copolymers. The in-depth characterization of each sequence-defined chain confirms the precision nature of the macromolecules. Decoding of the functional information contained in the molecular structure is achieved via tandem mass spectrometry without recourse to their synthetic history, showing that the sequence information can be read. We submit that the presented photochemical strategy is a viable and advanced concept for coding individual monomer units along a macromolecular chain. PMID:27901024

  9. Coding and decoding libraries of sequence-defined functional copolymers synthesized via photoligation.

    PubMed

    Zydziak, Nicolas; Konrad, Waldemar; Feist, Florian; Afonin, Sergii; Weidner, Steffen; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2016-11-30

    Designing artificial macromolecules with absolute sequence order represents a considerable challenge. Here we report an advanced light-induced avenue to monodisperse sequence-defined functional linear macromolecules up to decamers via a unique photochemical approach. The versatility of the synthetic strategy-combining sequential and modular concepts-enables the synthesis of perfect macromolecules varying in chemical constitution and topology. Specific functions are placed at arbitrary positions along the chain via the successive addition of monomer units and blocks, leading to a library of functional homopolymers, alternating copolymers and block copolymers. The in-depth characterization of each sequence-defined chain confirms the precision nature of the macromolecules. Decoding of the functional information contained in the molecular structure is achieved via tandem mass spectrometry without recourse to their synthetic history, showing that the sequence information can be read. We submit that the presented photochemical strategy is a viable and advanced concept for coding individual monomer units along a macromolecular chain.

  10. Interphase vs confinement in starch-clay bionanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Coativy, Gildas; Chevigny, Chloé; Rolland-Sabaté, Agnès; Leroy, Eric; Lourdin, Denis

    2015-03-06

    Starch-clay bionanocomposites containing 1-10% of natural montmorillonite were elaborated by melt processing in the presence of water. A complex macromolecular dynamics behavior was observed: depending on the clay content, an increase of the glass transition temperature and/or the presence of two overlapped α relaxation peaks were detected. Thanks to a model allowing the prediction of the average interparticle distance, and its comparison with the average size of starch macromolecules, it was possible to associate these phenomena to different populations of macromolecules. In particular, it seems that for high clay content (10%), the slowdown of segmental relaxation due to confinement of the starch macromolecules between the clay tactoïds is the predominant phenomenon. While for lower clay contents (3-5%), a significant modification of chain relaxation seems to occur, due to the formation of an interphase by the starch macromolecules in the vicinity of clay nanoparticles coexisting with the bulk polymer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamics of highly polydisperse colloidal suspensions as a model system for bacterial cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jiye; Kim, Jeongmin; Sung, Bong June

    2016-08-01

    There are various kinds of macromolecules in bacterial cell cytoplasm. The size polydispersity of the macromolecules is so significant that the crystallization and the phase separation could be suppressed, thus stabilizing the liquid state of bacterial cytoplasm. On the other hand, recent experiments suggested that the macromolecules in bacterial cytoplasm should exhibit glassy dynamics, which should be also affected significantly by the size polydispersity of the macromolecules. In this work, we investigate the anomalous and slow dynamics of highly polydisperse colloidal suspensions, of which size distribution is chosen to mimic Escherichia coli cytoplasm. We find from our Langevin dynamics simulations that the diffusion coefficient (D_{tot}) and the displacement distribution functions (P(r,t)) averaged over all colloids of different sizes do not show anomalous and glassy dynamic behaviors until the system volume fraction ϕ is increased up to 0.82. This indicates that the intrinsic polydispersity of bacterial cytoplasm should suppress the glass transition and help maintain the liquid state of the cytoplasm. On the other hand, colloids of each kind show totally different dynamic behaviors depending on their size. The dynamics of colloids of different size becomes non-Gaussian at a different range of ϕ, which suggests that a multistep glass transition should occur. The largest colloids undergo the glass transition at ϕ=0.65, while the glass transition does not occur for smaller colloids in our simulations even at the highest value of ϕ. We also investigate the distribution (P(θ,t)) of the relative angles of displacement for macromolecules and find that macromolecules undergo directionally correlated motions in a sufficiently dense system.

  12. Dynamics of highly polydisperse colloidal suspensions as a model system for bacterial cytoplasm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jiye; Kim, Jeongmin; Sung, Bong June

    2016-08-01

    There are various kinds of macromolecules in bacterial cell cytoplasm. The size polydispersity of the macromolecules is so significant that the crystallization and the phase separation could be suppressed, thus stabilizing the liquid state of bacterial cytoplasm. On the other hand, recent experiments suggested that the macromolecules in bacterial cytoplasm should exhibit glassy dynamics, which should be also affected significantly by the size polydispersity of the macromolecules. In this work, we investigate the anomalous and slow dynamics of highly polydisperse colloidal suspensions, of which size distribution is chosen to mimic Escherichia coli cytoplasm. We find from our Langevin dynamics simulations that the diffusion coefficient (Dtot) and the displacement distribution functions (P (r ,t ) ) averaged over all colloids of different sizes do not show anomalous and glassy dynamic behaviors until the system volume fraction ϕ is increased up to 0.82. This indicates that the intrinsic polydispersity of bacterial cytoplasm should suppress the glass transition and help maintain the liquid state of the cytoplasm. On the other hand, colloids of each kind show totally different dynamic behaviors depending on their size. The dynamics of colloids of different size becomes non-Gaussian at a different range of ϕ , which suggests that a multistep glass transition should occur. The largest colloids undergo the glass transition at ϕ =0.65 , while the glass transition does not occur for smaller colloids in our simulations even at the highest value of ϕ . We also investigate the distribution (P (θ ,t ) ) of the relative angles of displacement for macromolecules and find that macromolecules undergo directionally correlated motions in a sufficiently dense system.

  13. Sedimentation Coefficient, Frictional Coefficient, and Molecular Weight: A Preparative Ultracentrifuge Experiment for the Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsall, H. B.; Wermeling, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experiment using a high-speed preparative centrifuge and calculator to demonstrate effects of the frictional coefficient of a macromolecule on its rate of transport in a force field and to estimate molecular weight of the macromolecule using an empirical relationship. Background information, procedures, and discussion of results are…

  14. Multiple Cosmic Sources for Meteorite Macromolecules?

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Jonathan S.; Meredith, William; Love, Gordon D.; Gilmour, Iain; Snape, Colin E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The major organic component in carbonaceous meteorites is an organic macromolecular material. The Murchison macromolecular material comprises aromatic units connected by aliphatic and heteroatom-containing linkages or occluded within the wider structure. The macromolecular material source environment remains elusive. Traditionally, attempts to determine source have strived to identify a single environment. Here, we apply a highly efficient hydrogenolysis method to liberate units from the macromolecular material and use mass spectrometric techniques to determine their chemical structures and individual stable carbon isotope ratios. We confirm that the macromolecular material comprises a labile fraction with small aromatic units enriched in 13C and a refractory fraction made up of large aromatic units depleted in 13C. Our findings suggest that the macromolecular material may be derived from at least two separate environments. Compound-specific carbon isotope trends for aromatic compounds with carbon number may reflect mixing of the two sources. The story of the quantitatively dominant macromolecular material in meteorites appears to be made up of more than one chapter. Key Words: Abiotic organic synthesis—Carbonaceous chondrite—Cosmochemistry—Meteorites. Astrobiology 15, 779–786. PMID:26418568

  15. ProteinShader: illustrative rendering of macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Joseph R

    2009-01-01

    Background Cartoon-style illustrative renderings of proteins can help clarify structural features that are obscured by space filling or balls and sticks style models, and recent advances in programmable graphics cards offer many new opportunities for improving illustrative renderings. Results The ProteinShader program, a new tool for macromolecular visualization, uses information from Protein Data Bank files to produce illustrative renderings of proteins that approximate what an artist might create by hand using pen and ink. A combination of Hermite and spherical linear interpolation is used to draw smooth, gradually rotating three-dimensional tubes and ribbons with a repeating pattern of texture coordinates, which allows the application of texture mapping, real-time halftoning, and smooth edge lines. This free platform-independent open-source program is written primarily in Java, but also makes extensive use of the OpenGL Shading Language to modify the graphics pipeline. Conclusion By programming to the graphics processor unit, ProteinShader is able to produce high quality images and illustrative rendering effects in real-time. The main feature that distinguishes ProteinShader from other free molecular visualization tools is its use of texture mapping techniques that allow two-dimensional images to be mapped onto the curved three-dimensional surfaces of ribbons and tubes with minimum distortion of the images. PMID:19331660

  16. Innovative NMR strategies for complex macromolecules

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years there has been an increasing research emphasis on complex macromolecular systems. These include polymers with precise control of structures, multicomponent systems with higher degrees of organization, polymers involved in micelles, interfaces, and confined environments, nanochemistr...

  17. Glycosylation facilitates transdermal transport of macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Pino, Christopher J.; Gutterman, Jordan U.; Vonwil, Daniel; Mitragotri, Samir; Shastri, V. Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Stratum corneum, the outermost layer of skin, allows transport of only low-molecular weight (<500) lipophilic solutes. Here, we report a surprising finding that avicins (Avs), a family of naturally occurring glycosylated triterpenes with a molecular weight > 2,000, exhibit skin permeabilities comparable to those of small hydrophobic molecules, such as estradiol. Systematic fragmentation of the Av molecule shows that deletion of the outer monoterpene results in a 62% reduction in permeability, suggesting an important role for this motif in skin permeation. Further removal of the tetrasaccharide residue results in a further reduction of permeability by 79%. These results, taken in sum, imply that synergistic effects involving both hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues may hold the key in facilitating translocation of Avs across skin lipids. In addition to exhibiting high permeability, Avs provided moderate enhancements of skin permeability of estradiol and polysaccharides, including dextran and inulin but not polyethylene glycol. PMID:23236155

  18. Thermodynamics of Macromolecular Association in Heterogeneous Crowding Environments: Theoretical and Simulation Studies with a Simplified Model.

    PubMed

    Ando, Tadashi; Yu, Isseki; Feig, Michael; Sugita, Yuji

    2016-11-23

    The cytoplasm of a cell is crowded with many different kinds of macromolecules. The macromolecular crowding affects the thermodynamics and kinetics of biological reactions in a living cell, such as protein folding, association, and diffusion. Theoretical and simulation studies using simplified models focus on the essential features of the crowding effects and provide a basis for analyzing experimental data. In most of the previous studies on the crowding effects, a uniform crowder size is assumed, which is in contrast to the inhomogeneous size distribution of macromolecules in a living cell. Here, we evaluate the free energy changes upon macromolecular association in a cell-like inhomogeneous crowding system via a theory of hard-sphere fluids and free energy calculations using Brownian dynamics trajectories. The inhomogeneous crowding model based on 41 different types of macromolecules represented by spheres with different radii mimics the physiological concentrations of macromolecules in the cytoplasm of Mycoplasma genitalium. The free energy changes of macromolecular association evaluated by the theory and simulations were in good agreement with each other. The crowder size distribution affects both specific and nonspecific molecular associations, suggesting that not only the volume fraction but also the size distribution of macromolecules are important factors for evaluating in vivo crowding effects. This study relates in vitro experiments on macromolecular crowding to in vivo crowding effects by using the theory of hard-sphere fluids with crowder-size heterogeneity.

  19. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF PHARMACOLOGIC VITREOLYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Sebag, J

    2005-01-01

    Purpose Pharmacologic vitreolysis is a promising new therapy to improve vitreoretinal surgery and, ultimately, prevent disease by mitigating the contribution of vitreous to retinopathy. The mechanism of action of the agents being developed for pharmacologic vitreolysis remains unclear. The experiments in this thesis test the hypothesis that pharmacologic vitreolysis agents break down vitreous macromolecules into smaller particles. Methods Microplasmin, hyaluronidase, and collagenase were tested in solutions of hyaluronan (n = 15) and collagen (n = 15), explants of bovine vitreous (n = 15), dissected porcine vitreous (n = 9), and intact porcine eyes (n = 18). There were also 21 controls, totaling 93 specimens. Vitreous macromolecule sizes were determined with dynamic light scattering (DLS), performed at intervals from 10 minutes to 24 hours following injections. Results Studies of DLS reproducibility showed a coefficient of variance of less than 3.3% in all but one specimen. Microplasmin decreased porcine vitreous macromolecule size in a dose-dependent manner (correlation coefficient r = 0.93), with an 85% reduction after a 30-minute exposure to the maximum dose. Hyaluronidase decreased vitreous macromolecule size in hyaluronan solutions by 50% at high (1,000 IU/mL, P < .001) doses and in bovine vitreous by 20%. Collagenase decreased macromolecule size in collagen solutions by 20% at both low (1 mg/mL, P < .001) and high (10 mg/mL, P < .001) doses, but not at all in bovine vitreous. Conclusions Pharmacologic vitreolysis can induce a significant decrease in vitreous macromolecule sizes, depending upon the pharmacologic agents and the experimental model. Broad-spectrum agents were more effective than substrate-specific enzymes. Defining the molecular biology of pharmacologic vitreolysis has implications for surgical developments and may impact upon the design of clinical trials to induce prophylactic posterior vitreous detachment. PMID:17057814

  20. Fluid Physics and Macromolecular Crystal Growth in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, M.; Snell, E.; Judge, R.; Chayen, N.; Boggon, T.; Helliwell, J.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The molecular structure of biological macromolecules is important in understanding how these molecules work and has direct application to rational drug design for new medicines and for the improvement and development of industrial enzymes. In order to obtain the molecular structure, large, well formed, single macromolecule crystals are required. The growth of macromolecule crystals is a difficult task and is often hampered on the ground by fluid flows that result from the interaction of gravity with the crystal growth process. One such effect is the bulk movement of the crystal through the fluid due to sedimentation. A second is buoyancy driven convection close to the crystal surface. On the ground the crystallization process itself induces both of these flows.

  1. A primer in macromolecular linguistics.

    PubMed

    Searls, David B

    2013-03-01

    Polymeric macromolecules, when viewed abstractly as strings of symbols, can be treated in terms of formal language theory, providing a mathematical foundation for characterizing such strings both as collections and in terms of their individual structures. In addition this approach offers a framework for analysis of macromolecules by tools and conventions widely used in computational linguistics. This article introduces the ways that linguistics can be and has been applied to molecular biology, covering the relevant formal language theory at a relatively nontechnical level. Analogies between macromolecules and human natural language are used to provide intuitive insights into the relevance of grammars, parsing, and analysis of language complexity to biology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Microelectrophoretic study of calcium oxalate monohydrate in macromolecular solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Onoda, G. Y., Jr.; Finlayson, B.

    1987-01-01

    Electrophoretic mobilities were measured for calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) in solutions containing macromolecules. Two mucopolysaccharides (sodium heparin and chondroitin sulfate) and two proteins (positively charged lysozyme and negatively charged bovine serum albumin) were studied as adsorbates. The effects of pH, calcium oxalate surface charge (varied by calcium or oxalate ion activity), and citrate concentration were investigated. All four macromolecules showed evidence for adsorption. The macromolecule concentrations needed for reversing the surface charge indicated that the mucopolysaccharides have greater affinity for the COM surface than the proteins. Citrate ions at high concentrations appear to compete effectively with the negative protein for surface sites but show no evidence for competing with the positively charged protein.

  3. Microphase separation of comb copolymers with two different lengths of side chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, M. A.; Kuzminyh, N. Yu.

    2009-10-01

    The phase behavior of the monodisperse AB comb copolymer melt contained the macromolecules of special architecture is discussed. Each macromolecule is assumed to be composed of two comb blocks which differ in numbers of side chains and numbers of monomer units in these chains. It is shown (by analysis of the structure factor of the melt) that microphase separation at two different length scales in the melt is possible. The large and small length scales correspond to separation between comb blocks and separation between monomer units in repeating fragments of blocks, respectively. The classification diagrams indicated which length scale is favored for a given parameters of chemical structure of macromolecules are constructed.

  4. Solid-State 15N NMR of 15N-Labeled Nylon 6 and Nylon 11

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-22

    S. Veeman, E. M. Menger, W. Ritchey, and E. de Boer, Macromolecules, 1979, 12, 924. 2. A. N. Garroway , W. M. Ritchey and W. B. Moniz, Macromolecules...S. Veeman and E. M. Menger, Bull. Magn. Reson., 1980, 2, 77. 26. D. L. VanderHart and A. N. Garroway , J. Chem. Phys., 1979, 71, 2773. 27. M. D

  5. [Dynamics of biomacromolecules in coherent electromagnetic radiation field].

    PubMed

    Leshcheniuk, N S; Apanasevich, E E; Tereshenkov, V I

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that induced oscillations and periodic displacements of the equilibrium positions occur in biomacromolecules in the absence of electromagnetic radiation absorption, due to modulation of interaction potential between atoms and groups of atoms forming the non-valence bonds in macromolecules by the external electromagnetic field. Such "hyperoscillation" state causes inevitably the changes in biochemical properties of macromolecules and conformational transformation times.

  6. Force spectroscopy of biomolecular folding and binding: theory meets experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudko, Olga

    2015-03-01

    Conformational transitions in biological macromolecules usually serve as the mechanism that brings biomolecules into their working shape and enables their biological function. Single-molecule force spectroscopy probes conformational transitions by applying force to individual macromolecules and recording their response, or ``mechanical fingerprints,'' in the form of force-extension curves. However, how can we decode these fingerprints so that they reveal the kinetic barriers and the associated timescales of a biological process? I will present an analytical theory of the mechanical fingerprints of macromolecules. The theory is suitable for decoding such fingerprints to extract the barriers and timescales. The application of the theory will be illustrated through recent studies on protein-DNA interactions and the receptor-ligand complexes involved in blood clot formation.

  7. Macromolecular Competition Titration Method: Accessing Thermodynamics of the Unmodified Macromolecule–Ligand Interactions Through Spectroscopic Titrations of Fluorescent Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Bujalowski, Wlodzimierz; Jezewska, Maria J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of thermodynamically rigorous binding isotherms provides fundamental information about the energetics of the ligand–macromolecule interactions and often an invaluable insight about the structure of the formed complexes. The Macromolecular Competition Titration (MCT) method enables one to quantitatively obtain interaction parameters of protein–nucleic acid interactions, which may not be available by other methods, particularly for the unmodified long polymer lattices and specific nucleic acid substrates, if the binding is not accompanied by adequate spectroscopic signal changes. The method can be applied using different fluorescent nucleic acids or fluorophores, although the etheno-derivatives of nucleic acid are especially suitable as they are relatively easy to prepare, have significant blue fluorescence, their excitation band lies far from the protein absorption spectrum, and the modification eliminates the possibility of base pairing with other nucleic acids. The MCT method is not limited to the specific size of the reference nucleic acid. Particularly, a simple analysis of the competition titration experiments is described in which the fluorescent, short fragment of nucleic acid, spanning the exact site-size of the protein–nucleic acid complex, and binding with only a 1:1 stoichiometry to the protein, is used as a reference macromolecule. Although the MCT method is predominantly discussed as applied to studying protein–nucleic acid interactions, it can generally be applied to any ligand–macromolecule system by monitoring the association reaction using the spectroscopic signal originating from the reference macromolecule in the presence of the competing macromolecule, whose interaction parameters with the ligand are to be determined. PMID:21195223

  8. Method for detecting and diagnosing disease caused by pathological protein aggregation

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Fred J.; Myatt, Elizabeth A.; Solomon, Alan

    2000-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting pathological macromolecules in a patient, comprising obtaining body fluid from the patient, pretreating the body fluid, subjecting the pretreated body fluid to size-exclusion chromatography to create an excluded fluid, and analyzing the excluded fluid to detect macromolecules having a predetermined molecular weight. The method also allows for comparing elution spectra with reference spectra of suspect pathologic proteins.

  9. Multistage adsorption of diffusing macromolecules and viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Tom; D'Orsogna, Maria R.

    2007-09-01

    We derive the equations that describe adsorption of diffusing particles onto a surface followed by additional surface kinetic steps before being transported across the interface. Multistage surface kinetics occurs during membrane protein insertion, cell signaling, and the infection of cells by virus particles. For example, viral entry into healthy cells is possible only after a series of receptor and coreceptor binding events occurs at the cellular surface. We couple the diffusion of particles in the bulk phase with the multistage surface kinetics and derive an effective, integrodifferential boundary condition that contains a memory kernel embodying the delay induced by the surface reactions. This boundary condition takes the form of a singular perturbation problem in the limit where particle-surface interactions are short ranged. Moreover, depending on the surface kinetics, the delay kernel induces a nonmonotonic, transient replenishment of the bulk particle concentration near the interface. The approach generalizes that of Ward and Tordai [J. Chem. Phys. 14, 453 (1946)] and Diamant and Andelman [Colloids Surf. A 183-185, 259 (2001)] to include surface kinetics, giving rise to qualitatively new behaviors. Our analysis also suggests a simple scheme by which stochastic surface reactions may be coupled to deterministic bulk diffusion.

  10. Natural macromolecules with protective and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Cioanca, Oana; Trifan, Adriana; Mircea, Cornelia; Dragos, Scripcariu; Hancianu, Monica

    2018-04-24

    This review summarizes the literature data regarding plant lectins and as novel drug sources in prevention or treatment of cancer. Moreover, such compounds have been described as natural toxins that possess different biological activities (cytotoxic, antitumor, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties). This activity depends greatly on their structure and affinity. Most of the mushroom heterosides are known as β-glucans with β-(1→3)-glycosidic bonds. It is thought that their conformation, bonds, molecular size can modulate the immune response by triggering different receptors. The mechanism on normal and tumor cells of various plant and mushroom polysaccharides and lectins is briefly presented in this paper. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Radiation damage to macromolecules: kill or cure?

    PubMed

    Garman, Elspeth F; Weik, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Radiation damage induced by X-ray beams during macromolecular diffraction experiments remains an issue of concern in structural biology. While advances in our understanding of this phenomenon, driven in part by a series of workshops in this area, undoubtedly have been and are still being made, there are still questions to be answered. Eight papers in this volume give a flavour of ongoing investigations, addressing various issues. These range over: a proposed new metric derived from atomic B-factors for identifying potentially damaged amino acid residues, a study of the relative damage susceptibility of protein and DNA in a DNA/protein complex, a report of an indication of specific radiation damage to a protein determined from data collected using an X-ray free-electron laser (FEL), an account of the challenges in FEL raw diffraction data analysis, an exploration of the possibilities of using radiation damage induced phasing to solve structures using FELs, simulations of radiation damage as a function of FEL temporal pulse profiles, results on the influence of radiation damage during scanning X-ray diffraction measurements and, lastly, consideration of strategies for minimizing radiation damage during SAXS experiments. In this short introduction, these contributions are briefly placed in the context of other current work on radiation damage in the field.

  12. Polymer Dynamics from Synthetic to Biological Macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, D.; Niedzwiedz, K.; Monkenbusch, M.; Wischnewski, A.; Biehl, R.; Hoffmann, B.; Merkel, R.

    2008-02-01

    High resolution neutron scattering together with a meticulous choice of the contrast conditions allows to access the large scale dynamics of soft materials including biological molecules in space and time. In this contribution we present two examples. One from the world of synthetic polymers, the other from biomolecules. First, we will address the peculiar dynamics of miscible polymer blends with very different component glass transition temperatures. Polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA), polyethyleneoxide (PEO) are perfectly miscible but exhibit a difference in the glass transition temperature by 200 K. We present quasielastic neutron scattering investigations on the dynamics of the fast component in the range from angströms to nanometers over a time frame of five orders of magnitude. All data may be consistently described in terms of a Rouse model with random friction, reflecting the random environment imposed by the nearly frozen PMMA matrix on the fast mobile PEO. In the second part we touch on some new developments relating to large scale internal dynamics of proteins by neutron spin echo. We will report results of some pioneering studies which show the feasibility of such experiments on large scale protein motion which will most likely initiate further studies in the future.

  13. Quantitative mass imaging of single biological macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Young, Gavin; Hundt, Nikolas; Cole, Daniel; Fineberg, Adam; Andrecka, Joanna; Tyler, Andrew; Olerinyova, Anna; Ansari, Ayla; Marklund, Erik G; Collier, Miranda P; Chandler, Shane A; Tkachenko, Olga; Allen, Joel; Crispin, Max; Billington, Neil; Takagi, Yasuharu; Sellers, James R; Eichmann, Cédric; Selenko, Philipp; Frey, Lukas; Riek, Roland; Galpin, Martin R; Struwe, Weston B; Benesch, Justin L P; Kukura, Philipp

    2018-04-27

    The cellular processes underpinning life are orchestrated by proteins and their interactions. The associated structural and dynamic heterogeneity, despite being key to function, poses a fundamental challenge to existing analytical and structural methodologies. We used interferometric scattering microscopy to quantify the mass of single biomolecules in solution with 2% sequence mass accuracy, up to 19-kilodalton resolution, and 1-kilodalton precision. We resolved oligomeric distributions at high dynamic range, detected small-molecule binding, and mass-imaged proteins with associated lipids and sugars. These capabilities enabled us to characterize the molecular dynamics of processes as diverse as glycoprotein cross-linking, amyloidogenic protein aggregation, and actin polymerization. Interferometric scattering mass spectrometry allows spatiotemporally resolved measurement of a broad range of biomolecular interactions, one molecule at a time. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  14. Macromolecules for Inhibition of Corrosion and Wear

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-14

    phthalocyanine TCAUPC tetrakis-(N-carboxy-12-aminoundecanoic acid ) phthalocyanine TCACPC tetrakis-(N-carboxy-6- aminocaproic acid ) phthalocyanine Table 2... acid ); (TCACPC] - tetrakis(N- carboxy-6- aminocaproic acid ). •* Containing p-hydroxy pyridine groups in the voids. 9 NAWCADWAR-92112-60 protection...fluids .......... ................................ 10 8 PFPE degradation in the presence of FeF 3 Lewis Acid ..... 11 9 The degradation mechanism for PFPE

  15. Multi-Stimuli Responsive Macromolecules and Their Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jiaming; Gordon, Mallory; Ventura, Judy; Li, Longyu; Thayumanavan, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we outline examples that illustrate the design criteria for achieving macromolecular assemblies that incorporate a combination of two or more chemical, physical or biological stimuli-responsive components. Progress in both fundamental investigation into the phase transformations of these polymers in response to multiple stimuli and their utilization in a variety of pratical applications have been highlighted. Using these examples, we aim to explain the origin of employed mechanisms of stimuli responsiveness which may serve as a guideline to inspire future design of multi-stimuli responsive materials. PMID:23765263

  16. Outcome of the First wwPDB/CCDC/D3R Ligand Validation Workshop

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Adams, Paul  D.; Aertgeerts, Kathleen; Bauer, Cary

    Crystallographic studies of ligands bound to biological macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids) represent an important source of information concerning drug-target interactions, providing atomic level insights into the physical chemistry of complex formation between macromolecules and ligands. Of the more than 115,000 entries extant in the Protein Data Bank archive, ~75% include at least one non-polymeric ligand. Ligand geometrical and stereochemical quality, the suitability of ligand models for in silico drug discovery/design, and the goodness-of-fit of ligand models to electron density maps vary widely across the archive. We describe the proceedings and conclusions from the first Worldwide Protein Data Bank/Cambridge Crystallographicmore » Data Centre/Drug Design Data Resource (wwPDB/CCDC/D3R) Ligand Validation Workshop held at the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics at Rutgers University on July 30-31, 2015. Experts in protein crystallography from academe and industry came together with non-profit and for-profit software providers for crystallography and with experts in computational chemistry and data archiving to discuss and make recommendations on best practices, as framed by a series of questions central to structural studies of macromolecule-ligand complexes. What data concerning bound ligands should be archived in the Protein Data Bank? How should the ligands be best represented? How should structural models of macromolecule-ligand complexes be validated? What supplementary information should accompany publications of structural studies of biological macromolecules? Consensus recommendations on best practices developed in response to each of these questions are provided, together with some details regarding implementation. Important issues addressed but not resolved at the workshop are also enumerated.« less

  17. Outcome of the First wwPDB/CCDC/D3R Ligand Validation Workshop

    DOE PAGES

    Adams, Paul  D.; Aertgeerts, Kathleen; Bauer, Cary; ...

    2016-04-05

    Crystallographic studies of ligands bound to biological macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids) represent an important source of information concerning drug-target interactions, providing atomic level insights into the physical chemistry of complex formation between macromolecules and ligands. Of the more than 115,000 entries extant in the Protein Data Bank archive, ~75% include at least one non-polymeric ligand. Ligand geometrical and stereochemical quality, the suitability of ligand models for in silico drug discovery/design, and the goodness-of-fit of ligand models to electron density maps vary widely across the archive. We describe the proceedings and conclusions from the first Worldwide Protein Data Bank/Cambridge Crystallographicmore » Data Centre/Drug Design Data Resource (wwPDB/CCDC/D3R) Ligand Validation Workshop held at the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics at Rutgers University on July 30-31, 2015. Experts in protein crystallography from academe and industry came together with non-profit and for-profit software providers for crystallography and with experts in computational chemistry and data archiving to discuss and make recommendations on best practices, as framed by a series of questions central to structural studies of macromolecule-ligand complexes. What data concerning bound ligands should be archived in the Protein Data Bank? How should the ligands be best represented? How should structural models of macromolecule-ligand complexes be validated? What supplementary information should accompany publications of structural studies of biological macromolecules? Consensus recommendations on best practices developed in response to each of these questions are provided, together with some details regarding implementation. Important issues addressed but not resolved at the workshop are also enumerated.« less

  18. Outcome of the First wwPDB/CCDC/D3R Ligand Validation Workshop.

    PubMed

    Adams, Paul D; Aertgeerts, Kathleen; Bauer, Cary; Bell, Jeffrey A; Berman, Helen M; Bhat, Talapady N; Blaney, Jeff M; Bolton, Evan; Bricogne, Gerard; Brown, David; Burley, Stephen K; Case, David A; Clark, Kirk L; Darden, Tom; Emsley, Paul; Feher, Victoria A; Feng, Zukang; Groom, Colin R; Harris, Seth F; Hendle, Jorg; Holder, Thomas; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Krojer, Tobias; Marcotrigiano, Joseph; Mark, Alan E; Markley, John L; Miller, Matthew; Minor, Wladek; Montelione, Gaetano T; Murshudov, Garib; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Nakamura, Haruki; Nicholls, Anthony; Nicklaus, Marc; Nolte, Robert T; Padyana, Anil K; Peishoff, Catherine E; Pieniazek, Susan; Read, Randy J; Shao, Chenghua; Sheriff, Steven; Smart, Oliver; Soisson, Stephen; Spurlino, John; Stouch, Terry; Svobodova, Radka; Tempel, Wolfram; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Tronrud, Dale; Velankar, Sameer; Ward, Suzanna C; Warren, Gregory L; Westbrook, John D; Williams, Pamela; Yang, Huanwang; Young, Jasmine

    2016-04-05

    Crystallographic studies of ligands bound to biological macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids) represent an important source of information concerning drug-target interactions, providing atomic level insights into the physical chemistry of complex formation between macromolecules and ligands. Of the more than 115,000 entries extant in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive, ∼75% include at least one non-polymeric ligand. Ligand geometrical and stereochemical quality, the suitability of ligand models for in silico drug discovery and design, and the goodness-of-fit of ligand models to electron-density maps vary widely across the archive. We describe the proceedings and conclusions from the first Worldwide PDB/Cambridge Crystallographic Data Center/Drug Design Data Resource (wwPDB/CCDC/D3R) Ligand Validation Workshop held at the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics at Rutgers University on July 30-31, 2015. Experts in protein crystallography from academe and industry came together with non-profit and for-profit software providers for crystallography and with experts in computational chemistry and data archiving to discuss and make recommendations on best practices, as framed by a series of questions central to structural studies of macromolecule-ligand complexes. What data concerning bound ligands should be archived in the PDB? How should the ligands be best represented? How should structural models of macromolecule-ligand complexes be validated? What supplementary information should accompany publications of structural studies of biological macromolecules? Consensus recommendations on best practices developed in response to each of these questions are provided, together with some details regarding implementation. Important issues addressed but not resolved at the workshop are also enumerated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Outcome of the first wwPDB/CCDC/D3R Ligand Validation Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Paul D.; Aertgeerts, Kathleen; Bauer, Cary; Bell, Jeffrey A.; Berman, Helen M.; Bhat, Talapady N.; Blaney, Jeff; Bolton, Evan; Bricogne, Gerard; Brown, David; Burley, Stephen K.; Case, David A.; Clark, Kirk L.; Darden, Tom; Emsley, Paul; Feher, Victoria A.; Feng, Zukang; Groom, Colin R.; Harris, Seth F.; Hendle, Jorg; Holder, Thomas; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Kleywegt, Gerard J.; Krojer, Tobias; Marcotrigiano, Joseph; Mark, Alan E.; Markley, John L.; Miller, Matthew; Minor, Wladek; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Murshudov, Garib; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Nakamura, Haruki; Nicholls, Anthony; Nicklaus, Marc; Nolte, Robert T.; Padyana, Anil K.; Peishoff, Catherine E.; Pieniazek, Susan; Read, Randy J.; Shao, Chenghua; Sheriff, Steven; Smart, Oliver; Soisson, Stephen; Spurlino, John; Stouch, Terry; Svobodova, Radka; Tempel, Wolfram; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Tronrud, Dale; Velankar, Sameer; Ward, Suzanna; Warren, Gregory L.; Westbrook, John D.; Williams, Pamela; Yang, Huanwang; Young, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    Summary Crystallographic studies of ligands bound to biological macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids) represent an important source of information concerning drug-target interactions, providing atomic level insights into the physical chemistry of complex formation between macromolecules and ligands. Of the more than 115,000 entries extant in the Protein Data Bank archive, ~75% include at least one non-polymeric ligand. Ligand geometrical and stereochemical quality, the suitability of ligand models for in silico drug discovery/design, and the goodness-of-fit of ligand models to electron density maps vary widely across the archive. We describe the proceedings and conclusions from the first Worldwide Protein Data Bank/Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre/Drug Design Data Resource (wwPDB/CCDC/D3R) Ligand Validation Workshop held at the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics at Rutgers University on July 30–31, 2015. Experts in protein crystallography from academe and industry came together with non-profit and for-profit software providers for crystallography and with experts in computational chemistry and data archiving to discuss and make recommendations on best practices, as framed by a series of questions central to structural studies of macromolecule-ligand complexes. What data concerning bound ligands should be archived in the Protein Data Bank? How should the ligands be best represented? How should structural models of macromolecule-ligand complexes be validated? What supplementary information should accompany publications of structural studies of biological macromolecules? Consensus recommendations on best practices developed in response to each of these questions are provided, together with some details regarding implementation. Important issues addressed but not resolved at the workshop are also enumerated. PMID:27050687

  20. Workshop on High-Field NMR and Biological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientists at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have been working toward the establishment of a new Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC). The primary scientific thrust of this new research center is in the areas of theoretical chemistry, chemical dynamics, surface and interfacial science, and studies on the structure and interactions of biological macromolecules. The MSRC will provide important new capabilities for studies on the structure of biological macromolecules. The MSRC program includes several types of advanced spectroscopic techniques for molecular structure analysis, and a theory and modeling laboratory for molecular mechanics/dynamics calculations and graphics. It is the goal to closely integrate experimental and theoretical studies on macromolecular structure, and to join these research efforts with those of the molecular biological programs to provide new insights into the structure/function relationships of biological macromolecules. One of the areas of structural biology on which initial efforts in the MSRC will be focused is the application of high field, 2-D NMR to the study of biological macromolecules. First, there is interest in obtaining 3-D structural information on large proteins and oligonucleotides. Second, one of the primary objectives is to closely link theoretical approaches to molecular structure analysis with the results obtained in experimental research using NMR and other spectroscopies.

  1. Lost in Transit: Long-Distance Trafficking and Phloem Unloading of Protein Signals in Arabidopsis Homografts[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gustin, Marie-Paule; Molnar, Attila; Oparka, Karl J.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to moving sugars and nutrients, the phloem transports many macromolecules. While grafting and aphid stylectomy experiments have identified many macromolecules that move in the phloem, the functional significance of phloem transport of these remains unclear. To gain insight into protein trafficking, we micrografted Arabidopsis thaliana scions expressing GFP-tagged chloroplast transit peptides under the 35S promoter onto nontransgenic rootstocks. We found that plastids in the root tip became fluorescent 10 d after grafting. We obtained identical results with the companion cell-specific promoter SUC2 and with signals that target proteins to peroxisomes, actin, and the nucleus. We were unable to detect the respective mRNAs in the rootstock, indicating extensive movement of proteins in the phloem. Outward movement from the root protophloem was restricted to the pericycle-endodermis boundary, identifying plasmodesmata at this interface as control points in the exchange of macromolecules between stele and cortex. Intriguingly, signals directing proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus from membrane-bound ribosomes were not translocated to the root. It appears that many organelle-targeting sequences are insufficient to prevent the loss of their proteins into the translocation stream. Thus, nonspecific loss of proteins from companion cells to sieve elements may explain the plethora of macromolecules identified in phloem sap. PMID:27600534

  2. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy of encapsulated proteins dissolved in low-viscosity fluids

    PubMed Central

    Nucci, Nathaniel V.; Valentine, Kathleen G.; Wand, A. Joshua

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution multi-dimensional solution NMR is unique as a biophysical and biochemical tool in its ability to examine both the structure and dynamics of macromolecules at atomic resolution. Conventional solution NMR approaches, however, are largely limited to examinations of relatively small (< 25 kDa) molecules, mostly due to the spectroscopic consequences of slow rotational diffusion. Encapsulation of macromolecules within the protective nanoscale aqueous interior of reverse micelles dissolved in low viscosity fluids has been developed as a means through which the ‘slow tumbling problem’ can be overcome. This approach has been successfully applied to diverse proteins and nucleic acids ranging up to 100 kDa, considerably widening the range of biological macromolecules to which conventional solution NMR methodologies may be applied. Recent advances in methodology have significantly broadened the utility of this approach in structural biology and molecular biophysics. PMID:24656086

  3. Thermally Cross-Linked Anion Exchange Membranes from Solvent Processable Isoprene Containing Ionomers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-15

    isoprene determined by 1H NMR of each copolymer. Hydration Macromolecules Article DOI: 10.1021/ma502362a Macromolecules XXXX, XXX, XXX−XXX B number (λ) is...C. This is attributed to the decomposition of the TMA groups. Slight weight loss at lower temperatures is presumably due to the loss of trapped water...that at sufficiently high hydration levels the diffusion coefficient of ions approach their dilute solution diffusivity limits.30 Since conductivity is

  4. A Robust Biomarker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westall, F.; Steele, A.; Toporski, J.; Walsh, M. M.; Allen, C. C.; Guidry, S.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Chafetz, H. S.

    2000-01-01

    Polymers of bacterial origin, either through cell secretion or the degraded product of cell lysis, form isolated mucoidal strands as well as well-developed biofilms on interfaces. Biofilms are structurally and compositionally complex and are readily distinguishable from abiogenic films. These structures range in size from micrometers to decimeters, the latter occurring as the well-known, mineralised biofilms called stromatolites. Compositionally bacterial polymers are greater than 90 % water, with while the majority of the macromolecules forming the framework of the polymers consisting of polysaccharides (with and some nucteic acids and proteins). These macromolecules contain a vaste amount of functional groups, such as carboxyls, hydroxyls, and phosphoryls which are implicated in cation-binding. It is the elevated metal- binding capacity which provides the bacterial polymer with structural support and also helps to preserves it for up to 3.5 b.y. in the terrestrial rock record. The macromolecules, thus, can become rapidly mineralised and trapped in a mineral matrix. Through early and late diagenesis (bacterial degradation, burial, heat, pressure and time) they break down, losing the functional groups and, gradually, their hydrogen atoms. The degraded product is known as "kerogen". With further diagenesis and metamorphism, all the hydrogen atoms are lost and the carbonaceous matter becomes graphite. until the remnant carbonaceous material become graphitised. This last sentence reads a bit as if ALL these macromolecules break down and end up as graphite., but since we find 441 this is not true for all of the macromolecules. We have traced fossilised polymer and biofilms in rocks from throughout Earth's history, to rocks as old as the oldest being 3.5 b.y.-old. Furthermore, Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry has been able to identify individual macromolecules of bacterial origin, the identities of which are still being investigated, in all the samples

  5. Importance of the Debye Screening Length on Nanowire Field Effect Transistor Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Eric; Wagner, Robin; Sigworth, Fred J.; Breaker, Ronald; Fahmy, Tarek M.; Reed, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Nanowire field effect transistors (NW-FETs) can serve as ultrasensitive detectors for label-free reagents. The NW-FET sensing mechanism assumes a controlled modification in the local channel electric field created by the binding of charged molecules to the nanowire surface. Careful control of the solution Debye length is critical for unambiguous selective detection of macromolecules. Here we show the appropriate conditions under which the selective binding of macromolecules is accurately sensed with NW-FET sensors. PMID:17914853

  6. Importance of the Debye screening length on nanowire field effect transistor sensors.

    PubMed

    Stern, Eric; Wagner, Robin; Sigworth, Fred J; Breaker, Ronald; Fahmy, Tarek M; Reed, Mark A

    2007-11-01

    Nanowire field effect transistors (NW-FETs) can serve as ultrasensitive detectors for label-free reagents. The NW-FET sensing mechanism assumes a controlled modification in the local channel electric field created by the binding of charged molecules to the nanowire surface. Careful control of the solution Debye length is critical for unambiguous selective detection of macromolecules. Here we show the appropriate conditions under which the selective binding of macromolecules is accurately sensed with NW-FET sensors.

  7. Strongly Phase-Segregating Block Copolymers with Sub-20 nm Features

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-19

    PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER Francis Doyle Kristian Kempe, Kato L. Killops, Justin E. Poelma, Hyunjung Jung, Joona Bang, Richard Hoogenboom , Helen...Hyunjung Jung,# Joona Bang,# Richard Hoogenboom ,▽ Helen Tran,○ Craig J. Hawker,*,∥,¶ Ulrich S. Schubert,*,†,‡,◆ and Luis M. Campos*,○ †Laboratory of Organic...Macromolecules 2011, 44, 5825. (30) Wiesbrock, F.; Hoogenboom , R.; Leenen, M. A. M.; Meier, M. A. R.; Schubert, U. S. Macromolecules 2005, 38, 5025

  8. Analysis of the conductivity of plasmodesmata by microinjection.

    PubMed

    Kragler, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Pressure microinjection can be used to introduce fluorescent dyes and labeled macromolecules into single cells. The method allows measuring transport activity of macromolecules such as proteins and RNA molecules within and between cells. Routinely, plant mesophyll cells are injected with fluorescent dextran molecules of specific sizes to measure an increase of the size exclusion limit of plasmodesmata in the presence of a co-injected or expressed protein. The mobility of a macromolecule can also be addressed directly by injecting a recombinant protein that itself is labeled with fluorescent dye and following its transport to neighboring cells. This chapter describes a pressure microinjection protocol successfully applied to Nicotiana leaves. This protocol requires basic skills and experience in handling a microscope equipped with an imaging system, a micromanipulator, and a microinjection system attached to an upright microscope. Using this equipment, a trained person can inject approximately 10-20 mesophyll cells per hour.

  9. Sequence-controlled methacrylic multiblock copolymers via sulfur-free RAFT emulsion polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelis, Nikolaos G.; Anastasaki, Athina; Nurumbetov, Gabit; Truong, Nghia P.; Nikolaou, Vasiliki; Shegiwal, Ataulla; Whittaker, Michael R.; Davis, Thomas P.; Haddleton, David M.

    2017-02-01

    Translating the precise monomer sequence control achieved in nature over macromolecular structure (for example, DNA) to whole synthetic systems has been limited due to the lack of efficient synthetic methodologies. So far, chemists have only been able to synthesize monomer sequence-controlled macromolecules by means of complex, time-consuming and iterative chemical strategies such as solid-state Merrifield-type approaches or molecularly dissolved solution-phase systems. Here, we report a rapid and quantitative synthesis of sequence-controlled multiblock polymers in discrete stable nanoscale compartments via an emulsion polymerization approach in which a vinyl-terminated macromolecule is used as an efficient chain-transfer agent. This approach is environmentally friendly, fully translatable to industry and thus represents a significant advance in the development of complex macromolecule synthesis, where a high level of molecular precision or monomer sequence control confers potential for molecular targeting, recognition and biocatalysis, as well as molecular information storage.

  10. A natural and readily available crowding agent: NMR studies of proteins in hen egg white.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Gabriel; Adrover, Miquel; Kelly, Geoff; Temussi, Piero Andrea; Pastore, Annalisa

    2011-05-01

    In vitro studies of biological macromolecules are usually performed in dilute, buffered solutions containing one or just a few different biological macromolecules. Under these conditions, the interactions among molecules are diffusion limited. On the contrary, in living systems, macromolecules of a given type are surrounded by many others, at very high total concentrations. In the last few years, there has been an increasing effort to study biological macromolecules directly in natural crowded environments, as in intact bacterial cells or by mimicking natural crowding by adding proteins, polysaccharides, or even synthetic polymers. Here, we propose the use of hen egg white (HEW) as a simple natural medium, with all features of the media of crowded cells, that could be used by any researcher without difficulty and inexpensively. We present a study of the stability and dynamics behavior of model proteins in HEW, chosen as a prototypical, readily accessible natural medium that can mimic cytosol. We show that two typical globular proteins, dissolved in HEW, give NMR spectra very similar to those obtained in dilute buffers, although dynamic parameters are clearly affected by the crowded medium. The thermal stability of one of these proteins, measured in a range comprising both heat and cold denaturation, is also similar to that in buffer. Our data open new possibilities to the study of proteins in natural crowded media. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Adsorption properties of the nanozirconia/anionic polyacrylamide system-Effects of surfactant presence, solution pH and polymer carboxyl groups content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniewska, Małgorzata; Chibowski, Stanisław; Urban, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    The adsorption mechanism of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) on the nanozirconia surface was examined. The effects of solution pH, carboxyl groups content in macromolecules and anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate-SDS) addition were determined. The more probable structure of polymer adsorption layer was characterized based on the data obtained from spectrophotometry, viscosimetry and potentiometric titration methods. The adsorbed amount of polymer, size of macromolecules in the solution and surface charge density of ZrO2 particles in the absence and presence of PAM were assessed, respectively. Analysis of these results indicated that the increase of solution pH and content of carboxyl groups in the polymeric chains lead to more expanded conformations of adsorbing macromolecules. As a result, the adsorption of anionic polyacrylamide decreased. The SDS presence caused the significant increase of PAM adsorbed amount at pH 3, whereas at pH 6 and 9 the surfactant addition resulted in reduction of polymer adsorption level.

  12. Polar Nature of Biomimetic Fluorapatite/Gelatin Composites: A Comparison of Bipolar Objects and the Polar State of Natural Tissue.

    PubMed

    Burgener, Matthias; Putzeys, Tristan; Gashti, Mazeyar Parvinzadeh; Busch, Susanne; Aboulfadl, Hanane; Wübbenhorst, Michael; Kniep, Rüdiger; Hulliger, Jürg

    2015-09-14

    The correspondence of the state of alignment of macromolecules in biomimetic materials and natural tissues is demonstrated by investigating a mechanism of electrical polarity formation: An in vitro grown biomimetic FAp/gelatin composite is investigated for its polar properties by second harmonic (SHGM) and scanning pyroelectric microscopy (SPEM). Hexagonal prismatic seed crystals formed in gelatin gels represent a monodomain polar state, due to aligned mineralized gelatin molecules. Later growth stages, showing dumbbell morphologies, develop into a bipolar state because of surface recognition by gelatin functionality: A reversal of the polar alignment of macromolecules, thus, takes place close to that basal plane of the seed. In natural hard tissues (teeth and bone investigated by SPEM) and the biomimetic FAp/gelatin composite, we find a surprising analogy in view of growth-induced states of polarity: The development of polarity in vivo and in vitro can be explained by a Markov-type mechanism of molecular recognition during the attachment of macromolecules.

  13. AquaSAXS: a web server for computation and fitting of SAXS profiles with non-uniformally hydrated atomic models.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Frédéric; Orland, Henri; Doniach, Sebastian; Koehl, Patrice; Delarue, Marc

    2011-07-01

    Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) techniques are becoming more and more useful for structural biologists and biochemists, thanks to better access to dedicated synchrotron beamlines, better detectors and the relative easiness of sample preparation. The ability to compute the theoretical SAXS profile of a given structural model, and to compare this profile with the measured scattering intensity, yields crucial structural informations about the macromolecule under study and/or its complexes in solution. An important contribution to the profile, besides the macromolecule itself and its solvent-excluded volume, is the excess density due to the hydration layer. AquaSAXS takes advantage of recently developed methods, such as AquaSol, that give the equilibrium solvent density map around macromolecules, to compute an accurate SAXS/WAXS profile of a given structure and to compare it to the experimental one. Here, we describe the interface architecture and capabilities of the AquaSAXS web server (http://lorentz.dynstr.pasteur.fr/aquasaxs.php).

  14. Principles and Overview of Sampling Methods for Modeling Macromolecular Structure and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, Ryan; Ma, Buyong; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of macromolecular structure and dynamics is fundamental to understanding how macromolecules carry out their functions in the cell. Significant advances have been made toward this end in silico, with a growing number of computational methods proposed yearly to study and simulate various aspects of macromolecular structure and dynamics. This review aims to provide an overview of recent advances, focusing primarily on methods proposed for exploring the structure space of macromolecules in isolation and in assemblies for the purpose of characterizing equilibrium structure and dynamics. In addition to surveying recent applications that showcase current capabilities of computational methods, this review highlights state-of-the-art algorithmic techniques proposed to overcome challenges posed in silico by the disparate spatial and time scales accessed by dynamic macromolecules. This review is not meant to be exhaustive, as such an endeavor is impossible, but rather aims to balance breadth and depth of strategies for modeling macromolecular structure and dynamics for a broad audience of novices and experts. PMID:27124275

  15. Principles and Overview of Sampling Methods for Modeling Macromolecular Structure and Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Maximova, Tatiana; Moffatt, Ryan; Ma, Buyong; Nussinov, Ruth; Shehu, Amarda

    2016-04-01

    Investigation of macromolecular structure and dynamics is fundamental to understanding how macromolecules carry out their functions in the cell. Significant advances have been made toward this end in silico, with a growing number of computational methods proposed yearly to study and simulate various aspects of macromolecular structure and dynamics. This review aims to provide an overview of recent advances, focusing primarily on methods proposed for exploring the structure space of macromolecules in isolation and in assemblies for the purpose of characterizing equilibrium structure and dynamics. In addition to surveying recent applications that showcase current capabilities of computational methods, this review highlights state-of-the-art algorithmic techniques proposed to overcome challenges posed in silico by the disparate spatial and time scales accessed by dynamic macromolecules. This review is not meant to be exhaustive, as such an endeavor is impossible, but rather aims to balance breadth and depth of strategies for modeling macromolecular structure and dynamics for a broad audience of novices and experts.

  16. Determining the bacterial cell biology of Planctomycetes.

    PubMed

    Boedeker, Christian; Schüler, Margarete; Reintjes, Greta; Jeske, Olga; van Teeseling, Muriel C F; Jogler, Mareike; Rast, Patrick; Borchert, Daniela; Devos, Damien P; Kucklick, Martin; Schaffer, Miroslava; Kolter, Roberto; van Niftrik, Laura; Engelmann, Susanne; Amann, Rudolf; Rohde, Manfred; Engelhardt, Harald; Jogler, Christian

    2017-04-10

    Bacteria of the phylum Planctomycetes have been previously reported to possess several features that are typical of eukaryotes, such as cytosolic compartmentalization and endocytosis-like macromolecule uptake. However, recent evidence points towards a Gram-negative cell plan for Planctomycetes, although in-depth experimental analysis has been hampered by insufficient genetic tools. Here we develop methods for expression of fluorescent proteins and for gene deletion in a model planctomycete, Planctopirus limnophila, to analyse its cell organization in detail. Super-resolution light microscopy of mutants, cryo-electron tomography, bioinformatic predictions and proteomic analyses support an altered Gram-negative cell plan for Planctomycetes, including a defined outer membrane, a periplasmic space that can be greatly enlarged and convoluted, and an energized cytoplasmic membrane. These conclusions are further supported by experiments performed with two other Planctomycetes, Gemmata obscuriglobus and Rhodopirellula baltica. We also provide experimental evidence that is inconsistent with endocytosis-like macromolecule uptake; instead, extracellular macromolecules can be taken up and accumulate in the periplasmic space through unclear mechanisms.

  17. Regulation of calcite crystal morphology by intracrystalline acidic proteins and glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Albeck, S; Addadi, I; Weiner, S

    1996-01-01

    Many biologically formed calcite crystals contain intracrystalline macromolecules. The ways in which they interact with growing calcite crystals were evaluated by monitoring changes in the morphology of calcite crystals grown in vitro in their presence. Macromolecules were extracted from within isolated prisms from the prismatic layer of the shell of the mollusk Atrina rigida and from spines of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Two modes of interaction were identified; the interaction of highly acidic proteins with calcite planes perpendicular to the c crystallographic axis and the interaction of glycoproteins with planes roughly parallel to the c axis. By different preparative procedures we demonstrated that the polysaccharide moieties of the sea urchin spine glycoproteins are directly involved in the latter mode of interactions. We suggest that organisms utilize the abilities of these macromolecules to interact in different ways with calcite crystals, and in so doing fine-tune aspects of the control of crystal growth in vivo.

  18. Growing Hyperbranched Polymers Using Natural Sunlight

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun-Jie; Sun, Jiao-Tong; You, Ye-Zi; Wu, De-Cheng; Hong, Chun-Yan

    2013-01-01

    In nature, a sapling can grow into a big tree under irradiation of sunlight. In chemistry, a similar concept that a small molecule only exposing to sunlight grows into a hyperbranched macromolecule has not been realized by now. The achievement of the concept will be fascinating and valuable for polymer synthesis wherein sunlight is inexpensive, abundant, renewable, and nonpolluting. Herein, we report a new strategy in which small monomers can directly grow into big hyperbranched macromolecule under irradiation of sunlight without any catalyst. PMID:24100948

  19. Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates tracheal submucosal gland secretion in ferret

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Peatfield, A.C.; Barnes, P.J.; Bratcher, C.

    1983-07-01

    We studied the effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the output of 35S-labeled macromolecules from ferret tracheal explants either placed in beakers or suspended in modified Ussing chambers. In Ussing chamber experiments, the radiolabel precursor, sodium (35S)sulfate, and all drugs were placed on the submucosal side of the tissue. Washings were collected at 30-min intervals from the luminal side and were dialyzed to remove unbound 35S, leaving radiolabeled macromolecules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide at 3 X 10(-7) M stimulated bound 35S output by a mean of + 252.6% (n . 14). The VIP response was dose-dependent with a near maximalmore » response and a half maximal response at approximately 10(-6) M and 10(-8), M, respectively. The VIP effect was not inhibited by a mixture of tetrodotoxin, atropine, I-propranolol, and phentolamine. Vasoactive intestinal peptide had no effect on the electrical properties of the of the tissues. We conclude that VIP stimulates output of sulfated-macromolecules from ferret tracheal submucosal glands without stimulating ion transport. Our studies also suggest that VIP acts on submucosal glands via specific VIP receptors. Vasoactive intestinal peptide has been shown to increase intracellular levels of cyclic AMP, and we suggest that this may be the mechanism for its effect on the output of macromolecules. This mechanism may be important in the neural regulation of submucosal gland secretion.« less

  20. New mechanisms of macroion-induced disintegration of charged droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consta, Styliani; Oh, Myong In; Malevanets, Anatoly

    2016-10-01

    Molecular modeling has revealed that the presence of charged macromolecules (macroions) in liquid droplets dramatically changes the pathways of droplet fission. These mechanisms are not captured by the traditional theories such as ion-evaporation and charge-residue models. We review the general mechanisms by which macroions emerge from droplets and the factors that determine the droplet fission. These mechanisms include counter-intuitive ;star; droplet formations and extrusion of linear macroions from droplets. These findings may play a direct role in determining macromolecule charge states in electrospray mass spectrometry experiments.

  1. Peptide-directed self-assembly of hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Kopeček, Jindřich; Yang, Jiyuan

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the self-assembly of macromolecules mediated by the biorecognition of peptide/protein domains. Structures forming α-helices and β-sheets have been used to mediate self-assembly into hydrogels of peptides, reactive copolymers and peptide motifs, block copolymers, and graft copolymers. Structural factors governing the self-assembly of these molecules into precisely defined three-dimensional structures (hydrogels) are reviewed. The incorporation of peptide motifs into hybrid systems, composed of synthetic and natural macromolecules, enhances design opportunities for new biomaterials when compared to individual components. PMID:18952513

  2. Practical physics behind growing crystals of biological macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Candoni, Nadine; Grossier, Romain; Hammadi, Zoubida; Morin, Roger; Veesler, Stéphane

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this review is to provide biocrystallographers who intend to tackle protein-crystallization with theory and practical examples. Crystallization involves two separate processes, nucleation and growth, which are rarely completely unconnected. Here we give theoretical background and concrete examples illustrating protein crystallization. We describe the nucleation of a new phase, solid or liquid, and the growth and transformation of existing crystals obtained by primary or secondary nucleation or by seeding. Above all, we believe that a thorough knowledge of the phase diagram is vital to the selection of starting position and path for any crystallization experiment.

  3. Magnetic modulation of release of macromolecules from polymers.

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, D S; Langer, R; Folkman, J

    1981-01-01

    Sustained-release systems were made by incorporating bovine serum albumin and magnetic steel beads in an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer matrix. When exposed to aqueous medium, the polymer matrix released the albumin slowly and continuously. Application of an oscillating magnetic field increased the release rate by as much as 100%. Intervals of 6-hr periods of magnetic exposure and nonexposure were alternated over a 5-day period, resulting in corresponding increases and decreases in release and establishing a pattern of modulated sustained release. Images PMID:6940193

  4. Diffusion of molecules and macromolecules in thylakoid membranes.

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, Helmut

    2014-04-01

    The survival and fitness of photosynthetic organisms is critically dependent on the flexible response of the photosynthetic machinery, harbored in thylakoid membranes, to environmental changes. A central element of this flexibility is the lateral diffusion of membrane components along the membrane plane. As demonstrated, almost all functions of photosynthetic energy conversion are dependent on lateral diffusion. The mobility of both small molecules (plastoquinone, xanthophylls) as well as large protein supercomplexes is very sensitive to changes in structural boundary conditions. Knowledge about the design principles that govern the mobility of photosynthetic membrane components is essential to understand the dynamic response of the photosynthetic machinery. This review summarizes our knowledge about the factors that control diffusion in thylakoid membranes and bridges structural membrane alterations to changes in mobility and function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Dynamic and ultrastructure of bioenergetic membranes and their components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermodynamics and solvent linkage of macromolecule-ligand interactions

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Michael R.; Howell, Elizabeth E.

    2014-01-01

    Binding involves two steps, desolvation and association. While water is ubiquitous and occurs at high concentration, it is typically ignored. In vitro experiments typically use infinite dilution conditions, while in vivo, the concentration of water is decreased due to the presence of high concentrations of molecules in the cellular milieu. This review discusses isothermal titration calorimetry approaches that address the role of water in binding. For example, use of D2O allows the contribution of solvent reorganization to the enthalpy component to be assessed. Further, the addition of osmolytes will decrease the water activity of a solution and allow effects on Ka to be determined. In most cases, binding becomes tighter in the presence of osmolytes as the desolvation penalty associated with binding is minimized. In other cases, the osmolytes prefer to interact with the ligand or protein, and if their removal is more difficult than shedding water, then binding can be weakened. These complicating layers can be discerned by different slopes in ln(Ka) vs osmolality plots and by differential scanning calorimetry in the presence of the osmolyte. PMID:25462561

  6. Multiscale geometric modeling of macromolecules II: Lagrangian representation

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xin; Xia, Kelin; Chen, Zhan; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Geometric modeling of biomolecules plays an essential role in the conceptualization of biolmolecular structure, function, dynamics and transport. Qualitatively, geometric modeling offers a basis for molecular visualization, which is crucial for the understanding of molecular structure and interactions. Quantitatively, geometric modeling bridges the gap between molecular information, such as that from X-ray, NMR and cryo-EM, and theoretical/mathematical models, such as molecular dynamics, the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and the Nernst-Planck equation. In this work, we present a family of variational multiscale geometric models for macromolecular systems. Our models are able to combine multiresolution geometric modeling with multiscale electrostatic modeling in a unified variational framework. We discuss a suite of techniques for molecular surface generation, molecular surface meshing, molecular volumetric meshing, and the estimation of Hadwiger’s functionals. Emphasis is given to the multiresolution representations of biomolecules and the associated multiscale electrostatic analyses as well as multiresolution curvature characterizations. The resulting fine resolution representations of a biomolecular system enable the detailed analysis of solvent-solute interaction, and ion channel dynamics, while our coarse resolution representations highlight the compatibility of protein-ligand bindings and possibility of protein-protein interactions. PMID:23813599

  7. Macromolecule mass spectrometry: citation mining of user documents.

    PubMed

    Kostoff, Ronald N; Bedford, Clifford D; del Río, J Antonio; Cortes, Héctor D; Karypis, George

    2004-03-01

    Identifying research users, applications, and impact is important for research performers, managers, evaluators, and sponsors. Identification of the user audience and the research impact is complex and time consuming due to the many indirect pathways through which fundamental research can impact applications. This paper identified the literature pathways through which two highly-cited papers of 2002 Chemistry Nobel Laureates Fenn and Tanaka impacted research, technology development, and applications. Citation Mining, an integration of citation bibliometrics and text mining, was applied to the >1600 first generation Science Citation Index (SCI) citing papers to Fenn's 1989 Science paper on Electrospray Ionization for Mass Spectrometry, and to the >400 first generation SCI citing papers to Tanaka's 1988 Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry paper on Laser Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Bibliometrics was performed on the citing papers to profile the user characteristics. Text mining was performed on the citing papers to identify the technical areas impacted by the research, and the relationships among these technical areas.

  8. Hierarchical Multiscale Modeling of Macromolecules and their Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Ortoleva, P.; Singharoy, A.; Pankavich, S.

    2013-01-01

    Soft materials (e.g., enveloped viruses, liposomes, membranes and supercooled liquids) simultaneously deform or display collective behaviors, while undergoing atomic scale vibrations and collisions. While the multiple space-time character of such systems often makes traditional molecular dynamics simulation impractical, a multiscale approach has been presented that allows for long-time simulation with atomic detail based on the co-evolution of slowly-varying order parameters (OPs) with the quasi-equilibrium probability density of atomic configurations. However, this approach breaks down when the structural change is extreme, or when nearest-neighbor connectivity of atoms is not maintained. In the current study, a self-consistent approach is presented wherein OPs and a reference structure co-evolve slowly to yield long-time simulation for dynamical soft-matter phenomena such as structural transitions and self-assembly. The development begins with the Liouville equation for N classical atoms and an ansatz on the form of the associated N-atom probability density. Multiscale techniques are used to derive Langevin equations for the coupled OP-configurational dynamics. The net result is a set of equations for the coupled stochastic dynamics of the OPs and centers of mass of the subsystems that constitute a soft material body. The theory is based on an all-atom methodology and an interatomic force field, and therefore enables calibration-free simulations of soft matter, such as macromolecular assemblies. PMID:23671457

  9. Fast, accurate semiempirical molecular orbital calculations for macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Steven L.; Merz, Kenneth M., Jr.

    1997-07-01

    A detailed review of the semiempirical divide-and-conquer (D&C) method is given, including a new approach to subsetting, which involves dual buffer regions. Comparisons are drawn between this method and other semiempirical macromolecular schemes. D&C calculations are carried out using a basic 32 Mbyte memory workstation on a variety of peptide systems, including proteins containing up to 1960 atoms. Aspects of storage and SCF convergence are addressed, and parallelization of the D&C algorithm is discussed.

  10. Macromolecule Mass Spectrometry: Citation Mining of User Documents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-11-14

    MCLUCKEY SA PURDUE UNIV USA 541 MANN M UNIV SO DENMARK DENMARK 450 BIEMANN K MIT USA 343 CHOWDHURY SK SANOFI WINTHROP INC USA 302 COVEY TR SCIEX LTD CANADA...glycopeptid 0.7, residu 0.7) (36) Cluster 8 (proteom 10.8, technolog 5.8, protein 5.7, genom 5.5, function 2.7, advanc 1.5, vaccin 1.2, new 1.1, biolog 1.1

  11. Bimane Derivatives as Fluorescent Probes for Biological Macromolecules.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Kosower and Kosower three brcmobimanes for fluorescent labeling of biological systems. The three *: bromobimanes,2 6 mBBr (1), bBBr (2) and q8Br (3...3 CH j)CH 3 CH3 28r BrCH2 CH2Br(CH 3 NCH 2 - H2Br Br- ! 2 3 mBBr bBBr q8Br syn-(BrCH2 ,CH3 )(CH 3 ,CH3)B syn-(BrCH2,CH3 )B syn-(BrCH2 ,CH3 )((CH3...soluble fluorescent deriva- tive, which also has an absorption spectrum different from that of the agent. (1) mBBr + RS- ----) mBSR + Br- (2) bBBr

  12. Macromolecules Vis-a-Vis the Traditions of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Paul J.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the history of concepts concerning the molecular nature of polymers, involving the carbon chain theory, graphic formula, polycondensation, colloidal properties, polypeptide hypothesis, secondary aggregation, and Watson-Crick model. Indicates that macromolecular science should be accommodated within the discipline of molecular science…

  13. Multiscale geometric modeling of macromolecules I: Cartesian representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Kelin; Feng, Xin; Chen, Zhan; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the geometric modeling and computational algorithm development of biomolecular structures from two data sources: Protein Data Bank (PDB) and Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) in the Eulerian (or Cartesian) representation. Molecular surface (MS) contains non-smooth geometric singularities, such as cusps, tips and self-intersecting facets, which often lead to computational instabilities in molecular simulations, and violate the physical principle of surface free energy minimization. Variational multiscale surface definitions are proposed based on geometric flows and solvation analysis of biomolecular systems. Our approach leads to geometric and potential driven Laplace-Beltrami flows for biomolecular surface evolution and formation. The resulting surfaces are free of geometric singularities and minimize the total free energy of the biomolecular system. High order partial differential equation (PDE)-based nonlinear filters are employed for EMDB data processing. We show the efficacy of this approach in feature-preserving noise reduction. After the construction of protein multiresolution surfaces, we explore the analysis and characterization of surface morphology by using a variety of curvature definitions. Apart from the classical Gaussian curvature and mean curvature, maximum curvature, minimum curvature, shape index, and curvedness are also applied to macromolecular surface analysis for the first time. Our curvature analysis is uniquely coupled to the analysis of electrostatic surface potential, which is a by-product of our variational multiscale solvation models. As an expository investigation, we particularly emphasize the numerical algorithms and computational protocols for practical applications of the above multiscale geometric models. Such information may otherwise be scattered over the vast literature on this topic. Based on the curvature and electrostatic analysis from our multiresolution surfaces, we introduce a new concept, the polarized curvature, for the prediction of protein binding sites.

  14. REGULATION OF COAL POLYMER DEGRADATION BY FUNGI

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    John A. Bumpus

    1998-11-30

    A variety of lignin degrading fungi mediate solubilization and subsequent biodegradation of coal macromolecules (a.k.a. coal polymer) from highly oxidized low rank coals such as leonardites. It appears that oxalate or possibly other metal chelators (i.e., certain Krebs Cycle intermediates) mediate solubilization of low rank coals while extracellular oxidases have a role in subsequent oxidation of solubilized coal macromolecule. These processes are under nutritional control. For example, in the case of P. chrysosporium, solubilization of leonardite occurred when the fungi were cultured on most but not all nutrient agars tested and subsequent biodegradation occurred only in nutrient nitrogen limited cultures.more » Lignin peroxidases mediate oxidation of coal macromolecule in a reaction that is dependent on the presence of veratryl alcohol and hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic evidence suggests that veratryl alcohol is oxidized to the veratryl alcohol cation radical which then mediates oxidation of the coal macromolecule. Results by others suggest that Mn peroxidases mediate formation of reactive Mn{sup 3+} complexes which also mediate oxidation of coal macromolecule. A biomimetic approach was used to study solubilization of a North Dakota leonardite. It was found that a concentration {approximately}75 mM sodium oxalate was optimal for solubilization of this low rank coal. This is important because this is well above the concentration of oxalate produced by fungi in liquid culture. Higher local concentrations probably occur in solid agar cultures and thus may account for the observation that greater solubilization occurs in agar media relative to liquid media. The characteristics of biomimetically solubilized leonardite were similar to those of biologically solubilized leonardite. Perhaps our most interesting observation was that in addition to oxalate, other common Lewis bases (phosphate/hydrogen phosphate/dihydrogen phosphate and bicarbonate/carbonate ions) are able to

  15. New and unconventional approaches for advancing resolution in biological transmission electron microscopy by improving macromolecular specimen preparation and preservation.

    PubMed

    Massover, William H

    2011-02-01

    Resolution in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) now is limited by the properties of specimens, rather than by those of instrumentation. The long-standing difficulties in obtaining truly high-resolution structure from biological macromolecules with TEM demand the development, testing, and application of new ideas and unconventional approaches. This review concisely describes some new concepts and innovative methodologies for TEM that deal with unsolved problems in the preparation and preservation of macromolecular specimens. The selected topics include use of better support films, a more protective multi-component matrix surrounding specimens for cryo-TEM and negative staining, and, several quite different changes in microscopy and micrography that should decrease the effects of electron radiation damage; all these practical approaches are non-traditional, but have promise to advance resolution for specimens of biological macromolecules beyond its present level of 3-10 Å (0.3-1.0 nm). The result of achieving truly high resolution will be a fulfillment of the still unrealized potential of transmission electron microscopy for directly revealing the structure of biological macromolecules down to the atomic level. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. NUTS and BOLTS: Applications of Fluorescence Detected Sedimentation

    PubMed Central

    Kroe, Rachel R.; Laue, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation is a widely used method for characterizing the solution behavior of macromolecules. However, the two commonly used detectors (absorbance and interference) impose some fundamental restrictions on the concentrations and complexity of the solutions that can be analyzed. The recent addition of a fluorescence detector for the XL-I analytical ultracentrifuge (AU-FDS) enables two different types of sedimentation experiments. First, the AU-FDS can detect picomolar concentrations of labeled solutes allowing the characterization of very dilute solutions of macromolecules, applications we call Normal Use Tracer Sedimentation (NUTS). The great sensitivity of NUTS analysis allows the characterization of small quantities of materials and high affinity interactions. Second, AU-FDS allows characterization of trace quantities of labeled molecules in solutions containing high concentrations and complex mixtures of unlabeled molecules, applications we call Biological On Line Tracer Sedimentation (BOLTS). The discrimination of BOLTS enables the size distribution of a labeled macromolecule to be determined in biological milieu such as cell lysates and serum. Examples are presented that embody features of both NUTS and BOLTS applications, along with our observations on these applications. PMID:19103145

  17. The electrokinetic behavior of calcium oxalate monohydrate in macromolecular solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Onoda, G. Y., Jr.; Finlayson, B.

    1988-01-01

    Electrophoretic mobilities were measured for calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) in solutions containing macromolecules. Two mucopolysaccharides (sodium heparin and chrondroitin sulfate) and two proteins (positively charged lysozyme and negatively charged bovine serum albumin) were studied as adsorbates. The effects of pH, calcium oxalate surface charge (varied by calcium or oxalate ion activity), and citrate concentration were investigated. All four macromolecules showed evidence for chemical adsorption. The macromolecule concentrations needed for reversing the surface charge indicated that the mucopopolysacchrides have greater affinity for the COM surface than the proteins. The amount of proteins that can chemically adsorb appears to be limited to approximately one monomolecular layer. When the surface charge is high, an insufficient number of proteins can chemically adsorb to neutralize or reverse the surface charge. The remaining surface charge is balanced by proteins held near the surface by longer range electrostatic forces only. Citrate ions at high concentrations appear to compete effectively with the negative protein for surface sites but show no evidence for competing with the positively charged protein.

  18. Analysis of diffusion and binding in cells using the RICS approach.

    PubMed

    Digman, Michelle A; Gratton, Enrico

    2009-04-01

    The movement of macromolecules in cells is assumed to occur either through active transport or by diffusion. However, the determination of the diffusion coefficients in cells using fluctuation methods or FRAP frequently give diffusion coefficient that are orders of magnitude smaller than the diffusion coefficients measured for the same macromolecule in solution. It is assumed that the cell internal viscosity is partially responsible for this decrease in the apparent diffusion. When the apparent diffusion is too slow to be due to cytoplasm viscosity, it is assumed that weak binding of the macromolecules to immobile or quasi immobile structures is taking place. In this article, we derive equations for fitting of the RICS (Raster-scan Image Correlations Spectroscopy) data in cells to a model that includes transient binding to immobile structures, and we show that under some conditions, the spatio-temporal correlation provided by the RICS approach can distinguish the process of diffusion and weak binding. We apply the method to determine the diffusion in the cytoplasm and binding of Focal Adhesion Kinase-EGFP to adhesions in MEF cells.

  19. Small-Molecule-Based Self-Assembled Ligands for G-Quadruplex DNA Surface Recognition.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Sánchez, María Del C; García-Arriaga, Marilyn; Hobley, Gerard; Morales-de-Echegaray, Ana V; Rivera, José M

    2017-10-31

    Most drugs are small molecules because of their attractive pharmacokinetics, manageable development and manufacturing, and effective binding into the concave crevices of bio-macromolecules. Despite these features, they often fall short when it comes to effectively recognizing the surfaces of bio-macromolecules. One way to overcome the challenge of biomolecular surface recognition is to develop small molecules that become self-assembled ligands (SALs) prior to binding. Herein, we report SALs made from 8-aryl-2'-deoxyguanosine derivatives forming precise hydrophilic supramolecular G-quadruplexes (SGQs) with excellent size, shape, and charge complementarity to G-quadruplex DNA (QDNA). We show that only those compounds forming SGQs act as SALs, which in turn differentially stabilize QDNAs from selected oncogene promoters and the human telomeric regions. Fluorescence resonance energy-transfer melting assays are consistent with spectroscopic, calorimetric, and light scattering studies, showing the formation of a "sandwichlike" complex QDNA·SGQ·QDNA. These results open the door for the advent of SALs that recognize QDNAs and potentially the surfaces of other bio-macromolecules such as proteins.

  20. Oxygen-Free Biochemistry: The Putative CHN Foundation for Exotic Life in a Hydrocarbon World?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Kong-Peng; Norman, Lucy; Li, Yi-Liang

    2017-11-01

    Since Earth's biochemistry is carbon-based and water-borne, the main strategies for searching for life elsewhere are "follow the carbon" and "follow the water." Recently, however, there is a growing focus on the prospect that putative exotic life on other planets could rely on unearthly biochemistries. Here, we hypothesize a novel oxygen-free organic chemistry for supporting potential exotic biosystems, which is named CHN biochemistry. This oxygen-free CHN biochemistry starts from simple oxygen-free species (including hydrocarbons, hydrogen cyanide, and nitriles) and produces a range of functional macromolecules that may function in similar ways to terran macromolecules, such as sugars (cyanosugars), acids (cyanoacids), amino acids (amino cyanoacids), and nucleobases (cyanonucleobases). These CHN macromolecules could further interact with each other to generate higher "cyanoester" and "cyanoprotein" systems. In addition, theoretical calculations indicate that the energy changes of some reactions are consistent with their counterparts in Earth's biochemistry. The CHN biochemistry-based life would be applicable in habitats with a low bioavailability of oxygen, such as the alkane lakes of Titan and non-aquatic liquids on extrasolar bodies.

  1. Do's and don'ts of cryo-electron microscopy: a primer on sample preparation and high quality data collection for macromolecular 3D reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cabra, Vanessa; Samsó, Montserrat

    2015-01-09

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) entails flash-freezing a thin layer of sample on a support, and then visualizing the sample in its frozen hydrated state by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This can be achieved with very low quantity of protein and in the buffer of choice, without the use of any stain, which is very useful to determine structure-function correlations of macromolecules. When combined with single-particle image processing, the technique has found widespread usefulness for 3D structural determination of purified macromolecules. The protocol presented here explains how to perform cryoEM and examines the causes of most commonly encountered problems for rational troubleshooting; following all these steps should lead to acquisition of high quality cryoEM images. The technique requires access to the electron microscope instrument and to a vitrification device. Knowledge of the 3D reconstruction concepts and software is also needed for computerized image processing. Importantly, high quality results depend on finding the right purification conditions leading to a uniform population of structurally intact macromolecules. The ability of cryoEM to visualize macromolecules combined with the versatility of single particle image processing has proven very successful for structural determination of large proteins and macromolecular machines in their near-native state, identification of their multiple components by 3D difference mapping, and creation of pseudo-atomic structures by docking of x-ray structures. The relentless development of cryoEM instrumentation and image processing techniques for the last 30 years has resulted in the possibility to generate de novo 3D reconstructions at atomic resolution level.

  2. Quantitative molecular characterization of bovine vitreous and lens with non-invasive dynamic light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, R. R.; Suh, K. I.; Dunker, S.; Kitaya, N.; Sebag, J.

    2001-01-01

    The non-invasive technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to quantitatively characterize vitreous and lens structure on a molecular level by measuring the sizes of the predominant particles and mapping the three-dimensional topographic distribution of these structural macromolecules in three spatial dimensions. The results of DLS measurements in five fresh adult bovine eyes were compared to DLS measurements in model solutions of hyaluronan (HA) and collagen (Coll). In the bovine eyes DLS measurements were obtained from excised samples of gel and liquid vitreous and compared to the model solutions. Measurements in whole vitreous were obtained at multiple points posterior to the lens to generate a three-dimensional 'map' of molecular structure. The macromolecule distribution in bovine lens was similarly characterized.In each bovine vitreous (Bo Vit) specimen, DLS predominantly detected two distinct particles, which differed in diffusion properties and hence size. Comparisons with model vitreous solutions demonstrated that these most likely corresponded to the Coll and HA components of vitreous. Three-dimensional mapping of Bo Vit found heterogeneity throughout the vitreous body, with different particle size distributions for Coll and HA at different loci. In contrast, the three-dimensional distribution of lens macromolecules was more homogeneous. Thus, the non-invasive DLS technique can quantitate the average sizes of vitreous and lens macromolecules and map their three-dimensional distribution. This method to assess quantitatively the macromolecular structure of vitreous and lens should be useful for clinical as well as experimental applications in health and disease. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  3. Neural control of muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, S. R.; Markelonis, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    Cholinergic innervation regulates the physiological and biochemical properties of skeletal muscle. The mechanisms that appear to be involved in this regulation include soluble, neurally-derived polypeptides, transmitter-evoked muscle activity and the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, itself. Despite extensive research, the interacting neural mechanisms that control such macromolecules as acetylcholinesterase, the acetylcholine receptor and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase remain unclear. It may be that more simplified in vitro model systems coupled with recent dramatic advances in the molecular biology of neurally-regulated proteins will begin to allow researchers to unravel the mechanisms controlling the expression and maintenance of these macromolecules.

  4. Reversible Sialylation: Synthesis of CMP-NeuAc from 5′-CMP using α2,3-sialyl O-glycan, glycolipid and macromolecule based donors allow for the synthesis of diverse sialylated products

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, E.V.; Xue, Jun; Xia, Jie; Locke, Robert D.; Matta, Khushi L.; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2008-01-01

    Sialyltransferases transfer sialic acid from CMP-NeuAc to an acceptor molecule. Trans-sialidases of parasites transfer α2,3 linked sialic acid from one molecule to another without the involvement of CMP-NeuAc. Here, we report another type of sialylation termed reverse sialylation catalyzed by mammalian sialyltransferase ST3Gal-II. This enzyme synthesizes CMP-NeuAc by transferring NeuAc from the NeuAcα2,3Galβ1,3GalNAcα-unit of O-glycans, 3-sialyl globo unit of glycolipids and sialylated macromolecules to 5′-CMP. CMP-NeuAc produced in situ is utilized by the same enzyme to sialylate other O-glycans and by other sialyltransferases such as ST6Gal-I and ST6GalNAc-I forming α2,6 sialylated compounds. ST3Gal-II also catalyzed the conversion of 5′-UMP to UMP-NeuAc, which was found to be an inactive sialyl donor. Reverse sialylation proceeded without the need for free sialic acid, divalent metal ions or energy. The direct sialylation using CMP-NeuAc as well as the formation of CMP-NeuAc from 5′-CMP had a wide optimum range (pH 5.2–7.2 and 4.8–6.4 respectively) whereas the entire reaction comprising in situ production of CMP-NeuAc and sialylation of acceptor had a sharp optimum at pH 5.6 (the activity level 50% at pH 5.2 & 6.8 and 25% at pH 4.8 & 7.2). Several properties distinguish forward/conventional vs. reverse sialylation: i. Sodium citrate inhibited forward sialylation but not reverse sialylation. ii. 5′-CDP, a potent forward sialyltransferase inhibitor, did not inhibit the conversion of 5′-CMP to CMP-NeuAc. iii. The mucin core 2 compound 3-O-sulfoα2,3Galβ1,4GlcNAcβ1,6(Galβ1,3)GalNAcα-O-Bn, an efficient acceptor for ST3Gal-II, inhibited the conversion of 5′-CMP to CMP-NeuAc. A significant level of reverse sialylation activity is noted in human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC3. Overall, the study demonstrates that the sialyltransferase reaction is readily reversible in the case of ST3Gal-II and can be exploited for the enzymatic

  5. Porosity of porcine bladder acellular matrix: impact of ACM thickness.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Walid; Chen, Jun; Erdeljan, Petar; Shemtov, Oren; Courtman, David; Khoury, Antoine; Yeger, Herman

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to examine the porosity of bladder acellular matrix (ACM) using deionized (DI) water as the model fluid and dextran as the indicator macromolecule, and to correlate the porosity to the ACM thickness. Porcine urinary bladders from pigs weighing 20-50 kg were sequentially extracted in detergent containing solutions, and to modify the ACM thickness, stretched bladders were acellularized in the same manner. Luminal and abluminal ACM specimens were subjected to fixed static DI water pressure (10 cm); and water passing through the specimens was collected at specific time interval. While for the macromolecule porosity testing, the diffusion rate and direction of 10,000 MW fluoroescein-labeled dextrans across the ACM specimens mounted in Ussing's chambers were measured. Both experiments were repeated on the thin stretched ACM. In both ACM types, the fluid porosity in both directions did not decrease with increased test duration (3 h); in addition, the abluminal surface was more porous to fluid than the luminal surface. On the other hand, when comparing thin to thick ACM, the porosity in either direction was higher in the thick ACM. Macromolecule porosity, as measured by absorbance, was higher for the abluminal thick ACM than the luminal side, but this characteristic was reversed in the thin ACM. Comparing thin to thick ACM, the luminal side in the thin ACM was more porous to dextran than in the thick ACM, but this characteristic was reversed for the abluminal side. The porcine bladder ACM possesses directional porosity and acellularizing stretched urinary bladders may increase structural density and alter fluid and macromolecule porosity. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 67A: 970-974, 2003

  6. Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant), in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA). Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS. Analysis of a cDNA library constructed from exudate identified 609 unique transcripts. Both proteins and transcripts were classified into functional groups. The largest group of proteins comprised those involved in metabolism (24%), followed by protein modification/turnover (9%), redox regulation (8%), cell structural components (6%), stress and defence response (6%) with fewer in other groups. More prominent proteins were cyclophilin, ubiquitin, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, a group of proteins that comprise a glutathione/ascorbate-based mechanism to scavenge oxygen radicals, enzymes of glycolysis and other metabolism including methionine and ethylene synthesis. Potential signalling macromolecules such as transcripts encoding proteins mediating calcium level and the Flowering locus T (FT) protein were also identified. From around 330 small RNA clones (18-25 nt) 12 were identified as probable miRNAs by homology with those from other species. miRNA composition of exudate varied with site of collection (e.g. upward versus downward translocation streams) and nutrition (e.g. phosphorus level). Conclusions This is the first inventory of macromolecule composition of phloem exudate from a species in the Fabaceae, providing a basis to identify systemic signalling macromolecules with potential roles in regulating development, growth and stress response of legumes. PMID:21342527

  7. UTSI/CFFF MHD Program Completion and Related Activities.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Irvin, R.L.; Bumpus, J.A.

    1997-10-31

    During this reporting period we have further studied the oxidation of soluble coal macromolecules by lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Previous studies by others have suggested that a soluble fraction (coal macromolecule B-111) from a nitric acid solubilized North Dakota Lignite is depolymerized by this enzyme. Our investigations indicate that fraction B-111 is a substrate for lignin peroxidase as this material is decolorized in the presence of lignin peroxidase H{sub 8} and hydrogen peroxide. Of interest, however, is the observation that little, if any, depolymerization of this material occurs. Instead, it appears that lignin peroxidase and coal macromolecule B-111 formmore » a precipitate. These results are similar to those observed in our investigations of lignin peroxidase mediated oxidation of oxalate solubilize coal macromolecule. Previous studies in our laboratory using a spectrophotometric assay suggested that, in addition to oxalate, several other fungal metabolites are able to solubilize leonardite. We have reinvestigated this phenomenon using a more reliable gravimetric procedure for assessing solubilization. Our results confirm our earlier findings that malate, oxaloacetate and citrate are effective solubilizing agents whereas succinate, fumarate and {alpha}-ketoglutarate solubilize relatively small amounts of leonardite. Finally, we have studied the composition of the insoluble material remaining following extensive solubilization by sodium oxalate. The ratio of hydrogen to carbon is increased in the insoluble material relative to the parent leonardite. However, the ratio of oxygen to carbon is also increased in the insoluble material. Thus, the insoluble material does not appear to be more highly reduced that the parent leonardite and is not likely to be a better fuel that the parent material.« less

  8. Regulation of Coal Polymer Degradation by Fungi

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    During this reporting period we have further studied the oxidation of soluble coal macromolecules by lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium . Previous studies by others have suggested that a soluble fraction (coal macromolecule B-111) from a nitric acid solubilized North Dakota Lignite is depolymerized by this enzyme. Our investigations indicate that fraction B-111 is a substrate for lignin peroxidase as this material is decolorized in the presence of lignin peroxidase H8 and hydrogen peroxide. Of interest, however, is the observation that little, if any, depolymerization of this material occurs. Instead, it appears that lignin peroxidase and coal macromolecule B-111 formmore » a precipitate. These results are similar to those observed in our investigations of lignin peroxidase mediated oxidation of oxalate solubilize coal macromolecule. Previous studies in our laboratory using a spectrophotometric assay suggested that, in addition to oxalate, several other fungal metabolites are able to solubilize leonardite. We have reinvestigated this phenomenon using a more reliable gravimetric procedure for assessing solubilization. Our results confirm our earlier findings that malate, oxaloacetate and citrate are effective solubilizing agents whereas succinate, fumarate and x-ketoglutarate solubilize relatively small amounts of leonardite. Finally, we have studied the composition of the insoluble material remaining following extensive solubilization by sodium oxalate. The ratio of hydrogen to carbon is increased in the insoluble material relative to the parent leonardite. However, the ratio of oxygen to carbon is also increased in the insoluble material. Thus, the insoluble material does not appear to be more highly reduced that the parent leonardite and is not likely to be a better fuel that the parent material.« less

  9. Controlled method of reducing electrophoretic mobility of various substances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanalstine, James M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A method of reducing electrophoretic mobility of macromolecules, particles, cells, and the like is provided. The method comprises interacting the particles or cells with a polymer-linked affinity compound composed of: a hydrophilic neutral polymer such as polyethylene glycol, and an affinity component consisting of a hydrophobic compound such as a fatty acid ester, an immunocompound such as an antibody or active fragment thereof or simular macromolecule, or other ligands. The reduction of electrophoretic mobility achieved is directly proportional to the concentration of the polymer-linked affinity compound employed, and the mobility reduction obtainable is up to 100 percent for particular particles and cells. The present invention is advantageous in that analytical electrophoretic separation can not be achieved for macromolecules, particles, and cells whose native surface charge structure had prevented them from being separated by normal electrophoretic means. Depending on the affinity component utilized, separation can be achieved on the basis of specific/irreversible, specific/reversible, semi-specific/reversible, relatively nonspecific/reversible, or relatively nonspecific/irreversible ligand-substance interactions. The present method is also advantageous in that it can be used in a variety of standard laboratory electrophoresis equipment.

  10. Oxygen-Free Biochemistry: The Putative CHN Foundation for Exotic Life in a Hydrocarbon World?

    PubMed

    Lv, Kong-Peng; Norman, Lucy; Li, Yi-Liang

    2017-11-01

    Since Earth's biochemistry is carbon-based and water-borne, the main strategies for searching for life elsewhere are "follow the carbon" and "follow the water." Recently, however, there is a growing focus on the prospect that putative exotic life on other planets could rely on unearthly biochemistries. Here, we hypothesize a novel oxygen-free organic chemistry for supporting potential exotic biosystems, which is named CHN biochemistry. This oxygen-free CHN biochemistry starts from simple oxygen-free species (including hydrocarbons, hydrogen cyanide, and nitriles) and produces a range of functional macromolecules that may function in similar ways to terran macromolecules, such as sugars (cyanosugars), acids (cyanoacids), amino acids (amino cyanoacids), and nucleobases (cyanonucleobases). These CHN macromolecules could further interact with each other to generate higher "cyanoester" and "cyanoprotein" systems. In addition, theoretical calculations indicate that the energy changes of some reactions are consistent with their counterparts in Earth's biochemistry. The CHN biochemistry-based life would be applicable in habitats with a low bioavailability of oxygen, such as the alkane lakes of Titan and non-aquatic liquids on extrasolar bodies. Key Words: Oxygen-free biochemistry-Titan-Hydrocarbons-Hydrogen cyanide-Nitriles. Astrobiology 17, 1173-1181.

  11. Low temperature fabrication of biodegradable sugar glass microneedles for transdermal drug delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Martin, C J; Allender, C J; Brain, K R; Morrissey, A; Birchall, J C

    2012-02-28

    Transdermal drug delivery is limited by the barrier properties of the outer skin layer. Microneedles (MNs) effectively circumvent the skin barrier to offer this route as a potential alternative to oral and parenteral delivery of therapeutics. Biodegradable microneedles offer particular advantages however processing commonly requires elevated temperatures that may adversely affect heat-labile molecules and macromolecules. In this study, solid amorphous sugar glasses containing low residual quantities of water were created by dehydration of trehalose and sucrose sugar combination solutions. Biodegradable sugar glass MNs were fabricated following optimisation of a simple and novel low temperature vacuum deposition micromoulding methodology. These had absolute morphological fidelity to silicon master structures and demonstrated sufficient structural rigidity to efficiently penetrate excised human breast skin. Sugar glass MNs incorporating a marker compound dissolved rapidly and completely in situ releasing dye into deeper skin layers. The biological activity of a model macromolecule was partially retained over extended storage following incorporation into sugar glass. This is the first demonstration that MNs created from amorphous sugar glasses can be used for incorporating and delivering molecules, and potentially biologically active macromolecules, via the transdermal route. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Intermittent hydrostatic pressure inhibits shear stress-induced nitric oxide release in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mel S; Trindade, Michael C D; Ikenoue, Takashi; Schurman, David J; Goodman, Stuart B; Smith, R Lane

    2003-02-01

    To test the effects of intermittent hydrostatic pressure (IHP) on nitric oxide (NO) release induced by shear stress and matrix macromolecule gene expression in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes in vitro. Chondrocytes isolated from cartilage samples from 9 patients with osteoarthritis were cultured and exposed to either shear stress or an NO donor. Nitrite concentration was measured using the Griess reaction. Matrix macromolecule mRNA signal levels were determined using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and quantified by imaging analysis software. Exposure to shear stress upregulated NO release in a dose and time-dependent manner. Application of IHP inhibited shear stress induced NO release but did not alter NO release from chondrocytes not exposed to shear stress. Shear stress induced NO or addition of an NO donor (sodium nitroprusside) was associated with decreased mRNA signal levels for the cartilage matrix proteins, aggrecan, and type II collagen. Intermittent hydrostatic pressure blocked the inhibitory effects of sodium nitroprusside but did not alter the inhibitory effects of shear stress on cartilage macromolecule gene expression. Our data show that shear stress and IHP differentially alter chondrocyte metabolism and suggest that a balance of effects between different loading forces preserve cartilage extracellular matrix in vivo.

  13. Effect of various solvent on the specific amino acids of black soybean (Glycine soja) sprout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanetro, B.; Slamet, A.; Wazyka, A.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of various solvent extractions on the specific amino acids as small peptide or free amino acids that was contained in the extract after removal of the macromolecule protein of black soybean sprouts. The experimental design of this research was randomized complete design with one factor, which was the three various solvent, i.e. hexane, ethanol and water. The black soybean seed was germinated for 36 h. The small peptide and free amino acids of black soybean sprout were isolated at 3 various of solvents extraction, and then the macromolecule proteins in the extracts were precipitated at the pH 4. The extracts of black soybean sprout after removal of the macromolecule protein were analysed by HPLC to determine the profile of amino acids for stimulation of insulin secretion. The result of this research showed that the extracts contained the small peptide and free amino acid for stimulation of insulin secretion. The best solvent extraction was water that was due to the content of Leu, Arg, Ala, Phe, Ile, and Lys of water extract was higher than hexane and ethanol extracts.

  14. Tandem catalysis: a new approach to polymers.

    PubMed

    Robert, Carine; Thomas, Christophe M

    2013-12-21

    The creation of polymers by tandem catalysis represents an exciting frontier in materials science. Tandem catalysis is one of the strategies used by Nature for building macromolecules. Living organisms generally synthesize macromolecules by in vivo enzyme-catalyzed chain growth polymerization reactions using activated monomers that have been formed within cells during complex metabolic processes. However, these biological processes rely on highly complex biocatalysts, thus limiting their industrial applications. In order to obtain polymers by tandem catalysis, homogeneous and enzyme catalysts have played a leading role in the last two decades. In the following feature article, we will describe selected published efforts to achieve these research goals.

  15. Protein associations and analytical ultracentrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laue, Tom

    2010-03-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a first principle method for characterizing the thermodynamics of macromolecules in solution. Since AUC directly assesses mass, it is particularly useful for characterizing both reversible and irreversible binding interactions between macromolecules. The principle measurement in AUC is the concentration as a function of radial position, which may be provided by either absorbance, interference or fluorescence detection. Each of these three different detectors may be used to characterize protein associations using either sedimentation equilibrium or sedimentation velocity analysis. Examples will be shown for characterizing irreversible (aggregate) formation, high-accuracy reversible association analysis, and the detection of protein interactions in complex and concentrated fluids (e.g. serum, cell cytosol).

  16. [Interconnection between architecture of protein globule and disposition of conformational conservative oligopeptides in proteins from one protein family].

    PubMed

    Batianovskiĭ, A V; Filatov, I V; Namiot, V A; Esipova, N G; Volotovskiĭ, I D

    2012-01-01

    It was shown that selective interactions between helical segments of macromolecules can realize in globular proteins in the segments characterized by the same periodicities of charge distribution i.e. between conformationally conservative oligopeptides. It was found that in the macromolecules of alpha-helical proteins conformationally conservative oligopeptides are disposed at a distance being characteristic of direct interactions. For representatives of many structural families of alpha-type proteins specific disposition of conformationally conservative segments is observed. This disposition is inherent to a particular structural family. Disposition of conformationally conservative segments is not related to homology of the amino acid sequence but reflects peculiarities of native 3D-architectures of protein globules.

  17. Crowding in Cellular Environments at an Atomistic Level from Computer Simulations

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The effects of crowding in biological environments on biomolecular structure, dynamics, and function remain not well understood. Computer simulations of atomistic models of concentrated peptide and protein systems at different levels of complexity are beginning to provide new insights. Crowding, weak interactions with other macromolecules and metabolites, and altered solvent properties within cellular environments appear to remodel the energy landscape of peptides and proteins in significant ways including the possibility of native state destabilization. Crowding is also seen to affect dynamic properties, both conformational dynamics and diffusional properties of macromolecules. Recent simulations that address these questions are reviewed here and discussed in the context of relevant experiments. PMID:28666087

  18. The immersion freezing behavior of mixtures of mineral dust and biological substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, Stefanie; Schneider, Johannes; Schmidt, Susan; Niedermeier, Dennis; Ebert, Martin; Voigtländer, Jens; Rösch, Michael; Stratmann, Frank; Wex, Heike

    2014-05-01

    Biological particles such as bacteria or pollen are known to be efficient ice nuclei. It is also known that ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules, i.e. protein complexes in the case of bacteria (e.g. Wolber et al., 1986), and most likely polysaccharides in the case of pollen (Pummer et al., 2012) are responsible for the freezing. Very recently it was suggested that these INA macromolecules maintain their nucleating ability even when they are separated from their original carriers (Hartmann et al., 2013; Augustin et al., 2013). This opens the possibility of accumulation of such INA macromolecules in e.g. soils and the resulting particles could be an internal mixture of mineral dust and INA macromolecules. If such biological IN containing soil particles are then dispersed into the atmosphere due to e.g. wind erosion or agricultural processes they could induce ice nucleation at temperatures higher than -20°C. To explore this hypothesis, we performed a measurement campaign within the research unit INUIT, where we investigated the ice nucleation behavior of mineral dust particles internally mixed with INA macromolecules. Specifically, we mixed pure mineral dust (illite) with INA biological material (SNOMAX and birch pollen washing water) and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). To characterize the mixing state of the produced aerosol we used single mass spectrometry as well as electron microscopy. We found that internally mixed particles which containing ice active biological material show the same ice nucleation behavior as the purely biological particles. That shows that INA macromolecules which are located on a mineral dust particle dominate the freezing process. Acknowledgement: Part of this work was done within the framework of the DFG funded Ice Nucleation research UnIT (INUIT, FOR 1525) under WE 4722/1-1. Augustin, S., Hartmann, S., Pummer, B., Grothe, H

  19. Counterion adsorption and desorption rate of a charged macromolecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu; Yang, Jingfa; Zhao, Jiang

    The rate constant of counterion adsorption to and desorption from a synthetic polyelectrolyte, polystyrene sulfonate (PSS-), is measured in aqueous solution by single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy. The results show that both adsorption and desorption rate of counterions have strong dependence on polymer concentration, salt concentration as well as the molecular weight of polyelectrolytes. The results clearly demonstrate that the contribution of electrostatic interaction and the translational entropy to the distribution of counterions of a polyelectrolyte molecule. The information is helpful to the understanding of polyelectrolyte physics. National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  20. Microscopic theory of topologically entangled fluids of rigid macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, Daniel M.; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2011-06-01

    We present a first-principles theory for the slow dynamics of a fluid of entangling rigid crosses of zero excluded volume based on a generalization of the dynamic mean-field approach of Szamel for infinitely thin nonrotating rods. The latter theory exactly includes topological constraints at the two-body collision level and self-consistently renormalizes an effective diffusion tensor to account for many-body effects. Remarkably, it predicts scaling laws consistent with the phenomenological reptation-tube predictions of Doi and Edwards for the long-time diffusion and the localization length in the heavily entangled limit. We generalize this approach to a different macromolecular architecture, infinitely thin three-dimensional crosses, and also extend the range of densities over which a dynamic localization length can be calculated for rods. Ideal gases of nonrotating crosses have recently received attention in computer simulations and are relevant as a simple model of both a strong-glass former and entangling star-branched polymers. Comparisons of our theory with these simulations reveal reasonable agreement for the magnitude and reduced density dependence of the localization length and also the self-diffusion constant if the consequences of local density fluctuations are taken into account.

  1. Liquid Between Macromolecules in Protein Crystals: Static Versus Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, A. A.

    2005-01-01

    Protein crystals are so fragile that they often can not be handled by tweezers. Indeed, measurements of the Young modulus, E, of lysozyme crystals resulted in E approx. equals 0.1 - 1 GPa, the lower figures, 0.1 - 0.5 GPa, being obtained from triple point bending of as-grown and not cross-linked crystals sitting in solution. The bending strength was found to be approx.10(exp -2) E. On the other hand, ultrasound speed and Mandelstam-Raman-Brilloin light scattering experiments led to much higher figures, E approx. equals 2.7 GPa. The lower figures for E were found from static or low frequency crystal deformations measurements, while the higher moduli are based on high frequency lattice vibrations, 10(exp 7) - 10(exp 10) 1/s. The physical reason for the about an order of magnitude discrepancy is in different behavior of water filling space between protein molecules. At slow lattice deformation, the not-bound intermolecular water has enough time to flow from the compressed to expanded regions of the deformed crystal. At high deformation frequencies in the ultra- and hypersound waves, the water is confined in the intermolecular space and, on that scale, behaves like a solid, thus contributing to the elastic crystal moduli. In this case, the reciprocal crystal modulus is expected to be an average of the water protein and water compressibilities (reciprocal compressibilities): the bulk modulus for lysozyme is 26 GPa, for water it is 7 GPa. Anisotropy of the crystal moduli comes from intermolecular contacts within the lattice while the high frequency hardness comes from the bulk of protein molecules and water bulk moduli. These conclusions are based on the analysis of liquid flow in porous medium to be presented.

  2. A glucose-starvation response regulates the diffusion of macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Joyner, Ryan P; Tang, Jeffrey H; Helenius, Jonne; Dultz, Elisa; Brune, Christiane; Holt, Liam J; Huet, Sebastien; Müller, Daniel J; Weis, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    The organization and biophysical properties of the cytosol implicitly govern molecular interactions within cells. However, little is known about mechanisms by which cells regulate cytosolic properties and intracellular diffusion rates. Here, we demonstrate that the intracellular environment of budding yeast undertakes a startling transition upon glucose starvation in which macromolecular mobility is dramatically restricted, reducing the movement of both chromatin in the nucleus and mRNPs in the cytoplasm. This confinement cannot be explained by an ATP decrease or the physiological drop in intracellular pH. Rather, our results suggest that the regulation of diffusional mobility is induced by a reduction in cell volume and subsequent increase in molecular crowding which severely alters the biophysical properties of the intracellular environment. A similar response can be observed in fission yeast and bacteria. This reveals a novel mechanism by which cells globally alter their properties to establish a unique homeostasis during starvation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09376.001 PMID:27003290

  3. Physical Principles of Discrete Hierarchies Formation in Protein Macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshko, E. V.; Tverdislov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    A model for chiral periodicity with alternating chiral sense in hierarchies of protein and nucleic acid structures is proposed and substantiated. Regular alternation of the chirality sense is revealed in transitions from the lowest to higher levels of structural-functional organization in proteins where it is L-D-L-D. The stratification principle combines the ideas of biomacromolecules folding and molecular biological machines.

  4. Methods and compositions for targeting macromolecules into the nucleus

    DOEpatents

    Chook, Yuh Min

    2013-06-25

    The present invention includes compositions, methods and kits for directing an agent across the nuclear membrane of a cell. The present invention includes a Karyopherin beta2 translocation motif in a polypeptide having a slightly positively charged region or a slightly hydrophobic region and one or more R/K/H-X.sub.(2-5)-P-Y motifs. The polypeptide targets the agent into the cell nucleus.

  5. Following isotopes in pulse-chase enriched aspen seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, C. E.; Wasylishen, R. E.; Landhäusser, S.; Quideau, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    One method to quantitatively trace biogeochemical fluxes through ecosystems, such as organic matter decomposition, is to use plant material enriched with stable isotopes. However, as plant macromolecules are known to vary in their rate of formation and decomposition, both the enrichment levels and the location of enrichment within the plant material should be characterized prior to decomposition and tracing studies. Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a common tree species with a diverse organic matter chemical structure found in the western Canadian boreal forest. This study used a multi pulse and multi chase enrichment of stable isotopes (15N and 13C) on aspen seedlings to determine the seedling enrichment, isotope movement among plant tissues and translocation of isotopes within plant macromolecules e.g., carbohydrates and lignin. As expected, all tissues experienced increased enrichment with multiple pulses. An initial enrichment with 13C was observed in the leaves followed by translocation to the stems and roots while the 15N moved upward from the roots to leaves. The macromolecular chemistry of the organic carbon was further characterized using 13C solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. After the initial two hour chase period enrichment of the O-alkyl type (carbohydrate) carbon within the leaves was identified, followed by redistribution to more complex carbon compounds after the one week chase period. Root and stem tissues did not show the same pattern. Rather, changes in 13C enrichment were observed in shifting ethyl and methyl alkyl (lipid) carbon peak intensities for the stem samples while roots did not preferentially allocate 13C to a specific macromolecule. These results confirm that stable isotope enrichment of plants was non-uniform across macromolecules and tissue types. Enrichment of aspen seedlings was therefore dependant on the pulse-chase sequence used.

  6. Spectral Photosensitization of Optical Anisotropy in Solid Poly(Vinyl Cinnamate) Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozenkov, V. M.; Spakhov, A. A.; Belyaev, V. V.; Chausov, D. N.; Chigrinov, V. G.

    2018-04-01

    The possibility and features of formation of sensitized photoinduced optical anisotropy in amorphous films of poly(vinyl cinnamate) and its derivative poly(vinyl-4-metoxicinnamate) under the action of polarized light (including light that is not absorbed by polymer macromolecules themselves) have been investigated. It is found that the effect of induced optical anisotropy is based on the transfer of electron excitation energy from donor (sensitizer) molecules to acceptor molecules and is observed in the course of phototopochemical biomolecular cyclization reaction of cinnamate fragments in polymer macromolecules. The detected photoinduced anisotropy in solid films of poly(vinyl cinnamate) and its derivative poly(vinyl-4-metoxicinnamate) ensures sensitized photo-orientation of low-molecular thermotropic liquid crystals.

  7. Dynamic light-scattering study of gelatin and aggregation of gastric mucin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansil, Rama; Cao, Xingxiang; Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; LaMont, Jeffrey T.

    1997-05-01

    Dynamic light scattering studies show that concentration and pH play important roles in determining pig gastric mucin's (PGM) ability to aggregate and gel. At low concentrations, PGM macromolecules exist in solution predominantly in the form of monomers. At high concentrations, PGM macromolecules aggregate to form supra-macromolecular clusters. When the pH of the high concentration PGM solution is changed from 7.0 to 2.0, the system undergoes a sol-gel transition: from a solution of polydisperse aggregates to a gel. This pH and concentration dependent sol-gel transition of PGM solution may provide a mechanism for the mammalian stomach to protect itself against being digested by the gastric juice.

  8. Quality control in molecular immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Immunoperoxidase histochemistry is a widespread method of assessing expression of biomolecules in tissue samples. Accurate assessment of the expression levels of genes is critical for the management of disease, particularly as therapy targeted to specific molecules becomes more widespread. Determining the quality of preservation of macromolecules in tissue is important to avoid false negative and false positive results. In this review we discuss (1) issues of sensitivity (false negativity) and specificity (false positivity) of immunohistochemical stains, (2) approaches to better understanding differences in immunostains done by different laboratories (including the recently proposed MISFISHIE specification for tissue localization studies), and (3) approaches to assessing the quality of preservation of macromolecules in tissue, particularly in small biopsy samples. PMID:18648842

  9. Microvascular leakage of plasma proteins after PUVA and UVA

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Staberg, B.; Worm, A.M.; Rossing, N.

    1982-04-01

    The transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TERalb), is a parameter of the leakage of macromolecules from the total microvasculature. In patients with psoriasis short-term PUVA treatment induces an increase in TERalb. In this study TERalb was measured in 3 groups of normal humans treated with PUVA, UVA and 8-methoxypsoralen. Treatment with PUVA and UVA caused a statistically significant increase in TERalb, whereas treatment with 8-methoxypsoralen did not induce any measurable changes. It is concluded that the UVA irradiation causes the abnormal leakage of macromolecules, whereas psoralen is not the responsible component. Furthermore the phenomenon can be elicited in normals andmore » is not based on a preexisting psoriasis.« less

  10. Free-falling Crystals: Biological Macromolecular Crystal Growth Studies in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Russell A.; Snell, E. H.; Pusey, M. L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft orbiting the earth experience a reduced acceleration environment due to being in a state of continuous free-fall. This state colloquially termed microgravity, has produced improved X-ray diffraction quality crystals of biological macromolecules. Improvements in X-ray diffraction resolution (detail) or signal to noise, provide greater detail in the three-dimensional molecular structure providing information about the molecule, how it works, how to improve its function or how to impede it. Greater molecular detail obtained by crystallization in microgravity, has important implications for structural biology. In this article we examine the theories behind macromolecule crystal quality improvement in microgravity using results obtained from studies with the model protein, chicken egg white lysozyme.

  11. Crowding, Entropic Forces, and Confinement: Crucial Factors for Structures and Functions in the Cell Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Hancock, R

    2018-04-01

    The view of the cell nucleus as a crowded system of colloid particles and that chromosomes are giant self-avoiding polymers is stimulating rapid advances in our understanding of its structure and activities, thanks to concepts and experimental methods from colloid, polymer, soft matter, and nano sciences and to increased computational power for simulating macromolecules and polymers. This review summarizes current understanding of some characteristics of the molecular environment in the nucleus, of how intranuclear compartments are formed, and of how the genome is highly but precisely compacted, and underlines the crucial, subtle, and sometimes unintuitive effects on structures and reactions of entropic forces caused by the high concentration of macromolecules in the nucleus.

  12. Structural studies of RNA-protein complexes: A hybrid approach involving hydrodynamics, scattering, and computational methods.

    PubMed

    Patel, Trushar R; Chojnowski, Grzegorz; Astha; Koul, Amit; McKenna, Sean A; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2017-04-15

    The diverse functional cellular roles played by ribonucleic acids (RNA) have emphasized the need to develop rapid and accurate methodologies to elucidate the relationship between the structure and function of RNA. Structural biology tools such as X-ray crystallography and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance are highly useful methods to obtain atomic-level resolution models of macromolecules. However, both methods have sample, time, and technical limitations that prevent their application to a number of macromolecules of interest. An emerging alternative to high-resolution structural techniques is to employ a hybrid approach that combines low-resolution shape information about macromolecules and their complexes from experimental hydrodynamic (e.g. analytical ultracentrifugation) and solution scattering measurements (e.g., solution X-ray or neutron scattering), with computational modeling to obtain atomic-level models. While promising, scattering methods rely on aggregation-free, monodispersed preparations and therefore the careful development of a quality control pipeline is fundamental to an unbiased and reliable structural determination. This review article describes hydrodynamic techniques that are highly valuable for homogeneity studies, scattering techniques useful to study the low-resolution shape, and strategies for computational modeling to obtain high-resolution 3D structural models of RNAs, proteins, and RNA-protein complexes. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent perspectives on the delivery of biologics to back of the eye

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Mary; Trinh, Hoang M.; Cholkar, Kishore; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Biologics are generally macromolecules, large in size with poor stability in biological environments. Delivery of biologics to tissues at the back of the eye remains a challenge. To overcome these challenges and treat posterior ocular diseases, several novel approaches have been developed. Nanotechnology-based delivery systems, like drug encapsulation technology, macromolecule implants and gene delivery are under investigation. We provide an overview of emerging technologies for biologics delivery to back of the eye tissues. Moreover, new biologic drugs currently in clinical trials for ocular neovascular diseases have been discussed. Areas Covered Anatomy of the eye, posterior segment disease and diagnosis, barriers to biologic delivery, ocular pharmacokinetic, novel biologic delivery system Expert Opinion Anti-VEGF therapy represents a significant advance in developing biologics for the treatment of ocular neovascular diseases. Various strategies for biologic delivery to posterior ocular tissues are under development with some in early or late stages of clinical trials. Despite significant progress in the delivery of biologics, there is unmet need to develop sustained delivery of biologics with nearly zero-order release kinetics to the back of the eye tissues. In addition, elevated intraocular pressure associated with frequent intravitreal injections of macromolecules is another concern that needs to be addressed. PMID:27573097

  14. Enhancement of Tumor-Targeted Delivery of Bacteria with Nitroglycerin Involving Augmentation of the EPR Effect.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jun; Long, Liao; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The use of bacteria, about 1 μm in size, is now becoming an attractive strategy for cancer treatment. Solid tumors exhibit the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect for biocompatible macromolecules such as polymer-conjugated anticancer agents, liposomes, and micelles. This phenomenon permits tumor-selective delivery of such macromolecules. We report here that bacteria injected intravenously evidenced a property similar to that can of these macromolecules. Bacteria that can accumulate selectively in tumors may therefore be used in cancer treatment.Facultative or anaerobic bacteria will grow even under the hypoxic conditions present in solid tumors. We found earlier that nitric oxide (NO) was among the most important factors that facilitated the EPR effect via vasodilatation, opening of endothelial cell junction gaps, and increasing the blood flow of hypovascular tumors. Here, we describe the augmentation of the EPR effect by means of nitroglycerin (NG), a commonly used NO donor, using various macromolecular agents in different tumor models. More importantly, we report that NG significantly enhanced the delivery of Lactobacillus casei to tumors after intravenous injection of the bacteria, more than a tenfold increase in bacterial accumulation in tumors after NG treatment. This finding suggests that NG has a potential advantage to enhance bacterial therapy of cancer, and further investigations of this possibility are warranted.

  15. Albumin transcytosis from the pleural space.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Emilio; Bodega, Francesca; Zocchi, Luciano

    2002-11-01

    Occurrence of transcytosis in pleural mesothelium was verified by measuring removal of labeled macromolecules from pleural liquid in experiments without and with nocodazole. To this end, we injected 0.3 ml of Ringer-albumin with 750 microg of albumin-Texas red or with 600 microg of dextran 70-Texas red in the right pleural space of anesthetized rabbits, and after 3 h we measured pleural liquid volume, labeled macromolecule concentration, and, hence, labeled macromolecule quantity in the liquid of this space. Labeled albumin left was 318 +/- 28 microg in control and 419 +/- 17 microg in nocodazole experiments (means +/- SE); hence, whereas ventilation was similar its removal was greater (P < 0.01) in control experiments. Labeled dextran left was 283 +/- 10 microg in control and 381 +/- 21 microg in nocodazole experiments; hence, whereas ventilation was similar its removal was greater (P < 0.01) in control experiments. These findings indicate occurrence of transcytosis from the pleural space. Liquid removed by transcytosis was 0.05 ml/h. This amount times unlabeled albumin concentration under physiological conditions (10 mg/ml) times lumen-vesicle partition coefficient for albumin (0.78) provides fluid-phase albumin transcytosis: approximately 203 microg. h(-1) kg(-2/3). Transcytosis might contribute a relevant part of protein and liquid removal from the pleural space.

  16. Cooperation and selfishness both occur during molecular evolution.

    PubMed

    Penny, David

    2014-11-26

    Perhaps the 'selfish' aspect of evolution has been over-emphasised, and organisms considered as basically selfish. However, at the macromolecular level of genes and proteins the cooperative aspect of evolution is more obvious and balances this self-centred aspect. Thousands of proteins must function together in an integrated manner to use and to produce the many molecules necessary for a functioning cell. The macromolecules have no idea whether they are functioning cooperatively or competitively with other genes and gene products (such as proteins). The cell is a giant cooperative system of thousands of genes/proteins that function together, even if it has to simultaneously resist 'parasites'. There are extensive examples of cooperative behavior among genes and proteins in both functioning cells and in the origin of life, so this cooperative nature, along with selfishness, must be considered part of normal evolution. The principles also apply to very large numbers of examples of 'positive interactions' between organisms, including both eukaryotes and akaryotes (prokaryotes). This does not negate in any way the 'selfishness' of genes - but macromolecules have no idea when they are helping, or hindering, other groups of macromolecules. We need to assert more strongly that genes, and gene products, function together as a cooperative unit.

  17. Dielectric Dispersion Studies Indicate Change in Structure of Water by Potentised Homeopathic Medicines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahata, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    Response of living bodies to different vastly `diluted' homeopathic medicines are different (rejecting the sceptic's view of `placebo' effect), though they are chemically same. Till now there is no satisfactory answer to how one such medicine differs from another in terms of scientifically measurable parameters. This paper tries to address this basic issue by taking two medicines of the same potency and two different potencies of the same medicine, namely, Arnica Mont 30c, 200c and Anacardium Orient 30c, 200c. These potencies are well above the Avogadro limit. The investigation reported here proceeds with the concept of `induced molecular structure' advanced by a number of scientists. Dielectric dispersion is used as the tool for experimental verification. It is based on the fact that when the exciting frequency of applied electric field equals the characteristic frequency, then macromolecules resonate leading to anomalous dielectric dispersion associated with sharp increase in dielectric loss, the resonance frequencies being different for macromolecules of different structures or dimensions. The results suggest that medicine- and potency-specific attributes are acquired by the vehicle (i.e. water) in the form of macromolecules generated by the potentization process of homeopathy making one medicine structurally different from another.

  18. The CAD-score web server: contact area-based comparison of structures and interfaces of proteins, nucleic acids and their complexes.

    PubMed

    Olechnovič, Kliment; Venclovas, Ceslovas

    2014-07-01

    The Contact Area Difference score (CAD-score) web server provides a universal framework to compute and analyze discrepancies between different 3D structures of the same biological macromolecule or complex. The server accepts both single-subunit and multi-subunit structures and can handle all the major types of macromolecules (proteins, RNA, DNA and their complexes). It can perform numerical comparison of both structures and interfaces. In addition to entire structures and interfaces, the server can assess user-defined subsets. The CAD-score server performs both global and local numerical evaluations of structural differences between structures or interfaces. The results can be explored interactively using sortable tables of global scores, profiles of local errors, superimposed contact maps and 3D structure visualization. The web server could be used for tasks such as comparison of models with the native (reference) structure, comparison of X-ray structures of the same macromolecule obtained in different states (e.g. with and without a bound ligand), analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural ensemble or structures obtained in the course of molecular dynamics simulation. The web server is freely accessible at: http://www.ibt.lt/bioinformatics/cad-score. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. 75 FR 53271 - Application(s) for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific Instruments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... invite comments on the question of whether instruments of equivalent scientific value, for the purposes... structure of biological macromolecules, which will be observed under cryogenic conditions. Justification for...

  20. Understanding the Organo-Carbonate Associations in Carbonaceous Chondrites with the Use of Micro-Raman Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Carbonates can potentially provide sites for organic materials to accrue and develop into complex macromolecules. This study examines the organics associated with carbonates in carbonaceous chondrites using micron-Raman imaging.

  1. Understanding the Organo-Carbonate Associations in Carbonaceous Chondrites with the Use of Micro-Raman Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Carbonates can potentially provide sites for organic materials to accrue and develop into complex macromolecules. This study examines the organics associated with carbonates in carbonaceous chondrites using µ-Raman imaging.

  2. Adsorption of polypropylene from dilute solutions on a zeolite column packing.

    PubMed

    Macko, Tibor; Pasch, Harald; Denayer, Joeri F

    2005-01-01

    Faujasite type zeolite CBV-780 was tested as adsorbent for isotactic polypropylene by liquid chromatography. When cyclohexane, cyclohexanol, n-decanol, n-dodecanol, diphenylmethane, or methylcyclohexane was used as mobile phase, polypropylene was fully or partially retained within the column packing. This is the first series of sorbent-solvent systems to show a pronounced retention of isotactic polypropylene. According to the hydrodynamic volumes of polypropylene in solution, macromolecules of polypropylene should be fully excluded from the pore volume of the sorbent. Sizes of polypropylene macromolecules in linear conformations, however, correlate with the pore size of the column packing used. It is presumed that the polypropylene chains partially penetrate into the pores and are retained due to the high adsorption potential in the narrow pores.

  3. Small-angle x-ray scattering study of polymer structure: Carbosilane dendrimers in hexane solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtykova, E. V.; Feigin, L. A.; Volkov, V. V.; Malakhova, Yu. N.; Streltsov, D. R.; Buzin, A. I.; Chvalun, S. N.; Katarzhanova, E. Yu.; Ignatieva, G. M.; Muzafarov, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    The three-dimensional organization of monodisperse hyper-branched macromolecules of regular structure—carbosilane dendrimers of zero, third, and sixth generations—has been studied by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in solution. The use of modern methods of SAXS data interpretation, including ab initio modeling, has made it possible to determine the internal architecture of the dendrimers in dependence of the generation number and the number of cyclosiloxane end groups (forming the shell of dendritic macromolecules) and show dendrimers to be spherical. The structural results give grounds to consider carbosilane dendrimers promising objects for forming crystals with subsequent structural analysis and determining their structure with high resolution, as well as for designing new materials to be used in various dendrimer-based technological applications.

  4. Avoiding Steric Congestion in Dendrimer Growth through Proportionate Branching. A Twist on da Vinci's Rule of Tree Branching

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yue, Xuyi; Taraban, Marc B.; Hyland, Laura L.

    2012-10-05

    In making defect-free macromolecules, the challenge occurs during chemical synthesis. This challenge is especially pronounced in dendrimer synthesis where exponential growth quickly leads to steric congestion. To overcome this difficulty, proportionate branching in dendrimer growth is proposed. In proportionate branching, both the number and the length of branches increase exponentially but in opposite directions to mimic tree growth. The effectiveness of this strategy is demonstrated through the synthesis of a fluorocarbon dendron containing 243 chemically identical fluorine atoms with a MW of 9082 Da. Monodispersity is confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Moreover, growingmore » different parts proportionately, as nature does, could be a general strategy to achieve defect-free synthesis of macromolecules.« less

  5. The application and use of chemical space mapping to interpret crystallization screening results

    PubMed Central

    Snell, Edward H.; Nagel, Ray M.; Wojtaszcyk, Ann; O’Neill, Hugh; Wolfley, Jennifer L.; Luft, Joseph R.

    2008-01-01

    Macromolecular crystallization screening is an empirical process. It often begins by setting up experiments with a number of chemically diverse cocktails designed to sample chemical space known to promote crystallization. Where a potential crystal is seen a refined screen is set up, optimizing around that condition. By using an incomplete factorial sampling of chemical space to formulate the cocktails and presenting the results graphically, it is possible to readily identify trends relevant to crystallization, coarsely sample the phase diagram and help guide the optimization process. In this paper, chemical space mapping is applied to both single macromolecules and to a diverse set of macromolecules in order to illustrate how visual information is more readily understood and assimilated than the same information presented textually. PMID:19018100

  6. The application and use of chemical space mapping to interpret crystallization screening results.

    PubMed

    Snell, Edward H; Nagel, Ray M; Wojtaszcyk, Ann; O'Neill, Hugh; Wolfley, Jennifer L; Luft, Joseph R

    2008-12-01

    Macromolecular crystallization screening is an empirical process. It often begins by setting up experiments with a number of chemically diverse cocktails designed to sample chemical space known to promote crystallization. Where a potential crystal is seen a refined screen is set up, optimizing around that condition. By using an incomplete factorial sampling of chemical space to formulate the cocktails and presenting the results graphically, it is possible to readily identify trends relevant to crystallization, coarsely sample the phase diagram and help guide the optimization process. In this paper, chemical space mapping is applied to both single macromolecules and to a diverse set of macromolecules in order to illustrate how visual information is more readily understood and assimilated than the same information presented textually.

  7. Immediate drop on demand technology (I-DOT) coupled with mass spectrometry via an open port sampling interface.

    PubMed

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos; Boeltz, Harry

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate and evaluate the analytical performance of coupling the immediate drop on demand technology to a mass spectrometer via the recently introduced open port sampling interface and ESI. Methodology & results: A maximum sample analysis throughput of 5 s per sample was demonstrated. Signal reproducibility was 10% or better as demonstrated by the quantitative analysis of propranolol and its stable isotope-labeled internal standard propranolol-d7. The ability of the system to multiply charge and analyze macromolecules was demonstrated using the protein cytochrome c. This immediate drop on demand technology/open port sampling interface/ESI-MS combination allowed for the quantitative analysis of relatively small mass analytes and was used for the identification of macromolecules like proteins.

  8. Three dimensional electron microscopy and in silico tools for macromolecular structure determination

    PubMed Central

    Borkotoky, Subhomoi; Meena, Chetan Kumar; Khan, Mohammad Wahab; Murali, Ayaluru

    2013-01-01

    Recently, structural biology witnessed a major tool - electron microscopy - in solving the structures of macromolecules in addition to the conventional techniques, X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Three dimensional transmission electron microscopy (3DTEM) is one of the most sophisticated techniques for structure determination of molecular machines. Known to give the 3-dimensional structures in its native form with literally no upper limit on size of the macromolecule, this tool does not need the crystallization of the protein. Combining the 3DTEM data with in silico tools, one can have better refined structure of a desired complex. In this review we are discussing about the recent advancements in three dimensional electron microscopy and tools associated with it. PMID:27092033

  9. Physiologic upper limits of pore size of different blood capillary types and another perspective on the dual pore theory of microvascular permeability.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Hemant

    2010-08-11

    Much of our current understanding of microvascular permeability is based on the findings of classic experimental studies of blood capillary permeability to various-sized lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules. According to the classic small pore theory of microvascular permeability, which was formulated on the basis of the findings of studies on the transcapillary flow rates of various-sized systemically or regionally perfused endogenous macromolecules, transcapillary exchange across the capillary wall takes place through a single population of small pores that are approximately 6 nm in diameter; whereas, according to the dual pore theory of microvascular permeability, which was formulated on the basis of the findings of studies on the accumulation of various-sized systemically or regionally perfused non-endogenous macromolecules in the locoregional tissue lymphatic drainages, transcapillary exchange across the capillary wall also takes place through a separate population of large pores, or capillary leaks, that are between 24 and 60 nm in diameter. The classification of blood capillary types on the basis of differences in the physiologic upper limits of pore size to transvascular flow highlights the differences in the transcapillary exchange routes for the transvascular transport of endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules across the capillary walls of different blood capillary types. The findings and published data of studies on capillary wall ultrastructure and capillary microvascular permeability to lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous molecules from the 1950s to date were reviewed. In this study, the blood capillary types in different tissues and organs were classified on the basis of the physiologic upper limits of pore size to the transvascular flow of lipid-insoluble molecules. Blood capillaries were classified as non-sinusoidal or sinusoidal on the basis of capillary wall basement membrane layer continuity or lack thereof

  10. Polymerization as a Model Chain Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Maurice

    1973-01-01

    Describes the features of the free radical, anionic, and cationic mechanisms of chain addition polymerization. Indicates that the nature of chain reactions can be best taught through the study of macromolecules. (CC)

  11. Effects of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate on the transdermal delivery of hydrophilic permeants: Comparative in vitro studies with full-thickness and split-thickness pig and human skin.

    PubMed

    Seto, Jennifer E; Polat, Baris E; Lopez, Renata F V; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2010-07-01

    The simultaneous application of ultrasound and the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (referred to as US/SLS) to skin enhances transdermal drug delivery (TDD) in a synergistic mechanical and chemical manner. Since full-thickness skin (FTS) and split-thickness skin (STS) differ in mechanical strength, US/SLS treatment may have different effects on their transdermal transport pathways. Therefore, we evaluated STS as an alternative to the well-established US/SLS-treated FTS model for TDD studies of hydrophilic permeants. We utilized the aqueous porous pathway model to compare the effects of US/SLS treatment on the skin permeability and the pore radius of pig and human FTS and STS over a range of skin electrical resistivity values. Our findings indicate that the US/SLS-treated pig skin models exhibit similar permeabilities and pore radii, but the human skin models do not. Furthermore, the US/SLS-enhanced delivery of gold nanoparticles and quantum dots (two model hydrophilic macromolecules) is greater through pig STS than through pig FTS, due to the presence of less dermis that acts as an artificial barrier to macromolecules. In spite of greater variability in correlations between STS permeability and resistivity, our findings strongly suggest the use of 700microm-thick pig STS to investigate the in vitro US/SLS-enhanced delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate on the transdermal delivery of hydrophilic permeants: Comparative in vitro studies with full-thickness and split-thickness pig and human skin

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Jennifer E.; Polat, Baris E.; Lopez, Renata F.V.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The simultaneous application of ultrasound and the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (referred to as US/SLS) to skin enhances transdermal drug delivery (TDD) in a synergistic mechanical and chemical manner. Since full-thickness skin (FTS) and split-thickness skin (STS) differ in mechanical strength, US/SLS treatment may have different effects on their transdermal transport pathways. Therefore, we evaluated STS as an alternative to the well-established US/SLS-treated FTS model for TDD studies of hydrophilic permeants. We utilized the aqueous porous pathway model to compare the effects of US/SLS treatment on the skin permeability and the pore radius of pig and human FTS and STS over a range of skin electrical resistivity values. Our findings indicate that the US/SLS-treated pig skin models exhibit similar permeabilities and pore radii, but the human skin models do not. Furthermore, the US/SLS-enhanced delivery of gold nanoparticles and quantum dots (two model hydrophilic macromolecules) is greater through pig STS than through pig FTS, due to the presence of less dermis that acts as an artificial barrier to macromolecules. In spite of greater variability in correlations between STS permeability and resistivity, our findings strongly suggest the use of 700-μm-thick pig STS to investigate the in vitro US/SLS-enhanced delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules. PMID:20346994

  13. Measuring In Vivo Protein Dynamics Throughout the Cell Cycle Using Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Roy; Brazda, Peter; Charl Moolman, M; Kerssemakers, J W J; Solano, Belen; Dekker, Nynke H

    2017-01-01

    Studying the dynamics of intracellular processes and investigating the interaction of individual macromolecules in live cells is one of the main objectives of cell biology. These macromolecules move, assemble, disassemble, and reorganize themselves in distinct manners under specific physiological conditions throughout the cell cycle. Therefore, in vivo experimental methods that enable the study of individual molecules inside cells at controlled culturing conditions have proved to be powerful tools to obtain insights into the molecular roles of these macromolecules and how their individual behavior influence cell physiology. The importance of controlled experimental conditions is enhanced when the investigated phenomenon covers long time periods, or perhaps multiple cell cycles. An example is the detection and quantification of proteins during bacterial DNA replication. Wide-field microscopy combined with microfluidics is a suitable technique for this. During fluorescence experiments, microfluidics offer well-defined cellular orientation and immobilization, flow and medium interchangeability, and high-throughput long-term experimentation of cells. Here we present a protocol for the combined use of wide-field microscopy and microfluidics for the study of proteins of the Escherichia coli DNA replication process. We discuss the preparation and application of a microfluidic device, data acquisition steps, and image analysis procedures to determine the stoichiometry and dynamics of a replisome component throughout the cell cycle of live bacterial cells.

  14. Associative Interactions in Crowded Solutions of Biopolymers Counteract Depletion Effects.

    PubMed

    Groen, Joost; Foschepoth, David; te Brinke, Esra; Boersma, Arnold J; Imamura, Hiromi; Rivas, Germán; Heus, Hans A; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2015-10-14

    The cytosol of Escherichia coli is an extremely crowded environment, containing high concentrations of biopolymers which occupy 20-30% of the available volume. Such conditions are expected to yield depletion forces, which strongly promote macromolecular complexation. However, crowded macromolecule solutions, like the cytosol, are very prone to nonspecific associative interactions that can potentially counteract depletion. It remains unclear how the cytosol balances these opposing interactions. We used a FRET-based probe to systematically study depletion in vitro in different crowded environments, including a cytosolic mimic, E. coli lysate. We also studied bundle formation of FtsZ protofilaments under identical crowded conditions as a probe for depletion interactions at much larger overlap volumes of the probe molecule. The FRET probe showed a more compact conformation in synthetic crowding agents, suggesting strong depletion interactions. However, depletion was completely negated in cell lysate and other protein crowding agents, where the FRET probe even occupied slightly more volume. In contrast, bundle formation of FtsZ protofilaments proceeded as readily in E. coli lysate and other protein solutions as in synthetic crowding agents. Our experimental results and model suggest that, in crowded biopolymer solutions, associative interactions counterbalance depletion forces for small macromolecules. Furthermore, the net effects of macromolecular crowding will be dependent on both the size of the macromolecule and its associative interactions with the crowded background.

  15. Integrin-Linked Kinase Is Indispensable for Keratinocyte Differentiation and Epidermal Barrier Function.

    PubMed

    Sayedyahossein, Samar; Rudkouskaya, Alena; Leclerc, Valerie; Dagnino, Lina

    2016-02-01

    A functional permeability barrier is essential to prevent the passage of water and electrolytes, macromolecules, and pathogens through the epidermis. This is accomplished in terminally differentiated keratinocytes through formation of a cornified envelope and the assembly of tight intercellular junctions. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a scaffold protein essential for hair follicle morphogenesis and epidermal attachment to the basement membrane. However, the biological functions of ILK in differentiated keratinocytes remain poorly understood. Furthermore, whether ILK is implicated in keratinocyte differentiation and intercellular junction formation has remained an unresolved issue. Here we describe a pivotal role for ILK in keratinocyte differentiation responses to increased extracellular Ca(2+), regulation of adherens and tight junction assembly, and the formation of an outside-in permeability barrier toward macromolecules. In the absence of ILK, the calcium sensing receptor, E-cadherin, and ZO-1 fail to translocate to the cell membrane, through mechanisms that involve abnormalities in microtubules and in RhoA activation. In situ, ILK-deficient epidermis exhibits reduced tight junction formation and increased outside-in permeability to a dextran tracer, indicating reduced barrier properties toward macromolecules. Therefore, ILK is an essential component of keratinocyte differentiation programs that contribute to epidermal integrity and the establishment of its barrier properties. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. ¹H MRS characterization of neurochemical profiles in orthotopic mouse models of human brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Hulsey, Keith M; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Banerjee, Abhishek; Soesbe, Todd C; Spence, Jeffrey S; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Maher, Elizabeth A; Bachoo, Robert M; Choi, Changho

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor, is resistant to currently available treatments. The development of mouse models of human GBM has provided a tool for studying mechanisms involved in tumor initiation and growth as well as a platform for preclinical investigation of new drugs. In this study we used (1) H MR spectroscopy to study the neurochemical profile of a human orthotopic tumor (HOT) mouse model of human GBM. The goal of this study was to evaluate differences in metabolite concentrations in the GBM HOT mice when compared with normal mouse brain in order to determine if MRS could reliably differentiate tumor from normal brain. A TE =19 ms PRESS sequence at 9.4 T was used for measuring metabolite levels in 12 GBM mice and 8 healthy mice. Levels for 12 metabolites and for lipids/macromolecules at 0.9 ppm and at 1.3 ppm were reliably detected in all mouse spectra. The tumors had significantly lower concentrations of total creatine, GABA, glutamate, total N-acetylaspartate, aspartate, lipids/macromolecules at 0.9 ppm, and lipids/macromolecules at 1.3 ppm than did the brains of normal mice. The concentrations of glycine and lactate, however, were significantly higher in tumors than in normal brain. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Determination of Ensemble-Average Pairwise Root Mean-Square Deviation from Experimental B-Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmanic, Antonija; Zagrovic, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Root mean-square deviation (RMSD) after roto-translational least-squares fitting is a measure of global structural similarity of macromolecules used commonly. On the other hand, experimental x-ray B-factors are used frequently to study local structural heterogeneity and dynamics in macromolecules by providing direct information about root mean-square fluctuations (RMSF) that can also be calculated from molecular dynamics simulations. We provide a mathematical derivation showing that, given a set of conservative assumptions, a root mean-square ensemble-average of an all-against-all distribution of pairwise RMSD for a single molecular species, 1/2, is directly related to average B-factors () and 1/2. We show this relationship and explore its limits of validity on a heterogeneous ensemble of structures taken from molecular dynamics simulations of villin headpiece generated using distributed-computing techniques and the Folding@Home cluster. Our results provide a basis for quantifying global structural diversity of macromolecules in crystals directly from x-ray experiments, and we show this on a large set of structures taken from the Protein Data Bank. In particular, we show that the ensemble-average pairwise backbone RMSD for a microscopic ensemble underlying a typical protein x-ray structure is ∼1.1 Å, under the assumption that the principal contribution to experimental B-factors is conformational variability. PMID:20197040

  18. Rapid Brownian Motion Primes Ultrafast Reconstruction of Intrinsically Disordered Phe-Gly Repeats Inside the Nuclear Pore Complex

    PubMed Central

    Moussavi-Baygi, R.; Mofrad, M. R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Conformational behavior of intrinsically disordered proteins, such as Phe-Gly repeat domains, alters drastically when they are confined in, and tethered to, nan channels. This has challenged our understanding of how they serve to selectively facilitate translocation of nuclear transport receptor (NTR)-bearing macromolecules. Heterogeneous FG-repeats, tethered to the NPC interior, nonuniformly fill the channel in a diameter-dependent manner and adopt a rapid Brownian motion, thereby forming a porous and highly dynamic polymeric meshwork that percolates in radial and axial directions and features two distinguishable zones: a dense hydrophobic rod-like zone located in the center, and a peripheral low-density shell-like zone. The FG-meshwork is locally disrupted upon interacting with NTR-bearing macromolecules, but immediately reconstructs itself between 0.44 μs and 7.0 μs, depending on cargo size and shape. This confers a perpetually-sealed state to the NPC, and is solely due to rapid Brownian motion of FG-repeats, not FG-repeat hydrophobic bonds. Elongated-shaped macromolecules, both in the presence and absence of NTRs, penetrate more readily into the FG-meshwork compared to their globular counterparts of identical volume and surface chemistry, highlighting the importance of the shape effects in nucleocytoplasmic transport. These results can help our understanding of geometrical effects in, and the design of, intelligent and responsive biopolymer-based materials in nanofiltration and artificial nanopores. PMID:27470900

  19. Rapid Brownian Motion Primes Ultrafast Reconstruction of Intrinsically Disordered Phe-Gly Repeats Inside the Nuclear Pore Complex.

    PubMed

    Moussavi-Baygi, R; Mofrad, M R K

    2016-07-29

    Conformational behavior of intrinsically disordered proteins, such as Phe-Gly repeat domains, alters drastically when they are confined in, and tethered to, nan channels. This has challenged our understanding of how they serve to selectively facilitate translocation of nuclear transport receptor (NTR)-bearing macromolecules. Heterogeneous FG-repeats, tethered to the NPC interior, nonuniformly fill the channel in a diameter-dependent manner and adopt a rapid Brownian motion, thereby forming a porous and highly dynamic polymeric meshwork that percolates in radial and axial directions and features two distinguishable zones: a dense hydrophobic rod-like zone located in the center, and a peripheral low-density shell-like zone. The FG-meshwork is locally disrupted upon interacting with NTR-bearing macromolecules, but immediately reconstructs itself between 0.44 μs and 7.0 μs, depending on cargo size and shape. This confers a perpetually-sealed state to the NPC, and is solely due to rapid Brownian motion of FG-repeats, not FG-repeat hydrophobic bonds. Elongated-shaped macromolecules, both in the presence and absence of NTRs, penetrate more readily into the FG-meshwork compared to their globular counterparts of identical volume and surface chemistry, highlighting the importance of the shape effects in nucleocytoplasmic transport. These results can help our understanding of geometrical effects in, and the design of, intelligent and responsive biopolymer-based materials in nanofiltration and artificial nanopores.

  20. Regulation of DNA conformations and dynamics in flows with hybrid field microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fangfang; Zu, Yingbo; Kumar Rajagopalan, Kartik; Wang, Shengnian

    2012-01-01

    Visualizing single DNA dynamics in flow provides a wealth of physical insights in biophysics and complex flow study. However, large signal fluctuations, generated from diversified conformations, deformation history dependent dynamics and flow induced stochastic tumbling, often frustrate its wide adoption in single molecule and polymer flow study. We use a hybrid field microfluidic (HFM) approach, in which an electric field is imposed at desired locations and appropriate moments to balance the flow stress on charged molecules, to effectively regulate the initial conformations and the deformation dynamics of macromolecules in flow. With λ-DNA and a steady laminar shear flow as the model system, we herein studied the performance of HFM on regulating DNA trapping, relaxation, coil-stretch transition, and accumulation. DNA molecules were found to get captured in the focused planes when motions caused by flow, and the electric field were balanced. The trapped macromolecules relaxed in two different routes while eventually became more uniform in size and globule conformations. When removing the electric field, the sudden stretching dynamics of DNA molecules exhibited a more pronounced extension overshoot in their transient response under a true step function of flow stress while similar behaviors to what other pioneering work in steady shear flow. Such regulation strategies could be useful to control the conformations of other important macromolecules (e.g., proteins) and help better reveal their molecular dynamics.

  1. Substrate-protecting antiproteolytic agents for the prevention of pathological degradation of connective tissues. A review.

    PubMed

    Robert, A-M

    2012-02-01

    Connective tissues play an important role in the physiological functions of the organism. The integrity of the macromolecular components of these tissues, also called extracellular matrix, is necessary for their functional efficiency. A number of proteinases present in the organism, and the activity of which increases with age and with several pathologies, specifically degrade the components of the extracellular matrix. For a long time, tentatives for the protection of the matrix-components against degradation were made with low molecular weight inhibitors, not very efficient in vivo and not devoid of inconveniencies. We initiated a different approach for the preservation of the macromolecules of the extracellular matrix against proteolytic degradation with substances which exert an intense antiproteolytic activity not only in vitro, but also in vivo. The particularity of these substances is the fact that they do not act on the enzymes, but combine with the macromolecules. This is the type of combination of substances with the macromolecules of the matrix that prevents their degradation by the proteinases. Because of this affinity of such antiproteolytic agents not for the enzymes but for the substrates, we called them "substrate protectors" (Robert et al., 1979). The aim of the present review is to summarise the essential of our experiments which led to the description of substrate protectors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. A proposed role for efflux transporters in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Satish; Tichenor, Michael D.; Satish, Akhila G.; Lehmann, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common brain disorder that is treated only with surgery. The basis for surgical treatment rests on the circulation theory. However, clinical and experimental data to substantiate circulation theory have remained inconclusive. In brain tissue and in the ventricles, we see that osmotic gradients drive water diffusion in water-permeable tissue. As the osmolarity of ventricular CSF increases within the cerebral ventricles, water movement into the ventricles increases and causes hydrocephalus. Macromolecular clearance from the ventricles is a mechanism to establish the normal CSF osmolarity, and therefore ventricular volume. Efflux transporters, (p-glycoprotein), are located along the blood brain barrier and play an important role in the clearance of macromolecules (endobiotics and xenobiotics) from the brain to the blood. There is clinical and experimental data to show that macromolecules are cleared out of the brain in normal and hydrocephalic brains. This article summarizes the existing evidence to support the role of efflux transporters in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. The location of p-gp along the pathways of macromolecular clearance and the broad substrate specificity of this abundant transporter to a variety of different macromolecules are reviewed. Involvement of p-gp in the transport of amyloid beta in Alzheimer disease and its relation to normal pressure hydrocephalus is reviewed. Finally, individual variability of p-gp expression might explain the variability in the development of hydrocephalus following intraventricular hemorrhage. PMID:25165050

  3. Purification of polymorphic components of complex genomes

    DOEpatents

    Stodolsky, M.

    1988-01-21

    A method for processing related subject and reference macromolecule composed of complementary strand into their respective subject and reference populations of representative fragments and effectuating purification of unique polymorphic subject fragments. 1 fig.

  4. Rapidly dissolving polymeric microneedles for minimally invasive intraocular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Raghu Raj Singh; Tekko, Ismaiel A; Al-Shammari, Farhan; Ali, Ahlam A; McCarthy, Helen; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2016-12-01

    In this study, dissolving microneedles (MNs) were used to enhance ocular drug delivery of macromolecules. MNs were fabricated using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer of various molecular weights (MWs) containing three model molecules of increasing MW, namely fluorescein sodium and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextrans (with MW of 70 k and 150 k Da). Arrays (3 × 3) of PVP MNs with conical shape measuring about 800 μm in height with a 300 μm base diameter, containing the model drugs, were fabricated and characterized for their fracture forces, insertion forces (in the sclera and cornea), depth of penetration (using OCT and confocal imaging), dissolution time and in vitro permeation. The average drug content of the MNs (only in MN shafts) ranged from 0.96 to 9.91 μg, and the average moisture content was below 11 %. High MW PVP produced MNs that can withstand higher forces with minimal reduction in needle height. PVP MNs showed rapid dissolution that ranged from 10 to 180 s, which was dependent upon PVP's MW. In vitro studies showed significant enhancement of macromolecule permeation when MNs were used, across both the corneal and scleral tissues, in comparison to topically applied aqueous solutions. Confocal images showed that the macromolecules formed depots within the tissues, which led to sustained permeation. However, use of MNs did not significantly benefit the permeation of small molecules; nevertheless, MN application has the potential for drug retention within the selected ocular tissues unlike topical application for small molecules. The material used in the fabrication of the MNs was found to be biocompatible with retinal cells (i.e. ARPE-19). Overall, this study reported the design and fabrication of minimally invasive rapidly dissolving polymeric MN arrays which were able to deliver high MW molecules to the eye via the intrastromal or intrascleral route. Thus, dissolving MNs have potential applications in enhancing ocular delivery of both small

  5. Fluid Physics and Macromolecular Crystal Growth in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, M.; Snell, E.; Judge, R.; Chayen, N.; Boggon, T.

    2000-01-01

    The molecular structure of biological macromolecules is important in understanding how these molecules work and has direct application to rational drug design for new medicines and for the improvement and development of industrial enzymes. In order to obtain the molecular structure, large, well formed, single macromolecule crystals are required. The growth of macromolecule crystals is a difficult task and is often hampered on the ground by fluid flows that result from the interaction of gravity with the crystal growth process. One such effect is the bulk movement of the crystal through the fluid due to sedimentation. A second is buoyancy driven convection close to the crystal surface. On the ground the crystallization process itself induces both of these flows. Buoyancy driven convection results from density differences between the bulk solution and fluid close to the crystal surface which has been depleted of macromolecules due to crystal growth. Schlieren photograph of a growing lysozyme crystal illustrating a 'growth plume' resulting from buoyancy driven convection. Both sedimentation and buoyancy driven convection have a negative effect on crystal growth and microgravity is seen as a way to both greatly reduce sedimentation and provide greater stability for 'depletion zones' around growing crystals. Some current crystal growth hardware however such as those based on a vapor diffusion techniques, may also be introducing unwanted Marangoni convection which becomes more pronounced in microgravity. Negative effects of g-jitter on crystal growth have also been observed. To study the magnitude of fluid flows around growing crystals we have attached a number of different fluorescent probes to lysozyme molecules. At low concentrations, less than 40% of the total protein, the probes do not appear to effect the crystal growth process. By using these probes we expect to determine not only the effect of induced flows due to crystal growth hardware design but also hope to

  6. Characterization of R5020 and RU486 binding to progesterone receptor from calf uterus

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hurd, C.; Moudgil, V.K.

    1988-05-17

    The authors have examined and compared the binding characteristics of the progesterone agonist R5020 (promegestrone, 17,21-dimethylpregna-4,9(10)-diene-3,20-dione) and the progesterone antagonist RU486 (mifepristone, 17..beta..-hydroxy-11..beta..-(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)-17..cap alpha..-(prop-1-ynyl)-estra-4,9-dien-3-one) in calf uterine cytosol. Both steroids bound cytosol macromolecule(s) with high affinity, exhibiting K/sub d/ values of 5.6 and 3.6 nM for R5020 and RU486 binding, respectively. The binding of the steroids to the macromolecule(s) was rapid at 4/sup 0/C, showing saturation of binding sites at 1-2 h for (/sup 3/H)progesterone and 2-4 h for both (/sup 3/H)R5020 and (/sup 3/H)RU486. Addition of molybdate and glycerol to cytosol increased the extent of (/sup 3/H)R5020 binding. Themore » extent of (/sup 3/H)RU486 binding remained unchanged in the presence of molybdate, whereas glycerol had an inhibitory effect. Molybdate alone or in combination with glycerol stabilized the (/sup 3/H)R5020- and (/sup 3/H)RU486-receptor complexes at 37/sup 0/C. Competitive steroid binding analysis revealed that (/sup 3/H)progesterone, (/sup 3/H)R5020, and (/sup 3/H)RU486 compete for the same site(s) in the uterine cytosol, suggesting that all three bind to the progesterone receptor (PR). Sedimentation rate analysis showed that both steroids were bound to a molecule that sediments in the 8S region. The 8S (/sup 3/H)R5020 and (/sup 3/H)RU486 peaks were abolished by excess radioinert progesterone, RU486, or R5020. The results of this study suggest that, although there are some differences in the nature of their interaction with the PR, both R5020 and RU486 bind to the same 8S receptor in calf uterine cytosol.« less

  7. Observation of Single-Protein and DNA Macromolecule Collisions on Ultramicroelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Dick, Jeffrey E; Renault, Christophe; Bard, Allen J

    2015-07-08

    Single-molecule detection is the ultimate sensitivity in analytical chemistry and has been largely unavailable in electrochemical analysis. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of detecting electrochemically inactive single biomacromolecules, such as enzymes, antibodies, and DNA, by blocking a solution redox reaction when molecules adsorb and block electrode sites. By oxidizing a large concentration of potassium ferrocyanide on an ultramicroelectrode (UME, radius ≤150 nm), time-resolved, discrete adsorption events of antibodies, enzymes, DNA, and polystyrene nanospheres can be differentiated from the background by their "footprint". Further, by assuming that the mass transport of proteins to the electrode surface is controlled mainly by diffusion, a size estimate using the Stokes-Einstein relationship shows good agreement of electrochemical data with known protein sizes.

  8. Multi-Functional pi-Conjugated Macromolecules Based on Poly(Phenylene Vinylene)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-14

    methacrylate-co-4-vinylpyridine)" (in press). 43. J . Polym. Sci., (with R. Vukovic , G. Bogdanic, V. Kuresevic, M. Tomaskovic and W.J. MacKnight) "Phase...Sokolik I Dr. Zhou Yang Dr. Iwao Teraoka IV. JUNIOR RESEARCH PERSONNEL: J . Neill B. Ma. S.L I U i I I i 5 VI. ABSTRACT OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS This report is...chains. I I U I * 14 I VIII. PUBLICATIONS IN PERIOD WITH AFOSR SUPPORT 1. J . Chem. Phys. 98, 712-716 (1993) (with G. Mao, J.E. Fischer and M.J. Winokur

  9. Nanostructures and dynamics of macromolecules bound to attractive filler surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Tad; Barkley, Deborah; Jiang, Naisheng; Endoh, Maya; Masui, Tomomi; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Nagao, Michihiro; Satija, Sushil; Taniguchi, Takashi

    We report in-situ nanostructures and dynamics of polybutadiene (PB) chains bound to carbon black (CB) fillers (the so-called ``bound polymer layer (BPL)'') in a good solvent. The BPL on the CB fillers were extracted by solvent leaching of a CB-filled PB compound and subsequently dispersed in deuterated toluene to label the BPL for small-angle neutron scattering and neutron spin echo techniques. Intriguingly, the results demonstrate that the BPL is composed of two regions regardless of molecular weights of PB: the inner unswollen region of ~ 0.5 nm thick and outer swollen region where the polymer chains display a parabolic profile with a diffuse tail. This two-layer formation on the filler surface is similar to that reported for polymer chains adsorbed on planar substrates from melts. In addition, the results show that the dynamics of the swollen bound chains can be explained by the so-called ``breathing mode'' and is generalized with the thickness of the swollen BPL. Furthermore, we will discuss how the breathing collective dynamics is affected by the presence of polymer chains in a matrix solution. We acknowledge the financial support from NSF Grant No. CMMI-1332499.

  10. Simulation of macromolecule self-assembly in solution: A multiscale approach

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lavino, Alessio D., E-mail: alessiodomenico.lavino@studenti.polito.it; Barresi, Antonello A., E-mail: antonello.barresi@polito.it; Marchisio, Daniele L., E-mail: daniele.marchisio@polito.it

    2015-12-17

    One of the most common processes to produce polymer nanoparticles is to induce self-assembly by using the solvent-displacement method, in which the polymer is dissolved in a “good” solvent and the solution is then mixed with an “anti-solvent”. The polymer ability to self-assemble in solution is therefore determined by its structural and transport properties in solutions of the pure solvents and at the intermediate compositions. In this work, we focus on poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) which is a biocompatible polymer that finds widespread application in the pharmaceutical and biomedical fields, performing simulation at three different scales using three different computational tools: fullmore » atomistic molecular dynamics (MD), population balance modeling (PBM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Simulations consider PCL chains of different molecular weight in solution of pure acetone (good solvent), of pure water (anti-solvent) and their mixtures, and mixing at different rates and initial concentrations in a confined impinging jets mixer (CIJM). Our MD simulations reveal that the nano-structuring of one of the solvents in the mixture leads to an unexpected identical polymer structure irrespectively of the concentration of the two solvents. In particular, although in pure solvents the behavior of the polymer is, as expected, very different, at intermediate compositions, the PCL chain shows properties very similar to those found in pure acetone as a result of the clustering of the acetone molecules in the vicinity of the polymer chain. We derive an analytical expression to predict the polymer structural properties in solution at different solvent compositions and use it to formulate an aggregation kernel to describe the self-assembly in the CIJM via PBM and CFD. Simulations are eventually validated against experiments.« less

  11. High-functionality star-branched macromolecules: polymer size and virial coefficients.

    PubMed

    Randisi, Ferdinando; Pelissetto, Andrea

    2013-10-21

    We perform high-statistics Monte Carlo simulations of a lattice model to compute the radius of gyration Rg, the center-to-end distance, the monomer distribution, and the second and third virial coefficients of star polymers for a wide range of functionalities f, 6 ≤ f ≤ 120. We consider systems with a large number L of monomers per arm (100 is approximately < L is approximately < 1000 for f ≤ 40 and 100 is approximately < L is approximately < 400 for f = 80, 120), which allows us to determine accurately all quantities in the scaling regime. Results are extrapolated to determine the behavior of the different quantities in the limit f → ∞. Structural results are finally compared with the predictions of the Daoud-Cotton model. It turns out that the blob picture of a star polymer is essentially correct up to the corona radius Rc, which depends on f and which varies from 0.7Rg for f = 6 to 1.0Rg for f = 40. The outer region (r > Rc), in which the monomer distribution decays exponentially, shrinks as f increases, but it does not disappear in the scaling regime even in the limit f → ∞. We also consider the Daoud-Cotton scaling relation Rg (2)~f(1-ν)L(2ν), which is found to hold only for f > 100.

  12. Primitive Path Analysis and Stress Distribution in Highly Strained Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Polymer material properties are strongly affected by entanglement effects. For long polymer chains and composite materials, they are expected to be at the origin of many technically important phenomena, such as shear thinning or the Mullins effect, which microscopically can be related to topological constraints between chains. Starting from fully equilibrated highly entangled polymer melts, we investigate the effect of isochoric elongation on the entanglement structure and force distribution of such systems. Theoretically, the related viscoelastic response usually is discussed in terms of the tube model. We relate stress relaxation in the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regimes to a primitive path analysis (PPA) and show that tension forces both along the original paths and along primitive paths, that is, the backbone of the tube, in the stretching direction correspond to each other. Unlike homogeneous relaxation along the chain contour, the PPA reveals a so far not observed long-lived clustering of topological constraints along the chains in the deformed state. PMID:29503762

  13. Well-Defined Macromolecules Using Horseradish Peroxidase as a RAFT Initiase.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Alex P; Bailey-Van Kuren, Dylan; Lucius, Melissa E; Makaroff, Katherine; Williams, Cameron; Page, Richard C; Berberich, Jason A; Konkolewicz, Dominik

    2016-02-01

    Enzymatic catalysis and control over macromolecular architectures from reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) are combined to give a new method of making polymers. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is used to catalytically generate radicals using hydrogen peroxide and acetylacetone as a mediator. RAFT is used to control the polymer structure. HRP catalyzed RAFT polymerization gives acrylate and acrylamide polymers with relatively narrow molecular weight distributions. The polymerization is rapid, typically exceeding 90% monomer conversion in 30 min. Complex macromolecular architectures including a block copolymer and a protein-polymer conjugate are synthesized using HRP to catalytically initiate RAFT polymerization. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Micromechanical model for protein materials: From macromolecules to macroscopic fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, G.; De Tommasi, D.; Pantano, M. F.; Pugno, N. M.; Saccomandi, G.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a model for the mechanical behavior of protein materials. Based on a limited number of experimental macromolecular parameters (persistence and contour length) we obtain the macroscopic behavior of keratin fibers (human, cow, and rabbit hair), taking into account the damage and residual stretches effects that are fundamental in many functions of life. We also show the capability of our approach to describe the main dissipation and permanent strain effects observed in the more complex spider silk fibers. The comparison between our results and the data obtained experimentally from cyclic tests demonstrates that our model is robust and is able to reproduce with a remarkable accuracy the experimental behavior of all protein materials we tested.

  15. Impact Mediated Loading Cytoplasmic Loading of Macromolecules into Adherent Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark S. F.; Feeback, Daniel L.; Vanderburg, Charles R.

    2003-01-01

    The advent of modern molecular biology, including the development of gene array technologies, has resulted in an explosion of information concerning the specific genes activated during normal cellular development, as well as those associated with a variety of pathological conditions. These techniques have served as a highly efficient, broacI.-based screening approach for those specific genes involved. in regulating normal cellular physiology and identifying candidate genes directly associated with the etiology of specific disease states. However, this approach provides information at the transcriptional' level only and does not necessarily indicate . that the gene in question is in fact translated ito a protein, or whether or not post-translational modification of the protein occurs. The critical importance of post-translational modification (i.e. phosphorylation, glycosylation, sialyation, etc.) to protein function has been recognized with regard to a number of proteins involved in a variety of important disease states. For example, altered glycosylation of beta-amyloid precursor protein results in an increase in the amount of beta-amyloid peptide generated and hence secreted as insoluble extracellular amyloid deposits (Georgopoulou, McLaughlin et al. 2001; Walter, Fluhrer et al. 2001), a pathological hal1nark of Alzheimer's disease. Abnormal phosphorylaion of synapsin I has been linked to alterations in synaptic vesicle trafficking leading to defective neurotransmission in Huntington's disease (Lievens, Woodman et al. 2002). Altered phosphorylation of the TAU protein involved in microtubule function has been linked to a number of neurodegenative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (Billingsley and Kincaid 1997; Sanchez, Alvarez-Tllada et a1. 2001). Aberrant siaIyation of cell/I surface antigens has been detected in a number of different tumor cell types and has been linked to the acquisition of a neoplastic phenotype (Sell 1990), while improper' sia1yation of sodium channels in cardiac tissue has been linked to heart failure (Ufret-Vincenty, Baro et al. 2001; Fozzard and Kyle 2002).

  16. High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction of Macromolecules with Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stojanoff, Vivian; Boggon, Titus; Helliwell, John R.; Judge, Russell; Olczak, Alex; Snell, Edward H.; Siddons, D. Peter; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We recently combined synchrotron-based monochromatic X-ray diffraction topography methods with triple axis diffractometry and rocking curve measurements: high resolution X-ray diffraction imaging techniques, to better understand the quality of protein crystals. We discuss these methods in the light of results obtained on crystals grown under different conditions. These non destructive techniques are powerful tools in the characterization of the protein crystals and ultimately will allow to improve, develop, and understand protein crystal growth. High resolution X-ray diffraction imaging methods will be discussed in detail in light of recent results obtained on Hen Egg White Lysozyme crystals and other proteins.

  17. Neutron Crystallography for the Study of Hydrogen Bonds in Macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Oksanen, Esko; Chen, Julian C-H; Fisher, Suzanne Zoë

    2017-04-07

    Abstract : The hydrogen bond (H bond) is one of the most important interactions that form the foundation of secondary and tertiary protein structure. Beyond holding protein structures together, H bonds are also intimately involved in solvent coordination, ligand binding, and enzyme catalysis. The H bond by definition involves the light atom, H, and it is very difficult to study directly, especially with X-ray crystallographic techniques, due to the poor scattering power of H atoms. Neutron protein crystallography provides a powerful, complementary tool that can give unambiguous information to structural biologists on solvent organization and coordination, the electrostatics of ligand binding, the protonation states of amino acid side chains and catalytic water species. The method is complementary to X-ray crystallography and the dynamic data obtainable with NMR spectroscopy. Also, as it gives explicit H atom positions, it can be very valuable to computational chemistry where exact knowledge of protonation and solvent orientation can make a large difference in modeling. This article gives general information about neutron crystallography and shows specific examples of how the method has contributed to structural biology, structure-based drug design; and the understanding of fundamental questions of reaction mechanisms.

  18. Neutron crystallography for the study of hydrogen bonds in macromolecules

    DOE PAGES

    Oksanen, Esko; Chen, Julian C.; Fisher, Zoe

    2017-04-07

    The hydrogen bond (H bond) is one of the most important interactions that form the foundation of secondary and tertiary protein structure. Beyond holding protein structures together, H bonds are also intimately involved in solvent coordination, ligand binding, and enzyme catalysis. The H bond by definition involves the light atom, H, and it is very difficult to study directly, especially with X-ray crystallographic techniques, due to the poor scattering power of H atoms. Neutron protein crystallography provides a powerful, complementary tool that can give unambiguous information to structural biologists on solvent organization and coordination, the electrostatics of ligand binding, themore » protonation states of amino acid side chains and catalytic water species. The method is complementary to X-ray crystallography and the dynamic data obtainable with NMR spectroscopy. Also, as it gives explicit H atom positions, it can be very valuable to computational chemistry where exact knowledge of protonation and solvent orientation can make a large difference in modeling. Finally, this article gives general information about neutron crystallography and shows specific examples of how the method has contributed to structural biology, structure-based drug design; and the understanding of fundamental questions of reaction mechanisms.« less

  19. Neutron crystallography for the study of hydrogen bonds in macromolecules

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Oksanen, Esko; Chen, Julian C.; Fisher, Zoe

    The hydrogen bond (H bond) is one of the most important interactions that form the foundation of secondary and tertiary protein structure. Beyond holding protein structures together, H bonds are also intimately involved in solvent coordination, ligand binding, and enzyme catalysis. The H bond by definition involves the light atom, H, and it is very difficult to study directly, especially with X-ray crystallographic techniques, due to the poor scattering power of H atoms. Neutron protein crystallography provides a powerful, complementary tool that can give unambiguous information to structural biologists on solvent organization and coordination, the electrostatics of ligand binding, themore » protonation states of amino acid side chains and catalytic water species. The method is complementary to X-ray crystallography and the dynamic data obtainable with NMR spectroscopy. Also, as it gives explicit H atom positions, it can be very valuable to computational chemistry where exact knowledge of protonation and solvent orientation can make a large difference in modeling. Finally, this article gives general information about neutron crystallography and shows specific examples of how the method has contributed to structural biology, structure-based drug design; and the understanding of fundamental questions of reaction mechanisms.« less

  20. Analytical Description of the H/D Exchange Kinetic of Macromolecule.

    PubMed

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Kononikhin, Alexey; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2018-04-17

    We present the accurate analytical solution obtained for the system of rate equations describing the isotope exchange process for molecules containing an arbitrary number of equivalent labile atoms. The exact solution was obtained using Mathematica 7.0 software, and this solution has the form of the time-dependent Gaussian distribution. For the case when forward exchange considerably overlaps the back exchange, it is possible to estimate the activation energy of the reaction by obtaining a temperature dependence of the reaction degree. Using a previously developed approach for performing H/D exchange directly in the ESI source, we have estimated the activation energies for ions with different functional groups and they were found to be in a range 0.04-0.3 eV. Since the value of the activation energy depends on the type of functional group, the developed approach can have potential analytical applications for determining types of functional groups in complex mixtures, such as petroleum, humic substances, bio-oil, and so on.

  1. Teaching resources. Movement of macromolecules in plant cells through plasmodesmata.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Richard A; Lucas, William J

    2006-02-21

    Plasmodesmata are intercellular organelles in plants that allow the passage of molecules between plant cells. Movement through plasmodesmata may allow transcription factors expressed in one cell to move into adjacent cells, thereby regulating gene expression non-cell autonomously. The two animations illustrate (i) movement of a protein through an individual plasmodesma and (ii) an experiment to detect the movement of the transcription factor through plasmodesmata from the L1 layer of a plant meristem into the L2 and L3 layers. These two animations would be useful in teaching plant biology or plant development or a cell biology class discussing mechanisms of intercellular transport.

  2. Ligand Depot: a data warehouse for ligands bound to macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zukang; Chen, Li; Maddula, Himabindu; Akcan, Ozgur; Oughtred, Rose; Berman, Helen M; Westbrook, John

    2004-09-01

    Ligand Depot is an integrated data resource for finding information about small molecules bound to proteins and nucleic acids. The initial release (version 1.0, November, 2003) focuses on providing chemical and structural information for small molecules found as part of the structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank. Ligand Depot accepts keyword-based queries and also provides a graphical interface for performing chemical substructure searches. A wide variety of web resources that contain information on small molecules may also be accessed through Ligand Depot. Ligand Depot is available at http://ligand-depot.rutgers.edu/. Version 1.0 supports multiple operating systems including Windows, Unix, Linux and the Macintosh operating system. The current drawing tool works in Internet Explorer, Netscape and Mozilla on Windows, Unix and Linux.

  3. Purification of polymorphic components of complex genomes

    DOEpatents

    Stodolsky, Marvin

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for processing related subject and reference macromolecule populations composed of complementary strands into their respective subject and reference populations of representative fragments and effectuating purification of unique polymorphic subject fragments.

  4. Decades of Data: Extracting Trends from Microgravity Crystallization History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, R. A.; Snell, E. H.; Kephart, R.; vanderWoerd, M.

    2004-01-01

    The reduced acceleration environment of an orbiting spacecraft has been proposed as an ideal environment for biological crystal growth as the first sounding rocket flight in 1981 many crystallization experiments have flown with some showing improvement and others not. To further explore macromolecule crystal improvement in microgravity we have accumulated data from published reports and reports submitted by 63 missions including the Space Shuttle program, unmanned satellites, the Russian Space Station MIR and sounding rocket experiments. While it is not at this point in time a comprehensive record of all flight crystallization experimental results, there is however sufficient information for emerging trends to be identified. In this study the effects of the acceleration environment, the techniques of crystallization, sample molecular weight and the response of individual macromolecules to microgravity crystallization will be investigated.

  5. Elasticity and Strength of Biomacromolecular Crystals: Lysozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, A. M.; Witherow, W. K.; Chen, L. Q.; Chernov, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    The static Young modulus, E = 0.1 to 0.5 GPa, the crystal critical strength (sigma(sub c)) and its ratio to E,sigma(sub c)/E is approximately 10(exp 3), were measured for the first time for non cross-linked lysozyme crystals in solution. By using a triple point bending apparatus, we also demonstrated that the crystals were purely elastic. Softness of protein crystals built of hard macromolecules (26 GPa for lysozyme) is explained by the large size of the macromolecules as compared to the range of intermolecular forces and by the weakness of intermolecular bonds as compared to the peptide bond strength. The relatively large reported dynamic elastic moduli (approximately 8 GPa) from resonance light scattering should come from averaging over the moduli of intracrystalline water and intra- and intermolecular bonding.

  6. An update on the application of physical technologies to enhance intradermal and transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Herwadkar, Anushree; Banga, Ajay K

    2012-03-01

    A large number of biopharmaceuticals and other macromolecules are being developed for therapeutic applications. Conventional oral delivery is not always possible due to first-pass metabolism and degradation in the GI tract. Parenteral delivery is invasive and has poor patient compliance. Transdermal delivery provides one attractive route of administration. Transdermal administration can achieve the continuous and non-invasive delivery of drugs. However, passive transdermal delivery is restricted to small lipophilic molecules. Active physical-enhancement technologies are being investigated to increase the scope of transdermal delivery to hydrophilic molecules and macromolecules. Recent developments in transdermal technologies, such as microporation, iontophoresis and sonophoresis can enable therapeutic delivery of many drug molecules, biopharmaceuticals, cosmeceuticals and vaccines. This review provides an update of recent developments in transdermal delivery focusing on physical-enhancement technologies.

  7. Like-charge attraction in a one-dimensional setting: the importance of being odd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trizac, Emmanuel; Téllez, Gabriel

    2018-03-01

    From cement cohesion to DNA condensation, a proper statistical physics treatment of systems with long-range forces is important for a number of applications in physics, chemistry, and biology. We compute here the effective force between fixed charged macromolecules, screened by oppositely charged mobile ions (counterions). We treat the problem in a one-dimensional configuration that allows for interesting discussion and derivation of exact results, remaining at a level of mathematical difficulty compatible with an undergraduate course. Emphasis is put on the counterintuitive but fundamental phenomenon of like-charge attraction, which our treatment brings for the first time to the level of undergraduate teaching. The parity of the number of counterions is shown to play a prominent role, which sheds light on the binding mechanism at work when like-charge macromolecules do attract.

  8. CheckMyMetal: a macromolecular metal-binding validation tool

    PubMed Central

    Porebski, Przemyslaw J.

    2017-01-01

    Metals are essential in many biological processes, and metal ions are modeled in roughly 40% of the macromolecular structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). However, a significant fraction of these structures contain poorly modeled metal-binding sites. CheckMyMetal (CMM) is an easy-to-use metal-binding site validation server for macromolecules that is freely available at http://csgid.org/csgid/metal_sites. The CMM server can detect incorrect metal assignments as well as geometrical and other irregularities in the metal-binding sites. Guidelines for metal-site modeling and validation in macromolecules are illustrated by several practical examples grouped by the type of metal. These examples show CMM users (and crystallographers in general) problems they may encounter during the modeling of a specific metal ion. PMID:28291757

  9. Size-exclusion chromatography system for macromolecular interaction analysis

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Fred J.

    1988-01-01

    A low pressure, microcomputer controlled system employing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) allows for precise analysis of the interaction of two reversibly associating macromolecules such as proteins. Since a macromolecular complex migrates faster than its components during size-exclusion chromatography, the difference between the elution profile of a mixture of two macromolecules and the summation of the elution profiles of the two components provides a quantifiable indication of the degree of molecular interaction. This delta profile is used to qualitatively reveal the presence or absence of significant interaction or to rank the relative degree of interaction in comparing samples and, in combination with a computer simulation, is further used to quantify the magnitude of the interaction in an arrangement wherein a microcomputer is coupled to analytical instrumentation in a novel manner.

  10. How cryo‐electron microscopy and X‐ray crystallography complement each other

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia‐Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With the ability to resolve structures of macromolecules at atomic resolution, X‐ray crystallography has been the most powerful tool in modern structural biology. At the same time, recent technical improvements have triggered a resolution revolution in the single particle cryo‐EM method. While the two methods are different in many respects, from sample preparation to structure determination, they both have the power to solve macromolecular structures at atomic resolution. It is important to understand the unique advantages and caveats of the two methods in solving structures and to appreciate the complementary nature of the two methods in structural biology. In this review we provide some examples, and discuss how X‐ray crystallography and cryo‐EM can be combined in deciphering structures of macromolecules for our full understanding of their biological mechanisms. PMID:27543495

  11. Effect of D-002 on gastric mucus composition in ethanol-induced ulcer.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, D; Molina, V; Noa, M; Valdés, S; Arruzazabala, M L; Aguilar, C; Más, R

    2000-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of D-002, a natural product isolated and purified from beeswax (Apis mellifera), on gastric mucus composition on ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. The morphology of the lesions was analysed histologically, and morphometric analysis of gastric-gland content in total glycoprotein and sulphated macromolecules were done. Oral pretreatment with D-002 at 5 and 25 mgkg(-1)1 before oral administration of ethanol at 60%, produced a significant increase in the amount of gastric mucus and total protein. The histomorphometric evaluation of the gastric damage at the same doses showed a significant increase in neutral glycoproteins and sulfated macromolecules. It is concluded that enhancement of the quantity and quality of the mucus could partly explain the gastroprotective effect of D-002. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. Nanostructured Membranes for Enzyme Catalysis and Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macroporous membranes functionalized with ionizable macromolecules provide promising applications in toxic metal capture at high capacity, nanoparticle synthesis, and catalysis. Our low-pressure membrane approach is marked by reaction and separation selectivity and their tunabil...

  13. Mode of action from dose-response microarray data: case study using 10 environmental chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ligand-activated nuclear receptors regulate many biological processes through complex interactions with biological macromolecules. Certain xenobiotics alter nuclear receptor signaling through direct or indirect interactions. Defining the mode of action of such xenobiotics is di...

  14. Nanostructured Membranes for Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles and Enzyme Catalysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macroporous membranes functionalized with ionizable macromolecules provide promising applications in toxic metal capture at high capacity, nanoparticle synthesis, and catalysis. Our low‐pressure membrane approach is marked by reaction and separation selectivity and their tunabili...

  15. SURFACE MODIFICATION OF SILICA- AND CELLULOSE-BASED MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANES WITH FUNCTIONAL POLYAMINO ACIDS FOR HEAVY METAL SORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Functionalized membranes represent a field with multiple applications. Examination of specific metal-macromolecule interactions on these surfaces presents an excellent method for characterizion of these materials. These interactions may also be exploited for heavy metal sorptio...

  16. Production and characterization of IgM monoclonal antibodies against hyphal antigens of Stachybotrys species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stachybotrys is a hydrophilic fungal genus that is well known for its ability to colonize water-damaged building materials in indoor environments. Personal exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum allergens, mycotoxins, cytolytic peptides, and other immunostimulatory macromolecules has...

  17. Biotechnology Computing: Information Science for the Era of Molecular Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masys, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution from classical genetics to biotechnology, an area of research involving key macromolecules in living cells, is chronicled and the current state of biotechnology is described, noting related advances in computing and clinical medicine. (MSE)

  18. Purification of polymorphic components of complex genomes

    DOEpatents

    Stodolsky, M.

    1991-07-16

    A method is disclosed for processing related subject and reference macromolecule populations composed of complementary strands into their respective subject and reference populations of representative fragments and effectuating purification of unique polymorphic subject fragments. 1 figure.

  19. Deconstruction of ionic liquid pretreated lignocellulosic biomass using mono-component cellulases and hemicellulases and commercial mixtures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lignocellulosic biomass is comprised of cellulose and hemicellulose, sources of polysaccharides, and lignin, a macromolecule with extensive aromaticity. Lignocellulose requires pretreatment before biochemical conversion to its monomeric sugars which can provide a renewable carbon based feedstock for...

  20. Physical, chemical, biological, and biotechnological sciences are incomplete without each other

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chemical analysis and chromatographic techniques could not separate plasma lipoproteins which are now known as cholesterol- containing, heart-disease related macromolecules in human blood. Scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory successfully separated plasma lipoproteins using equilibrium den...

  1. Media Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedstein, Harriet G., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews three audiovisual instructional aids, providing information on time, format, catalog number, price, and supplier. "Distillation: Simple and Fractional,""The Periodic Table," and "Manmade Macromolecules" are considered to be excellent materials for secondary school chemistry classes. (JN)

  2. Preparing Monodisperse Macromolecular Samples for Successful Biological Small-Angle X-ray and Neutron Scattering Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Cy M.; Graewert, Melissa A.; Blanchet, Clément E.; Langley, David B.; Whitten, Andrew E.; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2017-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) are techniques used to extract structural parameters and determine the overall structures and shapes of biological macromolecules, complexes and assemblies in solution. The scattering intensities measured from a sample contain contributions from all atoms within the illuminated sample volume including the solvent and buffer components as well as the macromolecules of interest. In order to obtain structural information, it is essential to prepare an exactly matched solvent blank so that background scattering contributions can be accurately subtracted from the sample scattering to obtain the net scattering from the macromolecules in the sample. In addition, sample heterogeneity caused by contaminants, aggregates, mismatched solvents, radiation damage or other factors can severely influence and complicate data analysis so it is essential that the samples are pure and monodisperse for the duration of the experiment. This Protocol outlines the basic physics of SAXS and SANS and reveals how the underlying conceptual principles of the techniques ultimately ‘translate’ into practical laboratory guidance for the production of samples of sufficiently high quality for scattering experiments. The procedure describes how to prepare and characterize protein and nucleic acid samples for both SAXS and SANS using gel electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography and light scattering. Also included are procedures specific to X-rays (in-line size exclusion chromatography SAXS) and neutrons, specifically preparing samples for contrast matching/variation experiments and deuterium labeling of proteins. PMID:27711050

  3. Suberin: the biopolyester at the frontier of plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graça, José

    2015-10-01

    Suberin is a lipophilic macromolecule found in specialized plant cell walls, wherever insulation or protection towards the surroundings is needed. Suberized cells form the periderm, the tissue that envelops secondary stems as part of the bark, and develop as the sealing tissue after wounding or leaf abscission. Suberin is a complex polyester built from poly-functional long-chain fatty acids (suberin acids) and glycerol. The suberin acids composition of a number of plant tissues and species is now established, but how the polyester macromolecule is assembled within the suberized cell walls is not known. In the last years contributions from several areas have however significantly enriched our understanding of suberin. The primary structure of the polyester, i.e. how the suberin acids and glycerol are sequentially linked was revealed, together with the stereochemistry of the mid-chain functional groups some suberin acids have; solid-state NMR studies showed the presence of methylene chains spatially separated and with different molecular mobility; biophysical studies showed the membrane behaviour of suberin acids derivatives, allowing new insights on structure-properties relationships; and a number of candidate genes were conclusively related to suberin biosynthesis. The comprehension of suberin as a macromolecule will be essential to understand its vital protective roles in plants and how they will deal with eventual environmental changes. Suberin is also expected to be a source for high-performing bio-based chemicals, taking advantage of the structural uniqueness of their constituent suberin acids.

  4. Determination of ensemble-average pairwise root mean-square deviation from experimental B-factors.

    PubMed

    Kuzmanic, Antonija; Zagrovic, Bojan

    2010-03-03

    Root mean-square deviation (RMSD) after roto-translational least-squares fitting is a measure of global structural similarity of macromolecules used commonly. On the other hand, experimental x-ray B-factors are used frequently to study local structural heterogeneity and dynamics in macromolecules by providing direct information about root mean-square fluctuations (RMSF) that can also be calculated from molecular dynamics simulations. We provide a mathematical derivation showing that, given a set of conservative assumptions, a root mean-square ensemble-average of an all-against-all distribution of pairwise RMSD for a single molecular species, (1/2), is directly related to average B-factors () and (1/2). We show this relationship and explore its limits of validity on a heterogeneous ensemble of structures taken from molecular dynamics simulations of villin headpiece generated using distributed-computing techniques and the Folding@Home cluster. Our results provide a basis for quantifying global structural diversity of macromolecules in crystals directly from x-ray experiments, and we show this on a large set of structures taken from the Protein Data Bank. In particular, we show that the ensemble-average pairwise backbone RMSD for a microscopic ensemble underlying a typical protein x-ray structure is approximately 1.1 A, under the assumption that the principal contribution to experimental B-factors is conformational variability. 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transition from Gaseous Compounds to Aerosols in Titan's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebonnois, Sebastien; Bakes, E. L. O.; McKay, Christopher P.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the chemical transition of simple molecules like C2H2 and HCN into aerosol particles in the context of Titan's atmosphere. Experiments that synthesize analogs (tholins) for these aerosols can help understand and constrain these polymerization mechanisms. Using information available from these experiments, we suggest chemical pathways that can link simple molecules to macromolecules, that will be the precursors to aerosol particles: polymers of acetylene and cyanoacetylene, polycyclic aromatics (PAHs), polymers of HCN and other nitriles, and polynes. Although our goal here is not to build a detailed kinetic model for this transition, we propose parameterizations to estimate the production rates of these macromolecules, their C/N and C/H ratios, and the loss of parent molecules (C2H2, HCN, HC3N and other nitriles, C6H6) from the gas phase to the haze. We use a 1-dimensional photochemical model of Titan's atmosphere to estimate the formation rate of precursors macromolecules. We find a production zone slightly lower than 200 km altitude with a total production rate of 4 x 10(exp -14) g/ sq cm s and a C/N approx. = 4. These results are compared with experimental data, and to microphysical models requirements. The Cassini/Huygens mission will bring a detailed picture of the haze distribution and properties, that will be a great challenge for our understanding of those chemical processes.

  6. Synthesis, inhibition effects and quantum chemical studies of a novel coumarin derivative on the corrosion of mild steel in a hydrochloric acid solution.

    PubMed

    Al-Azawi, Khalida F; Al-Baghdadi, Shaimaa B; Mohamed, Ayad Z; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A; Abed, Talib K; Mohammed, Salam A; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    The acid corrosion inhibition process of mild steel in 1 M HCl by 4-[(2-amino-1, 3, 4-thiadiazol-5-yl)methoxy]coumarin (ATC), has been investigated using weight loss technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). ATC was synthesized, and its chemical structure was elucidated and confirmed using spectroscopic techniques (infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy). The results indicated that inhibition efficiencies were enhanced with an increase in concentration of inhibitor and decreased with a rise in temperature. The adsorption equilibrium constant (K) and standard free energy of adsorption (ΔGads) were calculated. Quantum chemical parameters such as highest occupied molecular orbital energy, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO and ELUMO, respectively) and dipole moment (μ) were calculated and discussed. The results showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in both the EHOMO and μ values but with a decrease in the ELUMO value. Our research show that the synthesized macromolecule represents an excellent inhibitor for materials in acidic solutions. The efficiency of this macromolecule had maximum inhibition efficiency up to 96 % at 0.5 mM and diminishes with a higher temperature degree, which is revealing of chemical adsorption. An inhibitor molecule were absorbed by metal surface and follow Langmuir isotherms low and establishes an efficient macromolecule inhibitor having excellent inhibitive properties due to entity of S (sulfur) atom, N (nitrogen) atom and O (oxygen) atom.

  7. Selective binding, uptake, and retrograde transport of tetanus toxin by nerve terminals in the rat iris. An electron microscope study using colloidal gold as a tracer

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    A series of specific macromolecules (tetanus toxin, cholera toxin, nerve growth factor [NGF], and several lectins) have been shown to be transported retrogradely with high selectivity from terminals to cell bodies in various types of neurons. Under identical experimental conditions (low protein concentrations injected), most other macromolecules, e.g. horseradish peroxidase (HRP), albumin, ferritin, are not transported in detectable amounts. In the present EM study, we demonstrate selective binding of tetanus toxin to the surface membrane of nerve terminals, followed by uptake and subsequent retorgrade axonal transport. Tetanus toxin or albumin was adsorbed to colloidal gold particles (diam 200 A). The complex was shown to be stable and well suited as an EM tracer. 1-4 h after injection into the anterior eye chamber of adult rats, tetanus toxin-gold particles were found to be selectively associated with membranes of nerve terminals and preterminal axons. Inside terminals and axons, the tracer was localized mainly in smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)-like membrane compartments. In contrast, association of albumin-gold complexes with nervous structures was never observed, in spite of extensive uptake into fibroblasts. Electron microscope and biochemical experiments showed selective retrograde transport of tetanus toxin-gold complexes to the superior cervical ganglion. Specific binding to membrane components at nerve terminals and subsequent internalization and retrograde transport may represent an important pathway for macromolecules carrying information from target organs to the perikarya of their innervating neurons. PMID:659508

  8. Can visco-elastic phase separation, macromolecular crowding and colloidal physics explain nuclear organisation?

    PubMed

    Iborra, Francisco J

    2007-04-12

    The cell nucleus is highly compartmentalized with well-defined domains, it is not well understood how this nuclear order is maintained. Many scientists are fascinated by the different set of structures observed in the nucleus to attribute functions to them. In order to distinguish functional compartments from non-functional aggregates, I believe is important to investigate the biophysical nature of nuclear organisation. The various nuclear compartments can be divided broadly as chromatin or protein and/or RNA based, and they have very different dynamic properties. The chromatin compartment displays a slow, constrained diffusional motion. On the other hand, the protein/RNA compartment is very dynamic. Physical systems with dynamical asymmetry go to viscoelastic phase separation. This phase separation phenomenon leads to the formation of a long-lived interaction network of slow components (chromatin) scattered within domains rich in fast components (protein/RNA). Moreover, the nucleus is packed with macromolecules in the order of 300 mg/ml. This high concentration of macromolecules produces volume exclusion effects that enhance attractive interactions between macromolecules, known as macromolecular crowding, which favours the formation of compartments. In this paper I hypothesise that nuclear compartmentalization can be explained by viscoelastic phase separation of the dynamically different nuclear components, in combination with macromolecular crowding and the properties of colloidal particles. I demonstrate that nuclear structure can satisfy the predictions of this hypothesis. I discuss the functional implications of this phenomenon.

  9. Multifunctional Delivery Systems for Advanced oral Uptake of Peptide/Protein Drugs.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Woo; Kim, Sun Jin; Kwag, Dong Sup; Kim, Sol; Park, Jeyoung; Youn, Yu Seok; Bae, You Han; Lee, Eun Seong

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, advances in biotechnology and protein engineering have enabled the production of large quantities of proteins and peptides as important therapeutic agents. Various researchers have used biocompatible functional polymers to prepare oral dosage forms of proteins and peptides for chronic use and for easier administration to enhance patient compliance. However, there is a need to enhance their safety and effectiveness further. Most macromolecules undergo severe denaturation at low pH and enzymatic degradation in the gastrointestinal tract. The macromolecules' large molecular size and low lipophilicity cause low permeation through the intestinal membrane. The major strategies that have been used to overcome these challenges (in oral drug carrier systems) can be classified as follows: enteric coating or encapsulation with pH-sensitive polymers or mucoadhesive polymers, co-administration of protease inhibitors, incorporation of absorption enhancers, modification of the physicochemical properties of the macromolecules, and site-specific delivery to the colon. This review attempts to summarize the various advanced oral delivery carriers, including nanoparticles, lipid carriers, such as liposomes, nano-aggregates using amphiphilic polymers, complex coacervation of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, and inorganic porous particles. The particles were formulated and/or surface modified with functional polysaccharides or synthetic polymers to improve oral bioavailability of proteins and peptides. We also discuss formulation strategies to overcome barriers, therapeutic efficacies in vivo, and potential benefits and issues for successful oral dosage forms of the proteins and peptides.

  10. Stabilization and Anomalous Hydration of Collagen Fibril under Heating

    PubMed Central

    Gevorkian, Sasun G.; Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Gevorgyan, David S.; Simonian, Aleksandr L.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2013-01-01

    Background Type I collagen is the most common protein among higher vertebrates. It forms the basis of fibrous connective tissues (tendon, chord, skin, bones) and ensures mechanical stability and strength of these tissues. It is known, however, that separate triple-helical collagen macromolecules are unstable at physiological temperatures. We want to understand the mechanism of collagen stability at the intermolecular level. To this end, we study the collagen fibril, an intermediate level in the collagen hierarchy between triple-helical macromolecule and tendon. Methodology/Principal Finding When heating a native fibril sample, its Young’s modulus decreases in temperature range 20–58°C due to partial denaturation of triple-helices, but it is approximately constant at 58–75°C, because of stabilization by inter-molecular interactions. The stabilization temperature range 58–75°C has two further important features: here the fibril absorbs water under heating and the internal friction displays a peak. We relate these experimental findings to restructuring of collagen triple-helices in fibril. A theoretical description of the experimental results is provided via a generalization of the standard Zimm-Bragg model for the helix-coil transition. It takes into account intermolecular interactions of collagen triple-helices in fibril and describes water adsorption via the Langmuir mechanism. Conclusion/Significance We uncovered an inter-molecular mechanism that stabilizes the fibril made of unstable collagen macromolecules. This mechanism can be relevant for explaining stability of collagen. PMID:24244320

  11. Enzyme Characterization of Cellulase and Hemicellulases Component Enzymes and Saccharification of Ionic Liquid Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lignocellulosic biomass is comprised of cellulose and hemicellulose, sources of polysaccharides, and lignin, a macromolecule with extensive aromaticity. Terrestrial biomass can provide a renewable carbon based feedstock for fuel and chemical production. However, recalcitrance of biomass to deconstru...

  12. Modes of action for arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are three principal ways in which arsenic species can interact with important biological molecules. First, trivalent arsenicals can bind to macromolecule sites, principally the sulfhydryls of peptides and proteins. Selenocysteines, selenium atoms and molybdenum atoms are al...

  13. Progress in developing Poisson-Boltzmann equation solvers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan; Li, Lin; Petukh, Marharyta; Alexov, Emil

    2013-01-01

    This review outlines the recent progress made in developing more accurate and efficient solutions to model electrostatics in systems comprised of bio-macromolecules and nano-objects, the last one referring to objects that do not have biological function themselves but nowadays are frequently used in biophysical and medical approaches in conjunction with bio-macromolecules. The problem of modeling macromolecular electrostatics is reviewed from two different angles: as a mathematical task provided the specific definition of the system to be modeled and as a physical problem aiming to better capture the phenomena occurring in the real experiments. In addition, specific attention is paid to methods to extend the capabilities of the existing solvers to model large systems toward applications of calculations of the electrostatic potential and energies in molecular motors, mitochondria complex, photosynthetic machinery and systems involving large nano-objects. PMID:24199185

  14. Viewing Angle Classification of Cryo-Electron Microscopy Images Using Eigenvectors

    PubMed Central

    Singer, A.; Zhao, Z.; Shkolnisky, Y.; Hadani, R.

    2012-01-01

    The cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstruction problem is to find the three-dimensional structure of a macromolecule given noisy versions of its two-dimensional projection images at unknown random directions. We introduce a new algorithm for identifying noisy cryo-EM images of nearby viewing angles. This identification is an important first step in three-dimensional structure determination of macromolecules from cryo-EM, because once identified, these images can be rotationally aligned and averaged to produce “class averages” of better quality. The main advantage of our algorithm is its extreme robustness to noise. The algorithm is also very efficient in terms of running time and memory requirements, because it is based on the computation of the top few eigenvectors of a specially designed sparse Hermitian matrix. These advantages are demonstrated in numerous numerical experiments. PMID:22506089

  15. Magnetic separation: its application in mining, waste purification, medicine, biochemistry and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Iranmanesh, M; Hulliger, J

    2017-10-02

    The use of strong magnetic field gradients and high magnetic fields generated by permanent magnets or superconducting coils has found applications in many fields such as mining, solid state chemistry, biochemistry and medical research. Lab scale or industrial implementations involve separation of macro- and nanoparticles, cells, proteins, and macromolecules down to small molecules and ions. Most promising are those attempts where the object to be separated is attached to a strong magnetic nanoparticle. Here, all kinds of specific affinity interactions are used to attach magnetic carrier particles to mainly objects of biological interest. Other attempts use a strong paramagnetic suspension for the separation of purely diamagnetic objects, such as bio-macromolecules or heavy metals. The application of magnetic separation to superconducting inorganic phases is of particular interest in combination with ceramic combinatorial chemistry to generate a library of e.g. cuprate superconductors.

  16. Natural products as an inspiration in the diversity-oriented synthesis of bioactive compound libraries

    PubMed Central

    Cordier, Christopher; Morton, Daniel; Murrison, Sarah; O'Leary-Steele, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of diversity-oriented synthesis is to drive the discovery of small molecules with previously unknown biological functions. Natural products necessarily populate biologically relevant chemical space, since they bind both their biosynthetic enzymes and their target macromolecules. Natural product families are, therefore, libraries of pre-validated, functionally diverse structures in which individual compounds selectively modulate unrelated macromolecular targets. This review describes examples of diversity-oriented syntheses which have, to some extent, been inspired by the structures of natural products. Particular emphasis is placed on innovations that allow the synthesis of compound libraries that, like natural products, are skeletally diverse. Mimicking the broad structural features of natural products may allow the discovery of compounds that modulate the functions of macromolecules for which ligands are not known. The ability of innovations in diversity-oriented synthesis to deliver such compounds is critically assessed. PMID:18663392

  17. How cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography complement each other.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Jia-Wei

    2017-01-01

    With the ability to resolve structures of macromolecules at atomic resolution, X-ray crystallography has been the most powerful tool in modern structural biology. At the same time, recent technical improvements have triggered a resolution revolution in the single particle cryo-EM method. While the two methods are different in many respects, from sample preparation to structure determination, they both have the power to solve macromolecular structures at atomic resolution. It is important to understand the unique advantages and caveats of the two methods in solving structures and to appreciate the complementary nature of the two methods in structural biology. In this review we provide some examples, and discuss how X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM can be combined in deciphering structures of macromolecules for our full understanding of their biological mechanisms. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  18. Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Translational Diffusion of Proteins in the Vicinity of Temperature-Induced Unfolding Transition.

    PubMed

    Molchanov, Stanislav; Faizullin, Dzhigangir A; Nesmelova, Irina V

    2016-10-06

    Translational diffusion is the most fundamental form of transport in chemical and biological systems. The diffusion coefficient is highly sensitive to changes in the size of the diffusing species; hence, it provides important information on the variety of macromolecular processes, such as self-assembly or folding-unfolding. Here, we investigate the behavior of the diffusion coefficient of a macromolecule in the vicinity of heat-induced transition from folded to unfolded state. We derive the equation that describes the diffusion coefficient of the macromolecule in the vicinity of the transition and use it to fit the experimental data from pulsed-field-gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG NMR) experiments acquired for two globular proteins, lysozyme and RNase A, undergoing temperature-induced unfolding. A very good qualitative agreement between the theoretically derived diffusion coefficient and experimental data is observed.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) Acid Nanoparticles-Loaded Chitosan/Bioactive Glass Scaffolds as a Localized Delivery System in the Bone Defects

    PubMed Central

    Nazemi, K.; Moztarzadeh, F.; Jalali, N.; Asgari, S.; Mozafari, M.

    2014-01-01

    The functionality of tissue engineering scaffolds can be enhanced by localized delivery of appropriate biological macromolecules incorporated within biodegradable nanoparticles. In this research, chitosan/58S-bioactive glass (58S-BG) containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles has been prepared and then characterized. The effects of further addition of 58S-BG on the structure of scaffolds have been investigated to optimize the characteristics of the scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. The results showed that the scaffolds had high porosity with open pores. It was also shown that the porosity decreased with increasing 58S-BG content. Furthermore, the PLGA nanoparticles were homogenously distributed within the scaffolds. According to the obtained results, the nanocomposites could be considered as highly bioactive bone tissue engineering scaffolds with the potential of localized delivery of biological macromolecules. PMID:24949477

  20. An Experiment Using Sucrose Density Gradients in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turchi, Sandra L.; Weiss, Monica

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment to be performed in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory that is based on a gradient centrifugation system employing a simple bench top centrifuge, a freezer, and frozen surcose gradient solution to separate macromolecules and subcellular components. (CW)

  1. MOLECULAR MODELING AS A TOOL FOR UNDERSTANDING HUMAN HEALTH RISKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A GENERIC STEP IN MANY MECHANISMS FOR CHEMICAL TOXICITY IS THE INTERACTION BETWEEN A SMALL MOLECULE AND A BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULE. THE INFORMATION THAT IS GATHERED FROM THIS STUDY WILL THEN BE USED TO EXTRACT RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE INFORMATION DOMAINS.

  2. Large volume continuous counterflow dialyzer has high efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandeles, S.; Woods, E. C.

    1967-01-01

    Dialyzer separates macromolecules from small molecules in large volumes of solution. It takes advantage of the high area/volume ratio in commercially available 1/4-inch dialysis tubing and maintains a high concentration gradient at the dialyzing surface by counterflow.

  3. The chemistry side of AOP: implications for toxicity extrapolation

    EPA Science Inventory

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a structured representation of the biological events that lead to adverse impacts following a molecular initiating event caused by chemical interaction with a macromolecule. AOPs have been proposed to facilitate toxicity extrapolation across s...

  4. EDITORIAL: SPECTROSCOPIC IMAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A foremost goal in biology is understanding the molecular basis of single cell behavior, as well as cell interactions that result in functioning tissues. Accomplishing this goal requires quantitative analysis of multiple, specific macromolecules (e.g. proteins, ligands and enzyme...

  5. Comparative leaf proteomics of drought-tolerant and -susceptible peanut in response to water stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water stress (WS) predisposes peanut plants to fungal infection resulting in pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Major changes during water stress including oxidative stress, lead to destruction of photosynthetic apparatus and other macromolecules within cells. Two peanut cultivars with diverse dro...

  6. Abnormal dispersion of refractive index of purple membranes in an aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Zhivkov, Alexandar Metodiev

    2010-01-10

    The refractive index of purple membranes in a water suspension has been measured refractometrically in the visible range of the spectrum. A region of anomalous dispersion has been found, due to a strong absorption by the retinal residue in bacteriorhodopsin macromolecules.

  7. A Review of Shock Mitigation Techniques (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    Public Release; Distribution Unlimited (PA# 96TW- 2014-0154). 6 Viscoelastic • Polyurea – energy dissipation from hard and soft...Response of Coarse-Grained Models of Multiblock versus Diblock Copolymers: Insights into Dissipative Properties of Polyurea ”, Macromolecules, 2012, 45 (7

  8. Transmembrane domain-dependent protein-protein interactions participate in the localization of GPAT enzymes to ER subdomains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a dynamic network that consists of numerous regions or subdomains with discrete morphological features and functional properties, including those involved in protein and oil-body formation, anterograde transport of secretory proteins, the exchange of macromolecules ...

  9. Hydrophobic-domain-dependent protein-protein interactions mediate the localization of GPAT enzymes to ER subdomains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a dynamic network that consists of numerous regions or subdomains with discrete morphological features and functional properties, including those involved in protein and oil-body formation, anterograde transport of secretory proteins, the exchange of macromolecules ...

  10. The arabidopsis polyamine transporter LHRI/AtPUT3 modulates heat responsive gene expression by regulating mRNA stability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyamines (PA) involve in the gene regulation by interacting with various anionic macromolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins and modulating their structure and function. Previous studies have showed that changing in polyamine biosynthesis alters plant response to different abiotic stresses. Here,...

  11. Beneficial and paradoxical roles of selenium at nutritional levels of intake in healthspan and longevity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accumulation of damage to the genome and macromolecules is a hallmark of aging, age-associated degeneration, and genome instability syndromes. Although the processes of aging are irreversible, they can be modulated by genome maintenance pathways and environmental factors such as diet. Selenium (Se) ...

  12. Optical tweezers study life under tension.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Furqan M; Block, Steven M

    2011-05-31

    Optical tweezers have become one of the primary weapons in the arsenal of biophysicists, and have revolutionized the new field of single-molecule biophysics. Today's techniques allow high-resolution experiments on biological macromolecules that were mere pipe dreams only a decade ago.

  13. Insulin in human milk and the prevention of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shehadeh, N; Shamir, R; Berant, M; Etzioni, A

    2001-12-01

    Although controversial, exclusive breast milk feeding was shown to exert a protective effect in preventing type 1 diabetes. In contrast, an early introduction of cow's milk-based formula in young infants may enhance the risk of disease, especially in genetically susceptible children, presumably by an increase of intestinal permeability to macromolecules such as bovine serum albumin and beta-casein, which may arouse autoimmunity. We have shown that human milk contains insulin in substantial concentrations, while insulin is barely detectable (if at all) in infant formulas. Orally administered insulin was demonstrated to promote gut maturation and to reduce intestinal permeability to macromolecules. Furthermore, oral insulin may induce tolerance to insulin and protect against the development of type 1 diabetes. We herewith raise a hypothesis that human milk is protective against the development of type 1 diabetes by virtue of the effects of its substantial content of insulin.

  14. Decades of Data: Extracting Trends from Microgravity Crystallization History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Russell A.; Snell, Edward H.; Kephart, Richard; vanderWoerd, Mark; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The reduced acceleration environment of an orbiting spacecraft has been posited as an ideal environment for biological crystal growth since buoyancy driven convection and sedimentation are greatly reduced. Since the first sounding rocket flight in 1981 many crystallization experiments have flown with some showing improvement and others not. To further explore macromolecule crystal improvement in microgravity we have accumulated data from published reports and reports submitted by individual investigators to NASA, forming a database called BIOSEArCH (Biological Space Experiment Archive of Crystallization History). To date it contains information from 63 missions including, the Space Shuttle program, unmanned satellites, the Russian Space Station MIR and sounding rocket experiments, containing reports for more than 736 macromolecule experiments. While it is not at this point in time a comprehensive record of all flight crystallization experimental results, there is however sufficient information for emerging trends to be identified. These trends will be highlighted.

  15. Preparing high-density polymer brushes by mechanically assisted polymer assembly (MAPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Efimenko, Kirill; Genzer, Jan

    2001-03-01

    We introduce a novel method of modifying the surface properties of materials. This technique, called MAPA (="mechanically assisted polymer assembly"), is based on: 1) chemically attaching polymerization initiators to the surface of an elastomeric network that has been previously stretched by a certain length, Δx, and 2) growing end-anchored macromolecules using surface initiated ("grafting from") atom transfer living radical polymerization. After the polymerization, the strain is removed from the substrate, which returns to its original size causing the grafted macromolecules to stretch away from the substrate and form a dense polymer brush. We demonstrate the feasibility of the MAPA method by preparing high-density polymer brushes of poly(acryl amide), PAAm. We show that, as expected, the grafting density of the PAAm brushes can be increased by increasing Δx. We demonstrate that polymer brushes with extremely high grafting densities can be successfully prepared by MAPA.

  16. Recent advances in oxidative valorization of lignin

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond; Zhang, Xiao

    Lignin, an aromatic macromolecule synthesized by all higher plants, is one of the most intriguing natural materials for utilization across a wide range of applications. Depolymerization and fragmentation of lignin into small chemicals constituents which can either replace current market products or be used building blocks for new material synthesis is a focus of current lignin valorization strategies. And among the variety of lignin degradation chemistries, catalytic oxidation of lignin presents an energy efficient means of lignin depolymerization and generating selective reaction products. Our review provides a summary of the recent advancements in oxidative lignin valorization couched in a discussionmore » on how these chemistries may contribute to the degradation of the lignin macromolecule through three major approaches: 1) inter-unit linkages cleavage; 2) propanyl side-chain oxidative modification; and 3) oxidation of the aromatic ring and ring cleavage reactions.« less

  17. Ligand field theory and the origin of life as an emergent feature of the periodic table of elements.

    PubMed

    Morowitz, Harold J; Srinivasan, Vijayasarathy; Smith, Eric

    2010-08-01

    The assumption that all biological catalysts are either proteins or ribozymes leads to an outstanding enigma of biogenesis-how to determine the synthetic pathways to the monomers for the efficient formation of catalytic macromolecules in the absence of any such macromolecules. The last 60 years have witnessed chemists developing an understanding of organocatalysis and ligand field theory, both of which give demonstrable low-molecular-weight catalysts. We assume that transition-metal-ligand complexes are likely to have occurred in the deep ocean trenches by the combination of naturally occurring oceanic metals and ligands synthesized from the emergent CO(2), H(2), NH(3), H(2)S, and H(3)PO(4). We are now in a position to investigate experimentally the metal-ligand complexes, their catalytic function, and the reaction networks that could have played a role in the development of metabolism and life itself.

  18. Recent advances in oxidative valorization of lignin

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond; Zhang, Xiao

    2017-07-21

    Lignin, an aromatic macromolecule synthesized by all higher plants, is one of the most intriguing natural materials for utilization across a wide range of applications. Depolymerization and fragmentation of lignin into small chemicals constituents which can either replace current market products or be used building blocks for new material synthesis is a focus of current lignin valorization strategies. And among the variety of lignin degradation chemistries, catalytic oxidation of lignin presents an energy efficient means of lignin depolymerization and generating selective reaction products. Our review provides a summary of the recent advancements in oxidative lignin valorization couched in a discussionmore » on how these chemistries may contribute to the degradation of the lignin macromolecule through three major approaches: 1) inter-unit linkages cleavage; 2) propanyl side-chain oxidative modification; and 3) oxidation of the aromatic ring and ring cleavage reactions.« less

  19. Protein, enzyme and carbohydrate quantification using smartphone through colorimetric digitization technique.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sibasish; Saikia, Gunjan Prasad; Sarma, Dhruva Jyoti; Gupta, Kuldeep; Das, Priyanka; Nath, Pabitra

    2017-05-01

    In this paper the utilization of smartphone as a detection platform for colorimetric quantification of biological macromolecules has been demonstrated. Using V-channel of HSV color space, the quantification of BSA protein, catalase enzyme and carbohydrate (using D-glucose) have been successfully investigated. A custom designed android application has been developed for estimating the total concentration of biological macromolecules. The results have been compared with that of a standard spectrophotometer which is generally used for colorimetric quantification in laboratory settings by measuring its absorbance at a specific wavelength. The results obtained with the designed sensor is found to be similar when compared with the spectrophotometer data. The designed sensor is low cost, robust and we envision that it could promote diverse fields of bio-analytical investigations. Schematic illustration of the smartphone sensing mechanism for colorimetric analysis of biomolecular samples. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Specificity of marine microbial surface interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Imam, S H; Bard, R F; Tosteson, T R

    1984-01-01

    The macromolecular surface components involved in intraspecific cell surface interactions of the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and closely associated bacteria were investigated. The specific surface attachment between this alga and its associated bacteria is mediated by lectin-like macromolecules associated with the surfaces of these cells. The binding activity of these surface polymers was inhibited by specific simple sugars; this suggests the involvement of specific receptor-ligand binding sites on the interactive surfaces. Epifluorescent microscopic evaluation of bacteria-alga interactions in the presence and absence of the macromolecules that mediate these interactions showed that the glycoproteins active in these processes were specific to the microbial sources from which they were obtained. The demonstration and definition of the specificity of these interactions in mixed microbial populations may play an important role in our understanding of the dynamics of marine microbial populations in the sea. PMID:6508293