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Sample records for macromolecules dna rna

  1. A tissue fixative that protects macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and protein) and histomorphology in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Vincek, Vladimir; Nassiri, Mehdi; Nadji, Mehrdad; Morales, Azorides R

    2003-10-01

    Preservation of macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) in tissue is traditionally achieved by immediate freezing of the sample. Although isolation of PCR-able RNA has been reported from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, the process has not been shown to be reproducible because high molecular weight RNA is usually degraded. We investigated the potential value of a new universal molecular fixative (UMFIX, Sakura Finetek USA, Inc., Torrance, California) in preservation of macromolecules in paraffin-embedded tissue. Mouse and human tissues were fixed in UMFIX from 1 hour to 8 weeks. They were then processed by a rapid tissue processing (RTP) system, embedded in paraffin, and evaluated for routine histology as well as for the quality and quantity of DNA, RNA, and proteins. Formalin-fixed tissues were processed by RTP and evaluated in a similar manner. Fresh-frozen samples were used as controls. The morphology of UMFIX-exposed tissue was comparable to that fixed in formalin. High molecular weight RNA was preserved in tissue that was immediately fixed in UMFIX and stored from 1 hour to 8 weeks at room temperature. There were no significant differences between UMFIX-exposed and frozen tissues on PCR, RT-PCR, real-time PCR, and expression microarrays. Similarly, physical and antigenic preservation of proteins in UMFIX tissue was similar to fresh state. Both RNA and proteins were substantially degraded in formalin-fixed and similarly processed specimens. We concluded that it is now possible to preserve histomorphology and intact macromolecules in the same archival paraffin-embedded tissue through the use of a novel fixative and a rapid processing system.

  2. Functionalized gold nanoparticles for the binding, stabilization, and delivery of therapeutic DNA, RNA, and other biological macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    DeLong, Robert K; Reynolds, Christopher M; Malcolm, Yaneika; Schaeffer, Ashley; Severs, Tiffany; Wanekaya, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology has virtually exploded in the last few years with seemingly limitless opportunity across all segments of our society. If gene and RNA therapy are to ever realize their full potential, there is a great need for nanomaterials that can bind, stabilize, and deliver these macromolecular nucleic acids into human cells and tissues. Many researchers have turned to gold nanomaterials, as gold is thought to be relatively well tolerated in humans and provides an inert material upon which nucleic acids can attach. Here, we review the various strategies for associating macromolecular nucleic acids to the surface of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), the characterization chemistries involved, and the potential advantages of GNPs in terms of stabilization and delivery. PMID:24198471

  3. Simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lan-Tian; Meng, Zhenyu; Shao, Fangwei; Zhang, Li-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A highly useful tool for studying lncRNAs is simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH, which reveals the localization and quantitative information of RNA and DNA in cellular contexts. However, a simple combination of RNA FISH and DNA FISH often generates disappointing results because the fragile RNA signals are often damaged by the harsh conditions used in DNA FISH for denaturing the DNA. Here, we describe a robust and simple RNA-DNA FISH protocol, in which amino-labeled nucleic acid probes are used for RNA FISH. The method is suitable to detect single-RNA molecules simultaneously with DNA.

  4. Efficient intracellular siRNA delivery by ethyleneimine-modified amphiphilic macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Sarah M; Waite, Carolyn L; Harmon, Alexander M; Nusblat, Leora M; Roth, Charles M; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2011-09-01

    New materials that can bind and deliver oligonucleotides such as short interfering RNA (siRNA) without toxicity are greatly needed to fulfill the promise of therapeutic gene silencing. Amphiphilic macromolecules (AMs) were functionalized with linear ethyleneimines to create cationic AMs capable of complexing with siRNA. Structurally, the parent AM is formed from a mucic acid backbone whose tetra-hydroxy groups are alkylated with 12-carbon aliphatic chains to form the hydrophobic component of the macromolecule. This alkylated mucic acid is then mono-functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a hydrophilic component. The resulting AM contains a free carboxylic acid within the hydrophobic domain. In this work, linear ethyleneimines were conjugated to the free carboxylic acid to produce an AM with one primary amine (1N) or one primary amine and four secondary amines (5N). Further, an AM with amine substitution both to the free carboxylic acid in the hydrophobic domain and also to the adjacent PEG was synthesized to produce a polymer with one primary amine and eight secondary amines (9N), four located on each side of the AM hydrophobic domain. All amine-functionalized AMs formed nanoscale micelles but only the 5N and 9N AMs had cationic zeta potentials, which increased with increasing number of amines. All AMs exhibited less inherent cytotoxicity than linear polyethyleneimine (L-PEI) at concentrations of 10 µM and above. By increasing the length of the cationic ethyleneimine chain and the total number of amines, successful siRNA complexation and cellular siRNA delivery was achieved in a malignant glioma cell line. In addition, siRNA-induced silencing of firefly luciferase was observed using complexes of siRNA with the 9N AM and comparable to L-PEI, yet showed better cell viability at higher concentrations (above 10 µM). This work highlights the promise of cationic AMs as safe and efficient synthetic vectors for siRNA delivery. Specifically, a novel polymer (9N

  5. Target Biological Structures: The Cell, Organelles, DNA and RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Holst, Marcelis; Grant, Maxine P.; Aldrich-Wright, Janice

    Living organisms are self replicating molecular factories of staggering complexity [1]. As a result, we are often overwhelmed when trying to identify potential targets for therapeutics. Water, inorganic ions and a large array of relatively small organic molecules (e.g., sugars, vitamins and fatty acids) account for approximately 80% of living matter, with water being the most abundant. Macromolecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) constitute the rest. The majority of potential therapeutic targets are found within the cell. Small molecules which are vital for cellular function are imported into the cell by a variety of mechanisms but unlike smaller molecules, macromolecules are assembled within the cell itself. Drugs are usually designed to target cellular macromolecules, as they perform very specific roles in the metabolic processes.

  6. RNA-Primed DNA Synthesis In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Walter

    1972-01-01

    In vitro DNA synthesis on single-stranded circular DNA can be initiated by RNA primers. RNA chains are covalently extended by DNA polymerase II from KB cells and DNA polymerase I from Micrococcus luteus, but not by an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase from avian myeloblastosis virus. The reaction product consists of DNA chains with a piece of RNA at their 5′-ends, hydrogen bonded to the template DNA. The primer RNA is linked to the product DNA via a 3′:5′-phosphodiester bond, and can be specifically removed by ribonuclease H. The possible role of ribonuclease H in RNA-primed DNA synthesis in vivo is discussed. Images PMID:4338598

  7. Ribonucleotide triggered DNA damage and RNA-DNA damage responses

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Bret D; Williams, R Scott

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that the transient contamination of DNA with ribonucleotides exceeds all other known types of DNA damage combined. The consequences of ribose incorporation into DNA, and the identity of protein factors operating in this RNA-DNA realm to protect genomic integrity from RNA-triggered events are emerging. Left unrepaired, the presence of ribonucleotides in genomic DNA impacts cellular proliferation and is associated with chromosome instability, gross chromosomal rearrangements, mutagenesis, and production of previously unrecognized forms of ribonucleotide-triggered DNA damage. Here, we highlight recent findings on the nature and structure of DNA damage arising from ribonucleotides in DNA, and the identification of cellular factors acting in an RNA-DNA damage response (RDDR) to counter RNA-triggered DNA damage. PMID:25692233

  8. Evaluation of DNA and RNA extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Edwin Shiaw, C S; Shiran, M S; Cheah, Y K; Tan, G C; Sabariah, A R

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to evaluate various DNA and RNA extractions from archival FFPE tissues. A total of 30 FFPE blocks from the years of 2004 to 2006 were assessed with each modified and adapted method. Extraction protocols evaluated include the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A), Chelex-100 extraction method (Method B), heat-induced retrieval in alkaline solution extraction method (Methods C and D) and one commercial FFPE DNA Extraction kit (Qiagen, Crawley, UK). For RNA extraction, 2 extraction protocols were evaluated including the enzymatic extraction method (Method 1), and Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2). Results show that the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A) is an efficient DNA extraction protocol, while for RNA extraction, the enzymatic method (Method 1) and the Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2) are equally efficient RNA extraction protocols.

  9. The RNA Response to DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Giono, Luciana E; Nieto Moreno, Nicolás; Cambindo Botto, Adrián E; Dujardin, Gwendal; Muñoz, Manuel J; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2016-06-19

    Multicellular organisms must ensure genome integrity to prevent accumulation of mutations, cell death, and cancer. The DNA damage response (DDR) is a complex network that senses, signals, and executes multiple programs including DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis. This entails regulation of a variety of cellular processes: DNA replication and transcription, RNA processing, mRNA translation and turnover, and post-translational modification, degradation, and relocalization of proteins. Accumulated evidence over the past decades has shown that RNAs and RNA metabolism are both regulators and regulated actors of the DDR. This review aims to present a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the many interactions between the DNA damage and RNA fields.

  10. Absolute cross section for low-energy-electron damage to condensed macromolecules: A case study of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Cloutier, Pierre; Bass, Andrew D.; Michaud, Marc; Hunting, Darel J.; Sanche, Léon

    2012-09-01

    Cross sections (CSs) for the interaction of low-energy electrons (LEE) with condensed macromolecules are essential parameters for accurate modeling of radiation-induced molecular decomposition and chemical synthesis. Electron irradiation of dry nanometer-scale macromolecular solid films has often been employed to measure CSs and other quantitative parameters for LEE interactions. Since such films have thicknesses comparable with electron thermalization distances, energy deposition varies throughout the film. Moreover, charge accumulation occurring inside the films shields a proportion of the macromolecules from electron irradiation. Such effects complicate the quantitative comparison of the CSs obtained in films of different thicknesses and limit the applicability of such measurements. Here, we develop a simple mathematical model, termed the molecular survival model, that employs a CS for a particular damage process together with an attenuation length related to the total CS, to investigate how a measured CS might be expected to vary with experimental conditions. As a case study, we measure the absolute CS for the formation of DNA strand breaks (SBs) by electron irradiation at 10 and 100 eV of lyophilized plasmid DNA films with thicknesses between 10 and 30 nm. The measurements are shown to depend strongly on the thickness and charging condition of the nanometer-scale films. Such behaviors are in accord with the model and support its validity. Via this analysis, the CS obtained for SB damage is nearly independent of film thickness and charging effects. In principle, this model can be adapted to provide absolute CSs for electron-induced damage or reactions occurring in other molecular solids across a wider range of experimental conditions.

  11. DNA repair meets the RNA world.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chow H

    2014-02-01

    The ability to repair damaged DNA and to maintain genome stability is the utmost importance for the survival of any species. Hence, it is not surprising to find that DNA repair mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved and are expected to evolve to maintain the existence of species. In the last few years, there has been an exponential increase in the evidence linking RNA processing with DNA repair programs. For instance, the well-studied DNA base excision repair (BER) enzyme apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 can cleave RNA molecules, regulate mRNA levels, and associate physically with proteins involved in RNA processing. It is now clear that not only the expression of noncoding RNAs are changed upon DNA damage, they can modulate the expression of genes involved in the genome stability programs. The five reviews in this Forum provide the up-to-date knowledge on DNA repair, with a focus on BER, and a perspective on how the two ancient biochemical pathways are linked. The contributions demonstrate the complexity of such interactions, but also pointed out the opportunities for new therapeutic interventions. Future in vivo studies on the link between DNA repair processes and RNA metabolism should contribute to our basic understanding of physiology, disease, and treatment strategies.

  12. A DNA enzyme that cleaves RNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, R. R.; Joyce, G. F.; Hoyce, G. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several types of RNA enzymes (ribozymes) have been identified in biological systems and generated in the laboratory. Considering the variety of known RNA enzymes and the similarity of DNA and RNA, it is reasonable to imagine that DNA might be able to function as an enzyme as well. No such DNA enzyme has been found in nature, however. We set out to identify a metal-dependent DNA enzyme using in vitro selection methodology. RESULTS: Beginning with a population of 10(14) DNAs containing 50 random nucleotides, we carried out five successive rounds of selective amplification, enriching for individuals that best promote the Pb(2+)-dependent cleavage of a target ribonucleoside 3'-O-P bond embedded within an otherwise all-DNA sequence. By the fifth round, the population as a whole carried out this reaction at a rate of 0.2 min-1. Based on the sequence of 20 individuals isolated from this population, we designed a simplified version of the catalytic domain that operates in an intermolecular context with a turnover rate of 1 min-1. This rate is about 10(5)-fold increased compared to the uncatalyzed reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Using in vitro selection techniques, we obtained a DNA enzyme that catalyzes the Pb(2+)-dependent cleavage of an RNA phosphoester in a reaction that proceeds with rapid turnover. The catalytic rate compares favorably to that of known RNA enzymes. We expect that other examples of DNA enzymes will soon be forthcoming.

  13. Recent Patents in Pulmonary Delivery of Macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Ray, Animikh; Mandal, Abhirup; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary delivery is a non-invasive form of delivery that holds tremendous therapeutic promise for topical and systemic administration of several macromolecules. Oral administration of macromolecules has several limitations such as low bioavailability, degradation of drug before reaching circulation and insufficient absorption across intestinal membrane. Administration of macromolecules such as proteins, peptides and nucleic acids via inhalation offers great potential due to the avoidance of first pass metabolism, higher surface area and rapid clinical response. However, delivery of reproducible, uniform and safe doses of inhaled particles remains a major challenge for clinical translation. Recent advances in the fields of biotechnology and particle engineering led to progress in novel pulmonary drug delivery systems. Moreover, significant developments in carriers and delivery devices prevent denaturation of macromolecules and control their release within the lungs. This article reviews the advances in pulmonary drug delivery systems by focusing on the recent patents in delivery of macromolecules. Furthermore, recent patents in gene delivery to the lungs have also been discussed. List of patents included in this review is comprehensive in terms of pulmonary delivery of therapeutics. It includes inventions related to proteins and peptides, DNA therapeutics, siRNA and other genetic materials with therapeutic applications. The diseases targeted by these therapeutic molecules are varied including but not limited to different forms of cancer, respiratory diseases etc.

  14. DNA and RNA technology in soil biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    DNA technology has come a long way and state of the art techniques are currently used in the analysis of soil biodiversity. Current methods will be presented and their strengths and limitations discussed. RNA technology, for the study of gene expression and potential activity of functional groups in the soil, is lagging behind, mostly due to the difficulties of extracting stable RNA from the soil. The potentials and challenges of adopting RNA technology for soil analysis will be discussed.

  15. RNA Splicing Factors and RNA-Directed DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao-Feng; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2014-01-01

    RNA-directed histone and/or DNA modification is a conserved mechanism for the establishment of epigenetic marks from yeasts and plants to mammals. The heterochromation formation in yeast is mediated by RNAi-directed silencing mechanism, while the establishment of DNA methylation in plants is through the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. Recently, splicing factors are reported to be involved in both RNAi-directed heterochromatin formation in yeast and the RdDM pathway in plants. In yeast, splicing factors may provide a platform for facilitating the siRNA generation through an interaction with RDRC and thereby affect the heterochromatin formation, whereas in plants, various splicing factors seem to act at different steps in the RdDM pathway. PMID:24833507

  16. Free-energy calculations for semi-flexible macromolecules: Applications to DNA knotting and looping

    SciTech Connect

    Giovan, Stefan M.; Scharein, Robert G.; Hanke, Andreas; Levene, Stephen D.

    2014-11-07

    We present a method to obtain numerically accurate values of configurational free energies of semiflexible macromolecular systems, based on the technique of thermodynamic integration combined with normal-mode analysis of a reference system subject to harmonic constraints. Compared with previous free-energy calculations that depend on a reference state, our approach introduces two innovations, namely, the use of internal coordinates to constrain the reference states and the ability to freely select these reference states. As a consequence, it is possible to explore systems that undergo substantially larger fluctuations than those considered in previous calculations, including semiflexible biopolymers having arbitrary ratios of contour length L to persistence length P. To validate the method, high accuracy is demonstrated for free energies of prime DNA knots with L/P = 20 and L/P = 40, corresponding to DNA lengths of 3000 and 6000 base pairs, respectively. We then apply the method to study the free-energy landscape for a model of a synaptic nucleoprotein complex containing a pair of looped domains, revealing a bifurcation in the location of optimal synapse (crossover) sites. This transition is relevant to target-site selection by DNA-binding proteins that occupy multiple DNA sites separated by large linear distances along the genome, a problem that arises naturally in gene regulation, DNA recombination, and the action of type-II topoisomerases.

  17. The RNA Splicing Response to DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Shkreta, Lulzim; Chabot, Benoit

    2015-10-29

    The number of factors known to participate in the DNA damage response (DDR) has expanded considerably in recent years to include splicing and alternative splicing factors. While the binding of splicing proteins and ribonucleoprotein complexes to nascent transcripts prevents genomic instability by deterring the formation of RNA/DNA duplexes, splicing factors are also recruited to, or removed from, sites of DNA damage. The first steps of the DDR promote the post-translational modification of splicing factors to affect their localization and activity, while more downstream DDR events alter their expression. Although descriptions of molecular mechanisms remain limited, an emerging trend is that DNA damage disrupts the coupling of constitutive and alternative splicing with the transcription of genes involved in DNA repair, cell-cycle control and apoptosis. A better understanding of how changes in splice site selection are integrated into the DDR may provide new avenues to combat cancer and delay aging.

  18. The RNA Splicing Response to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Shkreta, Lulzim; Chabot, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    The number of factors known to participate in the DNA damage response (DDR) has expanded considerably in recent years to include splicing and alternative splicing factors. While the binding of splicing proteins and ribonucleoprotein complexes to nascent transcripts prevents genomic instability by deterring the formation of RNA/DNA duplexes, splicing factors are also recruited to, or removed from, sites of DNA damage. The first steps of the DDR promote the post-translational modification of splicing factors to affect their localization and activity, while more downstream DDR events alter their expression. Although descriptions of molecular mechanisms remain limited, an emerging trend is that DNA damage disrupts the coupling of constitutive and alternative splicing with the transcription of genes involved in DNA repair, cell-cycle control and apoptosis. A better understanding of how changes in splice site selection are integrated into the DDR may provide new avenues to combat cancer and delay aging. PMID:26529031

  19. Triggering of RNA Interference with RNA–RNA, RNA–DNA, and DNA–RNA Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Control over cellular delivery of different functionalities and their synchronized activation is a challenging task. We report several RNA and RNA/DNA-based nanoparticles designed to conditionally activate the RNA interference in various human cells. These nanoparticles allow precise control over their formulation, stability in blood serum, and activation of multiple functionalities. Importantly, interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokine activation assays indicate the significantly lower responses for DNA nanoparticles compared to the RNA counterparts, suggesting greater potential of these molecules for therapeutic use. PMID:25521794

  20. Interaction of zanamivir with DNA and RNA: Models for drug DNA and drug RNA bindings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafisi, Shohreh; Kahangi, Fatemeh Ghoreyshi; Azizi, Ebrahim; Zebarjad, Nader; Tajmir-Riahi, Heidar-Ali

    2007-03-01

    Zanamivir (ZAN) is the first of a new generation of influenza virus-specific drugs known as neuraminidase inhibitors, which acts by interfering with life cycles of influenza viruses A and B. It prevents the virus spreading infection to other cells by blocking the neuraminidase enzyme present on the surface of the virus. The aim of this study was to examine the stability and structural features of calf thymus DNA and yeast RNA complexes with zanamivir in aqueous solution, using constant DNA or RNA concentration (12.5 mM) and various zanamivir/polynucleotide ( P) ratios of 1/20, 1/10, 1/4, and 1/2. FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy are used to determine the drug external binding modes, the binding constant and the stability of zanamivir-DNA and RNA complexes in aqueous solution. Structural analysis showed major interaction of zanamivir with G-C (major groove) and A-T (minor groove) base pairs and minor perturbations of the backbone PO 2 group with overall binding constants of Kzanamivir-DNA = 1.30 × 10 4 M -1 and Kzanamivir-RNA = 1.38 × 10 4 M -1. The drug interaction induces a partial B to A-DNA transition, while RNA remains in A-conformation.

  1. Transcription and Recombination: When RNA Meets DNA

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Andrés; Gaillard, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    A particularly relevant phenomenon in cell physiology and proliferation is the fact that spontaneous mitotic recombination is strongly enhanced by transcription. The most accepted view is that transcription increases the occurrence of double-strand breaks and/or single-stranded DNA gaps that are repaired by recombination. Most breaks would arise as a consequence of the impact that transcription has on replication fork progression, provoking its stalling and/or breakage. Here, we discuss the mechanisms responsible for the cross talk between transcription and recombination, with emphasis on (1) the transcription–replication conflicts as the main source of recombinogenic DNA breaks, and (2) the formation of cotranscriptional R-loops as a major cause of such breaks. The new emerging questions and perspectives are discussed on the basis of the interference between transcription and replication, as well as the way RNA influences genome dynamics. PMID:25085910

  2. Conformational selection and induced fit for RNA polymerase and RNA/DNA hybrid backtracked recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Ye, Wei; Yang, Jingxu; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2015-01-01

    RNA polymerase catalyzes transcription with a high fidelity. If DNA/RNA mismatch or DNA damage occurs downstream, a backtracked RNA polymerase can proofread this situation. However, the backtracked mechanism is still poorly understood. Here we have performed multiple explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on bound and apo DNA/RNA hybrid to study backtracked recognition. MD simulations at room temperature suggest that specific electrostatic interactions play key roles in the backtracked recognition between the polymerase and DNA/RNA hybrid. Kinetics analysis at high temperature shows that bound and apo DNA/RNA hybrid unfold via a two-state process. Both kinetics and free energy landscape analyses indicate that bound DNA/RNA hybrid folds in the order of DNA/RNA contracting, the tertiary folding and polymerase binding. The predicted Φ-values suggest that C7, G9, dC12, dC15, and dT16 are key bases for the backtracked recognition of DNA/RNA hybrid. The average RMSD values between the bound structures and the corresponding apo ones and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) P-test analyses indicate that the recognition between DNA/RNA hybrid and polymerase might follow an induced fit mechanism for DNA/RNA hybrid and conformation selection for polymerase. Furthermore, this method could be used to relative studies of specific recognition between nucleic acid and protein. PMID:26594643

  3. Isolation of Microarray-Grade Total RNA, MicroRNA, and DNA from a Single PAXgene Blood RNA Tube

    PubMed Central

    Kruhøffer, Mogens; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Voss, Thorsten; Lindberg, Raija L.P.; Wyrich, Ralf; Thykjaer, Thomas; Orntoft, Torben F.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a procedure for isolation of microRNA and genomic DNA in addition to total RNA from whole blood stabilized in PAXgene Blood RNA tubes. The procedure is based on automatic extraction on a BioRobot MDx and includes isolation of DNA from a fraction of the stabilized blood and recovery of small RNA species that are otherwise lost. The procedure presented here is suitable for large-scale experiments and is amenable to further automation. Procured total RNA and DNA was tested using Affymetrix Expression and single-nucleotide polymorphism GeneChips, respectively, and isolated microRNA was tested using spotted locked nucleic acid-based microarrays. We conclude that the yield and quality of total RNA, microRNA, and DNA from a single PAXgene blood RNA tube is sufficient for downstream microarray analysis. PMID:17690207

  4. RNA-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-Gui; Qi, Yijun

    2015-08-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most deleterious DNA lesions, which if unrepaired or repaired incorrectly can cause cell death or genome instability that may lead to cancer. To counteract these adverse consequences, eukaryotes have evolved a highly orchestrated mechanism to repair DSBs, namely DNA-damage-response (DDR). DDR, as defined specifically in relation to DSBs, consists of multi-layered regulatory modes including DNA damage sensors, transducers and effectors, through which DSBs are sensed and then repaired via DNAprotein interactions. Unexpectedly, recent studies have revealed a direct role of RNA in the repair of DSBs, including DSB-induced small RNA (diRNA)-directed and RNA-templated DNA repair. Here, we summarize the recent discoveries of RNA-mediated regulation of DSB repair and discuss the potential impact of these novel RNA components of the DSB repair pathway on genomic stability and plasticity.

  5. RNA-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-Gui; Qi, Yijun

    2015-08-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most deleterious DNA lesions, which if unrepaired or repaired incorrectly can cause cell death or genome instability that may lead to cancer. To counteract these adverse consequences, eukaryotes have evolved a highly orchestrated mechanism to repair DSBs, namely DNA-damage-response (DDR). DDR, as defined specifically in relation to DSBs, consists of multi-layered regulatory modes including DNA damage sensors, transducers and effectors, through which DSBs are sensed and then repaired via DNAprotein interactions. Unexpectedly, recent studies have revealed a direct role of RNA in the repair of DSBs, including DSB-induced small RNA (diRNA)-directed and RNA-templated DNA repair. Here, we summarize the recent discoveries of RNA-mediated regulation of DSB repair and discuss the potential impact of these novel RNA components of the DSB repair pathway on genomic stability and plasticity. PMID:25960340

  6. DOMMINO 2.0: integrating structurally resolved protein-, RNA-, and DNA-mediated macromolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Xingyan; Dhroso, Andi; Han, Jing Ginger; Shyu, Chi-Ren; Korkin, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Macromolecular interactions are formed between proteins, DNA and RNA molecules. Being a principle building block in macromolecular assemblies and pathways, the interactions underlie most of cellular functions. Malfunctioning of macromolecular interactions is also linked to a number of diseases. Structural knowledge of the macromolecular interaction allows one to understand the interaction's mechanism, determine its functional implications and characterize the effects of genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, on the interaction. Unfortunately, until now the interactions mediated by different types of macromolecules, e.g. protein-protein interactions or protein-DNA interactions, are collected into individual and unrelated structural databases. This presents a significant obstacle in the analysis of macromolecular interactions. For instance, the homogeneous structural interaction databases prevent scientists from studying structural interactions of different types but occurring in the same macromolecular complex. Here, we introduce DOMMINO 2.0, a structural Database Of Macro-Molecular INteractiOns. Compared to DOMMINO 1.0, a comprehensive database on protein-protein interactions, DOMMINO 2.0 includes the interactions between all three basic types of macromolecules extracted from PDB files. DOMMINO 2.0 is automatically updated on a weekly basis. It currently includes ∼1,040,000 interactions between two polypeptide subunits (e.g. domains, peptides, termini and interdomain linkers), ∼43,000 RNA-mediated interactions, and ∼12,000 DNA-mediated interactions. All protein structures in the database are annotated using SCOP and SUPERFAMILY family annotation. As a result, protein-mediated interactions involving protein domains, interdomain linkers, C- and N- termini, and peptides are identified. Our database provides an intuitive web interface, allowing one to investigate interactions at three different resolution levels: whole subunit network

  7. Unusual Thermal Stability of RNA/[RP-PS]-DNA/RNA Triplexes Containing a Homopurine DNA Strand

    PubMed Central

    Guga, Piotr; Boczkowska, Małgorzata; Janicka, Magdalena; Maciaszek, Anna; Kuberski, Sławomir; Stec, Wojciech J.

    2007-01-01

    Homopurine deoxyribonucleoside phosphorothioates, as short as hexanucleotides and possessing all internucleotide linkages of RP configuration, form a triple helix with two RNA or 2′-OMe-RNA strands, with Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen complementarity. Melting temperature and fluorescence quenching experiments strongly suggest that the Hoogsteen RNA strand is parallel to the homopurine [RP-PS]-oligomer. Remarkably, these triplexes are thermally more stable than complexes formed by unmodified homopurine DNA molecules of the same sequence. The triplexes formed by phosphorothioate DNA dodecamers containing 4–6 dG residues are thermally stable at pH 7.4, although their stability increases significantly at pH 5.3. FTIR measurements suggest participation of the C2-carbonyl group of the pyrimidines in the stabilization of the triplex structure. Formation of triple-helix complexes with exogenously delivered PS-oligos may become useful for the reduction of RNA accessibility in vivo and, hence, selective suppression/inhibition of the translation process. PMID:17218459

  8. Sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities in fertile and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic smokers.

    PubMed

    Selit, I; Basha, M; Maraee, A; El-Naby, S H; Nazeef, N; El-Mehrath, R; Mostafa, T

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to assess sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities in fertile and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) smokers. In all, 140 subjects were included and classified into fertile nonsmokers, fertile smokers, OAT nonsmokers and OAT smokers. They were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, semen analysis, assessment of sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities. The results showed that an increased percentage of abnormal sperm DNA and RNA was demonstrated in fertile smokers compared with fertile nonsmokers and in OAT smokers compared with OAT nonsmokers. Increased percentage of severe, moderate sperm DNA and RNA damage was demonstrated in fertile heavy smokers compared with fertile light smokers and in OAT heavy smokers compared with OAT light smokers. It is concluded that smoking has a negative impact on sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities that is accentuated in heavy smokers compared with light smokers.

  9. Trivalent lanthanide ions do not cleave RNA in DNA-RNA hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Kolasa, K.A.; Morrow, J.R.; Sharma, A.P. )

    1993-09-15

    Lanthanide(III) complexes rapidly catalyze cleavage of single-stranded RNA. RNA cleavage by lanthanide complexes is, however, dependent on RNA structure. A DNA-RNA hybrid formed by annealing a complementary oligodeoxynucleotide to t-RNA[sup phe] is found to be inert to cleavage by a europium(III) hexadentate Schiff base complex and by Eu(CO[sub 2]CH[sub 3])[sub 3]. Because DNA-RNA hybrids are important structures in antisense oligonucleotide strategies, these results may influence the design of antisense oligonucleotides with attached metal complex cleaving agents.

  10. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Bacterial Macromolecule Labeling with [methyl-3H]Thymidine in a Hypertrophic Lake †

    PubMed Central

    Robarts, Richard D.; Wicks, Richard J.; Sephton, Lynne M.

    1986-01-01

    The incorporation of [methyl-3H]thymidine into three macromolecular fractions, designated as DNA, RNA, and protein, by bacteria from Hartbeespoort Dam, South Africa, was measured over 1 year by acid-base hydrolysis procedures. Samples were collected at 10 m, which was at least 5 m beneath the euphotic zone. On four occasions, samples were concurrently collected at the surface. Approximately 80% of the label was incorporated into bacterial DNA in surface samples. At 10 m, total incorporation of label into bacterial macromolecules was correlated to bacterial utilization of glucose (r = 0.913, n = 13, P < 0.001). The labeling of DNA, which ranged between 0 and 78% of total macromolecule incorporation, was inversely related to glucose uptake (r = -0.823), total thymidine incorporation (r = -0.737), and euphotic zone algal production (r = -0.732, n = 13, P < 0.005). With decreased DNA labeling, increasing proportions of label were found in the RNA fraction and proteins. Enzymatic digestion followed by chromatographic separation of macromolecule fragments indicated that DNA and proteins were labeled while RNA was not. The RNA fraction may represent labeled lipids or other macromolecules or both. The data demonstrated a close coupling between phytoplankton production and heterotrophic bacterial activity in this hypertrophic lake but also confirmed the need for the routine extraction and purification of DNA during [methyl-3H]thymidine studies of aquatic bacterial production. PMID:16347241

  11. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of mitochondrial DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Alán, Lukáš; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Ježek, Jan; Dlasková, Andrea; Ježek, Petr

    2010-01-01

    To reveal nucleic acid localization in mitochondria, we designed molecular beacon fluorescent probes against: i) the light strand complementary to ND5 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene (annealing also to corresponding mRNA); ii) displacement (D) loop 7S DNA (annealing also to parallel heavy strand mtDNA and corresponding light strand transcript); iii) the proximal D-loop heavy strand displaced by the light strand promoter minor RNA. Confocal microscopy demonstrated ND5 probe spreading (less for other probes) in mitochondrial reticulum tubules but upon RNase A treatment all probes contoured mtDNA nucleoid localization. DNase I spread the signal over mitochondrial tubules. Future applications are discussed.

  12. Use of DNA, RNA, and Chimeric Templates by a Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase: Evolutionary Implications for the Transition from the RNA to the DNA World

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Robert W.; Bellon, Laurent; Beigelman, Leonid; Kao, C. Cheng

    1999-01-01

    All polynucleotide polymerases have a similar structure and mechanism of catalysis, consistent with their evolution from one progenitor polymerase. Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) are expected to have properties comparable to those from this progenitor and therefore may offer insight into the commonalities of all classes of polymerases. We examined RNA synthesis by the brome mosaic virus RdRp on DNA, RNA, and hybrid templates and found that precise initiation of RNA synthesis can take place from all of these templates. Furthermore, initiation can take place from either internal or penultimate initiation sites. Using a template competition assay, we found that the BMV RdRp interacts with DNA only three- to fourfold less well than it interacts with RNA. Moreover, a DNA molecule with a ribonucleotide at position −11 relative to the initiation nucleotide was able to interact with RdRp at levels comparable to that observed with RNA. These results suggest that relatively few conditions were needed for an ancestral RdRp to replicate DNA genomes. PMID:10400735

  13. Antibacterial activity of lichen secondary metabolite usnic acid is primarily caused by inhibition of RNA and DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Maciąg-Dorszyńska, Monika; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Guzow-Krzemińska, Beata

    2014-04-01

    Usnic acid, a compound produced by various lichen species, has been demonstrated previously to inhibit growth of different bacteria and fungi; however, mechanism of its antimicrobial activity remained unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that usnic acid causes rapid and strong inhibition of RNA and DNA synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria, represented by Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, while it does not inhibit production of macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) in Escherichia coli, which is resistant to even high doses of this compound. However, we also observed slight inhibition of RNA synthesis in a Gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio harveyi. Inhibition of protein synthesis in B. subtilis and S. aureus was delayed, which suggest indirect action (possibly through impairment of transcription) of usnic acid on translation. Interestingly, DNA synthesis was halted rapidly in B. subtilis and S. aureus, suggesting interference of usnic acid with elongation of DNA replication. We propose that inhibition of RNA synthesis may be a general mechanism of antibacterial action of usnic acid, with additional direct mechanisms, such as impairment of DNA replication in B. subtilis and S. aureus.

  14. Formation of RNA Beads from Various DNA Nanoring Structures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejin; Lee, Jong Bum

    2016-05-01

    By taking advantages of rolling circle transcription, one of the powerful methods to overcome the instability of RNA, we successfully synthesized RNA particles having high copy numbers of RNA strands. To examine dependence of RNA particle formation to template circular DNA strands, we synthesized RNA beads with 65-nt, 92-nt and 200-nt DNA nanoring structures as template circular DNA. Our conclusion is that characteristics of RNA beads could be controlled with various template circular DNA for RCT. It is feasible that our RNA beads could be used for RNAzyme-based metal sensors such as aqueous lead ion sensing. In this case, we expect that multi-metal ion detection would be possible by using 200-nt circular DNA bearing multiple desired functions as a template for RNA bead formation. Furthermore, certain features of RNA beads such as sensitivity to nuclease digestion and maximum loading amount of drugs when used as a carrier are expected to be further adjusted by choosing appropriate porosity and size.

  15. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  16. Ultrasensitive DNA chip: gene expression profile analysis without RNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Nagino, Kunihisa; Nomura, Osamu; Takii, Yuki; Myomoto, Akira; Ichikawa, Makiko; Nakamura, Fumio; Higasa, Masashi; Akiyama, Hideo; Nobumasa, Hitoshi; Shiojima, Satoshi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh

    2006-04-01

    We have developed a new DNA chip whose substrate has a unique minute columnar array structure made of plastic. The DNA chip exhibits ultrahigh sensitivity, up to 100-fold higher than that of reference DNA chips, which makes it possible to monitor gene expression profiles even with very small amounts of RNA (0.1-0.01 microg of total RNA) without amplification. Differential expression ratios obtained with the new DNA chip were validated against those obtained with quantitative real-time PCR assays. This novel microarray technology would be a powerful tool for monitoring gene expression profiles, especially for clinical diagnosis.

  17. Inhibition of DNA-dependent RNA synthesis by 8-methoxypsoralen.

    PubMed

    Gniazdowski, M; Czyz, M; Wilmańska, D; Studzian, K; Frasunek, M; Płucienniczak, A; Szmigiero, L

    1988-09-01

    The effect of the photobinding of 8-methoxypsoralen to phage T7 DNA on different steps of RNA synthesis in vitro was assayed. Total RNA synthesis is reduced to a few percent and the transcript size is decreased, as shown by means of gel filtration on a Sepharose 4B column when DNA of the adduct content of six drug molecules per 10(3) nucleotides is used. The initiation of RNA chains seems to be less affected, as inferred from an abortive initiation assay. Synthesis of pppApU on DNA of the same adduct content is inhibited to 34% of the corresponding controls, while the overall RNA synthesis is inhibited to 6%. The amount of the enzyme needed for maximal retention of DNA, the kinetics of its binding and the decay of the polymerase-DNA complex at high ionic strength (or on decrease of the temperature) are similar with DNA either irradiated in the absence of the drug or DNA bearing six 8-methoxypsoralen molecules per 10(3) nucleotides. It is concluded from this study that 8-methoxypsoralen partially inhibits initiation and blocks movement of RNA polymerase along the template, inducing premature termination. It does not appear to influence the binding of the enzyme to DNA. PMID:3048406

  18. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Moyzis, R.K.; Ratliff, R.L.; Shera, E.B.; Stewart, C.C.

    1990-10-09

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed. 2 figs.

  19. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Moyzis, R.K.; Ratliff, R.L.; Shera, E.B.; Stewart, C.C.

    1987-10-07

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed. 2 figs.

  20. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, James H.; Keller, Richard A.; Martin, John C.; Moyzis, Robert K.; Ratliff, Robert L.; Shera, E. Brooks; Stewart, Carleton C.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed.

  1. Folic acid binds DNA and RNA at different locations.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2015-03-01

    We located multiple binding sites for folic acid on DNA and tRNA at physiological conditions, using FTIR, CD, fluorescence spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling. Structural analysis revealed that folic acid binds DNA and tRNA at multiple sites via hydrophilic, hydrophobic and H-bonding contacts with overall binding constants of Kfolic acid-DNA=1.1 (±0.3)×10(4) M(-1) and Kfolic acid-tRNA=6.4 (±0.5)×10(3) M(-1). Molecular modeling showed the participation of several nucleobases in folic acid complexes with DNA and tRNA, stabilized by H-bonding network. Two types of complexes were located for folic acid-tRNA adducts, one at the major groove and the other with TΨC loop, while acid binding occurs at major and minor grooves of DNA duplex. Folic acid complexation induced more alterations of DNA structure than tRNA.

  2. Activation of the DNA Damage Response by RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Ellis L.; Hollingworth, Robert; Grand, Roger J.

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses are a genetically diverse group of pathogens that are responsible for some of the most prevalent and lethal human diseases. Numerous viruses introduce DNA damage and genetic instability in host cells during their lifecycles and some species also manipulate components of the DNA damage response (DDR), a complex and sophisticated series of cellular pathways that have evolved to detect and repair DNA lesions. Activation and manipulation of the DDR by DNA viruses has been extensively studied. It is apparent, however, that many RNA viruses can also induce significant DNA damage, even in cases where viral replication takes place exclusively in the cytoplasm. DNA damage can contribute to the pathogenesis of RNA viruses through the triggering of apoptosis, stimulation of inflammatory immune responses and the introduction of deleterious mutations that can increase the risk of tumorigenesis. In addition, activation of DDR pathways can contribute positively to replication of viral RNA genomes. Elucidation of the interactions between RNA viruses and the DDR has provided important insights into modulation of host cell functions by these pathogens. This review summarises the current literature regarding activation and manipulation of the DDR by several medically important RNA viruses. PMID:26751489

  3. Bridging the solution divide: comprehensive structural analyses of dynamic RNA, DNA, and protein assemblies by small angle X-ray scattering

    PubMed Central

    Rambo, Robert P.; Tainer, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) is changing how we perceive biological structures, because it reveals dynamic macromolecular conformations and assemblies in solution. SAXS information captures thermodynamic ensembles, enhances static structures detailed by high-resolution methods, uncovers commonalities among diverse macromolecules, and helps define biological mechanisms. SAXS-based experiments on RNA riboswitches and ribozymes and on DNA-protein complexes including DNA-PK and p53 discover flexibilities that better define structure-function relationships. Furthermore, SAXS results suggest conformational variation is a general functional feature of macromolecules. Thus, accurate structural analyses will require a comprehensive approach that assesses both flexibility, as seen by SAXS, and detail, as determined by X-ray crystallography and NMR. Here, we review recent SAXS computational tools, technologies, and applications to nucleic acids and related structures. PMID:20097063

  4. Quantum-mechanical predictions of DNA and RNA ionization by energetic proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galassi, M. E.; Champion, C.; Weck, P. F.; Rivarola, R. D.; Fojón, O.; Hanssen, J.

    2012-04-01

    Among the numerous constituents of eukaryotic cells, the DNA macromolecule is considered as the most important critical target for radiation-induced damages. However, up to now ion-induced collisions on DNA components remain scarcely approached and theoretical support is still lacking for describing the main ionizing processes. In this context, we here report a theoretical description of the proton-induced ionization of the DNA and RNA bases as well as the sugar-phosphate backbone. Two different quantum-mechanical models are proposed: the first one based on a continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state treatment and the second perturbative one developed within the first Born approximation with correct boundary conditions (CB1). Besides, the molecular structure information of the biological targets studied here was determined by ab initio calculations with the Gaussian 09 software at the restricted Hartree-Fock level of theory with geometry optimization. Doubly, singly differential and total ionization cross sections also provided by the two models were compared for a large range of incident and ejection energies and a very good agreement was observed for all the configurations investigated. Finally, in comparison with the rare experiment, we have noted a large underestimation of the total ionization cross sections of uracil impacted by 80 keV protons, whereas a very good agreement was shown with the recently reported ionization cross sections for protons on adenine, at both the differential and the total scale.

  5. Quantum-mechanical predictions of DNA and RNA ionization by energetic proton beams.

    PubMed

    Galassi, M E; Champion, C; Weck, P F; Rivarola, R D; Fojón, O; Hanssen, J

    2012-04-01

    Among the numerous constituents of eukaryotic cells, the DNA macromolecule is considered as the most important critical target for radiation-induced damages. However, up to now ion-induced collisions on DNA components remain scarcely approached and theoretical support is still lacking for describing the main ionizing processes. In this context, we here report a theoretical description of the proton-induced ionization of the DNA and RNA bases as well as the sugar-phosphate backbone. Two different quantum-mechanical models are proposed: the first one based on a continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state treatment and the second perturbative one developed within the first Born approximation with correct boundary conditions (CB1). Besides, the molecular structure information of the biological targets studied here was determined by ab initio calculations with the Gaussian 09 software at the restricted Hartree-Fock level of theory with geometry optimization. Doubly, singly differential and total ionization cross sections also provided by the two models were compared for a large range of incident and ejection energies and a very good agreement was observed for all the configurations investigated. Finally, in comparison with the rare experiment, we have noted a large underestimation of the total ionization cross sections of uracil impacted by 80 keV protons,whereas a very good agreement was shown with the recently reported ionization cross sections for protons on adenine, at both the differential and the total scale.

  6. RNA cleavage and chain elongation by Escherichia coli DNA-dependent RNA polymerase in a binary enzyme.RNA complex.

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, C R; Solow-Cordero, D E; Chamberlin, M J

    1994-01-01

    In the absence of DNA, Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6) can bind RNA to form an equimolar binary complex with the concomitant release of the sigma factor. We show now that E. coli RNA polymerase binds at a region near the 3' terminus of the RNA and that an RNA in such RNA.RNA polymerase complexes undergoes reactions previously thought to be unique to nascent RNA in ternary complexes with DNA. These include GreA/GreB-dependent cleavage of the RNA and elongation by 3'-terminal addition of NMP from NTP. Both of these reactions are inhibited by rifampicin. Hence, by several criteria, the RNA in binary complexes is bound to the polymerase in a manner quite similar to that in ternary complexes. These findings can be explained by a model for the RNA polymerase ternary complex in which the RNA is bound at the 3' terminus through two protein binding sites located up to 10 nt apart. In this model, the stability of RNA binding to the polymerase in the ternary complex is due primarily to its interaction with the protein. Images PMID:7513426

  7. DNA and RNA ligases: structural variations and shared mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pascal, John M

    2008-02-01

    DNA and RNA ligases join 3' OH and 5' PO4 ends in polynucleotide substrates using a three-step reaction mechanism that involves covalent modification of both the ligase enzyme and the polynucleotide substrate with AMP. In the past three years, several polynucleotide ligases have been crystallized in complex with nucleic acid, providing the introductory views of ligase enzymes engaging their substrates. Crystal structures for two ATP-dependent DNA ligases, an NAD+-dependent DNA ligase, and an ATP-dependent RNA ligase demonstrate how ligases utilize the AMP group and their multi-domain architectures to manipulate nucleic acid structure and catalyze the end-joining reaction. Together with unliganded crystal structures of DNA and RNA ligases, a more comprehensive and dynamic understanding of the multi-step ligation reaction mechanism has emerged.

  8. Denaturation of RNA and DNA in situ induced by acridine orange.

    PubMed

    Darzynkiewicz, Z; Evenson, D; Kapuscinski, J; Melamed, M R

    1983-10-01

    The products of interaction of acridine orange (AO) with single-stranded (ss) nucleic acids are precipitates which exhibit red luminescence. Titration of rRNA or thymus DNA with AO results in formation of such products suggesting that the dye, per se, denatures double-stranded (ds) sections of these biopolymers. This transition, measured as the increase of red luminescence, a concomitant decrease of green fluorescence, and followed by an increase of light scatter of the AO-nucleic acid complexes, is cooperative and at 0.15 N NaCl occurs at 4-20 and 10-50 microM range of AO concentration for rRNA and DNA, respectively. The changes in stainability of nucleic acids in situ, in permealized cells, occur at higher AO concentration. Thus, the transition of RNA in situ is biphasic and seen at 20-120 microM AO. In the presence of EDTA, however, the change is monophasic and shifted to the 10-30 microM range of AO concentration. The change in stainability of DNA also shows two phases: one at 30-60 microM and another at 70-120 microM of AO. Extraction of basic proteins with 0.08 N HCl shifts the transition of DNA to the 30-60 microM AO concentration and makes it monophasic. The observed differences in denaturability of RNA vs DNA explain the specificity of AO in differential staining of these bipolymers in histochemical reactions. In living cells the products of interaction of AO with nucleic acids are detected by electron microscopy. In the cytoplasm of interphase cells the formation of dense precipitates within ribosomes and polysomes, simultaneous with a specific retraction of ribosome-polysome complexes from the periphery of the cell to the nucleus is evident. The latter suggests higher order organization of these particles involving their association with each other or with the nucleus via polyanionic macromolecules which collapse upon binding with AO. The DNA in heterochromatin is more sensitive to AO-induced denaturation, as evidenced by the fact that the dense

  9. UV protective effects of DNA repair enzymes and RNA lotion.

    PubMed

    Ke, Malcolm S; Camouse, Melissa M; Swain, Freddie R; Oshtory, Shaheen; Matsui, Mary; Mammone, Thomas; Maes, Daniel; Cooper, Kevin D; Stevens, Seth R; Baron, Elma D

    2008-01-01

    Solar UV radiation is known to cause immune suppression, believed to be a critical factor in cutaneous carcinogenesis. Although the mechanism is not entirely understood, DNA damage is clearly involved. Sunscreens function by attenuating the UV radiation that reaches the epidermis. However, once DNA damage ensues, repair mechanisms become essential for prevention of malignant transformation. DNA repair enzymes have shown efficacy in reducing cutaneous neoplasms among xeroderma pigmentosum patients. In vitro studies suggest that RNA fragments increase the resistance of human keratinocytes to UVB damage and enhance DNA repair but in vivo data are lacking. This study aimed to determine the effect of topical formulations containing either DNA repair enzymes (Micrococcus luteus) or RNA fragments (UVC-irradiated rabbit globin mRNA) on UV-induced local contact hypersensitivity (CHS) suppression in humans as measured in vivo using the contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene. Immunohistochemistry was also employed in skin biopsies to evaluate the level of thymine dimers after UV. Eighty volunteers completed the CHS portion. A single 0.75 minimum erythema dose (MED) simulated solar radiation exposure resulted in 64% CHS suppression in unprotected subjects compared with unirradiated sensitized controls. In contrast, UV-induced CHS suppression was reduced to 19% with DNA repair enzymes, and 7% with RNA fragments. Sun protection factor (SPF) testing revealed an SPF of 1 for both formulations, indicating that the observed immune protection cannot be attributed to sunscreen effects. Biopsies from an additional nine volunteers showed an 18% decrease in thymine dimers by both DNA repair enzymes and RNA fragments, relative to unprotected UV-irradiated skin. These results suggest that RNA fragments may be useful as a photoprotective agent with in vivo effects comparable to DNA repair enzymes.

  10. Connections between RNA splicing and DNA intron mobility in yeast mitochondria: RNA maturase and DNA endonuclease switching experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Goguel, V; Delahodde, A; Jacq, C

    1992-01-01

    The intron-encoded proteins bI4 RNA maturase and aI4 DNA endonuclease can be faithfully expressed in yeast cytoplasm from engineered forms of their mitochondrial coding sequences. In this work we studied the relationships between these two activities associated with two homologous intron-encoded proteins: the bI4 RNA maturase encoded in the fourth intron of the cytochrome b gene and the aI4 DNA endonuclease (I-SceII) encoded in the fourth intron of the gene coding for the subunit I of cytochrome oxidase. Taking advantage of both the high recombinogenic properties of yeast and the similarities between the two genes, we constructed in vivo a family of hybrid genes carrying parts of both RNA maturase and DNA endonuclease coding sequences. The presence of a sequence coding for a mitochondrial targeting peptide upstream from these hybrid genes allowed us to study the properties of their translation products within the mitochondria in vivo. We thus could analyze the ability of the recombinant proteins to complement RNA maturase deficiencies in different strains. Many combinations of the two parental intronic sequences were found in the recombinants. Their structural and functional analysis revealed the following features. (i) The N-terminal half of the bI4 RNA maturase could be replaced in total by its equivalent from the aI4 DNA endonuclease without affecting the RNA maturase activity. In contrast, replacing the C-terminal half of the bI4 RNA maturase with its equivalent from the aI4 DNA endonuclease led to a very weak RNA maturase activity, indicating that this region is more differentiated and linked to the maturase activity. (ii) None of the hybrid proteins carrying an RNA maturase activity kept the DNA endonuclease activity, suggesting that the latter requires the integrity of the aI4 protein. These observations are interesting because the aI4 DNA endonuclease is known to promote the propagation, at the DNA level, of the aI4 intron, whereas the bI4 RNA maturase

  11. Nucleic Acid Engineering: RNA Following the Trail of DNA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejin; Park, Yongkuk; Kim, Jieun; Jeong, Jaepil; Han, Sangwoo; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Jong Bum

    2016-02-01

    The self-assembly feature of the naturally occurring biopolymer, DNA, has fascinated researchers in the fields of materials science and bioengineering. With the improved understanding of the chemical and structural nature of DNA, DNA-based constructs have been designed and fabricated from two-dimensional arbitrary shapes to reconfigurable three-dimensional nanodevices. Although DNA has been used successfully as a building block in a finely organized and controlled manner, its applications need to be explored. Hence, with the myriad of biological functions, RNA has recently attracted considerable attention to further the application of nucleic acid-based structures. This Review categorizes different approaches of engineering nucleic acid-based structures and introduces the concepts, principles, and applications of each technique, focusing on how DNA engineering is applied as a guide to RNA engineering.

  12. RNA recognition by the DNA end-binding Ku heterodimer.

    PubMed

    Dalby, Andrew B; Goodrich, Karen J; Pfingsten, Jennifer S; Cech, Thomas R

    2013-06-01

    Most nucleic acid-binding proteins selectively bind either DNA or RNA, but not both nucleic acids. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ku heterodimer is unusual in that it has two very different biologically relevant binding modes: (1) Ku is a sequence-nonspecific double-stranded DNA end-binding protein with prominent roles in nonhomologous end-joining and telomeric capping, and (2) Ku associates with a specific stem-loop of TLC1, the RNA subunit of budding yeast telomerase, and is necessary for proper nuclear localization of this ribonucleoprotein enzyme. TLC1 RNA-binding and dsDNA-binding are mutually exclusive, so they may be mediated by the same site on Ku. Although dsDNA binding by Ku is well studied, much less is known about what features of an RNA hairpin enable specific recognition by Ku. To address this question, we localized the Ku-binding site of the TLC1 hairpin with single-nucleotide resolution using phosphorothioate footprinting, used chemical modification to identify an unpredicted motif within the hairpin secondary structure, and carried out mutagenesis of the stem-loop to ascertain the critical elements within the RNA that permit Ku binding. Finally, we provide evidence that the Ku-binding site is present in additional budding yeast telomerase RNAs and discuss the possibility that RNA binding is a conserved function of the Ku heterodimer.

  13. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Crithidia oncopelti kinetoplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Zaitseva, G.N.; Levchenko, I.V.; Tarasov, I.A.; Kuz'min, E.V.

    1986-03-10

    Mitochondrial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase was isolated from Crithidia oncopelti kinetoplasts, and its properties were studied. RNA polymerase was solubilized from the structures with 2% digitonin in 0.25 M KCl. The enzyme was purified 550-fold according to activity by gel filtration through Sephadex 4B, followed by chromatography on heparin-Sepharose 4B, phosphocellulose, and DEAE-Sephadex A-50. The optimum conditions of the RNA polymerase reaction (time of incubation, temperature, Mg/sup 2 +/, K/sup +/ concentrations, etc) were determined. It was established that the activity of the enzyme is not inhibited by ..cap alpha..-amanitin, rifampicin, and streptolidigin, but is strongly suppressed by Mn/sup 2 +/ ions, a high KCl concentrations, as well as ethidium bromide. The RNA polymerase isolated transcribes denatured DNA substantially better than the native form. The enzyme utilizes mtDNA (in hybrid plasmids) as a substrate appreciably more actively than the nuclear form. Among the substrates used, the greatest template activity is possessed by single-stranded poly(dAT). In all the properties studied, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from C. oncopelti kinetoplasts is similar to the mitochondrial enzymes of other eukaryotes but differs from the nuclear enzymes of this organism and from bacterial RNA polymerases.

  14. a Hypothetical Pathway from the RNA to the DNA World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Line, Martin A.

    2005-08-01

    If the DNA world was preceded by a RNA world as widely suggested a rational pathway should be discernable to link the two. This report uses as a starting point a membrane-enclosed ribozyme capable of polymerising itself and its counterpart copy. As molecular complexity increased, it is suggested that a consortia of the initial ribozyme polymerase and chaperone molecules formed a complex specifically for RNA replication. A mutation in one of several copy-genomes coding for these replication machines then led in step-wise fashion to a proto-ribosome that increasingly inserted specific amino acids instead of nucleotides into a growing RNA chain, the driving force being selection for improved or new function. Eventually the nucleotides would be entirely displaced in this proto-ribosome, after which the ribose-phosphate linkage would be replaced by peptide linkage. The final steps would be the formation of DNA from the RNA genomic material viareverse transcriptase, coupled with the evolution of enzymes for DNA polymerisation and transcription. At this point the original RNA-replicator machinery would be redundant and eliminated, the RNA genomic material would become mRNA and the present-day function of the ribosome would be fixed. In the scenario described a mechanism for the selection for l-amino acids becomes evident

  15. DNA homologies of ribosomal RNA genes of Neurospora species

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, D.K.; Mimiko, R.; Dutta, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA genes (rDNAs) of Neurospora crassa contain DNA sequences which code for 17S, 5.8S, and 26S rRNAs, in addition to internal and external spacers. As has been reported for many eukaryotes, the DNA sequences which code for 17S, 5.8S, and 26S rRNAs in Neurospora species are probably conserved while the internal and external spacer regions are probably variable sequences. Extensive electron microscopic studies of 45S precursor rRNA of several cold and warm blooded animals confirm that spacer regions vary extensively from species to species. It was desirable to know whether such differences in rDNA sequences exist between Neurospora species. Any such difference should be detectable using standard procedures for DNA homology studies rDNA sequences were isolated from N. crassa mycelial cells using the procedure described previously. The purified rDNA was /sup 3/H-labeled (by nick translation) and reassociated with total DNA isolated from the heterothallic species N. crassa and from three homothalliospecies: N. dodgei, N. lineolata, and N. africana. In addition, /sup 32/P-labeled total DNA of N. crassa was reannealed with unlabeled bulk DNA from N. crassa, N. dodgei, and N. lineolata.

  16. Engineering and Identifying Supercharged Proteins for Macromolecule Delivery into Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, David B.; Cronican, James J.; Liu, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Supercharged proteins are a class of engineered or naturally occurring proteins with unusually high net positive or negative theoretical charge. Both supernegatively and superpositively charged proteins exhibit a remarkable ability to withstand thermally or chemically induced aggregation. Superpositively charged proteins are also able to penetrate mammalian cells. Associating cargo with these proteins, such as plasmid DNA, siRNA, or other proteins, can enable the functional delivery of these macromolecules into mammalian cells both in vitro and in vivo. The potency of functional delivery in some cases can exceed that of other current methods for macromolecule delivery, including the use of cell-penetrating peptides such as Tat, and adenoviral delivery vectors. This chapter summarizes methods for engineering supercharged proteins, optimizing cell penetration, identifying naturally occurring supercharged proteins, and using these proteins for macromolecule delivery into mammalian cells. PMID:22230574

  17. Effects of DNA replication on mRNA noise

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Joseph R.; Cole, John A.; Fei, Jingyi; Ha, Taekjip; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida A.

    2015-01-01

    There are several sources of fluctuations in gene expression. Here we study the effects of time-dependent DNA replication, itself a tightly controlled process, on noise in mRNA levels. Stochastic simulations of constitutive and regulated gene expression are used to analyze the time-averaged mean and variation in each case. The simulations demonstrate that to capture mRNA distributions correctly, chromosome replication must be realistically modeled. Slow relaxation of mRNA from the low copy number steady state before gene replication to the high steady state after replication is set by the transcript’s half-life and contributes significantly to the shape of the mRNA distribution. Consequently both the intrinsic kinetics and the gene location play an important role in accounting for the mRNA average and variance. Exact analytic expressions for moments of the mRNA distributions that depend on the DNA copy number, gene location, cell doubling time, and the rates of transcription and degradation are derived for the case of constitutive expression and subsequently extended to provide approximate corrections for regulated expression and RNA polymerase variability. Comparisons of the simulated models and analytical expressions to experimentally measured mRNA distributions show that they better capture the physics of the system than previous theories. PMID:26669443

  18. ESI-MS Investigation of an Equilibrium between a Bimolecular Quadruplex DNA and a Duplex DNA/RNA Hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrento, Monica L.; Bryan, Tracy M.; Samosorn, Siritron; Beck, Jennifer L.

    2015-07-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) conditions were optimized for simultaneous observation of a bimolecular qDNA and a Watson-Crick base-paired duplex DNA/RNA hybrid. The DNA sequence used was telomeric DNA, and the RNA contained the template for telomerase-mediated telomeric DNA synthesis. Addition of RNA to the quadruplex DNA (qDNA) resulted in formation of the duplex DNA/RNA hybrid. Melting profiles obtained using circular dichroism spectroscopy confirmed that the DNA/RNA hybrid exhibited greater thermal stability than the bimolecular qDNA in solution. Binding of a 13-substituted berberine ( 1) derivative to the bimolecular qDNA stabilized its structure as evidenced by an increase in its stability in the mass spectrometer, and an increase in its circular dichroism (CD) melting temperature of 10°C. The DNA/RNA hybrid did not bind the ligand extensively and its thermal stability was unchanged in the presence of ( 1). The qDNA-ligand complex resisted unfolding in the presence of excess RNA, limiting the formation of the DNA/RNA hybrid. Previously, it has been proposed that DNA secondary structures, such as qDNA, may be involved in the telomerase mechanism. DNA/RNA hybrid structures occur at the active site of telomerase. The results presented in the current work show that if telomeric DNA was folded into a qDNA structure, it is possible for a DNA/RNA hybrid to form as is required during template alignment. The discrimination of ligand ( 1) for binding to the bimolecular qDNA over the DNA/RNA hybrid positions it as a useful compound for probing the role(s), if any, of antiparallel qDNA in the telomerase mechanism.

  19. Lanthanide cofactors accelerate DNA-catalyzed synthesis of branched RNA.

    PubMed

    Javadi-Zarnaghi, Fatemeh; Höbartner, Claudia

    2013-08-28

    Most deoxyribozymes (DNA catalysts) require metal ions as cofactors for catalytic activity, with Mg(2+), Mn(2+), and Zn(2+) being the most represented activators. Trivalent transition-metal ions have been less frequently considered. Rare earth ions offer attractive properties for studying metal ion binding by biochemical and spectroscopic methods. Here we report the effect of lanthanide cofactors, in particular terbium (Tb(3+)), for DNA-catalyzed synthesis of 2',5'-branched RNA. We found up to 10(4)-fold increased ligation rates for the 9F7 deoxribozyme using 100 μM Tb(3+) and 7 mM Mg(2+), compared to performing the reaction with 7 mM Mg(2+) alone. Combinatorial mutation interference analysis (CoMA) was used to identify nucleotides in the catalytic region of 9F7 that are essential for ligation activity with different metal ion combinations. A minimized version of the DNA enzyme sustained high levels of Tb(3+)-assisted activity. Sensitized luminescence of Tb(3+) bound to DNA in combination with DMS probing and DNase I footprinting results supported the CoMA data. The accelerating effect of Tb(3+) was confirmed for related RNA-ligating deoxyribozymes, pointing toward favorable activation of internal 2'-OH nucleophiles. The results of this study offer fundamental insights into nucleotide requirements for DNA-catalyzed RNA ligation and will be beneficial for practical applications that utilize 2',5'-branched RNA.

  20. siRNA-directed DNA Methylation in Plants.

    PubMed

    Xie, Meng; Yu, Bin

    2015-02-01

    DNA cytosine methylationis an important epigenetic process that is correlated with transgene silencing, transposon suppression, and gene imprinting. In plants, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can trigger DNA methylation at loci containing their homolog sequences through a process called RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). In canonical RdDM, 24 nucleotide (nt) siRNAs (ra-siRNAs) will be loaded into their effector protein called ARGONAUTE 4 (AGO4) and subsequently targeted to RdDM loci through base-pairing with the non-coding transcripts produced by DNA-directed RNA Polymerase V. Then, the AGO4-ra-siRNA will recruit the DNA methyltransferase to catalyze de novo DNA methylation. Recent studies also identified non-canonical RdDM pathways that involve microRNAs or 21 nt siRNAs. These RdDM pathways are biologically important since they control responses biotic and abiotic stresses, maintain genome stability and regulate development. Here, we summarize recent pro-gresses of mechanisms governing canonical and non-canonical RdDM pathways. PMID:25937811

  1. RNA-directed epigenetic regulation of DNA rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Kazufumi

    2010-09-20

    Ciliated protozoa undergo extensive DNA rearrangements, including DNA elimination, chromosome breakage and DNA unscrambling, when the germline micronucleus produces the new macronucleus during sexual reproduction. It has long been known that many of these events are epigenetically controlled by DNA sequences of the parental macronuclear genome. Recent studies in some model ciliates have revealed that these epigenetic regulations are mediated by non-coding RNAs. DNA elimination in Paramecium and Tetrahymena is regulated by small RNAs that are produced and operated by an RNAi (RNA interference)-related mechanism. It has been proposed that the small RNAs from the micronuclear genome can be used to identify eliminated DNAs by whole-genome comparison of the parental macronucleus and the micronucleus. In contrast, DNA unscrambling in Oxytricha is guided by long non-coding RNAs that are produced from the somatic parental macronuclear genome. These RNAs are proposed to act as templates for the direct unscrambling events that occur in the developing macronucleus. The possible evolutionary benefits of these RNA-directed epigenetic regulations of DNA rearrangement in ciliates are discussed in the present chapter. PMID:20822488

  2. DNA?RNA: What Do Students Think the Arrow Means?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, L. Kate; Fisk, J. Nick; Newman, Dina L.

    2014-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology, a model that has remained intact for decades, describes the transfer of genetic information from DNA to protein though an RNA intermediate. While recent work has illustrated many exceptions to the central dogma, it is still a common model used to describe and study the relationship between genes and protein…

  3. DNA/RNA heteroduplex oligonucleotide for highly efficient gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Nishina, Kazutaka; Piao, Wenying; Yoshida-Tanaka, Kie; Sujino, Yumiko; Nishina, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Nitta, Keiko; Yoshioka, Kotaro; Kuwahara, Hiroya; Yasuhara, Hidenori; Baba, Takeshi; Ono, Fumiko; Miyata, Kanjiro; Miyake, Koichi; Seth, Punit P.; Low, Audrey; Yoshida, Masayuki; Bennett, C. Frank; Kataoka, Kazunori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Obika, Satoshi; Yokota, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are recognized therapeutic agents for the modulation of specific genes at the post-transcriptional level. Similar to any medical drugs, there are opportunities to improve their efficacy and safety. Here we develop a short DNA/RNA heteroduplex oligonucleotide (HDO) with a structure different from double-stranded RNA used for short interfering RNA and single-stranded DNA used for ASO. A DNA/locked nucleotide acid gapmer duplex with an α-tocopherol-conjugated complementary RNA (Toc-HDO) is significantly more potent at reducing the expression of the targeted mRNA in liver compared with the parent single-stranded gapmer ASO. Toc-HDO also improves the phenotype in disease models more effectively. In addition, the high potency of Toc-HDO results in a reduction of liver dysfunction observed in the parent ASO at a similar silencing effect. HDO technology offers a novel concept of therapeutic oligonucleotides, and the development of this molecular design opens a new therapeutic field. PMID:26258894

  4. A small RNA response at DNA ends in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Michalik, Katharina M; Böttcher, Romy; Förstemann, Klaus

    2012-10-01

    Small RNAs have been implicated in numerous cellular processes, including effects on chromatin structure and the repression of transposons. We describe the generation of a small RNA response at DNA ends in Drosophila that is analogous to the recently reported double-strand break (DSB)-induced RNAs or Dicer- and Drosha-dependent small RNAs in Arabidopsis and vertebrates. Active transcription in the vicinity of the break amplifies this small RNA response, demonstrating that the normal messenger RNA contributes to the endogenous small interfering RNAs precursor. The double-stranded RNA precursor forms with an antisense transcript that initiates at the DNA break. Breaks are thus sites of transcription initiation, a novel aspect of the cellular DSB response. This response is specific to a double-strand break since nicked DNA structures do not trigger small RNA production. The small RNAs are generated independently of the exact end structure (blunt, 3'- or 5'-overhang), can repress homologous sequences in trans and may therefore--in addition to putative roles in repair--exert a quality control function by clearing potentially truncated messages from genes in the vicinity of the break.

  5. DNA/RNA Detection Using DNA-Templated Few-Atom Silver Nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Obliosca, Judy M.; Liu, Cong; Batson, Robert Austin; Babin, Mark C.; Werner, James H.; Yeh, Hsin-Chih

    2013-01-01

    DNA-templated few-atom silver nanoclusters (DNA/Ag NCs) are a new class of organic/inorganic composite nanomaterials whose fluorescence emission can be tuned throughout the visible and near-IR range by simply programming the template sequences. Compared to organic dyes, DNA/Ag NCs can be brighter and more photostable. Compared to quantum dots, DNA/Ag NCs are smaller, less prone to blinking on long timescales, and do not have a toxic core. The preparation of DNA/Ag NCs is simple and there is no need to remove excess precursors as these precursors are non-fluorescent. Our recent discovery of the fluorogenic and color switching properties of DNA/Ag NCs have led to the invention of new molecular probes, termed NanoCluster Beacons (NCBs), for DNA detection, with the capability to differentiate single-nucleotide polymorphisms by emission colors. NCBs are inexpensive, easy to prepare, and compatible with commercial DNA synthesizers. Many other groups have also explored and taken advantage of the environment sensitivities of DNA/Ag NCs in creating new tools for DNA/RNA detection and single-nucleotide polymorphism identification. In this review, we summarize the recent trends in the use of DNA/Ag NCs for developing DNA/RNA sensors. PMID:25586126

  6. DNA Targeting by a Minimal CRISPR RNA-Guided Cascade.

    PubMed

    Hochstrasser, Megan L; Taylor, David W; Kornfeld, Jack E; Nogales, Eva; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2016-09-01

    Bacteria employ surveillance complexes guided by CRISPR (clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats) RNAs (crRNAs) to target foreign nucleic acids for destruction. Although most type I and type III CRISPR systems require four or more distinct proteins to form multi-subunit surveillance complexes, the type I-C systems use just three proteins to achieve crRNA maturation and double-stranded DNA target recognition. We show that each protein plays multiple functional and structural roles: Cas5c cleaves pre-crRNAs and recruits Cas7 to position the RNA guide for DNA binding and unwinding by Cas8c. Cryoelectron microscopy reconstructions of free and DNA-bound forms of the Cascade/I-C surveillance complex reveal conformational changes that enable R-loop formation with distinct positioning of each DNA strand. This streamlined type I-C system explains how CRISPR pathways can evolve compact structures that retain full functionality as RNA-guided DNA capture platforms. PMID:27588603

  7. Roles of RNA-Binding Proteins in DNA Damage Response.

    PubMed

    Kai, Mihoko

    2016-01-01

    Living cells experience DNA damage as a result of replication errors and oxidative metabolism, exposure to environmental agents (e.g., ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation (IR)), and radiation therapies and chemotherapies for cancer treatments. Accumulation of DNA damage can lead to multiple diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, cancers, immune deficiencies, infertility, and also aging. Cells have evolved elaborate mechanisms to deal with DNA damage. Networks of DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are coordinated to detect and repair DNA damage, regulate cell cycle and transcription, and determine the cell fate. Upstream factors of DNA damage checkpoints and repair, "sensor" proteins, detect DNA damage and send the signals to downstream factors in order to maintain genomic integrity. Unexpectedly, we have discovered that an RNA-processing factor is involved in DNA repair processes. We have identified a gene that contributes to glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)'s treatment resistance and recurrence. This gene, RBM14, is known to function in transcription and RNA splicing. RBM14 is also required for maintaining the stem-like state of GBM spheres, and it controls the DNA-PK-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway by interacting with KU80. RBM14 is a RNA-binding protein (RBP) with low complexity domains, called intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), and it also physically interacts with PARP1. Furthermore, RBM14 is recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-dependent manner (unpublished data). DNA-dependent PARP1 (poly-(ADP) ribose polymerase 1) makes key contributions in the DNA damage response (DDR) network. RBM14 therefore plays an important role in a PARP-dependent DSB repair process. Most recently, it was shown that the other RBPs with intrinsically disordered domains are recruited to DNA damage sites in a PAR-dependent manner, and that these RBPs form liquid compartments (also known as "liquid-demixing"). Among the

  8. Euglena gracilis DNA dependent RNA polymerase II: a zinc metalloenzyme.

    PubMed

    Falchuk, K H; Mazus, B; Ulpino, L; Vallee, B L

    1976-10-01

    Zinc is essential for cellular proliferation. Zinc deficiency of Euglena gracilis results in arrest of cell division and deranges nucleic acid and protein metabolism pointing to a decisive role of zinc in transcription and translation. We have, therefore, investigated the role of zinc in the function of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerases of this organism. Two RNA polymerases from zinc sufficient organisms were purified first by affinity chromatography on a DNA cellulose column and subsequently separated on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-Sephadex A-25. The two fractions were characterized as polymerase I and II by their elution pattern from DEAE-Sephadex and sensitivity to alpha-amanitin. RNA polymerase II has a provisional molecular weight of 700 000 and contains an average of 2.2 g=atoms of zinc per mol of enzyme, but not Mn, Cu, or Fe, as measured by microwave emission spectroscopy. Chelating agents, such as 1,10-phenanthroline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid, and lomofungin, inhibit activity. In contrast, the nonchelating analogues, 1,7-and 4,7-phenanthroline, do not affect activity. Inhibition by 1,10-phenanthroline is instantaneous and fully reversible by dilution. 1,10-Phenanthroline also inhibits RNA polymerase I, suggesting a role of zinc in its function. The demonstration that RNA polymerase II is a zinc enzyme indicates the involvement of zinc in eukaryotic RNA synthesis and serves as a further basis for the definition of the role of this element in eukaryotic cell growth, division, and differentiation.

  9. DNA and RNA editing of retrotransposons accelerate mammalian genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Levanon, Erez Y

    2015-04-01

    Genome evolution is commonly viewed as a gradual process that is driven by random mutations that accumulate over time. However, DNA- and RNA-editing enzymes have been identified that can accelerate evolution by actively modifying the genomically encoded information. The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzymes, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBECs) are potent restriction factors that can inhibit retroelements by cytosine-to-uridine editing of retroelement DNA after reverse transcription. In some cases, a retroelement may successfully integrate into the genome despite being hypermutated. Such events introduce unique sequences into the genome and are thus a source of genomic innovation. adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) catalyze adenosine-to-inosine editing in double-stranded RNA, commonly formed by oppositely oriented retroelements. The RNA editing confers plasticity to the transcriptome by generating many transcript variants from a single genomic locus. If the editing produces a beneficial variant, the genome may maintain the locus that produces the RNA-edited transcript for its novel function. Here, we discuss how these two powerful editing mechanisms, which both target inserted retroelements, facilitate expedited genome evolution.

  10. Degradation of DNA RNA Hybrids by Ribonuclease H and DNA Polymerases of Cellular and Viral Origin

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Walter; Crouch, Robert

    1972-01-01

    Ribonuclease H from human KB cells, chick embryos, calf thymus, avian myeloblastosis virus, and Rous associated virus specifically degrades the RNA of DNA·RNA hybrids, producing mono- and oligoribonucleotides terminated in 5′-phosphates. The cellular RNase H is an endonuclease, whereas the viral enzyme appears to be an exonuclease. Viral DNA polymerase and RNase H copurify through all separation steps. Therefore, RNase H activity is an intrinsic part of the viral DNA polymerase. DNA·RNA hybrids are also degraded by nucleases associated with cellular DNA polymerases and by exonuclease III. However, these nucleases differ from RNase H in their ability to degrade both strands of DNA·RNA hybrids. Images PMID:4343966

  11. Polyacid macromolecule primers

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-12-26

    Hydrophilic polyacids are described, such as macromolecules of polyitaconic acid and polyacrylic acid, where such macromolecules have molecular weights >50,000 as primers between a polymeric top coating, such as polyurethane, and an oxidized aluminum or aluminum alloy. A near monolayer of primer is used in polymeric adhesive/oxidized aluminum adhered joint systems in 0.05% primer concentration to give superior results in standard peel tests. 2 figs.

  12. Polyacid macromolecule primers

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1989-01-01

    Hydrophylic polyacids, such as macromolecules of polyitaconic acid and polyacrylic acid, where such macromolecules have molecular weights >50,000 as primers between a polymeric top coating, such as polyurethane, and an oxidized aluminum or aluminum alloy. A near monolayer of primer is used in polymeric adhesive/oxidized aluminum adhered joint systems in 0.05% primer concentration to give superior results in standard peel tests.

  13. Dicer-independent RNA-directed DNA methylation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-Lei; Zhang, Guiping; Tang, Kai; Li, Jingwen; Yang, Lan; Huang, Huan; Zhang, Heng; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is an important de novo DNA methylation pathway in plants. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) generated by Dicers from RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) transcripts are thought to guide sequence-specific DNA methylation. To gain insight into the mechanism of RdDM, we performed whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of a collection of Arabidopsis mutants, including plants deficient in Pol IV (nrpd1) or Dicer (dcl1/2/3/4) activity. Unexpectedly, of the RdDM target loci that required Pol IV and/or Pol V, only 16% were fully dependent on Dicer activity. DNA methylation was partly or completely independent of Dicer activity at the remaining Pol IV- and/or Pol V-dependent loci, despite the loss of 24-nt siRNAs. Instead, DNA methylation levels correlated with the accumulation of Pol IV-dependent 25-50 nt RNAs at most loci in Dicer mutant plants. Our results suggest that RdDM in plants is largely guided by a previously unappreciated class of Dicer-independent non-coding RNAs, and that siRNAs are required to maintain DNA methylation at only a subset of loci. PMID:26642813

  14. DNA and RNA aptamers as modulators of protein function.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Henning

    2005-03-01

    The SELEX technique (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) is a combinatorial library approach in which DNA or RNA molecules are selected by their ability to bind their protein targets with high affinity and specificity. The isolated molecules are referred to as aptamers (from aptus = Latin "to fit"). First, RNA and DNA aptamers were identified that bind to proteins naturally interacting with nucleic acids, or to small organic molecules such as ATP. In the following years, the use of the SELEX technique was extended to isolate oligonucleotide ligands for a wide range of proteins of importance for therapy, and diagnostics. Since these RNA and DNA molecules bind their targets with similar affinities as antibodies, and are able to distinguish between isotypes of an enzyme, aptamers have been also called synthetic antibodies. Recently, the use of in vitro selection methods to isolate protein inhibitors has been extended to complex targets, such as receptors that are only functional in their membrane-bound form, cells, and trypanosomes. RNA aptamers have been expressed in living cells where they inhibit a protein implicated in intracellular signal transduction. The utility of aptamers for in vivo experiments, and diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, is considerably enhanced by introducing chemical modifications into the oligonucleotides to provide resistance against enzymatic degradation in body fluids. Recently, such inhibitors have been evolved for a great variety of targets, including receptors, growth factors, and adhesion molecules implicated in disease. Furthermore, some results were already obtained in animal models and clinical trials. PMID:16787315

  15. Mammalian mitochondrial DNA replication intermediates are essentially duplex, but contain extensive tracts of RNA/DNA hybrid

    PubMed Central

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L. O.; Holmes, J. Bradley; Wood, Stuart R.; Yang, Ming-Yao; Yasukawa, Takehiro; Reyes, Aurelio; Laura, J. Bailey; Cluett, Tricia J.; Goffart, Steffi; Willcox, Smaranda; Rigby, Rachel E.; Jackson, Andrew P.; Spelbrink, Johannes N.; Griffith, Jack D.; Crouch, Robert J.; Jacobs, Howard T.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate, using transmission electron microscopy and immunopurification with an antibody specific for RNA/DNA hybrid, that intact mtDNA replication intermediates (mtRIs) are essentially duplex throughout their length, but contain extensive RNA tracts on one strand. However, the extent of preservation of RNA in such molecules is highly dependent on the preparative method used. These findings strongly support the strand-coupled model of mtDNA replication involving RNA incorporation throughout the lagging strand (RITOLS). PMID:20184890

  16. Comparison of DNA and RNA extraction methods for mummified tissues.

    PubMed

    Konomi, Nami; Lebwohl, Eve; Zhang, David

    2002-12-01

    Nucleic acids extracted from mummified tissues are valuable materials for the study of ancient human beings. Significant difficulty in extracting nucleic acids from mummified tissues has been reported due to chemical modification and degradation. The goal of this study was to determine a method that is more efficient for DNA and RNA extraction from mummified tissues. Twelve mummy specimens were analyzed with 9 different nucleic acid extraction methods, including guanidium thiocyanate (GTC) and proteinase K/detergent based methods prepared in our laboratory or purchased. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase DNA and beta-actin RNA were used as markers for the presence of adequate DNA and RNA, respectively, for PCR and RT-PCR amplification. Our results show that 5 M GTC is more efficient of releasing nucleic acids from mummified tissue than proteinase K/detergent, and phenol/chloroform extraction with an additional chloroform step is more efficient than phenol/chloroform along. We were able to isolate DNAs from all 12 specimens and RNAs from 8 of 12 specimens, and the nucleic acids were sufficient for PCR and RT-PCR analysis. We further tested hepatitis viruses including hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis G virus, and TT virus DNA, and fail to detect these viruses in all 12 specimens.

  17. A DNA enzyme with Mg(2+)-Dependent RNA Phosphoesterase Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, Ronald R.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    1995-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated that DNA can act as an enzyme in the Pb(2+)-dependent cleavage of an RNA phosphoester. This is a facile reaction, with an uncatalyzed rate for a typical RNA phosphoester of approx. 10(exp -4)/ min in the presence of 1 mM Pb(OAc)2 at pH 7.0 and 23 C. The Mg(2+) - dependent reaction is more difficult, with an uncatalyzed rate of approx. 10(exp -7)/ min under comparable conditions. Mg(2+) - dependent cleavage has special relevance to biology because it is compatible with intracellular conditions. Using in vitro selection, we sought to develop a family of phosphoester-cleaving DNA enzymes that operate in the presence of various divalent metals, focusing particularly on the Mg(2+) - dependent reaction. Results: We generated a population of greater than 10(exp 13) DNAs containing 40 random nucleotides and carried out repeated rounds of selective amplification, enriching for molecules that cleave a target RNA phosphoester in the presence of 1 mM Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+) or Pb(2+). Examination of individual clones from the Mg(2+) lineage after the sixth round revealed a catalytic motif comprised of a three-stem junction.This motif was partially randomized and subjected to seven additional rounds of selective amplification, yielding catalysts with a rate of 0.01/ min. The optimized DNA catalyst was divided into separate substrate and enzyme domains and shown to have a similar level of activity under multiple turnover conditions. Conclusions: We have generated a Mg(2+) - dependent DNA enzyme that cleaves a target RNA phosphoester with a catalytic rate approx. 10(exp 5) - fold greater than that of the uncatalyzed reaction. This activity is compatible with intracellular conditions, raising the possibility that DNA enzymes might be made to operate in vivo.

  18. Small RNA-mediated DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase 1 inhibition leads to aberrant DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Estève, Pierre-Olivier; Chin, Hang Gyeong; Terragni, Jolyon; Dai, Nan; Corrêa, Ivan R.; Pradhan, Sriharsa

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian cells contain copious amounts of RNA including both coding and noncoding RNA (ncRNA). Generally the ncRNAs function to regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Among ncRNA, the long ncRNA and small ncRNA can affect histone modification, DNA methylation targeting and gene silencing. Here we show that endogenous DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) co-purifies with inhibitory ncRNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) bind directly to DNMT1 with high affinity. The binding of miRNAs, such as miR-155-5p, leads to inhibition of DNMT1 enzyme activity. Exogenous miR-155-5p in cells induces aberrant DNA methylation of the genome, resulting in hypomethylation of low to moderately methylated regions. And small shift of hypermethylation of previously hypomethylated region was also observed. Furthermore, hypomethylation led to activation of genes. Based on these observations, overexpression of miR-155-5p resulted in aberrant DNA methylation by inhibiting DNMT1 activity, resulting in altered gene expression. PMID:25990724

  19. Detection of RNA-DNA association by a proximity ligation-based method

    PubMed Central

    Petruk, Svetlana; Fenstermaker, Tyler K.; Black, Kathryn L.; Brock, Hugh W.; Mazo, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We describe a proximity ligation assay (PLA)-based method of assessing association of DNA and RNA in single cells during the cell cycle. Pulse-labeling of DNA with EdU and RNA with BrU and testing their close proximity by PLA demonstrates that RNA synthesis in individual cells resumes about 30–45 min after DNA replication. Consistent with this conclusion, RNA Pol II phosphorylated at Ser2 of its CTD is detected at the same time as RNA transcripts on nascent DNA. Our results also show that RNA is associated with DNA foci during all stages of mitosis. PMID:27256324

  20. Stable RNA-DNA-RNA polymerase complexes can accompany formation of a single phosphodiester bond.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, J E; Cashel, M

    1980-03-18

    Incubation of RNA polymerase with poly[d(A-T)n] template results in a binary enzyme-DNA complex. Further addition of the dinucleotide UpA and [alpha-32P]UTP results in catalytic formation of the labeled trinucleotide UpApU until substrate exhaustion. In contrast, incubation of binary enzyme-DNA complexes with ApU and [alpha-32P]ATP results in labeled ApUpA formation to an extent that is stoichiometric with the amount of enzyme present despite an excess of substrates. The occurrence of ApUpA in a stable DNA-enzyme-RNA ternary complex is shown by gel exclusion chromatography, Millipore filtration, and the ability of ternary complexes to support subsequent RNA chain elongation. Radioactivity is not bound to Millipore filters when purified, labeled ApUpA is added to enzyme-DNA binary complexes. Hence, phosphodiester bond formation is required for stable ternary complex formation. The absence of the delta subunit of RNA polymerase or the addition of rifampicin to the reaction before ribonucleotide substrates results in catalytic ApUpA formation instead of stable ternary complexes.

  1. A PCR-based approach to assess genomic DNA contamination in RNA: Application to rat RNA samples.

    PubMed

    Padhi, Bhaja K; Singh, Manjeet; Huang, Nicholas; Pelletier, Guillaume

    2016-02-01

    Genomic DNA (gDNA) contamination of RNA samples can lead to inaccurate measurement of gene expression by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). We describe an easily adoptable PCR-based method where gDNA contamination in RNA samples is assessed by comparing the amplification of intronic and exonic sequences from a housekeeping gene. Although this alternative assay was developed for rat RNA samples, it could be easily adapted to other species. As a proof of concept, we assessed the effects of detectable gDNA contamination levels on the expression of a few genes that illustrate the importance of RNA quality in acquiring reliable data.

  2. RNA Polymerases of Maize. Purification and Molecular Structure of DNA-dependent RNA Polymerase II*

    PubMed Central

    Mullinix, Kathleen P.; Strain, Gustave C.; Bogorad, Lawrence

    1973-01-01

    Nuclear DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II has been purified from leaves of Zea mays by a new procedure that improves enzyme stability and thus permits more manipulation during purification. The purification procedure includes a heating step, gel filtration on Sepharose 6B and 4B, and chromatography on DEAE- and DNA-celluloses. This method of purification yields an enzyme that exhibits maximal activity when denatured DNA is used as a template. Electrophoresis of highly purified enzyme on polyacrylamide gels containing sodium dodecyl sulfate indicates that maize RNA polymerase IIa is composed of several polypeptide subunits. The most highly purified preparations contain polypeptides with molecular weights of 200,000, 160,000, 35,000, 25,000, 20,000, and 17,000. Images PMID:4525172

  3. Efficient synthesis of stably adenylated DNA and RNA adapters for microRNA capture using T4 RNA ligase 1.

    PubMed

    Song, Yunke; Liu, Kelvin J; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA profiling methods have become increasingly important due to the rapid rise of microRNA in both basic and translational sciences. A critical step in many microRNA profiling assays is adapter ligation using pre-adenylated adapters. While pre-adenylated adapters can be chemically or enzymatically prepared, enzymatic adenylation is preferred due to its ease and high yield. However, previously reported enzymatic methods either require tedious purification steps or use thermostable ligases that can generate side products during the subsequent ligation step. We have developed a highly efficient, template- and purification-free, adapter adenylation method using T4 RNA ligase 1. This method is capable of adenylating large amounts of adapter at ~100% efficiency and can efficiently adenylate both DNA and RNA bases. We find that the adenylation reaction speed can differ between DNA and RNA and between terminal nucleotides, leading to bias if reactions are not allowed to run to completion. We further find that the addition of high PEG levels can effectively suppress these differences.

  4. Hydration of nucleic acid fragments: comparison of theory and experiment for high-resolution crystal structures of RNA, DNA, and DNA-drug complexes.

    PubMed

    Hummer, G; García, A E; Soumpasis, D M

    1995-05-01

    A computationally efficient method to describe the organization of water around solvated biomolecules is presented. It is based on a statistical mechanical expression for the water-density distribution in terms of particle correlation functions. The method is applied to analyze the hydration of small nucleic acid molecules in the crystal environment, for which high-resolution x-ray crystal structures have been reported. Results for RNA [r(ApU).r(ApU)] and DNA [d(CpG).d(CpG) in Z form and with parallel strand orientation] and for DNA-drug complexes [d(CpG).d(CpG) with the drug proflavine intercalated] are described. A detailed comparison of theoretical and experimental data shows positional agreement for the experimentally observed water sites. The presented method can be used for refinement of the water structure in x-ray crystallography, hydration analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance structures, and theoretical modeling of biological macromolecules such as molecular docking studies. The speed of the computations allows hydration analyses of molecules of almost arbitrary size (tRNA, protein-nucleic acid complexes, etc.) in the crystal environment and in aqueous solution.

  5. RNA FISH, DNA FISH and Chromosome Painting of Chicken Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Guioli, Silvana; Lovell-Badge, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique. It identifies the location of DNA loci and RNAs, including nascent RNAs in the process of being transcribed, within individual cells. Great advances in fluorescent dye technology and technique sensitivity, combined with developments in light microscopy and imaging software have made it widely accessible and have expanded the range of applications in basic research as well as in diagnostics. Being able to perform RNA hybridization, DNA hybridization, and protein immunofluorescence consecutively on the same sample is an invaluable tool to study RNA expression in relation to their gene loci and to map RNA and DNA in relation to nuclear or cellular structures. This has contributed to enormous progress in understanding basal mechanisms of male and female meiosis in different animal model systems. In this chapter we describe in detail the protocols for FISH based techniques applied to study gene expression dynamics and nuclear architecture of chicken oocytes during meiotic prophase I. These techniques can be easily performed in any molecular and cell biology laboratory and be adapted to different systems and to different phases of gametogenesis. PMID:27557582

  6. Crystallization of Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, David; Messick, Troy; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2014-01-01

    X-ray crystallography has evolved into a very powerful tool to determine the three-dimensional structure of macromolecules and macromolecular complexes. The major bottleneck in structure determination by X-ray crystallography is the preparation of suitable crystalline samples. This unit outlines steps for the crystallization of a macromolecule, starting with a purified, homogeneous sample. The first protocols describe preparation of the macromolecular sample (i.e., proteins, nucleic acids, and macromolecular complexes). The preparation and assessment of crystallization trials is then described, along with a protocol for confirming whether the crystals obtained are composed of macromolecule as opposed to a crystallization reagent . Next, the optimization of crystallization conditions is presented. Finally, protocols that facilitate the growth of larger crystals through seeding are described. PMID:22045560

  7. How does RNase H recognize a DNA.RNA hybrid?

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Oda, Y; Iwai, S; Inoue, H; Ohtsuka, E; Kanaya, S; Kimura, S; Katsuda, C; Katayanagi, K; Morikawa, K

    1991-12-15

    The mechanism of RNase H substrate recognition is proposed from a model of a chemically modified DNA.RNA hybrid Escherichia coli RNase H complex. Site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme and substrate titration observed by heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR spectra have been carried out. A model complex has been built, based on free structures of the enzyme and the substrate independently determined by x-ray crystallography and NMR distance geometry, respectively. In addition to steric and electrostatic complementarities between the molecular surfaces of the enzyme and the minor groove of the hybrid in the model, putative hydrogen bonds between the polar groups in the enzyme and 2'-oxygens of the RNA strand of the hybrid fix the hybrid close to the active site of the enzyme. The enzymatic activities of the mutant proteins and the changes in NMR spectra during the course of substrate titration are consistent with the present model. Moreover, the specific cleavage of the RNA strand in DNA.RNA hybrids can be explained as well as cleavage modes in modified heteroduplexes. A mechanism of enzymatic action is proposed.

  8. DNA polymerase-α regulates type I interferon activation through cytosolic RNA:DNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Starokadomskyy, Petro; Gemelli, Terry; Rios, Jonathan J.; Xing, Chao; Wang, Richard C.; Li, Haiying; Pokatayev, Vladislav; Dozmorov, Igor; Khan, Shaheen; Miyata, Naoteru; Fraile, Guadalupe; Raj, Prithvi; Xu, Zhe; Xu, Zigang; Ma, Lin; Lin, Zhimiao; Wang, Huijun; Yang, Yong; Ben-Amitai, Dan; Orenstein, Naama; Mussaffi, Huda; Baselga, Eulalia; Tadini, Gianluca; Grunebaum, Eyal; Sarajlija, Adrijan; Krzewski, Konrad; Wakeland, Edward K.; Yan, Nan; de la Morena, Maria Teresa; Zinn, Andrew R.; Burstein, Ezra

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant nucleic acids generated during viral replication are the main trigger for antiviral immunity, and mutations disrupting nucleic acid metabolism can lead to autoinflammatory disorders. Here we investigated the etiology of X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder (XLPDR), a primary immunodeficiency with autoinflammatory features. We discovered that XLPDR is caused by an intronic mutation that disrupts expression of POLA1, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase-α. Unexpectedly, POLA1 deficiency results in increased type I interferon production. This enzyme is necessary for RNA:DNA primer synthesis during DNA replication and strikingly, POLA1 is also required for the synthesis of cytosolic RNA:DNA, which directly modulates interferon activation. Altogether, this work identified POLA1 as a critical regulator of the type I interferon response. PMID:27019227

  9. A DNA target of 30 bp is sufficient for RNA-directed DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Pélissier, T; Wassenegger, M

    2000-01-01

    In higher plants, RNA-DNA interactions can trigger de novo methylation of genomic sequences via a process that is termed RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). In potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd)-infected tobacco plants, this process can potentially lead to methylation of all C residues at symmetrical and nonsymmetrical sites within chromosomal inserts that consist of multimers of the 359-bp-long PSTVd cDNA. Using PSTVd cDNA subfragments, we found that genomic targets with as few as 30 nt of sequence complementarity to the viroid RNA are detected and methylated. Genomic sequencing analyses of genome-integrated 30- and 60-bp-long PSTVd subfragments demonstrated that de novo cytosine methylation is not limited to the canonical CpG, CpNpG sites. Sixty-base-pair-long PSTVd cDNA constructs appeared to be densely methylated in nearly all tobacco leaf cells. With the 30-bp-long PSTVd-specific construct, the proportion of cells displaying dense transgene methylation was significantly reduced, suggesting that a minimal target size of about 30 bp is necessary for RdDM. The methylation patterns observed for two different 60-bp constructs further suggested that the sequence identity of the target may influence the methylation mechanism. Finally, a link between viroid pathogenicity and PSTVd RNA-directed methylation of host sequences is proposed. PMID:10668798

  10. Did the Pre-RNA World Rest Upon DNA Molecules?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazcano, Antonio; Dworkin, Jason P.; Miller, Stanley L.

    2004-01-01

    The isolation of a DNA sequence that catalyzes the ligation of oligodeoxynucleotides via the formation of 3' - 5' phosphodiester linkage significance in selection experiments has been reported. Ball recently used this to discuss the possibility that natural DNA molecules may have formed in the primitive Earth leading to the origin of life. As noted by Ferris and Usher, if metabolic pathways evolved backwards, it could be argued that the biosynthesis of 2-deoxyribose from ribose suggests that RNA came from DNA. As summarized elsewhere, there are several properties of deoxyribose which could be interpreted to support the possibility that DNA-like molecules arose prior to the RNA world. For example, 2-deoxyribose is slightly more soluble than ribose (which may have been an advantage in a drying pool scenario), may have been more reactive under possible prebiotic conditions (it forms a nucleoside approx. 150 times faster than ribose with the alternative base urazole at 25 C), while it decomposes in solution (approximately 2.6 times more slowly than ribose at 100 C). Other advantages of DNA over RNA are that it has one fewer chiral center, has a greater stability at the 8.2 pH value of the current oceans, and does not has the 2'5' and 3'5' ambiguity in polymerizations. Yet, there is strong molecular biological and biochemical evidence that RNA was featured in the biology well before the last common ancestor. The presence of sugar acids, including both ribo- and deoxysugar acids, in the 4.6 Ga old Murchison meteorite suggest that both may have been available in the primitive Earth, derived from the accretion of extraterrestrial sources and/or from endogenous processes involving formaldehyde and its derivatives. However, the abiotic synthesis of deoxyribose, ribose, and other sugars from glyceraldehyde and acetaldehyde under alkaline conditions is inefficient and unespecific. Although sugars are labile compounds, the role of cyanamide or borate minerals in the

  11. Extent of Transcription of Mouse Sarcoma-Leukemia Virus by RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Tavitian, A.; Hamelin, R.; Tchen, P.; Olofsson, B.; Boiron, M.

    1974-01-01

    The DNA product obtained from the endogenous RNA-directed DNA polymerase (deoxynucleosidetriphosphate:DNA deoxynucleotidyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.7) reaction of the Moloney sarcoma:leukemia viruses produced by the 78 A-1 cell line was analyzed and characterized. The extent of transcription of viral 70S RNA was measured by RNA·DNA hybridization (32P-viral RNA-3H product DNA). No double-stranded DNA was obtained. The product consisted of 95-99% single-stranded DNA with an average length of 200 nucleotides. In contrast to the results reported with avian and other RNA oncogenic viruses, it was found that the entire 70S viral RNA genome was transcribed into DNA pieces and that a small excess of the product DNA was sufficient to anneal the 70S RNA and render it totally resistant to single-stranded-specific enzyme digestion. PMID:4132533

  12. Spectrofluorometric determination of DNA and RNA with berberine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Guo-Quan; Zong, Zhi-Xin; Song, Yu-Min

    1999-08-01

    On binding to nucleic acids, the dye berberine increases its fluorescence quantum efficiency by a factor of 25-30. Based on this, an easy, rapid and accurate method for the determination of nucleic acids was developed. Berberine is very like ethidium bromide (EB), but it is non-poisonous. Determination can be made at any pH between 4 and 10, where the native structure of DNA and RNA is not disrupted. The maximum emission is near 520 nm for excitation at 355 or 450 nm. This method has good sensitivity (0.01 μg ml -1 of ctDNA), high selectivity and a wide linear range (0.05-14.0 μg ml -1 of ctDNA).

  13. The RNA World: Life Before DNA and Protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, Gerald F.

    1993-01-01

    All of the life that is known, all organisms that exist on Earth today or are known to have existed on Earth in the past, are of the same life form: a life form based on DNA and protein. It does not necessarily have to be that way. Why not have two competing life forms on this planet? Why not have biology as we know it and some other biology that occupies its own distinct niche? Yet that is not how evolution has played out. From microbes living on the surface of antarctic ice to tube worms lying near the deep-sea hydrothermal vents, all known organisms on this planet are of the same biology. Looking at the single known biology on Earth, it is clear that this biology could not have simply sprung forth from the primordial soup. The biological system that is the basis for all known. life is far too complicated to have arisen spontaneously. This brings us to the notion that something else something simpler, must have preceded life based on DNA and protein. One suggestion that has gained considerable acceptance over the past decade is that DNA and protein-based life was preceded by RNA-based life in a period referred to as the 'RNA world'. Even an RNA-based life form would have been fairly complicated - not as complicated as our own DNA- and protein-based life form - but far too complicated, according to prevailing scientific thinking, to have arisen spontaneously from the primordial soup. Thus, it has been argued that something else must have preceded RNA-based life, or even that there was a succession of life forms leading from the primordial soup to RNA-based life. The experimental evidence to support this conjecture is not strong because, after all, the origin of life was a historical event that left no direct physical record. However, based on indirect evidence in both the geological record and the phylogenetic record of evolutionary history on earth, it is possible to reconstruct a rough picture of what life was like before DNA and protein.

  14. Analysis of macromolecules, ligands and macromolecule-ligand complexes

    DOEpatents

    Von Dreele, Robert B.

    2008-12-23

    A method for determining atomic level structures of macromolecule-ligand complexes through high-resolution powder diffraction analysis and a method for providing suitable microcrystalline powder for diffraction analysis are provided. In one embodiment, powder diffraction data is collected from samples of polycrystalline macromolecule and macromolecule-ligand complex and the refined structure of the macromolecule is used as an approximate model for a combined Rietveld and stereochemical restraint refinement of the macromolecule-ligand complex. A difference Fourier map is calculated and the ligand position and points of interaction between the atoms of the macromolecule and the atoms of the ligand can be deduced and visualized. A suitable polycrystalline sample of macromolecule-ligand complex can be produced by physically agitating a mixture of lyophilized macromolecule, ligand and a solvent.

  15. All-atom crystal simulations of DNA and RNA duplexes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunmei; Janowski, Pawel A.; Case, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Molecular dynamics simulations can complement experimental measures of structure and dynamics of biomolecules. The quality of such simulations can be tested by comparisons to models refined against experimental crystallographic data. Methods We report simulations of a DNA and RNA duplex in their crystalline environment. The calculations mimic the conditions for PDB entries 1D23 [d(CGATCGATCG)2] and 1RNA [(UUAUAUAUAUAUAA)2], and contain 8 unit cells, each with 4 copies of the Watson-Crick duplex; this yields in aggregate 64 µs of duplex sampling for DNA and 16 µs for RNA. Results The duplex structures conform much more closely to the average structure seen in the crystal than do structures extracted from a solution simulation with the same force field. Sequence-dependent variations in helical parameters, and in groove widths, are largely maintained in the crystal structure, but are smoothed out in solution. However, the integrity of the crystal lattice is slowly degraded in both simulations, with the result that the interfaces between chains become heterogeneous. This problem is more severe for the DNA crystal, which has fewer inter-chain hydrogen bond contacts than does the RNA crystal. Conclusions Crystal simulations using current force fields reproduce many features of observed crystal structures, but suffer from a gradual degradation of the integrity of the crystal lattice. General significance The results offer insights into force-field simulations that tests their ability to preserve weak interactions between chains, which will be of importance also in non-crystalline applications that involve binding and recognition. PMID:25255706

  16. A Course on Macromolecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horta, Arturo

    1985-01-01

    Describes a senior-level course that: (1) focuses on the structure and reactions of macromolecules; (2) treats industrial polymers in a unified way; and (3) uses analysis of conformation and conformational statistics as a unifying approach. Also discusses course topics, including polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, and others. (JN)

  17. Maternal Plasma DNA and RNA Sequencing for Prenatal Testing.

    PubMed

    Tamminga, Saskia; van Maarle, Merel; Henneman, Lidewij; Oudejans, Cees B M; Cornel, Martina C; Sistermans, Erik A

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testing has recently become indispensable in diagnostic testing and screening. In the prenatal setting, this type of testing is often called noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). With a number of techniques, using either next-generation sequencing or single nucleotide polymorphism-based approaches, fetal cfDNA in maternal plasma can be analyzed to screen for rhesus D genotype, common chromosomal aneuploidies, and increasingly for testing other conditions, including monogenic disorders. With regard to screening for common aneuploidies, challenges arise when implementing NIPT in current prenatal settings. Depending on the method used (targeted or nontargeted), chromosomal anomalies other than trisomy 21, 18, or 13 can be detected, either of fetal or maternal origin, also referred to as unsolicited or incidental findings. For various biological reasons, there is a small chance of having either a false-positive or false-negative NIPT result, or no result, also referred to as a "no-call." Both pre- and posttest counseling for NIPT should include discussing potential discrepancies. Since NIPT remains a screening test, a positive NIPT result should be confirmed by invasive diagnostic testing (either by chorionic villus biopsy or by amniocentesis). As the scope of NIPT is widening, professional guidelines need to discuss the ethics of what to offer and how to offer. In this review, we discuss the current biochemical, clinical, and ethical challenges of cfDNA testing in the prenatal setting and its future perspectives including novel applications that target RNA instead of DNA.

  18. Maternal Plasma DNA and RNA Sequencing for Prenatal Testing.

    PubMed

    Tamminga, Saskia; van Maarle, Merel; Henneman, Lidewij; Oudejans, Cees B M; Cornel, Martina C; Sistermans, Erik A

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testing has recently become indispensable in diagnostic testing and screening. In the prenatal setting, this type of testing is often called noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). With a number of techniques, using either next-generation sequencing or single nucleotide polymorphism-based approaches, fetal cfDNA in maternal plasma can be analyzed to screen for rhesus D genotype, common chromosomal aneuploidies, and increasingly for testing other conditions, including monogenic disorders. With regard to screening for common aneuploidies, challenges arise when implementing NIPT in current prenatal settings. Depending on the method used (targeted or nontargeted), chromosomal anomalies other than trisomy 21, 18, or 13 can be detected, either of fetal or maternal origin, also referred to as unsolicited or incidental findings. For various biological reasons, there is a small chance of having either a false-positive or false-negative NIPT result, or no result, also referred to as a "no-call." Both pre- and posttest counseling for NIPT should include discussing potential discrepancies. Since NIPT remains a screening test, a positive NIPT result should be confirmed by invasive diagnostic testing (either by chorionic villus biopsy or by amniocentesis). As the scope of NIPT is widening, professional guidelines need to discuss the ethics of what to offer and how to offer. In this review, we discuss the current biochemical, clinical, and ethical challenges of cfDNA testing in the prenatal setting and its future perspectives including novel applications that target RNA instead of DNA. PMID:27117661

  19. DNARNA: What Do Students Think the Arrow Means?

    PubMed Central

    Fisk, J. Nick; Newman, Dina L.

    2014-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology, a model that has remained intact for decades, describes the transfer of genetic information from DNA to protein though an RNA intermediate. While recent work has illustrated many exceptions to the central dogma, it is still a common model used to describe and study the relationship between genes and protein products. We investigated understanding of central dogma concepts and found that students are not primed to think about information when presented with the canonical figure of the central dogma. We also uncovered conceptual errors in student interpretation of the meaning of the transcription arrow in the central dogma representation; 36% of students (n = 128; all undergraduate levels) described transcription as a chemical conversion of DNA into RNA or suggested that RNA existed before the process of transcription began. Interviews confirm that students with weak conceptual understanding of information flow find inappropriate meaning in the canonical representation of central dogma. Therefore, we suggest that use of this representation during instruction can be counterproductive unless educators are explicit about the underlying meaning. PMID:26086664

  20. Synthesis and structural characterization of piperazino-modified DNA that favours hybridization towards DNA over RNA

    PubMed Central

    Skov, Joan; Bryld, Torsten; Lindegaard, Dorthe; Nielsen, Katrine E.; Højland, Torben; Wengel, Jesper; Petersen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We report the synthesis of two C4′-modified DNA analogues and characterize their structural impact on dsDNA duplexes. The 4′-C-piperazinomethyl modification stabilizes dsDNA by up to 5°C per incorporation. Extension of the modification with a butanoyl-linked pyrene increases the dsDNA stabilization to a maximum of 9°C per incorporation. Using fluorescence, ultraviolet and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we show that the stabilization is achieved by pyrene intercalation in the dsDNA duplex. The pyrene moiety is not restricted to one intercalation site but rather switches between multiple sites in intermediate exchange on the NMR timescale, resulting in broad lines in NMR spectra. We identified two intercalation sites with NOE data showing that the pyrene prefers to intercalate one base pair away from the modified nucleotide with its linker curled up in the minor groove. Both modifications are tolerated in DNA:RNA hybrids but leave their melting temperatures virtually unaffected. Fluorescence data indicate that the pyrene moiety is residing outside the helix. The available data suggest that the DNA discrimination is due to (i) the positive charge of the piperazino ring having a greater impact in the narrow and deep minor groove of a B-type dsDNA duplex than in the wide and shallow minor groove of an A-type DNA:RNA hybrid and (ii) the B-type dsDNA duplex allowing the pyrene to intercalate and bury its apolar surface. PMID:21062815

  1. RNA primer used in synthesis of anticomplementary DNA by reverse transcriptase of avian myeloblastosis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, J C; Dobkin, C; Spiegelman, S

    1980-01-01

    When either the homologous RNA (avian myeloblastosis virus RNA) or a heterologous RNA (poliovirus RNA) was used as a template, the anticomplementary DNA synthesized in vitro by avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase (RNA-directed DNA nucleotidyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.7) was primed by fragments of the original RNA template that usually had adenosine at their 3' ends. When we used phage T/ RNA ligase (EC 6.5.1.3) to label the 3' end of the RNA template fragments contained in the RNA . cDNA hybrid intermediate, adenosine was found to be the principal nucleoside carrying the label. We infer from these results that the ribonuclease H (hybrid nuclease) activity of the reverse transcriptase creates fragments of the original RNA template with adenosine as the principal 3' terminus and that these fragments serve as primers for the synthesis of anticomplementary DNA. Images PMID:6154930

  2. Assessing long-distance RNA sequence connectivity via RNA-templated DNA–DNA ligation

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Christian K; Olson, Sara; Graveley, Brenton R; Zamore, Phillip D; Moore, Melissa J

    2015-01-01

    Many RNAs, including pre-mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, can be thousands of nucleotides long and undergo complex post-transcriptional processing. Multiple sites of alternative splicing within a single gene exponentially increase the number of possible spliced isoforms, with most human genes currently estimated to express at least ten. To understand the mechanisms underlying these complex isoform expression patterns, methods are needed that faithfully maintain long-range exon connectivity information in individual RNA molecules. In this study, we describe SeqZip, a methodology that uses RNA-templated DNA–DNA ligation to retain and compress connectivity between distant sequences within single RNA molecules. Using this assay, we test proposed coordination between distant sites of alternative exon utilization in mouse Fn1, and we characterize the extraordinary exon diversity of Drosophila melanogaster Dscam1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03700.001 PMID:25866926

  3. Structural analysis of hepatitis C RNA genome using DNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Martell, María; Briones, Carlos; de Vicente, Aránzazu; Piron, María; Esteban, Juan I.; Esteban, Rafael; Guardia, Jaime; Gómez, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    Many studies have tried to identify specific nucleotide sequences in the quasispecies of hepatitis C virus (HCV) that determine resistance or sensitivity to interferon (IFN) therapy, unfortunately without conclusive results. Although viral proteins represent the most evident phenotype of the virus, genomic RNA sequences determine secondary and tertiary structures which are also part of the viral phenotype and can be involved in important biological roles. In this work, a method of RNA structure analysis has been developed based on the hybridization of labelled HCV transcripts to microarrays of complementary DNA oligonucleotides. Hybridizations were carried out at non-denaturing conditions, using appropriate temperature and buffer composition to allow binding to the immobilized probes of the RNA transcript without disturbing its secondary/tertiary structural motifs. Oligonucleotides printed onto the microarray covered the entire 5′ non-coding region (5′NCR), the first three-quarters of the core region, the E2–NS2 junction and the first 400 nt of the NS3 region. We document the use of this methodology to analyse the structural degree of a large region of HCV genomic RNA in two genotypes associated with different responses to IFN treatment. The results reported here show different structural degree along the genome regions analysed, and differential hybridization patterns for distinct genotypes in NS2 and NS3 HCV regions. PMID:15247323

  4. The contribution of co-transcriptional RNA:DNA hybrid structures to DNA damage and genome instability

    PubMed Central

    Hamperl, Stephan; Cimprich, Karlene A.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate DNA replication and DNA repair are crucial for the maintenance of genome stability, and it is generally accepted that failure of these processes is a major source of DNA damage in cells. Intriguingly, recent evidence suggests that DNA damage is more likely to occur at genomic loci with high transcriptional activity. Furthermore, loss of certain RNA processing factors in eukaryotic cells is associated with increased formation of co-transcriptional RNA:DNA hybrid structures known as R-loops, resulting in double-strand breaks (DSBs) and DNA damage. However, the molecular mechanisms by which R-loop structures ultimately lead to DNA breaks and genome instability is not well understood. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the formation, recognition and processing of RNA:DNA hybrids, and discuss possible mechanisms by which these structures contribute to DNA damage and genome instability in the cell. PMID:24746923

  5. Rates of Chemical Cleavage of DNA and RNA Oligomers Containing Guanine Oxidation Products

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The nucleobase guanine in DNA (dG) and RNA (rG) has the lowest standard reduction potential of the bases, rendering it a major site of oxidative damage in these polymers. Mapping the sites at which oxidation occurs in an oligomer via chemical reagents utilizes hot piperidine for cleaving oxidized DNA and aniline (pH 4.5) for cleaving oxidized RNA. In the present studies, a series of time-dependent cleavages of DNA and RNA strands containing various guanine lesions were examined to determine the strand scission rate constants. The guanine base lesions 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG), spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), 5-guanidinohydantoin (Gh), 2,2,4-triamino-2H-oxazol-5-one (Z), and 5-carboxamido-5-formamido-2-iminohydantoin (2Ih) were evaluated in piperidine-treated DNA and aniline-treated RNA. These data identified wide variability in the chemical lability of the lesions studied in both DNA and RNA. Further, the rate constants for cleaving lesions in RNA were generally found to be significantly smaller than for lesions in DNA. The OG nucleotides were poorly cleaved in DNA and RNA; Sp nucleotides were slowly cleaved in DNA and did not cleave significantly in RNA; Gh and Z nucleotides cleaved in both DNA and RNA at intermediate rates; and 2Ih oligonucleotides cleaved relatively quickly in both DNA and RNA. The data are compared and contrasted with respect to future experimental design. PMID:25853314

  6. Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Detection of mRNA Using Branched DNA Amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Xun; Liu, Guodong; Wang, Shengfu; Lin, Yuehe; Zhang, Aiguo; Zhang, Lurong; Ma, Yunqing

    2008-11-01

    We describe here an ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of m RNA protocol without RNA purification and PCR amplification. The new m RNA electrical detection capability is coupled to the amplification feature of branched DNA (bDNA) technology and with the nagnetic beads based electrochemical bioassay.

  7. Human age estimation from blood using mRNA, DNA methylation, DNA rearrangement, and telomere length.

    PubMed

    Zubakov, Dmitry; Liu, Fan; Kokmeijer, Iris; Choi, Ying; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Broer, Linda; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Lewin, Jörn; Kayser, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    Establishing the age of unknown persons, or persons with unknown age, can provide important leads in police investigations, disaster victim identification, fraud cases, and in other legal affairs. Previous methods mostly relied on morphological features available from teeth or skeletal parts. The development of molecular methods for age estimation allowing to use human specimens that possess no morphological age information, such as bloodstains, is extremely valuable as this type of samples is commonly found at crime scenes. Recently, we introduced a DNA-based approach for human age estimation from blood based on the quantification of T-cell specific DNA rearrangements (sjTRECs), which achieves accurate assignment of blood DNA samples to one of four 20-year-interval age categories. Aiming at improving the accuracy of molecular age estimation from blood, we investigated different types of biomarkers. We started out by systematic genome-wide surveys for new age-informative mRNA and DNA methylation markers in blood from the same young and old individuals using microarray technologies. The obtained candidate markers were validated in independent samples covering a wide age range using alternative technologies together with previously proposed DNA methylation, sjTREC, and telomere length markers. Cross-validated multiple regression analysis was applied for estimating and validating the age predictive power of various sets of biomarkers within and across different marker types. We found that DNA methylation markers outperformed mRNA, sjTREC, and telomere length in age predictive power. The best performing model included 8 DNA methylation markers derived from 3 CpG islands reaching a high level of accuracy (cross-validated R(2)=0.88, SE±6.97 years, mean absolute deviation 5.07 years). However, our data also suggest that mRNA markers can provide independent age information: a model using a combined set of 5 DNA methylation markers and one mRNA marker could provide

  8. Human age estimation from blood using mRNA, DNA methylation, DNA rearrangement, and telomere length.

    PubMed

    Zubakov, Dmitry; Liu, Fan; Kokmeijer, Iris; Choi, Ying; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Broer, Linda; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Lewin, Jörn; Kayser, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    Establishing the age of unknown persons, or persons with unknown age, can provide important leads in police investigations, disaster victim identification, fraud cases, and in other legal affairs. Previous methods mostly relied on morphological features available from teeth or skeletal parts. The development of molecular methods for age estimation allowing to use human specimens that possess no morphological age information, such as bloodstains, is extremely valuable as this type of samples is commonly found at crime scenes. Recently, we introduced a DNA-based approach for human age estimation from blood based on the quantification of T-cell specific DNA rearrangements (sjTRECs), which achieves accurate assignment of blood DNA samples to one of four 20-year-interval age categories. Aiming at improving the accuracy of molecular age estimation from blood, we investigated different types of biomarkers. We started out by systematic genome-wide surveys for new age-informative mRNA and DNA methylation markers in blood from the same young and old individuals using microarray technologies. The obtained candidate markers were validated in independent samples covering a wide age range using alternative technologies together with previously proposed DNA methylation, sjTREC, and telomere length markers. Cross-validated multiple regression analysis was applied for estimating and validating the age predictive power of various sets of biomarkers within and across different marker types. We found that DNA methylation markers outperformed mRNA, sjTREC, and telomere length in age predictive power. The best performing model included 8 DNA methylation markers derived from 3 CpG islands reaching a high level of accuracy (cross-validated R(2)=0.88, SE±6.97 years, mean absolute deviation 5.07 years). However, our data also suggest that mRNA markers can provide independent age information: a model using a combined set of 5 DNA methylation markers and one mRNA marker could provide

  9. Nucleocytoplasmic transport of macromolecules.

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, A H; Silver, P A

    1997-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic transport is a complex process that consists of the movement of numerous macromolecules back and forth across the nuclear envelope. All macromolecules that move in and out of the nucleus do so via nuclear pore complexes that form large proteinaceous channels in the nuclear envelope. In addition to nuclear pores, nuclear transport of macromolecules requires a number of soluble factors that are found both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. A combination of biochemical, genetic, and cell biological approaches have been used to identify and characterize the various components of the nuclear transport machinery. Recent studies have shown that both import to and export from the nucleus are mediated by signals found within the transport substrates. Several studies have demonstrated that these signals are recognized by soluble factors that target these substrates to the nuclear pore. Once substrates have been directed to the pore, most transport events depend on a cycle of GTP hydrolysis mediated by the small Ras-like GTPase, Ran, as well as other proteins that regulate the guanine nucleotide-bound state of Ran. Many of the essential factors have been identified, and the challenge that remains is to determine the exact mechanism by which transport occurs. This review attempts to present an integrated view of our current understanding of nuclear transport while highlighting the contributions that have been made through studies with genetic organisms such as the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:9184010

  10. Triplex DNA:RNA, 3'-to-5' inverted RNA and protein coding in mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2013-09-01

    Triple-stranded DNA:RNA helices of unknown function in vertebrate mitochondria associate with replication and transcription. Antiparallel Hoogsteen pairings form triplexes at physiological conditions. Intermolecular antiparallel triplexes require inverted 3'-to-5' RNA polymerization, which was never observed. Three rare, long natural 3'-to-5' inverted GenBank RNAs from mice mitochondria suggest occasional inverted transcription, putatively coding for proteins. BLAST aligns 18 GenBank-stored proteins with hypothetical proteins translated from the 3'-to-5' inverted Mus musculus mitochondrial genome. Three are DNA-binding, five are membrane proteins. 25% of main frame codons contribute to their 3'-to-5' overlap coding. Properties of these codons match those of overlap coding protein genes, as compared to codons not expected involved in inverted coding: a) nucleotide contents at synonymous codon positions in mitochondrial genomes fit replicational deamination gradients (A->G and C->T), but digress from gradients when functioning as nonsynonymous positions in putative 3'-to-5' overlapping genes; b) bias against 'circular code' codons (codon groups creating unambiguity between frames), and favouring homogenous codons (AAA, CCC, GGG, TTT) characterize overlapping genes, including putative 3'-to-5' overlapping genes, as compared to nonoverlapping coding sequences from the same main frame gene. This signature correlates with digression from deamination gradients. Deamination and circular code tests confirm independently alignment-based predictions of overlapping 3'-to-5' protein coding genes. Results indicate varying expression for different 3'-to-5' overlapping genes. Inverted 3'-to-5' RNA is produced, perhaps by an unknown RNA polymerase (invertase) putatively coded by 3'-to-5' inverted RNA. PMID:23841652

  11. Double-Stranded RNA Is Detected by Immunofluorescence Analysis in RNA and DNA Virus Infections, Including Those by Negative-Stranded RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Son, Kyung-No; Liang, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Early biochemical studies of viral replication suggested that most viruses produce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which is essential for the induction of the host immune response. However, it was reported in 2006 that dsRNA could be detected by immunofluorescence antibody staining in double-stranded DNA and positive-strand RNA virus infections but not in negative-strand RNA virus infections. Other reports in the literature seemed to support these observations. This suggested that negative-strand RNA viruses produce little, if any, dsRNA or that more efficient viral countermeasures to mask dsRNA are mounted. Because of our interest in the use of dsRNA antibodies for virus discovery, particularly in pathological specimens, we wanted to determine how universal immunostaining for dsRNA might be in animal virus infections. We have detected the in situ formation of dsRNA in cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus, measles virus, influenza A virus, and Nyamanini virus, which represent viruses from different negative-strand RNA virus families. dsRNA was also detected in cells infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, an ambisense RNA virus, and minute virus of mice (MVM), a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) parvovirus, but not hepatitis B virus. Although dsRNA staining was primarily observed in the cytoplasm, it was also seen in the nucleus of cells infected with influenza A virus, Nyamanini virus, and MVM. Thus, it is likely that most animal virus infections produce dsRNA species that can be detected by immunofluorescence staining. The apoptosis induced in several uninfected cell lines failed to upregulate dsRNA formation. IMPORTANCE An effective antiviral host immune response depends on recognition of viral invasion and an intact innate immune system as a first line of defense. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a viral product essential for the induction of innate immunity, leading to the production of type I interferons (IFNs) and the activation of hundreds

  12. A Case Study of the Likes and Dislikes of DNA and RNA in Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Hua; Wu, Siyu; Li, Mo; Li, Yulin; Jiang, Wen; Mao, Chengde

    2015-12-01

    Programmed self-assembly of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) is an active research area as it promises a general approach for nanoconstruction. Whereas DNA self-assembly has been extensively studied, RNA self-assembly lags much behind. One strategy to boost RNA self-assembly is to adapt the methods of DNA self-assembly for RNA self-assembly because of the chemical and structural similarities of DNA and RNA. However, these two types of molecules are still significantly different. To enable the rational design of RNA self-assembly, a thorough examination of their likes and dislikes in programmed self-assembly is needed. The current work begins to address this task. It was found that similar, two-stranded motifs of RNA and DNA lead to similar, but clearly different nanostructures.

  13. Oncogenes in human testicular cancer: DNA and RNA studies.

    PubMed Central

    Peltomäki, P.; Alfthan, O.; de la Chapelle, A.

    1991-01-01

    Oncogene dosage and expression were studied in 16 testicular neoplasms, 14 of germ cell and two of non-germ cell origin. In comparison with normal DNA, tumour DNA of a total of eight patients (seven with germ cell neoplasm and one with testicular lymphoma) showed increased dosages of KRAS2, PDGFA, EGFR, MET and PDGFB. The most frequent (occurring in six tumours) and prominent (up to 3-4-fold) increases were detected in the dosages of KRAS2 (on chromosome 12p) and PDGFA (chromosome 7p), relative to a reference locus from chromosome 2. Importantly, there was a similar increase in 12p dosage in general in these tumours, suggesting the presence of the characteristic isochromosome 12p marker. On the contrary, possible 7p polysomy (assessed by molecular methods) did not explain the PDGFA (or EGFR) changes in all cases. NRAS, MYCN, CSFIR, MYB, MYC, ABL, HRASI, TP53, and ERBB2 did not reveal any consistent alterations in tumour DNA. In RNA dot blot assays the expression of KRAS2, PDGFA, EGFR, or MYC was generally not increased in the tumour samples when compared to that in normal testicular tissue of the same patients although there was interindividual variation in mRNA levels. It thus appears that while oncogene dosage changes occur in a proportion of testis cancers, they are often part of changes in large chromosomal regions or whole arms and are seldom accompanied by altered expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1829952

  14. Association of the Adenovirus DNA-Binding Protein with RNA Both in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleghon, Vaughn G.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    1986-12-01

    The multifunctional DNA-binding protein (DBP) encoded by human adenovirus binds RNA. The association of purified DBP with RNA in vitro was demonstrated by using either a gel filtration or a filter binding assay. This association is sensitive to ionic strength and exhibits no apparent sequence specificity. DBP also interacts with RNA in vivo; it can be crosslinked to polyadenylylated RNA by UV-irradiation of intact cells during the late phase of adenovirus infections. The 46-kDa carboxyl-terminal domain of DBP binds RNA in vitro and was found to be associated with polyadenylylated RNA in vivo. This is the same domain that interacts with DNA. However, the differences in sensitivity of DBP to trypsin when bound to RNA versus DNA suggest that RNA and DNA either bind at different sites within this domain or induce different conformational changes within the protein.

  15. Oligonucleotide-based systems: DNA, microRNAs, DNA/RNA aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Pawan; Estrela, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    There are an increasing number of applications that have been developed for oligonucleotide-based biosensing systems in genetics and biomedicine. Oligonucleotide-based biosensors are those where the probe to capture the analyte is a strand of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA) or a synthetic analogue of naturally occurring nucleic acids. This review will shed light on various types of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA (particularly microRNAs), their role and their application in biosensing. It will also cover DNA/RNA aptamers, which can be used as bioreceptors for a wide range of targets such as proteins, small molecules, bacteria and even cells. It will also highlight how the invention of synthetic oligonucleotides such as peptide nucleic acid (PNA) or locked nucleic acid (LNA) has pushed the limits of molecular biology and biosensor development to new perspectives. These technologies are very promising albeit still in need of development in order to bridge the gap between the laboratory-based status and the reality of biomedical applications. PMID:27365033

  16. Oligonucleotide-based systems: DNA, microRNAs, DNA/RNA aptamers.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Pawan; Estrela, Pedro; Ladomery, Michael

    2016-06-30

    There are an increasing number of applications that have been developed for oligonucleotide-based biosensing systems in genetics and biomedicine. Oligonucleotide-based biosensors are those where the probe to capture the analyte is a strand of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA) or a synthetic analogue of naturally occurring nucleic acids. This review will shed light on various types of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA (particularly microRNAs), their role and their application in biosensing. It will also cover DNA/RNA aptamers, which can be used as bioreceptors for a wide range of targets such as proteins, small molecules, bacteria and even cells. It will also highlight how the invention of synthetic oligonucleotides such as peptide nucleic acid (PNA) or locked nucleic acid (LNA) has pushed the limits of molecular biology and biosensor development to new perspectives. These technologies are very promising albeit still in need of development in order to bridge the gap between the laboratory-based status and the reality of biomedical applications. PMID:27365033

  17. Regulatory mechanisms of RNA function: emerging roles of DNA repair enzymes.

    PubMed

    Jobert, Laure; Nilsen, Hilde

    2014-07-01

    The acquisition of an appropriate set of chemical modifications is required in order to establish correct structure of RNA molecules, and essential for their function. Modification of RNA bases affects RNA maturation, RNA processing, RNA quality control, and protein translation. Some RNA modifications are directly involved in the regulation of these processes. RNA epigenetics is emerging as a mechanism to achieve dynamic regulation of RNA function. Other modifications may prevent or be a signal for degradation. All types of RNA species are subject to processing or degradation, and numerous cellular mechanisms are involved. Unexpectedly, several studies during the last decade have established a connection between DNA and RNA surveillance mechanisms in eukaryotes. Several proteins that respond to DNA damage, either to process or to signal the presence of damaged DNA, have been shown to participate in RNA quality control, turnover or processing. Some enzymes that repair DNA damage may also process modified RNA substrates. In this review, we give an overview of the DNA repair proteins that function in RNA metabolism. We also discuss the roles of two base excision repair enzymes, SMUG1 and APE1, in RNA quality control.

  18. Templated Formation of Discrete RNA and DNA:RNA Hybrid G-Quadruplexes and Their Interactions with Targeting Ligands.

    PubMed

    Bonnat, Laureen; Dejeu, Jérôme; Bonnet, Hugues; Génnaro, Béatrice; Jarjayes, Olivier; Thomas, Fabrice; Lavergne, Thomas; Defrancq, Eric

    2016-02-24

    G-rich RNA and DNA oligonucleotides derived from the human telomeric sequence were assembled onto addressable cyclopeptide platforms through oxime ligations and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAc) reactions. The resulting conjugates were able to fold into highly stable RNA and DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex (G4) architectures as demonstrated by UV, circular dichroism (CD), and NMR spectroscopic analysis. Whereas rationally designed parallel RNA and DNA:RNA hybrid G4 topologies could be obtained, we could not force the formation of an antiparallel RNA G4 structure, thus supporting the idea that this topology is strongly disfavored. The binding affinities of four representative G4 ligands toward the discrete RNA and DNA:RNA hybrid G4 topologies were compared to the one obtained with the corresponding DNA G4 structure. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding analysis suggests that the accessibility to G4 recognition elements is different among the three structures and supports the idea that G4 ligands might be shaped to achieve structure selectivity in a biological context.

  19. Decoding DNA, RNA and peptides with quantum tunnelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Ventra, Massimiliano; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2016-02-01

    Drugs and treatments could be precisely tailored to an individual patient by extracting their cellular- and molecular-level information. For this approach to be feasible on a global scale, however, information on complete genomes (DNA), transcriptomes (RNA) and proteomes (all proteins) needs to be obtained quickly and at low cost. Quantum mechanical phenomena could potentially be of value here, because the biological information needs to be decoded at an atomic level and quantum tunnelling has recently been shown to be able to differentiate single nucleobases and amino acids in short sequences. Here, we review the different approaches to using quantum tunnelling for sequencing, highlighting the theoretical background to the method and the experimental capabilities demonstrated to date. We also explore the potential advantages of the approach and the technical challenges that must be addressed to deliver practical quantum sequencing devices.

  20. DNA Bending and Wrapping around RNA Polymerase: a “Revolutionary” Model Describing Transcriptional Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Coulombe, Benoit; Burton, Zachary F.

    1999-01-01

    A model is proposed in which bending and wrapping of DNA around RNA polymerase causes untwisting of the DNA helix at the RNA polymerase catalytic center to stimulate strand separation prior to initiation. During elongation, DNA bending through the RNA polymerase active site is proposed to lower the energetic barrier to the advance of the transcription bubble. Recent experiments with mammalian RNA polymerase II along with accumulating evidence from studies of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase indicate the importance of DNA bending and wrapping in transcriptional mechanisms. The DNA-wrapping model describes specific roles for general RNA polymerase II transcription factors (TATA-binding protein [TBP], TFIIB, TFIIF, TFIIE, and TFIIH), provides a plausible explanation for preinitiation complex isomerization, suggests mechanisms underlying the synergy between transcriptional activators, and suggests an unforseen role for TBP-associating factors in transcription. PMID:10357858

  1. DNA interrogation by the CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Samuel H.; Redding, Sy; Jinek, Martin; Greene, Eric C.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2014-03-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated enzyme Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that uses RNA-DNA base-pairing to target foreign DNA in bacteria. Cas9-guide RNA complexes are also effective genome engineering agents in animals and plants. Here we use single-molecule and bulk biochemical experiments to determine how Cas9-RNA interrogates DNA to find specific cleavage sites. We show that both binding and cleavage of DNA by Cas9-RNA require recognition of a short trinucleotide protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). Non-target DNA binding affinity scales with PAM density, and sequences fully complementary to the guide RNA but lacking a nearby PAM are ignored by Cas9-RNA. Competition assays provide evidence that DNA strand separation and RNA-DNA heteroduplex formation initiate at the PAM and proceed directionally towards the distal end of the target sequence. Furthermore, PAM interactions trigger Cas9 catalytic activity. These results reveal how Cas9 uses PAM recognition to quickly identify potential target sites while scanning large DNA molecules, and to regulate scission of double-stranded DNA.

  2. DNA interrogation by the CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Samuel H.; Redding, Sy; Jinek, Martin; Greene, Eric C.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR-associated enzyme Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that uses RNA:DNA base-pairing to target foreign DNA in bacteria. Cas9:guide RNA complexes are also effective genome engineering agents in animals and plants. Here we use single-molecule and bulk biochemical experiments to determine how Cas9:RNA interrogates DNA to find specific cleavage sites. We show that both binding and cleavage of DNA by Cas9:RNA require recognition of a short trinucleotide protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). Non-target DNA binding affinity scales with PAM density, and sequences fully complementary to the guide RNA but lacking a nearby PAM are ignored by Cas9:RNA. DNA strand separation and RNA:DNA heteroduplex formation initiate at the PAM and proceed directionally towards the distal end of the target sequence. Furthermore, PAM interactions trigger Cas9 catalytic activity. These results reveal how Cas9 employs PAM recognition to quickly identify potential target sites while scanning large DNA molecules, and to regulate dsDNA scission. PMID:24476820

  3. A novel non-coding RNA lncRNA-JADE connects DNA damage signalling to histone H4 acetylation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Guohui; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Yunhua; Han, Cecil; Sood, Anil K; Calin, George A; Zhang, Xinna; Lu, Xiongbin

    2013-10-30

    A prompt and efficient DNA damage response (DDR) eliminates the detrimental effects of DNA lesions in eukaryotic cells. Basic and preclinical studies suggest that the DDR is one of the primary anti-cancer barriers during tumorigenesis. The DDR involves a complex network of processes that detect and repair DNA damage, in which long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new class of regulatory RNAs, may play an important role. In the current study, we identified a novel lncRNA, lncRNA-JADE, that is induced after DNA damage in an ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent manner. LncRNA-JADE transcriptionally activates Jade1, a key component in the HBO1 (human acetylase binding to ORC1) histone acetylation complex. Consequently, lncRNA-JADE induces histone H4 acetylation in the DDR. Markedly higher levels of lncRNA-JADE were observed in human breast tumours in comparison with normal breast tissues. Knockdown of lncRNA-JADE significantly inhibited breast tumour growth in vivo. On the basis of these results, we propose that lncRNA-JADE is a key functional link that connects the DDR to histone H4 acetylation, and that dysregulation of lncRNA-JADE may contribute to breast tumorigenesis.

  4. A novel non-coding RNA lncRNA-JADE connects DNA damage signalling to histone H4 acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Guohui; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Yunhua; Han, Cecil; Sood, Anil K; Calin, George A; Zhang, Xinna; Lu, Xiongbin

    2013-01-01

    A prompt and efficient DNA damage response (DDR) eliminates the detrimental effects of DNA lesions in eukaryotic cells. Basic and preclinical studies suggest that the DDR is one of the primary anti-cancer barriers during tumorigenesis. The DDR involves a complex network of processes that detect and repair DNA damage, in which long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new class of regulatory RNAs, may play an important role. In the current study, we identified a novel lncRNA, lncRNA-JADE, that is induced after DNA damage in an ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent manner. LncRNA-JADE transcriptionally activates Jade1, a key component in the HBO1 (human acetylase binding to ORC1) histone acetylation complex. Consequently, lncRNA-JADE induces histone H4 acetylation in the DDR. Markedly higher levels of lncRNA-JADE were observed in human breast tumours in comparison with normal breast tissues. Knockdown of lncRNA-JADE significantly inhibited breast tumour growth in vivo. On the basis of these results, we propose that lncRNA-JADE is a key functional link that connects the DDR to histone H4 acetylation, and that dysregulation of lncRNA-JADE may contribute to breast tumorigenesis. PMID:24097061

  5. Use of Unamplified RNA/cDNA-Hybrid Nanopore Sequencing for Rapid Detection and Characterization of RNA Viruses.

    PubMed

    Kilianski, Andy; Roth, Pierce A; Liem, Alvin T; Hill, Jessica M; Willis, Kristen L; Rossmaier, Rebecca D; Marinich, Andrew V; Maughan, Michele N; Karavis, Mark A; Kuhn, Jens H; Honko, Anna N; Rosenzweig, C Nicole

    2016-08-01

    Nanopore sequencing, a novel genomics technology, has potential applications for routine biosurveillance, clinical diagnosis, and outbreak investigation of virus infections. Using rapid sequencing of unamplified RNA/cDNA hybrids, we identified Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and Ebola virus in 3 hours from sample receipt to data acquisition, demonstrating a fieldable technique for RNA virus characterization. PMID:27191483

  6. RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity of RNA tumor virus. VI. Processive mode of action of avian myeloblastosis virus polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Leis, J P

    1976-01-01

    Purified avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) polymerase consisting of alpha,beta subunits has been shown to act processively in catalyzing DNA synthesis primed with 34S AMV RNA oligo(dT), poly(A)-poly(dT), and poly(I)-poly(dC). DNA transcripts prepared with 34S AMV RNA-oligo(dT)14 and AMV polymerase (alphabeta) have been shown to have a molecular weight of 1.05 X 10(6), or approximately one-third the size of the 34S RNA genome. Polymerase subunit alpha acts nonprocessively with the above templates. PMID:61286

  7. Extraction and fractionation of RNA and DNA from single cells using selective lysing and isotachophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintaku, Hirofumi; Santiago, Juan G.

    2015-03-01

    Single cell analyses of RNA and DNA are crucial to understanding the heterogeneity of cell populations. The numbers of approaches to single cells analyses are expanding, but sequence specific measurements of nucleic acids have been mostly limited to studies of either DNA or RNA, and not both. This remains a challenge as RNA and DNA have very similar physical and biochemical properties, and cross-contamination with each other can introduce false positive results. We present an electrokinetic technique which creates the opportunity to fractionate and deliver cytoplasmic RNA and genomic DNA to independent downstream analyses. Our technique uses an on-chip system that enables selective lysing of cytoplasmic membrane, extraction of RNA (away from genomic DNA and nucleus), focusing, absolute quantification of cytoplasmic RNA mass. The absolute RNA mass quantification is performed using fluorescence observation without enzymatic amplification in < 5 min. The cell nucleus is left intact and the relative genomic DNA amount in the nucleus can be measured. We demonstrate the technique using single mouse B lymphocyte cells, for which we extracted an average of 14.1 pg total cytoplasmic RNA per cell. We also demonstrate correlation analysis between the absolute amount of cytoplasmic RNA and relative amount of genomic DNA, showing heterogeneity associated with cell cycle.

  8. Genome-Wide Profiling of Yeast DNA:RNA Hybrid Prone Sites with DRIP-Chip

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Phoebe Y. T.; Luo, Zongli; Hamza, Akil; Kobor, Michael S.; Stirling, Peter C.; Hieter, Philip

    2014-01-01

    DNA:RNA hybrid formation is emerging as a significant cause of genome instability in biological systems ranging from bacteria to mammals. Here we describe the genome-wide distribution of DNA:RNA hybrid prone loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by DNA:RNA immunoprecipitation (DRIP) followed by hybridization on tiling microarray. These profiles show that DNA:RNA hybrids preferentially accumulated at rDNA, Ty1 and Ty2 transposons, telomeric repeat regions and a subset of open reading frames (ORFs). The latter are generally highly transcribed and have high GC content. Interestingly, significant DNA:RNA hybrid enrichment was also detected at genes associated with antisense transcripts. The expression of antisense-associated genes was also significantly altered upon overexpression of RNase H, which degrades the RNA in hybrids. Finally, we uncover mutant-specific differences in the DRIP profiles of a Sen1 helicase mutant, RNase H deletion mutant and Hpr1 THO complex mutant compared to wild type, suggesting different roles for these proteins in DNA:RNA hybrid biology. Our profiles of DNA:RNA hybrid prone loci provide a resource for understanding the properties of hybrid-forming regions in vivo, extend our knowledge of hybrid-mitigating enzymes, and contribute to models of antisense-mediated gene regulation. A summary of this paper was presented at the 26th International Conference on Yeast Genetics and Molecular Biology, August 2013. PMID:24743342

  9. Genome-wide profiling of yeast DNA:RNA hybrid prone sites with DRIP-chip.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yujia A; Aristizabal, Maria J; Lu, Phoebe Y T; Luo, Zongli; Hamza, Akil; Kobor, Michael S; Stirling, Peter C; Hieter, Philip

    2014-04-01

    DNA:RNA hybrid formation is emerging as a significant cause of genome instability in biological systems ranging from bacteria to mammals. Here we describe the genome-wide distribution of DNA:RNA hybrid prone loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by DNA:RNA immunoprecipitation (DRIP) followed by hybridization on tiling microarray. These profiles show that DNA:RNA hybrids preferentially accumulated at rDNA, Ty1 and Ty2 transposons, telomeric repeat regions and a subset of open reading frames (ORFs). The latter are generally highly transcribed and have high GC content. Interestingly, significant DNA:RNA hybrid enrichment was also detected at genes associated with antisense transcripts. The expression of antisense-associated genes was also significantly altered upon overexpression of RNase H, which degrades the RNA in hybrids. Finally, we uncover mutant-specific differences in the DRIP profiles of a Sen1 helicase mutant, RNase H deletion mutant and Hpr1 THO complex mutant compared to wild type, suggesting different roles for these proteins in DNA:RNA hybrid biology. Our profiles of DNA:RNA hybrid prone loci provide a resource for understanding the properties of hybrid-forming regions in vivo, extend our knowledge of hybrid-mitigating enzymes, and contribute to models of antisense-mediated gene regulation. A summary of this paper was presented at the 26th International Conference on Yeast Genetics and Molecular Biology, August 2013. PMID:24743342

  10. 4'-Epi-DNA: A DNA Mimic Containing 4'-hydroxymethyl-α-l-Xylo-Thymidine with Compact Backbone like RNA.

    PubMed

    Bagmare, Seema; Puranik, Vedavati G; Fernandes, Moneesha; Kumar, Vaijayanti A

    2016-09-01

    Synthesis of C4'-epi-DNA containing 3'→ 5″ linkages is reported for the first time. Crystal structure study of the monomer indicated that though the dihedral angle O3'-C3'-C4'-C5″ in this case would be like in RNA, the sugar conformation would remain like that in DNA. The study of the effect of this backbone configuration in DNA with respect to its binding to cDNA and RNA is reported in this note. PMID:27556783

  11. Molecular structure of r/GCG/d/TATACGC/ - A DNA-RNA hybrid helix joined to double helical DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, A. H.-J.; Fujii, S.; Rich, A.; Van Boom, J. H.; Van Der Marel, G. A.; Van Boeckel, S. A. A.

    1982-01-01

    The molecule r(GCG)d(TATACGC) is self-complementary and forms two DNA-RNA hybrid segments surrounding a central region of double helical DNA; its molecular structure has been solved by X-ray analysis. All three parts of the molecule adopt a conformation which is close to that seen in the 11-fold RNA double helix. The conformation of the ribonucleotides is partly determined by water molecules bridging between the ribose O2' hydroxyl group and cytosine O2. The hybrid-DNA duplex junction contains no structural discontinuities. However, the central DNA TATA sequence has some structural irregularities.

  12. The Roads to and from the RNA World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, Jason P.; Lazcano, Antonio; Miller, Stanley L.

    2003-01-01

    The historical existence of the RNA world, in which early life used RNA for both genetic information and catalytic ability, is widely accepted. However, there has been little discussion of whether protein synthesis arose before DNA or what preceded the RNA world (i.e. the pre-RNA world). We outline arguments of what route life may have taken out of the RNA world: whether DNA or protein followed. The metabolic arguments favor the possibility that RNA genomes preceded the use of DNA as the informational macromolecule. However, the opposite can also be argued based on the enhanced stability, reactivity, and solubility of 2-deoxyribose as compared to ribose. The possibility that DNA may have come before RNA is discussed, although it is a less parsimonious explanation than DNA following RNA.

  13. Specific binding of tryptophan transfer RNA to avian myeloblastosis virus RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase).

    PubMed Central

    Panet, A; Haseltine, W A; Baltimore, D; Peters, G; Harada, F; Dahlberg, J E

    1975-01-01

    The ability of tryptophan tRNA (tRNATrp) to initiate reverse transcription of the 70S RNA of avian RNA tumor viruses suggested that the reverse transcriptase (RNA-dependent DNA polymerase; deoxynucleosidetriphosphate: DNA deoxynucleotidyltransferase; EC 2.7.7.7) might have a specific binding site for the tRNA. A complex of tRNATrp and the avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase has been demonstrated using chromatography on Sephadex G-100 columns. Of all the chicken tRNAs, only tRNATrp and a tRNA4Met bind to the enzyme with high enough affinity to be selected from a mixture of the chicken cell tRNAs. The ability of tRNATrp to change the sedimentation rate of the enzyme indicates that tRNATrp is not binding to a contaminant in the enzyme preparation. Treatment of the enzyme with monospecific antibody to reverse transcriptase prevented binding of tRNA as well as inhibited the DNA polymerase activity of the enzyme. The ability of reverse transcriptase to utilize tRNATrp aa a primer for DNA synthesis, therefore, appears to involve a highly specific site on the enzyme. Images PMID:52156

  14. Simultaneous isolation of high-quality DNA, RNA, miRNA and proteins from tissues for genomic applications

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Brugarolas, James

    2014-01-01

    Genomic technologies have revolutionized our understanding of complex Mendelian diseases and cancer. Solid tumors present several challenges for genomic analyses, such as tumor heterogeneity and tumor contamination with surrounding stroma and infiltrating lymphocytes. We developed a protocol to (i) select tissues of high cellular purity on the basis of histological analyses of immediately flanking sections and (ii) simultaneously extract genomic DNA (gDNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), noncoding RNA (ncRNA; enriched in microRNA (miRNA)) and protein from the same tissues. After tissue selection, about 12–16 extractions of DNA/RNA/protein can be obtained per day. Compared with other similar approaches, this fast and reliable methodology allowed us to identify mutations in tumors with remarkable sensitivity and to perform integrative analyses of whole-genome and exome data sets, DNA copy numbers (by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays), gene expression data (by transcriptome profiling and quantitative PCR (qPCR)) and protein levels (by western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis) from the same samples. Although we focused on renal cell carcinoma, this protocol may be adapted with minor changes to any human or animal tissue to obtain high-quality and high-yield nucleic acids and proteins. PMID:24136348

  15. Ocular delivery of macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoo-Chun; Chiang, Bryce; Wu, Xianggen; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals are making increasing impact on medicine, including treatment of indications in the eye. Macromolecular drugs are typically given by physician-administered invasive delivery methods, because non--invasive ocular delivery methods, such as eye drops, and systemic delivery, have low bioavailability and/or poor ocular targeting. There is a need to improve delivery of biopharmaceuticals to enable less-invasive delivery routes, less-frequent dosing through controlled-release drug delivery and improved drug targeting within the eye to increase efficacy and reduce side effects. This review discusses the barriers to drug delivery via various ophthalmic routes of administration in the context of macromolecule delivery and discusses efforts to develop controlled-release systems for delivery of biopharmaceuticals to the eye. The growing number of macromolecular therapies in the eye needs improved drug delivery methods that increase drug efficacy, safety and patient compliance. PMID:24998941

  16. Discovery of Nuclear DNA-like RNA (dRNA, hnRNA) and Ribonucleoproteins Particles Containing hnRNA.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, G P

    2016-01-01

    On August 9-11, 2014, Cold Spring Harbor (USA) hosted a special symposium dedicated to the discovery of messenger or informational RNA and the main events in the subsequent studies of its synthesis, regulation of synthesis, maturation, and transport. The existence of mRNA in bacteria was first suggested in 1961 by Jacob and Monod, based on genetic studies [1]. The same year, Brenner et al. confirmed the hypothesis [2]. Our laboratory played a key role in the discovery of messenger RNA in eukaryotes, as well as in the discovery of the nuclear ribonucleoproteins that contain it and in the elucidation of their structural organization. Therefore, I was invited to represent Russia at the Symposium and deliver a speech on these topics. However, my visa had only been issued after the end of the Symposium, and, therefore, the presentation was delivered by my former colleague G.N. Yenikolopov, who works at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. The transcript of the lecture is presented below. PMID:27099780

  17. Effect of DNA-interacting drugs on phage T7 RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Piestrzeniewicz, M; Studzian, K; Wilmańska, D; Płucienniczak, G; Gniazdowski, M

    1998-01-01

    9-Aminoacridine carboxamide derivatives studied here form with DNA intercalative complexes which differ in the kinetics of dissociation. Inhibition of total RNA synthesis catalyzed by phage T7 and Escherichia coli DNA-dependent RNA polymerases correlates with the formation of slowly dissociating acridine-DNA complex of time constant of 0.4-2.3 s. Their effect on RNA synthesis is compared with other ligands which form with DNA stable complexes of different steric properties. T7 RNA polymerase is more sensitive to distamycin A and netropsin than the E. coli enzyme while less sensitive to actinomycin D. Actinomycin induces terminations in the transcript synthesized by T7 RNA polymerase. Despite low dissociation rates of DNA complexes with acridines and pyrrole antibiotics no drug dependent terminations are observed with these ligands. PMID:9701505

  18. A Pre-mRNA-Splicing Factor Is Required for RNA-Directed DNA Methylation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao-Feng; Miki, Daisuke; Tang, Kai; Zhou, Hao-Ran; Zheng, Zhimin; Chen, Wei; Ma, Ze-Yang; Yang, Lan; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Renyi; He, Xin-Jian; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation is a stable epigenetic mark that is frequently associated with the silencing of genes and transposable elements (TEs). In Arabidopsis, the establishment of DNA methylation is through the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. Here, we report the identification and characterization of RDM16, a new factor in the RdDM pathway. Mutation of RDM16 reduced the DNA methylation levels and partially released the silencing of a reporter gene as well as some endogenous genomic loci in the DNA demethylase ros1-1 mutant background. The rdm16 mutant had morphological defects and was hypersensitive to salt stress and abscisic acid (ABA). Map-based cloning and complementation test led to the identification of RDM16, which encodes a pre-mRNA-splicing factor 3, a component of the U4/U6 snRNP. RNA-seq analysis showed that 308 intron retention events occurred in rdm16, confirming that RDM16 is involved in pre-mRNA splicing in planta. RNA-seq and mRNA expression analysis also revealed that the RDM16 mutation did not affect the pre-mRNA splicing of known RdDM genes, suggesting that RDM16 might be directly involved in RdDM. Small RNA expression analysis on loci showing RDM16-dependent DNA methylation suggested that unlike the previously reported putative splicing factor mutants, rdm16 did not affect small RNA levels; instead, the rdm16 mutation caused a decrease in the levels of Pol V transcripts. ChIP assays revealed that RDM16 was enriched at some Pol V target loci. Our results suggest that RDM16 regulates DNA methylation through influencing Pol V transcript levels. Finally, our genome-wide DNA methylation analysis indicated that RDM16 regulates the overall methylation of TEs and gene-surrounding regions, and preferentially targets Pol IV-dependent DNA methylation loci and the ROS1 target loci. Our work thus contributes to the understanding of RdDM and its interactions with active DNA demethylation. PMID:24068953

  19. Nuclear (DNA, RNA, histone and non-histone protein) and nucleolar changes during growth and senescence of may apple leaves.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, P K; Pappelis, A J; Lee, S C; BeMiller, J N; Karagiannis, C S

    1996-12-20

    Quantitative interference microscopy was used to determine changes in nuclear and nucleolar indices (dry mass and cross-sectional area) in upper and lower epidermal cells and adjacent leaf-margin hair cells of the May apple (Podophyllum peltatum L.) leaves over a 42-day period (after leaves emerged above the ground litter). These indices decreased in a highly correlated manner. A ploidy variation may exist between epidermal cells and leaf-margin hair cells. Using the leaf-margin hair cells model, six nuclear macromolecule indices (total nucleic acid, DNA, RNA, total nuclear protein, histone and non-histone protein), nuclear volume, nucleolar volume and perinucleolar volume (measured using quantitative epifluorescence-phase contrast microscopy) all declined with age (42-day study) in a highly correlated manner. The degeneration of the nucleus and nucleolus in the three leaf locations studied followed the patterns observed for programmed cellular senescence and death (necrosis) in epidermal cells of onion leaf bases (stored tissue; leaf bases did not contain chlorophyll) and human epithelial cells (buccal; cervical). We conclude that the epidermal cells and leaf-margin hair cells from green leaves of the May Apple are ideal for the study of programmed cell senescence and death in plants, especially for the partitioning of this process into the study of: the point-of-no-return (solubilization of the karyoskeleton and loss of non-histone proteins and RNA associated with the karyoskeleton from the nucleus); nuclear pycnosis (loss of nuclear dry mass and volume and loss of nuclear internal support structure); chromatin condensation, margination along the inner nuclear envelope; and DNA-histone degeneration; degeneration of the nucleolus and loss of the perinucleolar zone of exclusion. The characterization of chlorenchyma cells during the 42-day period should now be undertaken (leaf senescence as indicated by the beginning of yellowing about 35 days after emergence) to

  20. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers affect mRNA expression of DNA nucleotide excision repair in skin and muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Sergio, Luiz Philippe S; Campos, Vera Maria A; Vicentini, Solange C; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; de Paoli, Flavia; Fonseca, Adenilson S

    2016-04-01

    Lasers emit light beams with specific characteristics, in which wavelength, frequency, power, fluence, and emission mode properties determine the photophysical, photochemical, and photobiological responses. Low-intensity lasers could induce free radical generation in biological tissues and cause alterations in macromolecules, such as DNA. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) and excision repair cross-complementing group 2 (ERCC2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in biological tissues exposed to low-intensity lasers. Wistar rat (n = 28, 4 for each group) skin and muscle were exposed to low-intensity red (660 nm) and near-infrared (880 nm) lasers at different fluences (25, 50, and 100 J/cm(2)), and samples of these tissues were withdrawn for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and gene expression evaluation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Laser exposure was in continuous wave and power of 100 mW. Data show that ERCC1 and ERCC2 mRNA expressions decrease in skin (p < 0.001) exposed to near-infrared laser, but increase in muscle tissue (p < 0.001). ERCC1 mRNA expression does not alter (p > 0.05), but ERCC2 mRNA expression decreases in skin (p < 0.001) and increases in muscle tissue (p < 0.001) exposed to red laser. Our results show that ERCC1 and ERCC2 mRNA expression is differently altered in skin and muscle tissue exposed to low-intensity lasers depending on wavelengths and fluences used in therapeutic protocols.

  1. A comparison of RNA with DNA in template-directed synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zielinski, M.; Kozlov, I. A.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Nonenzymatic template-directed copying of RNA sequences rich in cytidylic acid using nucleoside 5'-(2-methylimidazol-1-yl phosphates) as substrates is substantially more efficient than the copying of corresponding DNA sequences. However, many sequences cannot be copied, and the prospect of replication in this system is remote, even for RNA. Surprisingly, wobble-pairing leads to much more efficient incorporation of G opposite U on RNA templates than of G opposite T on DNA templates.

  2. A rapid procedure to detect in situ DNA/RNA hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.R.; Sofer, W.

    1981-12-15

    A new method was developed for detecting DNA/RNA hydrids formed in situ using anti-DNA/RNA antibodies and the Peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunohistochemical procedure. Using RNA synthesized in vitro from cloned Drosophila histone genes (pDm 500H), we localized by this procedure, the histone genes to the 39 D-E region of the left arm of the second chromosome. This method has several advantages compared to conventional procedures.

  3. Modified method for combined DNA and RNA isolation from peanut and other oil seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isolation of good quality RNA and DNA from seeds is difficult due to high levels of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and lipids that can degrade or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. Standard RNA extraction methods utilizing guanidinium-phenol-chloroform extraction has not shown to be successful. RNA...

  4. Structure and assembly of the essential RNA ring component of a viral DNA packaging motor

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fang; Lu, Changrui; Zhao, Wei; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Anderson, Dwight L.; Jardine, Paul J.; Grimes, Shelley; Ke, Ailong

    2011-07-25

    Prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component in the assembly and operation of the powerful bacteriophage {psi}29 DNA packaging motor. The pRNA forms a multimeric ring via intermolecular base-pairing interactions between protomers that serves to guide the assembly of the ring ATPase that drives DNA packaging. Here we report the quaternary structure of this rare multimeric RNA at 3.5 {angstrom} resolution, crystallized as tetrameric rings. Strong quaternary interactions and the inherent flexibility helped rationalize how free pRNA is able to adopt multiple oligomerization states in solution. These characteristics also allowed excellent fitting of the crystallographic pRNA protomers into previous prohead/pRNA cryo-EM reconstructions, supporting the presence of a pentameric, but not hexameric, pRNA ring in the context of the DNA packaging motor. The pentameric pRNA ring anchors itself directly to the phage prohead by interacting specifically with the fivefold symmetric capsid structures that surround the head-tail connector portal. From these contacts, five RNA superhelices project from the pRNA ring, where they serve as scaffolds for binding and assembly of the ring ATPase, and possibly mediate communication between motor components. Construction of structure-based designer pRNAs with little sequence similarity to the wild-type pRNA were shown to fully support the packaging of {psi}29 DNA.

  5. In Vitro Synthesis of Rous Sarcoma Virus-Specific RNA is Catalyzed by a DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Rymo, L.; Parsons, J. T.; Coffin, J. M.; Weissmann, C.

    1974-01-01

    Synthesis of Rous sarcoma virus RNA was examined in vitro with a new assay for radioactive virus-specific RNA. Nuclei from infected and uninfected cells were incubated with ribonucleoside [α-32P]triphosphates, Mn++, Mg++ and (NH4)2SO4. Incorporation into total and viral RNA proceeded with similar kinetics for up to 25 min at 37°. About 0.5% of the RNA synthesized by the infected system was scored as virus-specific, compared to 0.03% of the RNA from the uninfected system and 0.005% of the RNA synthesized by monkey kidney cell nuclei. Preincubation with DNase or actinomycin D completely suppressed total and virus-specific RNA synthesis. α-Amanitin, a specific inhibitor of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II, completely inhibited virus-specific RNA synthesis, while reducing total RNA synthesis by only 50%. We conclude that tumor virus-specific RNA is synthesized on a DNA template, most probably by the host's RNA polymerase II. PMID:4368801

  6. An Attempt to Detect siRNA-Mediated Genomic DNA Modification by Artificially Induced Mismatch siRNA in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa, Yosuke; Ogawa, Jun; Iwata, Yuji; Koizumi, Nozomu; Mishiba, Kei-ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Although tremendous progress has been made in recent years in identifying molecular mechanisms of small interfering RNA (siRNA) functions in higher plants, the possibility of direct interaction between genomic DNA and siRNA remains an enigma. Such an interaction was proposed in the ‘RNA cache’ hypothesis, in which a mutant allele is restored based on template-directed gene conversion. To test this hypothesis, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants conditionally expressing a hairpin dsRNA construct of a mutated acetolactate synthase (mALS) gene coding sequence, which confers chlorsulfuron resistance, in the presence of dexamethasone (DEX). In the transgenic plants, suppression of the endogenous ALS mRNA expression as well as 21-nt mALS siRNA expression was detected after DEX treatment. After screening >100,000 progeny of the mALS siRNA-induced plants, no chlorsulfuron-resistant progeny were obtained. Further experiments using transgenic calli also showed that DEX-induced expression of mALS siRNA did not affect the number of chlorsulfuron-resistant calli. No trace of cytosine methylation of the genomic ALS region corresponding to the dsRNA region was observed in the DEX-treated calli. These results do not necessarily disprove the ‘RNA cache’ hypothesis, but indicate that an RNAi machinery for ALS mRNA suppression does not alter the ALS locus, either genetically or epigenetically. PMID:24278423

  7. Finding a human telomere DNA-RNA hybrid G-quadruplex formed by human telomeric 6-mer RNA and 16-mer DNA using click chemistry: a protective structure for telomere end.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Suzuki, Yuta; Ishizuka, Takumi; Xiao, Chao-Da; Liu, Xiao; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Komiyama, Makoto

    2014-08-15

    Telomeric repeat-containing RNA is a non-coding RNA molecule newly found in mammalian cells. The telomere RNA has been found to localize to the telomere DNA, but how the newly discovered RNA molecule interacts with telomere DNA is less known. In this study, using the click chemistry we successfully found that a 6-mer human telomere RNA and 16-mer human telomere DNA sequence can form a DNA-RNA hybrid type G-quadruplex structure. Detection of the click-reaction products directly probes DNA-RNA G-quadruplex structures in a complicated solution, whereas traditional methods such as NMR and crystallography may not be suitable. Importantly, we found that formation of DNA-RNA G-quadruplex induced an exonuclease resistance for telomere DNA, indicating that such structures might be important for protecting telomeric DNA from enzyme digestion to avoid telomere DNA shortening. These results provide the direct evidence for formation of DNA-RNA hybrid G-quadruplex structure by human telomere DNA and RNA sequence, suggesting DNA-RNA hybrid G-quadruplex structure associated between telomere DNA and RNA may respond to chromosome end protection and/or present a valuable target for drug design.

  8. Tracking Fungal Community Responses to Maize Plants by DNA- and RNA-Based Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kuramae, Eiko E.; Verbruggen, Erik; Hillekens, Remy; de Hollander, Mattias; Röling, Wilfred F. M.; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.; Kowalchuk, George A.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed soil fungal diversity and community structure at two sampling times (t1 = 47 days and t2 = 104 days of plant age) in pots associated with four maize cultivars, including two genetically modified (GM) cultivars by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 18S rRNA gene using DNA and RNA templates. We detected no significant differences in soil fungal diversity and community structure associated with different plant cultivars. However, DNA-based analyses yielded lower fungal OTU richness as compared to RNA-based analyses. Clear differences in fungal community structure were also observed in relation to sampling time and the nucleic acid pool targeted (DNA versus RNA). The most abundant soil fungi, as recovered by DNA-based methods, did not necessary represent the most “active” fungi (as recovered via RNA). Interestingly, RNA-derived community compositions at t1 were highly similar to DNA-derived communities at t2, based on presence/absence measures of OTUs. We recovered large proportions of fungal sequences belonging to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Basidiomycota, especially at the RNA level, suggesting that these important and potentially beneficial fungi are not affected by the plant cultivars nor by GM traits (Bt toxin production). Our results suggest that even though DNA- and RNA-derived soil fungal communities can be very different at a given time, RNA composition may have a predictive power of fungal community development through time. PMID:23875012

  9. Immunofluorescent characterization of DNA . RNA hybrids on polytene chromosomes of Trichosia pubescens (Diptera, sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Büsen, W; Amabis, J M; Leoncini, O; Stollar, B D; Lara, F J

    1982-01-01

    We have studied the distribution of DNA X RNA hybrids on polytene chromosomes with the aid of a goat antibody against DNA X RNA hybrids using the immunofluorescence technique. Fixed polytene chromosomes of the sciarid Trichosia pubescens (Diptera) show distinct, stage-specific labelling patterns throughout larval development. Controls for the staining procedure - including preincubation with hybrid-specific endoribonuclease H - prove that DNA X RNA hybrids are present on fixed chromosomes. They are revealed only under mild fixation conditions which do not efficiently immobilize all chromosomal proteins, indicating that some proteins have to be removed to make the antigens accessible to antibody. Certain fixation conditions may also cause local denaturation of chromosomal DNA, and some hybrids may possibly form during specimen preparation. After incorporation of radioactive uridine, a combination of phase contrast, fluorescent, and autoradiographic images of one and the same chromosomal preparation demonstrates that hybrid fluorescence is confined to transcriptionally active regions. Two puff classes can be distinguished. The first binds antibody and includes most RNA puffs and all DNA puffs so far studied; the second, comprising some RNA puffs, does not show bright fluorescence in spite of the fact that RNA synthesis is high as revealed by 3H-uridine incorporation. DNA X RNA hybrids are not found at DNA puff sites during the DNA amplification period; these sites contain detectable hybrids only when transcription is taking place. - Combination of the fluorescent technique with its excellent resolution and autoradiography should be helpful in studying detailed topological aspects of transcriptionally active chromosomal regions.

  10. Cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids activate the cGAS-STING axis.

    PubMed

    Mankan, Arun K; Schmidt, Tobias; Chauhan, Dhruv; Goldeck, Marion; Höning, Klara; Gaidt, Moritz; Kubarenko, Andrew V; Andreeva, Liudmila; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Hornung, Veit

    2014-12-17

    Intracellular recognition of non-self and also self-nucleic acids can result in the initiation of potent pro-inflammatory and antiviral cytokine responses. Most recently, cGAS was shown to be critical for the recognition of cytoplasmic dsDNA. Binding of dsDNA to cGAS results in the synthesis of cGAMP(2'-5'), which then binds to the endoplasmic reticulum resident protein STING. This initiates a signaling cascade that triggers the induction of an antiviral immune response. While most studies on intracellular nucleic acids have focused on dsRNA or dsDNA, it has remained unexplored whether cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids are also sensed by the innate immune system. Studying synthetic RNA:DNA hybrids, we indeed observed a strong type I interferon response upon cytosolic delivery of this class of molecule. Studies in THP-1 knockout cells revealed that the recognition of RNA:DNA hybrids is completely attributable to the cGAS-STING pathway. Moreover, in vitro studies showed that recombinant cGAS produced cGAMP upon RNA:DNA hybrid recognition. Altogether, our results introduce RNA:DNA hybrids as a novel class of intracellular PAMP molecules and describe an alternative cGAS ligand next to dsDNA.

  11. Cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids activate the cGAS–STING axis

    PubMed Central

    Mankan, Arun K; Schmidt, Tobias; Chauhan, Dhruv; Goldeck, Marion; Höning, Klara; Gaidt, Moritz; Kubarenko, Andrew V; Andreeva, Liudmila; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Hornung, Veit

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular recognition of non-self and also self-nucleic acids can result in the initiation of potent pro-inflammatory and antiviral cytokine responses. Most recently, cGAS was shown to be critical for the recognition of cytoplasmic dsDNA. Binding of dsDNA to cGAS results in the synthesis of cGAMP(2′–5′), which then binds to the endoplasmic reticulum resident protein STING. This initiates a signaling cascade that triggers the induction of an antiviral immune response. While most studies on intracellular nucleic acids have focused on dsRNA or dsDNA, it has remained unexplored whether cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids are also sensed by the innate immune system. Studying synthetic RNA:DNA hybrids, we indeed observed a strong type I interferon response upon cytosolic delivery of this class of molecule. Studies in THP-1 knockout cells revealed that the recognition of RNA:DNA hybrids is completely attributable to the cGAS–STING pathway. Moreover, in vitro studies showed that recombinant cGAS produced cGAMP upon RNA:DNA hybrid recognition. Altogether, our results introduce RNA:DNA hybrids as a novel class of intracellular PAMP molecules and describe an alternative cGAS ligand next to dsDNA. PMID:25425575

  12. Viral evasion of intracellular DNA and RNA sensing.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ying Kai; Gack, Michaela U

    2016-06-01

    The co-evolution of viruses with their hosts has led to the emergence of viral pathogens that are adept at evading or actively suppressing host immunity. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are key components of antiviral immunity that detect conserved molecular features of viral pathogens and initiate signalling that results in the expression of antiviral genes. In this Review, we discuss the strategies that viruses use to escape immune surveillance by key intracellular sensors of viral RNA or DNA, with a focus on RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and interferon-γ (IFNγ)-inducible protein 16 (IFI16). Such viral strategies include the sequestration or modification of viral nucleic acids, interference with specific post-translational modifications of PRRs or their adaptor proteins, the degradation or cleavage of PRRs or their adaptors, and the sequestration or relocalization of PRRs. An understanding of viral immune-evasion mechanisms at the molecular level may guide the development of vaccines and antivirals. PMID:27174148

  13. DNA, RNA, and Protein Extraction: The Past and The Present

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Siun Chee; Yiap, Beow Chin

    2009-01-01

    Extraction of DNA, RNA, and protein is the basic method used in molecular biology. These biomolecules can be isolated from any biological material for subsequent downstream processes, analytical, or preparative purposes. In the past, the process of extraction and purification of nucleic acids used to be complicated, time-consuming, labor-intensive, and limited in terms of overall throughput. Currently, there are many specialized methods that can be used to extract pure biomolecules, such as solution-based and column-based protocols. Manual method has certainly come a long way over time with various commercial offerings which included complete kits containing most of the components needed to isolate nucleic acid, but most of them require repeated centrifugation steps, followed by removal of supernatants depending on the type of specimen and additional mechanical treatment. Automated systems designed for medium-to-large laboratories have grown in demand over recent years. It is an alternative to labor-intensive manual methods. The technology should allow a high throughput of samples; the yield, purity, reproducibility, and scalability of the biomolecules as well as the speed, accuracy, and reliability of the assay should be maximal, while minimizing the risk of cross-contamination. PMID:20011662

  14. Viral evasion of intracellular DNA and RNA sensing.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ying Kai; Gack, Michaela U

    2016-06-01

    The co-evolution of viruses with their hosts has led to the emergence of viral pathogens that are adept at evading or actively suppressing host immunity. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are key components of antiviral immunity that detect conserved molecular features of viral pathogens and initiate signalling that results in the expression of antiviral genes. In this Review, we discuss the strategies that viruses use to escape immune surveillance by key intracellular sensors of viral RNA or DNA, with a focus on RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and interferon-γ (IFNγ)-inducible protein 16 (IFI16). Such viral strategies include the sequestration or modification of viral nucleic acids, interference with specific post-translational modifications of PRRs or their adaptor proteins, the degradation or cleavage of PRRs or their adaptors, and the sequestration or relocalization of PRRs. An understanding of viral immune-evasion mechanisms at the molecular level may guide the development of vaccines and antivirals.

  15. Interacting RNA polymerase motors on a DNA track: effects of traffic congestion and intrinsic noise on RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Tripti; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2008-01-01

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) is an enzyme that synthesizes a messenger RNA (mRNA) strand which is complementary to a single-stranded DNA template. From the perspective of physicists, an RNAP is a molecular motor that utilizes chemical energy input to move along the track formed by DNA. In many circumstances, which are described in this paper, a large number of RNAPs move simultaneously along the same track; we refer to such collective movements of the RNAPs as RNAP traffic. Here we develop a theoretical model for RNAP traffic by incorporating the steric interactions between RNAPs as well as the mechanochemical cycle of individual RNAPs during the elongation of the mRNA. By a combination of analytical and numerical techniques, we calculate the rates of mRNA synthesis and the average density profile of the RNAPs on the DNA track. We also introduce, and compute, two different measures of fluctuations in the synthesis of RNA. Analyzing these fluctuations, we show how the level of intrinsic noise in mRNA synthesis depends on the concentrations of the RNAPs as well as on those of some of the reactants and the products of the enzymatic reactions catalyzed by RNAP. We suggest appropriate experimental systems and techniques for testing our theoretical predictions. PMID:18351890

  16. Spectroscopic analysis of the interaction of Escherichia coli DNA-dependent RNA polymerase with T7 DNA and synthetic polynucleotides.

    PubMed

    Reisbig, R R; Woody, A Y; Woody, R W

    1979-11-25

    We have studied the circular dichroism and ultraviolet difference spectra of T7 bacteriophage DNA and various synthetic polynucleotides upon addition of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. When RNA polymerase binds nonspecifically to T7 DNA, the CD spectrum shows a decrease in the maximum at 272 but no detectable changes in other regions of the spectrum. This CD change can be compared with those associated with known conformational changes in DNA. Nonspecific binding to RNA polymerase leads to an increase in the winding angle, theta, in T7 DNA. The CD and UV difference spectra for poly[d(A-T)] at 4 degrees C show similar effects. At 25 degrees C, binding of RNA polymerase to poly[d(A-T)] leads to hyperchromicity at 263 nm and to significant changes in CD. These effects are consistent with an opening of the double helix, i.e. melting of a short region of the DNA. The hyperchromicity observed at 263 nm for poly[d(A-T)] is used to determine the number of base pairs disrupted in the binding of RNA polymerase holoenzyme. The melting effect involves about 10 base pairs/RNA polymerase molecule. Changes in the CD of poly(dT) and poly(dA) on binding to RNA polymerase suggest an unstacking of the bases with a change in the backbone conformation. This is further confirmed by the UV difference spectra. We also show direct evidence for differences in the template binding site between holo- and core enzyme, presumably induced by the sigma subunit. By titration of the enzyme with poly(dT) the physical site size of RNA polymerase on single-stranded DNA is approximately equal to 30 bases for both holo- and core enzyme. Titration of poly[d(A-T)] with polymerase places the figure at approximately equal to 28 base pairs for double-stranded DNA.

  17. RNA-directed DNA polymerase from particles released by normal goose cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, G; Temin, H M

    1979-01-01

    Cells from a goose embryo were shown to release particle-associated RNA-directed DNA polymerase and RNase H activities that required the presence of Nonidet P-40 for detection. The particles were not infectious and did not have endogenous DNA synthesis. The goose particle DNA polymerase was related to the DNA polymerase of spleen necrosis virus with respect to size and was inhibited by immunoglobulin G to spleen necrosis virus DNA polymerase. However, goose cells producing DNA polymerase-containing particles did not contain reticuloendotheliosis virus-related nucleotide sequences in their DNA. PMID:87517

  18. PCR-derived ssDNA probes for fluorescent in situ hybridization to HIV-1 RNA.

    PubMed

    Knuchel, M C; Graf, B; Schlaepfer, E; Kuster, H; Fischer, M; Weber, R; Cone, R W

    2000-02-01

    We developed a simple and rapid technique to synthesize single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes for fluorescent in situ hybridization (ISH) to human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RNA. The target HIV-1 regions were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were simultaneously labeled with dUTP. This product served as template for an optimized asymmetric PCR (one-primer PCR) that incorporated digoxigenin (dig)-labeled dUTP. The input DNA was subsequently digested by uracil DNA glycosylase, leaving intact, single-stranded, digoxigenin-labeled DNA probe. A cocktail of ssDNA probes representing 55% of the HIV-1 genome was hybridized to HIV-1-infected 8E5 T-cells and uninfected H9 T-cells. For comparison, parallel hybridizations were done with a plasmid-derived RNA probe mix covering 85% of the genome and a PCR-derived RNA probe mix covering 63% of the genome. All three probe types produced bright signals, but the best signal-to-noise ratios and the highest sensitivities were obtained with the ssDNA probe. In addition, the ssDNA probe syntheses generated large amounts of probe (0.5 to 1 microg ssDNA probe per synthesis) and were easier to perform than the RNA probe syntheses. These results suggest that ssDNA probes may be preferable to RNA probes for fluorescent ISH. (J Histochem Cytochem 48:285-293, 2000)

  19. Sequence-specific RNA Photocleavage by Single-stranded DNA in Presence of Riboflavin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongyun; Chen, Gangyi; Yuan, Yi; Li, Na; Dong, Juan; Huang, Xin; Cui, Xin; Tang, Zhuo

    2015-10-01

    Constant efforts have been made to develop new method to realize sequence-specific RNA degradation, which could cause inhibition of the expression of targeted gene. Herein, by using an unmodified short DNA oligonucleotide for sequence recognition and endogenic small molecue, vitamin B2 (riboflavin) as photosensitizer, we report a simple strategy to realize the sequence-specific photocleavage of targeted RNA. The DNA strand is complimentary to the target sequence to form DNA/RNA duplex containing a G•U wobble in the middle. The cleavage reaction goes through oxidative elimination mechanism at the nucleoside downstream of U of the G•U wobble in duplex to obtain unnatural RNA terminal, and the whole process is under tight control by using light as switch, which means the cleavage could be carried out according to specific spatial and temporal requirements. The biocompatibility of this method makes the DNA strand in combination with riboflavin a promising molecular tool for RNA manipulation.

  20. RNA-dependent DNA endonuclease Cas9 of the CRISPR system: Holy Grail of genome editing?

    PubMed

    Gasiunas, Giedrius; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2013-11-01

    Tailor-made nucleases for precise genome modification, such as zinc finger or TALE nucleases, currently represent the state-of-the-art for genome editing. These nucleases combine a programmable protein module which guides the enzyme to the target site with a nuclease domain which cuts DNA at the addressed site. Reprogramming of these nucleases to cut genomes at specific locations requires major protein engineering efforts. RNA-guided DNA endonuclease Cas9 of the type II (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) CRISPR-Cas system uses CRISPR RNA (crRNA) as a guide to locate the DNA target and the Cas9 protein to cut DNA. Easy programmability of the Cas9 endonuclease using customizable RNAs brings unprecedented flexibility and versatility for targeted genome modification. We highlight the potential of the Cas9 RNA-guided DNA endonuclease as a novel tool for genome surgery, and discuss possible constraints and future prospects.

  1. [Interrelationships in experiments in vitro between the migration activity of leukocytes and RNA and DNA synthesis].

    PubMed

    Nazarov, P G; Volgarev, A P; Ermakov, S A

    1978-06-01

    The following correlations were revealed in the parallel study of leukocyte migration in vitro in the presence of a specific antigen and of spontaneous RNA and DNA synthesis in the cultured lymphocytes: 1) a direct correlation between the RNA and DNA synthesis in lymphocytes; 2) a close correlation between the antigen-induced migration and the levels of RNA and DNA synthesis. The effect of the antigen was evidenced by the inhibition or stimulation of leukocyte migration. A high ratio of RNA synthesis to DNA synthesis corresponded to the migration inhibition and a low one--to the migration stimulation. The ratio value varied mainly on account of the changes in the level of DNA synthesis. Participation of T and B cells in the regulation of the antigen-induced leukocyte mobility is discussed. PMID:352440

  2. Rapid and reliable method of extracting DNA and RNA from sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L). Lam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Hyung; Hamada, Tatsuro

    2005-12-01

    A quick, simple and reliable method of extracting DNA from sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) has been developed. The method was applied successfully for extraction of total DNA from leaves and total RNA from leaves and various tissues. The yield of DNA extracted by this procedure was high (about 1 mg/g leaf tissue). The extracted DNA was completely digested by restriction endonucleases indicating the absence of common contaminating compounds. The absorbancy ratios of A260/A230 and A260/A280 of isolated RNA were approx. 2 and the yield was about 0.2 mg/g fresh wt. CIPK and tublin genes were successfully amplified by RT-PCR, suggesting the integrity of isolated RNA. The total DNA and RNA isolated by this method was of sufficient quality for subsequent molecular analysis.

  3. The Yeast Mitochondrial RNA Polymerase and Transcription Factor Complex Catalyzes Efficient Priming of DNA Synthesis on Single-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Aparna; Nandakumar, Divya; Deshpande, Aishwarya P; Lucas, Thomas P; R-Bhojappa, Ramanagouda; Tang, Guo-Qing; Raney, Kevin; Yin, Y Whitney; Patel, Smita S

    2016-08-01

    Primases use single-stranded (ss) DNAs as templates to synthesize short oligoribonucleotide primers that initiate lagging strand DNA synthesis or reprime DNA synthesis after replication fork collapse, but the origin of this activity in the mitochondria remains unclear. Herein, we show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial RNA polymerase (Rpo41) and its transcription factor (Mtf1) is an efficient primase that initiates DNA synthesis on ssDNA coated with the yeast mitochondrial ssDNA-binding protein, Rim1. Both Rpo41 and Rpo41-Mtf1 can synthesize short and long RNAs on ssDNA template and prime DNA synthesis by the yeast mitochondrial DNA polymerase Mip1. However, the ssDNA-binding protein Rim1 severely inhibits the RNA synthesis activity of Rpo41, but not the Rpo41-Mtf1 complex, which continues to prime DNA synthesis efficiently in the presence of Rim1. We show that RNAs as short as 10-12 nt serve as primers for DNA synthesis. Characterization of the RNA-DNA products shows that Rpo41 and Rpo41-Mtf1 have slightly different priming specificity. However, both prefer to initiate with ATP from short priming sequences such as 3'-TCC, TTC, and TTT, and the consensus sequence is 3'-Pu(Py)2-3 Based on our studies, we propose that Rpo41-Mtf1 is an attractive candidate for serving as the primase to initiate lagging strand DNA synthesis during normal replication and/or to restart stalled replication from downstream ssDNA.

  4. The Yeast Mitochondrial RNA Polymerase and Transcription Factor Complex Catalyzes Efficient Priming of DNA Synthesis on Single-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Aparna; Nandakumar, Divya; Deshpande, Aishwarya P; Lucas, Thomas P; R-Bhojappa, Ramanagouda; Tang, Guo-Qing; Raney, Kevin; Yin, Y Whitney; Patel, Smita S

    2016-08-01

    Primases use single-stranded (ss) DNAs as templates to synthesize short oligoribonucleotide primers that initiate lagging strand DNA synthesis or reprime DNA synthesis after replication fork collapse, but the origin of this activity in the mitochondria remains unclear. Herein, we show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial RNA polymerase (Rpo41) and its transcription factor (Mtf1) is an efficient primase that initiates DNA synthesis on ssDNA coated with the yeast mitochondrial ssDNA-binding protein, Rim1. Both Rpo41 and Rpo41-Mtf1 can synthesize short and long RNAs on ssDNA template and prime DNA synthesis by the yeast mitochondrial DNA polymerase Mip1. However, the ssDNA-binding protein Rim1 severely inhibits the RNA synthesis activity of Rpo41, but not the Rpo41-Mtf1 complex, which continues to prime DNA synthesis efficiently in the presence of Rim1. We show that RNAs as short as 10-12 nt serve as primers for DNA synthesis. Characterization of the RNA-DNA products shows that Rpo41 and Rpo41-Mtf1 have slightly different priming specificity. However, both prefer to initiate with ATP from short priming sequences such as 3'-TCC, TTC, and TTT, and the consensus sequence is 3'-Pu(Py)2-3 Based on our studies, we propose that Rpo41-Mtf1 is an attractive candidate for serving as the primase to initiate lagging strand DNA synthesis during normal replication and/or to restart stalled replication from downstream ssDNA. PMID:27311715

  5. MicroRNA expression and its association with DNA repair in preimplantation embryos

    PubMed Central

    TULAY, Pinar; SENGUPTA, Sioban B.

    2016-01-01

    Active DNA repair pathways are crucial for preserving genomic integrity and are likely among the complex mechanisms involved in the normal development of preimplantation embryos. MicroRNAs (miRNA), short non-coding RNAs, are key regulators of gene expression through the post-transcriptional and post-translational modification of mRNA. The association of miRNA expression with infertility or polycystic ovarian syndrome has been widely investigated; however, there are limited data regarding the importance of miRNA regulation in DNA repair during preimplantation embryo development. In this article, we review normal miRNA biogenesis and consequences of aberrant miRNA expression in the regulation of DNA repair in gametes and preimplantation embryos. PMID:26853522

  6. Simultaneous analysis of micro-RNA and DNA for determining the body fluid origin of DNA profiles.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Donny; Uchimoto, Mari L; Williams, Graham

    2013-07-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) can be specifically expressed in forensically relevant body fluids such as blood or saliva. The aim of the study was to develop a simultaneous extraction and analysis protocol that allows for the acquisition of a DNA profile and the identity of the body fluid using a single process. DNA and micro-RNA were extracted from blood and saliva before undergoing a cDNA synthesis step by using stem-loop reverse transcription PCR. The resulting extracts containing DNA and cDNA synthesized from body fluid-specific miRNA markers then underwent standard STR analysis using a modified ABI AmpFℓSTR(®) NGM SElect™ kit. In all samples, a full DNA profile was obtained along with additional peaks corresponding to the miRNA marker targeted. In all cases, blood samples profiled exhibited a peak indicating the presence of the blood-specific miRNA marker and the saliva sample profiled exhibited a peak indicating the presence of the saliva-specific miRNA marker.

  7. Pre-mRNA processing factors meet the DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Montecucco, Alessandra; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that DNA-damaging agents induce genome instability, but only recently have we begun to appreciate that chromosomes are fragile per se and frequently subject to DNA breakage. DNA replication further magnifies such fragility, because it leads to accumulation of single-stranded DNA. Recent findings suggest that chromosome fragility is similarly increased during transcription. Transcripts produced by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) are subject to multiple processing steps, including maturation of 5′ and 3′ ends and splicing, followed by transport to the cytoplasm. RNA maturation starts on nascent transcripts and is mediated by a number of diverse proteins and ribonucleoprotein particles some of which are recruited cotranscriptionally through interactions with the carboxy-terminal domain of RNAPII. This coupling is thought to maximize efficiency of pre-mRNA maturation and directly impacts the choice of alternative splice sites. Mounting evidence suggests that lack of coordination among different RNA maturation steps, by perturbing the interaction of nascent transcripts with the DNA template, has deleterious effects on genome stability. Thus, in the absence of proper surveillance mechanisms, transcription could be a major source of DNA damage in cancer. Recent high-throughput screenings in human cells and budding yeast have identified several factors implicated in RNA metabolism that are targets of DNA damage checkpoint kinases: ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM-Rad3 related) (Tel1 and Mec1 in budding yeast, respectively). Moreover, inactivation of various RNA processing factors induces accumulation of γH2AX foci, an early sign of DNA damage. Thus, a complex network is emerging that links DNA repair and RNA metabolism. In this review we provide a comprehensive overview of the role played by pre-mRNA processing factors in the cell response to DNA damage and in the maintenance of genome stability. PMID:23761808

  8. Tissue extraction of DNA and RNA and analysis by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D P; Lewis, F A; Taylor, G R; Boylston, A W; Quirke, P

    1990-06-01

    Several DNA extraction techniques were quantitatively and qualitatively compared using both fresh and paraffin wax embedded tissue and their suitability investigated for providing DNA and RNA for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A one hour incubation with proteinase K was the most efficient DNA extraction procedure for fresh tissue. For paraffin wax embedded tissue a five day incubation with proteinase K was required to produce good yields of DNA. Incubation with sodium dodecyl sulphate produced very poor yields, while boiling produced 20% as much DNA as long enzyme digestion. DNA extracted by these methods was suitable for the PCR amplification of a single copy gene. Proteinase K digestion also produced considerable amounts of RNA which has previously been shown to be suitable for PCR analysis. A delay before fixation had no effect on the amount of DNA obtained while fixation in Carnoy's reagent results in a much better preservation of DNA than formalin fixation, allowing greater yields to be extracted.

  9. RNAs nonspecifically inhibit RNA polymerase II by preventing binding to the DNA template.

    PubMed

    Pai, Dave A; Kaplan, Craig D; Kweon, Hye Kyong; Murakami, Kenji; Andrews, Philip C; Engelke, David R

    2014-05-01

    Many RNAs are known to act as regulators of transcription in eukaryotes, including certain small RNAs that directly inhibit RNA polymerases both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We have examined the potential for a variety of RNAs to directly inhibit transcription by yeast RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and find that unstructured RNAs are potent inhibitors of purified yeast Pol II. Inhibition by RNA is achieved by blocking binding of the DNA template and requires binding of the RNA to Pol II prior to open complex formation. RNA is not able to displace a DNA template that is already stably bound to Pol II, nor can RNA inhibit elongating Pol II. Unstructured RNAs are more potent inhibitors than highly structured RNAs and can also block specific transcription initiation in the presence of basal transcription factors. Crosslinking studies with ultraviolet light show that unstructured RNA is most closely associated with the two large subunits of Pol II that comprise the template binding cleft, but the RNA has contacts in a basic residue channel behind the back wall of the active site. These results are distinct from previous observations of specific inhibition by small, structured RNAs in that they demonstrate a sensitivity of the holoenzyme to inhibition by unstructured RNA products that bind to a surface outside the DNA cleft. These results are discussed in terms of the need to prevent inhibition by RNAs, either though sequestration of nascent RNA or preemptive interaction of Pol II with the DNA template.

  10. Preparation of fluorinated RNA nucleotide analogs potentially stable to enzymatic hydrolysis in RNA and DNA polymerase assays

    PubMed Central

    Shakhmin, Anton; Jones, John-Paul; Bychinskaya, Inessa; Zibinsky, Mikhail; Oertell, Keriann; Goodman, Myron F.; Prakash, G.K. Surya

    2015-01-01

    Analogs of ribonucleotides (RNA) stable to enzymatic hydrolysis were prepared and characterized. Computational investigations revealed that this class of compounds with a modified triphosphate exhibits the correct polarity and minimal steric effects compared to the natural molecule. Non-hydrolysable properties as well as the ability of the modified nucleotide to be recognized by enzymes were probed by performing single-turnover gap filling assays with T7 RNA polymerase and DNA polymerase β. PMID:26279588

  11. Chum-RNA allows preparation of a high-quality cDNA library from a single-cell quantity of mRNA without PCR amplification.

    PubMed

    Tougan, Takahiro; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2008-09-01

    Linear RNA amplification using T7 RNA polymerase is useful in genome-wide analysis of gene expression using DNA microarrays, but exponential amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is still required for cDNA library preparation from single-cell quantities of RNA. We have designed a small RNA molecule called chum-RNA that has enabled us to prepare a single-cell cDNA library after four rounds of T7-based linear amplification, without using PCR amplification. Chum-RNA drove cDNA synthesis from only 0.49 femtograms of mRNA (730 mRNA molecules) as a substrate, a quantity that corresponds to a minor population of mRNA molecules in a single mammalian cell. Analysis of the independent cDNA clone of this library (6.6 x 10(5) cfu) suggests that 30-fold RNA amplification occurred in each round of the amplification process. The size distribution and representation of mRNAs in the resulting one-cell cDNA library retained its similarity to that of the million-cell cDNA library. The use of chum-RNA might also facilitate reactions involving other DNA/RNA modifying enzymes whose Michaelis constant (K(m)) values are around 1 mM, allowing them to be activated in the presence of only small quantities of substrate. PMID:18603591

  12. Chum-RNA allows preparation of a high-quality cDNA library from a single-cell quantity of mRNA without PCR amplification

    PubMed Central

    Tougan, Takahiro; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Linear RNA amplification using T7 RNA polymerase is useful in genome-wide analysis of gene expression using DNA microarrays, but exponential amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is still required for cDNA library preparation from single-cell quantities of RNA. We have designed a small RNA molecule called chum-RNA that has enabled us to prepare a single-cell cDNA library after four rounds of T7-based linear amplification, without using PCR amplification. Chum-RNA drove cDNA synthesis from only 0.49 femtograms of mRNA (730 mRNA molecules) as a substrate, a quantity that corresponds to a minor population of mRNA molecules in a single mammalian cell. Analysis of the independent cDNA clone of this library (6.6 × 105 cfu) suggests that 30-fold RNA amplification occurred in each round of the amplification process. The size distribution and representation of mRNAs in the resulting one-cell cDNA library retained its similarity to that of the million-cell cDNA library. The use of chum-RNA might also facilitate reactions involving other DNA/RNA modifying enzymes whose Michaelis constant (Km) values are around 1 mM, allowing them to be activated in the presence of only small quantities of substrate. PMID:18603591

  13. LNA/DNA chimeric oligomers mimic RNA aptamers targeted to the TAR RNA element of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Darfeuille, Fabien; Hansen, Jens Bo; Orum, Henrik; Di Primo, Carmelo; Toulmé, Jean-Jacques

    2004-01-01

    One of the major limitations of the use of phosphodiester oligonucleotides in cells is their rapid degradation by nucleases. To date, several chemical modifications have been employed to overcome this issue but insufficient efficacy and/or specificity have limited their in vivo usefulness. In this work conformationally restricted nucleotides, locked nucleic acid (LNA), were investigated to design nuclease resistant aptamers targeted against the HIV-1 TAR RNA. LNA/DNA chimeras were synthesized from a shortened version of the hairpin RNA aptamer identified by in vitro selection against TAR. The results indicate that these modifications confer good protection towards nuclease digestion. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays, thermal denaturation monitored by UV-spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance experiments identified LNA/DNA TAR ligands that bind to TAR with a dissociation constant in the low nanomolar range as the parent RNA aptamer. The crucial G, A residues that close the aptamer loop remain a key structural determinant for stable LNA/DNA chimera-TAR complexes. This work provides evidence that LNA modifications alternated with DNA can generate stable structured RNA mimics for interacting with folded RNA targets. PMID:15181175

  14. RNA polymerase II transcriptional fidelity control and its functional interplay with DNA modifications

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Wei; Chong, Jenny; Shin, Ji Hyun; Xu, Jun; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Accurate genetic information transfer is essential for life. As a key enzyme involved in the first step of gene expression, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) must maintain high transcriptional fidelity while it reads along DNA template and synthesizes RNA transcript in a stepwise manner during transcription elongation. DNA lesions or modifications may lead to significant changes in transcriptional fidelity or transcription elongation dynamics. In this review, we will summarize recent progress towards understanding the molecular basis of RNA Pol II transcriptional fidelity control and impacts of DNA lesions and modifications on Pol II transcription elongation. PMID:26392149

  15. Legume genomics: understanding biology through DNA and RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Jamie A.; Bolon, Yung-Tsi; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Vance, Carroll P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The legume family (Leguminosae) consists of approx. 17 000 species. A few of these species, including, but not limited to, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum and Cajanus cajan, are important dietary components, providing protein for approx. 300 million people worldwide. Additional species, including soybean (Glycine max) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), are important crops utilized mainly in animal feed. In addition, legumes are important contributors to biological nitrogen, forming symbiotic relationships with rhizobia to fix atmospheric N2 and providing up to 30 % of available nitrogen for the next season of crops. The application of high-throughput genomic technologies including genome sequencing projects, genome re-sequencing (DNA-seq) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) by the legume research community has provided major insights into genome evolution, genomic architecture and domestication. Scope and Conclusions This review presents an overview of the current state of legume genomics and explores the role that next-generation sequencing technologies play in advancing legume genomics. The adoption of next-generation sequencing and implementation of associated bioinformatic tools has allowed researchers to turn each species of interest into their own model organism. To illustrate the power of next-generation sequencing, an in-depth overview of the transcriptomes of both soybean and white lupin (Lupinus albus) is provided. The soybean transcriptome focuses on analysing seed development in two near-isogenic lines, examining the role of transporters, oil biosynthesis and nitrogen utilization. The white lupin transcriptome analysis examines how phosphate deficiency alters gene expression patterns, inducing the formation of cluster roots. Such studies illustrate the power of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses in elucidating the gene networks underlying biological processes. PMID:24769535

  16. Metakaryotic stem cell nuclei use pangenomic dsRNA/DNA intermediates in genome replication and segregation.

    PubMed

    Thilly, William G; Gostjeva, Elena V; Koledova, Vera V; Zukerberg, Lawrence R; Chung, Daniel; Fomina, Janna N; Darroudi, Firouz; Stollar, B David

    2014-01-01

    Bell shaped nuclei of metakaryotic cells double their DNA content during and after symmetric and asymmetric amitotic fissions rather than in the separate, pre-mitotic S-phase of eukaryotic cells. A parsimonious hypothesis was tested that the two anti-parallel strands of each chromatid DNA helix were first segregated as ssDNA-containing complexes into sister nuclei then copied to recreate a dsDNA genome. Metakaryotic nuclei that were treated during amitosis with RNase A and stained with acridine orange or fluorescent antibody to ssDNA revealed large amounts of ssDNA. Without RNase treatment metakaryotic nuclei in amitosis stained strongly with an antibody complex specific to dsRNA/DNA. Images of amitotic figures co-stained with dsRNA/DNA antibody and DAPI indicated that the entire interphase dsDNA genome (B-form helices) was transformed into two dsRNA/DNA genomes (A-form helices) that were segregated in the daughter cell nuclei then retransformed into dsDNA. As this process segregates DNA strands of opposite polarity in sister cells it hypothetically offers a sequential switching mechanism within the diverging stem cell lineages of development.

  17. Metakaryotic stem cell nuclei use pangenomic dsRNA/DNA intermediates in genome replication and segregation

    PubMed Central

    Thilly, William G; Gostjeva, Elena V; Koledova, Vera V; Zukerberg, Lawrence R; Chung, Daniel; Fomina, Janna N; Darroudi, Firouz; Stollar, B David

    2014-01-01

    Bell shaped nuclei of metakaryotic cells double their DNA content during and after symmetric and asymmetric amitotic fissions rather than in the separate, pre-mitotic S-phase of eukaryotic cells. A parsimonious hypothesis was tested that the two anti-parallel strands of each chromatid DNA helix were first segregated as ssDNA-containing complexes into sister nuclei then copied to recreate a dsDNA genome. Metakaryotic nuclei that were treated during amitosis with RNase A and stained with acridine orange or fluorescent antibody to ssDNA revealed large amounts of ssDNA. Without RNase treatment metakaryotic nuclei in amitosis stained strongly with an antibody complex specific to dsRNA/DNA. Images of amitotic figures co-stained with dsRNA/DNA antibody and DAPI indicated that the entire interphase dsDNA genome (B-form helices) was transformed into two dsRNA/DNA genomes (A-form helices) that were segregated in the daughter cell nuclei then retransformed into dsDNA. As this process segregates DNA strands of opposite polarity in sister cells it hypothetically offers a sequential switching mechanism within the diverging stem cell lineages of development. PMID:24418910

  18. Rapid Determination of RNA Accessible Sites by Surface Plasmon Resonance Detection of Hybridization to DNA arrays

    PubMed Central

    Mandir, Joshua B.; Lockett, Matthew R.; Phillips, Margaret F.; Allawi, Hatim T.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    2009-01-01

    RNA accessible sites are the regions in an RNA molecule, which are available for hybridization with complementary DNA or RNA molecules. The identification of these accessible sites is a critical first step in identifying antisense-mediated gene suppression sites, as well as in a variety of other RNA-based analysis methods. Here, we present a rapid, hybridization-based, label-free method of identifying RNA accessible sites with surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) on in situ synthesized oligonucleotide arrays prepared on carbon-on-metal substrates. The accessible sites of three pre-miRNAs, miRNA precursors of ~75 nt in length, were determined by hybridizing the RNA molecules to RNA-specific tiling arrays. An array comprised of all possible 6mer oligonucleotide sequences was also utilized in this work, offering a universal platform capable of studying RNA molecules in a high throughput manner. PMID:19874056

  19. Modified method for combined DNA and RNA isolation from peanut and other oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Dang, Phat M; Chen, Charles Y

    2013-02-01

    Isolation of good quality RNA and DNA from seeds is difficult due to high levels of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and lipids that can degrade or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. Standard RNA extraction methods utilizing guanidinium-phenol-chloroform extraction has not shown to be successful. RNA isolation from plant seeds is a prerequisite for many seed specific gene expression studies and DNA is necessary in marker-assisted selection and other genetic studies. We describe a modified method to isolate both RNA and DNA from the same seed tissue and have been successful with several oil seeds including peanut, soybean, sunflower, canola, and oil radish. An additional LiCl precipitation step was added to isolate both RNA and DNA from the same seed tissues. High quality nucleic acids were observed based on A(260)/A(280) and A(260)/A(230) ratios above 2.0 and distinct bands on gel-electrophoresis. RNA was shown to be suitable for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction based on actin or 60S ribosomal primer amplification and DNA was shown to have a single band on gel-electrophoresis analysis. This result shows that RNA and DNA isolated using this method can be appropriate for molecular studies in peanut and other oil containing seeds.

  20. MicroRNA-mediated gene silencing modulates the UV-induced DNA-damage response

    PubMed Central

    Pothof, Joris; Verkaik, Nicole S; van IJcken, Wilfred; Wiemer, Erik A C; Ta, Van T B; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Jaspers, Nicolaas G J; van Gent, Dik C; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Persengiev, Stephan P

    2009-01-01

    DNA damage provokes DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation and apoptosis. This DNA-damage response encompasses gene-expression regulation at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. We show that cellular responses to UV-induced DNA damage are also regulated at the post-transcriptional level by microRNAs. Survival and checkpoint response after UV damage was severely reduced on microRNA-mediated gene-silencing inhibition by knocking down essential components of the microRNA-processing pathway (Dicer and Ago2). UV damage triggered a cell-cycle-dependent relocalization of Ago2 into stress granules and various microRNA-expression changes. Ago2 relocalization required CDK activity, but was independent of ATM/ATR checkpoint signalling, whereas UV-responsive microRNA expression was only partially ATM/ATR independent. Both microRNA-expression changes and stress-granule formation were most pronounced within the first hours after genotoxic stress, suggesting that microRNA-mediated gene regulation operates earlier than most transcriptional responses. The functionality of the microRNA response is illustrated by the UV-inducible miR-16 that downregulates checkpoint-gene CDC25a and regulates cell proliferation. We conclude that microRNA-mediated gene regulation adds a new dimension to the DNA-damage response. PMID:19536137

  1. RNase H and RNA-directed DNA polymerase: associated enzymatic activities of murine mammary tumor virus.

    PubMed Central

    Dion, A S; Williams, C J; Moore, D H

    1977-01-01

    The RNA-directed DNA polymerase of murine mammary tumor virus, a type B RNA tumor virus, was purified sequentially through DEAE-cellulose, phosphocellulose (step gradient), and phosphocellulose (linear salt gradient) chromatography followed by glycerol sedimentation centrifugation. During all stages of purification, coincident peaks of RNA-directed DNA polymerase activity, templated by polyribocytidylate-oligodeoxyguanidylate, and RNase H digestion of [3H]polyriboadenylate-polydeoxythymidylate were observed, and both enzymatic activities displayed a cation preference for magnesium. Under conditions that removed adventitiously associated nucleases, RNase H activity was found to co-purify with polymerase. The specificity of this nuclease was assayed with various prepared substrates, which indicated that the polymerase-associated RNase H activity was directed only against the RNA strand of an RNA-DNA hybrid. It is highly probable that RNase H (RNA-DNA hybrid: ribonucleotide-hydrolase, EC 3.1.4..34) and RNA-directed DNA polymerase of type B viruses are associated enzymatic activities analogous to those observed for avian and mammalian type C RNA tumor viruses. Images PMID:67221

  2. A new family of polymerases related to superfamily A DNA polymerases and T7-like DNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Abhiman, Saraswathi; Aravind, L

    2008-01-01

    Using sequence profile methods and structural comparisons we characterize a previously unknown family of nucleic acid polymerases in a group of mobile elements from genomes of diverse bacteria, an algal plastid and certain DNA viruses, including the recently reported Sputnik virus. Using contextual information from domain architectures and gene-neighborhoods we present evidence that they are likely to possess both primase and DNA polymerase activity, comparable to the previously reported prim-pol proteins. These newly identified polymerases help in defining the minimal functional core of superfamily A DNA polymerases and related RNA polymerases. Thus, they provide a framework to understand the emergence of both DNA and RNA polymerization activity in this class of enzymes. They also provide evidence that enigmatic DNA viruses, such as Sputnik, might have emerged from mobile elements coding these polymerases. PMID:18834537

  3. Evaluation of commercial kits for extraction of DNA and RNA from Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Devon; Weese, J Scott

    2012-12-01

    Commercial nucleic acid extraction kits are a cost effective, efficient and convenient way to isolate DNA and RNA from bacteria. Despite the increasing importance of the gastrointestinal pathogen, Clostridium difficile, and the increased use of nucleic acids in its identification, characterization, and investigation of virulence factors, no standardized or recommended methods for nucleic acid isolation exist. Here, we sought to evaluate 4 commercial DNA extraction kits and 3 commercial RNA extraction kits assessing cost, labor intensity, purity, quantity and quality of nucleic acid preparations. The DNA extraction kits produced a range of concentrations (20.9-546 ng/ml) and A(260/280) ratios (1.92-2.11). All kits were suitable for DNA extraction with the exception of the Roche MagNA pure LC DNA isolation kit III which produced DNA of high yield but with substantial shearing, but that did not affect downstream PCR amplifications. For RNA extraction, the Qiagen RNeasy mini kit stood out producing preparations of consistently higher concentrations and higher RNA integrity numbers (RIN). The Roche MagNA pure LC RNA isolation kit produced preparations that could not be properly assigned RINs due to a failure to remove small RNAs which were interpreted as degradation. Good DNA and RNA yield are critical but methods are often overlooked. This study highlights the potential for critical variation between established commercial systems and the need for assessment of any extraction methods that are used.

  4. DNA as Tunable Adaptor for siRNA Polyplex Stabilization and Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Heissig, Philipp; Klein, Philipp M.; Hadwiger, Philipp; Wagner, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    siRNA and microRNA are promising therapeutic agents, which are engaged in a natural mechanism called RNA interference that modulates gene expression posttranscriptionally. For intracellular delivery of such nucleic acid triggers, we use sequence-defined cationic polymers manufactured through solid phase chemistry. They consist of an oligoethanamino amide core for siRNA complexation and optional domains for nanoparticle shielding and cell targeting. Due to the small size of siRNA, electrostatic complexes with polycations are less stable, and consequently intracellular delivery is less efficient. Here we use DNA oligomers as adaptors to increase size and charge of cargo siRNA, resulting in increased polyplex stability, which in turn boosts transfection efficiency. Extending a single siRNA with a 181-nucleotide DNA adaptor is sufficient to provide maximum gene silencing aided by cationic polymers. Interestingly, this simple strategy was far more effective than merging defined numbers (4–10) of siRNA units into one DNA scaffolded construct. For DNA attachment, the 3′ end of the siRNA passenger strand was beneficial over the 5′ end. The impact of the attachment site however was resolved by introducing bioreducible disulfides at the connection point. We also show that DNA adaptors provide the opportunity to readily link additional functional domains to siRNA. Exemplified by the covalent conjugation of the endosomolytic influenza peptide INF-7 to siRNA via a DNA backbone strand and complexing this construct with a targeting polymer, we could form a highly functional polyethylene glycol–shielded polyplex to downregulate a luciferase gene in folate receptor–positive cells. PMID:26928236

  5. ConSurf 2016: an improved methodology to estimate and visualize evolutionary conservation in macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Abadi, Shiran; Martz, Eric; Chay, Ofer; Mayrose, Itay; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2016-07-01

    The degree of evolutionary conservation of an amino acid in a protein or a nucleic acid in DNA/RNA reflects a balance between its natural tendency to mutate and the overall need to retain the structural integrity and function of the macromolecule. The ConSurf web server (http://consurf.tau.ac.il), established over 15 years ago, analyses the evolutionary pattern of the amino/nucleic acids of the macromolecule to reveal regions that are important for structure and/or function. Starting from a query sequence or structure, the server automatically collects homologues, infers their multiple sequence alignment and reconstructs a phylogenetic tree that reflects their evolutionary relations. These data are then used, within a probabilistic framework, to estimate the evolutionary rates of each sequence position. Here we introduce several new features into ConSurf, including automatic selection of the best evolutionary model used to infer the rates, the ability to homology-model query proteins, prediction of the secondary structure of query RNA molecules from sequence, the ability to view the biological assembly of a query (in addition to the single chain), mapping of the conservation grades onto 2D RNA models and an advanced view of the phylogenetic tree that enables interactively rerunning ConSurf with the taxa of a sub-tree.

  6. ConSurf 2016: an improved methodology to estimate and visualize evolutionary conservation in macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Abadi, Shiran; Martz, Eric; Chay, Ofer; Mayrose, Itay; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2016-01-01

    The degree of evolutionary conservation of an amino acid in a protein or a nucleic acid in DNA/RNA reflects a balance between its natural tendency to mutate and the overall need to retain the structural integrity and function of the macromolecule. The ConSurf web server (http://consurf.tau.ac.il), established over 15 years ago, analyses the evolutionary pattern of the amino/nucleic acids of the macromolecule to reveal regions that are important for structure and/or function. Starting from a query sequence or structure, the server automatically collects homologues, infers their multiple sequence alignment and reconstructs a phylogenetic tree that reflects their evolutionary relations. These data are then used, within a probabilistic framework, to estimate the evolutionary rates of each sequence position. Here we introduce several new features into ConSurf, including automatic selection of the best evolutionary model used to infer the rates, the ability to homology-model query proteins, prediction of the secondary structure of query RNA molecules from sequence, the ability to view the biological assembly of a query (in addition to the single chain), mapping of the conservation grades onto 2D RNA models and an advanced view of the phylogenetic tree that enables interactively rerunning ConSurf with the taxa of a sub-tree. PMID:27166375

  7. Replication of hepatitis delta virus RNA in mice after intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Polo, J M; Lim, B; Govindarajan, S; Lai, M M

    1995-01-01

    To establish a readily manipulable small-animal system for the study of human hepatitis delta virus (HDV) replication in vivo, plasmid DNAs containing head-to-tail cDNA dimers of HDV were inoculated intramuscularly into mice. Genomic-sense HDV RNA was detected in the injected muscle within 1 week and increased to substantial levels by week 7 postinjection. The intramuscular accumulation of HDV RNA was determined to be the direct result of viral RNA replication by three lines of evidence: (i) injected tissues also accumulated antigenomic-sense HDV RNA, (ii) plasmid DNA that synthesized primary transcripts of antigenomic sense also led to the accumulation of genomic-sense HDV RNA, and (iii) injection of a cDNA dimer defective in antigenomic RNA cleavage failed to produce detectable HDV RNA in muscle. Immunohistochemical analysis of injected muscle demonstrated the presence and nuclear localization of hepatitis delta antigen in myocytes. Finally, sera from DNA-injected mice contained antibodies specific for delta antigen, indicating the induction of an immunological response to the intracellularly expressed antigen. These findings demonstrated the ability of HDV RNA to replicate in skeletal muscle and provide a useful system for the study of HDV replication, delta antigen processing, and its presentation to the immune system in vivo. Furthermore, this system offers an efficiently replicating RNA as a potential vehicle for in vivo gene transfer. PMID:7609095

  8. Recognition of Chelerythrine to Human Telomeric DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Li-Ping; Hagihara, Masaki; Nakatani, Kazuhiko; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A study on binding of antitumor chelerythrine to human telomeric DNA/RNA G-quadruplexes was performed by using DNA polymerase stop assay, UV-melting, ESI-TOF-MS, UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometry and fluorescent triazole orange displacement assay. Chelerythrine selectively binds to and stabilizes the K+-form hybrid-type human telomeric DNA G-quadruplex of biological significance, compared with the Na+-form antiparallel-type DNA G-quadruplex. ESI-TOF-MS study showed that chelerythrine possesses a binding strength for DNA G-quadruplex comparable to that of TMPyP4 tetrachloride. Both 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries were observed for chelerythrine's binding with DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes. The binding strength of chelerythrine with RNA G-quadruplex is stronger than that with DNA G-quadruplex. Fluorescent triazole orange displacement assay revealed that chelerythrine interacts with human telomeric RNA/DNA G-quadruplexes by the mode of end- stacking. The relative binding strength of chelerythrine for human telomeric RNA and DNA G-quadruplexes obtained from ESI-TOF-MS experiments are respectively 6.0- and 2.5-fold tighter than that with human telomeric double-stranded hairpin DNA. The binding selectivity of chelerythrine for the biologically significant K+-form human telomeric DNA G-quadruplex over the Na+-form analogue, and binding specificity for human telomeric RNA G-quadruplex established it as a promising candidate in the structure-based design and development of G-quadruplex specific ligands. PMID:25341562

  9. Recognition of Chelerythrine to Human Telomeric DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Li-Ping; Hagihara, Masaki; Nakatani, Kazuhiko; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2014-10-01

    A study on binding of antitumor chelerythrine to human telomeric DNA/RNA G-quadruplexes was performed by using DNA polymerase stop assay, UV-melting, ESI-TOF-MS, UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometry and fluorescent triazole orange displacement assay. Chelerythrine selectively binds to and stabilizes the K+-form hybrid-type human telomeric DNA G-quadruplex of biological significance, compared with the Na+-form antiparallel-type DNA G-quadruplex. ESI-TOF-MS study showed that chelerythrine possesses a binding strength for DNA G-quadruplex comparable to that of TMPyP4 tetrachloride. Both 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries were observed for chelerythrine's binding with DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes. The binding strength of chelerythrine with RNA G-quadruplex is stronger than that with DNA G-quadruplex. Fluorescent triazole orange displacement assay revealed that chelerythrine interacts with human telomeric RNA/DNA G-quadruplexes by the mode of end- stacking. The relative binding strength of chelerythrine for human telomeric RNA and DNA G-quadruplexes obtained from ESI-TOF-MS experiments are respectively 6.0- and 2.5-fold tighter than that with human telomeric double-stranded hairpin DNA. The binding selectivity of chelerythrine for the biologically significant K+-form human telomeric DNA G-quadruplex over the Na+-form analogue, and binding specificity for human telomeric RNA G-quadruplex established it as a promising candidate in the structure-based design and development of G-quadruplex specific ligands.

  10. Single molecule photobleaching (SMPB) technology for counting of RNA, DNA, protein and other molecules in nanoparticles and biological complexes by TIRF instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Guo, Peixuan

    2014-05-15

    Direct counting of biomolecules within biological complexes or nanomachines is demanding. Single molecule counting using optical microscopy is challenging due to the diffraction limit. The single molecule photobleaching (SMPB) technology for direct counting developed by our team (Shu et al., 2007 [18]; Zhang et al., 2007 [19]) offers a simple and straightforward method to determine the stoichiometry of molecules or subunits within biocomplexes or nanomachines at nanometer scales. Stoichiometry is determined by real-time observation of the number of descending steps resulted from the photobleaching of individual fluorophore. This technology has now been used extensively for single molecule counting of protein, RNA, and other macromolecules in a variety of complexes or nanostructures. Here, we elucidate the SMPB technology, using the counting of RNA molecules within a bacteriophage phi29 DNA-packaging biomotor as an example. The method described here can be applied to the single molecule counting of other molecules in other systems. The construction of a concise, simple and economical single molecule total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscope combining prism-type and objective-type TIRF is described. The imaging system contains a deep-cooled sensitive EMCCD camera with single fluorophore detection sensitivity, a laser combiner for simultaneous dual-color excitation, and a Dual-View™ imager to split the multiple outcome signals to different detector channels based on their wavelengths. Methodology of the single molecule photobleaching assay used to elucidate the stoichiometry of RNA on phi29 DNA packaging motor and the mechanism of protein/RNA interaction are described. Different methods for single fluorophore labeling of RNA molecules are reviewed. The process of statistical modeling to reveal the true copy number of the biomolecules based on binomial distribution is also described.

  11. On the path to genetic novelties: insights from programmed DNA elimination and RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Catania, Francesco; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how genetic novelties arise is a central goal of evolutionary biology. To this end, programmed DNA elimination and RNA splicing deserve special consideration. While programmed DNA elimination reshapes genomes by eliminating chromatin during organismal development, RNA splicing rearranges genetic messages by removing intronic regions during transcription. Small RNAs help to mediate this class of sequence reorganization, which is not error-free. It is this imperfection that makes programmed DNA elimination and RNA splicing excellent candidates for generating evolutionary novelties. Leveraging a number of these two processes' mechanistic and evolutionary properties, which have been uncovered over the past years, we present recently proposed models and empirical evidence for how splicing can shape the structure of protein-coding genes in eukaryotes. We also chronicle a number of intriguing similarities between the processes of programmed DNA elimination and RNA splicing, and highlight the role that the variation in the population-genetic environment may play in shaping their target sequences.

  12. DNA and RNA Synthesis in Animal Cells in Culture--Methods for Use in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godsell, P. M.; Balls, M.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the experimental procedures used for detecting DNA and RNA synthesis in xenopus cells by autoradiography. The method described is suitable for senior high school laboratory classes or biology projects, if supervised by a teacher qualified to handle radioisotopes. (JR)

  13. Systematic Comparisons of Formulations of Linear Oligolysine Peptides with siRNA and Plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Albert; McCarthy, David; Hart, Stephen L; Tagalakis, Aristides D

    2016-05-01

    The effects of lysine peptide lengths on DNA and siRNA packaging and delivery were studied using four linear oligolysine peptides with 8 (K8), 16 (K16), 24 (K24) and 32 (K32) lysines. Oligolysine peptides with 16 lysines or longer were effective for stable monodisperse particle formation and optimal transfection efficiency with plasmid DNA (pDNA), but K8 formulations were less stable under anionic heparin challenge and consequently displayed poor transfection efficiency. However, here we show that the oligolysines were not able to package siRNA to form stable complexes, and consequently, siRNA transfection was unsuccessful. These results indicate that the physical structure and length of cationic peptides and their charge ratios are critical parameters for stable particle formation with pDNA and siRNA and that without packaging, delivery and transfection cannot be achieved. PMID:26684657

  14. Quantitative analysis of RNA cleavage during RNA-directed DNA synthesis by human immunodeficiency and avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptases.

    PubMed Central

    DeStefano, J J; Mallaber, L M; Fay, P J; Bambara, R A

    1994-01-01

    We have determined the extent of RNA cleavage carried out during DNA synthesis by either human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) reverse transcriptases (RTs). Conditions were chosen that allowed the analysis of the cleavage and synthesis performed by the RT during one binding event on a given template-primer. The maximum quantity of ribonuclease H (RNase H) sensitive template RNA left after synthesis by the RTs was determined by treatment with Escherichia coli RNase H. RNA cleavage products that were expected to be too short to remain hybridized, less than 13 nucleotides in length, were quantitated. Results showed that HIV- and AMV-RT degraded about 80% and less than 20%, respectively, of the potentially degradable RNA to these short products. Survival of longer, hybridized RNA was not a result of synthesis by a population of RTs that had selectively lost RNase H activity. Using an assay that evaluated the proportion of primers extended versus RNA templates cleaved during primer-extension by the RTs, we determined that essentially each molecule of HIV- and AMV-RT with polymerase also has RNase H activity. The results indicate that although both HIV- and AMV-RTs cleave the RNA template during synthesis, the number of cleavages per nucleotide addition with HIV-RT is much greater. They also suggest that some hybridized RNA segments remain right after the passage of the RT making the first DNA strand. In vivo, these segments would have to be cleaved or displaced in later reactions before second strand DNA synthesis could be completed. Images PMID:7524028

  15. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two base labeling

    DOEpatents

    Jett, James H.; Keller, Richard A.; Martin, John C.; Posner, Richard G.; Marrone, Babetta L.; Hammond, Mark L.; Simpson, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Method for rapid-base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two-base labeling and employing fluorescent detection of single molecules at two wavelengths. Bases modified to accept fluorescent labels are used to replicate a single DNA or RNA strand to be sequenced. The bases are then sequentially cleaved from the replicated strand, excited with a chosen spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, and the fluorescence from individual, tagged bases detected in the order of cleavage from the strand.

  16. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two base labeling

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Posner, R.G.; Marrone, B.L.; Hammond, M.L.; Simpson, D.J.

    1995-04-11

    A method is described for rapid-base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two-base labeling and employing fluorescent detection of single molecules at two wavelengths. Bases modified to accept fluorescent labels are used to replicate a single DNA or RNA strand to be sequenced. The bases are then sequentially cleaved from the replicated strand, excited with a chosen spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, and the fluorescence from individual, tagged bases detected in the order of cleavage from the strand. 4 figures.

  17. Hybridization of 2'-O-methyl and 2'-deoxy molecular beacons to RNA and DNA targets.

    PubMed

    Tsourkas, Andrew; Behlke, Mark A; Bao, Gang

    2002-12-01

    Molecular beacons are stem-loop hairpin oligonucleotide probes labeled with a fluorescent dye at one end and a fluorescence quencher at the other end; they can differentiate between bound and unbound probes in homogeneous hybridization assays with a high signal-to-background ratio and enhanced specificity compared with linear oligonucleotide probes. However, in performing cellular imaging and quantification of gene expression, degradation of unmodified molecular beacons by endogenous nucleases can significantly limit the detection sensitivity, and results in fluorescence signals unrelated to probe/target hybridization. To substantially reduce nuclease degradation of molecular beacons, it is possible to protect the probe by substituting 2'-O-methyl RNA for DNA. Here we report the analysis of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of 2'-O-methyl and 2'-deoxy molecular beacons in the presence of RNA and DNA targets. We found that in terms of molecular beacon/target duplex stability, 2'-O-methyl/RNA > 2'-deoxy/RNA > 2'-deoxy/DNA > 2'-O-methyl/DNA. The improved stability of the 2'-O-methyl/RNA duplex was accompanied by a slightly reduced specificity compared with the duplex of 2'-deoxy molecular beacons and RNA targets. However, the 2'-O-methyl molecular beacons hybridized to RNA more quickly than 2'-deoxy molecular beacons. For the pairs tested, the 2'-deoxy-beacon/DNA-target duplex showed the fastest hybridization kinetics. These findings have significant implications for the design and application of molecular beacons.

  18. Hybridization of 2'-O-methyl and 2'-deoxy molecular beacons to RNA and DNA targets.

    PubMed

    Tsourkas, Andrew; Behlke, Mark A; Bao, Gang

    2003-03-15

    Molecular beacons are stem-loop hairpin oligonucleotide probes labeled with a fluorescent dye at one end and a fluorescence quencher at the other end; they can differentiate between bound and unbound probes in homogeneous hybridization assays with a high signal-to-background ratio and enhanced specificity compared with linear oligonucleotide probes. However, in performing cellular imaging and quantification of gene expression, degradation of unmodified molecular beacons by endogenous nucleases can significantly limit the detection sensitivity, and results in fluorescence signals unrelated to probe/target hybridization. To substantially reduce nuclease degradation of molecular beacons, it is possible to protect the probe by substituting 2'-O-methyl RNA for DNA. Here we report the analysis of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of 2'-O-methyl and 2'-deoxy molecular beacons in the presence of RNA and DNA targets. We found that in terms of molecular beacon/target duplex stability, 2'-O-methyl/RNA > 2'-deoxy/RNA > 2'-deoxy/DNA > 2'-O-methyl/DNA. The improved stability of the 2'-O-methyl/RNA duplex was accompanied by a slightly reduced specificity compared with the duplex of 2'-deoxy molecular beacons and RNA targets. However, the 2'-O-methyl molecular beacons hybridized to RNA more quickly than 2'-deoxy molecular beacons. For the pairs tested, the 2'-deoxy-beacon/DNA-target duplex showed the fastest hybridization kinetics. These findings have significant implications for the design and application of molecular beacons.

  19. Chimeric RNA-DNA molecular beacon assay for ribonuclease H activity.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, J; Gifford, L K; Zhang, X; Gewirtz, A M; Lu, P

    2002-08-01

    Current methods to detect and assay ribonuclease H (RNase H) activity are indirect and time-consuming. Here we introduce a direct and sensitive method, based on the fluorescence quenching mechanism of molecular beacons, to assay RNA cleavage in RNA:DNA hybrids. An RNA-DNA chimeric beacon assay for RNase H enzymatic activity was developed. The substrate is a single-stranded RNA-DNA chimeric oligonucleotide labeled with a 5'-fluorescein and a 3'-DABCYL. The fluorophore (fluorescein) of the probe is held in close proximity to the quencher (DABCYL) by the RNA:DNA stem-loop structure. When the RNA sequence of the RNA:DNA hybrid stem is cleaved, the fluorophore is separated from the quencher and fluorescence can be detected as a function of time. Chimeric beacons with different stem lengths and sequences have been surveyed for this assay with E. coli RNase H. We found that the beacon kinetic parameters are in qualitative agreement with previously reported values using more cumbersome assays. This method permits real-time detection of RNase H activity and a convenient approach to RNase H kinetic and mechanistic study.

  20. UV light-induced DNA lesions cause dissociation of yeast RNA polymerases-I and establishment of a specialized chromatin structure at rRNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Maxime; Charton, Romain; Wittner, Manuel; Levasseur, Geneviève; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Conconi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of UV light-induced DNA lesions results from their interference with transcription and replication. DNA lesions arrest elongating RNA polymerases, an event that triggers transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair. Since arrested RNA polymerases reduce the accessibility of repair factors to DNA lesions, they might be displaced. The fate of arrested RNA polymerases-II at DNA lesions has been extensively studied, yielding partially contradictory results. Considerably less is known about RNA polymerases-I that transcribe nucleosomes-depleted rRNA genes at very high rate. To investigate the fate of arrested RNA polymerases-I at DNA lesions, chromatin-immunoprecipitation, electron microscopy, transcription run-on, psoralen-cross-linking and chromatin-endogenous cleavage were employed. We found that RNA polymerases-I density increased at the 5′-end of the gene, likely due to continued transcription initiation followed by elongation and pausing/release at the first DNA lesion. Most RNA polymerases-I dissociated downstream of the first DNA lesion, concomitant with chromatin closing that resulted from deposition of nucleosomes. Although nucleosomes were deposited, the high mobility group-box Hmo1 (component of actively transcribed rRNA genes) remained associated. After repair of DNA lesions, Hmo1 containing chromatin might help to restore transcription elongation and reopening of rRNA genes chromatin. PMID:24097442

  1. Novel application of Phi29 DNA polymerase: RNA detection and analysis in vitro and in situ by target RNA-primed RCA

    PubMed Central

    Lagunavicius, Arunas; Merkiene, Egle; Kiveryte, Zivile; Savaneviciute, Agne; Zimbaite-Ruskuliene, Vilma; Radzvilavicius, Tomas; Janulaitis, Arvydas

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel Phi29 DNA polymerase application in RCA-based target RNA detection and analysis. The 3′→5′ RNase activity of Phi29 DNA polymerase converts target RNA into a primer and the polymerase uses this newly generated primer for RCA initiation. Therefore, using target RNA-primed RCA, padlock probes may be targeted to inner RNA sequences and their peculiarities can be analyzed directly. We demonstrate that the exoribonucleolytic activity of Phi29 DNA polymerase can be successfully applied in vitro and in situ. These findings expand the potential for detection and analysis of RNA sequences distanced from 3′-end. PMID:19244362

  2. Using a commercial DNA extraction kit to obtain RNA from mature rice kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few RNA extraction protocols or commercial kits work well with the starchy endosperm of cereal grains. Standard RNA extraction protocols are time consuming, use large amounts of expensive chemicals, and leave behind hazardous wastes. However, there are numerous commercial DNA extraction kits that ...

  3. Inhibition of RNA polymerase by captan at both DNA and substrate binding sites.

    PubMed

    Luo, G; Lewis, R A

    1992-12-01

    RNA synthesis carried out in vitro by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase was inhibited irreversibly by captan when T7 DNA was used as template. An earlier report and this one show that captan blocks the DNA binding site on the enzyme. Herein, it is also revealed that captan acts at the nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding site, and kinetic relationships of the action of captan at the two sites are detailed. The inhibition by captan via the DNA binding site of the enzyme was confirmed by kinetic studies and it was further shown that [14C]captan bound to the beta' subunit of RNA polymerase. This subunit contains the DNA binding site. Competitive-like inhibition by captan versus UTP led to the conclusion that captan also blocked the NTP binding site. In support of this conclusion, [14C]captan was observed to bind to the beta subunit which contains the NTP binding site. Whereas, preincubation of RNA polymerase with both DNA and NTPs prevented captan inhibition, preincubation with either DNA or NTPs alone was insufficient to protect the enzyme from the action of captan. Furthermore, the interaction of [14C]captan with the beta and beta' subunits was not prevented by a similar preincubation. Captan also bound, to a lesser extent, to the alpha and sigma subunits. Therefore, captan binding appears to involve interaction with RNA polymerase at sites in addition to those for DNA and NTP; however, this action does not inhibit the polymerase activity.

  4. Collection of trace amounts of DNA/mRNA molecules using genomagnetic nanocapturers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Tapec-Dytioco, Rovelyn; Wang, Kemin; Tan, Weihong

    2003-07-15

    The collection and then the separation of rare DNA/mRNA targets with single-base mismatches in a complex matrix is critically important in human disease diagnostics, gene expression studies, and gene profiling. The major result of this work is the development and application of a novel genomagnetic nanocapturer (GMNC) for the collection, separation, and detection of trace amounts of DNA/RNA molecules with one single-base difference. The GMNC is constructed by bioconjugating molecular beacon DNA probes onto magnetic nanoparticle surfaces. We have successfully applied the GMNC in artificial buffer solution samples and in cancer cell samples, both containing different proteins and random DNA sequences. Our method has three distinctly useful features: highly efficient collection of trace amount of DNA/mRNA samples down to femtomolar (10(-15) M) concentrations; excellent ability to differentiate single-base-mismatched DNA/mRNA samples by combining the exceptional specificity of molecular beacons and the separation power of magnetic nanoparticles; and real-time monitoring and confirmation of the collected gene products. The newly developed genomagnetic nanocapturers will be highly useful for the collection of trace amounts of DNA/mRNA targets in a variety of sample sources in forensic, medical, and biotechnological fields.

  5. Assembly of pyrene-modified DNA/RNA duplexes incorporating a G-rich single strand region.

    PubMed

    Seio, Kohji; Tokugawa, Munefumi; Tsunoda, Hirosuke; Ohkubo, Akihiro; Arisaka, Fumio; Sekine, Mitsuo

    2013-12-15

    The structural properties of a DNA/RNA duplex having a pyrene residue at the 5' end of DNA and a G-rich single strand region at the 3' end of RNA were studied in detail. Fluorescence and ultracentrifugation analyses indicated the formation of a complex containing four DNA/RNA duplexes, which required a pyrene residue, G-rich sequence, RNA-type backbone, and high salt concentration. PMID:24183539

  6. Collaborative study for the calibration of HCV RNA, HBV DNA and HIV RNA reference preparations against the relative international standards.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Giulio; Marino, Francesco; Cristiano, Karen; Bisso, Guillermo Mario; Mele, Caludio; Luciani, Francesca; Wirz, Maria; Gentili, Giuliano

    2007-01-01

    We organised a collaborative study to calibrate three new ISS reference preparations (ISS: Istituto Superiore di Sanità), one for HCV RNA, one for HIV RNA and one for HBV DNA, to be used for nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT) in blood testing. Serial dilution of the ISS reference preparations and the respective international standards were tested in different days by each participating laboratory using two commercial NAT assays. Data were collected by the ISS for statistical analysis. Based on the mean potency of the HCV RNA and HIV RNA preparations, calculated from the results provided by the 12 participating laboratories, a definitive concentrations of 5700 IU/mL and 4000 IU/mL, respectively, were assigned to the reference materials. On the contrary, it was not possible to obtain a consensus titre for the HBV DNA reference material. These new Italian reference preparations (HCV RNA ISS/1005 and HIV RNA ISS/1005) calibrated against the respective international standards are available free of charge to any laboratory upon request.

  7. Replicating satellite RNA induces sequence-specific DNA methylation and truncated transcripts in plants.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M B; Wesley, S V; Finnegan, E J; Smith, N A; Waterhouse, P M

    2001-01-01

    Tobacco plants were transformed with a chimeric transgene comprising sequences encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS) and the satellite RNA (satRNA) of cereal yellow dwarf luteovirus. When transgenic plants were infected with potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV), which replicated the transgene-derived satRNA to a high level, the satellite sequence of the GUS:Sat transgene became densely methylated. Within the satellite region, all 86 cytosines in the upper strand and 73 of the 75 cytosines in the lower strand were either partially or fully methylated. In contrast, very low levels of DNA methylation were detected in the satellite sequence of the transgene in uninfected plants and in the flanking nonsatellite sequences in both infected and uninfected plants. Substantial amounts of truncated GUS:Sat RNA accumulated in the satRNA-replicating plants, and most of the molecules terminated at nucleotides within the first 60 bp of the satellite sequence. Whereas this RNA truncation was associated with high levels of satRNA replication, it appeared to be independent of the levels of DNA methylation in the satellite sequence, suggesting that it is not caused by methylation. All the sequenced GUS:Sat DNA molecules were hypermethylated in plants with replicating satRNA despite the phloem restriction of the helper PLRV. Also, small, sense and antisense approximately 22 nt RNAs, derived from the satRNA, were associated with the replicating satellite. These results suggest that the sequence-specific DNA methylation spread into cells in which no satRNA replication occurred and that this was mediated by the spread of unamplified satRNA and/or its associated 22 nt RNA molecules. PMID:11214177

  8. Modified mRNA as an alternative to plasmid DNA (pDNA) for transcript replacement and vaccination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyewon; Chung, June-Key

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Current gene therapy involves replacement of defective gene by delivery of healthy genetic material to precede normal function. Virus-mediated gene delivery is the most successful and efficient method for gene therapy, but it has been challenged due to serious safety concerns. Conversely, gene delivery using plasmid DNA (pDNA) is considered safer, but its transfection efficiency is much lower than virus-mediated gene transfer. Recently, mRNA has been suggested as an alternative option to avoid undesired insertion of delivered DNA sequences with higher transfection efficiency and stability. Area covered: In this review, we summarize the currently available strategies of mRNA modification to increase the therapeutic efficacy; we also highlight the recent improvements of mRNA delivery for in vivo applications of gene therapy. Expert opinion: The use of mRNA-based gene transfer could indeed be a promising new strategy for gene therapy. Notable advantages include no risk of integration into the genomic DNA, adjustable gene expression and easier modulation of the immune system. By reducing or utilizing the immunogenic properties, mRNA offers a promising tool for gene/or transcript replacement. PMID:26125492

  9. Regulation of Human RNA Polymerase III Transcription by DNMT1 and DNMT3a DNA Methyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumar, Tharakeswari; Gjidoda, Alison; Hovde, Stacy L.; Henry, R. William

    2012-01-01

    The human small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and small cytoplasmic RNA (scRNA) gene families encode diverse non-coding RNAs that influence cellular growth and division. Many snRNA and scRNA genes are related via their compact and yet powerful promoters that support RNA polymerase III transcription. We have utilized the human U6 snRNA gene family to examine the mechanism for regulated transcription of these potent transcription units. Analysis of nine U6 family members showed enriched CpG density within the promoters of actively transcribed loci relative to inert genes, implying a relationship between gene potency and DNA methylation. Indeed, both pharmacological inhibition of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and the forced diminution of DNMT-1, DNMT-3a, and DNMT-3b by siRNA targeting resulted in increased U6 levels in asynchronously growing MCF7 adenocarcinoma cells. In vitro transcription assays further showed that template methylation impedes U6 transcription by RNA polymerase III. Both DNMT-1 and DNMT-3a were detected at the U6-1 locus by chromatin immunoprecipitation directly linking these factors to RNA polymerase III regulation. Despite this association, the endogenous U6-1 locus was not substantially methylated in actively growing cells. However, both DNMT occupancy and low frequency methylation were correlated with increased Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (RB) expression, suggesting that the RB status can influence specific epigenetic marks. PMID:22219193

  10. DNA polymerase-α regulates the activation of type I interferons through cytosolic RNA:DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Starokadomskyy, Petro; Gemelli, Terry; Rios, Jonathan J; Xing, Chao; Wang, Richard C; Li, Haiying; Pokatayev, Vladislav; Dozmorov, Igor; Khan, Shaheen; Miyata, Naoteru; Fraile, Guadalupe; Raj, Prithvi; Xu, Zhe; Xu, Zigang; Ma, Lin; Lin, Zhimiao; Wang, Huijun; Yang, Yong; Ben-Amitai, Dan; Orenstein, Naama; Mussaffi, Huda; Baselga, Eulalia; Tadini, Gianluca; Grunebaum, Eyal; Sarajlija, Adrijan; Krzewski, Konrad; Wakeland, Edward K; Yan, Nan; de la Morena, Maria Teresa; Zinn, Andrew R; Burstein, Ezra

    2016-05-01

    Aberrant nucleic acids generated during viral replication are the main trigger for antiviral immunity, and mutations that disrupt nucleic acid metabolism can lead to autoinflammatory disorders. Here we investigated the etiology of X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder (XLPDR), a primary immunodeficiency with autoinflammatory features. We discovered that XLPDR is caused by an intronic mutation that disrupts the expression of POLA1, which encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase-α. Unexpectedly, POLA1 deficiency resulted in increased production of type I interferons. This enzyme is necessary for the synthesis of RNA:DNA primers during DNA replication and, strikingly, we found that POLA1 is also required for the synthesis of cytosolic RNA:DNA, which directly modulates interferon activation. Together this work identifies POLA1 as a critical regulator of the type I interferon response. PMID:27019227

  11. DNA polymerase-α regulates the activation of type I interferons through cytosolic RNA:DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Starokadomskyy, Petro; Gemelli, Terry; Rios, Jonathan J; Xing, Chao; Wang, Richard C; Li, Haiying; Pokatayev, Vladislav; Dozmorov, Igor; Khan, Shaheen; Miyata, Naoteru; Fraile, Guadalupe; Raj, Prithvi; Xu, Zhe; Xu, Zigang; Ma, Lin; Lin, Zhimiao; Wang, Huijun; Yang, Yong; Ben-Amitai, Dan; Orenstein, Naama; Mussaffi, Huda; Baselga, Eulalia; Tadini, Gianluca; Grunebaum, Eyal; Sarajlija, Adrijan; Krzewski, Konrad; Wakeland, Edward K; Yan, Nan; de la Morena, Maria Teresa; Zinn, Andrew R; Burstein, Ezra

    2016-05-01

    Aberrant nucleic acids generated during viral replication are the main trigger for antiviral immunity, and mutations that disrupt nucleic acid metabolism can lead to autoinflammatory disorders. Here we investigated the etiology of X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder (XLPDR), a primary immunodeficiency with autoinflammatory features. We discovered that XLPDR is caused by an intronic mutation that disrupts the expression of POLA1, which encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase-α. Unexpectedly, POLA1 deficiency resulted in increased production of type I interferons. This enzyme is necessary for the synthesis of RNA:DNA primers during DNA replication and, strikingly, we found that POLA1 is also required for the synthesis of cytosolic RNA:DNA, which directly modulates interferon activation. Together this work identifies POLA1 as a critical regulator of the type I interferon response.

  12. Evolutionary connection between the catalytic subunits of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases and eukaryotic RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and the origin of RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Koonin, Eugene V; Aravind, L

    2003-01-01

    Background The eukaryotic RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) is involved in the amplification of regulatory microRNAs during post-transcriptional gene silencing. This enzyme is highly conserved in most eukaryotes but is missing in archaea and bacteria. No evolutionary relationship between RDRP and other polymerases has been reported so far, hence the origin of this eukaryote-specific polymerase remains a mystery. Results Using extensive sequence profile searches, we identified bacteriophage homologs of the eukaryotic RDRP. The comparison of the eukaryotic RDRP and their homologs from bacteriophages led to the delineation of the conserved portion of these enzymes, which is predicted to harbor the catalytic site. Further, detailed sequence comparison, aided by examination of the crystal structure of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (DDRP), showed that the RDRP and the β' subunit of DDRP (and its orthologs in archaea and eukaryotes) contain a conserved double-psi β-barrel (DPBB) domain. This DPBB domain contains the signature motif DbDGD (b is a bulky residue), which is conserved in all RDRPs and DDRPs and contributes to catalysis via a coordinated divalent cation. Apart from the DPBB domain, no similarity was detected between RDRP and DDRP, which leaves open two scenarios for the origin of RDRP: i) RDRP evolved at the onset of the evolution of eukaryotes via a duplication of the DDRP β' subunit followed by dramatic divergence that obliterated the sequence similarity outside the core catalytic domain and ii) the primordial RDRP, which consisted primarily of the DPBB domain, evolved from a common ancestor with the DDRP at a very early stage of evolution, during the RNA world era. The latter hypothesis implies that RDRP had been subsequently eliminated from cellular life forms and might have been reintroduced into the eukaryotic genomes through a bacteriophage. Sequence and structure analysis of the DDRP led to further insights into the evolution of RNA polymerases

  13. The chemical structure of DNA sequence signals for RNA transcription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, D. G.; Dayhoff, M. O.

    1982-01-01

    The proposed recognition sites for RNA transcription for E. coli NRA polymerase, bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase, and eukaryotic RNA polymerase Pol II are evaluated in the light of the requirements for efficient recognition. It is shown that although there is good experimental evidence that specific nucleic acid sequence patterns are involved in transcriptional regulation in bacteria and bacterial viruses, among the sequences now available, only in the case of the promoters recognized by bacteriophage T7 polymerase does it seem likely that the pattern is sufficient. It is concluded that the eukaryotic pattern that is investigated is not restrictive enough to serve as a recognition site.

  14. Effect of salts, solvents and buffer on miRNA detection using DNA silver nanocluster (DNA/AgNCs) probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Pratik; Cho, Seok Keun; Waaben Thulstrup, Peter; Bhang, Yong-Joo; Ahn, Jong Cheol; Choi, Suk Won; Rørvig-Lund, Andreas; Yang, Seong Wook

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs (size ˜21 nt to ˜25 nt) which regulate a variety of important cellular events in plants, animals and single cell eukaryotes. Especially because of their use in diagnostics of human diseases, efforts have been directed towards the invention of a rapid, simple and sequence selective detection method for miRNAs. Recently, we reported an innovative method for the determination of miRNA levels using the red fluorescent properties of DNA/silver nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs). Our method is based on monitoring the emission drop of a DNA/AgNCs probe in the presence of its specific target miRNA. Accordingly, the accuracy and efficiency of the method relies on the sensitivity of hybridization between the probe and target. To gain specific and robust hybridization between probe and target, we investigated a range of diverse salts, organic solvents, and buffer to optimize target sensing conditions. Under the newly adjusted conditions, the target sensitivity and the formation of emissive DNA/AgNCs probes were significantly improved. Also, fortification of the Tris-acetate buffer with inorganic salts or organic solvents improved the sensitivity of the DNA/AgNC probes. On the basis of these optimizations, the versatility of the DNA/AgNCs-based miRNA detection method can be expanded.

  15. Strandedness and Complementarity of DNA from Long-Term RNA-Dependent DNA Polymerase Reactions of Soehner-Dmochowski Murine Sarcoma Virus

    PubMed Central

    East, James L.; Knesek, John E.; Allen, Patton T.; Dmochowski, Leon

    1973-01-01

    The DNA product of the endogenously instructed RNA-dependent DNA polymerase reaction of murine sarcoma virus continued to be synthesized for as long as 64 h in the presence of 0.008% Triton X-100. Higher detergent concentrations and actinomycin D inhibited DNA product synthesis. The DNA product from long-term polymerase reactions consisted of small DNA fragments as shown by sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradients. The enzymatic DNA product was separated into a slow sedimenting fraction and a fast sedimenting fraction by rate-zonal centrifugation. Fast sedimenting DNA was the predominant fraction made in viral polymerase reactions containing 262 mM NaCl. By using a combination of S-1 nuclease and pancreatic RNase A, the amount of single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA, and DNA-RNA hybrid present in the slow-sedimenting and fast-sedimenting fractions was determined. Under standard polymerase conditions of 70 mM NaCl, single-stranded DNA was the major form of DNA found in both fractions. In contrast, the prevalent form of DNA made in the presence of 262 mM NaCl was DNA-RNA hybrid. Hybridization studies in which either S-1 nuclease or pancreatic RNase A was used to measure hybrid formation demonstrated not only that the DNA product was complementary in base sequence to the RNA genome, but also that at least 79 to 84% of the RNA genome was transcribed into complementary DNA. PMID:4358160

  16. Evaluation of commercial kits for dual extraction of DNA and RNA from human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Schweighardt, Andrew J; Tate, Courtney M; Scott, Kristina A; Harper, Kathryn A; Robertson, James M

    2015-01-01

    STR typing of DNA evidence can identify the donor with a high power of discrimination but cannot identify the tissue origin of a body-fluid stain. Using RNA to attribute a crime scene stain to a particular tissue may aid in reconstruction efforts. With blood from 10 donors, four DNA and RNA coextraction kits were evaluated by measuring yields and STR and mRNA profiles. T tests indicated some significant differences in kit performance. The Zymo Research ZR-Duet(™) kit performed best based on average DNA (41.4 ng) and mRNA (4.07 ng) yields and was the only kit to provide complete DNA/RNA profiles for all samples. The consistency of this kit was challenged by data from additional blood and saliva donors. Further testing is advised before a superior kit is unequivocally chosen. Stand-alone DNA or RNA purification generally offers higher yield, but coextraction may still allow successful STR profiling and tissue source identification. PMID:25284026

  17. Duplex stabilities of phosphorothioate, methylphosphonate, and RNA analogs of two DNA 14-mers.

    PubMed Central

    Kibler-Herzog, L; Zon, G; Uznanski, B; Whittier, G; Wilson, W D

    1991-01-01

    The duplex stabilities of various phosphorothioate, methylphosphonate, RNA and 2'-OCH3 RNA analogs of two self-complementary DNA 14-mers are compared. Phosphorothioate and/or methylphosphonate analogs of the two sequences d(TAATTAATTAATTA) [D1] and d(TAGCTAATTAGCTA) [D2] differ in the number, position, or chirality (at the 5' terminal linkage) of the modified phosphates. Phosphorothioate derivatives of D1 are found to be less destabilized when the linkage modified is between adenines rather than between thymines. Surprisingly, no base sequence effect on duplex stabilization is observed for any methylphosphonate derivatives of D1 or D2. Highly modified phosphorothioates or methylphosphonates are less stable than their partially modified counterparts which are less stable than the unmodified parent compounds. The 'normal' (2'-OH) RNA analog of duplex D1 is slightly destabilized, whereas the 2'-OCH3 RNA derivative is significantly stabilized relative to the unmodified DNA. For the D1 sequence, at approximately physiological salt concentration, the order of duplex stability is 2'-OCH3 RNA greater than unmodified DNA greater than 'normal' RNA greater than methylphosphonate DNA greater than phosphorothioate DNA. D2 and the various D2 methylphosphonate analogs investigated all formed hairpin conformations at low salt concentrations. PMID:1711677

  18. Evaluation of RNA and DNA extraction from liquid-based cytology specimens.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tomomi; Asano, Aya; Shimada, Keiji; Tatsumi, Yoshihiro; Obayashi, Chiho; Konishi, Noboru

    2016-10-01

    Molecular diagnosis using DNA and RNA derived from malignant tumors and molecular biological tools such as the quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (qPCR) is a commonly used technique in clinical pathology. In this report, we compared the qualitative extraction of RNA and DNA from cancer cells fixed using several liquid-based cytology (LBC) kits. Ten to 1,000 cells from the T24 urinary bladder cancer cell line and SKG-II cervical cancer cell line were fixed with 55% methanol and three different methanol-based LBC solutions. The mRNA levels of CD44 in T24 cells and E7 in SKG-II cells and DNA levels of p53 in T24 cells and E7 in SKG-II cells were analyzed by qPCR. mRNA and DNA extracted from T24 and/or SKG-II cells fixed with methanol-based LBC solutions were efficiently detected, but to differing degrees, by qPCR. mRNA, and DNA from cells fixed with a formaldehyde-containing fixative liquid were detected at significantly low copy numbers by qPCR. Our results demonstrate that LBC systems are powerful tools for cytopathology and immunocytochemistry applications. However, the appropriate fixative must be selected for cell preservation when a small number of LBC samples is used for molecular testing, particularly in RNA-based molecular analyses. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:833-840. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27357064

  19. From face to interface recognition: a differential geometric approach to distinguish DNA from RNA binding surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shazman, Shula; Elber, Gershon; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2011-09-01

    Protein nucleic acid interactions play a critical role in all steps of the gene expression pathway. Nucleic acid (NA) binding proteins interact with their partners, DNA or RNA, via distinct regions on their surface that are characterized by an ensemble of chemical, physical and geometrical properties. In this study, we introduce a novel methodology based on differential geometry, commonly used in face recognition, to characterize and predict NA binding surfaces on proteins. Applying the method on experimentally solved three-dimensional structures of proteins we successfully classify double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) from single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) binding proteins, with 83% accuracy. We show that the method is insensitive to conformational changes that occur upon binding and can be applicable for de novo protein-function prediction. Remarkably, when concentrating on the zinc finger motif, we distinguish successfully between RNA and DNA binding interfaces possessing the same binding motif even within the same protein, as demonstrated for the RNA polymerase transcription-factor, TFIIIA. In conclusion, we present a novel methodology to characterize protein surfaces, which can accurately tell apart dsDNA from an ssRNA binding interfaces. The strength of our method in recognizing fine-tuned differences on NA binding interfaces make it applicable for many other molecular recognition problems, with potential implications for drug design.

  20. From face to interface recognition: a differential geometric approach to distinguish DNA from RNA binding surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shazman, Shula; Elber, Gershon; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2011-09-01

    Protein nucleic acid interactions play a critical role in all steps of the gene expression pathway. Nucleic acid (NA) binding proteins interact with their partners, DNA or RNA, via distinct regions on their surface that are characterized by an ensemble of chemical, physical and geometrical properties. In this study, we introduce a novel methodology based on differential geometry, commonly used in face recognition, to characterize and predict NA binding surfaces on proteins. Applying the method on experimentally solved three-dimensional structures of proteins we successfully classify double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) from single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) binding proteins, with 83% accuracy. We show that the method is insensitive to conformational changes that occur upon binding and can be applicable for de novo protein-function prediction. Remarkably, when concentrating on the zinc finger motif, we distinguish successfully between RNA and DNA binding interfaces possessing the same binding motif even within the same protein, as demonstrated for the RNA polymerase transcription-factor, TFIIIA. In conclusion, we present a novel methodology to characterize protein surfaces, which can accurately tell apart dsDNA from an ssRNA binding interfaces. The strength of our method in recognizing fine-tuned differences on NA binding interfaces make it applicable for many other molecular recognition problems, with potential implications for drug design. PMID:21693557

  1. Evaluation of commercial kits for dual extraction of DNA and RNA from human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Schweighardt, Andrew J; Tate, Courtney M; Scott, Kristina A; Harper, Kathryn A; Robertson, James M

    2015-01-01

    STR typing of DNA evidence can identify the donor with a high power of discrimination but cannot identify the tissue origin of a body-fluid stain. Using RNA to attribute a crime scene stain to a particular tissue may aid in reconstruction efforts. With blood from 10 donors, four DNA and RNA coextraction kits were evaluated by measuring yields and STR and mRNA profiles. T tests indicated some significant differences in kit performance. The Zymo Research ZR-Duet(™) kit performed best based on average DNA (41.4 ng) and mRNA (4.07 ng) yields and was the only kit to provide complete DNA/RNA profiles for all samples. The consistency of this kit was challenged by data from additional blood and saliva donors. Further testing is advised before a superior kit is unequivocally chosen. Stand-alone DNA or RNA purification generally offers higher yield, but coextraction may still allow successful STR profiling and tissue source identification.

  2. From face to interface recognition: a differential geometric approach to distinguish DNA from RNA binding surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Shazman, Shula; Elber, Gershon; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2011-01-01

    Protein nucleic acid interactions play a critical role in all steps of the gene expression pathway. Nucleic acid (NA) binding proteins interact with their partners, DNA or RNA, via distinct regions on their surface that are characterized by an ensemble of chemical, physical and geometrical properties. In this study, we introduce a novel methodology based on differential geometry, commonly used in face recognition, to characterize and predict NA binding surfaces on proteins. Applying the method on experimentally solved three-dimensional structures of proteins we successfully classify double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) from single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) binding proteins, with 83% accuracy. We show that the method is insensitive to conformational changes that occur upon binding and can be applicable for de novo protein-function prediction. Remarkably, when concentrating on the zinc finger motif, we distinguish successfully between RNA and DNA binding interfaces possessing the same binding motif even within the same protein, as demonstrated for the RNA polymerase transcription-factor, TFIIIA. In conclusion, we present a novel methodology to characterize protein surfaces, which can accurately tell apart dsDNA from an ssRNA binding interfaces. The strength of our method in recognizing fine-tuned differences on NA binding interfaces make it applicable for many other molecular recognition problems, with potential implications for drug design. PMID:21693557

  3. Evaluation of RNA and DNA extraction from liquid-based cytology specimens.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tomomi; Asano, Aya; Shimada, Keiji; Tatsumi, Yoshihiro; Obayashi, Chiho; Konishi, Noboru

    2016-10-01

    Molecular diagnosis using DNA and RNA derived from malignant tumors and molecular biological tools such as the quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (qPCR) is a commonly used technique in clinical pathology. In this report, we compared the qualitative extraction of RNA and DNA from cancer cells fixed using several liquid-based cytology (LBC) kits. Ten to 1,000 cells from the T24 urinary bladder cancer cell line and SKG-II cervical cancer cell line were fixed with 55% methanol and three different methanol-based LBC solutions. The mRNA levels of CD44 in T24 cells and E7 in SKG-II cells and DNA levels of p53 in T24 cells and E7 in SKG-II cells were analyzed by qPCR. mRNA and DNA extracted from T24 and/or SKG-II cells fixed with methanol-based LBC solutions were efficiently detected, but to differing degrees, by qPCR. mRNA, and DNA from cells fixed with a formaldehyde-containing fixative liquid were detected at significantly low copy numbers by qPCR. Our results demonstrate that LBC systems are powerful tools for cytopathology and immunocytochemistry applications. However, the appropriate fixative must be selected for cell preservation when a small number of LBC samples is used for molecular testing, particularly in RNA-based molecular analyses. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:833-840. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Synthetic Polymer Hybridization with DNA and RNA Directs Nanoparticle Loading, Silencing Delivery, and Aptamer Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhun; Xia, Xin; Bong, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    We report herein discrete triplex hybridization of DNA and RNA with polyacrylates. Length-monodisperse triazine-derivatized polymers were prepared on gram-scale by reversible addition–fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization. Despite stereoregio backbone heterogeneity, the triazine polymers bind T/U-rich DNA or RNA with nanomolar affinity upon mixing in a 1:1 ratio, as judged by thermal melts, circular dichroism, gel-shift assays, and fluorescence quenching. We call these polyacrylates “bifacial polymer nucleic acids” (bPoNAs). Nucleic acid hybridization with bPoNA enables DNA loading onto polymer nanoparticles, siRNA silencing delivery, and can further serve as an allosteric trigger of RNA aptamer function. Thus, bPoNAs can serve as tools for both non-covalent bioconjugation and structure–function nucleation. It is anticipated that bPoNAs will have utility in both bio- and nanotechnology. PMID:26138550

  5. Synthetic Polymer Hybridization with DNA and RNA Directs Nanoparticle Loading, Silencing Delivery, and Aptamer Function.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhun; Xia, Xin; Bong, Dennis

    2015-07-22

    We report herein discrete triplex hybridization of DNA and RNA with polyacrylates. Length-monodisperse triazine-derivatized polymers were prepared on gram-scale by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization. Despite stereoregio backbone heterogeneity, the triazine polymers bind T/U-rich DNA or RNA with nanomolar affinity upon mixing in a 1:1 ratio, as judged by thermal melts, circular dichroism, gel-shift assays, and fluorescence quenching. We call these polyacrylates "bifacial polymer nucleic acids" (bPoNAs). Nucleic acid hybridization with bPoNA enables DNA loading onto polymer nanoparticles, siRNA silencing delivery, and can further serve as an allosteric trigger of RNA aptamer function. Thus, bPoNAs can serve as tools for both non-covalent bioconjugation and structure-function nucleation. It is anticipated that bPoNAs will have utility in both bio- and nanotechnology. PMID:26138550

  6. Absolute and direct microRNA quantification using DNA-gold nanoparticle probes.

    PubMed

    Degliangeli, Federica; Kshirsagar, Prakash; Brunetti, Virgilio; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Fiammengo, Roberto

    2014-02-12

    DNA-gold nanoparticle probes are implemented in a simple strategy for direct microRNA (miRNA) quantification. Fluorescently labeled DNA-probe strands are immobilized on PEGylated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In the presence of target miRNA, DNA-RNA heteroduplexes are formed and become substrate for the endonuclease DSN (duplex-specific nuclease). Enzymatic hydrolysis of the DNA strands yields a fluorescence signal due to diffusion of the fluorophores away from the gold surface. We show that the molecular design of our DNA-AuNP probes, with the DNA strands immobilized on top of the PEG-based passivation layer, results in nearly unaltered enzymatic activity toward immobilized heteroduplexes compared to substrates free in solution. The assay, developed in a real-time format, allows absolute quantification of as little as 0.2 fmol of miR-203. We also show the application of the assay for direct quantification of cancer-related miR-203 and miR-21 in samples of extracted total RNA from cell cultures. The possibility of direct and absolute quantification may significantly advance the use of microRNAs as biomarkers in the clinical praxis.

  7. Organocatalytic removal of formaldehyde adducts from RNA and DNA bases.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Saswata; Harcourt, Emily M; Hewings, David S; Scherer, Florian; Lovejoy, Alexander F; Kurtz, David M; Ehrenschwender, Thomas; Barandun, Luzi J; Roost, Caroline; Alizadeh, Ash A; Kool, Eric T

    2015-09-01

    Formaldehyde is universally used to fix tissue specimens, where it forms hemiaminal and aminal adducts with biomolecules, hindering the ability to retrieve molecular information. Common methods for removing these adducts involve extended heating, which can cause extensive degradation of nucleic acids, particularly RNA. Here, we show that water-soluble bifunctional catalysts (anthranilates and phosphanilates) speed the reversal of formaldehyde adducts of mononucleotides over standard buffers. Studies with formaldehyde-treated RNA oligonucleotides show that the catalysts enhance adduct removal, restoring unmodified RNA at 37 °C even when extensively modified, while avoiding the high temperatures that promote RNA degradation. Experiments with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell samples show that the catalysis is compatible with common RNA extraction protocols, with detectable RNA yields increased by 1.5-2.4-fold using a catalyst under optimized conditions and by 7-25-fold compared with a commercial kit. Such catalytic strategies show promise for general use in reversing formaldehyde adducts in clinical specimens. PMID:26291948

  8. Organocatalytic removal of formaldehyde adducts from RNA and DNA bases.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Saswata; Harcourt, Emily M; Hewings, David S; Scherer, Florian; Lovejoy, Alexander F; Kurtz, David M; Ehrenschwender, Thomas; Barandun, Luzi J; Roost, Caroline; Alizadeh, Ash A; Kool, Eric T

    2015-09-01

    Formaldehyde is universally used to fix tissue specimens, where it forms hemiaminal and aminal adducts with biomolecules, hindering the ability to retrieve molecular information. Common methods for removing these adducts involve extended heating, which can cause extensive degradation of nucleic acids, particularly RNA. Here, we show that water-soluble bifunctional catalysts (anthranilates and phosphanilates) speed the reversal of formaldehyde adducts of mononucleotides over standard buffers. Studies with formaldehyde-treated RNA oligonucleotides show that the catalysts enhance adduct removal, restoring unmodified RNA at 37 °C even when extensively modified, while avoiding the high temperatures that promote RNA degradation. Experiments with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell samples show that the catalysis is compatible with common RNA extraction protocols, with detectable RNA yields increased by 1.5-2.4-fold using a catalyst under optimized conditions and by 7-25-fold compared with a commercial kit. Such catalytic strategies show promise for general use in reversing formaldehyde adducts in clinical specimens.

  9. Organocatalytic removal of formaldehyde adducts from RNA and DNA bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Saswata; Harcourt, Emily M.; Hewings, David S.; Lovejoy, Alexander F.; Kurtz, David M.; Ehrenschwender, Thomas; Barandun, Luzi J.; Roost, Caroline; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Kool, Eric T.

    2015-09-01

    Formaldehyde is universally used to fix tissue specimens, where it forms hemiaminal and aminal adducts with biomolecules, hindering the ability to retrieve molecular information. Common methods for removing these adducts involve extended heating, which can cause extensive degradation of nucleic acids, particularly RNA. Here, we show that water-soluble bifunctional catalysts (anthranilates and phosphanilates) speed the reversal of formaldehyde adducts of mononucleotides over standard buffers. Studies with formaldehyde-treated RNA oligonucleotides show that the catalysts enhance adduct removal, restoring unmodified RNA at 37 °C even when extensively modified, while avoiding the high temperatures that promote RNA degradation. Experiments with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell samples show that the catalysis is compatible with common RNA extraction protocols, with detectable RNA yields increased by 1.5-2.4-fold using a catalyst under optimized conditions and by 7-25-fold compared with a commercial kit. Such catalytic strategies show promise for general use in reversing formaldehyde adducts in clinical specimens.

  10. Organocatalytic Removal of Formaldehyde Adducts from RNA and DNA Bases

    PubMed Central

    Karmakar, Saswata; Harcourt, Emily M.; Hewings, David S.; Lovejoy, Alexander F.; Kurtz, David M.; Ehrenschwender, Thomas; Barandun, Luzi J.; Roost, Caroline; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Kool, Eric T.

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde is universally employed to fix tissue specimens, where it forms hemiaminal and aminal adducts with biomolecules, hindering the ability to retrieve molecular information. Common methods for removing these adducts involve extended heating, which can cause extensive degradation of nucleic acids, particularly RNA. Here we show that water-soluble bifunctional catalysts (anthranilates and phosphanilates) speed the reversal of formaldehyde adducts of mononucleotides over standard buffers. Studies with formaldehyde-treated RNA oligonucleotides show that the catalysts enhance adduct removal, restoring unmodified RNA at 37 °C even when extensively modified, and avoiding high temperatures that promote RNA degradation. Experiments with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell samples show that the catalysis is compatible with common RNA extraction protocols, with detectable RNA yields increased by 1.5–2.4 fold using a catalyst under optimized conditions, and by 7–25 fold compared to a commercial kit. Such catalytic strategies show promise for general use in reversing formaldehyde adducts in clinical specimens. PMID:26291948

  11. Macromolecules Relevant to Stone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryall, Rosemary L.; Cook, Alison F.; Thurgood, Lauren A.; Grover, Phulwinder K.

    2007-04-01

    Despite years of research, no single macromolecule in kidney calculi or in urine has yet been shown to fulfill a specific function in stone pathogenesis. In this paper we briefly review papers investigating the urinary excretion of individual macromolecules, their effects on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization and attachment of crystals to renal epithelial cells, and the influence of lithogenic conditions on their renal expression in cultured cells and animal models. Using prothrombin fragment 1 (PTF1) and human serum albumin as examples, we show the types of patterns resulting from the binding of a fluorescently tagged protein to a specific CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystal face and its incorporation into the crystal structure. Molecular modeling is also used to illustrate how PTF1 can align with the atomic array on a COM crystal surface. We conclude that although many macromolecules are, by strict definition, relevant to stone formation, very few are probably truly influential.

  12. The splicing machinery promotes RNA-directed DNA methylation and transcriptional silencing in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cui-Jun; Zhou, Jin-Xing; Liu, Jun; Ma, Ze-Yang; Zhang, Su-Wei; Dou, Kun; Huang, Huan-Wei; Cai, Tao; Liu, Renyi; Zhu, Jian-Kang; He, Xin-Jian

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation in transposons and other DNA repeats is conserved in plants as well as in animals. In Arabidopsis thaliana, an RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway directs de novo DNA methylation. We performed a forward genetic screen for suppressors of the DNA demethylase mutant ros1 and identified a novel Zinc-finger and OCRE domain-containing Protein 1 (ZOP1) that promotes Pol IV-dependent siRNA accumulation, DNA methylation, and transcriptional silencing. Whole-genome methods disclosed the genome-wide effects of zop1 on Pol IV-dependent siRNA accumulation and DNA methylation, suggesting that ZOP1 has both RdDM-dependent and -independent roles in transcriptional silencing. We demonstrated that ZOP1 is a pre-mRNA splicing factor that associates with several typical components of the splicing machinery as well as with Pol II. Immunofluorescence assay revealed that ZOP1 overlaps with Cajal body and is partially colocalized with NRPE1 and DRM2. Moreover, we found that the other development-defective splicing mutants tested including mac3a3b, mos4, mos12 and mos14 show defects in RdDM and transcriptional silencing. We propose that the splicing machinery rather than specific splicing factors is involved in promoting RdDM and transcriptional silencing. PMID:23524848

  13. Insulin alters heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein binding to DNA and RNA

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, J.; Kawata, Y.; Schullery, D. S.; Denisenko, O. N.; Higaki, Y.; Abrass, C. K.; Bomsztyk, K.

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of the multimodular heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) K protein with many of its protein and nucleic acid partners is regulated by extracellular signals. Acting as a docking platform, K protein could link signal-transduction pathways to DNA- and RNA-directed processes such as transcription, mRNA processing, transport, and translation. Treatment of hepatocyte culture with insulin increased K protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Insulin altered K protein interaction with RNA and DNA in vitro. Administration of insulin into mice had similar effects on K protein in liver. Coimmunoprecipitations of RNA with K protein revealed preferential in vivo K protein binding of a subset of transcripts, including the insulin-inducible c-fos mRNA. These results suggest a class of insulin pathways that signal nucleic acid-directed processes that involve K protein. PMID:11470915

  14. The CRISPR-associated DNA-cleaving enzyme Cpf1 also processes precursor CRISPR RNA.

    PubMed

    Fonfara, Ines; Richter, Hagen; Bratovič, Majda; Le Rhun, Anaïs; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2016-04-28

    CRISPR-Cas systems that provide defence against mobile genetic elements in bacteria and archaea have evolved a variety of mechanisms to target and cleave RNA or DNA. The well-studied types I, II and III utilize a set of distinct CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins for production of mature CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) and interference with invading nucleic acids. In types I and III, Cas6 or Cas5d cleaves precursor crRNA (pre-crRNA) and the mature crRNAs then guide a complex of Cas proteins (Cascade-Cas3, type I; Csm or Cmr, type III) to target and cleave invading DNA or RNA. In type II systems, RNase III cleaves pre-crRNA base-paired with trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA) in the presence of Cas9 (refs 13, 14). The mature tracrRNA-crRNA duplex then guides Cas9 to cleave target DNA. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism in CRISPR-Cas immunity. We show that type V-A Cpf1 from Francisella novicida is a dual-nuclease that is specific to crRNA biogenesis and target DNA interference. Cpf1 cleaves pre-crRNA upstream of a hairpin structure formed within the CRISPR repeats and thereby generates intermediate crRNAs that are processed further, leading to mature crRNAs. After recognition of a 5'-YTN-3' protospacer adjacent motif on the non-target DNA strand and subsequent probing for an eight-nucleotide seed sequence, Cpf1, guided by the single mature repeat-spacer crRNA, introduces double-stranded breaks in the target DNA to generate a 5' overhang. The RNase and DNase activities of Cpf1 require sequence- and structure-specific binding to the hairpin of crRNA repeats. Cpf1 uses distinct active domains for both nuclease reactions and cleaves nucleic acids in the presence of magnesium or calcium. This study uncovers a new family of enzymes with specific dual endoribonuclease and endonuclease activities, and demonstrates that type V-A constitutes the most minimalistic of the CRISPR-Cas systems so far described.

  15. The CRISPR-associated DNA-cleaving enzyme Cpf1 also processes precursor CRISPR RNA.

    PubMed

    Fonfara, Ines; Richter, Hagen; Bratovič, Majda; Le Rhun, Anaïs; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2016-04-28

    CRISPR-Cas systems that provide defence against mobile genetic elements in bacteria and archaea have evolved a variety of mechanisms to target and cleave RNA or DNA. The well-studied types I, II and III utilize a set of distinct CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins for production of mature CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) and interference with invading nucleic acids. In types I and III, Cas6 or Cas5d cleaves precursor crRNA (pre-crRNA) and the mature crRNAs then guide a complex of Cas proteins (Cascade-Cas3, type I; Csm or Cmr, type III) to target and cleave invading DNA or RNA. In type II systems, RNase III cleaves pre-crRNA base-paired with trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA) in the presence of Cas9 (refs 13, 14). The mature tracrRNA-crRNA duplex then guides Cas9 to cleave target DNA. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism in CRISPR-Cas immunity. We show that type V-A Cpf1 from Francisella novicida is a dual-nuclease that is specific to crRNA biogenesis and target DNA interference. Cpf1 cleaves pre-crRNA upstream of a hairpin structure formed within the CRISPR repeats and thereby generates intermediate crRNAs that are processed further, leading to mature crRNAs. After recognition of a 5'-YTN-3' protospacer adjacent motif on the non-target DNA strand and subsequent probing for an eight-nucleotide seed sequence, Cpf1, guided by the single mature repeat-spacer crRNA, introduces double-stranded breaks in the target DNA to generate a 5' overhang. The RNase and DNase activities of Cpf1 require sequence- and structure-specific binding to the hairpin of crRNA repeats. Cpf1 uses distinct active domains for both nuclease reactions and cleaves nucleic acids in the presence of magnesium or calcium. This study uncovers a new family of enzymes with specific dual endoribonuclease and endonuclease activities, and demonstrates that type V-A constitutes the most minimalistic of the CRISPR-Cas systems so far described. PMID:27096362

  16. cDNA normalization by hydroxyapatite chromatography to enrich transcriptome diversity in RNA-seq applications.

    PubMed

    Vandernoot, Victoria A; Langevin, Stanley A; Solberg, Owen D; Lane, Pamela D; Curtis, Deanna J; Bent, Zachary W; Williams, Kelly P; Patel, Kamlesh D; Schoeniger, Joseph S; Branda, Steven S; Lane, Todd W

    2012-12-01

    Second-generation sequencing (SGS) has become the preferred method for RNA transcriptome profiling of organisms and single cells. However, SGS analysis of transcriptome diversity (including protein-coding transcripts and regulatory non-coding RNAs) is inefficient unless the sample of interest is first depleted of nucleic acids derived from ribosomal RNA (rRNA), which typically account for up to 95% of total intracellular RNA content. Here we describe a novel microscale hydroxyapatite chromatography (HAC) normalization method to remove eukaryotic and prokaryotic high abundant rRNA species, thereby increasing sequence coverage depth and transcript diversity across non-rRNA populations. RNA-seq analysis of Escherichia coli K-12 and human intracellular total RNA showed that HAC-based normalization enriched for all non-ribosomal RNA species regardless of RNA transcript abundance or length when compared with untreated controls. Microcolumn HAC normalization generated rRNA-depleted cDNA libraries comparable to the well-established duplex specific nuclease (DSN) normalization and Ribo-Zero rRNA-depletion methods, thus establishing microscale HAC as an effective, cost saving, and non-destructive alternative normalization technique.

  17. Microbial rRNA: rDNA gene ratios may be unexpectedly low due to extracellular DNA preservation in soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested a method of estimating the activity of detectable individual bacterial and archaeal OTUs within a community by calculating ratios of absolute 16S rRNA to rDNA copy numbers. We investigated phylogenetically coherent patterns of activity among soil prokaryotes in non-growing soil communitie...

  18. Lipid-mediated DNA and siRNA Transfection Efficiency Depends on Peptide Headgroup.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xiang; Lamanna, Caroline M; Kohman, Richie E; McIntosh, Thomas J; Han, Xue; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2013-05-01

    A series of amphiphiles with differing cationic tri- and di- peptide headgroups, designed and synthesized based on lysine (K), ornithine (O), arginine (R), and glycine (G), have been characterized and evaluated for DNA and siRNA delivery. DNA-lipoplexes formed from the tri- and di- lipopeptides possessed lipid:nucleic acid charge ratios of 7:1 to 10:1, diameters of ~200 nm to 375 nm, zeta potentials of 23 mV to 41 mV, melting temperatures of 12 °C to 46 °C, and lamellar repeat periods of 6 nm to 8 nm. These lipid-DNA complexes formed supramolecular structures in which DNA is entrapped at the surface between multilamellar liposomal vesicles. Compared to their DNA counterparts, siRNA-lipoplexes formed slightly larger complexes (348 nm to 424 nm) and required higher charge ratios to form stable structures. Additionally, it was observed that lipids with multivalent, tripeptide headgroups (i.e., KGG, OGG, and RGG) were successful at transfecting DNA in vitro, whereas DNA transfection with the dipeptide lipids proved ineffective. Cellular uptake of DNA was more effective with the KGG compared to the KG lipopeptide. In siRNA knockdown experiments, both tri- and di- peptide lipids (i.e., RGG, GGG, KG, OG, RG, GG) showed some efficacy, but total cellular uptake of siRNA complexes was not indicative of knockdown outcomes and suggested that the intracellular fate of lipoplexes may be a factor. Overall, this lipopeptide study expands the library of efficient DNA transfection vectors available for use, introduces new vectors for siRNA delivery, and begins to address the structure-activity relationships which influence delivery and transfection efficacy. PMID:24391676

  19. Lipid-mediated DNA and siRNA Transfection Efficiency Depends on Peptide Headgroup

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Xiang; LaManna, Caroline M.; Kohman, Richie E.; McIntosh, Thomas J.; Han, Xue; Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    A series of amphiphiles with differing cationic tri- and di- peptide headgroups, designed and synthesized based on lysine (K), ornithine (O), arginine (R), and glycine (G), have been characterized and evaluated for DNA and siRNA delivery. DNA-lipoplexes formed from the tri- and di- lipopeptides possessed lipid:nucleic acid charge ratios of 7:1 to 10:1, diameters of ~200 nm to 375 nm, zeta potentials of 23 mV to 41 mV, melting temperatures of 12 °C to 46 °C, and lamellar repeat periods of 6 nm to 8 nm. These lipid-DNA complexes formed supramolecular structures in which DNA is entrapped at the surface between multilamellar liposomal vesicles. Compared to their DNA counterparts, siRNA-lipoplexes formed slightly larger complexes (348 nm to 424 nm) and required higher charge ratios to form stable structures. Additionally, it was observed that lipids with multivalent, tripeptide headgroups (i.e., KGG, OGG, and RGG) were successful at transfecting DNA in vitro, whereas DNA transfection with the dipeptide lipids proved ineffective. Cellular uptake of DNA was more effective with the KGG compared to the KG lipopeptide. In siRNA knockdown experiments, both tri- and di- peptide lipids (i.e., RGG, GGG, KG, OG, RG, GG) showed some efficacy, but total cellular uptake of siRNA complexes was not indicative of knockdown outcomes and suggested that the intracellular fate of lipoplexes may be a factor. Overall, this lipopeptide study expands the library of efficient DNA transfection vectors available for use, introduces new vectors for siRNA delivery, and begins to address the structure-activity relationships which influence delivery and transfection efficacy. PMID:24391676

  20. Parametric resonance in DNA.

    PubMed

    Lacitignola, Deborah; Saccomandi, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    We consider a simple mesoscopic model of DNA in which the binding of the RNA polymerase enzyme molecule to the promoter sequence of the DNA is included through a substrate energy term modeling the enzymatic interaction with the DNA strands. We focus on the differential system for solitary waves and derive conditions--in terms of the model parameters--for the occurrence of the parametric resonance phenomenon. We find that what truly matters for parametric resonance is not the ratio between the strength of the stacking and the inter-strand forces but the ratio between the substrate and the inter-strands. On the basis of these results, the standard objection that longitudinal motion is negligible because of the second order seems to fail, suggesting that all the studies involving the longitudinal degree of freedom in DNA should be reconsidered when the interaction of the RNA polymerase with the DNA macromolecule is not neglected. PMID:24510728

  1. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from DNA extracts of 12 samples and compared to clone libraries previously generated using RNA extracts from the same samples. Phylogenetic analysis of 761 DNA-based ...

  2. Insights into RNA/DNA hybrid recognition and processing by RNase H from the crystal structure of a non-specific enzyme-dsDNA complex

    SciTech Connect

    Pallan, Pradeep S.; Egli, Martin

    2009-06-17

    Ribonuclease HI (RNase H) is a member of the nucleotidyl-transferase superfamily and endo-nucleolytically cleaves the RNA portion in RNA/DNA hybrids and removes RNA primers from Okazaki fragments. The enzyme also binds RNA and DNA duplexes but is unable to cleave either. Three-dimensional structures of bacterial and human RNase H catalytic domains bound to RNA/DNA hybrids have revealed the basis for substrate recognition and the mechanism of cleavage. In order to visualize the enzyme's interactions with duplex DNA and to establish the structural differences that afford tighter binding to RNA/DNA hybrids relative to dsDNA, we have determined the crystal structure of Bacillus halodurans RNase H in complex with the B-form DNA duplex [d(CGCGAATTCGCG)]2. The structure demonstrates that the inability of the enzyme to cleave DNA is due to the deviating curvature of the DNA strand relative to the substrate RNA strand and the absence of Mg{sup 2+} at the active site. A subset of amino acids engaged in contacts to RNA 2{prime}-hydroxyl groups in the substrate complex instead bind to bridging or non-bridging phosphodiester oxygens in the complex with dsDNA. Qualitative comparison of the enzyme's interactions with the substrate and inhibitor duplexes is consistent with the reduced binding affinity for the latter and sheds light on determinants of RNase H binding and cleavage specificity.

  3. The use of carrier RNA to enhance DNA extraction from microfluidic-based silica monoliths.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kirsty J; Thain, Lauren; Docker, Peter T; Dyer, Charlotte E; Greenman, John; Greenway, Gillian M; Haswell, Stephen J

    2009-10-12

    DNA extraction was carried out on silica-based monoliths within a microfluidic device. Solid-phase DNA extraction methodology was applied in which the DNA binds to silica in the presence of a chaotropic salt, such as guanidine hydrochloride, and is eluted in a low ionic strength solution, such as water. The addition of poly-A carrier RNA to the chaotropic salt solution resulted in a marked increase in the effective amount of DNA that could be recovered (25ng) compared to the absence of RNA (5ng) using the silica-based monolith. These findings confirm that techniques utilising nucleic acid carrier molecules can enhance DNA extraction methodologies in microfluidic applications.

  4. Inhibition of RNA Polymerase II Transcription in Human Cells by Synthetic DNA-Binding Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Liliane A.; Gulizia, Richard J.; Trauger, John W.; Baird, Eldon E.; Mosier, Donald E.; Gottesfeld, Joel M.; Dervan, Peter B.

    1998-10-01

    Sequence-specific DNA-binding small molecules that can permeate human cells potentially could regulate transcription of specific genes. Multiple cellular DNA-binding transcription factors are required by HIV type 1 for RNA synthesis. Two pyrrole--imidazole polyamides were designed to bind DNA sequences immediately adjacent to binding sites for the transcription factors Ets-1, lymphoid-enhancer binding factor 1, and TATA-box binding protein. These synthetic ligands specifically inhibit DNA-binding of each transcription factor and HIV type 1 transcription in cell-free assays. When used in combination, the polyamides inhibit virus replication by >99% in isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes, with no detectable cell toxicity. The ability of small molecules to target predetermined DNA sequences located with RNA polymerase II promoters suggests a general approach for regulation of gene expression, as well as a mechanism for the inhibition of viral replication.

  5. Genome-wide DNA hypomethylation and RNA:DNA hybrid accumulation in Aicardi–Goutières syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yoong Wearn; Sanz, Lionel A; Xu, Xiaoqin; Hartono, Stella R; Chédin, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Aicardi–Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a severe childhood inflammatory disorder that shows clinical and genetic overlap with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). AGS is thought to arise from the accumulation of incompletely metabolized endogenous nucleic acid species owing to mutations in nucleic acid-degrading enzymes TREX1 (AGS1), RNase H2 (AGS2, 3 and 4), and SAMHD1 (AGS5). However, the identity and source of such immunogenic nucleic acid species remain undefined. Using genome-wide approaches, we show that fibroblasts from AGS patients with AGS1-5 mutations are burdened by excessive loads of RNA:DNA hybrids. Using MethylC-seq, we show that AGS fibroblasts display pronounced and global loss of DNA methylation and demonstrate that AGS-specific RNA:DNA hybrids often occur within DNA hypomethylated regions. Altogether, our data suggest that RNA:DNA hybrids may represent a common immunogenic form of nucleic acids in AGS and provide the first evidence of epigenetic perturbations in AGS, furthering the links between AGS and SLE. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08007.001 PMID:26182405

  6. Automated serial extraction of DNA and RNA from biobanked tissue specimens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With increasing biobanking of biological samples, methods for large scale extraction of nucleic acids are in demand. The lack of such techniques designed for extraction from tissues results in a bottleneck in downstream genetic analyses, particularly in the field of cancer research. We have developed an automated procedure for tissue homogenization and extraction of DNA and RNA into separate fractions from the same frozen tissue specimen. A purpose developed magnetic bead based technology to serially extract both DNA and RNA from tissues was automated on a Tecan Freedom Evo robotic workstation. Results 864 fresh-frozen human normal and tumor tissue samples from breast and colon were serially extracted in batches of 96 samples. Yields and quality of DNA and RNA were determined. The DNA was evaluated in several downstream analyses, and the stability of RNA was determined after 9 months of storage. The extracted DNA performed consistently well in processes including PCR-based STR analysis, HaloPlex selection and deep sequencing on an Illumina platform, and gene copy number analysis using microarrays. The RNA has performed well in RT-PCR analyses and maintains integrity upon storage. Conclusions The technology described here enables the processing of many tissue samples simultaneously with a high quality product and a time and cost reduction for the user. This reduces the sample preparation bottleneck in cancer research. The open automation format also enables integration with upstream and downstream devices for automated sample quantitation or storage. PMID:23957867

  7. Stress response in Drosophila subobscura: DNA-RNA hybrids and transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Arbona, M; Cuenca, J B; de Frutos, R

    1992-01-01

    Immunofluorescent techniques have been used in the analysis of DNA-RNA hybrids occurrence and its relationship to transcriptional events on polytene chromosomes of Drosophila subobscura. We have studied the distribution of these hybrids on uninduced/induced chromosomes. Two different indirect immunofluorescence methods for the detection of DNA-RNA hybrids were used. Our data confirm the positive correlation between localization of DNA-RNA hybrids and transcriptional activity by following the Büsen et al procedure (1982). Using the other protocol, which allows chromosomal DNA-RNA to denature and renature, makes DNA-RNA hybrids detectable not exclusively in active chromosomal regions. Taking Büsen as method of choice, this technique allowed to localize the exact transcriptional active sites on puffs: hybrid fluorescence was restricted to marginal or central puff areas. Moreover, no correlation between fluorescence and puffs size was found. However, our studies on induced chromosomes indicate that: 1) the 15DE puff, previously described as t-puff, was not really a heat shock puff, since no transcriptional activity was detected; 2) hybrid fluorescence at 2C and 31CD regions was observed. No labelling was found in these loci in the autoradiography data, reported by other authors.

  8. DNA repair by RNA: Templated, or not templated, that is the question.

    PubMed

    Meers, Chance; Keskin, Havva; Storici, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    Cells are continuously exposed to both endogenous and exogenous sources of genomic stress. To maintain chromosome stability, a variety of mechanisms have evolved to cope with the multitude of genetic abnormalities that can arise over the life of a cell. Still, failures to repair these lesions are the driving force of cancers and other degenerative disorders. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most toxic genetic lesions, inhibiting cell ability to replicate, and are sites of mutations and chromosomal rearrangements. DSB repair is known to proceed via two major mechanisms: homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). HR reliance on the exchange of genetic information between two identical or nearly identical DNA molecules offers increased accuracy. While the preferred substrate for HR in mitotic cells is the sister chromatid, this is limited to the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. However, abundant amounts of homologous genetic substrate may exist throughout the cell cycle in the form of RNA. Considered an uncommon occurrence, the direct transfer of information from RNA to DNA is thought to be limited to special circumstances. Studies have shown that RNA molecules reverse transcribed into cDNA can be incorporated into DNA at DSB sites via a non-templated mechanism by NHEJ or a templated mechanism by HR. In addition, synthetic RNA molecules can directly template the repair of DSBs in yeast and human cells via an HR mechanism. New work suggests that even endogenous transcript RNA can serve as a homologous template to repair a DSB in chromosomal DNA. In this perspective, we will review and discuss the recent advancements in DSB repair by RNA via non-templated and templated mechanisms. We will provide current findings, models and future challenges investigating RNA and its role in DSB repair. PMID:27237587

  9. A pathogenic non-coding RNA induces changes in dynamic DNA methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in host plants

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, German; Castellano, Mayte; Tortosa, Maria; Pallas, Vicente; Gomez, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Viroids are plant-pathogenic non-coding RNAs able to interfere with as yet poorly known host-regulatory pathways and to cause alterations recognized as diseases. The way in which these RNAs coerce the host to express symptoms remains to be totally deciphered. In recent years, diverse studies have proposed a close interplay between viroid-induced pathogenesis and RNA silencing, supporting the belief that viroid-derived small RNAs mediate the post-transcriptional cleavage of endogenous mRNAs by acting as elicitors of symptoms expression. Although the evidence supporting the role of viroid-derived small RNAs in pathogenesis is robust, the possibility that this phenomenon can be a more complex process, also involving viroid-induced alterations in plant gene expression at transcriptional levels, has been considered. Here we show that plants infected with the ‘Hop stunt viroid’ accumulate high levels of sRNAs derived from ribosomal transcripts. This effect was correlated with an increase in the transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursors during infection. We observed that the transcriptional reactivation of rRNA genes correlates with a modification of DNA methylation in their promoter region and revealed that some rRNA genes are demethylated and transcriptionally reactivated during infection. This study reports a previously unknown mechanism associated with viroid (or any other pathogenic RNA) infection in plants providing new insights into aspects of host alterations induced by the viroid infectious cycle. PMID:24178032

  10. Ion binding to biological macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Petukh, Marharyta; Alexov, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Biological macromolecules carry out their functions in water and in the presence of ions. The ions can bind to the macromolecules either specifically or non-specifically, or can simply to be a part of the water phase providing physiological gradient across various membranes. This review outlines the differences between specific and non-specific ion binding in terms of the function and stability of the corresponding macromolecules. Furthermore, the experimental techniques to identify ion positions and computational methods to predict ion binding are reviewed and their advantages compared. It is indicated that specifically bound ions are relatively easier to be revealed while non-specifically associated ions are difficult to predict. In addition, the binding and the residential time of non-specifically bound ions are very much sensitive to the environmental factors in the cells, specifically to the local pH and ion concentration. Since these characteristics differ among the cellular compartments, the non-specific ion binding must be investigated with respect to the sub-cellular localization of the corresponding macromolecule. PMID:25774076

  11. Macromolecules in Undergraduate Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattice, Wayne L.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests the topic of macromolecules and synthetic polymers be included in undergraduate courses. Two macromolecular systems (polyethylene in a state unperturbated by long-range interactions and a polypeptide undergoing a helix-coil transition) are described which are suitable for inclusion in the statistical mechanics section of physical…

  12. The purification and properties of hen oviduct form B DNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Michael; Cox, Ronald F.

    1974-01-01

    Hen oviduct form B DNA-dependent RNA polymerase has been extensively purified and its properties analysed. It seems likely to consist of a mixture of two forms of the type observed in tissues from other species. Furthermore using S1 nuclease to digest single-stranded DNA, we show that although form B can transcribe double-stranded DNA template it has a very strong preference for single-stranded regions. Also the rate of elongation on native DNA in vitro was measured and is an order of magnitude slower than that reported to be operative in vivo. Images PMID:4472377

  13. Affinity purification of DNA and RNA from environmental samples with peptide nucleic acid clamps.

    PubMed

    Chandler, D P; Stults, J R; Cebula, S; Schuck, B L; Weaver, D W; Anderson, K K; Egholm, M; Brockman, F J

    2000-08-01

    Bispeptide nucleic acids (bis-PNAs; PNA clamps), PNA oligomers, and DNA oligonucleotides were evaluated as affinity purification reagents for subfemtomolar 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and rRNA targets in soil, sediment, and industrial air filter nucleic acid extracts. Under low-salt hybridization conditions (10 mM NaPO(4), 5 mM disodium EDTA, and 0.025% sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]) a PNA clamp recovered significantly more target DNA than either PNA or DNA oligomers. The efficacy of PNA clamps and oligomers was generally enhanced in the presence of excess nontarget DNA and in a low-salt extraction-hybridization buffer. Under high-salt conditions (200 mM NaPO(4), 100 mM disodium EDTA, and 0.5% SDS), however, capture efficiencies with the DNA oligomer were significantly greater than with the PNA clamp and PNA oligomer. Recovery and detection efficiencies for target DNA concentrations of > or =100 pg were generally >20% but depended upon the specific probe, solution background, and salt condition. The DNA probe had a lower absolute detection limit of 100 fg of target (830 zM [1 zM = 10(-21) M]) in high-salt buffer. In the absence of exogenous DNA (e.g., soil background), neither the bis-PNA nor the PNA oligomer achieved the same absolute detection limit even under a more favorable low-salt hybridization condition. In the presence of a soil background, however, both PNA probes provided more sensitive absolute purification and detection (830 zM) than the DNA oligomer. In varied environmental samples, the rank order for capture probe performance in high-salt buffer was DNA > PNA > clamp. Recovery of 16S rRNA from environmental samples mirrored quantitative results for DNA target recovery, with the DNA oligomer generating more positive results than either the bis-PNA or PNA oligomer, but PNA probes provided a greater incidence of detection from environmental samples that also contained a higher concentration of nontarget DNA and RNA. Significant interactions between probe

  14. RNA–DNA differences in human mitochondria restore ancestral form of 16S ribosomal RNA

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Yaacov, Dan; Avital, Gal; Levin, Liron; Richards, Allison L.; Hachen, Naomi; Rebolledo Jaramillo, Boris; Nekrutenko, Anton; Zarivach, Raz; Mishmar, Dan

    2013-01-01

    RNA transcripts are generally identical to the underlying DNA sequences. Nevertheless, RNA–DNA differences (RDDs) were found in the nuclear human genome and in plants and animals but not in human mitochondria. Here, by deep sequencing of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and RNA, we identified three RDD sites at mtDNA positions 295 (C-to-U), 13710 (A-to-U, A-to-G), and 2617 (A-to-U, A-to-G). Position 2617, within the 16S rRNA, harbored the most prevalent RDDs (>30% A-to-U and ∼15% A-to-G of the reads in all tested samples). The 2617 RDDs appeared already at the precursor polycistrone mitochondrial transcript. By using traditional Sanger sequencing, we identified the A-to-U RDD in six different cell lines and representative primates (Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pigmaeus, and Macaca mulatta), suggesting conservation of the mechanism generating such RDD. Phylogenetic analysis of more than 1700 vertebrate mtDNA sequences supported a thymine as the primate ancestral allele at position 2617, suggesting that the 2617 RDD recapitulates the ancestral 16S rRNA. Modeling U or G (the RDDs) at position 2617 stabilized the large ribosomal subunit structure in contrast to destabilization by an A (the pre-RDDs). Hence, these mitochondrial RDDs are likely functional. PMID:23913925

  15. Addition of oligonucleotides to the 5'-terminus of DNA by T4 RNA ligase.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, N P; Geballe, A P; Cozzarelli, N R

    1979-01-01

    Bacteriophage T4-induced RNA ligase catalyzes the controlled template-independent addition of RNA to the 5'-phosphoryl end of large DNA molecules. Restriction enzyme-generated fragments of Co1E1 DNA with completely basepaired or cohesive ends and linear single-stranded øX174 viral DNA were all good substrates. DNA molecules from 10 to 6000 nucleotides long were quantitatively joined in an hour to a number of different RNA homopolymers. The most efficient of these was A(pA)5; I(pI)5 and C(pC)5 were also utilized while U(pU)5 was not. The optimum ribohomopolymer length was six nucleotides. Joining of ribohomopolymers between 10 and 20 nucleotides long occurred at approximately 1/2 the maximal rate and a trimer was the shortest substrate. Thus RNA ligase provides a method for generating extensions of predetermined length and base composition at the 5'-end of large DNA molecules that complements the available procedures for extending the 3'-hydroxyl terminus of DNA. Images PMID:375192

  16. Human papilloma virus, DNA methylation and microRNA expression in cervical cancer (Review)

    PubMed Central

    JIMÉNEZ-WENCES, HILDA; PERALTA-ZARAGOZA, OSCAR; FERNÁNDEZ-TILAPA, GLORIA

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease caused by genetic and epigenetic abnormalities that affect gene expression. The progression from precursor lesions to invasive cervical cancer is influenced by persistent human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, which induces changes in the host genome and epigenome. Epigenetic alterations, such as aberrant miRNA expression and changes in DNA methylation status, favor the expression of oncogenes and the silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. Given that some miRNA genes can be regulated through epigenetic mechanisms, it has been proposed that alterations in the methylation status of miRNA promoters could be the driving mechanism behind their aberrant expression in cervical cancer. For these reasons, we assessed the relationship among HPV infection, cellular DNA methylation and miRNA expression. We conclude that alterations in the methylation status of protein-coding genes and various miRNA genes are influenced by HPV infection, the viral genotype, the physical state of the viral DNA, and viral oncogenic risk. Furthermore, HPV induces deregulation of miRNA expression, particularly at loci near fragile sites. This deregulation occurs through the E6 and E7 proteins, which target miRNA transcription factors such as p53. PMID:24737381

  17. Density functional study of the phosphate diester hydrolysis of RNA in RNA/DNA hybrid by RNase HI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Makoto; Nakamura, Haruki; Takano, Yu

    2014-02-01

    Ribonuclease HI (RNase HI) catalyses the non-specific hydrolysis of RNA in an RNA/DNA hybrid. This enzyme is found in almost all organisms and involved in replication initiation and DNA topology restoration. A similar fold has been observed in other enzymes such as DNA transposases. In particular, RNases HI has emerged as important therapeutic targets because the enzymatic activity is absolutely required for proliferation of HIV and other retroviruses. The X-ray crystallographic structures of RNase HI revealed that the Mg2+ ion is essential for the enzymatic reaction and that Asp and Glu coordinate to the Mg2+ ion. There are, however, controversies about the catalytic mechanism of RNase HI, the number of Mg2+ ions, the proton transfer pathway, and the protonation states of the active site residues. In the present study, we have explored the hydrolysis of the phosphate diester group of RNA by RNase HI using density functional theory to elucidate how many Mg2+ ions are required for the catalysis of RNase HI. Our computation demonstrates that both one- and two-metal models show the stepwise hydrolysis pathway via a pentacovalent intermediate. However, the activation barrier of the two-metal model is lower than that of the one-metal model by 11.7 kcal/mol.

  18. In vivo DNA/RNA adduction of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect

    Schnitz, A.R.; O'Connor, J.M. )

    1992-07-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed via two intramuscular injections to either 14C-DMBA for 24 hr or 14C-BaP for 48 hr, after which the livers were removed for DNA extraction and analysis. In the fish exposed to 14C-BaP, 0.2 ng was bound to the DNA, representing 0.5% of the total liver PAH-derived radioactivity and 2.38% of the administered dose. Liver DNA and RNA were found to contain 0.5% of the administered dose, respectively. Liver analysis of rainbow trout exposed to 14C-DMBA demonstrated that 0.4 ng and 0.3 ng were bound to the DNA and RNA, respectively. This represents 1.0% and 0.6% of the liver DMBA burden, respectively. The DNA adduct concentrations formed were comparable to both in vitro and in vivo experiments with both mammals and fishes, indicating that relatively small, environmentally realistic' doses of PAH have the ability to bind significantly to critical cellular macromolecules of young fish in vivo.

  19. RNA/DNA ratio and LPL and MyoD mRNA expressions in muscle of Oreochromis niloticus fed with elevated levels of palm oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayisi, Christian Larbi; Zhao, Jinliang

    2016-02-01

    Palm oil is of great potential as one of the sustainable alternatives to fish oil (FO) in aquafeeds. In this present study, five isonitrogenous diets (32% crude protein) with elevated palm oil levels of 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% were used during an 8-week feeding trial to evaluate its effects on RNA/DNA ratio and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and MyoD mRNA expressions in muscle of Oreochromis niloticus. The results showed that RNA, DNA content as well as ratio of RNA to DNA were significantly affected ( P < 0.05), in each case the highest was recorded in fish group subjected to 6% palm oil level. There was a strong positive correlation between nucleic acid concentration (RNA concentration and RNA: DNA ratio) and specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), while a negative correlation existed between nucleic acid concentration (RNA concentration and RNA: DNA ratio) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The mRNA expressions of LPL and MyoD in muscle were not significantly affected by the different palm oil levels, although the highest expression was observed in fish fed with 6% palm oil level. There also existed a strong positive correlation between the mRNA expression of LPL, MyoD and SGR, PER, while their correlation with FCR was negative. In conclusion, elevated palm oil affected the RNA, DNA concentration as well as RNA/DNA ratio significantly, although the mRNA expression of LPL and MyoD were not affected significantly by elevated palm oil levels.

  20. The cutting edges in DNA repair, licensing, and fidelity: DNA and RNA repair nucleases sculpt DNA to measure twice, cut once.

    PubMed

    Tsutakawa, Susan E; Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien; Tainer, John A

    2014-07-01

    To avoid genome instability, DNA repair nucleases must precisely target the correct damaged substrate before they are licensed to incise. Damage identification is a challenge for all DNA damage response proteins, but especially for nucleases that cut the DNA and necessarily create a cleaved DNA repair intermediate, likely more toxic than the initial damage. How do these enzymes achieve exquisite specificity without specific sequence recognition or, in some cases, without a non-canonical DNA nucleotide? Combined structural, biochemical, and biological analyses of repair nucleases are revealing their molecular tools for damage verification and safeguarding against inadvertent incision. Surprisingly, these enzymes also often act on RNA, which deserves more attention. Here, we review protein-DNA structures for nucleases involved in replication, base excision repair, mismatch repair, double strand break repair (DSBR), and telomere maintenance: apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), Endonuclease IV (Nfo), tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP2), UV Damage endonuclease (UVDE), very short patch repair endonuclease (Vsr), Endonuclease V (Nfi), Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), RNase T and Meiotic recombination 11 (Mre11). DNA and RNA structure-sensing nucleases are essential to life with roles in DNA replication, repair, and transcription. Increasingly these enzymes are employed as advanced tools for synthetic biology and as targets for cancer prognosis and interventions. Currently their structural biology is most fully illuminated for DNA repair, which is also essential to life. How DNA repair enzymes maintain genome fidelity is one of the DNA double helix secrets missed by James Watson and Francis Crick, that is only now being illuminated though structural biology and mutational analyses. Structures reveal motifs for repair nucleases and mechanisms whereby these enzymes follow the old carpenter adage: measure twice, cut once. Furthermore, to measure

  1. The cutting edges in DNA repair, licensing, and fidelity: DNA and RNA repair nucleases sculpt DNA to measure twice, cut once

    PubMed Central

    Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien

    2014-01-01

    To avoid genome instability, DNA repair nucleases must precisely target the correct damaged substrate before they are licensed to incise. Damage identification is a challenge for all DNA damage response proteins, but especially for nucleases that cut the DNA and necessarily create a cleaved DNA repair intermediate, likely more toxic than the initial damage. How do these enzymes achieve exquisite specificity without specific sequence recognition or, in some cases, without a non-canonical DNA nucleotide? Combined structural, biochemical, and biological analyses of repair nucleases are revealing their molecular tools for damage verification and safeguarding against inadvertent incision. Surprisingly, these enzymes also often act on RNA, which deserves more attention. Here, we review protein-DNA structures for nucleases involved in replication, base excision repair, mismatch repair, double strand break repair (DSBR), and telomere maintenance: apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), Endonuclease IV (Nfo), tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP2), UV Damage endonuclease (UVDE), very short patch repair endonuclease (Vsr), Endonuclease V (Nfi), Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), RNase T and Meiotic recombination 11 (Mre11). DNA and RNA structure-sensing nucleases are essential to life with roles in DNA replication, repair, and transcription. Increasingly these enzymes are employed as advanced tools for synthetic biology and as targets for cancer prognosis and interventions. Currently their structural biology is most fully illuminated for DNA repair, which is also essential to life. How DNA repair enzymes maintain genome fidelity is one of the DNA double helix secrets missed by Watson-Crick, that is only now being illuminated though structural biology and mutational analyses. Structures reveal motifs for repair nucleases and mechanisms whereby these enzymes follow the old carpenter adage: measure twice, cut once. Furthermore, to measure twice these nucleases

  2. The distinctive cellular responses to DNA strand breaks caused by a DNA topoisomerase I poison in conjunction with DNA replication and RNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Sakasai, Ryo; Iwabuchi, Kuniyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) inhibits DNA topoisomerase I (Top1) through a non-catalytic mechanism that stabilizes the Top1-DNA cleavage complex (Top1cc) and blocks the DNA re-ligation step, resulting in the accumulation in the genome of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs), which are converted to secondary strand breaks when they collide with the DNA replication and RNA transcription machinery. DNA strand breaks mediated by replication, which have one DNA end, are distinct in repair from the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that have two ends and are caused by ionizing radiation and other agents. In contrast to two-ended DSBs, such one-ended DSBs are preferentially repaired through the homologous recombination pathway. Conversely, the repair of one-ended DSBs by the non-homologous end-joining pathway is harmful for cells and leads to cell death. The choice of repair pathway has a crucial impact on cell fate and influences the efficacy of anticancer drugs such as CPT derivatives. In addition to replication-mediated one-ended DSBs, transcription also generates DNA strand breaks upon collision with the Top1cc. Some reports suggest that transcription-mediated DNA strand breaks correlate with neurodegenerative diseases. However, the details of the repair mechanisms of, and cellular responses to, transcription-mediated DNA strand breaks still remain unclear. In this review, combining our recent results and those of previous reports, we introduce and discuss the responses to CPT-induced DNA damage mediated by DNA replication and RNA transcription.

  3. RNA-Cleaving DNA Enzymes with Altered Regio- or Enantioselectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    In vitro evolution methods were used to obtain DNA enzymes that cleave either a 2',5' - phosphodiester following a wibonucleotide or a 3',5' -phosphodiester following an L-ribonucleotide. Both enzymes can operate in an intermolecular reaction format with multiple turnover. The DNA enzyme that cleaves a 2',5' -phosphodiester exhibits a k(sub cat) of approx. 0.01/ min and catalytic efficiency, k(sub cat)/k(sub m) of approx. 10(exp 5)/ M min. The enzyme that cleaves an L-ribonudeotide is about 10-fold slower and has a catalytic efficiency of approx. 4 x 10(exp 5)/ M min. Both enzymes require a divalent metal cation for their activity and have optimal catalytic rate at pH 7-8 and 35-50 C. In a comparison of each enzyme s activity with either its corresponding substrate that contains an unnatural ribonudeotide or a substrate that instead contains a standard ribonucleotide, the 2',5' -phosphodiester-deaving DNA enzyme exhibited a regioselectivity of 6000- fold, while the L-ribonucleotide-cleaving DNA enzyme exhibited an enantioselectivity of 50-fold. These molecules demonstrate how in vitro evolution can be used to obtain regio- and enantioselective catalysts that exhibit specificities for nonnatural analogues of biological compounds.

  4. Comparison and optimization of methods for the simultaneous extraction of DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Vorreiter, Fränze; Richter, Silke; Peter, Michel; Baumann, Sven; von Bergen, Martin; Tomm, Janina M

    2016-09-01

    The challenge of performing a time-resolved comprehensive analysis of molecular systems has led to the quest to optimize extraction methods. When the size of a biological sample is limited, there is demand for the simultaneous extraction of molecules representing the four areas of "omics": genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here we optimized a protocol for the simultaneous extraction of DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites and compared it with two existing protocols. Our optimization comprised the addition of a methanol/chloroform metabolite purification before the separation of DNA/RNA and proteins. Extracted DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites were quantitatively and/or qualitatively analyzed. Of the three methods, only the newly developed protocol yielded all biomolecule classes of adequate quantity and quality. PMID:27237373

  5. Long noncoding RNA LINP1 regulates double strand DNA break repair in triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youyou; He, Qun; Hu, Zhongyi; Feng, Yi; Fan, Lingling; Tang, Zhaoqing; Yuan, Jiao; Shan, Weiwei; Li, Chunsheng; Hu, Xiaowen; Tanyi, Janos L; Fan, Yi; Huang, Qihong; Montone, Kathleen; Dang, Chi V; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are transcripts that are larger than 200 nucleotides but do not appear to have protein-coding potential, play critical roles during tumorigenesis by functioning as scaffolds to regulate protein-protein, protein-DNA or protein-RNA interactions. Using a clinically guided genetic screening approach, we identified (lncRNA in Non-homologous end joining [NHEJ] pathway 1) as a lncRNA that is overexpressed in human triple-negative breast cancer. We found that LINP1 enhances double-strand DNA break repair by serving as a scaffold that links Ku80 and DNA-PKcs, thereby coordinating the NHEJ pathway. Importantly, blocking LINP1, which is regulated by the p53 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, increases sensitivity of tumor cell response to radiotherapy in breast cancer. PMID:27111890

  6. Efficient Automated Solid-Phase Synthesis of DNA and RNA 5'-Triphosphates.

    PubMed

    Sarac, Ivo; Meier, Chris

    2015-11-01

    A fast, high-yielding and reliable method for the synthesis of DNA- and RNA 5'-triphosphates is reported. After synthesizing DNA or RNA oligonucleotides by automated oligonucleotide synthesis, 5-chloro-saligenyl-N,N-diisopropylphosphoramidite was coupled to the 5'-end. Oxidation of the formed 5'-phosphite using the same oxidizing reagent used in standard oligonucleotide synthesis led to 5'-cycloSal-oligonucleotides. Reaction of the support-bonded 5'-cycloSal-oligonucleotide with pyrophosphate yielded the corresponding 5'-triphosphates. The 5'-triphosphorylated DNA and RNA oligonucleotides were obtained after cleavage from the support in high purity and excellent yields. The whole reaction sequence was adapted to be used on a standard oligonucleotide synthesizer.

  7. RNA:DNA hybrids are a novel molecular pattern sensed by TLR9

    PubMed Central

    Rigby, Rachel E; Webb, Lauren M; Mackenzie, Karen J; Li, Yue; Leitch, Andrea; Reijns, Martin A M; Lundie, Rachel J; Revuelta, Ailsa; Davidson, Donald J; Diebold, Sandra; Modis, Yorgo; MacDonald, Andrew S; Jackson, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    The sensing of nucleic acids by receptors of the innate immune system is a key component of antimicrobial immunity. RNA:DNA hybrids, as essential intracellular replication intermediates generated during infection, could therefore represent a class of previously uncharacterised pathogen-associated molecular patterns sensed by pattern recognition receptors. Here we establish that RNA:DNA hybrids containing viral-derived sequences efficiently induce pro-inflammatory cytokine and antiviral type I interferon production in dendritic cells. We demonstrate that MyD88-dependent signalling is essential for this cytokine response and identify TLR9 as a specific sensor of RNA:DNA hybrids. Hybrids therefore represent a novel molecular pattern sensed by the innate immune system and so could play an important role in host response to viruses and the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. PMID:24514026

  8. Effect of seven days of spaceflight on hindlimb muscle protein, RNA and DNA in adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of seven days of spaceflight on skeletal muscle (soleus, gastrocnemius, EDL) content of protein, RNA and DNA were determined in adult rats. Whereas total protein contents were reduced in parallel with muscle weights, myofibrillar protein appeared to be more affected. There were no significant changes in absolute DNA contents, but a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in DNA concentration (microgram/milligram) in soleus muscles from flight rats. Absolute RNA contents were significantly (P less than 0.025) decreased in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of flight rats, with RNA concentrations reduced 15-30 percent. These results agree with previous ground-based observations on the suspended rat with unloaded hindlimbs and support continued use of this model.

  9. INFLUENCE OF MACROMOLECULES ON CHEMICAL TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macromolecules in the pore fluid influence the mobility of hydrophobic compounds through soils. his study evaluated the significance of macromolecules in facilitating chemical transport under laboratory conditions. Partition coefficients between 14C-labeled hexachlorobenzene and ...

  10. Hairpin DNA-functionalized gold colloids for the imaging of mRNA in live cells.

    PubMed

    Jayagopal, Ashwath; Halfpenny, Kristin C; Perez, Jonas W; Wright, David W

    2010-07-21

    A strategy is presented for the live cell imaging of messenger RNA using hairpin DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles (hAuNP). hAuNP improve upon technologies for studying RNA trafficking by their efficient internalization within live cells without transfection reagents, improved resistance to DNase degradation, low cytotoxicity, and the incorporation of hairpin DNA molecular beacons to confer high specificity and sensitivity to the target mRNA sequence. Furthermore, the targeted nanoparticle-beacon construct, once bound to the target mRNA sequence, remains hybridized to the target, enabling spatial and temporal studies of RNA trafficking and downstream analysis. Targeted hAuNP exhibited high specificity for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH) mRNA in live normal HEp-2 cells and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) mRNA in live RSV-infected HEp-2 cells with high target to background ratios. Multiplexed fluorescence imaging of distinct mRNAs in live cells and simultaneous imaging of mRNAs with immunofluorescently stained protein targets in fixed cells was enabled by appropriate selection of molecular beacon fluorophores. Pharmacologic analysis suggested that hAuNP were internalized within cells via membrane-nanoparticle interactions. hAuNP are a promising approach for the real-time analysis of mRNA transport and processing in live cells for elucidation of biological processes and disease pathogenesis.

  11. Rolling circle amplification detection of RNA and DNA

    DOEpatents

    Christian, Allen T.; Pattee, Melissa S.; Attix, Cristina M.; Tucker, James D.

    2004-08-31

    Rolling circle amplification (RCA) has been useful for detecting point mutations in isolated nucleic acids, but its application in cytological preparations has been problematic. By pretreating cells with a combination of restriction enzymes and exonucleases, we demonstrate RCA in solution and in situ to detect gene copy number and single base mutations. It can also detect and quantify transcribed RNA in individual cells, making it a versatile tool for cell-based assays.

  12. Not just "a clever way to detect whether DNA really made RNA": The invention of DNA-RNA hybridization and its outcome.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Susie

    2015-10-01

    The invention of DNA-RNA hybridization in 1960 by Ben Hall and Sol Spiegelman had a powerful impact on the theory and discourse of molecular biology. Yet, despite its importance, the story of this invention has barely been told. Hybridization allowed biologists to bridge the theoretical realm and the material world of organisms, to correlate a hypothetical concept of biological information transfer with a mechanism capable of making an RNA copy of DNA. During the early 1960s, Spiegelman and coworkers employed hybridization to investigate the origin of RNAs found in cells. They operationally defined messenger RNA and elucidated several aspects of genome organization. For Spiegelman, this was the culmination of his longstanding interest in the mechanism of enzyme/protein synthesis; for Hall, it was the beginning of a successful career in genetics. Other scientists immediately recognized the power of the technique and introduced improvements. In 1965, Gillespie and Spiegelman combined several modifications and described a procedure for hybridization that became standard. Since the 1970s, it has become an essential tool in biology and in biotechnology, and a core component in molecular techniques such as DNA microarrays. Notwithstanding its current success, the inventors' names have disappeared from the literature. This curiosity is discussed. PMID:26209888

  13. Wheat DNA Primase (RNA Primer Synthesis in Vitro, Structural Studies by Photochemical Cross-Linking, and Modulation of Primase Activity by DNA Polymerases).

    PubMed Central

    Laquel, P.; Litvak, S.; Castroviejo, M.

    1994-01-01

    DNA primase synthesizes short RNA primers used by DNA polymerases to initiate DNA synthesis. Two proteins of approximately 60 and 50 kD were recognized by specific antibodies raised against yeast primase subunits, suggesting a high degree of analogy between wheat and yeast primase subunits. Gel-filtration chromatography of wheat primase showed two active forms of 60 and 110 to 120 kD. Ultraviolet-induced cross-linking with radioactive oligothymidilate revealed a highly labeled protein of 60 kD. After limited trypsin digestion of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) primase, a major band of 48 kD and two minor bands of 38 and 17 kD were observed. In the absence of DNA polymerases, the purified primase synthesizes long RNA products. The size of the RNA product synthesized by wheat primase is considerably reduced by the presence of DNA polymerases, suggesting a modulatory effect of the association between these two enzymes. Lowering the primase concentration in the assay also favored short RNA primer synthesis. Several properties of the wheat DNA primase using oligoadenylate [oligo(rA)]-primed or unprimed polythymidilate templates were studied. The ability of wheat primase, without DNA polymerases, to elongate an oligo(rA) primer to long RNA products depends on the primer size, temperature, and the divalent cation concentration. Thus, Mn2+ ions led to long RNA products in a very wide range of concentrations, whereas with Mg2+ long products were observed around 15 mM. We studied the ability of purified wheat DNA polymerases to initiate DNA synthesis from an RNA primer: wheat DNA polymerase A showed the highest activity, followed by DNA polymerases B and CII, whereas DNA polymerase CI was unable to initiate DNA synthesis from an RNA primer. Results are discussed in terms of understanding the role of these polymerases in DNA replication in plants. PMID:12232187

  14. Discriminative Prediction of A-To-I RNA Editing Events from DNA Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiangming; Singh, Pratibha; Bagge, Annika; Valtat, Bérengère; Vikman, Petter; Spégel, Peter; Mulder, Hindrik

    2016-01-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional alteration of RNA sequences that, via insertions, deletions or base substitutions, can affect protein structure as well as RNA and protein expression. Recently, it has been suggested that RNA editing may be more frequent than previously thought. A great impediment, however, to a deeper understanding of this process is the paramount sequencing effort that needs to be undertaken to identify RNA editing events. Here, we describe an in silico approach, based on machine learning, that ameliorates this problem. Using 41 nucleotide long DNA sequences, we show that novel A-to-I RNA editing events can be predicted from known A-to-I RNA editing events intra- and interspecies. The validity of the proposed method was verified in an independent experimental dataset. Using our approach, 203 202 putative A-to-I RNA editing events were predicted in the whole human genome. Out of these, 9% were previously reported. The remaining sites require further validation, e.g., by targeted deep sequencing. In conclusion, the approach described here is a useful tool to identify potential A-to-I RNA editing events without the requirement of extensive RNA sequencing. PMID:27764195

  15. Experimental approaches for measuring pKa's in RNA and DNA.

    PubMed

    Thaplyal, Pallavi; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2014-01-01

    RNA and DNA carry out diverse functions in biology including catalysis, splicing, gene regulation, and storage of genetic information. Interest has grown in understanding how nucleic acids perform such sophisticated functions given their limited molecular repertoire. RNA can fold into diverse shapes that often perturb pKa values and allow it to ionize appreciably under biological conditions, thereby extending its molecular diversity. The goal of this chapter is to enable experimental measurement of pKa's in RNA and DNA. A number of experimental methods for measuring pKa values in RNA and DNA have been developed over the last 10 years, including RNA cleavage kinetics; UV-, fluorescence-, and NMR-detected pH titrations; and Raman crystallography. We begin with general considerations for choosing a pKa assay and then describe experimental conditions, advantages, and disadvantages for these assays. Potential pitfalls in measuring a pKa are provided including the presence of apparent pKa's due to a kinetic pKa or coupled acid- and alkali-promoted RNA unfolding, as well as degradation of RNA, precipitation of metal hydroxides and poor baselines. Use of multiple data fitting procedures and the study of appropriate mutants are described as ways to avoid some of these pitfalls. Application of these experimental methods to RNA and DNA will increase the number of available nucleic acid pKa values in the literature, which should deepen insight into biology and provide benchmarks for pKa calculations. Future directions for measuring pKa's in nucleic acids are discussed.

  16. Effects of long DNA folding and small RNA stem–loop in thermophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Yusuke T.; Tlusty, Tsvi; Libchaber, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In thermophoresis, with the fluid at rest, suspensions move along a gradient of temperature. In an aqueous solution, a PEG polymer suspension is depleted from the hot region and builds a concentration gradient. In this gradient, DNA polymers of different sizes can be separated. In this work the effect of the polymer structure for genomic DNA and small RNA is studied. For genome-size DNA, individual single T4 DNA is visualized and tracked in a PEG solution under a temperature gradient built by infrared laser focusing. We find that T4 DNA follows steps of depletion, ring-like localization, and accumulation patterns as the PEG volume fraction is increased. Furthermore, a coil–globule transition for DNA is observed for a large enough PEG volume fraction. This drastically affects the localization position of T4 DNA. In a similar experiment, with small RNA such as ribozymes we find that the stem–loop folding of such polymers has important consequences. The RNA polymers having a long and rigid stem accumulate, whereas a polymer with stem length less than 4 base pairs shows depletion. Such measurements emphasize the crucial contribution of the double-stranded parts of RNA for thermal separation and selection under a temperature gradient. Because huge temperature gradients are present around hydrothermal vents in the deep ocean seafloor, this process might be relevant, at the origin of life, in an RNA world hypothesis. Ribozymes could be selected from a pool of random sequences depending on the length of their stems. PMID:23071341

  17. Structural basis for the recognition of guide RNA and target DNA heteroduplex by Argonaute

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Tomohiro; Ito, Kosuke; Murakami, Ryo; Uchiumi, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Argonaute proteins are key players in the gene silencing mechanisms mediated by small nucleic acids in all domains of life from bacteria to eukaryotes. However, little is known about the Argonaute protein that recognizes guide RNA/target DNA. Here, we determine the 2 Å crystal structure of Rhodobacter sphaeroides Argonaute (RsAgo) in a complex with 18-nucleotide guide RNA and its complementary target DNA. The heteroduplex maintains Watson–Crick base-pairing even in the 3′-region of the guide RNA between the N-terminal and PIWI domains, suggesting a recognition mode by RsAgo for stable interaction with the target strand. In addition, the MID/PIWI interface of RsAgo has a system that specifically recognizes the 5′ base-U of the guide RNA, and the duplex-recognition loop of the PAZ domain is important for the DNA silencing activity. Furthermore, we show that Argonaute discriminates the nucleic acid type (RNA/DNA) by recognition of the duplex structure of the seed region. PMID:27325485

  18. Novel extraction strategy of ribosomal RNA and genomic DNA from cheese for PCR-based investigations.

    PubMed

    Bonaïti, Catherine; Parayre, Sandrine; Irlinger, Françoise

    2006-03-15

    Cheese microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, constitute a complex ecosystem that plays a central role in cheeses ripening. The molecular study of cheese microbial diversity and activity is essential but the extraction of high quality nucleic acid may be problematic: the cheese samples are characterised by a strong buffering capacity which negatively influenced the yield of the extracted rRNA. The objective of this study is to develop an effective method for the direct and simultaneous isolation of yeast and bacterial ribosomal RNA and genomic DNA from the same cheese samples. DNA isolation was based on a protocol used for nucleic acids isolation from anaerobic digestor, without preliminary washing step with the combined use of the action of chaotropic agent (acid guanidinium thiocyanate), detergents (SDS, N-lauroylsarcosine), chelating agent (EDTA) and a mechanical method (bead beating system). The DNA purification was carried out by two washing steps of phenol-chloroform. RNA was isolated successfully after the second acid extraction step by recovering it from the phenolic phase of the first acid extraction. The novel method yielded pure preparation of undegraded RNA accessible for reverse transcription-PCR. The extraction protocol of genomic DNA and rRNA was applicable to complex ecosystem of different cheese matrices.

  19. Using Amino-Labeled Nucleotide Probes for Simultaneous Single Molecule RNA-DNA FISH

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Shao, Fangwei; Zhang, Li-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Using amino-labeled oligonucleotide probes, we established a simple, robust and low-noise method for simultaneous detection of RNA and DNA by fluorescence in situ hybridization, a highly useful tool to study the large pool of long non-coding RNAs being identified in the current research. With probes either chemically or biologically synthesized, we demonstrate that the method can be applied to study a wide range of RNA and DNA targets at the single-cell and single-molecule level in cellular contexts. PMID:25226542

  20. A streamlined protocol for extracting RNA and genomic DNA from archived human blood and muscle.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Gipsy; Vera, Santiago; Elam, Marshall B; Raghow, Rajendra

    2015-04-01

    We combined the TRIzol method of nucleic acid extraction with QIAamp columns to achieve coextraction of RNA and genomic DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and biopsied skeletal muscle, both stored at -80 °C for many months. Total RNA was recovered from the upper aqueous phase of TRIzol. The interphase and organic phases were precipitated with ethanol, digested with proteinase K, and filtered through QIAamp MinElute columns to recover DNA. The combined protocol yielded excellent quality and quantity of nucleic acids from archived human PBMCs and muscle and may be easily adapted for other tissues.

  1. The effect of charge-reversal amphiphile spacer composition on DNA and siRNA delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Xiang; Prata, Carla A. H.; McIntosh, Thomas J.; Barthélémy, Philippe; Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    A series of charge-reversal amphiphiles with different spacers separating the head group from the hydrophobic chains are described for delivery of DNA and siRNA. Among them, the amphiphiles possessing a glycine spacer (e.g., B-GlyGly) showed effective DNA transfection in CHO and NIH 3T3 cells as well as siRNA gene knockdown in HepG2 and UASMC cells. Ethidium bromide quenching assays revealed that DNA was released the fastest from the lipoplex of B-GlyGly in the presence of esterase. Also, X-ray diffraction results indicated that the DNA was located between the adjacent lipid bilayers in the lipoplex of B-GlyGly. These distinct features appear to be required for high transfection activity. PMID:20433165

  2. Structural Insights into Conformation Differences between DNA/TNA and RNA/TNA Chimeric Duplexes.

    PubMed

    Anosova, Irina; Kowal, Ewa A; Sisco, Nicholas J; Sau, Sujay; Liao, Jen-Yu; Bala, Saikat; Rozners, Eriks; Egli, Martin; Chaput, John C; Van Horn, Wade D

    2016-09-15

    Threose nucleic acid (TNA) is an artificial genetic polymer capable of heredity and evolution, and is studied in the context of RNA chemical etiology. It has a four-carbon threose backbone in place of the five-carbon ribose of natural nucleic acids, yet forms stable antiparallel complementary Watson-Crick homoduplexes and heteroduplexes with DNA and RNA. TNA base-pairs more favorably with RNA than with DNA but the reason is unknown. Here, we employed NMR, ITC, UV, and CD to probe the structural and dynamic properties of heteroduplexes of RNA/TNA and DNA/TNA. The results indicate that TNA templates the structure of heteroduplexes, thereby forcing an A-like helical geometry. NMR measurement of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for individual base pair opening events reveal unexpected asymmetric "breathing" fluctuations of the DNA/TNA helix. The results suggest that DNA is unable to fully adapt to the conformational constraints of the rigid TNA backbone and that nucleic acid breathing dynamics are determined from both backbone and base contributions. PMID:27347671

  3. The splicing factor SR45 affects the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ausin, Israel; Greenberg, Maxim V C; Li, Carey Fei; Jacobsen, Steven E

    2012-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark frequently associated with silencing of genes and transposons. In Arabidopsis, the establishment of cytosine DNA methylation is performed by DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE 2 (DRM2). DRM2 is guided to target sequences by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in a pathway termed RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). We performed a screen for mutants that affect the establishment of DNA methylation by investigating genes that contain predicted RNA-interacting domains. After transforming FWA into 429 T-DNA insertion lines, we assayed for mutants that exhibited a late-flowering phenotype due to hypomethylated, thus ectopically expressed, copies of FWA. A T-DNA insertion line within the coding region of the spliceosome gene SR45 (sr45-1) flowered late after FWA transformation. Additionally, sr45-1 mutants display defects in the maintenance of DNA methylation. DNA methylation establishment and maintenance defects present in sr45-1 mutants are enhanced in dcl3-1 mutant background, suggesting a synergistic cooperation between SR45 and DICER-LIKE3 (DCL3) in the RdDM pathway. PMID:22274613

  4. The splicing factor SR45 affects the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ausin, Israel; Greenberg, Maxim V.C.; Li, Carey Fei; Jacobsen, Steven E.

    2012-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark frequently associated with silencing of genes and transposons. In Arabidopsis, the establishment of cytosine DNA methylation is performed by DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE 2 (DRM2). DRM2 is guided to target sequences by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in a pathway termed RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). We performed a screen for mutants that affect the establishment of DNA methylation by investigating genes that contain predicted RNA-interacting domains. After transforming FWA into 429 T-DNA insertion lines, we assayed for mutants that exhibited a late-flowering phenotype due to hypomethylated, thus ectopically expressed, copies of FWA. A T-DNA insertion line within the coding region of the spliceosome gene SR45 (sr45-1) flowered late after FWA transformation. Additionally, sr45-1 mutants display defects in the maintenance of DNA methylation. DNA methylation establishment and maintenance defects present in sr45-1 mutants are enhanced in dcl3-1 mutant background, suggesting a synergistic cooperation between SR45 and DICER-LIKE3 (DCL3) in the RdDM pathway. PMID:22274613

  5. Regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell autophagy by DNA nanotube-conjugated mTOR siRNA.

    PubMed

    You, Zaichun; Qian, Hang; Wang, Changzheng; He, Binfeng; Yan, Jiawei; Mao, Chengde; Wang, Guansong

    2015-10-01

    The efficient delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA) is an enormous challenge in the field of gene therapy. Herein, we report a delivery nanosystem based on programmed DNA self-assembly mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) siRNA-loaded DNA nanotubes (DNA-NTs). We demonstrate that these siRNA-DNA-NTs can be effectively transfected into pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) via endocytosis; and that the loaded mTOR siRNA can induce obvious autophagy and inhibit cell growth under both normal and hypoxic conditions. Moreover, we found that mTOR siRNA can control the autophagy and proliferation of PASMCs under hypoxic condition, suggesting a potential therapeutic application for mTOR siRNA in diseases involving abnormal autophagy in PASMCs.

  6. INVOLVED IN DE NOVO 2-containing complex involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Ausin, Israel; Greenberg, Maxim V.C.; Simanshu, Dhirendra K.; Hale, Christopher J.; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Simon, Stacey A.; Lee, Tzuu-fen; Feng, Suhua; Española, Sophia D.; Meyers, Blake C.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Jacobsen, Steven E.

    2012-10-23

    At least three pathways control maintenance of DNA cytosine methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway is solely responsible for establishment of this silencing mark. We previously described INVOLVED IN DE NOVO 2 (IDN2) as being an RNA-binding RdDM component that is required for DNA methylation establishment. In this study, we describe the discovery of two partially redundant proteins that are paralogous to IDN2 and that form a stable complex with IDN2 in vivo. Null mutations in both genes, termed IDN2-LIKE 1 and IDN2-LIKE 2 (IDNL1 and IDNL2), result in a phenotype that mirrors, but does not further enhance, the idn2 mutant phenotype. Genetic analysis suggests that this complex acts in a step in the downstream portion of the RdDM pathway. We also have performed structural analysis showing that the IDN2 XS domain adopts an RNA recognition motif (RRM) fold. Finally, genome-wide DNA methylation and expression analysis confirms the placement of the IDN proteins in an RdDM pathway that affects DNA methylation and transcriptional control at many sites in the genome. Results from this study identify and describe two unique components of the RdDM machinery, adding to our understanding of DNA methylation control in the Arabidopsis genome.

  7. Barcoded cDNA library preparation for small RNA profiling by next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Markus; Renwick, Neil; Farazi, Thalia A; Mihailović, Aleksandra; Pena, John T G; Tuschl, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    The characterization of post-transcriptional gene regulation by small regulatory (20-30 nt) RNAs, particularly miRNAs and piRNAs, has become a major focus of research in recent years. A prerequisite for characterizing small RNAs is their identification and quantification across different developmental stages, and in normal and disease tissues, as well as model cell lines. Here we present a step-by-step protocol for generating barcoded small RNA cDNA libraries compatible with Illumina HiSeq sequencing, thereby facilitating miRNA and other small RNA profiling of large sample collections.

  8. Spatiotemporal Control of Type III-A CRISPR-Cas Immunity: Coupling DNA Degradation with the Target RNA Recognition.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskiene, Migle; Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Kostiuk, Georgij; Venclovas, Česlovas; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2016-04-21

    Streptococcus thermophilus (St) type III-A CRISPR-Cas system restricts MS2 RNA phage and cuts RNA in vitro. However, the CRISPR array spacers match DNA phages, raising the question: does the St CRISPR-Cas system provide immunity by erasing phage mRNA or/and by eliminating invading DNA? We show that it does both. We find that (1) base-pairing between crRNA and target RNA activates single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) degradation by StCsm; (2) ssDNase activity is confined to the HD-domain of Cas10; (3) target RNA cleavage by the Csm3 RNase suppresses Cas10 DNase activity, ensuring temporal control of DNA degradation; and (4) base-pairing between crRNA 5'-handle and target RNA 3'-flanking sequence inhibits Cas10 ssDNase to prevent self-targeting. We propose that upon phage infection, crRNA-guided StCsm binding to the emerging transcript recruits Cas10 DNase to the actively transcribed phage DNA, resulting in degradation of both the transcript and phage DNA, but not the host DNA. PMID:27105119

  9. Spatiotemporal Control of Type III-A CRISPR-Cas Immunity: Coupling DNA Degradation with the Target RNA Recognition.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskiene, Migle; Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Kostiuk, Georgij; Venclovas, Česlovas; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2016-04-21

    Streptococcus thermophilus (St) type III-A CRISPR-Cas system restricts MS2 RNA phage and cuts RNA in vitro. However, the CRISPR array spacers match DNA phages, raising the question: does the St CRISPR-Cas system provide immunity by erasing phage mRNA or/and by eliminating invading DNA? We show that it does both. We find that (1) base-pairing between crRNA and target RNA activates single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) degradation by StCsm; (2) ssDNase activity is confined to the HD-domain of Cas10; (3) target RNA cleavage by the Csm3 RNase suppresses Cas10 DNase activity, ensuring temporal control of DNA degradation; and (4) base-pairing between crRNA 5'-handle and target RNA 3'-flanking sequence inhibits Cas10 ssDNase to prevent self-targeting. We propose that upon phage infection, crRNA-guided StCsm binding to the emerging transcript recruits Cas10 DNase to the actively transcribed phage DNA, resulting in degradation of both the transcript and phage DNA, but not the host DNA.

  10. Cytosolic DNA triggers mitochondrial apoptosis via DNA damage signaling proteins independently of AIM2 and RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Michael; Wunderlich, Michael; Besch, Robert; Poeck, Hendrik; Willms, Simone; Schwantes, Astrid; Kremer, Melanie; Sutter, Gerd; Endres, Stefan; Schmidt, Andreas; Rothenfusser, Simon

    2012-01-01

    A key host response to limit microbial spread is the induction of cell death when foreign nucleic acids are sensed within infected cells. In mouse macrophages, transfected DNA or infection with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) can trigger cell death via the absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome. In this article, we show that nonmyeloid human cell types lacking a functional AIM2 inflammasome still die in response to cytosolic delivery of different DNAs or infection with MVA. This cell death induced by foreign DNA is independent of caspase-8 and carries features of mitochondrial apoptosis: dependence on BAX, APAF-1, and caspase-9. Although it does not require the IFN pathway known to be triggered by infection with MVA or transfected DNA via polymerase III and retinoid acid-induced gene I-like helicases, it shows a strong dependence on components of the DNA damage signaling pathway: cytosolic delivery of DNA or infection with MVA leads to phosphorylation of p53 (serines 15 and 46) and autophosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM); depleting p53 or ATM with small interfering RNA or inhibiting the ATM/ATM-related kinase family by caffeine strongly reduces apoptosis. Taken together, our findings suggest that a pathway activating DNA damage signaling plays an important independent role in detecting intracellular foreign DNA, thereby complementing the induction of IFN and activation of the AIM2 inflammasome. PMID:22140256

  11. When you can't trust the DNA: RNA editing changes transcript sequences.

    PubMed

    Knoop, Volker

    2011-02-01

    RNA editing describes targeted sequence alterations in RNAs so that the transcript sequences differ from their DNA template. Since the original discovery of RNA editing in trypanosomes nearly 25 years ago more than a dozen such processes of nucleotide insertions, deletions, and exchanges have been identified in evolutionarily widely separated groups of the living world including plants, animals, fungi, protists, bacteria, and viruses. In many cases gene expression in mitochondria is affected, but RNA editing also takes place in chloroplasts and in nucleocytosolic genetic environments. While some RNA editing systems largely seem to repair defect genes (cryptogenes), others have obvious functions in modulating gene activities. The present review aims for an overview on the current states of research in the different systems of RNA editing by following a historic timeline along the respective original discoveries.

  12. Base Pair Fraying in Molecular Dynamics Simulations of DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Zgarbová, Marie; Otyepka, Michal; Šponer, Jiří; Lankaš, Filip; Jurečka, Petr

    2014-08-12

    Terminal base pairs of DNA and RNA molecules in solution are known to undergo frequent transient opening events (fraying). Accurate modeling of this process is important because of its involvement in nucleic acid end recognition and enzymatic catalysis. In this article, we describe fraying in molecular dynamics simulations with the ff99bsc0, ff99bsc0χOL3, and ff99bsc0χOL4 force fields, both for DNA and RNA molecules. Comparison with the experiment showed that while some features of fraying are consistent with the available data, others indicate potential problems with the force field description. In particular, multiple noncanonical structures are formed at the ends of the DNA and RNA duplexes. Among them are tWC/sugar edge pair, C-H edge/Watson-Crick pair, and stacked geometries, in which the terminal bases are stacked above each other. These structures usually appear within the first tens to hundreds of nanoseconds and substantially limit the usefulness of the remaining part of the simulation due to geometry distortions that are transferred to several neighboring base pairs ("end effects"). We show that stability of the noncanonical structures in ff99bsc0 may be partly linked to inaccurate glycosidic (χ) torsion potentials that overstabilize the syn region and allow for rapid anti to syn transitions. The RNA refined glycosidic torsion potential χOL3 provides an improved description and substantially more stable MD simulations of RNA molecules. In the case of DNA, the χOL4 correction gives only partial improvement. None of the tested force fields provide a satisfactory description of the terminal regions, indicating that further improvement is needed to achieve realistic modeling of fraying in DNA and RNA molecules. PMID:26588288

  13. Fixation conditions for DNA and RNA in situ hybridization: a reassessment of molecular morphology dogma.

    PubMed Central

    Tbakhi, A.; Totos, G.; Hauser-Kronberger, C.; Pettay, J.; Baunoch, D.; Hacker, G. W.; Tubbs, R. R.

    1998-01-01

    Neutral buffered formalin (NBF) (4% neutral buffered formaldehyde) has been advocated by most investigators as the primary fixative of choice for in situ hybridization (ISH), and specific anecdotal cautions interdicting the use of precipitating fixatives, which otherwise may offer certain advantages such as superior nuclear detail, are common. Few systematic studies addressing ISH fixation conditions have been published. We reasoned that heavy metals present in some precipitating fixatives may compromise duplex formation during ISH. Cell lines containing known viral gene content (CaSki, 200 to 600 human papilloma virus 16 copies/cell, and SiHa, 1 to 2 human papilloma virus 16 copies/cell) and two negative cell lines (K562 and MOLT 4) were expanded to >10(10) and pellets fixed in NBF, zinc formalin, B5, and Bouin's and Hollande's solutions, and subjected to DNA ISH using biotinylated genomic probes. Ten tissue biopsies fixed in both Hollande's and NBF solutions were also evaluated for human papilloma virus content using DNA ISH. Additionally, 17 cases of Hodgkin's disease fixed in B5 and formalin were compared for Epstein-Barr encoded RNA detection using RNA ISH with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled oligonucleotides. Catalyzed reporter deposition combined with Streptavidin-Nanogold staining and silver acetate autometallography (Catalyzed reporter deposition-Ng-autometallography ISH) and a conventional indirect alkaline phosphatase method were used for detection for both DNA and RNA. Contaminating heavy metals entrapped in fixed tissues were removed by two exposures to Lugol's iodine. Results for both DNA and RNA ISH comparing B5 and NBF fixatives were virtually identical. Hollande's, Bouin's, B5, and zinc formalin fixed tissue showed results indistinguishable from NBF fixed tissue in DNA ISH. Precipitating fixatives such as B5 and Hollande's solution may be used for DNA and RNA ISH under appropriate conditions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9422521

  14. Non-Coding RNA: Sequence-Specific Guide for Chromatin Modification and DNA Damage Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Francia, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin conformation shapes the environment in which our genome is transcribed into RNA. Transcription is a source of DNA damage, thus it often occurs concomitantly to DNA damage signaling. Growing amounts of evidence suggest that different types of RNAs can, independently from their protein-coding properties, directly affect chromatin conformation, transcription and splicing, as well as promote the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. Therefore, transcription paradoxically functions to both threaten and safeguard genome integrity. On the other hand, DNA damage signaling is known to modulate chromatin to suppress transcription of the surrounding genetic unit. It is thus intriguing to understand how transcription can modulate DDR signaling while, in turn, DDR signaling represses transcription of chromatin around the DNA lesion. An unexpected player in this field is the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery, which play roles in transcription, splicing and chromatin modulation in several organisms. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and several protein factors involved in the RNAi pathway are well known master regulators of chromatin while only recent reports show their involvement in DDR. Here, we discuss the experimental evidence supporting the idea that ncRNAs act at the genomic loci from which they are transcribed to modulate chromatin, DDR signaling and DNA repair. PMID:26617633

  15. De novo reconstruction of plant RNA and DNA virus genomes from viral siRNAs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In antiviral defense, plants produce massive quantities of 21-24 nucleotide siRNAs. Here we demonstrate that the complete genomes of DNA and RNA viruses and viroids can be reconstructed by deep sequencing and de novo assembly of viral/viroid siRNAs from experimentally- and naturally-infected plants....

  16. Discovery and design of DNA and RNA ligase inhibitors in infectious microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Robert V.; Amaro, Rommie E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Members of the nucleotidyltransferase superfamily known as DNA and RNA ligases carry out the enzymatic process of polynucleotide ligation. These guardians of genomic integrity share a three-step ligation mechanism, as well as common core structural elements. Both DNA and RNA ligases have experienced a surge of recent interest as chemotherapeutic targets for the treatment of a range of diseases, including bacterial infection, cancer, and the diseases caused by the protozoan parasites known as trypanosomes. Objective In this review, we will focus on efforts targeting pathogenic microorganisms; specifically, bacterial NAD+-dependent DNA ligases, which are promising broad-spectrum antibiotic targets, and ATP-dependent RNA editing ligases from Trypanosoma brucei, the species responsible for the devastating neurodegenerative disease, African sleeping sickness. Conclusion High quality crystal structures of both NAD+-dependent DNA ligase and the Trypanosoma brucei RNA editing ligase have facilitated the development of a number of promising leads. For both targets, further progress will require surmounting permeability issues and improving selectivity and affinity. PMID:20354588

  17. Pericentromeric satellite repeat expansions through RNA-derived DNA intermediates in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bersani, Francesca; Lee, Eunjung; Kharchenko, Peter V.; Xu, Andrew W.; Liu, Mingzhu; Xega, Kristina; MacKenzie, Olivia C.; Brannigan, Brian W.; Wittner, Ben S.; Jung, Hyunchul; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Park, Peter J.; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Ting, David T.; Haber, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant transcription of the pericentromeric human satellite II (HSATII) repeat is present in a wide variety of epithelial cancers. In deriving experimental systems to study its deregulation, we observed that HSATII expression is induced in colon cancer cells cultured as xenografts or under nonadherent conditions in vitro, but it is rapidly lost in standard 2D cultures. Unexpectedly, physiological induction of endogenous HSATII RNA, as well as introduction of synthetic HSATII transcripts, generated cDNA intermediates in the form of DNA/RNA hybrids. Single molecule sequencing of tumor xenografts showed that HSATII RNA-derived DNA (rdDNA) molecules are stably incorporated within pericentromeric loci. Suppression of RT activity using small molecule inhibitors reduced HSATII copy gain. Analysis of whole-genome sequencing data revealed that HSATII copy number gain is a common feature in primary human colon tumors and is associated with a lower overall survival. Together, our observations suggest that cancer-associated derepression of specific repetitive sequences can promote their RNA-driven genomic expansion, with potential implications on pericentromeric architecture. PMID:26575630

  18. In vitro selection of optimal DNA substrates for T4 RNA ligase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harada, Kazuo; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1993-01-01

    We have used in vitro selection techniques to characterize DNA sequences that are ligated efficiently by T4 RNA ligase. We find that the ensemble of selected sequences ligated about 10 times as efficiently as the random mixture of sequences used as the input for selection. Surprisingly, the majority of the selected sequences approximated a well-defined consensus sequence.

  19. Efficient and scalable serial extraction of DNA and RNA from frozen tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Mathot, Lucy; Lindman, Monica; Sjöblom, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Advances in cancer genomics have created a demand for scalable sample processing. We here present a process for serial extraction of nucleic acids from the same frozen tissue sample based on magnetic silica particles. The process is automation friendly with high recoveries of pure DNA and RNA suitable for analysis.

  20. High-throughput prediction of RNA, DNA and protein binding regions mediated by intrinsic disorder.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhenling; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2015-10-15

    Intrinsically disordered proteins and regions (IDPs and IDRs) lack stable 3D structure under physiological conditions in-vitro, are common in eukaryotes, and facilitate interactions with RNA, DNA and proteins. Current methods for prediction of IDPs and IDRs do not provide insights into their functions, except for a handful of methods that address predictions of protein-binding regions. We report first-of-its-kind computational method DisoRDPbind for high-throughput prediction of RNA, DNA and protein binding residues located in IDRs from protein sequences. DisoRDPbind is implemented using a runtime-efficient multi-layered design that utilizes information extracted from physiochemical properties of amino acids, sequence complexity, putative secondary structure and disorder and sequence alignment. Empirical tests demonstrate that it provides accurate predictions that are competitive with other predictors of disorder-mediated protein binding regions and complementary to the methods that predict RNA- and DNA-binding residues annotated based on crystal structures. Application in Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster proteomes reveals that RNA- and DNA-binding proteins predicted by DisoRDPbind complement and overlap with the corresponding known binding proteins collected from several sources. Also, the number of the putative protein-binding regions predicted with DisoRDPbind correlates with the promiscuity of proteins in the corresponding protein-protein interaction networks. Webserver: http://biomine.ece.ualberta.ca/DisoRDPbind/.

  1. Comparison of commercial systems for extraction of nucleic acids from DNA/RNA respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Genyan; Erdman, Dean E; Kodani, Maja; Kools, John; Bowen, Michael D; Fields, Barry S

    2011-01-01

    This study compared six automated nucleic acid extraction systems and one manual kit for their ability to recover nucleic acids from human nasal wash specimens spiked with five respiratory pathogens, representing Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pyogenes), Gram-negative bacteria (Legionella pneumophila), DNA viruses (adenovirus), segmented RNA viruses (human influenza virus A), and non-segmented RNA viruses (respiratory syncytial virus). The robots and kit evaluated represent major commercially available methods that are capable of simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA from respiratory specimens, and included platforms based on magnetic-bead technology (KingFisher mL, Biorobot EZ1, easyMAG, KingFisher Flex, and MagNA Pure Compact) or glass fiber filter technology (Biorobot MDX and the manual kit Allprep). All methods yielded extracts free of cross-contamination and RT-PCR inhibition. All automated systems recovered L. pneumophila and adenovirus DNA equivalently. However, the MagNA Pure protocol demonstrated more than 4-fold higher DNA recovery from the S. pyogenes than other methods. The KingFisher mL and easyMAG protocols provided 1- to 3-log wider linearity and extracted 3- to 4-fold more RNA from the human influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus. These findings suggest that systems differed in nucleic acid recovery, reproducibility, and linearity in a pathogen specific manner.

  2. Molecular approaches for forensic cell type identification: On mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation and microbial markers.

    PubMed

    Sijen, Titia

    2015-09-01

    Human biological traces have the potential to present strong evidence for placing a suspect at a crime scene. In cases, the activity that led to deposition of an individual's cellular material is increasingly disputed, for which the identification of cell types could be crucial. This review aims to give an overview of the possibilities of the employment of mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation and microbial markers for tissue identification in a forensic context. The biological background that renders these markers tissue-specificity is considered, as this can affect data interpretation. Furthermore, the forensic relevance of inferring certain cell types is discussed, as are the various methodologies that can be applied. Forensic stains can carry minute amounts of cell material that may be degraded or polluted and most likely cell material of multiple sources will be present. The interpretational challenges that are imposed by this compromised state will be discussed as well. PMID:25488609

  3. Molecular approaches for forensic cell type identification: On mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation and microbial markers.

    PubMed

    Sijen, Titia

    2015-09-01

    Human biological traces have the potential to present strong evidence for placing a suspect at a crime scene. In cases, the activity that led to deposition of an individual's cellular material is increasingly disputed, for which the identification of cell types could be crucial. This review aims to give an overview of the possibilities of the employment of mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation and microbial markers for tissue identification in a forensic context. The biological background that renders these markers tissue-specificity is considered, as this can affect data interpretation. Furthermore, the forensic relevance of inferring certain cell types is discussed, as are the various methodologies that can be applied. Forensic stains can carry minute amounts of cell material that may be degraded or polluted and most likely cell material of multiple sources will be present. The interpretational challenges that are imposed by this compromised state will be discussed as well.

  4. 18S Ribosomal RNA Evaluation as Preanalytical Quality Control for Animal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Meli, Marina L.; Novacco, Marilisa; Borel, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene is present in all eukaryotic cells. In this study, we evaluated the use of this gene to verify the presence of PCR-amplifiable host (animal) DNA as an indicator of sufficient sample quality for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis. We compared (i) samples from various animal species, tissues, and sample types, including swabs; (ii) multiple DNA extraction methods; and (iii) both fresh and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. Results showed that 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplification was possible from all tissue samples evaluated, including avian, reptile, and FFPE samples and most swab samples. A single swine rectal swab, which showed sufficient DNA quantity and the demonstrated lack of PCR inhibitors, nonetheless was negative by 18S qPCR. Such a sample specifically illustrates the improvement of determination of sample integrity afforded by inclusion of 18S rRNA gene qPCR analysis in addition to spectrophotometric analysis and the use of internal controls for PCR inhibition. Other possible applications for the described 18S rRNA qPCR are preselection of optimal tissue specimens for studies or preliminary screening of archived samples prior to acceptance for biobanking projects.

  5. 18S Ribosomal RNA Evaluation as Preanalytical Quality Control for Animal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Meli, Marina L.; Novacco, Marilisa; Borel, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene is present in all eukaryotic cells. In this study, we evaluated the use of this gene to verify the presence of PCR-amplifiable host (animal) DNA as an indicator of sufficient sample quality for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis. We compared (i) samples from various animal species, tissues, and sample types, including swabs; (ii) multiple DNA extraction methods; and (iii) both fresh and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. Results showed that 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplification was possible from all tissue samples evaluated, including avian, reptile, and FFPE samples and most swab samples. A single swine rectal swab, which showed sufficient DNA quantity and the demonstrated lack of PCR inhibitors, nonetheless was negative by 18S qPCR. Such a sample specifically illustrates the improvement of determination of sample integrity afforded by inclusion of 18S rRNA gene qPCR analysis in addition to spectrophotometric analysis and the use of internal controls for PCR inhibition. Other possible applications for the described 18S rRNA qPCR are preselection of optimal tissue specimens for studies or preliminary screening of archived samples prior to acceptance for biobanking projects. PMID:27672657

  6. Computational and Experimental Characterization of Ribosomal DNA and RNA G-Quadruplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Samuel

    DNA G-quadruplexes in human telomeres and gene promoters are being extensively studied for their role in controlling the growth of cancer cells. Recent studies strongly suggest that guanine (G)-rich genes encoding pre-ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) are a potential anticancer target through the inhibition of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) in ribosome biogenesis. However, the structures of ribosomal G-quadruplexes at atomic resolution are unknown, and very little biophysical characterization has been performed on them to date. Here, we have modeled two putative rDNA G-quadruplex structures, NUC 19P and NUC 23P, which we observe via circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to adopt a predominantly parallel topology, and their counterpart rRNA. To validate and refine the putative ribosomal G-quadruplex structures, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the CHARMM36 force field in the presence and absence of stabilizing K + or Na + ions. We optimized the CHARMM36 force field K + parameters to be more consistent with quantum mechanical calculations (and the polarizable Drude model force field) so that the K + ion is predominantly in the G-quadruplex channel. Our MD simulations show that the rDNA G-quadruplex have more well-defined, predominantly parallel-topology structures than rRNA and NUC 19P is more structured than NUC 23P, which features extended loops. Our study demonstrates that they are both potential targets for the design of novel chemotherapeutics.

  7. Endogenous Small RNA Mediates Meiotic Silencing of a Novel DNA Transposon

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yizhou; Smith, Kristina M.; Taylor, John W.; Freitag, Michael; Stajich, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    Genome defense likely evolved to curtail the spread of transposable elements and invading viruses. A combination of effective defense mechanisms has been shown to limit colonization of the Neurospora crassa genome by transposable elements. A novel DNA transposon named Sly1-1 was discovered in the genome of the most widely used laboratory “wild-type” strain FGSC 2489 (OR74A). Meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA, also simply called meiotic silencing, prevents the expression of regions of the genome that are unpaired during karyogamy. This mechanism is posttranscriptional and is proposed to involve the production of small RNA, so-called masiRNAs, by proteins homologous to those involved in RNA interference−silencing pathways in animals, fungi, and plants. Here, we demonstrate production of small RNAs when Sly1-1 was unpaired in a cross between two wild-type strains. These small RNAs are dependent on SAD-1, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase necessary for meiotic silencing. We present the first case of endogenously produced masiRNA from a novel N. crassa DNA transposable element. PMID:26109355

  8. Molecular mechanisms of McArdle's disease (muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency). RNA and DNA analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Gautron, S; Daegelen, D; Mennecier, F; Dubocq, D; Kahn, A; Dreyfus, J C

    1987-01-01

    Lack of muscle glycogen phosphorylase activity leads to McArdle's disease, a rare metabolic myopathy. To investigate its molecular basis at the nucleic acid level, we isolated muscle phosphorylase cDNA clones from a human cDNA library in Escherichia coli plasmid pBR 322. Subcloning of one insertion of M13 bacteriophage permitted its definite identification by sequencing. Northern blot experiments revealed one specific messenger RNA of 3.4 kilobases found uniquely in tissues expressing muscle phosphorylase. We show that McArdle's disease exhibits a molecular heterogeneity at the messenger RNA level. In eight unrelated cases of McArdle's disease in which no inactive proteins had been detected, we assayed muscle biopsies for phosphorylase mRNA by Northern blotting. In five cases, no muscle phosphorylase mRNA could be detected, while in three other cases, normal length mRNA was present in lower amounts. Moreover, Southern blot analysis of DNA isolated from white blood cells in four McArdle patients revealed no major deletion or rearrangements of the phosphorylase gene as compared with controls. Images PMID:3466902

  9. First Principles Dynamics of Photoexcited DNA and RNA Bases

    SciTech Connect

    Hudock, Hanneli R.; Levine, Benjamin G.; Thompson, Alexis L.; Martinez, Todd J.

    2007-12-26

    The reaction dynamics of excited electronic states in nucleic acid bases is a key process in DNA photodamage. Recent ultrafast spectroscopy experiments have shown multi-component decays of excited uracil and thymine, tentatively assigned to nonadiabatic transitions involving multiple electronic states. Using both quantum chemistry and first principles quantum molecular dynamics methods we show that a true minimum on the bright S{sub 2} electronic state is responsible for the first step which occurs on a femtosecond timescale. Thus the observed femtosecond decay does not correspond to surface crossing as previously thought. We suggest that subsequent barrier crossing to the minimal energy S{sub 2}/S{sub 1} conical intersection is responsible for the picosecond decay.

  10. Flexibility of nucleic acids: From DNA to RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Bao; Xi, Zhang; Lei, Jin; Zhi-Jie, Tan

    2016-01-01

    The structural flexibility of nucleic acids plays a key role in many fundamental life processes, such as gene replication and expression, DNA-protein recognition, and gene regulation. To obtain a thorough understanding of nucleic acid flexibility, extensive studies have been performed using various experimental methods and theoretical models. In this review, we will introduce the progress that has been made in understanding the flexibility of nucleic acids including DNAs and RNAs, and will emphasize the experimental findings and the effects of salt, temperature, and sequence. Finally, we will discuss the major unanswered questions in understanding the flexibility of nucleic acids. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB933600), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11175132, 11575128, and 11374234), and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents, China (Grant No. NCET 08-0408).

  11. T7 RNA polymerase cannot transcribe through a highly knotted DNA template.

    PubMed Central

    Portugal, J; Rodríguez-Campos, A

    1996-01-01

    The ability of T7 RNA polymerase to transcribe a plasmid DNA in vitro in its linear, supercoiled, relaxed and knotted forms was analysed. Similar levels of transcription were found on each template with the exception of plasmids showing varying degrees of knotting (obtained using stoichiometric amounts of yeast topoisomerase II). A purified fraction of knotted DNA with a high number of nodes (crosses) was found to be refractory to transcription. The unknotting of the knotted plasmids, using catalytic amounts of topoisomerase II, restored their capacity as templates for transcription to levels similar to those obtained for the other topological forms. These results demonstrate that highly knotted DNA is the only topological form of DNA that is not a template for transcription. We suggest that the regulation of transcription, which depends on the topological state of the template, might be related to the presence of knotted DNA with different number of nodes. PMID:9016657

  12. Short Hairpin RNA Suppression of Thymidylate Synthase Produces DNA Mismatches and Results in Excellent Radiosensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, Sheryl A.; Cooper, Kristin S.; Mannava, Sudha; Nikiforov, Mikhail A.; Shewach, Donna S.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA)-mediated suppression of thymidylate synthase (TS) on cytotoxicity and radiosensitization and the mechanism by which these events occur. Methods and Materials: shRNA suppression of TS was compared with 5-fluoro-2 Prime -deoxyuridine (FdUrd) inactivation of TS with or without ionizing radiation in HCT116 and HT29 colon cancer cells. Cytotoxicity and radiosensitization were measured by clonogenic assay. Cell cycle effects were measured by flow cytometry. The effects of FdUrd or shRNA suppression of TS on dNTP deoxynucleotide triphosphate imbalances and consequent nucleotide misincorporations into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and as pSP189 plasmid mutations, respectively. Results: TS shRNA produced profound ({>=}90%) and prolonged ({>=}8 days) suppression of TS in HCT116 and HT29 cells, whereas FdUrd increased TS expression. TS shRNA also produced more specific and prolonged effects on dNTPs deoxynucleotide triphosphates compared with FdUrd. TS shRNA suppression allowed accumulation of cells in S-phase, although its effects were not as long-lasting as those of FdUrd. Both treatments resulted in phosphorylation of Chk1. TS shRNA alone was less cytotoxic than FdUrd but was equally effective as FdUrd in eliciting radiosensitization (radiation enhancement ratio: TS shRNA, 1.5-1.7; FdUrd, 1.4-1.6). TS shRNA and FdUrd produced a similar increase in the number and type of pSP189 mutations. Conclusions: TS shRNA produced less cytotoxicity than FdUrd but was equally effective at radiosensitizing tumor cells. Thus, the inhibitory effect of FdUrd on TS alone is sufficient to elicit radiosensitization with FdUrd, but it only partially explains FdUrd-mediated cytotoxicity and cell cycle inhibition. The increase in DNA mismatches after TS shRNA or FdUrd supports a causal and sufficient role for the depletion of dTTP thymidine triphosphate and consequent DNA

  13. Ultrasensitive detection of microRNA through rolling circle amplification on a DNA tetrahedron decorated electrode.

    PubMed

    Miao, Peng; Wang, Bidou; Meng, Fanyu; Yin, Jian; Tang, Yuguo

    2015-03-18

    MicroRNAs are a class of evolutionally conserved, small noncoding RNAs involved in the regulation of gene expression and affect a variety of biological processes including cellular differentiation, immunological response, tumor development, and so on. Recently, microRNAs have been identified as promising disease biomarkers. In this work, we have fabricated a novel electrochemical method for ultrasensitive detection of microRNA. Generally, a DNA tetrahedron decorated gold electrode is employed as the recognition interface. Then, hybridizations between DNA tetrahedron, microRNA, and primer probe initiate rolling circle amplification (RCA) on the electrode surface. Silver nanoparticles attached to the RCA products provide significant electrochemical signals and a limit of detection as low as 50 aM is achieved. Moreover, homology microRNA family members with only one or two mismatches can be successfully distinguished. Therefore, this proposed method reveals great advancements toward improved disease diagnosis and prognosis.

  14. Simplified methods for the construction of RNA and DNA virus infectious clones.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Tatsuya; Inoue-Nagata, Alice Kazuko

    2015-01-01

    Infectious virus clones are one of the most powerful tools in plant pathology, molecular biology, and biotechnology. The construction of infectious clones of RNA and DNA viruses, however, usually requires laborious cloning and subcloning steps. In addition, instability of the RNA virus genome is frequently reported after its introduction into the vector and transference to Escherichia coli. These difficulties hamper the cloning procedures, making it tedious and cumbersome. This chapter describes two protocols for a simple construction of infectious viruses, an RNA virus, the tobamovirus Pepper mild mottle virus, and a DNA virus, a bipartite begomovirus. For this purpose, the strategy of overlap-extension PCR was used for the construction of infectious tobamovirus clone and of rolling circle amplification (RCA) for the construction of a dimeric form of the begomovirus clone. PMID:25287508

  15. Opposing Effects of Multivalent Ions on the Flexibility of DNA and RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdetski, Aleksander V.; Tolokh, Igor S.; Pollack, Lois; Baker, Nathan; Onufriev, Alexey V.

    2016-07-01

    Increasing the concentration of counterions (salt) is known to reduce the bending persistence length of DNA. Here we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to predict that multivalent counterions have the opposite effect on double-stranded RNA, increasing its bending rigidity by at least 30%. This counterintuitive effect is observed for various tri- and tetravalent ions alike, and is robust to methodological details and the RNA sequence. In contrast to DNA, multivalent counterions bind inside the RNA major groove, causing significant contraction of the molecule along its helical axis—as a result, its further deformation due to bending becomes energetically more expensive compared to bending without bound multivalent ions. Thus, the relationship between mechanical properties of a charged polymer and its ionic atmosphere may be richer than previously thought.

  16. Inhibition of Hepatitis B virus cccDNA replication by siRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Li Guiqiu; Gu Hongxi . E-mail: hxgu2432@163.com; Li Di; Xu Weizhen

    2007-04-06

    The development of an effective therapy for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still a challenge. Progress in RNA interference (RNAi) has shed slight on developing a new anti-HBV strategy. Here, we present a series of experiments showing a significant reduction in HBV transcripts and replication intermediates in HepG2.2.15 cells by vector-based siRNA targeted nuclear localization signal (NLS) region. More importantly, we showed that siRNA1 markedly inhibited HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) replication. Our results indicated that HBV NLS may serve as a novel RNAi target to combat HBV infection, which can enhance anti-HBV efficacy and overcome the drawbacks of current therapies.

  17. Regulating infidelity: RNA-mediated recruitment of AID to DNA during class switch recombination.

    PubMed

    DiMenna, Lauren J; Chaudhuri, Jayanta

    2016-03-01

    The mechanism by which the DNA deaminase activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is specifically recruited to repetitive switch region DNA during class switch recombination is still poorly understood. Work over the past decade has revealed a strong link between transcription and RNA polymerase-associated factors in AID recruitment, yet none of these processes satisfactorily explain how AID specificity is affected. Here, we review a recent finding wherein AID is guided to switch regions not by a protein factor but by an RNA moiety, and especially one associated with a noncoding RNA that has been long thought of as being inert. This work explains the long-standing requirement of splicing of noncoding transcripts during class switching, and has implications in both B cell-mediated immunity as well as the underlying pathological syndromes associated with the recombination reaction. PMID:26799454

  18. Opposing Effects of Multivalent Ions on the Flexibility of DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Drozdetski, Aleksander V; Tolokh, Igor S; Pollack, Lois; Baker, Nathan; Onufriev, Alexey V

    2016-07-01

    Increasing the concentration of counterions (salt) is known to reduce the bending persistence length of DNA. Here we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to predict that multivalent counterions have the opposite effect on double-stranded RNA, increasing its bending rigidity by at least 30%. This counterintuitive effect is observed for various tri- and tetravalent ions alike, and is robust to methodological details and the RNA sequence. In contrast to DNA, multivalent counterions bind inside the RNA major groove, causing significant contraction of the molecule along its helical axis-as a result, its further deformation due to bending becomes energetically more expensive compared to bending without bound multivalent ions. Thus, the relationship between mechanical properties of a charged polymer and its ionic atmosphere may be richer than previously thought. PMID:27447528

  19. MicroRNA-138 modulates DNA damage response by repressing histone H2AX expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yemin; Huang, Jen-Wei; Li, Ming; Cavenee, Webster K.; Mitchell, Patrick S.; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Tewari, Muneesh; Furnari, Frank B.; Taniguchi, Toshiyasu

    2011-01-01

    Precise regulation of DNA damage response is crucial for cellular survival after DNA damage, and its abrogation often results in genomic instability in cancer. Phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) forms nuclear foci at sites of DNA damage and facilitates DNA damage response and repair. MicroRNAs are short, non-protein-encoding RNA molecules, which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by repressing translation of and/or degrading mRNA. How microRNAs modulate DNA damage response is largely unknown. In this study, we developed a cell-based screening assay utilizing ionizing radiation-induced γH2AX foci formation in a human osteosarcoma cell line, U2OS, as the readout. By screening a library of human microRNA mimics, we identified several microRNAs that inhibited γH2AX foci formation. Among them, miR-138 directly targeted the histone H2AX 3′-UTR, reduced histone H2AX expression and induced chromosomal instability after DNA damage. Overexpression of miR-138 inhibited homologous recombination and enhanced cellular sensitivity to multiple DNA damaging agents (cisplatin, camptothecin, and ionizing radiation). Reintroduction of histone H2AX in miR-138 overexpressing cells attenuated miR-138-mediated sensitization to cisplatin and camptothecin. Our study suggests that miR-138 is an important regulator of genomic stability and a potential therapeutic agent to improve the efficacy of radiotherapy and chemotherapy with DNA damaging agents. PMID:21693595

  20. Ultrasensitive Detection of RNA and DNA Viruses Simultaneously Using Duplex UNDP-PCR Assay.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Xing, Na; Wang, Zengguo; Zhang, Xiujuan; Zhao, Xiaomin; Du, Qian; Chang, Lingling; Tong, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Mixed infection of multiple viruses is common in modern intensive pig rearing. However, there are no methods available to detect DNA and RNA viruses in the same reaction system in preclinical level. In this study, we aimed to develop a duplex ultrasensitive nanoparticle DNA probe-based PCR assay (duplex UNDP-PCR) that was able to simultaneously detect DNA and RNA viruses in the same reaction system. PCV2 and TGEV are selected as representatives of the two different types of viruses. PCV2 DNA and TGEV RNA were simultaneously released from the serum sample by boiling with lysis buffer, then magnetic beads and gold nanoparticles coated with single and/or duplex specific probes for TGEV and PCV2 were added to form a sandwich-like complex with nucleic acids released from viruses. After magnetic separation, DNA barcodes specific for PCV2 and TGEV were eluted using DTT and characterized by specific PCR assay for specific DNA barcodes subsequently. The duplex UNDP-PCR showed similar sensitivity as that of single UNDP-PCR and was able to detect 20 copies each of PCV2 and TGEV in the serum, showing approximately 250-fold more sensitivity than conventional duplex PCR/RT-PCR assays. No cross-reaction was observed with other viruses. The positive detection rate of single MMPs- and duplex MMPs-based duplex UNDP-PCR was identical, with 29.6% for PCV2, 9.3% for TGEV and 3.7% for PCV2 and TGEV mixed infection. This duplex UNDP-PCR assay could detect TGEV (RNA virus) and PCV2 (DNA virus) from large-scale serum samples simultaneously without the need for DNA/RNA extraction, purification and reverse transcription of RNA, and showed a significantly increased positive detection rate for PCV2 (29%) and TGEV (11.7%) preclinical infection than conventional duplex PCR/RT-PCR. Therefore, the established duplex UNDP-PCR is a rapid and economical detection method, exhibiting high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility.

  1. Stability of triple helices containing RNA and DNA strands: experimental and molecular modeling studies.

    PubMed Central

    Escudé, C; François, J C; Sun, J S; Ott, G; Sprinzl, M; Garestier, T; Hélène, C

    1993-01-01

    UV-absorption spectrophotometry and molecular modeling have been used to study the influence of the chemical nature of sugars (ribose or deoxyribose) on triple helix stability. For the Pyrimidine.purine* Pyrimidine motif, all eight combinations were tested with each of the three strands composed of either DNA or RNA. The chemical nature of sugars has a dramatic influence on triple helix stability. For each double helix composition, a more stable triple helix was formed when the third strand was RNA rather than DNA. No stable triple helix was detected when the polypurine sequence was made of RNA with a third strand made of DNA. Energy minimization studies using the JUMNA program suggested that interactions between the 2'-hydroxyl group of the third strand and the phosphates of the polypurine strand play an important role in determining the relative stabilities of triple-helical structures in which the polypyrimidine third strand is oriented parallel to the polypurine sequence. These interactions are not allowed when the third strand adopts an antiparallel orientation with respect to the target polypurine sequence, as observed when the third strand contains G and A or G and T/U. We show by footprinting and gel retardation experiments that an oligoribonucleotide containing G and A or G and U fails to bind double helical DNA, while the corresponding DNA oligomers form stable triple-helical complexes. Images PMID:7506827

  2. Wnt5a Signals through DVL1 to Repress Ribosomal DNA Transcription by RNA Polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Dass, Randall A; Sarshad, Aishe A; Carson, Brittany B; Feenstra, Jennifer M; Kaur, Amanpreet; Obrdlik, Ales; Parks, Matthew M; Prakash, Varsha; Love, Damon K; Pietras, Kristian; Serra, Rosa; Blanchard, Scott C; Percipalle, Piergiorgio; Brown, Anthony M C; Vincent, C Theresa

    2016-08-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is essential for cell growth and proliferation and is commonly elevated in cancer. Accordingly, numerous oncogene and tumor suppressor signaling pathways target rRNA synthesis. In breast cancer, non-canonical Wnt signaling by Wnt5a has been reported to antagonize tumor growth. Here, we show that Wnt5a rapidly represses rDNA gene transcription in breast cancer cells and generates a chromatin state with reduced transcription of rDNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). These effects were specifically dependent on Dishevelled1 (DVL1), which accumulates in nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and binds to rDNA regions of the chromosome. Upon DVL1 binding, the Pol I transcription activator and deacetylase Sirtuin 7 (SIRT7) releases from rDNA loci, concomitant with disassembly of Pol I transcription machinery at the rDNA promoter. These findings reveal that Wnt5a signals through DVL1 to suppress rRNA transcription. This provides a novel mechanism for how Wnt5a exerts tumor suppressive effects and why disruption of Wnt5a signaling enhances mammary tumor growth in vivo. PMID:27500936

  3. Wnt5a Signals through DVL1 to Repress Ribosomal DNA Transcription by RNA Polymerase I

    PubMed Central

    Dass, Randall A.; Sarshad, Aishe A.; Feenstra, Jennifer M.; Kaur, Amanpreet; Pietras, Kristian; Serra, Rosa; Blanchard, Scott C.; Percipalle, Piergiorgio; Brown, Anthony M. C.; Vincent, C. Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is essential for cell growth and proliferation and is commonly elevated in cancer. Accordingly, numerous oncogene and tumor suppressor signaling pathways target rRNA synthesis. In breast cancer, non-canonical Wnt signaling by Wnt5a has been reported to antagonize tumor growth. Here, we show that Wnt5a rapidly represses rDNA gene transcription in breast cancer cells and generates a chromatin state with reduced transcription of rDNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). These effects were specifically dependent on Dishevelled1 (DVL1), which accumulates in nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and binds to rDNA regions of the chromosome. Upon DVL1 binding, the Pol I transcription activator and deacetylase Sirtuin 7 (SIRT7) releases from rDNA loci, concomitant with disassembly of Pol I transcription machinery at the rDNA promoter. These findings reveal that Wnt5a signals through DVL1 to suppress rRNA transcription. This provides a novel mechanism for how Wnt5a exerts tumor suppressive effects and why disruption of Wnt5a signaling enhances mammary tumor growth in vivo. PMID:27500936

  4. The DNA Habitat and its RNA Inhabitants: At the Dawn of RNA Sociology

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Luis P; Witzany, Guenther

    2013-01-01

    Most molecular biological concepts derive from physical chemical assumptions about the genetic code that are basically more than 40 years old. Additionally, systems biology, another quantitative approach, investigates the sum of interrelations to obtain a more holistic picture of nucleotide sequence order. Recent empirical data on genetic code compositions and rearrangements by mobile genetic elements and noncoding RNAs, together with results of virus research and their role in evolution, does not really fit into these concepts and compel a reexamination. In this review, we try to find an alternate hypothesis. It seems plausible now that if we look at the abundance of regulatory RNAs and persistent viruses in host genomes, we will find more and more evidence that the key players that edit the genetic codes of host genomes are consortia of RNA agents and viruses that drive evolutionary novelty and regulation of cellular processes in all steps of development. This agent-based approach may lead to a qualitative RNA sociology that investigates and identifies relevant behavioral motifs of cooperative RNA consortia. In addition to molecular biological perspectives, this may lead to a better understanding of genetic code evolution and dynamics. PMID:26217106

  5. Conformational influence of the ribose 2'-hydroxyl group: crystal structures of DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egli, M.; Usman, N.; Rich, A.

    1993-01-01

    We have crystallized three double-helical DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes and determined their structures by X-ray crystallography at resolutions between 2 and 2.25 A. The two self-complementary duplexes [r(G)d(CGTATACGC)]2 and [d(GCGT)r(A)d(TACGC)]2, as well as the Okazaki fragment d(GGGTATACGC).r(GCG)d(TATACCC), were found to adopt A-type conformations. The crystal structures are non-isomorphous, and the crystallographic environments for the three chimeras are different. A number of intramolecular interactions of the ribose 2'-hydroxyl groups contribute to the stabilization of the A-conformation. Hydrogen bonds between 2'-hydroxyls and 5'-oxygens or phosphate oxygens, in addition to the previously observed hydrogen bonds to 1'-oxygens of adjacent riboses and deoxyriboses, are observed in the DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes. The crystalline chimeric duplexes do not show a transition between the DNA A- and B-conformations. CD spectra suggest that the Okazaki fragment assumes an A-conformation in solution as well. In this molecule the three RNA residues may therefore lock the complete decamer in the A-conformation. Crystals of an all-DNA strand with the same sequence as the self-complementary chimeras show a morphology which is different from those of the chimera crystals. Moreover, the oligonucleotide does not match any of the sequence characteristics of DNAs usually adopting the A-conformation in the crystalline state (e.g., octamers with short alternating stretches of purines and pyrimidines). In DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes, it is therefore possible that a single RNA residue can drive the conformational equilibrium toward the A-conformation.

  6. RNA-directed DNA methylation and plant development require an IWR1-type transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Tatsuo; Bucher, Etienne; Daxinger, Lucia; Huettel, Bruno; Kreil, David P; Breinig, Frank; Lind, Marc; Schmitt, Manfred J; Simon, Stacey A; Gurazada, Sai Guna Ranjan; Meyers, Blake C; Lorkovic, Zdravko J; Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori

    2010-01-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) in plants requires two RNA polymerase (Pol) II-related RNA polymerases, namely Pol IV and Pol V. A genetic screen designed to reveal factors that are important for RdDM in a developmental context in Arabidopsis identified DEFECTIVE IN MERISTEM SILENCING 4 (DMS4). Unlike other mutants defective in RdDM, dms4 mutants have a pleiotropic developmental phenotype. The DMS4 protein is similar to yeast IWR1 (interacts with RNA polymerase II), a conserved putative transcription factor that interacts with Pol II subunits. The DMS4 complementary DNA partly complements the K1 killer toxin hypersensitivity of a yeast iwr1 mutant, suggesting some functional conservation. In the transgenic system studied, mutations in DMS4 directly or indirectly affect Pol IV-dependent secondary short interfering RNAs, Pol V-mediated RdDM, Pol V-dependent synthesis of intergenic non-coding RNA and expression of many Pol II-driven genes. These data suggest that DMS4 might be a regulatory factor for several RNA polymerases, thus explaining its diverse roles in the plant. PMID:20010803

  7. A subset of conserved tRNA genes in plastid DNA of nongreen plants.

    PubMed Central

    Lohan, A J; Wolfe, K H

    1998-01-01

    The plastid genome of the nonphotosynthetic parasitic plant Epifagus virginiana contains only 17 of the 30 tRNA genes normally found in angiosperm plastid DNA. Although this is insufficient for translation, the genome is functional, so import of cytosolic tRNAs into plastids has been suggested. This raises the question of whether the tRNA genes that remain in E. virginiana plastid DNA are active or have just fortuitously escaped deletion. We report the sequences of 20 plastid tRNA loci from Orobanche minor, which shares a nonphotosynthetic ancestor with E. virginiana. The two species have 9 intact tRNA genes in common, the others being defunct in one or both species. The intron-containing trnLUAA gene is absent from E. virginiana, but it is intact, transcribed, and spliced in O. minor. The shared intact genes are better conserved than intergenic sequences, which indicates that these genes are being maintained by natural selection and, therefore, must be functional. For the most part, the tRNA species conserved in nonphotosynthetic plastids are also those that have never been found to be imported in plant mitochondria, which suggests that the same rules may govern tRNA import in the two organelles. A small photosynthesis gene, psbI, is still intact in O. minor, and computer simulations show that some small nonessential genes have an appreciable chance of escaping deletion. PMID:9725858

  8. Impaired tRNA nuclear export links DNA damage and cell-cycle checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Ghavidel, Ata; Kislinger, Thomas; Pogoutse, Oxana; Sopko, Richelle; Jurisica, Igor; Emili, Andrew

    2007-11-30

    In response to genotoxic stress, cells evoke a plethora of physiological responses collectively aimed at enhancing viability and maintaining the integrity of the genome. Here, we report that unspliced tRNA rapidly accumulates in the nuclei of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae after DNA damage. This response requires an intact MEC1- and RAD53-dependent signaling pathway that impedes the nuclear export of intron-containing tRNA via differential relocalization of the karyopherin Los1 to the cytoplasm. The accumulation of unspliced tRNA in the nucleus signals the activation of Gcn4 transcription factor, which, in turn, contributes to cell-cycle arrest in G1 in part by delaying accumulation of the cyclin Cln2. The regulated nucleocytoplasmic tRNA trafficking thus constitutes an integral physiological adaptation to DNA damage. These data further illustrate how signal-mediated crosstalk between distinct functional modules, namely, tRNA nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, protein synthesis, and checkpoint execution, allows for functional coupling of tRNA biogenesis and cell-cycle progression.

  9. Compressed sensing methods for DNA microarrays, RNA interference, and metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Rao, Aditya; P, Deepthi; Renumadhavi, C H; Chandra, M Girish; Srinivasan, Rajgopal

    2015-02-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) is a sparse signal sampling methodology for efficiently acquiring and reconstructing a signal from relatively few measurements. Recent work shows that CS is well-suited to be applied to problems in genomics, including probe design in microarrays, RNA interference (RNAi), and taxonomic assignment in metagenomics. The principle of using different CS recovery methods in these applications has thus been established, but a comprehensive study of using a wide range of CS methods has not been done. For each of these applications, we apply three hitherto unused CS methods, namely, l1-magic, CoSaMP, and l1-homotopy, in conjunction with CS measurement matrices such as randomly generated CS m matrix, Hamming matrix, and projective geometry-based matrix. We find that, in RNAi, the l1-magic (the standard package for l1 minimization) and l1-homotopy methods show significant reduction in reconstruction error compared to the baseline. In metagenomics, we find that l1-homotopy as well as CoSaMP estimate concentration with significantly reduced time when compared to the GPSR and WGSQuikr methods.

  10. Selective Recovery of 16S rRNA Sequences from Natural Microbial Communities in the Form of cDNA.

    PubMed

    Weller, R; Ward, D M

    1989-07-01

    Cloning of cDNA obtained from 16S rRNA (16S rcDNA) selectively retrieves species-specific sequence information useful for analyzing the composition and structure of natural microbial communities. With this technique we obtained recombinant 16S rcDNA libraries from Escherichia coli and from a model hot-spring cyanobacterial-mat community. The recombinant plasmids contained exclusively 16S rRNA-derived inserts. This selective approach is independent of biasing culture techniques and eliminates the laborious screening required to locate 16S rRNA gene-bearing recombinants in genomic DNA libraries obtained from natural communities. PMID:16347975

  11. Thermodynamic examination of 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA and DNA constructs

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Shane; Shiskova, Evgenia; Hahm, Yaeeun

    2015-01-01

    Bulge loops are common features of RNA structures that are involved in the formation of RNA tertiary structures and are often sites for interactions with proteins and ions. Minimal thermodynamic data currently exist on the bulge size and sequence effects. Using thermal denaturation methods, thermodynamic properties of 1- to 5-nt adenine and guanine bulge loop constructs were examined in 10 mM MgCl2 or 1 M KCl. The ΔG37∘ loop parameters for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA constructs were between 3.07 and 5.31 kcal/mol in 1 M KCl buffer. In 10 mM magnesium ions, the ΔΔG° values relative to 1 M KCl were 0.47–2.06 kcal/mol more favorable for the RNA bulge loops. The ΔG37∘ loop parameters for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in DNA constructs were between 4.54 and 5.89 kcal/mol. Only 4- and 5-nt guanine constructs showed significant change in stability for the DNA constructs in magnesium ions. A linear correlation is seen between the size of the bulge loop and its stability. New prediction models are proposed for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA and DNA in 1 M KCl. We show that a significant stabilization is seen for small bulge loops in RNA in the presence of magnesium ions. A prediction model is also proposed for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loop RNA constructs in 10 mM magnesium chloride. PMID:26022248

  12. Thermodynamic examination of 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA and DNA constructs.

    PubMed

    Strom, Shane; Shiskova, Evgenia; Hahm, Yaeeun; Grover, Neena

    2015-07-01

    Bulge loops are common features of RNA structures that are involved in the formation of RNA tertiary structures and are often sites for interactions with proteins and ions. Minimal thermodynamic data currently exist on the bulge size and sequence effects. Using thermal denaturation methods, thermodynamic properties of 1- to 5-nt adenine and guanine bulge loop constructs were examined in 10 mM MgCl(2) or 1 M KCl. The [Formula: see text] loop parameters for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA constructs were between 3.07 and 5.31 kcal/mol in 1 M KCl buffer. In 10 mM magnesium ions, the ΔΔG° values relative to 1 M KCl were 0.47-2.06 kcal/mol more favorable for the RNA bulge loops. The [Formula: see text] loop parameters for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in DNA constructs were between 4.54 and 5.89 kcal/mol. Only 4- and 5-nt guanine constructs showed significant change in stability for the DNA constructs in magnesium ions. A linear correlation is seen between the size of the bulge loop and its stability. New prediction models are proposed for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loops in RNA and DNA in 1 M KCl. We show that a significant stabilization is seen for small bulge loops in RNA in the presence of magnesium ions. A prediction model is also proposed for 1- to 5-nt purine bulge loop RNA constructs in 10 mM magnesium chloride.

  13. Reversed assembly of dyes in an RNA duplex compared with those in DNA.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Taiga; Urushihara, Masaaki; Kashida, Hiromu; Ito, Hiroshi; Liang, Xingguo; Yagi-Utsumi, Maho; Kato, Koichi; Asanuma, Hiroyuki

    2012-10-15

    We prepared reversed dye clusters by hybridizing two RNA oligomers, each of which tethered dyes (Methyl Red, 4'-methylthioazobenzene, and thiazole orange) on D-threoninols (threoninol nucleotides) at the center of their strands. NMR spectroscopic analyses revealed that two dyes from each strand were axially stacked in an antiparallel manner to each other in the duplex, and were located adjacent to the 3'-side of a natural nucleobase. Interestingly, this positional relationship of the dyes was completely the opposite of that assembled in DNA that we reported previously: dyes in DNA were located adjacent to the 5'-side of a natural nucleobase. This observation was also consistent with the circular dichroism of dimerized dyes in which the Cotton effect of the dyes (i.e., the winding properties of two dyes) was inverted in RNA relative to that in DNA. Further spectroscopic analyses revealed that clustering of the dyes on RNA duplexes induced distinct hypsochromicity and narrowing of the band, thus demonstrating that the dyes were axially stacked (i.e., H-aggregates) even on an A-type helix. On the basis of these results, we also prepared heterodimers of a fluorophore (thiazole orange) and quencher (Methyl Red) in an RNA duplex. Fluorescence from thiazole orange was found to be strongly quenched by Methyl Red due to the excitonic interaction, so that the ratio of fluorescent intensities of the RNA-thiazole orange conjugate with and without its complementary strand carrying a quencher became as high as 27. We believe that these RNA-dye conjugates are potentially useful probes for real-time monitoring of RNA interference (RNAi) mechanisms.

  14. Preparation of a high-quality cDNA library from a single-cell quantity of mRNA using chum-RNA.

    PubMed

    Nojima, Hiroshi; Tougan, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Unlike exponential amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), linear RNA amplification using T7 RNA polymerase is advantageous for genome-wide analysis of gene expression and for cDNA library preparation from single-cell quantities of RNA. However, the use of RNA polymerase requires a large amount of RNA, as the optimum concentration of the substrate (mRNA), or the Michaelis constant (K(m)), is one millionfold higher than the single-cell amount of mRNA. To circumvent this K(m) problem, we designed a small mRNA-like dummy molecule, termed chum-RNA, which can be easily removed after the completion of the reaction. Chum-RNA allowed the preparation of a high-quality cDNA library from single-cell quantities of RNA after four rounds of T7-based linear amplification, without using PCR amplification. The use of chum-RNA may also facilitate quantitative reverse-transcription (qRT)-PCR from small quantities of substrate. PMID:21365481

  15. Two proton transfers in the transition state for nucleotidyl transfer catalyzed by RNA- and DNA-dependent RNA and DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Castro, Christian; Smidansky, Eric; Maksimchuk, Kenneth R; Arnold, Jamie J; Korneeva, Victoria S; Götte, Matthias; Konigsberg, William; Cameron, Craig E

    2007-03-13

    The rate-limiting step for nucleotide incorporation in the pre-steady state for most nucleic acid polymerases is thought to be a conformational change. As a result, very little information is available on the role of active-site residues in the chemistry of nucleotidyl transfer. For the poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D(pol)), chemistry is partially (Mg(2+)) or completely (Mn(2+)) rate limiting. Here we show that nucleotidyl transfer depends on two ionizable groups with pK(a) values of 7.0 or 8.2 and 10.5, depending upon the divalent cation used in the reaction. A solvent deuterium isotope effect of three to seven was observed on the rate constant for nucleotide incorporation in the pre-steady state; none was observed in the steady state. Proton-inventory experiments were consistent with two protons being transferred during the rate-limiting transition state of the reaction, suggesting that both deprotonation of the 3'-hydroxyl nucleophile and protonation of the pyrophosphate leaving group occur in the transition state for phosphodiester bond formation. Importantly, two proton transfers occur in the transition state for nucleotidyl-transfer reactions catalyzed by RB69 DNA-dependent DNA polymerase, T7 DNA-dependent RNA polymerase and HIV reverse transcriptase. Interpretation of these data in the context of known polymerase structures suggests the existence of a general base for deprotonation of the 3'-OH nucleophile, although use of a water molecule cannot be ruled out conclusively, and a general acid for protonation of the pyrophosphate leaving group in all nucleic acid polymerases. These data imply an associative-like transition-state structure.

  16. DNA and RNA sequencing by nanoscale reading through programmable electrophoresis and nanoelectrode-gated tunneling and dielectric detection

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James W.; Thundat, Thomas G.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for performing nucleic acid (DNA and/or RNA) sequencing on a single molecule. The genetic sequence information is obtained by probing through a DNA or RNA molecule base by base at nanometer scale as though looking through a strip of movie film. This DNA sequencing nanotechnology has the theoretical capability of performing DNA sequencing at a maximal rate of about 1,000,000 bases per second. This enhanced performance is made possible by a series of innovations including: novel applications of a fine-tuned nanometer gap for passage of a single DNA or RNA molecule; thin layer microfluidics for sample loading and delivery; and programmable electric fields for precise control of DNA or RNA movement. Detection methods include nanoelectrode-gated tunneling current measurements, dielectric molecular characterization, and atomic force microscopy/electrostatic force microscopy (AFM/EFM) probing for nanoscale reading of the nucleic acid sequences.

  17. Adenovirus type 2 early nuclear and mRNA: kinetic estimation of l anf r DNA strand fractions complementary to different abundance classes of viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Wold, W S; Green, M; Brackmann, K H; Devine, C; Cartas, M A

    1977-09-01

    RNA from unfractionated cells, nuclei, and polyribosomes was extracted from adenovirus 2 (Ad2)-infected KB cells early in infection and annealed in vast excess in liquid to purified Ad2 l (heavy) and r (light) [(32)P]DNA strands (specific activity, 3 x 10(6) to 1.5 x 10(7) cpm/mug). The number of abundance classes of Ad2 RNA, their relative concentrations, and the strand fraction from which they arose were determined by a computer-assisted nonlinear regression analysis of hybridization kinetic data. Whole-cell RNA and nuclear RNA annealed to 60 and 40%, respectively, of l and r strands. Well-defined abundance (kinetic) classes were identified: abundant and scarce classes were complementary to 15 to 17 and 40 to 45%, respectively, of l strand, and to 11 to 16 and 17 to 23%, respectively, of r strand. In whole-cell RNA and nuclear RNA the abundant classes were 57 to 208 and 13 to 27 times more concentrated, respectively, than scarce classes. RNA-RNA hybrids were isolated that annealed to about 70% of both strands, indicating that whole-cell RNA and nuclear RNA hybridization values were minimal. Polyribosomal RNA appeared to anneal as three abundance classes to each DNA strand; abundant, scarce, and very scarce classes, respectively, hybridized to 6, 5, and about 10% of l strand and 7 (6 to 8), 10 (8 to 13), and about 19% of r strand. The abundant classes were 41 (11 to 67) times more concentrated than the scarce classes and 10(3) times more concentrated than the very scarce classes. Although the biological significance of these classes is not known, the very scarce classes probably represent nuclear RNA contaminants of polyribosomal RNA. The abundant and scarce classes may comprise mRNA, because together they are complementary to about the same fraction of each DNA strand (11% [10 to 12%] and 17% [14 to 20%] of l and r strands) known to be expressed as early mRNA. Thus, nuclear RNA contains Ad2 RNA sequences not found on polyribosomes; most or all of both DNA strands

  18. Cell cycle specific distribution of killin: evidence for negative regulation of both DNA and RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Man; Luo, Dan; Kuang, Yi; Feng, Haiyan; Luo, Guangping; Liang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    p53 tumor-suppressor gene is a master transcription factor which controls cell cycle progression and apoptosis. killin was discovered as one of the p53 target genes implicated in S-phase control coupled to cell death. Due to its extreme proximity to pten tumor-suppressor gene on human chromosome 10, changes in epigenetic modification of killin have also been linked to Cowden syndrome as well as other human cancers. Previous studies revealed that Killin is a high-affinity DNA-binding protein with preference to single-stranded DNA, and it inhibits DNA synthesis in vitro and in vivo. Here, co-localization studies of RFP-Killin with either GFP-PCNA or endogenous single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA during S-phase show that Killin always adopts a mutually exclusive punctuated nuclear expression pattern with the 2 accessory proteins in DNA replication. In contrast, when cells are not in S-phase, RFP-Killin largely congregates in the nucleolus where rRNA transcription normally occurs. Both of these cell cycle specific localization patterns of RFP-Killin are stable under high salt condition, consistent with Killin being tightly associated with nucleic acids within cell nuclei. Together, these cell biological results provide a molecular basis for Killin in competitively inhibiting the formation of DNA replication forks during S-phase, as well as potentially negatively regulate RNA synthesis during other cell cycle phases.

  19. Interaction of antitumor drug Sn(CH 3) 2Cl 2 with DNA and RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafisi, Shohreh; Sobhanmanesh, Amir; Esm-Hosseini, Majid; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Tajmir-Riahi, Heidar Ali

    2005-08-01

    Sn(CH3)2Cl2 exerts its antitumor activity in a specific way. Unlike anticancer cis-Pt(NH3)2Cl2 drug which binds strongly to the nitrogen atoms of DNA bases, Sn(CH3)2Cl2 shows no major affinity towards base binding. Thus, the mechanism of action by which tinorganometallic compounds exert antitumor activity would be different from that of the cisplatin drug. The aim of this study was to examine the binding of Sn(CH3)2Cl2 with calf thymus DNA and yeast RNA in aqueous solutions at pH 7.1-6.6 with constant concentrations of DNA and RNA and various molar ratios of Sn(CH3)2Cl2/DNA (phosphate) and Sn(CH3)2Cl2/RNA of 1/40, 1/20, 1/10, 1/5. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-visible difference spectroscopic methods were used to determine the Sn(CH3)2Cl2 binding mode, binding constant, sequence selectivity and structural variations of Sn(CH3)2Cl2/DNA and Sn(CH3)2Cl2/RNA complexes in aqueous solution. Sn(CH3)2Cl2 hydrolyzes in water to give Sn(CH3)2(OH)2 and [Sn(CH3)2(OH)(H2O)n]+ species. Spectroscopic evidence showed that interaction occurred mainly through (CH3)2Sn(IV) hydroxide and polynucleotide backbone phosphate group with overall binding constant of K(Sn(CH3)2Cl2-DNA)=1.47×105 M-1 and K(Sn(CH3)2Cl2-RNA)=7.33×105 M-1. Sn(CH3)2Cl2 induced no biopolymer conformational changes with DNA remaining in the B-family structure and RNA in A-conformation upon drug complexation.

  20. Stacking interactions in RNA and DNA: Roll-slide energy hyperspace for ten unique dinucleotide steps.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sanchita; Kailasam, Senthilkumar; Bansal, Manju; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay

    2015-03-01

    Understanding dinucleotide sequence directed structures of nuleic acids and their variability from experimental observation remained ineffective due to unavailability of statistically meaningful data. We have attempted to understand this from energy scan along twist, roll, and slide degrees of freedom which are mostly dependent on dinucleotide sequence using ab initio density functional theory. We have carried out stacking energy analysis in these dinucleotide parameter phase space for all ten unique dinucleotide steps in DNA and RNA using DFT-D by ωB97X-D/6-31G(2d,2p), which appears to satisfactorily explain conformational preferences for AU/AU step in our recent study. We show that values of roll, slide, and twist of most of the dinucleotide sequences in crystal structures fall in the low energy region. The minimum energy regions with large twist values are associated with the roll and slide values of B-DNA, whereas, smaller twist values correspond to higher stability to RNA and A-DNA like conformations. Incorporation of solvent effect by CPCM method could explain the preference shown by some sequences to occur in B-DNA or A-DNA conformations. Conformational preference of BII sub-state in B-DNA is preferentially displayed mainly by pyrimidine-purine steps and partly by purine-purine steps. The purine-pyrimidine steps show largest effect of 5-methyl group of thymine in stacking energy and the introduction of solvent reduces this effect significantly. These predicted structures and variabilities can explain the effect of sequence on DNA and RNA functionality.

  1. An Arabidopsis cDNA encoding a DNA-binding protein that is highly similar to the DEAH family of RNA/DNA helicase genes.

    PubMed

    Isono, K; Yamamoto, H; Satoh, K; Kobayashi, H

    1999-09-15

    A cDNA encoding a putative RNA and/or DNA helicase has been isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA libraries. The cloned cDNA is 5166 bases long, and its largest open reading frame encodes 1538 amino acids. The central region of the predicted protein is homologous to a group of nucleic acid helicases from the DEAD/H family. However, the N- and C-terminal regions of the Arabidopsis cDNA product are distinct from these animal DEIH proteins. We have found that the C-terminal region contains three characteristic sequences: (i) two DNA-binding segments that form a probe helix (PH) involved in DNA recognition; (ii) an SV40-type nuclear localization signal; and (iii) 11 novel tandem-repeat sequences each consisting of about 28 amino acids. We have designated this cDNA as NIH (nuclear DEIH-boxhelicase). Functional character-ization of a recombinant fusion product containing the repeated region indicates that NIH may form homodimers, and that this is the active form in solution. Based on this information and the observation that the sequence homology is limited to the DEAH regions, we conclude that the biological roles of the plant helicase NIH differ from those of the animal DEIH family. PMID:10471743

  2. The arabidopsis polyamine transporter LHRI/AtPUT3 modulates heat responsive gene expression by regulating mRNA stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyamines (PA) involve in the gene regulation by interacting with various anionic macromolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins and modulating their structure and function. Previous studies have showed that changing in polyamine biosynthesis alters plant response to different abiotic stresses. Here,...

  3. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from RNA and DNA extracted from twelve water samples collected in three different months (June, August, and September of 2007). Phylogenetic analysis of 1234 and 1117 ...

  4. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development - Poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from RNA and DNA extracted from twelve water samples collected in three different months (June, August, and September of 2007). Phylogenetic analysis of 1234 and 1117 ...

  5. Excavation of a buried treasure--DNA, mRNA, miRNA and protein analysis in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Klopfleisch, R; Weiss, A T A; Gruber, A D

    2011-06-01

    Fresh or frozen tissue samples will always be the best tissue source for the analysis of nucleic acids and proteins from tissues. However, their long-term storage is expensive and laborious. Much interest has therefore been focused on the question whether the almost infinite resources of formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue samples in the archives of pathology and histology departments can be used for research on biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of disease. In recent years the methods and protocols for the extraction of DNA, mRNA, miRNA and proteins from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples have improved enormously. Especially, the possibilities of analysing DNA and miRNA in FFPE have reached a level that allows their application as a first line approach in the search for biomarkers. In contrast, many questions remain in terms of quantification of mRNA and protein expression levels in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples. This review gives an overview on current potentials and limitations of the quantification of DNA, miRNA, mRNA and the proteome in FFPE tissue samples. The chemical events during formalin fixation and paraffin embedding and alternatives to formalin fixation are described. In addition, methods and general problems of DNA, miRNA, mRNA and protein extraction and the current knowledge on the feasibility and accuracy of quantitative gene expression analysis in FFPE tissues is summarized.

  6. Novel zinc-based fixative for high quality DNA, RNA and protein analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lykidis, Dimitrios; Van Noorden, Susan; Armstrong, Alan; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Li, Jie; Zhuang, Zhengping; Stamp, Gordon W. H.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a reliable, cost-effective and non-toxic fixative to meet the needs of contemporary molecular pathobiology research, particularly in respect of RNA and DNA integrity. The effects of 25 different fixative recipes on the fixed quality of tissues from C57BL/6 mice were investigated. Results from IHC, PCR, RT–PCR, RNA Agilent Bioanalyser and Real-Time PCR showed that a novel zinc-based fixative (Z7) containing zinc trifluoroacetate, zinc chloride and calcium acetate was significantly better than the standard zinc-based fixative (Z2) and neutral buffered formalin (NBF) for DNA, RNA and protein preservation. DNA sequences up to 2.4 kb in length and RNA fragments up to 361 bp in length were successfully amplified from Z7 fixed tissues, as demonstrated by PCR, RT–PCR and Real-Time PCR. Total protein analysis was achieved using 2-D gel electrophoresis. In addition, nucleic acids and proteins were very stable over a 6–14-month period. This improved, non-toxic and economical tissue fixative could be applied for routine use in pathology laboratories to permit subsequent genomic/proteomic studies. PMID:17576663

  7. Polymers modified with double-tailed fluorous compounds for efficient DNA and siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    He, Bingwei; Wang, Yitong; Shao, Naimin; Chang, Hong; Cheng, Yiyun

    2015-08-01

    Cationic polymers are widely used as gene carriers, however, these polymers are usually associated with low transfection efficacy and non-negligible toxicity. Fluorination on polymers significantly improves their performances in gene delivery, but a high density of fluorous chains must be conjugated on a single polymer. Here we present a new strategy to construct fluorinated polymers with minimal fluorous chains for efficient DNA and siRNA delivery. A double-tailed fluorous compound 2-chloro-4,6-bis[(perfluorohexyl)propyloxy]-1,3,5-triazine (CBT) was conjugated on dendrimers of different generations and low molecular weight polyethylenimine via a facile synthesis. The yielding products with average numbers of 1-2 conjugated CBT moieties showed much improved EGFP and luciferase transfection efficacy compared to unmodified polymers. In addition, these polymers show high siRNA delivery efficacy on different cell lines. Among the synthesized polymers, generation 1 (G1) dendrimer modified with an average number of 1.9 CBT moieties (G1-CBT1.9) shows the highest efficacy when delivering both DNA and siRNA and its efficacy approaches that of Lipofectamine 2000. G1-CBT1.9 also shows efficient gene silencing in vivo. All of the CBT-modified polymers exhibit minimal toxicity on the cells at their optimal transfection conditions. This study provides a new strategy to design efficient fluorous polymers for DNA and siRNA delivery.

  8. Junk DNA and the long non-coding RNA twist in cancer genetics

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Hui; Vincent, Kimberly; Pichler, Martin; Fodde, Riccardo; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Slack, Frank J.; Calin, George A

    2015-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology states that the flow of genetic information moves from DNA to RNA to protein. However, in the last decade this dogma has been challenged by new findings on non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs). More recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have attracted much attention due to their large number and biological significance. Many lncRNAs have been identified as mapping to regulatory elements including gene promoters and enhancers, ultraconserved regions, and intergenic regions of protein-coding genes. Yet, the biological function and molecular mechanisms of lncRNA in human diseases in general and cancer in particular remain largely unknown. Data from the literature suggest that lncRNA, often via interaction with proteins, functions in specific genomic loci or use their own transcription loci for regulatory activity. In this review, we summarize recent findings supporting the importance of DNA loci in lncRNA function, and the underlying molecular mechanisms via cis or trans regulation, and discuss their implications in cancer. In addition, we use the 8q24 genomic locus, a region containing interactive SNPs, DNA regulatory elements and lncRNAs, as an example to illustrate how single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located within lncRNAs may be functionally associated with the individual’s susceptibility to cancer. PMID:25619839

  9. The eukaryotic way to defend and edit genomes by sRNA-targeted DNA deletion.

    PubMed

    Swart, Estienne C; Nowacki, Mariusz

    2015-04-01

    While there is currently burgeoning interest in the application of the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated genes) to genome editing, it is perhaps not widely appreciated that this is the second discovery of a small RNA (sRNA)-targeted DNA-deletion system. The first sRNA-targeted DNA-deletion system to be discovered, which we call IES/Ias (internal eliminated sequence/IES-associated genes) to contrast with CRISPR/Cas, is found in ciliates, and, like CRISPR/Cas, is thought to serve as a form of immune defense against invasive DNAs. The manner in which the ciliate IES/Ias system functions is distinct from that of the CRISPR/Cas system in archaea and bacteria, and arose independently through a synthesis of RNA interference-derived and DNA-specific molecular components. Despite the major differences between CRISPR/Cas and IES/Ias, both systems face similar conceptual challenges in targeting invasive DNAs. In this review, we focus on the discovery, effects, function, and evolutionary consequences of the IES/Ias system.

  10. Catalytic Activity of a Binary Informational Macromolecule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reader, John S.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules are thought to have played a prominent role in the early history of life on Earth based on their ability both to encode genetic information and to exhibit catalytic function. The modern genetic alphabet relies on two sets of complementary base pairs to store genetic information. However, due to the chemical instability of cytosine, which readily deaminates to uracil, a primitive genetic system composed of the bases A, U, G and C may have been difficult to establish. It has been suggested that the first genetic material instead contained only a single base-pairing unie'. Here we show that binary informational macromolecules, containing only two different nucleotide subunits, can act as catalysts. In vitro evolution was used to obtain ligase ribozymes composed of only 2,6-diaminopurine and uracil nucleotides, which catalyze the template-directed joining of two RNA molecules, one bearing a 5'-triphosphate and the other a 3'-hydroxyl. The active conformation of the fastest isolated ribozyme had a catalytic rate that was about 36,000-fold faster than the uncatalyzed rate of reaction. This ribozyme is specific for the formation of biologically relevant 3',5'-phosphodiester linkages.

  11. Detection of base pair mismatches in duplex DNA and RNA oligonucleotides using electrospray mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffey, Richard H.; Greig, Michael J.

    1997-05-01

    The identify and location of base pair mismatches in non- covalent DNA:RNA duplexes are established using MS and MS-MS on a quadruple ion trap with electrospray ionization (ESI). MS-MS experiments on a 14mer duplex (D) with a single C:A base pair mismatch using lower activation energy results in selective cleavage of the mismatched A nucleobase, even in the presence of the wild-type duplex. The location of the mismatch base pair can be discerned via presence of the wild-type duplex. The location of the mismatch base pair can be discerned via selection of the (D-5H)5- ion and fragmentation of the backbone at that location in a n additional MS-MS experiment. Selective fragmentation is observed for C in a C-C mismatched base pair, which is very difficult to detect using chemical cleavage or E. coli mismatch binding protein. In an RNA:DNA duplex with a single base pair mismatch, the DNA base is removed without fragmentation of the RNA strand, greatly simplifying the interpretation of the resulting MS spectrum. A method is presented for detecting two DNA strands, for example a point mutation which generates an oncogenic phenotype, and the wild-type message. The results suggest that ESI-MS-MS may provide a rapid and selective method to identify and locate genetic mutations without the need for chemical degradation or protein binding followed by gel electrophoresis.

  12. Polyoma virus early-late switch: regulation of late RNA accumulation by DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Carmichael, G G

    1993-09-15

    Early in infection of permissive mouse cells, messages from the early region of the polyoma virus genome accumulate preferentially over those from the late region. After initiation of DNA replication, the balance between early and late gene expression is reversed in favor of the late products. In previous work from our laboratory, we showed that viral early proteins do not activate the polyoma late promoter in the absence of DNA replication. Here we show that activation of the late genes in replication-incompetent viral genomes can occur if actively replicating genomes are present in the same cell. A low level of DNA replication, however, is insufficient to induce the early-late switch. Furthermore, replication-competent genomes that fail to accumulate late RNA molecules are defective in the transactivation of replication-incompetent genomes. We suggest that titration of an unknown diffusible factor(s) after DNA replication relieves the block to late RNA accumulation seen in the early phase, with most of this titration being attributable to late-strand RNA molecules themselves.

  13. Crystal structure of Cpf1 in complex with guide RNA and target DNA

    PubMed Central

    Yamano, Takashi; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Zetsche, Bernd; Hirano, Hisato; Slaymaker, Ian M.; Li, Yinqing; Fedorova, Iana; Nakane, Takanori; Makarova, Kira S.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Zhang, Feng; Nureki, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Cpf1 is an RNA-guided endonuclease of a type V CRISPR-Cas system that has been recently harnessed for genome editing. Here, we report the crystal structure of Acidaminococcus sp. Cpf1 (AsCpf1) in complex with the guide RNA and its target DNA, at 2.8 Å resolution. AsCpf1 adopts a bilobed architecture, with the RNA–DNA heteroduplex bound inside the central channel. The structural comparison of AsCpf1 with Cas9, a type II CRISPR-Cas nuclease, reveals both striking similarity and major differences, thereby explaining their distinct functionalities. AsCpf1 contains the RuvC domain and a putative novel nuclease domain, which are responsible for the cleavage of the non-target and target strands, respectively, and jointly generate staggered DNA double-strand breaks. AsCpf1 recognizes the 5′-TTTN-3′ protospacer adjacent motif by base and shape readout mechanisms. Our findings provide mechanistic insights into RNA-guided DNA cleavage by Cpf1, and establish a framework for rational engineering of the CRISPR-Cpf1 toolbox. PMID:27114038

  14. A procedure for selective full length cDNA cloning of specific RNA species.

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, A; Cattaneo, R; Billeter, M A

    1987-01-01

    A method allowing routine establishment of full length and functionally competent cDNA clones of particular mRNAs from small preparations of polyadenylated RNA is described. Pairs of synthetic primers are used for first and second strand synthesis. They include sequences complementary to the 3' terminal regions of the mRNAs and of the full length first cDNA strands, respectively and bear a few additional nucleotides at their 5' ends. After synthesis of both cDNA strands in one tube, they are precisely trimmed back with T4 DNA polymerase in presence of only two nucleoside triphosphates, to yield sticky ends fitting into a vector plasmid cleaved with two restriction endonucleases. The procedure was first applied to the simultaneous cloning of all five major measles virus (MV) mRNA species from a persistently infected cell line. Two thirds of all clones contained full length MV-specific cDNAs. Screening of less than 200 clones was sufficient to obtain several independent clones corresponding to each mRNA, except for gene F which was represented only once. Images PMID:2884622

  15. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus DNA and RNA in semen by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Mermin, J H; Holodniy, M; Katzenstein, D A; Merigan, T C

    1991-10-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and semen of 23 men infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were examined for the presence of HIV DNA and RNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a nonisotopic detection assay. None of the men was receiving antiretroviral therapy at the time of collection. Semen samples were separated into cell-free seminal fluid, nonspermatozoal mononuclear cells (NSMC), and spermatozoa. All of the PBMC samples, 17 (74%) of 23 NSMC samples, and none of the spermatozoal samples were positive for HIV gag gene DNA. Of 23 cell-free seminal fluid samples, 15 (65%) were positive for HIV gag gene RNA by PCR. Cell-free HIV RNA was more likely to be present in the semen of men with less than 400 than in those with greater than or equal to 400 cells/mm3 (P less than .04) and was present in all patient with p24 antigen in serum. The presence of HIV DNA in NSMC samples was not related to CD4 cell count, disease status, or the presence of p24 antigen in the serum. This study shows that HIV nucleic acid can be detected by PCR in either the cell-free seminal fluid or NSMC of 87% of semen samples but not in the DNA of spermatozoa from HIV-infected men.

  16. Increased DNA and RNA damage by oxidation in patients with bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, A S; Vinberg, M; Poulsen, H E; Kessing, L V; Munkholm, K

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying bipolar disorder (BD) and the associated medical burden are unclear. Damage generated by oxidation of nucleosides may be implicated in BD pathophysiology; however, evidence from in vivo studies is limited and the extent of state-related alterations is unclear. This prospective study investigated for we believe the first time the damage generated by oxidation of DNA and RNA strictly in patients with type I BD in a manic or mixed state and subsequent episodes and remission compared with healthy control subjects. Urinary excretion of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-guanosine (8-oxoGuo), valid markers of whole-body DNA and RNA damage by oxidation, respectively, was measured in 54 patients with BD I and in 35 healthy control subjects using a modified ultraperformance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry assay. Repeated measurements were evaluated in various affective phases during a 6- to 12-month period and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. Independent of lifestyle and demographic variables, a 34% (P<0.0001) increase in RNA damage by oxidation across all affective states, including euthymia, was found in patients with BD I compared with healthy control subjects. Increases in DNA and RNA oxidation of 18% (P<0.0001) and 8% (P=0.02), respectively, were found in manic/hypomanic states compared with euthymia, and levels of 8-oxodG decreased 15% (P<0.0001) from a manic or mixed episode to remission. The results indicate a role for DNA and RNA damage by oxidation in BD pathophysiology and a potential for urinary 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGuo to function as biological markers of diagnosis, state and treatment response in BD. PMID:27505230

  17. Increased DNA and RNA damage by oxidation in patients with bipolar I disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, A S; Vinberg, M; Poulsen, H E; Kessing, L V; Munkholm, K

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying bipolar disorder (BD) and the associated medical burden are unclear. Damage generated by oxidation of nucleosides may be implicated in BD pathophysiology; however, evidence from in vivo studies is limited and the extent of state-related alterations is unclear. This prospective study investigated for we believe the first time the damage generated by oxidation of DNA and RNA strictly in patients with type I BD in a manic or mixed state and subsequent episodes and remission compared with healthy control subjects. Urinary excretion of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-guanosine (8-oxoGuo), valid markers of whole-body DNA and RNA damage by oxidation, respectively, was measured in 54 patients with BD I and in 35 healthy control subjects using a modified ultraperformance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry assay. Repeated measurements were evaluated in various affective phases during a 6- to 12-month period and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. Independent of lifestyle and demographic variables, a 34% (P<0.0001) increase in RNA damage by oxidation across all affective states, including euthymia, was found in patients with BD I compared with healthy control subjects. Increases in DNA and RNA oxidation of 18% (P<0.0001) and 8% (P=0.02), respectively, were found in manic/hypomanic states compared with euthymia, and levels of 8-oxodG decreased 15% (P<0.0001) from a manic or mixed episode to remission. The results indicate a role for DNA and RNA damage by oxidation in BD pathophysiology and a potential for urinary 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGuo to function as biological markers of diagnosis, state and treatment response in BD. PMID:27505230

  18. The presence of an RNA:DNA hybrid that is prone to slippage promotes termination by T7 RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Molodtsov, Vadim; Anikin, Michael; McAllister, William T

    2014-09-01

    Intrinsic termination signals for multisubunit bacterial RNA polymerases (RNAPs) encode a GC-rich stem-loop structure followed by a polyuridine [poly(U)] tract, and it has been proposed that steric clash of the stem-loop with the exit pore of the RNAP imposes a shearing force on the RNA in the downstream RNA:DNA hybrid, resulting in misalignment of the active site. The structurally unrelated T7 RNAP terminates at a similar type of signal (TΦ), suggesting a common mechanism for termination. In the absence of a hairpin (passive conditions), T7 RNAP slips efficiently in both homopolymeric A and U tracts, and we have found that replacement of the U tract in TΦ with a slippage-prone A tract still allows efficient termination. Under passive conditions, incorporation of a single G residue following a poly(U) tract (which is the situation during termination at TΦ) results in a "locked" complex that is unable to extend the transcript. Our results support a model in which transmission of the shearing force generated by steric clash of the hairpin with the exit pore is promoted by the presence of a slippery tracts downstream, resulting in alterations in the active site and the formation of a locked complex that represents an early step in the termination pathway. PMID:24976131

  19. DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Detects Hidden Giant Viruses in Published Databanks

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikas; Colson, Philippe; Giorgi, Roch; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Environmental metagenomic studies show that there is a “dark matter,” composed of sequences not linked to any known organism, as determined mainly using ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, which therefore ignore giant viruses. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) genes are universal in microbes and conserved in giant viruses and may replace rDNA for identifying microbes. We found while reconstructing RNAP subunit 2 (RNAP2) phylogeny that a giant virus sequenced together with the genome of a large eukaryote, Hydra magnipapillata, has been overlooked. To explore the dark matter, we used viral RNAP2 and reconstructed putative ancestral RNAP2, which were significantly superior in detecting distant clades than current sequences, and we revealed two additional unknown mimiviruses, misclassified as an euryarchaeote and an oomycete plant pathogen, and detected unknown putative viral clades. We suggest using RNAP systematically to decipher the black matter and identify giant viruses. PMID:24929085

  20. Blind Predictions of DNA and RNA Tweezers Experiments with Force and Torque

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Fang-Chieh; Lipfert, Jan; Das, Rhiju

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule tweezers measurements of double-stranded nucleic acids (dsDNA and dsRNA) provide unprecedented opportunities to dissect how these fundamental molecules respond to forces and torques analogous to those applied by topoisomerases, viral capsids, and other biological partners. However, tweezers data are still most commonly interpreted post facto in the framework of simple analytical models. Testing falsifiable predictions of state-of-the-art nucleic acid models would be more illuminating but has not been performed. Here we describe a blind challenge in which numerical predictions of nucleic acid mechanical properties were compared to experimental data obtained recently for dsRNA under applied force and torque. The predictions were enabled by the HelixMC package, first presented in this paper. HelixMC advances crystallography-derived base-pair level models (BPLMs) to simulate kilobase-length dsDNAs and dsRNAs under external forces and torques, including their global linking numbers. These calculations recovered the experimental bending persistence length of dsRNA within the error of the simulations and accurately predicted that dsRNA's “spring-like” conformation would give a two-fold decrease of stretch modulus relative to dsDNA. Further blind predictions of helix torsional properties, however, exposed inaccuracies in current BPLM theory, including three-fold discrepancies in torsional persistence length at the high force limit and the incorrect sign of dsRNA link-extension (twist-stretch) coupling. Beyond these experiments, HelixMC predicted that ‘nucleosome-excluding’ poly(A)/poly(T) is at least two-fold stiffer than random-sequence dsDNA in bending, stretching, and torsional behaviors; Z-DNA to be at least three-fold stiffer than random-sequence dsDNA, with a near-zero link-extension coupling; and non-negligible effects from base pair step correlations. We propose that experimentally testing these predictions should be powerful next steps for

  1. Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.; Kim, S.; Hwang, D.; Chen, C.C.; Chiou, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of our research was to obtain fundamental information regarding the functional dependence of the diffusion coefficient of coal molecules on the ratio of molecule to pore diameter. That is, the objective of our study was to examine the effect of molecule size and configuration on hindered diffusion of coal macromolecules through as porous medium. To best accomplish this task, we circumvented the complexities of an actual porous catalyst by using a well defined porous matrix with uniform capillaric pores, i.e., a track-etched membrane. In this way, useful information was obtained regarding the relationship of molecular size and configuration on the diffusion rate of coal derived macromolecules through a pore structure with known geometry. Similar studies were performed using a pellet formed of porous alumina, to provide a link between the idealized membranes and the actual complex pore structure of real catalyst extrudates. The fundamental information from our study will be useful toward the tailoring of catalysts to minimize diffusional influences and thereby increase coal conversion and selectivity for desirable products. (VC)

  2. Solitons in spiral polymeric macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Savin, A V; Manevitch, L I

    2000-06-01

    The problem of the existence and stability of dynamical soliton regimes in a helix polymer is solved numerically. For the polytetrafluoroethylene macromolecule, within a model in which deformations of the valence and torsion angles and the valence bonds are taken into account, two types of soliton solutions are found. The first type describes the propagation of a solitary wave of torsional displacements of a helix chain. The twisting of the chain is a result of the compression of dihedral (torsion) angles. The second type describes the propagation of a solitary wave of longitudinal displacements of a helix chain. The longitudinal compression of the chain is a result of the compression of the valence angles and bonds. The solitons have a finite narrow spectrum of supersonic velocities: the soliton of torsion has a spectrum above the velocity of long-wavelength phonons of torsion while the spectrum of the solitons of compression lies above the velocity of long-wavelength phonons of longitudinal displacement. Numerical simulations of the soliton dynamics show their stability in the intervals of admissible velocities. The elasticity of soliton interactions under their collisions is demonstrated. The formation of solitons induced by deformation of end bonds of the helix chain has been modeled. It is shown that helicity of the macromolecule is the necessary condition for existence of torsional solitons. PMID:11088403

  3. Multifunctional Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Diagnostics, Therapy and Macromolecule Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Swee Kuan; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) consisting of either metal (e.g. Au), or magnetic NP (e.g. iron oxide) with other fluorescent components such as quantum dots (QDs) or organic dyes have been emerging as versatile candidate systems for cancer diagnosis, therapy, and macromolecule delivery such as micro ribonucleic acid (microRNA). This review intends to highlight the recent advances in the synthesis and application of multifunctional NPs (mainly iron oxide) in theranostics, an area used to combine therapeutics and diagnostics. The recent applications of NPs in miRNA delivery are also reviewed. PMID:24396508

  4. Unspecific Cooperative Ligand Binding to One-Dimensional Lattice-like Macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian

    2006-08-01

    Unspecific ligand binding to one-dimensional lattice-like macromolecules, a common event in nature (e.g. ligand/protein binding to DNA and certain carbohydrates), presents distinctive features when compared to specific ligand binding to macromolecules. McGhee and von Hippel developed a mathematical formalism in the form of the Scatchard representation. This article presents the application of the theory for unspecific cooperative ligand binding to linear lattice-like macromolecules in isothermal titration calorimetry following an exact and accurate method, without the limitations and deficiencies of the Scatchard formalism.

  5. Role of DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases II and III in Transcription of the Adenovirus Genome Late in Productive Infection

    PubMed Central

    Weinmann, Roberto; Raskas, Heschel J.; Roeder, Robert G.

    1974-01-01

    DNA-dependent RNA polymerases I, II, and III were isolated and partially purified from KB (human) cells 18 hr after infection with adenovirus 2. As reported previously for the enzymes from other animal cells, RNA polymerase II was completely sensitive to low concentrations of α-amanitin (50% inhibition at 0.02 μg/ml), RNA polymerase III was completely sensitive to high concentrations of α-amanitin (50% inhibition at 20 μg/ml) and RNA polymerase I was totally resistant to concentrations of α-amanitin less than or equal to 200 μg/ml. RNA synthesis by the endogenous RNA polymerase activities in nuclei isolated from infected cells was completely sensitive to α-amanitin, thus suggesting that RNA polymerase I is not involved in viral DNA transcription even though it is present in these cells. The α-amanitin inhibition curve was biphasic and showed inflection points at about 0.02 and 20 μg/ml, suggesting the participation of both RNA polymerases II and III in the synthesis of RNA in these nuclei. Furthermore, at least a large fraction of the synthesis of the nuclear precursors to viral mRNA, monitored by hybridization to viral DNA, showed the same sensitivity to α-amanitin as did RNA polymerase II; and the synthesis of both viral 5.5S RNA and (presumably cellular) 5S RNA in the isolated nuclei exhibited the same sensitivity to α-amanitin as did purified RNA polymerase III. Thus, these data provide strong supporting evidence for previous studies which suggested the involvement of an RNA polymerase II in transcription of the adenovirus genome and demonstrate the role of an RNA polymerase III activity in the synthesis of viral 5.5S RNA and cellular 5S RNA. PMID:4530313

  6. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication with linear DNA sequences expressing antiviral micro-RNA shuttles

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, Saket; Ely, Abdullah; Bloom, Kristie; Weinberg, Marc S.; Arbuthnot, Patrick

    2009-11-20

    RNA interference (RNAi) may be harnessed to inhibit viral gene expression and this approach is being developed to counter chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Compared to synthetic RNAi activators, DNA expression cassettes that generate silencing sequences have advantages of sustained efficacy and ease of propagation in plasmid DNA (pDNA). However, the large size of pDNAs and inclusion of sequences conferring antibiotic resistance and immunostimulation limit delivery efficiency and safety. To develop use of alternative DNA templates that may be applied for therapeutic gene silencing, we assessed the usefulness of PCR-generated linear expression cassettes that produce anti-HBV micro-RNA (miR) shuttles. We found that silencing of HBV markers of replication was efficient (>75%) in cell culture and in vivo. miR shuttles were processed to form anti-HBV guide strands and there was no evidence of induction of the interferon response. Modification of terminal sequences to include flanking human adenoviral type-5 inverted terminal repeats was easily achieved and did not compromise silencing efficacy. These linear DNA sequences should have utility in the development of gene silencing applications where modifications of terminal elements with elimination of potentially harmful and non-essential sequences are required.

  7. Structural Basis for DNA-Hairpin Promoter Recognition by the Bacteriophage N4 Virion RNA Polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Gleghorn, M.; Davydova, E; Rothman-Denes, L; Murakami, K

    2008-01-01

    Coliphage N4 virion-encapsidated RNA polymerase (vRNAP) is a member of the phage T7-like single-subunit RNA polymerase (RNAP) family. Its central domain (mini-vRNAP) contains all RNAP functions of the full-length vRNAP, which recognizes a 5 to 7 base pair stem and 3 nucleotide loop hairpin DNA promoter. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of mini-vRNAP bound to promoters. Mini-vRNAP uses four structural motifs to recognize DNA sequences at the hairpin loop and stem and to unwind DNA. Despite their low sequence similarity, three out of four motifs are shared with T7 RNAP that recognizes a double-stranded DNA promoter. The binary complex structure and results of engineered disulfide linkage experiments reveal that the plug and motif B loop, which block the access of template DNA to the active site in the apo-form mini-vRNAP, undergo a large-scale conformational change upon promoter binding, explaining the restricted promoter specificity that is critical for N4 phage early transcription.

  8. Cloning and physical mapping of DNA complementary to potato leafroll virus RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, O.P.

    1987-01-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) was aphid-transmitted from potato (Solanum tuberosum cultivar Russett Burbank) to ground cherry (Physalis floridana), where it was maintained by serial aphid transmission. Serological and plant differential tests indicated that the isolate was not contaminated with beet western yellows virus. Purified PLRV RNA was poly(A)-tailed in vitro and used as a template for reverse transcriptase, primed with oligo(dT). Alkaline gel electrophoresis of /sup 32/P-labeled first-strand complementary DNA (cDNA) indicated a major size range of 0.1 to 3.5 kilobases (kb). A small percentage of transcripts corresponded to full length PLRV RNA. Following RNase H and DNA polymerase I-mediated second strand synthesis, double-stranded cDNA was cloned into the Pst I site of the plasmid pUC9 using oligo (dC)-oligo(dG) tailing methodology. Escherichia coli JM109 transformants were screened with first-strand /sup 32/P-cDNA in colony hybridization experiments to confirm that recombinants contained PLRV-specific sequences.

  9. Overexpression of Ribosomal RNA in the Development of Human Cervical Cancer Is Associated with rDNA Promoter Hypomethylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hong; Wang, Yapei; Lv, Qiongying; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Qing; Gao, Fei; Hou, Haoli; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Wei; Li, Lijia

    2016-01-01

    The ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene encodes rRNA for protein synthesis. Aberrant expression of the rRNA gene has been generally observed in tumor cells and levels of its promoter methylation as an epigenetic regulator affect rRNA gene transcription. The possible relationship between expression and promoter methylation of rDNA has not been examined in human clinical cervical cancer. Here we investigate rRNA gene expression by quantitative real time PCR, and promoter methylation levels by HpaII/MspI digestion and sodium bisulfite sequencing in the development of human cervical cancer. We find that indeed rRNA levels are elevated in most of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) specimens as compared with non-cancer tissues. The rDNA promoter region in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) tissues reveals significant hypomethylation at cytosines in the context of CpG dinucleotides, accompanied with rDNA chromatin decondensation. Furthermore treatment of HeLa cells with the methylation inhibitor drug 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (DAC) demonstrates the negative correlation between the expression of 45S rDNA and the methylation level in the rDNA promoter region. These data suggest that a decrease in rDNA promoter methylation levels can result in an increase of rRNA synthesis in the development of human cervical cancer. PMID:27695092

  10. Double-stranded RNA under force and torque: Similarities to and striking differences from double-stranded DNA

    PubMed Central

    Lipfert, Jan; Skinner, Gary M.; Keegstra, Johannes M.; Hensgens, Toivo; Jager, Tessa; Dulin, David; Köber, Mariana; Yu, Zhongbo; Donkers, Serge P.; Chou, Fang-Chieh; Das, Rhiju; Dekker, Nynke H.

    2014-01-01

    RNA plays myriad roles in the transmission and regulation of genetic information that are fundamentally constrained by its mechanical properties, including the elasticity and conformational transitions of the double-stranded (dsRNA) form. Although double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) mechanics have been dissected with exquisite precision, much less is known about dsRNA. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of dsRNA under external forces and torques using magnetic tweezers. We find that dsRNA has a force–torque phase diagram similar to that of dsDNA, including plectoneme formation, melting of the double helix induced by torque, a highly overwound state termed “P-RNA,” and a highly underwound, left-handed state denoted “L-RNA.” Beyond these similarities, our experiments reveal two unexpected behaviors of dsRNA: Unlike dsDNA, dsRNA shortens upon overwinding, and its characteristic transition rate at the plectonemic buckling transition is two orders of magnitude slower than for dsDNA. Our results challenge current models of nucleic acid mechanics, provide a baseline for modeling RNAs in biological contexts, and pave the way for new classes of magnetic tweezers experiments to dissect the role of twist and torque for RNA–protein interactions at the single-molecule level. PMID:25313077

  11. DNA Damage Responses Are Induced by tRNA Anticodon Nucleases and Hygromycin B

    PubMed Central

    Beetz, Anja; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies revealed DNA damage to occur during the toxic action of PaT, a fungal anticodon ribonuclease (ACNase) targeting the translation machinery via tRNA cleavage. Here, we demonstrate that other translational stressors induce DNA damage-like responses in yeast as well: not only zymocin, another ACNase from the dairy yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, but also translational antibiotics, most pronouncedly hygromycin B (HygB). Specifically, DNA repair mechanisms BER (base excision repair), HR (homologous recombination) and PRR (post replication repair) provided protection, whereas NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining) aggravated toxicity of all translational inhibitors. Analysis of specific BER mutants disclosed a strong HygB, zymocin and PaT protective effect of the endonucleases acting on apurinic sites. In cells defective in AP endonucleases, inactivation of the DNA glycosylase Ung1 increased tolerance to ACNases and HygB. In addition, Mag1 specifically contributes to the repair of DNA lesions caused by HygB. Consistent with DNA damage provoked by translation inhibitors, mutation frequencies were elevated upon exposure to both fungal ACNases and HygB. Since polymerase ζ contributed to toxicity in all instances, error-prone lesion-bypass probably accounts for the mutagenic effects. The finding that differently acting inhibitors of protein biosynthesis induce alike cellular responses in DNA repair mutants is novel and suggests the dependency of genome stability on translational fidelity. PMID:27472060

  12. DNA Damage Responses Are Induced by tRNA Anticodon Nucleases and Hygromycin B.

    PubMed

    Wemhoff, Sabrina; Klassen, Roland; Beetz, Anja; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies revealed DNA damage to occur during the toxic action of PaT, a fungal anticodon ribonuclease (ACNase) targeting the translation machinery via tRNA cleavage. Here, we demonstrate that other translational stressors induce DNA damage-like responses in yeast as well: not only zymocin, another ACNase from the dairy yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, but also translational antibiotics, most pronouncedly hygromycin B (HygB). Specifically, DNA repair mechanisms BER (base excision repair), HR (homologous recombination) and PRR (post replication repair) provided protection, whereas NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining) aggravated toxicity of all translational inhibitors. Analysis of specific BER mutants disclosed a strong HygB, zymocin and PaT protective effect of the endonucleases acting on apurinic sites. In cells defective in AP endonucleases, inactivation of the DNA glycosylase Ung1 increased tolerance to ACNases and HygB. In addition, Mag1 specifically contributes to the repair of DNA lesions caused by HygB. Consistent with DNA damage provoked by translation inhibitors, mutation frequencies were elevated upon exposure to both fungal ACNases and HygB. Since polymerase ζ contributed to toxicity in all instances, error-prone lesion-bypass probably accounts for the mutagenic effects. The finding that differently acting inhibitors of protein biosynthesis induce alike cellular responses in DNA repair mutants is novel and suggests the dependency of genome stability on translational fidelity. PMID:27472060

  13. Purification of Single-Stranded cDNA Based on RNA Degradation Treatment and Adsorption Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Esquivel, Elías; Franco, Bernardo; Flores-Martínez, Alberto; Ponce-Noyola, Patricia; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of gene expression is a common research tool to study networks controlling gene expression, the role of genes with unknown function, and environmentally induced responses of organisms. Most of the analytical tools used to analyze gene expression rely on accurate cDNA synthesis and quantification to obtain reproducible and quantifiable results. Thus far, most commercial kits for isolation and purification of cDNA target double-stranded molecules, which do not accurately represent the abundance of transcripts. In the present report, we provide a simple and fast method to purify single-stranded cDNA, exhibiting high purity and yield. This method is based on the treatment with RNase H and RNase A after cDNA synthesis, followed by separation in silica spin-columns and ethanol precipitation. In addition, our method avoids the use of DNase I to eliminate genomic DNA from RNA preparations, which improves cDNA yield. As a case report, our method proved to be useful in the purification of single-stranded cDNA from the pathogenic fungus Sporothrix schenckii. PMID:27352216

  14. Purification of Single-Stranded cDNA Based on RNA Degradation Treatment and Adsorption Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Esquivel, Elías; Franco, Bernardo; Flores-Martínez, Alberto; Ponce-Noyola, Patricia; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of gene expression is a common research tool to study networks controlling gene expression, the role of genes with unknown function, and environmentally induced responses of organisms. Most of the analytical tools used to analyze gene expression rely on accurate cDNA synthesis and quantification to obtain reproducible and quantifiable results. Thus far, most commercial kits for isolation and purification of cDNA target double-stranded molecules, which do not accurately represent the abundance of transcripts. In the present report, we provide a simple and fast method to purify single-stranded cDNA, exhibiting high purity and yield. This method is based on the treatment with RNase H and RNase A after cDNA synthesis, followed by separation in silica spin-columns and ethanol precipitation. In addition, our method avoids the use of DNase I to eliminate genomic DNA from RNA preparations, which improves cDNA yield. As a case report, our method proved to be useful in the purification of single-stranded cDNA from the pathogenic fungus Sporothrix schenckii.

  15. Detection of Salmonella by using the colorimetric DNA/rRNA sandwich hybridization in microtiter wells.

    PubMed

    Namimatsu, T; Tsuna, M; Imai, Y; Futo, S; Mitsuse, S; Sakano, T; Sato, S

    2000-06-01

    A rapid and readily available DNA probe kit was developed for the detection of Salmonella spp. This kit utilized the colorimetric DNA/rRNA sandwich hybridization method in microtiter wells. Within 3 hr Salmonella spp. in selective enrichment broth cultures were detected by the DNA probe kit. The kit effectively identified all of 187 strains of Salmonella tested and yielded no false-positive reactions in the examination of 674 pure cultures of non-salmonellae. The DNA probe kit could detect 10(5) cfu/ml in pure culture. A total of 379 naturally contaminated samples (raw chicken meat, liquid egg, animal feeds, poultry feces and frozen foods) were tested, both by the standard culture method and the DNA probe kit. The 169 of these samples were culture positive and 210 were culture negative. The sensitivity of the DNA probe kit was 98.2% (166/169) and the specificity was 99.5% (209/210). These results show that the DNA probe kit is a useful tool to examine a large number of various samples for contamination by Salmonella spp. in food and livestock industry. PMID:10907688

  16. HYPOXIA-INDUCED GROWTH LIMITATION OF JUVENILE FISHES IN AN ESTUARINE NURSERY: ASSESSMENT OF SMALL-SCALE TEMPORAL DYNAMICS USING RNA:DNA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ratio of RNA to DNA (RNA:DNA) in white muscle tissue of juvenile summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) was used as a proxy for recent growth rate in an estuarine nursery. Variability in RNA:DNA was examined relative to temporal changes in te...

  17. RNA-DNA differences are rarer in proto-oncogenes than in tumor suppressor genes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Randy Ren

    2012-01-01

    It has long been assumed that DNA sequences and corresponding RNA transcripts are almost identical; a recent discovery, however, revealed widespread RNA-DNA differences (RDDs), which represent a largely unexplored aspect of human genome variation. It has been speculated that RDDs can affect disease susceptibility and manifestations; however, almost nothing is known about how RDDs are related to disease. Here, we show that RDDs are rarer in proto-oncogenes than in tumor suppressor genes; the number of RDDs in coding exons, but not in 3'UTR and 5'UTR, is significantly lower in the former than the latter, and this trend is especially pronounced in non-synonymous RDDs, i.e., those cause amino acid changes. A potential mechanism is that, unlike proto-oncogenes, the requirement of tumor suppressor genes to have both alleles affected to cause tumor 'buffers' these genes to tolerate more RDDs.

  18. ICR noncoding RNA expression controls imprinting and DNA replication at the Dlk1-Dio3 domain.

    PubMed

    Kota, Satya K; Llères, David; Bouschet, Tristan; Hirasawa, Ryutaro; Marchand, Alice; Begon-Pescia, Christina; Sanli, Ildem; Arnaud, Philippe; Journot, Laurent; Girardot, Michael; Feil, Robert

    2014-10-13

    Imprinted genes play essential roles in development, and their allelic expression is mediated by imprinting control regions (ICRs). The Dlk1-Dio3 locus is among the few imprinted domains controlled by a paternally methylated ICR. The unmethylated maternal copy activates imprinted expression early in development through an unknown mechanism. We find that in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in blastocysts, this function is linked to maternal, bidirectional expression of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) from the ICR. Disruption of ICR ncRNA expression in ESCs affected gene expression in cis, led to acquisition of aberrant histone and DNA methylation, delayed replication timing along the domain on the maternal chromosome, and changed its subnuclear localization. The epigenetic alterations persisted during differentiation and affected the neurogenic potential of the stem cells. Our data indicate that monoallelic expression at an ICR of enhancer RNA-like ncRNAs controls imprinted gene expression, epigenetic maintenance processes, and DNA replication in embryonic cells.

  19. Ultra-fast high-resolution agarose electrophoresis of DNA and RNA using low-molarity conductive media.

    PubMed

    Brody, Jonathan R; Calhoun, Eric S; Gallmeier, Eike; Creavalle, Talisa D; Kern, Scott E

    2004-10-01

    Current DNA electrophoretic solutions employ high ionic concentrations and require long electrophoretic run times. Here we demonstrate that high and low molecular weight double-stranded DNA, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and RNA can be separated rapidly in agarose-based low-molarity conductive media. Separation of small DNA fragments was optimized by substituting 1-mM solutions of alkali metals or a nonbiological amine that distributed voltage with a minute current. These ultra-dilute solutions can separate DNA at least 15-fold faster Low-molarity media at 5-10 mM adequately separated RNA and larger DNA fragments as well. These novel media reduce the Joule heating of the electrophoretic system and allow for easy-to-use, ultra-fast separation of DNA fragments.

  20. New insights into the promoterless transcription of DNA coligo templates by RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Lama, Lodoe; Seidl, Christine I; Ryan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Chemically synthesized DNA can carry small RNA sequence information but converting that information into small RNA is generally thought to require large double-stranded promoters in the context of plasmids, viruses and genes. We previously found evidence that circularized oligodeoxynucleotides (coligos) containing certain sequences and secondary structures can template the synthesis of small RNA by RNA polymerase III in vitro and in human cells. By using immunoprecipitated RNA polymerase III we now report corroborating evidence that this enzyme is the sole polymerase responsible for coligo transcription. The immobilized polymerase enabled experiments showing that coligo transcripts can be formed through transcription termination without subsequent 3' end trimming. To better define the determinants of productive transcription, a structure-activity relationship study was performed using over 20 new coligos. The results show that unpaired nucleotides in the coligo stem facilitate circumtranscription, but also that internal loops and bulges should be kept small to avoid secondary transcription initiation sites. A polymerase termination sequence embedded in the double-stranded region of a hairpin-encoding coligo stem can antagonize transcription. Using lessons learned from new and old coligos, we demonstrate how to convert poorly transcribed coligos into productive templates. Our findings support the possibility that coligos may prove useful as chemically synthesized vectors for the ectopic expression of small RNA in human cells.

  1. Isolation and characterization of homologous TRBP cDNA for RNA interference in Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lishi; Li, Xiaolan; Huang, Jianhua; Zhou, Falin; Su, Tianfeng; Jiang, Shigui

    2013-02-01

    The transactivation response RNA-binding protein (TRBP) interacts with Dicer and binds to double-stranded RNA as a critical component of the RNA-induced silencing complex, which is a key complex in the RNA interference pathway. The full-length cDNA of TRBP from the tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, (PmTRBP; 1548 bp long with a 1029 bp coding region) was isolated. The encoded polypeptide of 343 amino acids had a predicted molecular mass of 36.8 kDa. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis indicated that PmTRBP was evolutionarily closest to TRBP1 from Litopenaeus vannamei, with the three double-stranded RNA-binding motifs that were typical of the TRBP family. Tissue expression profile analysis by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that PmTRBP1 was constitutively expressed in all the examined tissues, with a predominant expression in the lymphatic organs and with the weakest expression in the ovaries. Significantly upregulated PmTRBP1 expression was elicited by systemic injections of Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio vulnificus, and white spot syndrome virus, thereby revealing its pathogen inducibility. Furthermore, exogenous viral nucleoside analogs (high-molecular-weight poly(I:C) dsRNAs as well as R484 single-stranded RNA) were remarkably induced PmTRBP1 transcription at 48 h and 9 h post-injection, respectively, which suggested that PmTRBP1 might function in tiger prawn antibacterial and antiviral response.

  2. RNA:DNA Ratio and Other Nucleic Acid Derived Indices in Marine Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Chícharo, Maria Alexandra; Chícharo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Some of most used indicators in marine ecology are nucleic acid-derived indices. They can be divided by target levels in three groups: 1) at the organism level as ecophysiologic indicators, indicators such as RNA:DNA ratios, DNA:dry weight and RNA:protein, 2) at the population level, indicators such as growth rate, starvation incidence or fisheries impact indicators, and 3) at the community level, indicators such as trophic interactions, exergy indices and prey identification. The nucleic acids derived indices, especially RNA:DNA ratio, have been applied with success as indicators of nutritional condition, well been and growth in marine organisms. They are also useful as indicators of natural or anthropogenic impacts in marine population and communities, such as upwelling or dredge fisheries, respectively. They can help in understanding important issues of marine ecology such as trophic interactions in marine environment, fish and invertebrate recruitment failure and biodiversity changes, without laborious work of counting, measuring and identification of small marine organisms. Besides the objective of integrate nucleic acid derived indices across levels of organization, the paper will also include a general characterization of most used nucleic acid derived indices in marine ecology and also advantages and limitations of them. We can conclude that using indicators, such RNA:DNA ratios and other nucleic acids derived indices concomitantly with organism and ecosystems measures of responses to climate change (distribution, abundance, activity, metabolic rate, survival) will allow for the development of more rigorous and realistic predictions of the effects of anthropogenic climate change on marine systems. PMID:19325815

  3. Comparative modeling of DNA and RNA polymerases from Moniliophthora perniciosa mitochondrial plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Bruno S; Taranto, Alex G; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; Duarte, Angelo A

    2009-01-01

    Background The filamentous fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel) Aime & Phillips-Mora is a hemibiotrophic Basidiomycota that causes witches' broom disease of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). This disease has resulted in a severe decrease in Brazilian cocoa production, which changed the position of Brazil in the market from the second largest cocoa exporter to a cocoa importer. Fungal mitochondrial plasmids are usually invertrons encoding DNA and RNA polymerases. Plasmid insertions into host mitochondrial genomes are probably associated with modifications in host generation time, which can be involved in fungal aging. This association suggests activity of polymerases, and these can be used as new targets for drugs against mitochondrial activity of fungi, more specifically against witches' broom disease. Sequencing and modeling: DNA and RNA polymerases of M. perniciosa mitochondrial plasmid were completely sequenced and their models were carried out by Comparative Homology approach. The sequences of DNA and RNA polymerase showed 25% of identity to 1XHX and 1ARO (pdb code) using BLASTp, which were used as templates. The models were constructed using Swiss PDB-Viewer and refined with a set of Molecular Mechanics (MM) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) in water carried out with AMBER 8.0, both working under the ff99 force fields, respectively. Ramachandran plots were generated by Procheck 3.0 and exhibited models with 97% and 98% for DNA and RNA polymerases, respectively. MD simulations in water showed models with thermodynamic stability after 2000 ps and 300 K of simulation. Conclusion This work contributes to the development of new alternatives for controlling the fungal agent of witches' broom disease. PMID:19744344

  4. Correction of the mutation responsible for sickle cell anemia by an RNA-DNA oligonucleotide.

    PubMed

    Cole-Strauss, A; Yoon, K; Xiang, Y; Byrne, B C; Rice, M C; Gryn, J; Holloman, W K; Kmiec, E B

    1996-09-01

    A chimeric oligonucleotide composed of DNA and modified RNA residues was used to direct correction of the mutation in the hemoglobin betaS allele. After introduction of the chimeric molecule into lymphoblastoid cells homozygous for the betaS mutation, there was a detectable level of gene conversion of the mutant allele to the normal sequence. The efficient and specific conversion directed by chimeric molecules may hold promise as a therapeutic method for the treatment of genetic diseases.

  5. Novel Assays for Measurement of Total Cell-Associated HIV-1 DNA and RNA

    PubMed Central

    Aga, Evgenia; Cillo, Anthony R.; Yates, Aarika L.; Besson, Guillaume; Fyne, Elizabeth; Koontz, Dianna L.; Jennings, Cheryl; Zheng, Lu; Mellors, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Although a number of PCR-based quantitative assays for measuring HIV-1 persistence during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been reported, a simple, sensitive, reproducible method is needed for application to large clinical trials. We developed novel quantitative PCR assays for cell-associated (CA) HIV-1 DNA and RNA, targeting a highly conserved region in HIV-1 pol, with sensitivities of 3 to 5 copies/1 million cells. We evaluated the performance characteristics of the assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 5 viremic patients and 20 patients receiving effective ART. Total and resting CD4+ T cells were isolated from a subset of patients and tested for comparison with PBMCs. The estimated standard deviations including interassay variability and intra-assay variability of the assays were modest, i.e., 0.15 and 0.10 log10 copies/106 PBMCs, respectively, for CA HIV-1 DNA and 0.40 and 0.19 log10 copies/106 PBMCs for CA HIV-1 RNA. Testing of longitudinally obtained PBMC samples showed little variation for either viremic patients (median fold differences of 0.80 and 0.88 for CA HIV-1 DNA and RNA, respectively) or virologically suppressed patients (median fold differences of 1.14 and 0.97, respectively). CA HIV-1 DNA and RNA levels were strongly correlated (r = 0.77 to 1; P = 0.0001 to 0.037) for assays performed using PBMCs from different sources (phlebotomy versus leukapheresis) or using total or resting CD4+ T cells purified by either bead selection or flow cytometric sorting. Their sensitivity, reproducibility, and broad applicability to small numbers of mononuclear cells make these assays useful for observational and interventional studies that examine longitudinal changes in the numbers of HIV-1-infected cells and their levels of transcription. PMID:26763968

  6. RNA/DNA ratio as biomarkers for periphyton and macroinvertebrate growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewes, Daniela; Winkelmann, Carola

    2015-04-01

    A biocenosis is a complex assembly of organisms driven and shaped by numerous processes and interactions. Yet, in order to describe the biocenosis of a stream often only state variables, such as algal biomass or invertebrate diversity and abundance, are measured. But these variables fail to provide much needed information on those driving processes. Because processes such as growth of periphyton and invertebrates can hardly be measured directly in the field, the use of biomarkers is a promising approach to quantify biological rates under natural conditions. Periphyton represents the main food source for invertebrate grazers and periphyton growth rate rather than standing stocks alone allows the estimation of the availability of this resource. A linear relationship of RNA/DNA ratios and growth rate has previously been established for single species cultures of algae and bacteria but not for naturally occurring freshwater periphyton assemblages. In this study it could be shown that linear relationships of RNA/DNA ratios and growth rate are also valid for naturally occurring freshwater periphyton assemblages and can be used as biomarkers for periphyton growth rate. Moreover, recent results indicate that the RNA/DNA ratio might also be used as biomarker for invertebrates, because high-quality food was observed to increase the RNA/DNA ratios of the freshwater amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus. These are very promising results with regard to the usefulness and applicability of biomarkers ecosystem analysis in running waters. Additional biomarkers allowing the analysis of further processes and interactions within the food web such as PLFAs (phospholipid-fatty acids), neutral lipids and PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) are to be tested for their applicability in stream ecosystems.

  7. Effects of trace elements and pesticides on dephosphorylation of RNA and DNA added to soils

    SciTech Connect

    Frankenberger, W.T. Jr.; Johanson, J.B.; Lund L.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the effects of 14 trace elements, 12 herbicides, and two fungicides on dephosphorylation of yeast ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) added to soils (Xerollic Calciorthids and Typic Haploxeralfs). The cumulative amount of ortho phosphate (Pi) released from nucleic acids increased linearly with time of incubation (up to 72 h), decreased with profile depth, and was highly influenced by soil pH. When trace elements were applied and compared by using 2.5 mmol kg/sup -1/ of soil, the average inhibition in dephosphorylation of RNA and DNA in two soils ranged from 17% with Co(II) to 52% with Cu(II). The most effective inhibitors of nucleic acid dephosphorylation were Ag(I), Cu(I), Cd(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) (avg inhibition greater than or equal to 35%). Other elements that inhibited dephosphorylation of RNA and DNA added to soils included Ba(II), Co(II), Hg(II), Zn(II), Ti(IV), V(IV), and W(VI). When the pesticides were compared by using 5 mg of active ingredient kg/sup -1/ of soil, the average inhibition in nucleic acid dephosphorylation ranged from 14% with butylate to 39% with chloramben. The most effective inhibitors (> 25%) were atrazine, naptalam, chloramben, dicamba, trifluralin, and maneb. Other pesticides that inhibited RNA and DNA dephosphorylation in soils included cyanazine, 2,4-D, dinitroamine, EPTC plus R-25788, alachlor, paraquat, butylate, and captan.

  8. ALS-associated mutation FUS-R521C causes DNA damage and RNA splicing defects.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Haiyan; Lee, Sebum; Shang, Yulei; Wang, Wen-Yuan; Au, Kin Fai; Kamiya, Sherry; Barmada, Sami J; Finkbeiner, Steven; Lui, Hansen; Carlton, Caitlin E; Tang, Amy A; Oldham, Michael C; Wang, Hejia; Shorter, James; Filiano, Anthony J; Roberson, Erik D; Tourtellotte, Warren G; Chen, Bin; Tsai, Li-Huei; Huang, Eric J

    2014-03-01

    Autosomal dominant mutations of the RNA/DNA binding protein FUS are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS); however, it is not clear how FUS mutations cause neurodegeneration. Using transgenic mice expressing a common FALS-associated FUS mutation (FUS-R521C mice), we found that mutant FUS proteins formed a stable complex with WT FUS proteins and interfered with the normal interactions between FUS and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). Consequently, FUS-R521C mice exhibited evidence of DNA damage as well as profound dendritic and synaptic phenotypes in brain and spinal cord. To provide insights into these defects, we screened neural genes for nucleotide oxidation and identified brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) as a target of FUS-R521C-associated DNA damage and RNA splicing defects in mice. Compared with WT FUS, mutant FUS-R521C proteins formed a more stable complex with Bdnf RNA in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Stabilization of the FUS/Bdnf RNA complex contributed to Bdnf splicing defects and impaired BDNF signaling through receptor TrkB. Exogenous BDNF only partially restored dendrite phenotype in FUS-R521C neurons, suggesting that BDNF-independent mechanisms may contribute to the defects in these neurons. Indeed, RNA-seq analyses of FUS-R521C spinal cords revealed additional transcription and splicing defects in genes that regulate dendritic growth and synaptic functions. Together, our results provide insight into how gain-of-function FUS mutations affect critical neuronal functions.

  9. ALS-associated mutation FUS-R521C causes DNA damage and RNA splicing defects

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Haiyan; Lee, Sebum; Shang, Yulei; Wang, Wen-Yuan; Au, Kin Fai; Kamiya, Sherry; Barmada, Sami J.; Finkbeiner, Steven; Lui, Hansen; Carlton, Caitlin E.; Tang, Amy A.; Oldham, Michael C.; Wang, Hejia; Shorter, James; Filiano, Anthony J.; Roberson, Erik D.; Tourtellotte, Warren G.; Chen, Bin; Tsai, Li-Huei; Huang, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant mutations of the RNA/DNA binding protein FUS are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS); however, it is not clear how FUS mutations cause neurodegeneration. Using transgenic mice expressing a common FALS-associated FUS mutation (FUS-R521C mice), we found that mutant FUS proteins formed a stable complex with WT FUS proteins and interfered with the normal interactions between FUS and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). Consequently, FUS-R521C mice exhibited evidence of DNA damage as well as profound dendritic and synaptic phenotypes in brain and spinal cord. To provide insights into these defects, we screened neural genes for nucleotide oxidation and identified brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) as a target of FUS-R521C–associated DNA damage and RNA splicing defects in mice. Compared with WT FUS, mutant FUS-R521C proteins formed a more stable complex with Bdnf RNA in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Stabilization of the FUS/Bdnf RNA complex contributed to Bdnf splicing defects and impaired BDNF signaling through receptor TrkB. Exogenous BDNF only partially restored dendrite phenotype in FUS-R521C neurons, suggesting that BDNF-independent mechanisms may contribute to the defects in these neurons. Indeed, RNA-seq analyses of FUS-R521C spinal cords revealed additional transcription and splicing defects in genes that regulate dendritic growth and synaptic functions. Together, our results provide insight into how gain-of-function FUS mutations affect critical neuronal functions. PMID:24509083

  10. Ion distributions around left- and right-handed DNA and RNA duplexes: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Feng; Roland, Christopher; Sagui, Celeste

    2014-01-01

    The ion atmosphere around nucleic acids is an integral part of their solvated structure. However, detailed aspects of the ionic distribution are difficult to probe experimentally, and comparative studies for different structures of the same sequence are almost non-existent. Here, we have used large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to perform a comparative study of the ion distribution around (5′-CGCGCGCGCGCG-3′)2 dodecamers in solution in B-DNA, A-RNA, Z-DNA and Z-RNA forms. The CG sequence is very sensitive to ionic strength and it allows the comparison with the rare but important left-handed forms. The ions investigated include Na+, K+ and Mg2 +, with various concentrations of their chloride salts. Our results quantitatively describe the characteristics of the ionic distributions for different structures at varying ionic strengths, tracing these differences to nucleic acid structure and ion type. Several binding pockets with rather long ion residence times are described, both for the monovalent ions and for the hexahydrated Mg[(H2O)6]2+ ion. The conformations of these binding pockets include direct binding through desolvated ion bridges in the GpC steps in B-DNA and A-RNA; direct binding to backbone oxygens; binding of Mg[(H2O)6]2+ to distant phosphates, resulting in acute bending of A-RNA; tight ‘ion traps’ in Z-RNA between C-O2 and the C-O2′ atoms in GpC steps; and others. PMID:25428372

  11. Protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis in cultures of skin fibroblasts from healthy subjects and patients with rheumatic diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Abakumova, O.Y.; Kutsenko, N.G.; Panasyuk, A.F.

    1985-07-01

    To study the mechanism of the lasting disturbance of fibroblast function, protein, RNA and DNA synthesis was investigated in skin fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic scleroderma (SS). The labeled precursors used to analyze synthesis of protein, RNA, and DNA were /sup 14/C-protein hydrolysate, (/sup 14/C)uridine, and (/sup 14/C) thymidine. Stimulation was determined by measuring incorporation of (/sup 14/C)proline into fibroblast proteins. During analysis of stability of fast-labeled RNA tests were carried out to discover whether all measurable radioactivity belonged to RNA molecules.

  12. Adsorption of DNA/RNA nucleobases on hexagonal boron nitride sheet: an ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qing; Zou, Xiaolong; Zhou, Gang; Liu, Rui; Wu, Jian; Li, Jia; Duan, Wenhui

    2011-07-14

    Our ab initio calculations indicate that the interaction of deoxyribonucleic/ribonucleic acid (DNA/RNA) nucleobases [guanine (G), adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and uracil (U)] with the hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) sheet, a polar but chemically inert surface, is governed by mutual polarization. Unlike the case of graphene, all nucleobases exhibit the same stacking arrangement on the h-BN sheet due to polarization effects: the anions (N and O atoms) of nucleobases prefer to stay on top of cations (B) of the substrate as far as possible, regardless of the biological properties of nucleobases. The adsorption energies, ranging from 0.5 eV to 0.69 eV, increase in the order of U, C, T, A and G, which can be attributed to different side groups or atoms of nucleobases. The fundamental nature of DNA/RNA nucleobases and h-BN sheet remains unchanged upon adsorption, suggesting that the h-BN sheet is a promising template for DNA/RNA-related research, such as self-assembly. PMID:21637870

  13. Direct visualization of both DNA and RNA quadruplexes in human cells via an uncommon spectroscopic method

    PubMed Central

    Laguerre, Aurélien; Wong, Judy M. Y.; Monchaud, David

    2016-01-01

    Guanine-rich DNA or RNA sequences can fold into higher-order, four-stranded structures termed quadruplexes that are suspected to play pivotal roles in cellular mechanisms including the control of the genome integrity and gene expression. However, the biological relevance of quadruplexes is still a matter of debate owing to the paucity of unbiased evidences of their existence in cells. Recent reports on quadruplex-specific antibodies and small-molecule fluorescent probes help dispel reservations and accumulating evidences now pointing towards the cellular relevance of quadruplexes. To better assess and comprehend their biology, developing new versatile tools to detect both DNA and RNA quadruplexes in cells is essential. We report here a smart fluorescent probe that allows for the simple detection of quadruplexes thanks to an uncommon spectroscopic mechanism known as the red-edge effect (REE). We demonstrate that this effect could open avenues to greatly enhance the ability to visualize both DNA and RNA quadruplexes in human cells, using simple protocols and fluorescence detection facilities. PMID:27535322

  14. A protocol for extraction of high-quality RNA and DNA from peanut plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dongmei; Liu, Haiying; Zhang, Xingguo; Cui, Dangqun

    2011-10-01

    Peanuts are an increasingly important global food source. However, until recently the lack of effective protocols for the extraction of nucleic acids has made molecular studies of peanut development and maturation difficult. Here, we describe a method to isolate high-quality RNA and DNA from peanut tissue and have successfully applied this method to peanut plant roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds. Spectrophotometric analysis showed that the average yields of total RNA from 100 mg of peanut materials ranged from 24.52 to 74.6 μg, and those of genomic DNA from the same tissues ranged from 23.47 to 57.68 μg. Using this protocol, we obtained OD260/280 values between 1.9 and 2.0 and isolated RNA which could be reverse transcribed in a manner suitable for RT-qPCR and expression analysis. In addition, genomic DNA isolated using this method produced reliable restriction enzyme digestion patterns and could be used for Southern blot hybridization. PMID:21416202

  15. Elucidation of the Mechanism of Gene Silencing using Small Interferin RNA: DNA Hybrid Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Dugan, L

    2006-02-08

    The recent discovery that short hybrid RNA:DNA molecules (siHybrids) induce long-term silencing of gene expression in mammalian cells conflicts with the currently hypothesized mechanisms explaining the action of small, interfering RNA (siRNA). As a first step to elucidating the mechanism for this effect, we set out to quantify the delivery of siHybrids and determine their cellular localization in mammalian cells. We then tracked the segregation of the siHybrids into daughter cells after cell division. Markers for siHybrid delivery were shown to enter cells with and without the use of a transfection agent. Furthermore, delivery without transfection agent only occurred after a delay of 2-4 hours, suggesting a degradation process occurring in the cell culture media. Therefore, we studied the effects of nucleases and backbone modifications on the stability of siHybrids under cell culture conditions.

  16. Inhibiting DNA methylation causes an interferon response in cancer via dsRNA including endogenous retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Chiappinelli, Katherine B.; Strissel, Pamela L.; Desrichard, Alexis; Li, Huili; Henke, Christine; Akman, Benjamin; Hein, Alexander; Rote, Neal S.; Cope, Leslie M.; Snyder, Alexandra; Makarov, Vladimir; Buhu, Sadna; Slamon, Dennis J.; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Pardoll, Drew M.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Zahnow, Cynthia A.; Mergoub, Taha; Chan, Timothy A.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Strick, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Summary We show that DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTis) upregulate immune signaling in cancer through the viral defense pathway. In ovarian cancer (OC), DNMTis trigger cytosolic sensing of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) causing a Type I Interferon response and apoptosis. Knocking down dsRNA sensors TLR3 and MAVS reduces this response twofold, and blocking interferon beta or its receptor abrogates it. Upregulation of hypermethylated endogenous retrovirus (ERV) genes accompanies the response and ERV overexpression activates the response. Basal levels of ERV and viral defense gene expression significantly correlate in primary OC and the latter signature separates primary samples for multiple tumor types from The Cancer Genome Atlas into low versus high expression groups. In melanoma patients treated with an immune checkpoint therapy, high viral defense signature expression in tumors significantly associates with durable clinical response and DNMTi treatment sensitizes to anti-CTLA4 therapy in a pre-clinical melanoma model. PMID:26317466

  17. RNA Exosome Regulates AID DNA Mutator Activity in the B Cell Genome.

    PubMed

    Pefanis, Evangelos; Basu, Uttiya

    2015-01-01

    The immunoglobulin diversification processes of somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination critically rely on transcription-coupled targeting of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to Ig loci in activated B lymphocytes. AID catalyzes deamination of cytidine deoxynucleotides on exposed single-stranded DNA. In addition to driving immunoglobulin diversity, promiscuous targeting of AID mutagenic activity poses a deleterious threat to genomic stability. Recent genome-wide studies have uncovered pervasive AID activity throughout the B cell genome. It is increasingly apparent that AID activity is frequently targeted to genomic loci undergoing early transcription termination where RNA exosome promotes the resolution of stalled transcription complexes via cotranscriptional RNA degradation mechanisms. Here, we review aspects and consequences of eukaryotic transcription that lead to early termination, RNA exosome recruitment, and ultimately targeting of AID mutagenic activity.

  18. RNA exosome regulates AID DNA mutator activity in the B cell genome

    PubMed Central

    Pefanis, Evangelos; Basu, Uttiya

    2015-01-01

    The immunoglobulin diversification processes of somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination critically rely on transcription coupled targeting of AID to Ig loci in activated B lymphocytes. AID catalyzes deamination of cytidine deoxynucleotides on exposed single stranded DNA. In addition to driving immunoglobulin diversity, promiscuous targeting of AID mutagenic activity poses a deleterious threat to genomic stability. Recent genome-wide studies have uncovered pervasive AID activity throughout the B cell genome. It is increasingly apparent that AID activity is frequently targeted to genomic loci undergoing early transcription termination where RNA exosome promotes the resolution of stalled transcription complexes via co-transcriptional RNA degradation mechanisms. Here we review aspects and consequences of eukaryotic transcription that lead to early termination, RNA exosome recruitment, and ultimately targeting of AID mutagenic activity. PMID:26073986

  19. Mechanism of foreign DNA recognition by a CRISPR RNA-guided surveillance complex from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, MaryClare F.; Schuman, Jason T.; Paulus, Kirra; Bukhari, Habib S.T.; Wiedenheft, Blake

    2015-01-01

    The Type I-F CRISPR-mediated (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) adaptive immune system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa consists of two CRISPR loci and six CRISPR-associated (cas) genes. Foreign DNA surveillance is performed by a complex of Cas proteins (Csy1–4) that assemble with a CRISPR RNA (crRNA) into a 350-kDa ribonucleoprotein called the Csy complex. Here, we show that foreign nucleic acid recognition by the Csy complex proceeds through sequential steps, initiated by detection of two consecutive guanine–cytosine base pairs (G–C/G–C) located adjacent to the complementary DNA target. We show that this motif, called the PAM (protospacer adjacent motif), must be double-stranded and that single-stranded PAMs do not provide significant discriminating power. Binding assays performed with G–C/G–C-rich competitor sequences indicate that the Csy complex interacts directly with this dinucleotide motif, and kinetic analyses reveal that recognition of a G–C/G–C motif is a prerequisite for crRNA-guided binding to a target sequence. Together, these data indicate that the Csy complex first interacts with G–C/G–C base pairs and then samples adjacent target sequences for complementarity to the crRNA guide. PMID:25662606

  20. SYBR Green-activated sorting of Arabidopsis pollen nuclei based on different DNA/RNA content.

    PubMed

    Schoft, Vera K; Chumak, Nina; Bindics, János; Slusarz, Lucyna; Twell, David; Köhler, Claudia; Tamaru, Hisashi

    2015-03-01

    Key message: Purification of pollen nuclei. Germ cell epigenetics is a critical topic in plants and animals. The male gametophyte (pollen) of flowering plants is an attractive model to study genetic and epigenetic reprogramming during sexual reproduction, being composed of only two sperm cells contained within, its companion, vegetative cell. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method to purify SYBR Green-stained sperm and vegetative cell nuclei of Arabidopsis thaliana pollen using fluorescence-activated cell sorting to analyze chromatin and RNA profiles. The method obviates generating transgenic lines expressing cell-type-specific fluorescence reporters and facilitates functional genomic analysis of various mutant lines and accessions. We evaluate the purity and quality of the sorted pollen nuclei and analyze the technique's molecular basis. Our results show that both DNA and RNA contents contribute to SYBR Green-activated nucleus sorting and RNA content differences impact on the separation of sperm and vegetative cell nuclei. We demonstrate the power of the approach by sorting wild-type and polyploid mutant sperm and vegetative cell nuclei from mitotic and meiotic mutants, which is not feasible using cell-type-specific transgenic reporters. Our approach should be applicable to pollen nuclei of crop plants and possibly to cell/nucleus types and cell cycle phases of different species containing substantially different amounts of DNA and/or RNA.

  1. H19 lncRNA alters DNA methylation genome wide by regulating S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jichun; Yang, Lihua; Zhong, Tianyu; Mueller, Martin; Men, Yi; Zhang, Na; Xie, Juanke; Giang, Karolyn; Chung, Hunter; Sun, Xueguang; Lu, Lingeng; Carmichael, Gordon G; Taylor, Hugh S; Huang, Yingqun

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is essential for mammalian development and physiology. Here we report that the developmentally regulated H19 lncRNA binds to and inhibits S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH), the only mammalian enzyme capable of hydrolysing S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). SAH is a potent feedback inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases that methylate diverse cellular components, including DNA, RNA, proteins, lipids and neurotransmitters. We show that H19 knockdown activates SAHH, leading to increased DNMT3B-mediated methylation of an lncRNA-encoding gene Nctc1 within the Igf2-H19-Nctc1 locus. Genome-wide methylation profiling reveals methylation changes at numerous gene loci consistent with SAHH modulation by H19. Our results uncover an unanticipated regulatory circuit involving broad epigenetic alterations by a single abundantly expressed lncRNA that may underlie gene methylation dynamics of development and diseases and suggest that this mode of regulation may extend to other cellular components. PMID:26687445

  2. Effective plasmid DNA and small interfering RNA delivery to diseased human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Slanina, H; Schmutzler, M; Christodoulides, M; Kim, K S; Schubert-Unkmeir, A

    2012-01-01

    Expression of exogenous DNA or small interfering RNA (siRNA) in vitro is significantly affected by the particular delivery system utilized. In this study, we evaluated the transfection efficiency of plasmid DNA and siRNA into human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and meningioma cells, which constitute the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, a target of meningitis-causing pathogens. Chemical transfection methods and various lipofection reagents including Lipofectamin™, FuGene™, or jetPRIME®, as well as physical transfection methods and electroporation techniques were applied. To monitor the transfection efficiencies, HBMEC and meningioma cells were transfected with the reporter plasmid pTagGFP2-actin vector, and efficiency of transfection was estimated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. We established protocols based on electroporation using Cell Line Nucleofector® Kit V with the Amaxa® Nucleofector® II system from Lonza and the Neon® Transfection system from Invitrogen resulting in up to 41 and 82% green fluorescent protein-positive HBMEC, respectively. Optimal transfection solutions, pulse programs and length were evaluated. We furthermore demonstrated that lipofection is an efficient method to transfect meningioma cells with a transfection efficiency of about 81%. Finally, we applied the successful electroporation protocols to deliver synthetic siRNA to HBMEC and analyzed the role of the actin-binding protein cortactin in Neisseria meningitidis pathogenesis. PMID:23036990

  3. Seasonal Succession Leads to Habitat-Dependent Differentiation in Ribosomal RNA:DNA Ratios among Freshwater Lake Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Denef, Vincent J.; Fujimoto, Masanori; Berry, Michelle A.; Schmidt, Marian L.

    2016-01-01

    Relative abundance profiles of bacterial populations measured by sequencing DNA or RNA of marker genes can widely differ. These differences, made apparent when calculating ribosomal RNA:DNA ratios, have been interpreted as variable activities of bacterial populations. However, inconsistent correlations between ribosomal RNA:DNA ratios and metabolic activity or growth rates have led to a more conservative interpretation of this metric as the cellular protein synthesis potential (PSP). Little is known, particularly in freshwater systems, about how PSP varies for specific taxa across temporal and spatial environmental gradients and how conserved PSP is across bacterial phylogeny. Here, we generated 16S rRNA gene sequencing data using simultaneously extracted DNA and RNA from fractionated (free-living and particulate) water samples taken seasonally along a eutrophic freshwater estuary to oligotrophic pelagic transect in Lake Michigan. In contrast to previous reports, we observed frequent clustering of DNA and RNA data from the same sample. Analysis of the overlap in taxa detected at the RNA and DNA level indicated that microbial dormancy may be more common in the estuary, the particulate fraction, and during the stratified period. Across spatiotemporal gradients, PSP was often conserved at the phylum and class levels. PSPs for specific taxa were more similar across habitats in spring than in summer and fall. This was most notable for PSPs of the same taxa when located in the free-living or particulate fractions, but also when contrasting surface to deep, and estuary to Lake Michigan communities. Our results show that community composition assessed by RNA and DNA measurements are more similar than previously assumed in freshwater systems. However, the similarity between RNA and DNA measurements and taxa-specific PSPs that drive community-level similarities are conditional on spatiotemporal factors. PMID:27199936

  4. Seasonal succession leads to habitat-dependent differentiation in ribosomal RNA:DNA ratios among freshwater lake bacteria

    DOE PAGES

    Denef, Vincent J.; Fujimoto, Masanori; Berry, Michelle A.; Schmidt, Marian L.

    2016-04-29

    Relative abundance profiles of bacterial populations measured by sequencing DNA or RNA of marker genes can widely differ. These differences, made apparent when calculating ribosomal RNA:DNA ratios, have been interpreted as variable activities of bacterial populations. However, inconsistent correlations between ribosomal RNA:DNA ratios and metabolic activity or growth rates have led to a more conservative interpretation of this metric as the cellular protein synthesis potential (PSP). Little is known, particularly in freshwater systems, about how PSP varies for specific taxa across temporal and spatial environmental gradients and how conserved PSP is across bacterial phylogeny. Here, we generated 16S rRNA genemore » sequencing data using simultaneously extracted DNA and RNA from fractionated (free-living and particulate) water samples taken seasonally along a eutrophic freshwater estuary to oligotrophic pelagic transect in Lake Michigan. In contrast to previous reports, we observed frequent clustering of DNA and RNA data from the same sample. Analysis of the overlap in taxa detected at the RNA and DNA level indicated that microbial dormancy may be more common in the estuary, the particulate fraction, and during the stratified period. Across spatiotemporal gradients, PSP was often conserved at the phylum and class levels. PSPs for specific taxa were more similar across habitats in spring than in summer and fall. This was most notable for PSPs of the same taxa when located in the free-living or particulate fractions, but also when contrasting surface to deep, and estuary to Lake Michigan communities. Our results show that community composition assessed by RNA and DNA measurements are more similar than previously assumed in freshwater systems. Furthermore, the similarity between RNA and DNA measurements and taxa-specific PSPs that drive community-level similarities are conditional on spatiotemporal factors.« less

  5. Seasonal Succession Leads to Habitat-Dependent Differentiation in Ribosomal RNA:DNA Ratios among Freshwater Lake Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Denef, Vincent J; Fujimoto, Masanori; Berry, Michelle A; Schmidt, Marian L

    2016-01-01

    Relative abundance profiles of bacterial populations measured by sequencing DNA or RNA of marker genes can widely differ. These differences, made apparent when calculating ribosomal RNA:DNA ratios, have been interpreted as variable activities of bacterial populations. However, inconsistent correlations between ribosomal RNA:DNA ratios and metabolic activity or growth rates have led to a more conservative interpretation of this metric as the cellular protein synthesis potential (PSP). Little is known, particularly in freshwater systems, about how PSP varies for specific taxa across temporal and spatial environmental gradients and how conserved PSP is across bacterial phylogeny. Here, we generated 16S rRNA gene sequencing data using simultaneously extracted DNA and RNA from fractionated (free-living and particulate) water samples taken seasonally along a eutrophic freshwater estuary to oligotrophic pelagic transect in Lake Michigan. In contrast to previous reports, we observed frequent clustering of DNA and RNA data from the same sample. Analysis of the overlap in taxa detected at the RNA and DNA level indicated that microbial dormancy may be more common in the estuary, the particulate fraction, and during the stratified period. Across spatiotemporal gradients, PSP was often conserved at the phylum and class levels. PSPs for specific taxa were more similar across habitats in spring than in summer and fall. This was most notable for PSPs of the same taxa when located in the free-living or particulate fractions, but also when contrasting surface to deep, and estuary to Lake Michigan communities. Our results show that community composition assessed by RNA and DNA measurements are more similar than previously assumed in freshwater systems. However, the similarity between RNA and DNA measurements and taxa-specific PSPs that drive community-level similarities are conditional on spatiotemporal factors. PMID:27199936

  6. Temporal aspects of DNA and RNA synthesis during human immunodeficiency virus infection: Evidence for differential gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sunyoung; Baltimore, D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ); Byrn, R.; Groopman, J. )

    1989-09-01

    The kinetics of retroviral DNA and RNA synthesis are parameters vital to understanding viral growth, especially for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which encodes several of its own regulatory genes. The authors have established a single-cycle growth condition for HIV in H9 cells, a human CD4{sup +} lymphocyte line. The full-length viral linear DNA is first detectable by 4 h postinfection. During a one-step growth of HIV, amounts of viral DNA gradually increase until 8 to 12 h postinfection and then decrease. The copy number of unintegrated viral DNA is not extraordinarily high even at its peak. Most strikingly, there is a temporal program of RNA accumulation: the earliest RNA is greatly enriched in the 2-kilobase subgenomic mRNA species, while the level of 9.2-kilobase RNA which is both genomic RNA and mRNA remains low until after 24 h of infection. Virus production begins at about 24 h postinfection. Thus, viral DNA synthesis is as rapid as for other retroviruses, but viral RNA synthesis involves temporal alteration in the species that accumulate, presumably as a consequence of viral regulatory genes.

  7. Inhibition of Xenograft Tumor Growth by Gold Nanoparticle-DNA Oligonucleotide Conjugates-Assisted Delivery of BAX mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Won, Miae; Park, Mira; Bae, Jeehyeon; Lee, Kangseok

    2013-01-01

    Use of non-biological agents for mRNA delivery into living systems in order to induce heterologous expression of functional proteins may provide more advantages than the use of DNA and/or biological vectors for delivery. However, the low efficiency of mRNA delivery into live animals, using non-biological systems, has hampered the use of mRNA as a therapeutic molecule. Here, we show that gold nanoparticle-DNA oligonucleotide (AuNP-DNA) conjugates can serve as universal vehicles for more efficient delivery of mRNA into human cells, as well as into xenograft tumors generated in mice. Injections of BAX mRNA loaded on AuNP-DNA conjugates into xenograft tumors resulted in highly efficient mRNA delivery. The delivered mRNA directed the efficient production of biologically functional BAX protein, a pro-apoptotic factor, consequently inhibiting tumor growth. These results demonstrate that mRNA delivery by AuNP-DNA conjugates can serve as a new platform for the development of safe and efficient gene therapy. PMID:24073264

  8. Effective DNA/RNA Co-Extraction for Analysis of MicroRNAs, mRNAs, and Genomic DNA from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Christina; Lin, Juan; Ye, Kenny; Kim, Ryung; Hazan, Rachel; Rohan, Thomas; Fineberg, Susan; Loudig, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Background Retrospective studies of archived human specimens, with known clinical follow-up, are used to identify predictive and prognostic molecular markers of disease. Due to biochemical differences, however, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) DNA and RNA have generally been extracted separately from either different tissue sections or from the same section by dividing the digested tissue. The former limits accurate correlation whilst the latter is impractical when utilizing rare or limited archived specimens. Principal Findings For effective recovery of genomic DNA and total RNA from a single FFPE specimen, without splitting the proteinase-K digested tissue solution, we optimized a co-extraction method by using TRIzol and purifying DNA from the lower aqueous and RNA from the upper organic phases. Using a series of seven different archived specimens, we evaluated the total amounts of genomic DNA and total RNA recovered by our TRIzol-based co-extraction method and compared our results with those from two commercial kits, the Qiagen AllPrep DNA/RNA FFPE kit, for co-extraction, and the Ambion RecoverAll™ Total Nucleic Acid Isolation kit, for separate extraction of FFPE-DNA and -RNA. Then, to accurately assess the quality of DNA and RNA co-extracted from a single FFPE specimen, we used qRT-PCR, gene expression profiling and methylation assays to analyze microRNAs, mRNAs, and genomic DNA recovered from matched fresh and FFPE MCF10A cells. These experiments show that the TRIzol-based co-extraction method provides larger amounts of FFPE-DNA and –RNA than the two other methods, and particularly provides higher quality microRNAs and genomic DNA for subsequent molecular analyses. Significance We determined that co-extraction of genomic DNA and total RNA from a single FFPE specimen is an effective recovery approach to obtain high-quality material for parallel molecular and high-throughput analyses. Our optimized approach provides the option of collecting DNA, which

  9. Crystal structure of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in complex with a polypurine tract RNA:DNA.

    PubMed

    Sarafianos, S G; Das, K; Tantillo, C; Clark, A D; Ding, J; Whitcomb, J M; Boyer, P L; Hughes, S H; Arnold, E

    2001-03-15

    We have determined the 3.0 A resolution structure of wild-type HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in complex with an RNA:DNA oligonucleotide whose sequence includes a purine-rich segment from the HIV-1 genome called the polypurine tract (PPT). The PPT is resistant to ribonuclease H (RNase H) cleavage and is used as a primer for second DNA strand synthesis. The 'RNase H primer grip', consisting of amino acids that interact with the DNA primer strand, may contribute to RNase H catalysis and cleavage specificity. Cleavage specificity is also controlled by the width of the minor groove and the trajectory of the RNA:DNA, both of which are sequence dependent. An unusual 'unzipping' of 7 bp occurs in the adenine stretch of the PPT: an unpaired base on the template strand takes the base pairing out of register and then, following two offset base pairs, an unpaired base on the primer strand re-establishes the normal register. The structural aberration extends to the RNase H active site and may play a role in the resistance of PPT to RNase H cleavage.

  10. Spectroscopic investigation of a FRET molecular beacon containing two fluorophores for probing DNA/RNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Jockusch, Steffen; Martí, Angel A; Turro, Nicholas J; Li, Zengmin; Li, Xiaoxu; Ju, Jingyue; Stevens, Nathan; Akins, Daniel L

    2006-05-01

    We report the design, synthesis, and characterization of a molecular beacon (MB) consisting of two fluorescent dyes (Alexa 488 and RedX) for DNA and RNA analysis. In the absence of the target DNA or RNA the MB is in its stem-closed form and shows efficient energy transfer from the donor (Alexa) to the acceptor (RedX), generating mostly fluorescence from RedX. In the presence of the complementary target DNA the MB opened efficiently, hybridizes with the target DNA, and energy transfer is blocked in the stem-open form. This attachment to the target generates a fluorescence signature, which is clearly distinguishable from the fluorescence signature of the stem-closed form, allowing for ratiometric analysis of the fluorescence signal. In addition to steady-state fluorescence analysis, time resolved fluorescence (ps time range) and fluorescence depolarization studies were performed. We show that fluorescence lifetime and fluorescence depolarization measurements are useful analytical tools to optimize the MB design.

  11. Crystal structure of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in complex with a polypurine tract RNA:DNA

    PubMed Central

    Sarafianos, Stefan G.; Das, Kalyan; Tantillo, Chris; Clark, Arthur D.; Ding, Jianping; Whitcomb, Jeannette M.; Boyer, Paul L.; Hughes, Stephen H.; Arnold, Edward

    2001-01-01

    We have determined the 3.0 Å resolution structure of wild-type HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in complex with an RNA:DNA oligonucleotide whose sequence includes a purine-rich segment from the HIV-1 genome called the polypurine tract (PPT). The PPT is resistant to ribonuclease H (RNase H) cleavage and is used as a primer for second DNA strand synthesis. The ‘RNase H primer grip’, consisting of amino acids that interact with the DNA primer strand, may contribute to RNase H catalysis and cleavage specificity. Cleavage specificity is also controlled by the width of the minor groove and the trajectory of the RNA:DNA, both of which are sequence dependent. An unusual ‘unzipping’ of 7 bp occurs in the adenine stretch of the PPT: an unpaired base on the template strand takes the base pairing out of register and then, following two offset base pairs, an unpaired base on the primer strand re-establishes the normal register. The structural aberration extends to the RNase H active site and may play a role in the resistance of PPT to RNase H cleavage. PMID:11250910

  12. Chromatin proteins and RNA are associated with DNA during all phases of mitosis

    PubMed Central

    L Black, Kathryn; Petruk, Svetlana; Fenstermaker, Tyler K; Hodgson, Jacob W; Caplan, Jeffrey L; Brock, Hugh W; Mazo, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Mitosis brings about major changes to chromosome and nuclear structure. We used recently developed proximity ligation assay-based techniques to investigate the association with DNA of chromatin-associated proteins and RNAs in Drosophila embryos during mitosis. All groups of tested proteins, histone-modifying and chromatin-remodeling proteins and methylated histones remained in close proximity to DNA during all phases of mitosis. We also found that RNA transcripts are associated with DNA during all stages of mitosis. Reduction of H3K27me3 levels or elimination of RNAs had no effect on the association of the components of PcG and TrxG complexes to DNA. Using a combination of proximity ligation assay-based techniques and super-resolution microscopy, we found that the number of protein–DNA and RNA–DNA foci undergoes significant reduction during mitosis, suggesting that mitosis may be accompanied by structural re-arrangement or compaction of specific chromatin domains. PMID:27807477

  13. A paradoxical relationship between Resveratrol and copper (II) with respect to degradation of DNA and RNA

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Siddharth; Vohra, Iqbal; Iyer, Aishwarya; Nair, Naveen K; Mittra, Indraneel

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (R), a plant polyphenol, is known to reduce Cu (II) to Cu (I) generating reactive oxygen species that can cleave plasmid DNA. Here we report a surprising observation of a paradoxical relationship between R and Cu whereby plasmid DNA cleaving / degrading activity of R-Cu increased progressively as the ratio of R to Cu was increased i.e., the concentration of Cu was successively reduced with respect to a fixed concentration R. Whereas cleavage of plasmid DNA occurred at low molar ratios of R to Cu, at higher ratios, complete degradation of DNA was achieved. By further increasing the ratio, whereby the concentration of Cu was reduced to very low levels, the DNA degrading activity of R-Cu was lost. This paradoxical relationship is also seen with respect to eukaryotic genomic DNA and RNA. Since R-Cu may have anti-cancer and anti-viral activities, our findings may not only help to improve the therapeutic efficacy of R-Cu but also reduce its toxic side effects with the use of low concentration of Cu. PMID:27134724

  14. A paradoxical relationship between Resveratrol and copper (II) with respect to degradation of DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Siddharth; Vohra, Iqbal; Iyer, Aishwarya; Nair, Naveen K; Mittra, Indraneel

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (R), a plant polyphenol, is known to reduce Cu (II) to Cu (I) generating reactive oxygen species that can cleave plasmid DNA. Here we report a surprising observation of a paradoxical relationship between R and Cu whereby plasmid DNA cleaving / degrading activity of R-Cu increased progressively as the ratio of R to Cu was increased i.e., the concentration of Cu was successively reduced with respect to a fixed concentration R. Whereas cleavage of plasmid DNA occurred at low molar ratios of R to Cu, at higher ratios, complete degradation of DNA was achieved. By further increasing the ratio, whereby the concentration of Cu was reduced to very low levels, the DNA degrading activity of R-Cu was lost. This paradoxical relationship is also seen with respect to eukaryotic genomic DNA and RNA. Since R-Cu may have anti-cancer and anti-viral activities, our findings may not only help to improve the therapeutic efficacy of R-Cu but also reduce its toxic side effects with the use of low concentration of Cu.

  15. RNA associated with a heterodimeric protein that activates a meiotic homologous recombination hot spot: RL/RT/PCR strategy for cloning any unknown RNA or DNA.

    PubMed

    Wahls, W P

    1994-04-01

    The ade6-M26 mutation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe creates a meiotic homologous recombination hot spot. We have achieved 40,000-fold purification of a heterodimeric DNA-binding protein, Mts1/Mts2, that activates the recombination hot spot. Physical studies suggested the presence of a third subunit. It is demonstrated here that RNA molecules of approximately 210 nucleotides copurified with the heterodimer. To characterize the RNA component, it was necessary to develop a new strategy for cloning of the unknown, low-abundance, partially degraded RNAs that were present in purified Mts1/Mts2 protein preparations. The strategy uses RNA ligase to add DNA oligonucleotide priming sites to the RNA for subsequent reverse transcription and PCR (RNA ligase, reverse transcription-PCR, or RL/RT/PCR). This cloning procedure could be applied to the cloning of any unknown RNA or DNA molecules. Because the cDNA clones obtained from Mts1/Mts2 were largely heterogeneous, it seems likely that the RNAs copurified as a result of tight but nonspecific interactions with the heterodimeric protein. PMID:7518718

  16. Ultrasensitive detection of DNA and RNA based on enzyme-free click chemical ligation chain reaction on dispersed gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kato, Daiki; Oishi, Motoi

    2014-10-28

    An ultrasensitive colorimetric DNA and RNA assay using a combination of enzyme-free click chemical ligation chain reaction (CCLCR) on dispersed gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and a magnetic separation process has been developed. The click chemical ligation between an azide-containing probe DNA-modified GNP and a dibenzocyclooctyne-containing probe biotinyl DNA occurred through hybridization with target DNA (RNA) to form the biotinyl-ligated GNPs (ligated products). Eventually, both the biotinyl-ligated GNPs and target DNA (RNA) were amplified exponentially using thermal cycling. After separation of the biotinyl-ligated GNPs using streptavidin-modified magnetic beads, the change in intensity of the surface plasmon band at 525 nm in the supernatants was observed by UV/vis measurement and was also evident visually. The CCLCR assay provides ultrasensitive detection (50 zM: several copies) of target DNA that is comparable to PCR-based approaches. Note that target RNA could also be detected with similar sensitivity without the need for reverse transcription to the corresponding cDNA. The amplification efficiency of the CCLCR assay was as high as 82% due to the pseudohomogeneous reaction behavior of CCLCR on dispersed GNPs. In addition, the CCLCR assay was able to discriminate differences in single-base mismatches and to specifically detect target DNA and target RNA from the cell lysate.

  17. Transparent DNA/RNA Co-extraction Workflow Protocol Suitable for Inhibitor-Rich Environmental Samples That Focuses on Complete DNA Removal for Transcriptomic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Natalie Y. N.; Roco, Constance A.; Frostegård, Åsa

    2016-01-01

    Adequate comparisons of DNA and cDNA libraries from complex environments require methods for co-extraction of DNA and RNA due to the inherent heterogeneity of such samples, or risk bias caused by variations in lysis and extraction efficiencies. Still, there are few methods and kits allowing simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA from the same sample, and the existing ones generally require optimization. The proprietary nature of kit components, however, makes modifications of individual steps in the manufacturer’s recommended procedure difficult. Surprisingly, enzymatic treatments are often performed before purification procedures are complete, which we have identified here as a major problem when seeking efficient genomic DNA removal from RNA extracts. Here, we tested several DNA/RNA co-extraction commercial kits on inhibitor-rich soils, and compared them to a commonly used phenol-chloroform co-extraction method. Since none of the kits/methods co-extracted high-quality nucleic acid material, we optimized the extraction workflow by introducing small but important improvements. In particular, we illustrate the need for extensive purification prior to all enzymatic procedures, with special focus on the DNase digestion step in RNA extraction. These adjustments led to the removal of enzymatic inhibition in RNA extracts and made it possible to reduce genomic DNA to below detectable levels as determined by quantitative PCR. Notably, we confirmed that DNase digestion may not be uniform in replicate extraction reactions, thus the analysis of “representative samples” is insufficient. The modular nature of our workflow protocol allows optimization of individual steps. It also increases focus on additional purification procedures prior to enzymatic processes, in particular DNases, yielding genomic DNA-free RNA extracts suitable for metatranscriptomic analysis. PMID:27803690

  18. DNA/RNA chimera templates improve the emission intensity and target the accessibility of silver nanocluster-based sensors for human microRNA detection.

    PubMed

    Shah, Pratik; Choi, Suk Won; Kim, Ho-jin; Cho, Seok Keun; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Bjerrum, Morten Jannik; Bhang, Yong-Joo; Ahn, Jong Cheol; Yang, Seong Wook

    2015-05-21

    In recent years microRNAs (miRNAs) have been established as important biomarkers in a variety of diseases including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, aging, Alzheimer's disease, asthma, autoimmune disease and liver diseases. As a consequence, a variety of monitoring methods for miRNAs have been developed, including a fast and simple method for miRNA detection by exploitation of the unique photoluminescence of DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs). To increase the versatility of the AgNC-based method, we have adopted DNA/RNA chimera templates for AgNC-based probes, allowing response from several human miRNAs which are hardly detectable with DNA-based probes. Here, we demonstrate in detail the power of DNA/RNA chimera/AgNC probes in detecting two human miRNAs, let-7a and miR-200c. The DNA/RNA chimera-based probes are highly efficient to determine the level of miRNAs in several human cell lines. PMID:25759134

  19. cDNA sequence, mRNA expression and genomic DNA of trypsinogen from the indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y C; Oppert, B; Kramer, K J; McGaughey, W H; Dowdy, A K

    2000-02-01

    Trypsin-like enzymes are major insect gut enzymes that digest dietary proteins and proteolytically activate insecticidal proteins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Resistance to Bt in a strain of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, was linked to the absence of a major trypsin-like proteinase (Oppert et al., 1997). In this study, trypsin-like proteinases, cDNA sequences, mRNA expression levels and genomic DNAs from Bt-susceptible and -resistant strains of the Indianmeal moth were compared. Proteinase activity blots of gut extracts indicated that the susceptible strain had two major trypsin-like proteinases, whereas the resistant strain had only one. Several trypsinogen-like cDNA clones were isolated and sequenced from cDNA libraries of both strains using a probe deduced from a conserved sequence for a serine proteinase active site. cDNAs of 852 nucleotides from the susceptible strain and 848 nucleotides from the resistant strain contained an open reading frame of 783 nucleotides which encoded a 261-amino acid trypsinogen-like protein. There was a single silent nucleotide difference between the two cDNAs in the open reading frame and the predicted amino acid sequence from the cDNA clones was most similar to sequences of trypsin-like proteinases from the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, and the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. The encoded protein included amino acid sequence motifs of serine proteinase active sites, conserved cysteine residues, and both zymogen activation and signal peptides. Northern blotting analysis showed no major difference between the two strains in mRNA expression in fourth-instar larvae, indicating that transcription was similar in the strains. Southern blotting analysis revealed that the restriction sites for the trypsinogen genes from the susceptible and resistant strains were different. Based on an enzyme size comparison, the cDNA isolated in this study corresponded to the gene for the smaller of two

  20. DNAzyme-based rolling-circle amplification DNA machine for ultrasensitive analysis of microRNA in Drosophila larva.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yanqin; Xu, Yan; Mao, Xiuhai; Wei, Yingliang; Song, Haiyun; Chen, Nan; Huang, Qing; Fan, Chunhai; Li, Di

    2012-09-18

    We present a highly sensitive colorimetric method for microRNA (miRNA) detection. This method is based on a rolling-circle amplification (RCA) DNA machine, which integrates RCA, nicking enzyme signal amplification and DNAzyme signal amplification. The DNA machine is triggered by the hybridization of target miRNA with a rational designed padlock DNA template and activated by RCA. The resulting RCA product then autonomously replicates a multiple machinery cutter cycle and generates accumulated amount of products. Specifically, the DNA product in the present work is designed as a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme, which could that catalyze a colorimetric reaction and generate colored product. Through these cascade amplifications, microRNA (miRNA) as low as 2 aM could be detected. As an example of in vivo application, miRNA from single Drosophila larva was successfully analyzed. Drosophila is a model organism that provides a powerful genetic tool to study gene functions. Study of Drosophila miRNAs has brought us knowledge of its biogenesis and biological functions. The analysis of miRNA typically requires a pretreatment process of extracting total RNAs from target cells, followed by quantitative analysis of target miRNA in total RNA samples, which nevertheless suffers from laborious total RNA extraction and time-consuming processes and poor limit of detection. Meanwhile, the tiny size of Drosophila makes it difficult to accurately measure trivial changes of its cellular miRNA levels. The ability to detect ultralow concentration of miRNA of the proposed method enables the analysis the expression of mir-1 in single Drosophila larva. We thus expect that the strategy may open new avenues for in situ miRNA analysis in single cell or living animals.

  1. Exploring the recovery and detection of messenger RNA and DNA from enhanced fingermarks in blood.

    PubMed

    Fox, A; Gittos, M; Harbison, S A; Fleming, R; Wivell, R

    2014-05-01

    Often in the examination of bloodstained fingermarks discussion occurs around whether to prioritise the fingerprint evidence or focus on the biological evidence. Collecting a sample for genetic profiling may result in the loss of ridge detail that could have been used for fingerprint comparison. Fingermark enhancement and recovery methods along with sample collection methods could also compromise downstream genetic analysis. Previous forensic casework has highlighted circumstances where, after enhancement had been performed, it would have been extremely valuable to both identify the body fluid and generate a DNA profile from the same sample. We enhanced depletion series of fingermarks made in blood, using single treatments consisting of aqueous amido black, methanol-based amido black, acid yellow and leucocrystal violet, and exposure to long wave UV light. We then extracted the DNA and RNA for profiling, to assess the recovery and detection of genetic material from the enhanced fingermarks. We have shown that genetic profiling of bloodstained fingermarks can be successful after chemical enhancement; however it may still be necessary to prioritise evidence types in certain circumstances. From our results it appears that even with visible bloodstained fingermarks, leucocrystal violet can reduce the effectiveness of subsequent messenger RNA profiling. Aqueous amido black and acid yellow also have adverse effects on messenger RNA profiling of depleted fingermarks with low levels of cellular material. These results help with forensic decision-making by expanding knowledge of the extent of the detrimental effects of blood-enhancement reagents on both DNA profiling and body fluid identification using messenger RNA profiling.

  2. Amitochondriate amoebae and the evolution of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Stiller, J W; Duffield, E C; Hall, B D

    1998-09-29

    Unlike parasitic protist groups that are defined by the absence of mitochondria, the Pelobiontida is composed mostly of free-living species. Because of the presence of ultrastructural and cellular features that set them apart from all other eukaryotic organisms, it has been suggested that pelobionts are primitively amitochondriate and may represent the earliest-evolved lineage of extant protists. Analyses of rRNA genes, however, have suggested that the group arose well after the diversification of the earliest-evolved protists. Here we report the sequence of the gene encoding the largest subunit of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (RPB1) from the pelobiont Mastigamoeba invertens. Sequences within RPB1 encompass several of the conserved catalytic domains that are common to eubacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic nuclear-encoded RNA polymerases. In RNA polymerase II, these domains catalyze the transcription of all nuclear pre-mRNAs, as well as the majority of small nuclear RNAs. In contrast with rDNA-based trees, phylogenetic analyses of RPB1 sequences indicate that Mastigamoeba represents an early branch of eukaryotic evolution. Unlike sequences from parasitic amitochondriate protists that were included in our study, there is no indication that Mastigamoeba RPB1 is attracted to the base of the eukaryotic tree artifactually. In addition, the presence of introns and a heptapeptide C-terminal repeat in the Mastigamoeba RPB1 sequence, features that are typically associated with more recently derived eukaryotic groups, raise provocative questions regarding models of protist evolution that depend almost exclusively on rDNA sequence analyses.

  3. Detection of sickle-cell mutation by electrophoresis of partial RNA:DNA hybrids following solution hybridization.

    PubMed

    Jones, F S; Grimberg, J I; Fischer, S G; Ford, J P

    1985-01-01

    We have developed a method in which partially single-stranded (ss) DNA molecules containing a defined region of duplex RNA:DNA are electrophoretically separated in agarose gels. The partial hybrids are formed by solution hybridization with a uniform length RNA probe complementary to part of the DNA sequence of interest. Following hybridization, the RNA/DNA mixture is fractionated by agarose gel electrophoresis at high temperature to minimize intrastrand base pairing which causes mobility heterogeneity. Not requiring the steps of DNA transfer from the gel to a solid support and subsequent probing, pre-electrophoretic hybridization allows the direct identification of single-copy fragments. Conditions for the detection of single-copy genes in human DNA digested with specific restriction endonucleases were developed and applied to the diagnosis of sickle-cell disease. This method should be applicable for the analysis of DNAs of high complexity where the presence of DNA polymorphisms and interspersed repeated DNA sequences often make impossible the creation of complete RNA:DNA hybrids.

  4. RNA and DNA binding of inert oligonuclear ruthenium(II) complexes in live eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Gorle, Anil K; Ainsworth, Tracy D; Heimann, Kirsten; Woodward, Clifford E; Collins, J Grant; Keene, F Richard

    2015-02-28

    Confocal microscopy was used to study the intracellular localisation of a series of inert polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes with three eukaryotic cells lines - baby hamster kidney (BHK), human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) and liver carcinoma (Hep-G2). Co-staining experiments with the DNA-selective dye DAPI demonstrated that the di-, tri- and tetra-nuclear polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes that are linked by the bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,12-dodecane bridging ligand ("bb12") showed a high degree of selectivity for the nucleus of the eukaryotic cells. Additional co-localisation experiments with the general nucleic acid stain SYTO 9 indicated that the ruthenium complexes showed a considerable preference for the RNA-rich nucleolus, rather than chromosomal DNA. No significant differences were observed in the intracellular localisation between the ΔΔ and ΛΛ enantiomers of the dinuclear complex. Cytotoxicity assays carried out over 72 hours indicated that the ruthenium complexes, particularly the tri- and tetra-nuclear species, were significantly toxic to the eukaryotic cells. However, when the activity of the least cytotoxic compound (the ΔΔ enantiomer of the dinuclear species) was determined over a 24 hour period, the results indicated that the ruthenium complex was approximately a 100-fold less toxic to liver and kidney cells than to Gram positive bacteria. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy was used to examine the effect of the ΔΔ and ΛΛ enantiomers of the dinuclear complex on the solution conformations of RNA and DNA. The CD experiments indicated that the RNA maintained the A-type conformation, and the DNA the B-type structure, upon binding by the ruthenium complexes.

  5. Mucosal adjuvants and delivery systems for protein-, DNA- and RNA-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Vajdy, Michael; Srivastava, Indresh; Polo, John; Donnelly, John; O'Hagan, Derek; Singh, Manmohan

    2004-12-01

    Almost all vaccinations today are delivered through parenteral routes. Mucosal vaccination offers several benefits over parenteral routes of vaccination, including ease of administration, the possibility of self-administration, elimination of the chance of injection with infected needles, and induction of mucosal as well as systemic immunity. However, mucosal vaccines have to overcome several formidable barriers in the form of significant dilution and dispersion; competition with a myriad of various live replicating bacteria, viruses, inert food and dust particles; enzymatic degradation; and low pH before reaching the target immune cells. It has long been known that vaccination through mucosal membranes requires potent adjuvants to enhance immunogenicity, as well as delivery systems to decrease the rate of dilution and degradation and to target the vaccine to the site of immune function. This review is a summary of current approaches to mucosal vaccination, and it primarily focuses on adjuvants as immunopotentiators and vaccine delivery systems for mucosal vaccines based on protein, DNA or RNA. In this context, we define adjuvants as protein or oligonucleotides with immunopotentiating properties co-administered with pathogen-derived antigens, and vaccine delivery systems as chemical formulations that are more inert and have less immunomodulatory effects than adjuvants, and that protect and deliver the vaccine through the site of administration. Although vaccines can be quite diverse in their composition, including inactivated virus, virus-like particles and inactivated bacteria (which are inert), protein-like vaccines, and non-replicating viral vectors such as poxvirus and adenovirus (which can serve as DNA delivery systems), this review will focus primarily on recombinant protein antigens, plasmid DNA, and alphavirus-based replicon RNA vaccines and delivery systems. This review is not an exhaustive list of all available protein, DNA and RNA vaccines, with related

  6. RNA and DNA binding of inert oligonuclear ruthenium(II) complexes in live eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Gorle, Anil K; Ainsworth, Tracy D; Heimann, Kirsten; Woodward, Clifford E; Collins, J Grant; Keene, F Richard

    2015-02-28

    Confocal microscopy was used to study the intracellular localisation of a series of inert polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes with three eukaryotic cells lines - baby hamster kidney (BHK), human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) and liver carcinoma (Hep-G2). Co-staining experiments with the DNA-selective dye DAPI demonstrated that the di-, tri- and tetra-nuclear polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes that are linked by the bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,12-dodecane bridging ligand ("bb12") showed a high degree of selectivity for the nucleus of the eukaryotic cells. Additional co-localisation experiments with the general nucleic acid stain SYTO 9 indicated that the ruthenium complexes showed a considerable preference for the RNA-rich nucleolus, rather than chromosomal DNA. No significant differences were observed in the intracellular localisation between the ΔΔ and ΛΛ enantiomers of the dinuclear complex. Cytotoxicity assays carried out over 72 hours indicated that the ruthenium complexes, particularly the tri- and tetra-nuclear species, were significantly toxic to the eukaryotic cells. However, when the activity of the least cytotoxic compound (the ΔΔ enantiomer of the dinuclear species) was determined over a 24 hour period, the results indicated that the ruthenium complex was approximately a 100-fold less toxic to liver and kidney cells than to Gram positive bacteria. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy was used to examine the effect of the ΔΔ and ΛΛ enantiomers of the dinuclear complex on the solution conformations of RNA and DNA. The CD experiments indicated that the RNA maintained the A-type conformation, and the DNA the B-type structure, upon binding by the ruthenium complexes. PMID:25333883

  7. The Relative Reactivity of Deoxyribose and Ribose: Did DNA Come Before RNA?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, Jason P.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    If it is assumed that there was a precursor to the ribose-phosphate backbone of RNA in the preRNA world (such as peptide nucleic acid), then the entry of various sugars into the genetic material may be related to the stability and non-enzymatic reactivity of the aldose. The rate of decomposition of 2-deoxyribose has been determined to be 1/3 that of ribose. In addition we have measured the amount of free aldehyde by H-1 and C-13 NMR and find that it has approximately 0.15% free aldehyde compared to 0.05% for ribose at 25 C. This suggests that deoxyribose would be significantly more reactive with early bases in the absence of enzymes. This is confirmed by urazole and deoxyribose reacting to form the deoxynucleoside 45 times faster as 25 C than urazole reacts with ribose to form the Ribonucleoside. Urazole is a potential precursor of uracil and is a plausible prebiotic compound which reacts with aldoses to form nucleosides. Thus the non-enzymatic reactivity of deoxyribose would favor its early use over ribose until enzymes could change the relative reactivities. Most of the reasons that RNA is presumed to have come before DNA are extrapolations back from contemporary metabolism (e.g. the abundance of ribose based coenzymes, the biosynthesis of histidine, deoxyribonucleotides are synthesized from ribonucleotides, etc.). It is very difficult to reconstruct biochemical pathways much before the last common ancestor, and it is even more difficult to do more than guess at the biochemistry of very early self-replicating systems. Thus we believe that these reasons are not compelling and that the non-enzymatic chemistry may be more important than enzymatic pathways for constructing the earliest of biochemical pathways. While the RNA world has been discussed at great length, there has not been an exploration of the transition out of the RNA world. We have constructed many possible schemes of genetic takeover events from preRNA to modern DNA, RNA, protein system which could

  8. De Novo Reconstruction of Consensus Master Genomes of Plant RNA and DNA Viruses from siRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, Jonathan; Rajeswaran, Rajendran; Malpica-López, Nachelli; Martin, Robert R.; Kasschau, Kristin; Dolja, Valerian V.; Otten, Patricia; Farinelli, Laurent; Pooggin, Mikhail M.

    2014-01-01

    Virus-infected plants accumulate abundant, 21–24 nucleotide viral siRNAs which are generated by the evolutionary conserved RNA interference (RNAi) machinery that regulates gene expression and defends against invasive nucleic acids. Here we show that, similar to RNA viruses, the entire genome sequences of DNA viruses are densely covered with siRNAs in both sense and antisense orientations. This implies pervasive transcription of both coding and non-coding viral DNA in the nucleus, which generates double-stranded RNA precursors of viral siRNAs. Consistent with our finding and hypothesis, we demonstrate that the complete genomes of DNA viruses from Caulimoviridae and Geminiviridae families can be reconstructed by deep sequencing and de novo assembly of viral siRNAs using bioinformatics tools. Furthermore, we prove that this ‘siRNA omics’ approach can be used for reliable identification of the consensus master genome and its microvariants in viral quasispecies. Finally, we utilized this approach to reconstruct an emerging DNA virus and two viroids associated with economically-important red blotch disease of grapevine, and to rapidly generate a biologically-active clone representing the wild type master genome of Oilseed rape mosaic virus. Our findings show that deep siRNA sequencing allows for de novo reconstruction of any DNA or RNA virus genome and its microvariants, making it suitable for universal characterization of evolving viral quasispecies as well as for studying the mechanisms of siRNA biogenesis and RNAi-based antiviral defense. PMID:24523907

  9. Sensing of Double-Stranded DNA/RNA Secondary Structures by Water Soluble Homochiral Perylene Bisimide Dyes.

    PubMed

    Gershberg, Jana; Radić Stojković, Marijana; Škugor, Marko; Tomić, Sanja; Rehm, Thomas H; Rehm, Stefanie; Saha-Möller, Chantu R; Piantanida, Ivo; Würthner, Frank

    2015-05-18

    A broad series of homochiral perylene bisimide (PBI) dyes were synthesized that are appended with amino acids and cationic side chains at the imide positions. Self-assembly behavior of these ionic PBIs has been studied in aqueous media by UV/Vis spectroscopy, revealing formation of excitonically coupled H-type aggregates. The interactions of these ionic PBIs with different ds-DNA and ds-RNA have been explored by thermal denaturation, fluorimetric titration and circular dichroism (CD) experiments. These PBIs strongly stabilized ds-DNA/RNA against thermal denaturation as revealed by high melting temperatures of the formed PBI/polynucleotide complexes. Fluorimetric titrations showed that these PBIs bind to ds-DNA/RNA with high binding constants depending on the number of the positive charges in the side chains. Thus, spermine-containing PBIs with six positive charges each showed higher binding constants (logKs =9.2-9.8) than their dioxa analogues (logKs =6.5-7.9) having two positive charges each. Induced circular dichroism (ICD) of PBI assemblies created within DNA/RNA grooves was observed. These ICD profiles are strongly dependent on the steric demand of the chiral substituents of the amino acid units and the secondary structure of the DNA or RNA. The observed ICD effects can be explained by non-covalent binding of excitonically coupled PBI dimer aggregates into the minor groove of DNA and major groove of RNA which is further supported by molecular modeling studies. PMID:25900531

  10. Sensing of Double-Stranded DNA/RNA Secondary Structures by Water Soluble Homochiral Perylene Bisimide Dyes.

    PubMed

    Gershberg, Jana; Radić Stojković, Marijana; Škugor, Marko; Tomić, Sanja; Rehm, Thomas H; Rehm, Stefanie; Saha-Möller, Chantu R; Piantanida, Ivo; Würthner, Frank

    2015-05-18

    A broad series of homochiral perylene bisimide (PBI) dyes were synthesized that are appended with amino acids and cationic side chains at the imide positions. Self-assembly behavior of these ionic PBIs has been studied in aqueous media by UV/Vis spectroscopy, revealing formation of excitonically coupled H-type aggregates. The interactions of these ionic PBIs with different ds-DNA and ds-RNA have been explored by thermal denaturation, fluorimetric titration and circular dichroism (CD) experiments. These PBIs strongly stabilized ds-DNA/RNA against thermal denaturation as revealed by high melting temperatures of the formed PBI/polynucleotide complexes. Fluorimetric titrations showed that these PBIs bind to ds-DNA/RNA with high binding constants depending on the number of the positive charges in the side chains. Thus, spermine-containing PBIs with six positive charges each showed higher binding constants (logKs =9.2-9.8) than their dioxa analogues (logKs =6.5-7.9) having two positive charges each. Induced circular dichroism (ICD) of PBI assemblies created within DNA/RNA grooves was observed. These ICD profiles are strongly dependent on the steric demand of the chiral substituents of the amino acid units and the secondary structure of the DNA or RNA. The observed ICD effects can be explained by non-covalent binding of excitonically coupled PBI dimer aggregates into the minor groove of DNA and major groove of RNA which is further supported by molecular modeling studies.

  11. Human papillomavirus DNA and mRNA prevalence and association with cervical cytological abnormalities in the Irish HIV population.

    PubMed

    Loy, Aisling; McInerney, Jamie; Pilkington, Loretto; Keegan, Helen; Delamere, Sandra; Martin, Cara M; Sheils, Orla; O'Leary, John J; Mulcahy, Fiona

    2015-10-01

    The complex interplay between HIV and human papillomavirus and its link to cervical dysplasia is poorly understood. This is the first study to assess the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus mRNA in HIV-positive women, its relationship to HIV and its potential use in the triage of cervical cancer screening in HIV-positive women. In this cross-sectional study, we included 321 HIV-positive women. In all, 28.7% had abnormal cervical cytology, 51.1% were human papillomavirus DNA-positive and 21.8% tested positive for human papillomavirus mRNA. Women with a CD4 count of <200 × 10(6)/L were more likely to test positive for human papillomavirus DNA and mRNA. Virally suppressed women were less likely to be human papillomavirus DNA-positive; however, the same did not hold true for human papillomavirus mRNA. We found the human papillomavirus mRNA screening to be more specific when screening for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion than human papillomavirus DNA at 84.53% compared to 57.36%. However, the sensitivity was less at 51.59% versus 91.07% for human papillomavirus DNA. It may be possible in the future to use human papillomavirus mRNA/DNA testing within a triage algorithm for the screening and management of cervical cancer in the HIV-positive patient.

  12. Determination of genes, restriction sites, and DNA sequences surrounding the 6S RNA template of bacteriophage lambda.

    PubMed Central

    Sklar, J; Yot, P; Weissman, S M

    1975-01-01

    A major product of the transcription of bacteriophage lambda DNA in vitro is the 6S RNA. This article presents a detailed mapping of restriction endonuclease cleavage sites about the region of the 6S RNA template within the lambda genome. Restriction fragments defined by these sites have been used to localize the 6S RNA template within the physical and genetic maps of the lambda genome. Nucleotide sequence analysis of one of these fragments has largely confimed the nucleotide sequence of the 6S RNA reported previously and has indicated the sequence of DNA that immediately follows the 6S RNA template. This article reports the nucleotide sequence following a known site of transcription termination by RNA polymerase of Escherichia coli. Images PMID:1098044

  13. Mechanism of CRISPR-RNA guided recognition of DNA targets in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    van Erp, Paul B G; Jackson, Ryan N; Carter, Joshua; Golden, Sarah M; Bailey, Scott; Wiedenheft, Blake

    2015-09-30

    In bacteria and archaea, short fragments of foreign DNA are integrated into Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) loci, providing a molecular memory of previous encounters with foreign genetic elements. In Escherichia coli, short CRISPR-derived RNAs are incorporated into a multi-subunit surveillance complex called Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense). Recent structures of Cascade capture snapshots of this seahorse-shaped RNA-guided surveillance complex before and after binding to a DNA target. Here we determine a 3.2 Å x-ray crystal structure of Cascade in a new crystal form that provides insight into the mechanism of double-stranded DNA binding. Molecular dynamic simulations performed using available structures reveal functional roles for residues in the tail, backbone and belly subunits of Cascade that are critical for binding double-stranded DNA. Structural comparisons are used to make functional predictions and these predictions are tested in vivo and in vitro. Collectively, the results in this study reveal underlying mechanisms involved in target-induced conformational changes and highlight residues important in DNA binding and protospacer adjacent motif recognition.

  14. Mechanism of CRISPR-RNA guided recognition of DNA targets in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    van Erp, Paul B.G.; Jackson, Ryan N.; Carter, Joshua; Golden, Sarah M.; Bailey, Scott; Wiedenheft, Blake

    2015-01-01

    In bacteria and archaea, short fragments of foreign DNA are integrated into Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) loci, providing a molecular memory of previous encounters with foreign genetic elements. In Escherichia coli, short CRISPR-derived RNAs are incorporated into a multi-subunit surveillance complex called Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense). Recent structures of Cascade capture snapshots of this seahorse-shaped RNA-guided surveillance complex before and after binding to a DNA target. Here we determine a 3.2 Å x-ray crystal structure of Cascade in a new crystal form that provides insight into the mechanism of double-stranded DNA binding. Molecular dynamic simulations performed using available structures reveal functional roles for residues in the tail, backbone and belly subunits of Cascade that are critical for binding double-stranded DNA. Structural comparisons are used to make functional predictions and these predictions are tested in vivo and in vitro. Collectively, the results in this study reveal underlying mechanisms involved in target-induced conformational changes and highlight residues important in DNA binding and protospacer adjacent motif recognition. PMID:26243775

  15. Hg(2+) detection using a phosphorothioate RNA probe adsorbed on graphene oxide and a comparison with thymine-rich DNA.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; van Ballegooie, Courtney; Liu, Juewen

    2016-06-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic heavy metal and many DNA-based biosensors have been recently developed for Hg(2+) detection in water. Among them, thymine-rich DNA is the most commonly used for designing Hg(2+) sensors. However, the thymine-Hg(2+) interaction is strongly affected by the buffer conditions. We recently reported a molecular beacon containing phosphorothioate (PS)-modified RNA linkages that can be cleaved by Hg(2+). In this work, the fluorescence quenching and DNA adsorption properties of nano-sized graphene oxide (NGO) were used to develop a new sensor using the PS-RNA chemistry. Three DNA probes, containing one, three and five PS-RNA linkages, respectively, were tested. Finally, a fluorophore-labeled poly-A DNA with five PS-RNA linkages was selected and adsorbed by NGO. In the presence of Hg(2+), the fluorophore was released from NGO due to the cleavage reaction, resulting in a fluorescence enhancement. This sensor is highly selective for Hg(2+) with a detection limit of 8.5 nM Hg(2+). For comparison, a fluorophore-labeled poly-T DNA was also tested, which responded to Hg(2+) more slowly and was inhibited by high NaCl concentrations, while the PS-RNA probe was more tolerant to different buffer conditions. This work indicates a new method for interfacing DNA with NGO for Hg(2+) detection. PMID:26580137

  16. Hg(2+) detection using a phosphorothioate RNA probe adsorbed on graphene oxide and a comparison with thymine-rich DNA.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; van Ballegooie, Courtney; Liu, Juewen

    2016-06-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic heavy metal and many DNA-based biosensors have been recently developed for Hg(2+) detection in water. Among them, thymine-rich DNA is the most commonly used for designing Hg(2+) sensors. However, the thymine-Hg(2+) interaction is strongly affected by the buffer conditions. We recently reported a molecular beacon containing phosphorothioate (PS)-modified RNA linkages that can be cleaved by Hg(2+). In this work, the fluorescence quenching and DNA adsorption properties of nano-sized graphene oxide (NGO) were used to develop a new sensor using the PS-RNA chemistry. Three DNA probes, containing one, three and five PS-RNA linkages, respectively, were tested. Finally, a fluorophore-labeled poly-A DNA with five PS-RNA linkages was selected and adsorbed by NGO. In the presence of Hg(2+), the fluorophore was released from NGO due to the cleavage reaction, resulting in a fluorescence enhancement. This sensor is highly selective for Hg(2+) with a detection limit of 8.5 nM Hg(2+). For comparison, a fluorophore-labeled poly-T DNA was also tested, which responded to Hg(2+) more slowly and was inhibited by high NaCl concentrations, while the PS-RNA probe was more tolerant to different buffer conditions. This work indicates a new method for interfacing DNA with NGO for Hg(2+) detection.

  17. Micelle-like Nanoparticles as Carriers for DNA and siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Gemma; Pan, Jiayi; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy represents a potential efficient approach of disease prevention and therapy. However, due to their poor in vivo stability, gene molecules need to be associated with delivery systems to overcome extracellular and intracellular barriers and allow access to the site of action. Cationic polymeric nanoparticles are popular carriers for small interfering RNA (siRNA) and DNA-based therapeutics for which efficient and safe delivery are important factors that need to be optimized. Micelle-like nanoparticles (MNP) (half micelles, half polymeric nanoparticles) can overcome some of the disadvantages of such cationic carriers by unifying in one single carrier the best of both delivery systems. In this review, we will discuss how the unique properties of MNP including self-assembly, condensation and protection of nucleic acids, improved cell association and gene transfection, and low toxicity may contribute to the successful application of siRNA- and DNA-based therapeutics into the clinic. Recent developments of MNP involving the addition of stimulus-sensitive functions to respond specifically to pathological or externally applied “triggers” (e.g., temperature, pH or enzymatic catalysis, light, or magnetic fields) will be discussed. Finally, we will overview the use of MNP as two-in-one carriers for the simultaneous delivery of different agents (small molecules, imaging agents) and nucleic acid combinations. PMID:25557580

  18. Micelle-like nanoparticles as carriers for DNA and siRNA.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Gemma; Pan, Jiayi; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2015-02-01

    Gene therapy represents a potential efficient approach of disease prevention and therapy. However, due to their poor in vivo stability, gene molecules need to be associated with delivery systems to overcome extracellular and intracellular barriers and allow access to the site of action. Cationic polymeric nanoparticles are popular carriers for small interfering RNA (siRNA) and DNA-based therapeutics for which efficient and safe delivery are important factors that need to be optimized. Micelle-like nanoparticles (MNP) (half micelles, half polymeric nanoparticles) can overcome some of the disadvantages of such cationic carriers by unifying in one single carrier the best of both delivery systems. In this review, we will discuss how the unique properties of MNP including self-assembly, condensation and protection of nucleic acids, improved cell association and gene transfection, and low toxicity may contribute to the successful application of siRNA- and DNA-based therapeutics into the clinic. Recent developments of MNP involving the addition of stimulus-sensitive functions to respond specifically to pathological or externally applied "triggers" (e.g., temperature, pH or enzymatic catalysis, light, or magnetic fields) will be discussed. Finally, we will overview the use of MNP as two-in-one carriers for the simultaneous delivery of different agents (small molecules, imaging agents) and nucleic acid combinations. PMID:25557580

  19. Combination probes with intercalating anchors and proximal fluorophores for DNA and RNA detection

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jieqiong; Wilson, Adam; El-Sagheer, Afaf H.; Brown, Tom

    2016-01-01

    A new class of modified oligonucleotides (combination probes) has been designed and synthesised for use in genetic analysis and RNA detection. Their chemical structure combines an intercalating anchor with a reporter fluorophore on the same thymine nucleobase. The intercalator (thiazole orange or benzothiazole orange) provides an anchor, which upon hybridisation of the probe to its target becomes fluorescent and simultaneously stabilizes the duplex. The anchor is able to communicate via FRET to a proximal reporter dye (e.g. ROX, HEX, ATTO647N, FAM) whose fluorescence signal can be monitored on a range of analytical devices. Direct excitation of the reporter dye provides an alternative signalling mechanism. In both signalling modes, fluorescence in the unhybridised probe is switched off by collisional quenching between adjacent intercalator and reporter dyes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA and RNA targets are identified by differences in the duplex melting temperature, and the use of short hybridization probes, made possible by the stabilisation provided by the intercalator, enhances mismatch discrimination. Unlike other fluorogenic probe systems, placing the fluorophore and quencher on the same nucleobase facilitates the design of short probes containing multiple modifications. The ability to detect both DNA and RNA sequences suggests applications in cellular imaging and diagnostics. PMID:27369379

  20. Combination probes with intercalating anchors and proximal fluorophores for DNA and RNA detection.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jieqiong; Wilson, Adam; El-Sagheer, Afaf H; Brown, Tom

    2016-09-30

    A new class of modified oligonucleotides (combination probes) has been designed and synthesised for use in genetic analysis and RNA detection. Their chemical structure combines an intercalating anchor with a reporter fluorophore on the same thymine nucleobase. The intercalator (thiazole orange or benzothiazole orange) provides an anchor, which upon hybridisation of the probe to its target becomes fluorescent and simultaneously stabilizes the duplex. The anchor is able to communicate via FRET to a proximal reporter dye (e.g. ROX, HEX, ATTO647N, FAM) whose fluorescence signal can be monitored on a range of analytical devices. Direct excitation of the reporter dye provides an alternative signalling mechanism. In both signalling modes, fluorescence in the unhybridised probe is switched off by collisional quenching between adjacent intercalator and reporter dyes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA and RNA targets are identified by differences in the duplex melting temperature, and the use of short hybridization probes, made possible by the stabilisation provided by the intercalator, enhances mismatch discrimination. Unlike other fluorogenic probe systems, placing the fluorophore and quencher on the same nucleobase facilitates the design of short probes containing multiple modifications. The ability to detect both DNA and RNA sequences suggests applications in cellular imaging and diagnostics. PMID:27369379

  1. Protozoan ALKBH8 oxygenases display both DNA repair and tRNA modification activities.

    PubMed

    Zdżalik, Daria; Vågbø, Cathrine B; Kirpekar, Finn; Davydova, Erna; Puścian, Alicja; Maciejewska, Agnieszka M; Krokan, Hans E; Klungland, Arne; Tudek, Barbara; van den Born, Erwin; Falnes, Pål Ø

    2014-01-01

    The ALKBH family of Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate dependent oxygenases comprises enzymes that display sequence homology to AlkB from E. coli, a DNA repair enzyme that uses an oxidative mechanism to dealkylate methyl and etheno adducts on the nucleobases. Humans have nine different ALKBH proteins, ALKBH1-8 and FTO. Mammalian and plant ALKBH8 are tRNA hydroxylases targeting 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-modified uridine (mcm5U) at the wobble position of tRNAGly(UCC). In contrast, the genomes of some bacteria encode a protein with strong sequence homology to ALKBH8, and robust DNA repair activity was previously demonstrated for one such protein. To further explore this apparent functional duality of the ALKBH8 proteins, we have here enzymatically characterized a panel of such proteins, originating from bacteria, protozoa and mimivirus. All the enzymes showed DNA repair activity in vitro, but, interestingly, two protozoan ALKBH8s also catalyzed wobble uridine modification of tRNA, thus displaying a dual in vitro activity. Also, we found the modification status of tRNAGly(UCC) to be unaltered in an ALKBH8 deficient mutant of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, indicating that bacterial ALKBH8s have a function different from that of their eukaryotic counterparts. The present study provides new insights on the function and evolution of the ALKBH8 family of proteins.

  2. Protozoan ALKBH8 Oxygenases Display both DNA Repair and tRNA Modification Activities

    PubMed Central

    Zdżalik, Daria; Vågbø, Cathrine B.; Kirpekar, Finn; Davydova, Erna; Puścian, Alicja; Maciejewska, Agnieszka M.; Krokan, Hans E.; Klungland, Arne; Tudek, Barbara; van den Born, Erwin; Falnes, Pål Ø.

    2014-01-01

    The ALKBH family of Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate dependent oxygenases comprises enzymes that display sequence homology to AlkB from E. coli, a DNA repair enzyme that uses an oxidative mechanism to dealkylate methyl and etheno adducts on the nucleobases. Humans have nine different ALKBH proteins, ALKBH1–8 and FTO. Mammalian and plant ALKBH8 are tRNA hydroxylases targeting 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-modified uridine (mcm5U) at the wobble position of tRNAGly(UCC). In contrast, the genomes of some bacteria encode a protein with strong sequence homology to ALKBH8, and robust DNA repair activity was previously demonstrated for one such protein. To further explore this apparent functional duality of the ALKBH8 proteins, we have here enzymatically characterized a panel of such proteins, originating from bacteria, protozoa and mimivirus. All the enzymes showed DNA repair activity in vitro, but, interestingly, two protozoan ALKBH8s also catalyzed wobble uridine modification of tRNA, thus displaying a dual in vitro activity. Also, we found the modification status of tRNAGly(UCC) to be unaltered in an ALKBH8 deficient mutant of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, indicating that bacterial ALKBH8s have a function different from that of their eukaryotic counterparts. The present study provides new insights on the function and evolution of the ALKBH8 family of proteins. PMID:24914785

  3. Enzymatic amplification of DNA/RNA hybrid molecular beacon signaling in nucleic acid detection.

    PubMed

    Jacroux, Thomas; Rieck, Daniel C; Cui, Rong; Ouyang, Yexin; Dong, Wen-Ji

    2013-01-15

    A rapid assay operable under isothermal or nonisothermal conditions is described, where the sensitivity of a typical molecular beacon (MB) system is improved by using thermostable RNase H to enzymatically cleave an MB composed of a DNA stem and an RNA loop (R/D-MB). On hybridization of the R/D-MB to target DNA, there was a modest increase in fluorescence intensity (~5.7× above background) due to an opening of the probe and a concomitant reduction in the Förster resonance energy transfer efficiency. The addition of thermostable RNase H resulted in the cleavage of the RNA loop, which eliminated energy transfer. The cleavage step also released bound target DNA, enabling it to bind to another R/D-MB probe and rendering the approach a cyclic amplification scheme. Full processing of R/D-MBs maximized the fluorescence signal to the fullest extent possible (12.9× above background), resulting in an approximately 2- to 2.8-fold increase in the signal-to-noise ratio observed isothermally at 50 °C following the addition of RNase H. The probe was also used to monitor real-time polymerase chain reactions by measuring enhancement of donor fluorescence on R/D-MB binding to amplified pUC19 template dilutions. Hence, the R/D-MB-RNase H scheme can be applied to a broad range of nucleic acid amplification methods.

  4. Submillimeter wave spectroscopy of biological macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Globus, Tatiana

    2005-03-01

    The recently emergence of submillimeter-wave or terahertz (THz) spectroscopy of biological molecules has demonstrated the capability to detect low-frequency internal molecular vibrations involving the weakest hydrogen bonds of the DNA base pairs and/or non-bonded interactions. These multiple bonds, although having only ˜ 5% of the strength of covalent bonds, stabilize the structure of bio-polymers, by holding the two strands of the DNA double helix together, or polypeptides together in different secondary structure conformations. There will be a review of THz-frequency transmission (absorption) results for biological materials obtained from Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy during the last few years^1,2. Multiple resonances, due to low frequency vibrational modes within biological macromolecules, have been unambiguously demonstrated in qualitative agreement with theoretical prediction, thereby confirming the fundamental physical nature of observed resonance features. The discovery of resonance character of interaction between THz radiation and biological materials opens many possible applications for THz spectroscopy technique in biological sensing and biomedicine using multiple resonances as distinctive spectral fingerprints. However, many issues still require investigation. Kinetics of interactions with radiation at THz has not been studied and vibrational lifetimes have not been measured directly as a function of frequency. The strength of resonant modes of bio-molecules in aqueous environment and strong dependence of spectra on molecular orientation need explanation. Vibrational modes have not been assigned to specific motions within molecules. THz spectroscopy of bio-polymers makes it only in first steps. 1. T. Globus, D. Woolard, M. Bykhovskaia, B. Gelmont, L. Werbos, A. Samuels. International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems (IJHSES), 13, No. 4, 903-936 (2003). 2. T. Globus, T. Khromova, D. Woolard and B. Gelmont. Proceedings of

  5. Human origin recognition complex binds preferentially to G-quadruplex-preferable RNA and single-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Hoshina, Shoko; Yura, Kei; Teranishi, Honami; Kiyasu, Noriko; Tominaga, Ayumi; Kadoma, Haruka; Nakatsuka, Ayaka; Kunichika, Tomoko; Obuse, Chikashi; Waga, Shou

    2013-10-18

    Origin recognition complex (ORC), consisting of six subunits ORC1-6, is known to bind to replication origins and function in the initiation of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. In contrast to the fact that Saccharomyces cerevisiae ORC recognizes the replication origin in a sequence-specific manner, metazoan ORC has not exhibited strict sequence-specificity for DNA binding. Here we report that human ORC binds preferentially to G-quadruplex (G4)-preferable G-rich RNA or single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). We mapped the G-rich RNA-binding domain in the ORC1 subunit, in a region adjacent to its ATPase domain. This domain itself has an ability to preferentially recognize G4-preferable sequences of ssDNA. Furthermore, we found, by structure modeling, that the G-rich RNA-binding domain is similar to the N-terminal portion of AdoMet_MTase domain of mammalian DNA methyltransferase 1. Therefore, in contrast with the binding to double-stranded DNA, human ORC has an apparent sequence preference with respect to its RNA/ssDNA binding. Interestingly, this specificity coincides with the common signature present in most of the human replication origins. We expect that our findings provide new insights into the regulations of function and chromatin binding of metazoan ORCs.

  6. In vitro tRNA methylation assay with the Entamoeba histolytica DNA and tRNA methyltransferase Dnmt2 (Ehmeth) enzyme.

    PubMed

    Tovy, Ayala; Hofmann, Benjamin; Helm, Mark; Ankri, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Protozoan parasites are among the most devastating infectious agents of humans responsible for a variety of diseases including amebiasis, which is one of the three most common causes of death from parasitic disease. The agent of amebiasis is the amoeba parasite Entamoeba histolytica that exists under two stages: the infective cyst found in food or water and the invasive trophozoite living in the intestine. The clinical manifestations of amebiasis range from being asymptomatic to colitis, dysentery or liver abscesses. E. histolytica is one of the rare unicellular parasite with 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in its genome. It contains a single DNA methyltransferase, Ehmeth, that belongs to the Dnmt2 family. A role for Dnmt2 in the control of repetitive elements has been established in E. histolytica, Dictyostelium discoideum and Drosophila. Our recent work has shown that Ehmeth methylates tRNA(Asp), and this finding indicates that this enzyme has a dual DNA/tRNA(Asp) methyltransferase activity. This observation is in agreement with the dual activity that has been reported for D. discoideum and D. melanogaster. The functional significance of the DNA/tRNA specificity of Dnmt2 enzymes is still unknown. To address this question, a method to determine the tRNA methyltransferase activity of Dnmt2 proteins was established. In this video, we describe a straightforward approach to prepare an adequate tRNA substrate for Dnmt2 and a method to measure its tRNA methyltransferase activity. PMID:21048666

  7. Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    It has been reported that the most predominant constituents of coal extract are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Yet the experimental values of diffusivity in ethyl acetate for the most of these materials were not available in the literature. Thus, the diffusion coefficients of some of these materials were measured to increase an understanding of the diffusional behavior of coal macromolecules. In an earlier quarterly report, the authors reported the diffusion coefficients of some model coal molecules determined using their diffusion cell with polycarbonate membranes. Subsequently, they have found that these polycarbonate membranes are semi-permeable to some of the model compounds, so that the measured diffusion flux was greater than that through the pores alone. This extra solute flux could result in over estimation of the diffusion coefficients, therefore, they have now re-measured these diffusivities using polyester, rather than polycarbonate, membranes. The polyester material is not permeable to the solute molecules, except through the open pore area. Thus the only diffusion flux is that through the pores, resulting in correct diffusion coefficients as reported herein. The detailed results are presented in the body of this report. Finally in the last section the authors discuss a slight departure in methodology of some of their earlier planned work. This change will have a positive beneficial impact on the results and speed-up the collection of configurational diffusion data in actual tortuous porous media. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Metal chelate affinity precipitation of RNA and purification of plasmid DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balan, Sindhu; Murphy, Jason; Galaev, Igor; Kumar, Ashok; Fox, George E.; Mattiasson, Bo; Willson, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    The affinity of metal chelates for amino acids, such as histidine, is widely used in purifying proteins, most notably through six-histidine 'tails'. We have found that metal affinity interactions can also be applied to separation of single-stranded nucleic acids through interactions involving exposed purines. Here we describe a metal affinity precipitation method to resolve RNA from linear and plasmid DNA. A copper-charged copolymer of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) and vinyl imidazole (VI) is used to purify plasmid from an alkaline lysate of E. coli. The NIPAM units confer reversible solubility on the copolymer while the imidazole chelates metal ions in a manner accessible to interaction with soluble ligands. RNA was separated from the plasmid by precipitation along with the polymer in the presence of 800 mM NaCl. Bound RNA could be recovered by elution with imidazole and separated from copolymer by a second precipitation step. RNA binding showed a strong dependence on temperature and on the type of buffer used.

  9. Combined sequencing of mRNA and DNA from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mertes, Florian; Kuhl, Heiner; Wruck, Wasco; Lehrach, Hans; Adjaye, James

    2016-06-01

    Combined transcriptome and whole genome sequencing of the same ultra-low input sample down to single cells is a rapidly evolving approach for the analysis of rare cells. Besides stem cells, rare cells originating from tissues like tumor or biopsies, circulating tumor cells and cells from early embryonic development are under investigation. Herein we describe a universal method applicable for the analysis of minute amounts of sample material (150 to 200 cells) derived from sub-colony structures from human embryonic stem cells. The protocol comprises the combined isolation and separate amplification of poly(A) mRNA and whole genome DNA followed by next generation sequencing. Here we present a detailed description of the method developed and an overview of the results obtained for RNA and whole genome sequencing of human embryonic stem cells, sequencing data is available in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE69471. PMID:27275414

  10. Combined sequencing of mRNA and DNA from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mertes, Florian; Kuhl, Heiner; Wruck, Wasco; Lehrach, Hans; Adjaye, James

    2016-06-01

    Combined transcriptome and whole genome sequencing of the same ultra-low input sample down to single cells is a rapidly evolving approach for the analysis of rare cells. Besides stem cells, rare cells originating from tissues like tumor or biopsies, circulating tumor cells and cells from early embryonic development are under investigation. Herein we describe a universal method applicable for the analysis of minute amounts of sample material (150 to 200 cells) derived from sub-colony structures from human embryonic stem cells. The protocol comprises the combined isolation and separate amplification of poly(A) mRNA and whole genome DNA followed by next generation sequencing. Here we present a detailed description of the method developed and an overview of the results obtained for RNA and whole genome sequencing of human embryonic stem cells, sequencing data is available in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE69471.

  11. Split Spinach Aptamer for Highly Selective Recognition of DNA and RNA at Ambient Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Nanami; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M

    2016-09-01

    Split spinach aptamer (SSA) probes for fluorescent analysis of nucleic acids were designed and tested. In SSA design, two RNA or RNA/DNA strands hybridized to a specific nucleic acid analyte and formed a binding site for low-fluorescent 3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxybenzylidene imidazolinone (DFHBI) dye, which resulted in up to a 270-fold increase in fluorescence. The major advantage of the SSA over state-of-the art fluorescent probes is high selectivity: it produces only background fluorescence in the presence of a single-base-mismatched analyte, even at room temperature. SSA is therefore a promising tool for label-free analysis of nucleic acids at ambient temperatures. PMID:27305425

  12. Discovery of Widespread GTP-Binding Motifs in Genomic DNA and RNA

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Edward A.; Liu, David R.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Biological RNAs that bind small-molecules have been implicated in a variety of regulatory and catalytic processes. Inspired by these examples, we used in vitro selection to search a pool of genomeencoded RNA fragments for naturally occurring GTP aptamers. Several classes of aptamers were identified, including one ("the G motif") with a G-quadruplex structure. Further analysis revealed that most RNA and DNA G-quadruplexes bind GTP. The G motif is abundant in eukaryotes, and the human genome contains ∼75,000 examples with dissociation constants comparable to the GTP concentration of a eukaryotic cell (∼300 µM). G-quadruplexes play roles in diverse cellular processes, and our findings raise the possibility that GTP may play a role in the function of these elements. Consistent with this possibility, the sequence requirements of several classes of regulatory G-quadruplexes parallel those of GTP binding. PMID:23601641

  13. Reverse Transcription Errors and RNA-DNA Differences at Short Tandem Repeats.

    PubMed

    Fungtammasan, Arkarachai; Tomaszkiewicz, Marta; Campos-Sánchez, Rebeca; Eckert, Kristin A; DeGiorgio, Michael; Makova, Kateryna D

    2016-10-01

    Transcript variation has important implications for organismal function in health and disease. Most transcriptome studies focus on assessing variation in gene expression levels and isoform representation. Variation at the level of transcript sequence is caused by RNA editing and transcription errors, and leads to nongenetically encoded transcript variants, or RNA-DNA differences (RDDs). Such variation has been understudied, in part because its detection is obscured by reverse transcription (RT) and sequencing errors. It has only been evaluated for intertranscript base substitution differences. Here, we investigated transcript sequence variation for short tandem repeats (STRs). We developed the first maximum-likelihood estimator (MLE) to infer RT error and RDD rates, taking next generation sequencing error rates into account. Using the MLE, we empirically evaluated RT error and RDD rates for STRs in a large-scale DNA and RNA replicated sequencing experiment conducted in a primate species. The RT error rates increased exponentially with STR length and were biased toward expansions. The RDD rates were approximately 1 order of magnitude lower than the RT error rates. The RT error rates estimated with the MLE from a primate data set were concordant with those estimated with an independent method, barcoded RNA sequencing, from a Caenorhabditis elegans data set. Our results have important implications for medical genomics, as STR allelic variation is associated with >40 diseases. STR nonallelic transcript variation can also contribute to disease phenotype. The MLE and empirical rates presented here can be used to evaluate the probability of disease-associated transcripts arising due to RDD.

  14. Reverse Transcription Errors and RNA-DNA Differences at Short Tandem Repeats.

    PubMed

    Fungtammasan, Arkarachai; Tomaszkiewicz, Marta; Campos-Sánchez, Rebeca; Eckert, Kristin A; DeGiorgio, Michael; Makova, Kateryna D

    2016-10-01

    Transcript variation has important implications for organismal function in health and disease. Most transcriptome studies focus on assessing variation in gene expression levels and isoform representation. Variation at the level of transcript sequence is caused by RNA editing and transcription errors, and leads to nongenetically encoded transcript variants, or RNA-DNA differences (RDDs). Such variation has been understudied, in part because its detection is obscured by reverse transcription (RT) and sequencing errors. It has only been evaluated for intertranscript base substitution differences. Here, we investigated transcript sequence variation for short tandem repeats (STRs). We developed the first maximum-likelihood estimator (MLE) to infer RT error and RDD rates, taking next generation sequencing error rates into account. Using the MLE, we empirically evaluated RT error and RDD rates for STRs in a large-scale DNA and RNA replicated sequencing experiment conducted in a primate species. The RT error rates increased exponentially with STR length and were biased toward expansions. The RDD rates were approximately 1 order of magnitude lower than the RT error rates. The RT error rates estimated with the MLE from a primate data set were concordant with those estimated with an independent method, barcoded RNA sequencing, from a Caenorhabditis elegans data set. Our results have important implications for medical genomics, as STR allelic variation is associated with >40 diseases. STR nonallelic transcript variation can also contribute to disease phenotype. The MLE and empirical rates presented here can be used to evaluate the probability of disease-associated transcripts arising due to RDD. PMID:27413049

  15. Nonenzymatic synthesis of RNA and DNA oligomers on hexitol nucleic acid templates: the importance of the A structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlov, I. A.; Politis, P. K.; Van Aerschot, A.; Busson, R.; Herdewijn, P.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Dolan, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Hexitol nucleic acid (HNA) is an analogue of DNA containing the standard nucleoside bases, but with a phosphorylated 1,5-anhydrohexitol backbone. HNA oligomers form duplexes having the nucleic acid A structure with complementary DNA or RNA oligomers. The HNA decacytidylate oligomer is an efficient template for the oligomerization of the 5'-phosphoroimidazolides of guanosine or deoxyguanosine. Comparison of the oligomerization efficiencies on HNA, RNA, and DNA decacytidylate templates under various conditions suggests strongly that only nucleic acid double helices with the A structure support efficient template-directed synthesis when 5'-phosphoroimidazolides of nucleosides are used as substrates.

  16. DNA Damage, DNA Repair, Aging, and Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Scott; Fang, Evandro Fei; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2015-09-18

    Aging in mammals is accompanied by a progressive atrophy of tissues and organs, and stochastic damage accumulation to the macromolecules DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. The sequence of the human genome represents our genetic blueprint, and accumulating evidence suggests that loss of genomic maintenance may causally contribute to aging. Distinct evidence for a role of imperfect DNA repair in aging is that several premature aging syndromes have underlying genetic DNA repair defects. Accumulation of DNA damage may be particularly prevalent in the central nervous system owing to the low DNA repair capacity in postmitotic brain tissue. It is generally believed that the cumulative effects of the deleterious changes that occur in aging, mostly after the reproductive phase, contribute to species-specific rates of aging. In addition to nuclear DNA damage contributions to aging, there is also abundant evidence for a causative link between mitochondrial DNA damage and the major phenotypes associated with aging. Understanding the mechanistic basis for the association of DNA damage and DNA repair with aging and age-related diseases, such as neurodegeneration, would give insight into contravening age-related diseases and promoting a healthy life span.

  17. The impact of α-hydrazino acids embedded in short fluorescent peptides on peptide interactions with DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Suć, Josipa; Tumir, Lidija-Marija; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica; Jukić, Marijana; Piantanida, Ivo; Jerić, Ivanka

    2016-06-01

    A series of novel hydrazino-based peptidomimetics and analogues comprising N-terminal lysine and C-terminal phenanthridinyl-l-alanine were prepared. The presented results demonstrate the up to now unknown possibility to finely modulate peptide interactions with DNA/RNA by α-hydrazino group insertion and how the different positioning of two α-hydrazino groups in peptides controls binding to various double stranded and single stranded DNA and RNA. All peptidomimetics bind with 1-10 micromolar affinity to ds-DNA/RNA, whereby the binding mode is a combination of electrostatic interactions and hydrophobic interactions within DNA/RNA grooves. Insertion of the α-hydrazino group into the peptide systematically decreased its fluorimetric response to DNA/RNA binding in the order: mono-hydrazino < alternating-hydrazino < sequential-hydrazino group. Binding studies of ss-polynucleotides suggest intercalation of phenanthridine between polynucleotide bases, whereby affinity and fluorimetric response decrease with the number of α-hydrazino groups in the peptide sequence. Particularly interesting was the interaction of two sequential α-hydrazino acids-peptidomimetic with poly rG, characterised by a specific strong increase of CD bands, while all other peptide/ssRNA combinations gave only a CD-band decrease. All mentioned interactions could also be reversibly controlled by adjusting the pH, due to the protonation of the fluorophore. PMID:27161341

  18. The impact of α-hydrazino acids embedded in short fluorescent peptides on peptide interactions with DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Suć, Josipa; Tumir, Lidija-Marija; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica; Jukić, Marijana; Piantanida, Ivo; Jerić, Ivanka

    2016-06-01

    A series of novel hydrazino-based peptidomimetics and analogues comprising N-terminal lysine and C-terminal phenanthridinyl-l-alanine were prepared. The presented results demonstrate the up to now unknown possibility to finely modulate peptide interactions with DNA/RNA by α-hydrazino group insertion and how the different positioning of two α-hydrazino groups in peptides controls binding to various double stranded and single stranded DNA and RNA. All peptidomimetics bind with 1-10 micromolar affinity to ds-DNA/RNA, whereby the binding mode is a combination of electrostatic interactions and hydrophobic interactions within DNA/RNA grooves. Insertion of the α-hydrazino group into the peptide systematically decreased its fluorimetric response to DNA/RNA binding in the order: mono-hydrazino < alternating-hydrazino < sequential-hydrazino group. Binding studies of ss-polynucleotides suggest intercalation of phenanthridine between polynucleotide bases, whereby affinity and fluorimetric response decrease with the number of α-hydrazino groups in the peptide sequence. Particularly interesting was the interaction of two sequential α-hydrazino acids-peptidomimetic with poly rG, characterised by a specific strong increase of CD bands, while all other peptide/ssRNA combinations gave only a CD-band decrease. All mentioned interactions could also be reversibly controlled by adjusting the pH, due to the protonation of the fluorophore.

  19. Specific recognition of RNA/DNA hybrid and enhancement of human RNase H1 activity by HBD

    SciTech Connect

    Nowotny, Marcin; Cerritelli, Susana M.; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Gaidamakov, Sergei A.; Crouch, Robert J.; Yang, Wei

    2008-07-09

    Human RNase H1 contains an N-terminal domain known as dsRHbd for binding both dsRNA and RNA/DNA hybrid. We find that dsRHbd binds preferentially to RNA/DNA hybrids by over 25-fold and rename it as hybrid binding domain (HBD). The crystal structure of HBD complexed with a 12 bp RNA/DNA hybrid reveals that the RNA strand is recognized by a protein loop, which forms hydrogen bonds with the 2'-OH groups. The DNA interface is highly specific and contains polar residues that interact with the phosphate groups and an aromatic patch that appears selective for binding deoxyriboses. HBD is unique relative to non-sequence-specific dsDNA- and dsRNA-binding domains because it does not use positive dipoles of {alpha}-helices for nucleic acid binding. Characterization of full-length enzymes with defective HBDs indicates that this domain dramatically enhances both the specific activity and processivity of RNase H1. Similar activity enhancement by small substrate-binding domains linked to the catalytic domain likely occurs in other nucleic acid enzymes.

  20. Simplified Identification of mRNA or DNA in Whole Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeida, Eduardo; Kadambi, Geeta

    2007-01-01

    A recently invented method of detecting a selected messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence offers two important advantages over prior such methods: it is simpler and can be implemented by means of compact equipment. The simplification and miniaturization achieved by this invention are such that this method is suitable for use outside laboratories, in field settings in which space and power supplies may be limited. The present method is based partly on hybridization of nucleic acid, which is a powerful technique for detection of specific complementary nucleic acid sequences and is increasingly being used for detection of changes in gene expression in microarrays containing thousands of gene probes.

  1. Recent developments in primer design for DNA polymorphism and mRNA profiling in higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaohan; Scheffler, Brian E; Weston, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    Primer design is a critical step in the application of PCR-based technologies in gene expression and genetic diversity analysis. As more plant genomes have been sequenced in recent years, the emphasis of primer design strategy has shifted to genome-wide and high-throughput direction. This paper summarizes recent advances in primer design for profiling of DNA polymorphism and mRNA in higher plants, as well as new primer systems developed for animals that can be adapted for plants. PMID:16509990

  2. Continuous cell electroporation for efficient DNA and siRNA delivery based on laminar microfluidic chips.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zewen; Li, Zhihong

    2014-01-01

    Electroporation is a high-efficiency and low-toxicity physical gene transfer method. Traditional electroporation is limited to only low volume cell samples. Here we present a continuous cell electroporation method based on commonly used microfluidic chip fabrication technology. Using easily fabricated PDMS microfluidic chip, syringe pumps, and pulse generator, we show efficient delivery of both DNA and siRNA into different cell lines. We describe the protocol of chip fabrication, apparatus setup, and cell electroporation assay. Typically, the fabrication of the devices takes 1 or 2 days and the continuous electroporation assay takes 1 h.

  3. Re-use of commercial microfluidics chips for DNA, RNA, and protein electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi; Kwak, Sukyoung; Karpowicz, Steven J

    2014-11-01

    Microfluidics chip technology is a powerful and convenient alternative to agarose gels and PAGE, but costs can be high due to certain chips being non-reusable. Here we describe a method to regenerate, re-use, and store Agilent DNA, RNA, and protein electrophoresis chips designed for use in the Bioanalyzer 2100. By washing the sample wells and displacing the old gel matrix with new gel-dye mix, we have run samples on the same chip up to ten times with negligible loss of signal quality. Chips whose wells were loaded with buffer or water were stored successfully for one week before re-use.

  4. Isothermal sensitive detection of microRNA using an autonomous DNA machine recycling output as input.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Atsushi

    2010-10-15

    An autonomous DNA machine recycling the output as the input for isothermal, sensitive, and specific detection of miRNAs has been developed. This machine shows considerably high signal amplification efficiency (∼1000-fold) and thus a low detection limit (∼20 amol). The machine also shows high specificity, discriminating 50 amol of synthetic miRNA from 100-fold larger amounts of its family member and from 100 ng of unrelated total RNAs. Moreover, it is available for practically detecting natural miRNAs in total RNAs.

  5. Combined DNA-RNA Fluorescent In situ Hybridization (FISH) to Study X Chromosome Inactivation in Differentiated Female Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Tahsin Stefan; Gribnau, Joost

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular technique which enables the detection of nucleic acids in cells. DNA FISH is often used in cytogenetics and cancer diagnostics, and can detect aberrations of the genome, which often has important clinical implications. RNA FISH can be used to detect RNA molecules in cells and has provided important insights in regulation of gene expression. Combining DNA and RNA FISH within the same cell is technically challenging, as conditions suitable for DNA FISH might be too harsh for fragile, single stranded RNA molecules. We here present an easily applicable protocol which enables the combined, simultaneous detection of Xist RNA and DNA encoded by the X chromosomes. This combined DNA-RNA FISH protocol can likely be applied to other systems where both RNA and DNA need to be detected. PMID:24961515

  6. Characterization of a 7-kilodalton subunit of vaccinia virus DNA-dependent RNA polymerase with structural similarities to the smallest subunit of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Amegadzie, B Y; Ahn, B Y; Moss, B

    1992-05-01

    A previously unrecognized 7-kDa polypeptide copurified with the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase of vaccinia virus virions. Internal amino acid sequences of the small protein matched a viral genomic open reading frame of 63 codons. Antipeptide antiserum was used to confirm the specific and complete association of the 7-kDa protein with RNA polymerase. The amino acid sequence predicted from the viral gene, named rpo7, was 23% identical to that of the smallest subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II, and a metal-binding motif, Cys-X-X-Cys-Gly, was located at precisely the same location near the N terminus in the two proteins. RNA analyses demonstrated early transcriptional initiation and termination signals in the rpo7 gene sequence. The viral RNA polymerase subunit was synthesized during the early phase of infection and continued to accumulate during the late phase.

  7. In-vitro nanodiagnostic platform through nanoparticles and DNA-RNA nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ki; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-04-01

    Nanocomposites containing nanoparticles or nanostructured domains exhibit an even higher degree of material complexity that leads to an extremely high variability of nanostructured materials. This review introduces analytical concepts and techniques for nanomaterials and derives recommendations for a qualified selection of characterization techniques for specific types of samples, and focuses the characterization of nanoparticles and their agglomerates or aggregates. In addition, DNA nanotechnology and the more recent newcomer RNA nanotechnology have achieved almost an advanced status among nanotechnology researchers¸ therefore, the core features, potential, and significant challenges of DNA nanotechnology are also highlighted as a new discipline. Moreover, nanobiochips made by nanomaterials are rapidly emerging as a new paradigm in the area of large-scale biochemical analysis. The use of nanoscale components enables higher precision in diagnostics while considerably reducing the cost of the platform that leads this review to explore the use of nanoparticles, nanomaterials, and other bionanotechnologies for its application to nanodiagnostics in-vitro.

  8. Structural mimicry in transcription regulation of human RNA polymerase II by the DNA helicase RECQL5

    PubMed Central

    Kassube, Susanne A.; Jinek, Martin; Fang, Jie; Tsutakawa, Susan; Nogales, Eva

    2013-01-01

    RECQL5 is a member of the highly conserved RecQ family of DNA helicases involved in DNA repair. RECQL5 interacts with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and inhibits transcription of protein–coding genes by an unknown mechanism. We show that RECQL5 contacts the Rpb1 jaw domain of Pol II at a site that overlaps with the binding site for the transcription elongation factor TFIIS. Our cryo–electron microscopy structure of elongating Pol II arrested in complex with RECQL5 shows that the RECQL5 helicase domain is positioned to sterically block elongation. The crystal structure of the RECQL5 KIX domain reveals similarities with TFIIS, and binding of RECQL5 to Pol II interferes with the ability of TFIIS to promote transcriptional read–through in vitro. Together, our findings reveal a dual mode of transcriptional repression by RECQL5 that includes structural mimicry of the Pol II–TFIIS interaction. PMID:23748380

  9. MicroRNA and DNA methylation alterations mediating retinoic acid induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Raymond L; Foley, Niamh H; Bray, Isabella M; Das, Sudipto; Buckley, Patrick G

    2011-10-01

    Many neuroblastoma cell lines can be induced to differentiate into a mature neuronal cell type with retinoic acid and other compounds, providing an important model system for elucidating signalling pathways involved in this highly complex process. Recently, it has become apparent that miRNAs, which act as regulators of gene expression at a post-transcriptional level, are differentially expressed in differentiating cells and play important roles governing many aspects of this process. This includes the down-regulation of DNA methyltransferases that cause the de-methylation and transcriptional activation of numerous protein coding gene sequences. The purpose of this article is to review involvement of miRNAs and DNA methylation alterations in the process of neuroblastoma cell differentiation. A thorough understanding of miRNA and genetic pathways regulating neuroblastoma cell differentiation potentially could lead to targeted therapies for this disease.

  10. Basal-body-associated macromolecules: a continuing debate.

    PubMed

    Pierre Mignot, J; Brugerolle, G; Didier, P; Bornens, M

    1993-07-01

    Controversy over the possibility that centrioles/basal bodies contain nucleic acids has overshadowed results demonstrating other macromolecules in the lumen of these organelles. Glycogen particles, which are known to be present within the lumen of the centriole/basal body of sperm cells, have now been found in basal bodies of protists belonging to three different groups. Here, we extend the debate on a role for RNA in basal body/centriole function and speculate on the origin and the function of centriolar glycogen.

  11. Characterization and nucleotide sequence of a chicken gene encoding an opal suppressor tRNA and its flanking DNA segments.

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, D L; Dudock, B S; Eden, F C

    1983-01-01

    A naturally occurring opal suppressor serine tRNA has been purified from chicken liver and used as a probe to isolate the corresponding gene from a library of chicken DNA in bacteriophage lambda. This minor tRNA is encoded by a single-copy gene that is not part of a tRNA gene cluster. DNA sequence analysis of the gene and its flanking DNA segments shows that the gene is encoded in an 87-base-pair segment without intervening sequences and specifies a tRNA that reads the termination codon UGA. This gene has additional nucleotides in the 5' internal promoter region but has a normal 3' internal promoter sequence and the usual termination signal. Images PMID:6308662

  12. Direct and site-specific quantification of RNA 2'-O-methylation by PCR with an engineered DNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Joos; Marx, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Methylation of the 2'-hydroxyl-group of ribonucleotides is found in all major classes of RNA in eukaryotes and is one of the most abundant posttranscriptional modifications of stable RNAs. In spite of intense studies, the multiple functions of RNA 2'-O-methylation are still not understood. One major obstacle in the field are the technical demanding detection methods, which are typically laborious and do not always deliver unambiguous results. We present a thermostable KlenTaq DNA polymerase variant with significant reverse transcription activity that is able to discriminate 2'-O-methylated from unmethylated RNAs. The engineered enzyme catalyzes DNA synthesis from DNA as well as RNA templates and enables expeditious quantification of 2'-O-methylation of individual nucleotides directly from total RNA extracts by a simple qRT-PCR. PMID:27016740

  13. Direct and site-specific quantification of RNA 2′-O-methylation by PCR with an engineered DNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Aschenbrenner, Joos; Marx, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Methylation of the 2′-hydroxyl-group of ribonucleotides is found in all major classes of RNA in eukaryotes and is one of the most abundant posttranscriptional modifications of stable RNAs. In spite of intense studies, the multiple functions of RNA 2′-O-methylation are still not understood. One major obstacle in the field are the technical demanding detection methods, which are typically laborious and do not always deliver unambiguous results. We present a thermostable KlenTaq DNA polymerase variant with significant reverse transcription activity that is able to discriminate 2′-O-methylated from unmethylated RNAs. The engineered enzyme catalyzes DNA synthesis from DNA as well as RNA templates and enables expeditious quantification of 2′-O-methylation of individual nucleotides directly from total RNA extracts by a simple qRT-PCR. PMID:27016740

  14. Impacts of Pretranscriptional DNA Methylation, Transcriptional Transcription Factor, and Posttranscriptional microRNA Regulations on Protein Evolutionary Rate

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Trees-Juen; Chiang, Tai-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression is largely regulated by DNA methylation, transcription factor (TF), and microRNA (miRNA) before, during, and after transcription, respectively. Although the evolutionary effects of TF/miRNA regulations have been widely studied, evolutionary analysis of simultaneously accounting for DNA methylation, TF, and miRNA regulations and whether promoter methylation and gene body (coding regions) methylation have different effects on the rate of gene evolution remain uninvestigated. Here, we compared human–macaque and human–mouse protein evolutionary rates against experimentally determined single base-resolution DNA methylation data, revealing that promoter methylation level is positively correlated with protein evolutionary rates but negatively correlated with TF/miRNA regulations, whereas the opposite was observed for gene body methylation level. Our results showed that the relative importance of these regulatory factors in determining the rate of mammalian protein evolution is as follows: Promoter methylation ≈ miRNA regulation > gene body methylation > TF regulation, and further indicated that promoter methylation and miRNA regulation have a significant dependent effect on protein evolutionary rates. Although the mechanisms underlying cooperation between DNA methylation and TFs/miRNAs in gene regulation remain unclear, our study helps to not only illuminate the impact of these regulatory factors on mammalian protein evolution but also their intricate interaction within gene regulatory networks. PMID:24923326

  15. RNA-directed DNA methylation enforces boundaries between heterochromatin and euchromatin in the maize genome.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Gent, Jonathan I; Zynda, Greg; Song, Jawon; Makarevitch, Irina; Hirsch, Cory D; Hirsch, Candice N; Dawe, R Kelly; Madzima, Thelma F; McGinnis, Karen M; Lisch, Damon; Schmitz, Robert J; Vaughn, Matthew W; Springer, Nathan M

    2015-11-24

    The maize genome is relatively large (∼ 2.3 Gb) and has a complex organization of interspersed genes and transposable elements, which necessitates frequent boundaries between different types of chromatin. The examination of maize genes and conserved noncoding sequences revealed that many of these are flanked by regions of elevated asymmetric CHH (where H is A, C, or T) methylation (termed mCHH islands). These mCHH islands are quite short (∼ 100 bp), are enriched near active genes, and often occur at the edge of the transposon that is located nearest to genes. The analysis of DNA methylation in other sequence contexts and several chromatin modifications revealed that mCHH islands mark the transition from heterochromatin-associated modifications to euchromatin-associated modifications. The presence of an mCHH island is fairly consistent in several distinct tissues that were surveyed but shows some variation among different haplotypes. The presence of insertion/deletions in promoters often influences the presence and position of an mCHH island. The mCHH islands are dependent upon RNA-directed DNA methylation activities and are lost in mop1 and mop3 mutants, but the nearby genes rarely exhibit altered expression levels. Instead, loss of an mCHH island is often accompanied by additional loss of DNA methylation in CG and CHG contexts associated with heterochromatin in nearby transposons. This suggests that mCHH islands and RNA-directed DNA methylation near maize genes may act to preserve the silencing of transposons from activity of nearby genes.

  16. Advancing forensic RNA typing: On non-target secretions, a nasal mucosa marker, a differential co-extraction protocol and the sensitivity of DNA and RNA profiling.

    PubMed

    van den Berge, Margreet; Bhoelai, Bryan; Harteveld, Joyce; Matai, Anuska; Sijen, Titia

    2016-01-01

    The forensic identification of human body fluids and tissues by means of messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling is a long studied methodology that is increasingly applied to casework samples. Previously, we have described an mRNA multiplex system that targets blood, saliva, semen, menstrual secretion, vaginal mucosa and skin (Lindenbergh et al. and van den Berge et al.). In this study we consider various topics to improve this mRNA profiling system or its use and adapt the method accordingly. Bodily secretions that may be encountered at a crime scene whilst not targeted by the multiplex-id est nasal mucosa, sweat, tears, faeces and urine-were examined for false positive signals. The results prompted us to identify a nasal mucosa marker that allows the discrimination of nasal mucosa from saliva or vaginal mucosa and nosebleed blood from peripheral blood. An updated version of the multiplex was prepared to which the nasal mucosa marker was added and in which markers for semen, vaginal mucosa and blood were replaced. Lactobacillus markers were regarded unsuitable as replacement for vaginal mucosa mRNA markers because of background signals on penile swabs that appeared devoid of female DNA. Furthermore, we provide approaches to deal with highly unbalanced mixtures. First, a differential extraction protocol was incorporated into a co-extraction protocol to allow DNA and RNA analysis of separated non-sperm and sperm fractions. In a second approach, besides the standard multiplex, a customized multiplex is used which excludes markers for prevailing cell types. This allows the use of lower cDNA inputs for the prevailing cell types and higher inputs for cell types that appear masked. Additionally, we assessed the relation between the percentage of alleles or markers detected in DNA or RNA profiles when decreasing sample amounts are analysed. While blood, saliva, semen and menstrual secretion show the trend that DNA profiling is more sensitive than RNA profiling, the reverse is seen

  17. Advancing forensic RNA typing: On non-target secretions, a nasal mucosa marker, a differential co-extraction protocol and the sensitivity of DNA and RNA profiling.

    PubMed

    van den Berge, Margreet; Bhoelai, Bryan; Harteveld, Joyce; Matai, Anuska; Sijen, Titia

    2016-01-01

    The forensic identification of human body fluids and tissues by means of messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling is a long studied methodology that is increasingly applied to casework samples. Previously, we have described an mRNA multiplex system that targets blood, saliva, semen, menstrual secretion, vaginal mucosa and skin (Lindenbergh et al. and van den Berge et al.). In this study we consider various topics to improve this mRNA profiling system or its use and adapt the method accordingly. Bodily secretions that may be encountered at a crime scene whilst not targeted by the multiplex-id est nasal mucosa, sweat, tears, faeces and urine-were examined for false positive signals. The results prompted us to identify a nasal mucosa marker that allows the discrimination of nasal mucosa from saliva or vaginal mucosa and nosebleed blood from peripheral blood. An updated version of the multiplex was prepared to which the nasal mucosa marker was added and in which markers for semen, vaginal mucosa and blood were replaced. Lactobacillus markers were regarded unsuitable as replacement for vaginal mucosa mRNA markers because of background signals on penile swabs that appeared devoid of female DNA. Furthermore, we provide approaches to deal with highly unbalanced mixtures. First, a differential extraction protocol was incorporated into a co-extraction protocol to allow DNA and RNA analysis of separated non-sperm and sperm fractions. In a second approach, besides the standard multiplex, a customized multiplex is used which excludes markers for prevailing cell types. This allows the use of lower cDNA inputs for the prevailing cell types and higher inputs for cell types that appear masked. Additionally, we assessed the relation between the percentage of alleles or markers detected in DNA or RNA profiles when decreasing sample amounts are analysed. While blood, saliva, semen and menstrual secretion show the trend that DNA profiling is more sensitive than RNA profiling, the reverse is seen

  18. Oxidative stress diverts tRNA synthetase to nucleus for protection against DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Wei, Na; Shi, Yi; Truong, Lan N; Fisch, Kathleen M; Xu, Tao; Gardiner, Elisabeth; Fu, Guangsen; Hsu, Yun-Shiuan Olivia; Kishi, Shuji; Su, Andrew I; Wu, Xiaohua; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2014-10-23

    Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) is known for its essential aminoacylation function in protein synthesis. Here we report a function for TyrRS in DNA damage protection. We found that oxidative stress, which often downregulates protein synthesis, induces TyrRS to rapidly translocate from the cytosol to the nucleus. We also found that angiogenin mediates or potentiates this stress-induced translocalization. The nuclear-localized TyrRS activates transcription factor E2F1 to upregulate the expression of DNA damage repair genes such as BRCA1 and RAD51. The activation is achieved through direct interaction of TyrRS with TRIM28 to sequester this vertebrate-specific epigenetic repressor and its associated HDAC1 from deacetylating and suppressing E2F1. Remarkably, overexpression of TyrRS strongly protects against UV-induced DNA double-strand breaks in zebrafish, whereas restricting TyrRS nuclear entry completely abolishes the protection. Therefore, oxidative stress triggers an essential cytoplasmic enzyme used for protein synthesis to translocate to the nucleus to protect against DNA damage.

  19. Visualizing the phage T4 activated transcription complex of DNA and E. coli RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    James, Tamara D.; Cardozo, Timothy; Abell, Lauren E.; Hsieh, Meng-Lun; Jenkins, Lisa M. Miller; Jha, Saheli S.; Hinton, Deborah M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of RNA polymerase (RNAP) to select the right promoter sequence at the right time is fundamental to the control of gene expression in all organisms. However, there is only one crystallized structure of a complete activator/RNAP/DNA complex. In a process called σ appropriation, bacteriophage T4 activates a class of phage promoters using an activator (MotA) and a co-activator (AsiA), which function through interactions with the σ70 subunit of RNAP. We have developed a holistic, structure-based model for σ appropriation using multiple experimentally determined 3D structures (Escherichia coli RNAP, the Thermus aquaticus RNAP/DNA complex, AsiA /σ70 Region 4, the N-terminal domain of MotA [MotANTD], and the C-terminal domain of MotA [MotACTD]), molecular modeling, and extensive biochemical observations indicating the position of the proteins relative to each other and to the DNA. Our results visualize how AsiA/MotA redirects σ, and therefore RNAP activity, to T4 promoter DNA, and demonstrate at a molecular level how the tactful interaction of transcriptional factors with even small segments of RNAP can alter promoter specificity. Furthermore, our model provides a rational basis for understanding how a mutation within the β subunit of RNAP (G1249D), which is far removed from AsiA or MotA, impairs σ appropriation. PMID:27458207

  20. Visualizing the phage T4 activated transcription complex of DNA and E. coli RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    James, Tamara D; Cardozo, Timothy; Abell, Lauren E; Hsieh, Meng-Lun; Jenkins, Lisa M Miller; Jha, Saheli S; Hinton, Deborah M

    2016-09-19

    The ability of RNA polymerase (RNAP) to select the right promoter sequence at the right time is fundamental to the control of gene expression in all organisms. However, there is only one crystallized structure of a complete activator/RNAP/DNA complex. In a process called σ appropriation, bacteriophage T4 activates a class of phage promoters using an activator (MotA) and a co-activator (AsiA), which function through interactions with the σ(70) subunit of RNAP. We have developed a holistic, structure-based model for σ appropriation using multiple experimentally determined 3D structures (Escherichia coli RNAP, the Thermus aquaticus RNAP/DNA complex, AsiA /σ(70) Region 4, the N-terminal domain of MotA [MotA(NTD)], and the C-terminal domain of MotA [MotA(CTD)]), molecular modeling, and extensive biochemical observations indicating the position of the proteins relative to each other and to the DNA. Our results visualize how AsiA/MotA redirects σ, and therefore RNAP activity, to T4 promoter DNA, and demonstrate at a molecular level how the tactful interaction of transcriptional factors with even small segments of RNAP can alter promoter specificity. Furthermore, our model provides a rational basis for understanding how a mutation within the β subunit of RNAP (G1249D), which is far removed from AsiA or MotA, impairs σ appropriation. PMID:27458207

  1. [Investigation of Epstein-Barr virus DNA and RNA in tissues of patients with lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Zeytinoğlu, Ayşin; Hekimgil, Mine; Erensoy, Selda; Aydemir, Söhret; Berber, Sahir; Cağirgan, Seçkin; Soydan, Saliha; Bilgiç, Altinay

    2005-10-01

    Relation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and nasopharyngeal carsinoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, and lymphomas in immunosupressed patients have been shown previously in different studies. The same relationship was also shown in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) by some researchers. The aim of this study was to demonstrate EBV nucleic acids in tissue sections of adult patients with lymphoma. The presence of EBV encoded RNA (EBER) were investigated with in situ hybridization and EBV-DNA with PCR method in 29 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections (19 lymph nodes, the others being gastric, orbital, skin, salivary gland, testicle, small intestinal, tongue root, bone marrow and gingival tissues) of 8 patients with HL and 21 patients with NHL who were followed-up in Haematology Clinics of our university hospital. EBER and EBV-DNA positivity rates were found as follows respectively; 50% (n: 4) and 37.5% (n: 3) of 8 HL patients, and 23.8% (n: 5) and 47.6% (n: 10) of 21 NHL patients. In total evaluation EBER and/or EBV-DNA were positive in 5 of 8 (62.5%) HL, and 12 of 21 (57.1%) NHL tissue sections. There was no significant difference in EBER and EBV-DNA positivity between HL and NHL groups. As a result, our study emphasize a possible EBV related aetiology in HL and NHL. PMID:16544549

  2. Characterization of RNA aptamers that disrupt the RUNX1–CBFβ/DNA complex

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Jenny L.; Bunka, David H. J.; Knowling, Stuart E.; Lefevre, Pascal; Warren, Alan J.; Bonifer, Constanze; Stockley, Peter G.

    2009-01-01

    The transcription factor RUNX1 (AML1) is an important regulator of haematopoiesis, and an important fusion partner in leukaemic translocations. High-affinity DNA binding by RUNX1 requires the interaction of the RUNX1 Runt-Homology-Domain (RHD) with the core-binding factor β protein (CBFβ). To generate novel reagents for in vitro and in vivo studies of RUNX1 function, we have selected high-affinity RNA aptamers against a recombinant RHD–CBFβ complex. Selection yielded two sequence families, each dominated by a single consensus sequence. Aptamers from each family disrupt DNA binding by the RUNX1 protein in vitro and compete with sequence-specific dsDNA binding. Minimal, high-affinity (∼100–160 nM) active aptamer fragments 28 and 30 nts in length, consisting of simple short stem-loop structures, were then identified. These bind to the RHD subunit and disrupt its interaction with CBFβ, which is consistent with reduced DNA affinity in the presence of aptamer. These aptamers represent new reagents that target a novel surface on the RHD required to stabilize the recombinant RHD–CBFβ complex and thus will further aid exploring the functions of this key transcription factor. PMID:19740763

  3. RNA initiation with dinucleoside monophosphates during transcription of bacteriophage T4 DNA with RNA polymerase of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, D J; Niyogi, S K

    1973-02-01

    The effects of dinucleoside monophosphates on the transcription of phage T4 DNA by E. coli RNA polymerase have been examined at various concentrations of the sigma subunit and extremely low concentration of ribonucleoside triphosphate. The following conclusions were reached: (i) Labeled specific dinucleoside monophosphates are incorporated as chain initiators. (ii) When the ratio of sigma factor to core enzyme is small, there is a general stimulation by most 5'-guanosyl dinucleoside monophosphates. (iii) When the ratio is increased or holoenzyme is present, ApU, CpA, UpA, and GpU are the most effective stimulators. (iv) At high concentrations of sigma factor, only certain adenosine-containing dinucleoside monophosphates (ApU, CpA, UpA, and ApA) stimulate the reaction. (v) Competition hybridization studies indicate that the RNAs stimulated by dinucleoside monophosphates (ApU, CpA, UpA, and GpU) are of the T4 "early" type. (vi) Studies involving both combinations of stimulatory dinucleoside monophosphates and competitive effects of these compounds on chain initiation by ATP and GTP suggest that the stimulatory dinucleoside monophosphates act as chain initiators and may recognize part of a continuous sequence in a promoter region. Studies based on the incorporation of (3)H-labeled stimulatory dinucleoside monophosphates support the above conclusions.

  4. Dynamic separation of macromolecules under temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Yusuke; Buguin, Axel; Libchaber, Albert

    2011-03-01

    Thermophoresis is a motion of suspensions in a fluid that are subjected to a temperature gradient. Although its effect is widely studied in case of single solute in water, little is known about how the mixture of different solutes is affected. We heated water with an infrared laser by ΔTmax = 5C and ∇ T = 0.25C/um to induce thermophoresis of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and DNA. PEG is depleted from the hot region and results in a stationary gradient of its high volume fraction ϕ . Under this high concentration of PEG, DNA of small concentration is submitted to thermophoresis and osmotic pressure difference. The DNA shows regime of depletion, ring-like localization and accumulation as the volume fraction of PEG increases. As the osmotic force depends on the size of trapped solutes, DNA of different size accumulates at different regions. Depending whether the DNA size is below or above 5kbp a different scaling of position versus DNA size is observed. Thermal separation is a general phenomenon. It applies also to RNA and microbeads. YTM is supported by JSPS fellowship and M.Josee-H.Kravis fellowship from the Rockefeller University.

  5. Macromolecule diffusion and confinement in prokaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Mika, Jacek T; Poolman, Bert

    2011-02-01

    We review recent observations on the mobility of macromolecules and their spatial organization in live bacterial cells. We outline the major fluorescence microscopy-based methods to determine the mobility and thus the diffusion coefficients (D) of molecules, which is not trivial in small cells. The extremely high macromolecule crowding of prokaryotes is used to rationalize the reported lower diffusion coefficients as compared to eukaryotes, and we speculate on the nature of the barriers for diffusion observed for proteins (and mRNAs) in vivo. Building on in vitro experiments and modeling studies, we evaluate the size dependence of diffusion coefficients for macromolecules in vivo, in case of both water-soluble and integral membrane proteins. We comment on the possibilities of anomalous diffusion and provide examples where the macromolecule mobility may be limiting biological processes.

  6. [RNA polymerase as a molecular machine].

    PubMed

    Spirin, A S

    2002-01-01

    Structure and function of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase is considered in terms of a conveying molecular machine. The use of mechanical energy and mechanical devices, such as "power-stroke motor", is supposed unlikely in the conveying function of RNA polymerase, as well as other molecular machines. Brownian motion and thermal mobility of macromolecules and their parts are postulated as the only motive impulse at the molecular level. Binding of substrates and subsequent chemical reaction as the energy input may provide successive selection and fixation of alternative conformational states of the enzyme complex thus providing the directionality of the conveyance ("Brownian ratchet mechanism"). The following sequence of events "substrate binding--fixation of a certain conformational state--chemical reaction--fixation of an alternative conformational state--translocation (dissociation and downstream reassociation) of product-template duplex" is proposed as the principal scheme of the forward movement of RNA polymerase along DNA template.