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Sample records for macrophage-activating factor gcmaf

  1. Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF): isoelectric focusing pattern and tumoricidal activity.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Saharuddin Bin; Nagasawa, Hideko; Sasaki, Hideyuki; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Ken; Hori, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    Gc protein is the precursor for Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF), with three phenotypes: Gc1f, Gc1s and Gc2, based on its electrophoretic mobility. The difference in electrophoretic mobility is because of the difference in its posttranslational sugar moiety composition. We compared the difference between Gc protein and GcMAF electrophoretic mobility using the isoelectric focusing (IEF) method. The tumoricidal activity of GcMAF-treated macrophage was evaluated after coculture with L-929 cell. The tumoricidal mechanism was investigated using TNF bioassay and nitric oxide (NO) release. The difference in Gc protein and GcMAF electrophoretic mobility was detected. The tumoricidal activity of GcMAF-treated macrophage was detected, but no release of TNF and NO was detected. The difference of isoelectric focusing mobility in Gc protein and GcMAF would be useful to develop a GcMAF detection method. GcMAF increased macrophage tumoricidal activity but TNF and NO release were not involved in the mechanism.

  2. Effects of vitamin D(3)-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) on angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Shigeru; Mochizuki, Yasushi; Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Kanetake, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Nobuto

    2002-09-04

    The vitamin D(3)-binding protein (Gc protein)-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) activates tumoricidal macrophages against a variety of cancers indiscriminately. We investigated whether GcMAF also acts as an antiangiogenic factor on endothelial cells. The effects of GcMAF on angiogenic growth factor-induced cell proliferation, chemotaxis, and tube formation were examined in vitro by using cultured endothelial cells (murine IBE cells, porcine PAE cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells [HUVECs]) and in vivo by using a mouse cornea micropocket assay. Blocking monoclonal antibodies to CD36, a receptor for the antiangiogenic factor thrombospondin-1, which is also a possible receptor for GcMAF, were used to investigate the mechanism of GcMAF action. GcMAF inhibited the endothelial cell proliferation, chemotaxis, and tube formation that were all stimulated by fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), vascular endothelial growth factor-A, or angiopoietin 2. FGF-2-induced neovascularization in murine cornea was also inhibited by GcMAF. Monoclonal antibodies against murine and human CD36 receptor blocked the antiangiogenic action of GcMAF on the angiogenic factor stimulation of endothelial cell chemotaxis. In addition to its ability to activate tumoricidal macrophages, GcMAF has direct antiangiogenic effects on endothelial cells independent of tissue origin. The antiangiogenic effects of GcMAF may be mediated through the CD36 receptor.

  3. Preparation of Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) and its structural characterization and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Saharuddin Bin; Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi

    2002-01-01

    Gc protein has been reported to be a precursor of Gc protein-derived macrophage activation factor (GcMAF) in the inflammation-primed macrophage activation cascade. An inducible beta-galactosidase of B cells and neuraminidase of T cells convert Gc protein to GcMAF. Gc protein from human serum was purified using 25(OH)D3 affinity column chromatography and modified to GcMAF using immobilized glycosidases (beta-galactosidase and neuraminidase) The sugar moiety structure of GcMAF was characterized by lectin blotting by Helix pomatia agglutinin. The biological activities of GcMAF were evaluated by a superoxide generation assay and a phagocytosis assay. We successfully purified Gc protein from human serum. GcMAF was detected by lectin blotting and showed a high biological activity. Our results support the importance of the terminal N-acetylgalactosamine moiety in the GcMAF-mediated macrophage activation cascade, and the existence of constitutive GcMAF in human serum. These preliminary data are important for designing small molecular GcMAF mimics.

  4. Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer with Gc Protein-Derived Macrophage-Activating Factor, GcMAF.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2008-07-01

    Serum Gc protein (known as vitamin D(3)-binding protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage-activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of prostate cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein was deglycosylated by serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Therefore, macrophages of prostate cancer patients having deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be activated, leading to immunosuppression. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent MAF (termed GcMAF) ever discovered, which produces no adverse effect in humans. Macrophages activated by GcMAF develop a considerable variation of receptors that recognize the abnormality in malignant cell surface and are highly tumoricidal. Sixteen nonanemic prostate cancer patients received weekly administration of 100 ng of GcMAF. As the MAF precursor activity increased, their serum Nagalase activity decreased. Because serum Nagalase activity is proportional to tumor burden, the entire time course analysis for GcMAF therapy was monitored by measuring the serum Nagalase activity. After 14 to 25 weekly administrations of GcMAF (100 ng/week), all 16 patients had very low serum Nagalase levels equivalent to those of healthy control values, indicating that these patients are tumor-free. No recurrence occurred for 7 years.

  5. Immunotherapy of metastatic colorectal cancer with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor, GcMAF.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Nakazato, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Koga, Yoshihiko

    2008-07-01

    Serum vitamin D binding protein (Gc protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage-activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of colorectal cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein is deglycosylated by serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be converted to MAF, leading to immunosuppression. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) ever discovered, but it produces no side effect in humans. Macrophages treated with GcMAF (100 microg/ml) develop an enormous variation of receptors and are highly tumoricidal to a variety of cancers indiscriminately. Administration of 100 nanogram (ng)/ human maximally activates systemic macrophages that can kill cancerous cells. Since the half-life of the activated macrophages is approximately 6 days, 100 ng GcMAF was administered weekly to eight nonanemic colorectal cancer patients who had previously received tumor-resection but still carried significant amounts of metastatic tumor cells. As GcMAF therapy progressed, the MAF precursor activities of all patients increased and conversely their serum Nagalase activities decreased. Since serum Nagalase is proportional to tumor burden, serum Nagalase activity was used as a prognostic index for time course analysis of GcMAF therapy. After 32-50 weekly administrations of 100 ng GcMAF, all colorectal cancer patients exhibited healthy control levels of the serum Nagalase activity, indicating eradication of metastatic tumor cells. During 7 years after the completion of GcMAF therapy, their serum Nagalase activity did not increase, indicating no recurrence of cancer, which was also supported by the annual CT scans of these patients.

  6. Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer with Gc Protein-Derived Macrophage-Activating Factor, GcMAF1

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    Serum Gc protein (known as vitamin D3-binding protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage-activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of prostate cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein was deglycosylated by serum α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Therefore, macrophages of prostate cancer patients having deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be activated, leading to immunosuppression. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized β-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent MAF (termed GcMAF) ever discovered, which produces no adverse effect in humans. Macrophages activated by GcMAF develop a considerable variation of receptors that recognize the abnormality in malignant cell surface and are highly tumoricidal. Sixteen nonanemic prostate cancer patients received weekly administration of 100 ng of GcMAF. As the MAF precursor activity increased, their serum Nagalase activity decreased. Because serum Nagalase activity is proportional to tumor burden, the entire time course analysis for GcMAF therapy was monitored by measuring the serum Nagalase activity. After 14 to 25 weekly administrations of GcMAF (100 ng/week), all 16 patients had very low serum Nagalase levels equivalent to those of healthy control values, indicating that these patients are tumor-free. No recurrence occurred for 7 years. PMID:18633461

  7. Degalactosylated/desialylated human serum containing GcMAF induces macrophage phagocytic activity and in vivo antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Kuchiike, Daisuke; Uto, Yoshihiro; Mukai, Hirotaka; Ishiyama, Noriko; Abe, Chiaki; Tanaka, Daichi; Kawai, Tomohito; Kubo, Kentaro; Mette, Martin; Inui, Toshio; Endo, Yoshio; Hori, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    The group-specific component protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) has various biological activities, such as macrophage activation and antitumor activity. Clinical trials of GcMAF have been carried out for metastatic breast cancer, prostate cancer, and metastatic colorectal cancer. In this study, despite the complicated purification process of GcMAF, we used enzymatically-treated human serum containing GcMAF with a considerable macrophage-stimulating activity and antitumor activity. We detected GcMAF in degalactosylated/desialylated human serum by western blotting using an anti-human Gc globulin antibody, and Helix pomatia agglutinin lectin. We also found that GcMAF-containing human serum significantly enhanced the phagocytic activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages and extended the survival time of mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumors. We demonstrated that GcMAF-containing human serum can be used as a potential macrophage activator for cancer immunotherapy.

  8. Immunotherapy of metastatic breast cancer patients with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Ushijima, Naofumi

    2008-01-15

    Serum vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of breast cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein was deglycosylated by serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Patient serum Nagalase activity is proportional to tumor burden. The deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be converted to MAF, resulting in no macrophage activation and immunosuppression. Stepwise incubation of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated probably the most potent macrophage activating factor (termed GcMAF) ever discovered, which produces no adverse effect in humans. Macrophages treated in vitro with GcMAF (100 pg/ml) are highly tumoricidal to mammary adenocarcinomas. Efficacy of GcMAF for treatment of metastatic breast cancer was investigated with 16 nonanemic patients who received weekly administration of GcMAF (100 ng). As GcMAF therapy progresses, the MAF precursor activity of patient Gc protein increased with a concomitant decrease in serum Nagalase. Because of proportionality of serum Nagalase activity to tumor burden, the time course progress of GcMAF therapy was assessed by serum Nagalase activity as a prognostic index. These patients had the initial Nagalase activities ranging from 2.32 to 6.28 nmole/min/mg protein. After about 16-22 administrations (approximately 3.5-5 months) of GcMAF, these patients had insignificantly low serum enzyme levels equivalent to healthy control enzyme levels, ranging from 0.38 to 0.63 nmole/min/mg protein, indicating eradication of the tumors. This therapeutic procedure resulted in no recurrence for more than 4 years. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Immunotherapy of HIV-infected patients with Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Ushijima, Naofumi; Koga, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Serum Gc protein (known as vitamin D3-binding protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of HIV-infected patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein is deglycosylated by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from HIV-infected cells. Therefore, macrophages of HIV-infected patients having deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be activated, leading to immunosuppression. Since Nagalase is the intrinsic component of the envelope protein gp120, serum Nagalase activity is the sum of enzyme activities carried by both HIV virions and envelope proteins. These Nagalase carriers were already complexed with anti-HIV immunoglobulin G (IgG) but retained Nagalase activity that is required for infectivity. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent macrophage activating factor (termed GcMAF), which produces no side effects in humans. Macrophages activated by administration of 100 ng GcMAF develop a large amount of Fc-receptors as well as an enormous variation of receptors that recognize IgG-bound and unbound HIV virions. Since latently HIV-infected cells are unstable and constantly release HIV virions, the activated macrophages rapidly intercept the released HIV virions to prevent reinfection resulting in exhaustion of infected cells. After less than 18 weekly administrations of 100 ng GcMAF for nonanemic patients, they exhibited low serum Nagalase activities equivalent to healthy controls, indicating eradication of HIV-infection, which was also confirmed by no infectious center formation by provirus inducing agent-treated patient PBMCs. No recurrence occurred and their healthy CD + cell counts were maintained for 7 years.

  10. Is chondroitin sulfate responsible for the biological effects attributed to the GC protein-derived Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF)?

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Marco; Reinwald, Heinz; Pacini, Stefania

    2016-09-01

    We hypothesize that a plasma glycosaminoglycan, chondroitin sulfate, may be responsible for the biological and clinical effects attributed to the Gc protein-derived Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF), a protein that is extracted from human blood. Thus, Gc protein binds chondroitin sulfate on the cell surface and such an interaction may occur also in blood, colostrum and milk. This interpretation would solve the inconsistencies encountered in explaining the effects of GcMAF in vitro and in vivo. According to our model, the Gc protein or the GcMAF bind to chondroitin sulfate both on the cell surface and in bodily fluids, and the resulting multimolecular complexes, under the form of oligomers trigger a transmembrane signal or, alternatively, are internalized and convey the signal directly to the nucleus thus eliciting the diverse biological effects observed for both GcMAF and chondroitin sulfate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The in vitro GcMAF effects on endocannabinoid system transcriptionomics, receptor formation, and cell activity of autism-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Siniscalco, Dario; Bradstreet, James Jeffrey; Cirillo, Alessandra; Antonucci, Nicola

    2014-04-17

    Immune system dysregulation is well-recognized in autism and thought to be part of the etiology of this disorder. The endocannabinoid system is a key regulator of the immune system via the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) which is highly expressed on macrophages and microglial cells. We have previously published significant differences in peripheral blood mononuclear cell CB2R gene expression in the autism population. The use of the Gc protein-derived Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF), an endogenous glycosylated vitamin D binding protein responsible for macrophage cell activation has demonstrated positive effects in the treatment of autistic children. In this current study, we investigated the in vitro effects of GcMAF treatment on the endocannabinoid system gene expression, as well as cellular activation in blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from autistic patients compared to age-matched healthy developing controls. To achieve these goals, we used biomolecular, biochemical and immunocytochemical methods. GcMAF treatment was able to normalize the observed differences in dysregulated gene expression of the endocannabinoid system of the autism group. GcMAF also down-regulated the over-activation of BMDMs from autistic children. This study presents the first observations of GcMAF effects on the transcriptionomics of the endocannabinoid system and expression of CB2R protein. These data point to a potential nexus between endocannabinoids, vitamin D and its transporter proteins, and the immune dysregulations observed with autism.

  12. The in vitro GcMAF effects on endocannabinoid system transcriptionomics, receptor formation, and cell activity of autism-derived macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immune system dysregulation is well-recognized in autism and thought to be part of the etiology of this disorder. The endocannabinoid system is a key regulator of the immune system via the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) which is highly expressed on macrophages and microglial cells. We have previously published significant differences in peripheral blood mononuclear cell CB2R gene expression in the autism population. The use of the Gc protein-derived Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF), an endogenous glycosylated vitamin D binding protein responsible for macrophage cell activation has demonstrated positive effects in the treatment of autistic children. In this current study, we investigated the in vitro effects of GcMAF treatment on the endocannabinoid system gene expression, as well as cellular activation in blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from autistic patients compared to age-matched healthy developing controls. Methods To achieve these goals, we used biomolecular, biochemical and immunocytochemical methods. Results GcMAF treatment was able to normalize the observed differences in dysregulated gene expression of the endocannabinoid system of the autism group. GcMAF also down-regulated the over-activation of BMDMs from autistic children. Conclusions This study presents the first observations of GcMAF effects on the transcriptionomics of the endocannabinoid system and expression of CB2R protein. These data point to a potential nexus between endocannabinoids, vitamin D and its transporter proteins, and the immune dysregulations observed with autism. PMID:24739187

  13. Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) stimulates cAMP formation in human mononuclear cells and inhibits angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane assay.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Stefania; Morucci, Gabriele; Punzi, Tiziana; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco

    2011-04-01

    The effects of Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) have been studied in cancer and other conditions where angiogenesis is deregulated. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the mitogenic response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to GcMAF was associated with 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation. The effect was dose dependent, and maximal stimulation was achieved using 0.1 ng/ml. Heparin inhibited the stimulatory effect of GcMAF on PBMCs. In addition, we demonstrate that GcMAF (1 ng/ml) inhibited prostaglandin E(1)- and human breast cancer cell-stimulated angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Finally, we tested different GcMAF preparations on CAM, and the assay proved to be a reliable, reproducible and inexpensive method to determine the relative potencies of different preparations and their stability; we observed that storage at room temperature for 15 days decreased GcMAF potency by about 50%. These data could prove useful for upcoming clinical trials on GcMAF.

  14. A novel assay system for macrophage-activating factor activity using a human U937 cell line.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Mami; Inoue, Takahiro; Inui, Toshio; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Kubo, Kentaro; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nishikata, Takahito

    2014-08-01

    Macrophages play important roles in antitumor immunity, and immunotherapy with the group-specific component protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) has been reported to be effective in patients with various types of cancers. However, in macrophage research, it is important to properly evaluate macrophage activity. U937 macrophages were induced by 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-phorbolacetate (TPA). The phagocytic activity of macrophages was evaluated as the internalized beads ratio. The MAF activity was assessed at 30 min after MAF addition as the activation ratio. We established a novel assay for phagocytic activities using differentiated U937 macrophages. The novel protocol was simple and rapid and was sensitive for GcMAF. This protocol should be useful not only for basic studies, such as those on molecular mechanisms underlying macrophage activation, but also for clinical studies, such as assessment of GcMAF activity prior to clinical use. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of the Gc-derived macrophage-activating factor precursor (preGcMAF) on phagocytic activation of mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Uto, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Syota; Takeuchi, Ryota; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Hirota, Keiji; Terada, Hiroshi; Onizuka, Shinya; Nakata, Eiji; Hori, Hitoshi

    2011-07-01

    The 1f1f subtype of the Gc protein (Gc(1f1f) protein) was converted into Gc-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) by enzymatic processing in the presence of β-galactosidase of an activated B-cell and sialidase of a T-cell. We hypothesized that preGc(1f1f)MAF, the only Gc(1f1f) protein lacking galactose, can be converted to GcMAF in vivo because sialic acid is cleaved by residual sialidase. Hence, we investigated the effect of preGc(1f1f)MAF on the phagocytic activation of mouse peritoneal macrophages. We examined the sugar moiety of preGc(1f1f)MAF with a Western blot using peanut agglutinin (PNA) and Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) lectin. We also found that preGc(1f1f)MAF significantly enhanced phagocytic activity in mouse peritoneal macrophages but only in the presence of the mouse peritoneal fluid; the level of phagocytic activity was the same as that observed for GcMAF. PreGc(1f1f)MAF can be used as an effective macrophage activator in vivo.

  16. Structurally well-defined macrophage activating factor derived from vitamin D3-binding protein has a potent adjuvant activity for immunization.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R

    1998-06-01

    Freund's adjuvant produced severe inflammation that augments development of antibodies. Thus, mixed administration of antigens with adjuvant was not required as long as inflammation was induced in the hosts. Since macrophage activation for phagocytosis and antigen processing is the first step of antibody development, inflammation-primed macrophage activation plays a major role in immune development. Therefore, macrophage activating factor should act as an adjuvant for immunization. The inflammation-primed macrophage activation process is the major macrophage activating cascade that requires participation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein (DBP; human DBP is known as Gc protein) and glycosidases of B and T lymphocytes. Stepwise incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase efficiently generated the most potent macrophage activating factor (designated GcMAF) we have ever encountered. Administration of GcMAF (20 or 100 pg/mouse) resulted in stimulation of the progenitor cells for extensive mitogenesis and activation of macrophages. Administration of GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) along with immunization of mice with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) produced a large number of anti-SRBC antibody secreting splenic cells in 2-4 days. Thus, GcMAF has a potent adjuvant activity for immunization. Although malignant tumours are poorly immunogenic, 4 days after GcMAF-primed immunization of mice with heat-killed Ehrlich ascites tumour cells, the ascites tumour was no longer transplantable in these mice.

  17. Antitumor effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Koga, Y; Naraparaju, V R; Yamamoto, N

    1999-01-01

    Cancerous cells secrete alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NaGalase) into the blood stream, resulting in deglycosylation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein (known as Gc protein), which is a precursor for macrophage activating factor (MAF). Incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates the most potent macrophage activating factor (designated GcMAF). Administration of GcMAF to cancer-bearing hosts can bypass the inactivated MAF precursor and act directly on macrophages for efficient activation. Therapeutic effects of GcMAF on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice were assessed by survival time and serum NaGalase activity, because serum NaGalase activity was proportional to tumor burden. A single administration of GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) to eight mice on the same day after transplantation of the tumor (5 x 10(5) cells) showed a mean survival time of 21 +/- 3 days for seven mice, with one mouse surviving more than 60 days, whereas tumor-bearing controls had a mean survival time of 13 +/- 2 days. Six of the eight mice that received two GcMAF administrations, at Day 0 and Day 4 after transplantation, survived up to 31 +/- 4 days whereas, the remaining two mice survived for more than 60 days. Further, six of the eight mice that received three GcMAF administrations with 4-day intervals showed an extended survival of at least 60 days, and serum NaGalase levels were as low as those of control mice throughout the survival period. The cure with subthreshold GcMAF-treatments (administered once or twice) of tumor-bearing mice appeared to be a consequence of sustained macrophage activation by inflammation resulting from the macrophage-mediated tumoricidal process. Therefore, a protracted macrophage activation induced by a few administrations of minute amounts of GcMAF eradicated the murine ascites tumor.

  18. Structural definition of a potent macrophage activating factor derived from vitamin D3-binding protein with adjuvant activity for antibody production.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N

    1996-10-01

    Incubation of human vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein), with a mixture of immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase, efficiently generated a potent macrophage activating factor, a protein with N-acetylgalactosamine as the remaining sugar. Stepwise incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase, and isolation of the intermediates with immobilized lectins, revealed that either sequence of hydrolysis of Gc glycoprotein by these glycosidases yields the macrophage-activating factor, implying that Gc protein carries a trisaccharide composed of N-acetylgalactosamine and dibranched galactose and sialic acid termini. A 3 hr incubation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with picomolar amounts of the enzymatically generated macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) resulted in a greatly enhanced phagocytic activity. Administration of a minute amount (10-50 pg/mouse) of GcMAF resulted in a seven- to nine-fold enhanced phagocytic activity of macrophages. Injection of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) along with GcMAF into mice produced a large number of anti-SRBC antibody secreting splenic cells in 2-4 days.

  19. Case Report: GcMAF Treatment in a Patient with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Inui, Toshio; Katsuura, Goro; Kubo, Kentaro; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Chenery, Leslye; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nishikata, Takahito; Mette, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) has various functions as an immune modulator, such as macrophage activation, anti-angiogenic activity and anti-tumor activity. Clinical trials of second-generation GcMAF demonstrated remarkable clinical effects in several types of cancers. Thus, GcMAF-based immunotherapy has a wide application for use in the treatment of many diseases via macrophage activation that can be used as a supportive therapy. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered to be an autoimmune disorder that affects the myelinated axons in the central nervous system (CNS). This study was undertaken to examine the effects of second-generation GcMAF in a patient with MS. This case study demonstrated that treatments of GcMAF in a patient with MS have potent therapeutic actions with early beneficial responses, especially improvement of motor dysfunction. GcMAF shows therapeutic potency in the treatment of MS. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of salivary gland adenocarcinoma cell-derived alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase on the bioactivity of macrophage activating factor.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Takashi; Uematsu, Takashi; Yamaoka, Minoru; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NaGalase) produced by human salivary gland adenocarcinoma (SGA) cells on the bioactivity of macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF). High exo-alpha-NaGalase activity was detected in the SGA cell line HSG. HSG alpha-NaGalase had both exo- and endo-enzyme activities, cleaving the Gal-GalNAc and GalNAc residues linked to Thr/Ser but not releasing the [NeuAc2-6]GalNac residue. Furthermore, GcMAF enzymatically prepared from the Gc protein enhanced the superoxide-generation capacity and phagocytic activity of monocytes/macrophages. However, GcMAF treated with purified alpha-NaGalase did not exhibit these effects. Thus, HSG possesses the capacity to produce larger quantities of alpha-NaGalase, which inactivates GcMAF produced from Gc protein, resulting in reduced phagocytic activity and superoxide-generation capacity of monocytes/macrophages. The present data strongly suggest that HSG alpha-NaGalase acts as an immunodeficiency factor in cancer patients.

  1. The glycosylation and characterization of the candidate Gc macrophage activating factor.

    PubMed

    Ravnsborg, Tina; Olsen, Dorthe T; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Christiansen, Maja; Houen, Gunnar; Højrup, Peter

    2010-04-01

    The vitamin D binding protein, Gc globulin, has in recent years received some attention for its role as precursor for the extremely potent macrophage activating factor (GcMAF). An O-linked trisaccharide has been allocated to the threonine residue at position 420 in two of the three most common isoforms of Gc globulin (Gc1s and Gc1f). A substitution for a lysine residue at position 420 in Gc2 prevents this isoform from being glycosylated at that position. It has been suggested that Gc globulin subjected sequentially to sialidase and galactosidase treatment generates GcMAF in the form of Gc globulin with only a single GalNAc attached to T420. In this study we confirm the location of a linear trisaccharide on T420. Furthermore, we provide the first structural evidence of the generation of the proposed GcMAF by use of glycosidase treatment and mass spectrometry. Additionally the generated GcMAF candidate was tested for its effect on cytokine release from macrophages in human whole blood. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A designed glycoprotein analogue of Gc-MAF exhibits native-like phagocytic activity.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Federica; McConnell, Elizabeth; Joshi, Lokesh; Chang, Yung; Ghirlanda, Giovanna

    2006-06-07

    Rational protein design has been successfully used to create mimics of natural proteins that retain native activity. In the present work, de novo protein engineering is explored to develop a mini-protein analogue of Gc-MAF, a glycoprotein involved in the immune system activation that has shown anticancer activity in mice. Gc-MAF is derived in vivo from vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) via enzymatic processing of its glycosaccharide to leave a single GalNAc residue located on an exposed loop. We used molecular modeling tools in conjunction with structural analysis to splice the glycosylated loop onto a stable three-helix bundle (alpha3W, PDB entry 1LQ7). The resulting 69-residue model peptide, MM1, has been successfully synthesized by solid-phase synthesis both in the aglycosylated and the glycosylated (GalNAc-MM1) form. Circular dichroism spectroscopy confirmed the expected alpha-helical secondary structure. The thermodynamic stability as evaluated from chemical and thermal denaturation is comparable with that of the scaffold protein, alpha3W, indicating that the insertion of the exogenous loop of Gc-MAF did not significantly perturb the overall structure. GalNAc-MM1 retains the macrophage stimulation activity of natural Gc-MAF; in vitro tests show an identical enhancement of Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis in primary macrophages. GalNAc-MM1 provides a framework for the development of mutants with increased activity that could be used in place of Gc-MAF as an immunomodulatory agent in therapy.

  3. A novel role for a major component of the vitamin D axis: vitamin D binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor induces human breast cancer cell apoptosis through stimulation of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Fiore, Maria Giulia; Magherini, Stefano; Branca, Jacopo J V; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-07-08

    The role of vitamin D in maintaining health appears greater than originally thought, and the concept of the vitamin D axis underlines the complexity of the biological events controlled by biologically active vitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D3), its two binding proteins that are the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF). In this study we demonstrate that GcMAF stimulates macrophages, which in turn attack human breast cancer cells, induce their apoptosis and eventually phagocytize them. These results are consistent with the observation that macrophages infiltrated implanted tumors in mice after GcMAF injections. In addition, we hypothesize that the last 23 hydrophobic amino acids of VDR, located at the inner part of the plasma membrane, interact with the first 23 hydrophobic amino acids of the GcMAF located at the external part of the plasma membrane. This allows 1,25(OH)(2)D3 and oleic acid to become sandwiched between the two vitamin D-binding proteins, thus postulating a novel molecular mode of interaction between GcMAF and VDR. Taken together, these results support and reinforce the hypothesis that GcMAF has multiple biological activities that could be responsible for its anti-cancer effects, possibly through molecular interaction with the VDR that in turn is responsible for a multitude of non-genomic as well as genomic effects.

  4. Gc protein (vitamin D-binding protein): Gc genotyping and GcMAF precursor activity.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Hideyuki; Okamura, Natsuko; Murakami, Aya; Kubo, Shinichi; Kirk, Kenneth L; Hori, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    The Gc protein (human group-specific component (Gc), a vitamin D-binding protein or Gc globulin), has important physiological functions that include involvement in vitamin D transport and storage, scavenging of extracellular G-actin, enhancement of the chemotactic activity of C5a for neutrophils in inflammation and macrophage activation (mediated by a GalNAc-modified Gc protein (GcMAF)). In this review, the structure and function of the Gc protein is focused on especially with regard to Gc genotyping and GcMAF precursor activity. A discussion of the research strategy "GcMAF as a target for drug discovery" is included, based on our own research.

  5. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo Jv; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Noakes, David; Eslinger, Robert; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-08-01

    α- N -acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort of patients with histologically diverse, advanced neoplasms, generally considered as "incurable" diseases. In most cases, GcMAF therapy was initiated at late stages of tumor progression. As this is an open-label, non-controlled, retrospective analysis, caution must be employed when establishing cause-effect relationships between the administration GcMAF and disease outcome. However, the response to GcMAF was generally robust and some trends emerged. All patients (n = 20) presented with elevated serum nagalase activity, well above normal values. All patients but one showed a significant decrease of serum nagalase activity upon weekly GcMAF injections. Decreased nagalase activity was associated with improved clinical conditions and no adverse side effects were reported. The observations reported here confirm and extend previous results and pave the way to further studies aimed at assessing the precise role and indications for GcMAF-based anticancer immunotherapy.

  6. A Novel Role for a Major Component of the Vitamin D Axis: Vitamin D Binding Protein-Derived Macrophage Activating Factor Induces Human Breast Cancer Cell Apoptosis through Stimulation of Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Fiore, Maria Giulia; Magherini, Stefano; Branca, Jacopo J. V.; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    The role of vitamin D in maintaining health appears greater than originally thought, and the concept of the vitamin D axis underlines the complexity of the biological events controlled by biologically active vitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D3), its two binding proteins that are the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF). In this study we demonstrate that GcMAF stimulates macrophages, which in turn attack human breast cancer cells, induce their apoptosis and eventually phagocytize them. These results are consistent with the observation that macrophages infiltrated implanted tumors in mice after GcMAF injections. In addition, we hypothesize that the last 23 hydrophobic amino acids of VDR, located at the inner part of the plasma membrane, interact with the first 23 hydrophobic amino acids of the GcMAF located at the external part of the plasma membrane. This al1ows 1,25(OH)(2)D3 and oleic acid to become sandwiched between the two vitamin D-binding proteins, thus postulating a novel molecular mode of interaction between GcMAF and VDR. Taken together, these results support and reinforce the hypothesis that GcMAF has multiple biological activities that could be responsible for its anti-cancer effects, possibly through molecular interaction with the VDR that in turn is responsible for a multitude of non-genomic as well as genomic effects. PMID:23857228

  7. Association of the macrophage activating factor (MAF) precursor activity with polymorphism in vitamin D-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Hideko; Sasaki, Hideyuki; Uto, Yoshihiro; Kubo, Shinichi; Hori, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    Serum vitamin D-binding protein (Gc protein or DBP) is a highly expressed polymorphic protein, which is a precursor of the inflammation-primed macrophage activating factor, GcMAF, by a cascade of carbohydrate processing reactions. In order to elucidate the relationship between Gc polymorphism and GcMAF precursor activity, we estimated the phagocytic ability of three homotypes of Gc protein, Gc1F-1F, Gc1S-1S and Gc2-2, through processing of their carbohydrate moiety. We performed Gc typing of human serum samples by isoelectric focusing (IEF). Gc protein from human serum was purified by affinity chromatography with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-sepharose. A phagocytosis assay of Gc proteins, modified using beta-glycosidase and sialidase, was carried out. The Gc1F-1F phenotype was revealed to possess Galbeta1-4GalNAc linkage by the analysis of GcMAF precursor activity using beta1-4 linkage-specific galactosidase from jack bean. The GcMAF precursor activity of the Gc1F-1F phenotype was highest among three Gc homotypes. The Gc polymorphism and carbohydrate diversity of Gc protein are significant for its pleiotropic effects.

  8. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo JV; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Noakes, David; Eslinger, Robert; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort of patients with histologically diverse, advanced neoplasms, generally considered as “incurable” diseases. In most cases, GcMAF therapy was initiated at late stages of tumor progression. As this is an open-label, non-controlled, retrospective analysis, caution must be employed when establishing cause-effect relationships between the administration GcMAF and disease outcome. However, the response to GcMAF was generally robust and some trends emerged. All patients (n = 20) presented with elevated serum nagalase activity, well above normal values. All patients but one showed a significant decrease of serum nagalase activity upon weekly GcMAF injections. Decreased nagalase activity was associated with improved clinical conditions and no adverse side effects were reported. The observations reported here confirm and extend previous results and pave the way to further studies aimed at assessing the precise role and indications for GcMAF-based anticancer immunotherapy. PMID:24179708

  9. Inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis and its derived carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Toyohara, Yukiyo; Hashitani, Susumu; Kishimoto, Hiromitsu; Noguchi, Kazuma; Yamamoto, Nobuto; Urade, Masahiro

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) on carcinogenesis and tumor growth, using a 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, as well as the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages against HCPC-1, a cell line established from DMBA-induced cheek pouch carcinoma. DMBA application induced squamous cell carcinoma in all 15 hamsters of the control group at approximately 10 weeks, and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden within 20 weeks. By contrast, 2 out of the 14 hamsters with GcMAF administration did not develop tumors and the remaining 12 hamsters showed a significant delay of tumor development for approximately 3.5 weeks. The growth of tumors formed was significantly suppressed and none of the hamsters died within the 20 weeks during which they were observed. When GcMAF administration was stopped at the 13th week of the experiment in 4 out of the 14 hamsters in the GcMAF-treated group, tumor growth was promoted, but none of the mice died within the 20-week period. On the other hand, when GcMAF administration was commenced after the 13th week in 5 out of the 15 hamsters in the control group, tumor growth was slightly suppressed and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden. However, the mean survival time was significantly extended. GcMAF treatment activated peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo, and these activated macrophages exhibited a marked cytocidal effect on HCPC-1 cells. Furthermore, the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages was enhanced by the addition of tumor-bearing hamster serum. These findings indicated that GcMAF possesses an inhibitory effect on tumor development and growth in a DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model.

  10. Inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis and its derived carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    TOYOHARA, YUKIYO; HASHITANI, SUSUMU; KISHIMOTO, HIROMITSU; NOGUCHI, KAZUMA; YAMAMOTO, NOBUTO; URADE, MASAHIRO

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) on carcinogenesis and tumor growth, using a 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, as well as the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages against HCPC-1, a cell line established from DMBA-induced cheek pouch carcinoma. DMBA application induced squamous cell carcinoma in all 15 hamsters of the control group at approximately 10 weeks, and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden within 20 weeks. By contrast, 2 out of the 14 hamsters with GcMAF administration did not develop tumors and the remaining 12 hamsters showed a significant delay of tumor development for approximately 3.5 weeks. The growth of tumors formed was significantly suppressed and none of the hamsters died within the 20 weeks during which they were observed. When GcMAF administration was stopped at the 13th week of the experiment in 4 out of the 14 hamsters in the GcMAF-treated group, tumor growth was promoted, but none of the mice died within the 20-week period. On the other hand, when GcMAF administration was commenced after the 13th week in 5 out of the 15 hamsters in the control group, tumor growth was slightly suppressed and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden. However, the mean survival time was significantly extended. GcMAF treatment activated peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo, and these activated macrophages exhibited a marked cytocidal effect on HCPC-1 cells. Furthermore, the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages was enhanced by the addition of tumor-bearing hamster serum. These findings indicated that GcMAF possesses an inhibitory effect on tumor development and growth in a DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model. PMID:22848250

  11. Oral Colostrum Macrophage-activating Factor for Serious Infection and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Three Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Inui, Toshio; Kubo, Kentaro; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nishikata, Takahito; Sakamoto, Norihiro; Mette, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) immunotherapy has been steadily advancing over the last two decades. Oral colostrum macrophage-activating factor (MAF) produced from bovine colostrum has shown high macrophage phagocytic activity. GcMAF-based immunotherapy has a wide application for use in treating many diseases via macrophage activation or for use as supportive therapy. Three case studies demonstrate that oral colostrum MAF can be used for serious infection and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) without adverse effects. We demonstrate that colostrum MAF shows promising clinical results in patients with infectious diseases and for symptoms of fatigue, which is common in many chronic diseases. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. Case report: A breast cancer patient treated with GcMAF, sonodynamic therapy and hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Inui, Toshio; Makita, Kaori; Miura, Hirona; Matsuda, Akiko; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Kubo, Kentaro; Mette, Martin; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nishikata, Takahito; Hori, Hitoshi; Sakamoto, Norihiro

    2014-08-01

    Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) occurs naturally in the human body. It has various functions, such as macrophage activation and antitumor activities. Recently, immunotherapy has become an attractive new strategy in the treatment of cancer. GcMAF-based immunotherapy can be combined with many other therapies. Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) using low-intensity ultrasound is a novel therapeutic modality. Ultrasound has been demonstrated to activate a number of sonosensitive agents allowing for the possibility of non-invasive targeted treatment for both superficial and deep-seated tumors. The current case study demonstrates that GcMAF and SDT can be used in combination with conventional therapies in patients with metastatic cancer, especially where treatment options are limited due to factors such as toxicity. This case study also suggests a new concept of cancer treatment using local destruction of cancer tissue, in this case conducted with SDT, to be used in combination with GcMAF immunotherapy as a systemic treatment. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. A defect in the inflammation-primed macrophage-activation cascade in osteopetrotic rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Lindsay, D D; Naraparaju, V R; Ireland, R A; Popoff, S N

    1994-05-15

    Macrophages were activated by administration of lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-Pc) or dodecylglycerol (DDG) to wild-type rats but not in osteopetrotic (op) mutant rats. In vitro treatment of wild-type rat peritoneal cells with lyso-Pc or DDG efficiently activated macrophages whereas treatment of op mutant rat peritoneal cells with lyso-Pc or DDG did not activate macrophages. The inflammation-primed macrophage activation cascade in rats requires participation of B lymphocytes and vitamin D binding protein (DBP). Lyso-Pc-inducible beta-galactosidase of wild-type rat B lymphocytes can convert DBP to the macrophage-activating factor (MAF), whereas B lymphocytes of the op mutant rats were shown to be deficient in lyso-Pc-inducible beta-galactosidase. DBP is conserved among mammalian species. Treatment of human DBP (Gc1 protein) with commercial glycosidases yields an extremely high titrated MAF as assayed on mouse and rat macrophages. Because the enzymatically generated MAF (GcMAF) bypasses the role of lymphocytes in macrophage activation, the op mutant rat macrophages were efficiently activated by administration of a small quantity (100 pg/rat) of GcMAF. Likewise, in vitro treatment of op rat peritoneal cells with as little as 40 pg GcMAF/ml activated macrophages.

  14. Degalactosylated/Desialylated Bovine Colostrum Induces Macrophage Phagocytic Activity Independently of Inflammatory Cytokine Production.

    PubMed

    Uto, Yoshihiro; Kawai, Tomohito; Sasaki, Toshihide; Hamada, Ken; Yamada, Hisatsugu; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Kubo, Kentaro; Inui, Toshio; Mette, Martin; Tokunaga, Ken; Hayakawa, Akio; Go, Akiteru; Oosaki, Tomohiro

    2015-08-01

    Colostrum contains antibodies, such as immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin M (IgM), and, therefore, has potent immunomodulating activity. In particular, IgA has an O-linked sugar chain similar to that in the group-specific component (Gc) protein, a precursor of the Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF). In the present study, we investigated the macrophage-activating effects of degalactosylated/desialylated bovine colostrum. We detected the positive band in degalactosylated/ desialylated bovine colostrum by western blotting using Helix pomatia agglutinin lectin. We also found that degalactosylated/ desialylated bovine colostrum could significantly enhance the phagocytic activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro and of intestinal macrophages in vivo. Besides, degalactosylated/desialylated bovine colostrum did not mediate the production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Similar to the use of GcMAF, degalactosylated/desialylated bovine colostrum can be used as a potential macrophage activator for various immunotherapies. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Tumor cell alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity and its involvement in GcMAF-related macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Saharuddin B; Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi

    2002-05-01

    Alpha-N-acetyl galactosaminidase (alpha-NaGalase) has been reported to accumulate in serum of cancer patients and be responsible for deglycosylation of Gc protein, which is a precursor of GcMAF-mediated macrophage activation cascade, finally leading to immunosuppression in advanced cancer patients. We studied the biochemical characterization of alpha-NaGalase from several human tumor cell lines. We also examined its effect on the potency of GcMAF to activate mouse peritoneal macrophage to produce superoxide in GcMAF-mediated macrophage activation cascade. The specific activity of alpha-NaGalases from human colon tumor cell line HCT116, human hepatoma cell line HepG2, and normal human liver cells (Chang liver cell line) were evaluated using two types of substrates; GalNAc-alpha-PNP (exo-type substrate) and Gal-beta-GalNAc-alpha-PNP (endo-type substrate). Tumor-derived alpha-NaGalase having higher activity than normal alpha-NaGalase, had higher substrate specificity to the exo-type substrate than to the endo-type substrate, and still maintained its activity at pH 7. GcMAF enhance superoxide production in mouse macrophage, and pre-treatment of GcMAF with tumor cell lysate reduce the activity. We conclude that tumor-derived alpha-NaGalase is different in biochemical characterization compared to normal alpha-NaGalase from normal Chang liver cells. In addition, tumor cell-derived alpha-NaGalase decreases the potency of GcMAF on macrophage activation.

  16. Immunotherapy of BALB/c mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R

    1997-06-01

    Vitamin D3-binding protein (DBP; human DBP is known as Gc protein) is the precursor of macrophage activating factor (MAF). Treatment of mouse DBP with immobilized beta-galactosidase or treatment of human Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated a remarkably potent MAF, termed DBPMAF or GcMAF, respectively. The domain of Gc protein responsible for macrophage activation was cloned and enzymatically converted to the cloned MAF, designated CdMAF. In Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice, tumor-specific serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NaGalase) activity increased linearly with time as the transplanted tumor cells grew in the peritoneal cavity. Therapeutic effects of DBPMAF, GcMAF, and CdMAF on mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor were assessed by survival time, the total tumor cell count in the peritoneal cavity, and serum NaGalase activity. Mice that received a single administration of DBPMAF or GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) on the same day after transplantation of tumor (1 x 10(5) cells) showed a mean survival time of 35 +/- 4 days, whereas tumor-bearing controls had a mean survival time of 16 +/- 2 days. When mice received the second DBPMAF or GcMAF administration at day 4, they survived more than 50 days. Mice that received two DBPMAF administrations, at days 4 and 8 after transplantation of 1 x 10(5) tumor cells, survived up to 32 +/- 4 days. At day 4 posttransplantation, the total tumor cell count in the peritoneal cavity was approximately 5 x 10(5) cells. Mice that received two DBPMAF administrations, at days 0 and 4 after transplantation of 5 x 10(5) tumor cells, also survived up to 32 +/- 4 days, while control mice that received the 5 x 10(5) ascites tumor cells only survived for 14 +/- 2 days. Four DBPMAF, GcMAF, or CdMAF administrations to mice transplanted with 5 x 10(5) Ehrlich ascites tumor cells with 4-day intervals showed an extended survival of at least 90 days and an insignificantly low serum NaGalase level between days 30 and 90.

  17. Promising role for Gc-MAF in cancer immunotherapy: from bench to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Saburi, Ehsan; Saburi, Amin; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Immunotherapy has been used for years in many types of cancer therapy. Recently, cancer immunotherapy has focused on mechanisms which can enhance the development of cell-mediated immunity. Anticancer medications are administered to inhibit immunosuppressive factors such as nagalase enzyme, which is produced by neoplastic cells and destroys macrophage activating factor (Gc-MAF). Anti-neoplastics medications can also enhance immune-cell activity against tumors. Such medications show great potential in cancer immunotherapy using natural human mechanisms against neoplasms. PMID:29201312

  18. Case Report: A Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patient Treated with GcMAF, Sonodynamic Therapy and Tumor Treating Fields.

    PubMed

    Inui, Toshio; Amitani, Haruka; Kubo, Kentaro; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nishikata, Takahito; Mette, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Macrophage activating factor (MAF)-based immunotherapy has a wide application for use in treating many diseases via macrophage activation. Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) using low-intensity ultrasound and tumor treating field (TTF) therapy are novel therapeutic modalities. SDT is usually combined with ozone therapy to improve local hypoxia within the tumor environment. We treated a 77-year-old male diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer ((NSCLC) stage 3B) using second-generation serum GcMAF and oral colostrum MAF-based immunotherapy combined with SDT, TTF and ozone therapies. This case report demonstrates that GcMAF, oral colostrum MAF, SDT, TTF and ozone therapy can be used for NSCLC without adverse effects. This case report suggests a new concept of cancer treatment using local destruction of cancer tissue, in this case conducted with SDT and TTF therapy, to be used in combination with serum GcMAF and colostrum MAF immunotherapy as a systemic treatment. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. β-Galactosidase treatment is a common first-stage modification of the three major subtypes of Gc protein to GcMAF.

    PubMed

    Uto, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Syota; Mukai, Hirotaka; Ishiyama, Noriko; Takeuchi, Ryota; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Hirota, Keiji; Terada, Hiroshi; Onizuka, Shinya; Hori, Hitoshi

    2012-06-01

    The 1f1f subtype of the group-specific component (Gc) protein is converted into Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) by enzymatic processing with β-galactosidase and sialidase. We previously demonstrated that preGc(1f1f)MAF, a full Gc(1f1f) protein otherwise lacking a galactosyl moiety, can be converted to GcMAF by treatment with mouse peritoneal fluid. Here, we investigated the effects of the β-galactosidase-treated 1s1s and 22 subtypes of Gc protein (preGc(1s1s)MAF and preGc₂₂MAF) on the phagocytic activation of mouse peritoneal macrophages. We demonstrated the presence of Gal-GalNAc disaccharide sugar structures in the Gc(1s1s) protein by western blotting using peanut agglutinin and Helix pomatia agglutinin lectin. We also found that preGc(1s1s)MAF and preGc₂₂MAF significantly enhanced the phagocytic activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages in the presence and absence of mouse peritoneal fluid. We demonstrate that preGc(1s1s)MAF and preGc₂₂MAF proteins can be used as effective macrophage activators.

  20. Glycan structure of Gc Protein-derived Macrophage Activating Factor as revealed by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Borges, Chad R; Rehder, Douglas S

    2016-09-15

    Disagreement exists regarding the O-glycan structure attached to human vitamin D binding protein (DBP). Previously reported evidence indicated that the O-glycan of the Gc1S allele product is the linear core 1 NeuNAc-Gal-GalNAc-Thr trisaccharide. Here, glycan structural evidence is provided from glycan linkage analysis and over 30 serial glycosidase-digestion experiments which were followed by analysis of the intact protein by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Results demonstrate that the O-glycan from the Gc1F protein is the same linear trisaccharide found on the Gc1S protein and that the hexose residue is galactose. In addition, the putative anti-cancer derivative of DBP known as Gc Protein-derived Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF, which is formed by the combined action of β-galactosidase and neuraminidase upon DBP) was analyzed intact by ESI-MS, revealing that the activating E. coli β-galactosidase cleaves nothing from the protein-leaving the glycan structure of active GcMAF as a Gal-GalNAc-Thr disaccharide, regardless of the order in which β-galactosidase and neuraminidase are applied. Moreover, glycosidase digestion results show that α-N-Acetylgalactosamindase (nagalase) lacks endoglycosidic function and only cleaves the DBP O-glycan once it has been trimmed down to a GalNAc-Thr monosaccharide-precluding the possibility of this enzyme removing the O-glycan trisaccharide from cancer-patient DBP in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of paricalcitol and GcMAF on angiogenesis and human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and signaling.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Stefania; Morucci, Gabriele; Punzi, Tiziana; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco; Amato, Marcello; Aterini, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its role in calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization, vitamin D is involved in immune defence, cardiovascular function, inflammation and angiogenesis, and these pleiotropic effects are of interested in the treatment of chronic kidney disease. Here we investigated the effects of paricalcitol, a nonhypercalcemic vitamin D analogue, on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and signaling, and on angiogenesis. These effects were compared with those of a known inhibitor of angiogenesis pertaining to the vitamin D axis, the vitamin D-binding protein-derived Gc-macrophage activating factor (GcMAF). Since the effects of vitamin D receptor agonists are associated with polymorphisms of the gene coding for the receptor, we measured the effects of both compounds on mononuclear cells harvested from subjects harboring different BsmI polymorphisms. Paricalcitol inhibited mononuclear cell viability with the bb genotype showing the highest effect. GcMAF, on the contrary, stimulated cell proliferation, with the bb genotype showing the highest stimulatory effect. Both compounds stimulated 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate formation in mononuclear cells with the highest effect on the bb genotype. Paricalcitol and GcMAF inhibited the angiogenesis induced by proinflammatory prostaglandin E1. Polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene, known to be associated with the highest responses to vitamin D receptor agonists, are also associated with the highest responses to GcMAF. These results highlight the role of the vitamin D axis in chronic kidney disease, an axis which includes vitamin D, its receptor and vitamin D-binding protein-derived GcMAF.

  2. Gc-protein-derived macrophage activating factor counteracts the neuronal damage induced by oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Morucci, Gabriele; Branca, Jacopo J V; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco; Paternostro, Ferdinando; Pacini, Alessandra; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Pacini, Stefania

    2015-02-01

    Oxaliplatin-based regimens are effective in metastasized advanced cancers. However, a major limitation to their widespread use is represented by neurotoxicity that leads to peripheral neuropathy. In this study we evaluated the roles of a proven immunotherapeutic agent [Gc-protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF)] in preventing or decreasing oxaliplatin-induced neuronal damage and in modulating microglia activation following oxaliplatin-induced damage. The effects of oxaliplatin and of a commercially available formula of GcMAF [oleic acid-GcMAF (OA-GcMAF)] were studied in human neurons (SH-SY5Y cells) and in human microglial cells (C13NJ). Cell density, morphology and viability, as well as production of cAMP and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), markers of neuron regeneration [neuromodulin or growth associated protein-43 (Gap-43)] and markers of microglia activation [ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1) and B7-2], were determined. OA-GcMAF reverted the damage inflicted by oxaliplatin on human neurons and preserved their viability. The neuroprotective effect was accompanied by increased intracellular cAMP production, as well as by increased expression of VEGF and neuromodulin. OA-GcMAF did not revert the effects of oxaliplatin on microglial cell viability. However, it increased microglial activation following oxaliplatin-induced damage, resulting in an increased expression of the markers Iba1 and B7-2 without any concomitant increase in cell number. When neurons and microglial cells were co-cultured, the presence of OA-GcMAF significantly counteracted the toxic effects of oxaliplatin. Our results demonstrate that OA-GcMAF, already used in the immunotherapy of advanced cancers, may significantly contribute to neutralizing the neurotoxicity induced by oxaliplatin, at the same time possibly concurring to an integrated anticancer effect. The association between these two powerful anticancer molecules would probably produce

  3. Macrophages Exhibit a Large Repertoire of Activation States via Multiple Mechanisms of Macrophage-activating Factors.

    PubMed

    Sumiya, Y U; Inoue, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Mami; Inui, Toshio; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Kubo, Kentaro; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nishikata, Takahito

    2016-07-01

    Macrophages are important components of human defense systems and consequently key to antitumor immunity. Human-serum macrophage activation factor (serum MAF) can activate macrophages, making it a promising reagent for anticancer therapy. We established four different macrophage subtypes through introduction of different culture conditions to THP-1- and U937-derived macrophages. We assessed phagocytic activity to understand subtype responses to typical macrophage activation factors (MAFs) and the activation mechanisms of serum MAF. All four macrophage subtypes differed in their response to all MAFs. Moreover, serum MAF had two different activation mechanisms: N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-dependent and GalNAc-independent. Macrophage activation states and mechanisms are heterogeneous. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor on human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Stefania; Punzi, Tiziana; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Searching for additional therapeutic tools to fight breast cancer, we investigated the effects of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF, also known as GcMAF) on a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). The effects of DBP-MAF on proliferation, morphology, vimentin expression and angiogenesis were studied by cell proliferation assay, phase-contrast microscopy, immunohistochemistry and western blotting, and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. DBP-MAF inhibited human breast cancer cell proliferation and cancer cell-stimulated angiogenesis. MCF-7 cells treated with DBP-MAF predominantly grew in monolayer and appeared to be well adherent to each other and to the well surface. Exposure to DBP-MAF significantly reduced vimentin expression, indicating a reversal of the epithelial/mesenchymal transition, a hallmark of human breast cancer progression. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the known anticancer efficacy of DBP-MAF can be ascribed to different biological properties of the molecule that include inhibition of tumour-induced angiogenesis and direct inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, migration and metastatic potential.

  5. LPS-inducible factor(s) from activated macrophages mediates cytolysis of Naegleria fowleri amoebae

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, S.F.; Marciano-Cabral, F.

    1986-03-01

    Soluble cytolytic factors of macrophage origin have previously been described with respect to their tumoricidal activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism and possible factor(s) responsible for cytolysis of the amoeba Naegleria fowleri by activated peritoneal macrophages from B6C3F1 mice. Macrophages or conditioned medium (CM) from macrophage cultures were incubated with /sup 3/H-Uridine labeled amoebae. Percent specific release of label served as an index of cytolysis. Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and Corynebacterium parvum macrophages demonstrated significant cytolysis of amoebae at 24 h with an effector to target ratio of 10:1. Treatment of macrophages with inhibitors of RNAmore » or protein synthesis blocked amoebicidal activity. Interposition of a 1 ..mu..m pore membrane between macrophages and amoebae inhibited killing. Inhibition in the presence of the membrane was overcome by stimulating the macrophages with LPS. CM from SPS-stimulated, but not unstimulated, cultures of activated macrophages was cytotoxic for amoebae. The activity was heat sensitive and was recovered from ammonium sulfate precipitation of the CM. Results indicate that amoebicidal activity is mediated by a protein(s) of macrophage origin induced by target cell contact or stimulation with LPS.« less

  6. Clinical experience of integrative cancer immunotherapy with GcMAF.

    PubMed

    Inui, Toshio; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Kubo, Kentaro; Mette, Martin; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi; Sakamoto, Norihiro

    2013-07-01

    Immunotherapy has become an attractive new strategy in the treatment of cancer. The laboratory and clinical study of cancer immunotherapy is rapidly advancing. However, in the clinical setting, the results of cancer immunotherapy are mixed. We therefore contend that cancer immunotherapy should be customized to each patient individually based on their immune status and propose an integrative immunotherapy approach with second-generation group-specific component macrophage activating factor (GcMAF)-containing human serum. The standard protocol of our integrative cancer immunotherapy is as follows: i) 0.5 ml GcMAF-containing human serum is administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously once or twice per week for the duration of cancer therapy until all cancer cells are eradicated; ii) hyper T/natural killer (NK) cell therapy is given once per week for six weeks; iii) high-dose vitamin C is administered intravenously twice per week; iv) alpha lipoic acid (600 mg) is administered orally daily; v) vitamin D3 (5,000-10,000 IU) is administered orally daily. By March 2013, Saisei Mirai have treated over 345 patients with GcMAF. Among them we here present the cases of three patients for whom our integrative immunotherapy was remarkably effective. The results of our integrative immunotherapy seem hopeful. We also plan to conduct a comparative clinical study.>

  7. The influence of macrophage growth factors on Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV) infection and activation of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Karin M; Watson, Neva B; Minchenberg, Scott B; Massa, Paul T

    2018-02-01

    Macrophages are common targets for infection and innate immune activation by many pathogenic viruses including the neurotropic Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV). As both infection and innate activation of macrophages are key determinants of viral pathogenesis especially in the central nervous system (CNS), an analysis of macrophage growth factors on these events was performed. C3H mouse bone-marrow cells were differentiated in culture using either recombinant macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), inoculated with TMEV (BeAn) and analyzed at various times thereafter. Cytokine RNA and protein analysis, virus titers, and flow cytometry were performed to characterize virological parameters under these culture conditions. GM-CSF-differentiated macrophages showed higher levels of TMEV viral RNA and proinflammatory molecules compared to infected M-CSF-differentiated cells. Thus, GM-CSF increases both TMEV infection and TMEV-induced activation of macrophages compared to that seen with M-CSF. Moreover, while infectious viral particles decreased from a peak at 12h to undetectable levels at 48h post infection, TMEV viral RNA remained higher in GM-CSF- compared to M-CSF-differentiated macrophages in concert with increased proinflammatory gene expression. Analysis of a possible basis for these differences determined that glycolytic rates contributed to heightened virus replication and proinflammatory cytokine secretion in GM-CSF compared to M-CSF-differentiated macrophages. In conclusion, we provide evidence implicating a role for GM-CSF in promoting virus replication and proinflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages, indicating that GM-CSF may be a key factor for TMEV infection and the induction of chronic TMEV-induced immunopathogenesis in the CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mangiferin inhibits macrophage classical activation via downregulating interferon regulatory factor 5 expression

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhiquan; Yan, Li; Chen, Yixin; Bao, Chuanhong; Deng, Jing; Deng, Jiagang

    2016-01-01

    Mangiferin is a natural polyphenol and the predominant effective component of Mangifera indica Linn. leaves. For hundreds of years, Mangifera indica Linn. leaf has been used as an ingredient in numerous traditional Chinese medicine preparations for the treatment of bronchitis. However, the pharmacological mechanism of mangiferin in the treatment of bronchitis remains to be elucidated. Macrophage classical activation is important role in the process of bronchial airway inflammation, and interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) has been identified as a key regulatory factor for macrophage classical activation. The present study used the THP-1 human monocyte cell line to investigate whether mangiferin inhibits macrophage classical activation via suppressing IRF5 expression in vitro. THP-1 cells were differentiated to macrophages by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Macrophages were polarized to M1 macrophages following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Flow cytometric analysis was conducted to detect the M1 macrophages. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate cellular IRF5 gene expression. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines and IRF5 were assessed following cell culture and cellular homogenization using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IRF5 protein and nuclei co-localization was performed in macrophages with laser scanning confocal microscope immunofluorescence analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that mangiferin significantly inhibits LPS/IFN-γ stimulation-induced classical activation of macrophages in vitro and markedly decreases proinflammatory cytokine release. In addition, cellular IRF5 expression was markedly downregulated. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of mangiferin on classical activation of macrophages may be exerted via downregulation of cellular IRF5 expression levels. PMID:27277156

  9. Kinetics of tumor necrosis factor production by photodynamic-therapy-activated macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pass, Harvey I.; Evans, Steven; Perry, Roger; Matthews, Wilbert

    1990-07-01

    The ability of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to activate macrophages and produce cytokines, specifically tumor necrosis factor (TNF), is unknown. Three day thioglycolate elicited macrophages were incubated with 25 ug/mi Photofrin II (P11) for 2 hour, after which they were subjected to 630 nm light with fluences of 0-1800 J/m. The amount of TNF produced in the system as well as macrophage viability was measured 1, 3, 6, and 18 hours after POT. The level of TNF produced by the macrophages was significantly elevated over control levels 6 hours after POT and the absolute level of tumor necrosis factor production was influenced by the treatment energy and the resulting macrophage cytotoxicity. These data suggest that POT therapy induced cytotoxicity in vivo may be amplified by macrophage stimulation to secrete cytokines and these cytokines may also participate in other direct/indirect photodynamic therapy effects, i.e. immunosuppression, vascular effects.

  10. Deglycosylation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase detected in the plasma of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R; Moore, M; Brent, L H

    1997-03-01

    A serum glycoprotein, Gc protein (vitamin D3-binding protein), can be converted by beta-galactosidase of B cells and sialidase of T cells to a potent macrophage-activating factor (MAF), a protein with N-acetylgalactosamine as the remaining sugar moiety. Thus, Gc protein is the precursor for MAF. Treatment of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates a remarkably high titered macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF). When peripheral blood monocytes/ macrophages (designated macrophages) of 33 systemic lupus erythematosus patients were incubated with GcMAF (100 pg/ml), the macrophages of all patients were activated as determined by superoxide generation. However, the precursor activity of patient plasma Gc protein was lost or reduced in these patients. Loss of the precursor activity was the result of deglycosylation of plasma Gc protein by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity found in the patient plasma. Levels of plasma alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity in individual patients had an inverse correlation with the MAF precursor activity of their plasma Gc protein. Deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be converted to macro-phage-activating factor. The resulting defect in macro-phage activation may lead to an inability to clear pathogenic immune complexes. Thus, elevated plasma alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity resulting in the loss of MAF precursor activity and reduced macro-phage activity may play a role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus.

  11. Mangiferin inhibits macrophage classical activation via downregulating interferon regulatory factor 5 expression.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhiquan; Yan, Li; Chen, Yixin; Bao, Chuanhong; Deng, Jing; Deng, Jiagang

    2016-08-01

    Mangiferin is a natural polyphenol and the predominant effective component of Mangifera indica Linn. leaves. For hundreds of years, Mangifera indica Linn. leaf has been used as an ingredient in numerous traditional Chinese medicine preparations for the treatment of bronchitis. However, the pharmacological mechanism of mangiferin in the treatment of bronchitis remains to be elucidated. Macrophage classical activation is important role in the process of bronchial airway inflammation, and interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) has been identified as a key regulatory factor for macrophage classical activation. The present study used the THP‑1 human monocyte cell line to investigate whether mangiferin inhibits macrophage classical activation via suppressing IRF5 expression in vitro. THP‑1 cells were differentiated to macrophages by phorbol 12‑myristate 13‑acetate. Macrophages were polarized to M1 macrophages following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon‑γ (IFN‑γ). Flow cytometric analysis was conducted to detect the M1 macrophages. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate cellular IRF5 gene expression. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines and IRF5 were assessed following cell culture and cellular homogenization using enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay. IRF5 protein and nuclei co‑localization was performed in macrophages with laser scanning confocal microscope immunofluorescence analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that mangiferin significantly inhibits LPS/IFN‑γ stimulation‑induced classical activation of macrophages in vitro and markedly decreases proinflammatory cytokine release. In addition, cellular IRF5 expression was markedly downregulated. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of mangiferin on classical activation of macrophages may be exerted via downregulation of cellular IRF5 expression levels.

  12. Macrophage activation by factors released from acetaminophen-injured hepatocytes: Potential role of HMGB1

    SciTech Connect

    Dragomir, Ana-Cristina; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu

    2011-06-15

    Toxic doses of acetaminophen (AA) cause hepatocellular necrosis. Evidence suggests that activated macrophages contribute to the pathogenic process; however, the factors that activate these cells are unknown. In these studies, we assessed the role of mediators released from AA-injured hepatocytes in macrophage activation. Treatment of macrophages with conditioned medium (CM) collected 24 hr after treatment of mouse hepatocytes with 5 mM AA (CM-AA) resulted in increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Macrophage expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and catalase mRNA was also upregulated by CM-AA, as well as cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and 12/15-lipoxygenase (LOX). CM-AA also upregulated expression of themore » proinflammatory chemokines, MIP-1{alpha} and MIP-2. The effects of CM-AA on expression of COX-2, MIP-1{alpha} and MIP-2 were inhibited by blockade of p44/42 MAP kinase, suggesting a biochemical mechanism mediating macrophage activation. Hepatocytes injured by AA were found to release HMGB1, a potent macrophage activator. This was inhibited by pretreatment of hepatocytes with ethyl pyruvate (EP), which blocks HMGB1 release. EP also blocked CM-AA induced ROS production and antioxidant expression, and reduced expression of COX-2, but not MIP-1{alpha} or MIP-2. These findings suggest that HMGB1 released by AA-injured hepatocytes contributes to macrophage activation. This is supported by our observation that expression of the HMGB1 receptor RAGE is upregulated in macrophages in response to CM-AA. These data indicate that AA-injured hepatocytes contribute to the inflammatory environment in the liver through the release of mediators such as HMGB1. Blocking HMGB1/RAGE may be a useful approach to limiting classical macrophage activation and AA-induced hepatotoxicity. - Research Highlights: > These studies analyze macrophage activation by mediators released from acetaminophen-damaged hepatocytes. > Factors released from acetaminophen-injured hepatocytes induce

  13. Macrophage Activation Mechanisms in Human Monocytic Cell Line-derived Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sumiya, Yu; Ishikawa, Mami; Inoue, Takahiro; Inui, Toshio; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Kubo, Kentaro; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nishikata, Takahito

    2015-08-01

    Although the mechanisms of macrophage activation are important for cancer immunotherapy, they are poorly understood. Recently, easy and robust assay systems for assessing the macrophage-activating factor (MAF) using monocytic cell line-derived macrophages were established. Gene-expression profiles of U937- and THP-1-derived macrophages were compared using gene expression microarray analysis and their responses against several MAFs were examined by in vitro experiments. Activated states of these macrophages could not be assigned to a specific sub-type but showed, however, different unique characteristics. The unique of monocytic cell line-derived macrophages could provide clues to understand the activation mechanism of macrophages and, therefore, help to develop effective cancer immunotherapy with MAFs. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanism of interleukin-13 production by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent macrophages via protease-activated receptor-2.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Rui; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Sakamoto, Arisa; Ishimaru, Yasuji; Narahara, Shinji; Sugiuchi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Eiji; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) promotes classically activated M1 macrophages. GM-CSF upregulates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) protein expression and activation of PAR-2 by human neutrophil elastase (HNE) regulates cytokine production. This study investigated the mechanism of PAR-2-mediated interleukin (IL)-13 production by GM-CSF-dependent macrophages stimulated with HNE. Adherent macrophages were obtained from primary cultures of human mononuclear cells. After stimulation with HNE to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway, IL-13 mRNA and protein levels were assessed by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. PAR-2 protein was detected in GM-CSF-dependent macrophages by Western blotting. Unexpectedly, PD98059 (an ERK1 inhibitor) increased IL-13 production, even at higher concentrations. Interestingly, U0126 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor) reduced IL-13 production in a concentration-dependent manner. Neither SB203580 (a p38alpha/p38beta inhibitor) nor BIRB796 (a p38gamma/p38delta inhibitor) affected IL-13 production, while TMB-8 (a calcium chelator) diminished IL-13 production. Stimulation with HNE promoted the production of IL-13 (a Th2 cytokine) by GM-CSF-dependent M1 macrophages. PAR-2-mediated IL-13 production may be dependent on the Ca(2+)/ERK2 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor primes interleukin-13 production by macrophages via protease-activated receptor-2.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Manabu; Yamaguchi, Rui; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Ishimaru, Yasuji; Ono, Tomomichi; Sakamoto, Arisa; Narahara, Shinji; Sugiuchi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Eiji; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2015-04-01

    Chronic inflammation is often linked to the presence of type 2-polarized macrophages, which are induced by the T helper type 2 cytokines interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 (IL-13). IL-13 is a key mediator of tissue fibrosis caused by T helper type 2-based inflammation. Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. This study investigated the priming effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on IL-13 expression by macrophages stimulated with HNE. Adherent macrophages were obtained from primary cultures of human mononuclear cells. Expression of IL-13 mRNA and protein by GM-CSF-dependent macrophages was investigated after stimulation with HNE, using the polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GM-CSF had a priming effect on IL-13 mRNA and protein expression by macrophages stimulated with HNE, while this effect was not observed for various other cytokines. GM-CSF-dependent macrophages showed a significant increase in the expression of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) mRNA and protein. The response of IL-13 mRNA to HNE was significantly decreased by pretreatment with alpha1-antitrypsin, a PAR-2 antibody (SAM11), or a PAR-2 antagonist (ENMD-1068). These findings suggest that stimulation with HNE can induce IL-13 production by macrophages, especially GM-CSF-dependent macrophages. Accordingly, neutrophil elastase may have a key role in fibrosis associated with chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antitumor effect of degalactosylated gc-globulin on orthotopic grafted lung cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Keiji; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Takeuchi, Ryota; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi; Onizuka, Shinya; Terada, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    Group-specific component (Gc)-globulin-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) generated by a cascade of catalytic reactions with deglycosidase enzymes exerts antitumor activity. We hypothesized that degalactosyl Gc-globulin (DG3), a precursor of GcMAF, also plays a role in recovery from cancer as well as GcMAF due to progression of deglycosylation by generally resident sialidases and mannosidases. We prepared the subtypes of DG3, such as 1f1f and 1s1s and its 22 homodimers, by using vitamin D3-binding Sepharose CL-6B and examined their antitumor activity in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma cells, by counting the number of nodules formed in their lungs. Antitumor activity of DG3 was observed regardless of its subtype, being equivalent to that of GcMAF. The injection route of DG3 affected its antitumor activity, with subcutaneous and intramuscular administration being more favorable than the intraperitoneal or intravenous route. In order to obtain significant antitumor activity, more than 160 ng/kg of DG3 were required. DG3 proved to be promising as an antitumor agent, similarly to GcMAF.

  17. Oleic Acid, deglycosylated vitamin D-binding protein, nitric oxide: a molecular triad made lethal to cancer.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Marco; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo J V; Noakes, David; Morucci, Gabriele; Taubmann, Margit; Thyer, Lynda; Pacini, Stefania

    2014-07-01

    Oleic Acid (OA) has been shown to have anticancer properties mediated by interaction with proteins such as α-lactalbumin and lactoferrins. Therefore, we synthesized complexes of OA and Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) that inhibits per se cancer cell proliferation and metastatic potential. We hypothesised that OA-GcMAF complexes could exploit the anticancer properties of both OA and GcMAF in a synergistic manner. We postulated that the stimulating effects of GcMAF on macrophages might lead to release of nitric oxide (NO). Patients with advanced cancer were treated at the Immuno Biotech Treatment Centre with OA-GcMAF-based integrative immunotherapy in combination with a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet, fermented milk products containing naturally-produced GcMAF, Vitamin D3, omega-3 fatty acids and low-dose acetylsalicylic acid. Measuring the tumour by ultrasonographic techniques, we observed a decrease of tumour volume of about 25%. These observations demonstrate that OA, GcMAF and NO can be properly combined and specifically delivered to advanced cancer patients with significant effects on immune system stimulation and tumour volume reduction avoiding harmful side-effects. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Production of lymphocyte-activating factors by mouse macrophages during aging and under the effect of short peptides.

    PubMed

    Gumen, A V; Kozinets, I A; Shanin, S N; Malinin, V V; Rybakina, E G

    2006-09-01

    Age-specific characteristics of production of lymphocyte-activating factor by mouse peritoneal macrophages and modulation of this production by short synthetic peptides (Vilon, Epithalon, and Cortagen) were studied. The production of lymphocyte-activating factors by macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharides in vitro was lower in old animals. The opposite modulating effects of short peptides on the production of lymphocyte-activating factors by resident and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages in young and old mice were demonstrated for the first time. This is a possible mechanism of immune system dysfunction during aging, which opens new vistas for its correction with short synthetic peptides.

  19. Vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor inhibits HCC in SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Koichi; Onizuka, Shinya; Ishibashi, Hiromi; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Matsuura, Nariaki; Kanematsu, Takashi; Fujioka, Hikaru

    2012-01-01

    A high incidence of recurrence after treatment is the most serious problem in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, a new strategy for the treatment of the disease is needed. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf) is able to inhibit the growth of HCC. The effects of DBP-maf on endothelial cells and macrophage were evaluated by WST-1 assay and phagocytosis assay, respectively. Human HCC cells (HepG2) were implanted into the dorsum of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. These mice were divided into control and DBP-maf treatment groups (n = 10/group). The mice in the treatment group received 40 ng/kg/d of DBP-maf for 21 d. DBP-maf showed anti-proliferative activity against endothelial cells and also activated phagocytosis by macrophages. DBP-maf inhibited the growth of HCC cells (treatment group: 126 ± 18mm(3), untreated group: 1691.5 ± 546.9mm(3), P = 0.0077). Histologic examinations of the tumors revealed the microvessel density was reduced and more macrophage infiltration was demonstrated in the tumor of mice in the treatment group. DBP-maf has at least two novel functions, namely, an anti-angiogenic activity and tumor killing activity through the activation of macrophages. DBP-maf may therefore represent a new strategy for the treatment of HCC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunocytochemical localization of latent transforming growth factor-beta1 activation by stimulated macrophages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chong, H.; Vodovotz, Y.; Cox, G. W.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta) is secreted in a latent form consisting of mature TGF-beta noncovalently associated with its amino-terminal propeptide, which is called latency associated peptide (LAP). Biological activity depends upon the release of TGF-beta from the latent complex following extracellular activation, which appears to be the key regulatory mechanism controlling TGF-beta action. We have identified two events associated with latent TGF-beta (LTGF-beta) activation in vivo: increased immunoreactivity of certain antibodies that specifically detect TGF-beta concomitant with decreased immunoreactivity of antibodies to LAP. Macrophages stimulated in vitro with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide reportedly activate LTGF-beta via cell membrane-bound protease activity. We show through dual immunostaining of paraformaldehyde-fixed macrophages that such physiological TGF-beta activation is accompanied by a loss of LAP immunoreactivity with concomitant revelation of TGF-beta epitopes. The induction of TGF-beta immunoreactivity colocalized with immunoreactive betaglycan/RIII in activated macrophages, suggesting that LTGF-beta activation occurs on the cell surface. Confocal microscopy of metabolically active macrophages incubated with antibodies to TGF-beta and betaglycan/RIII prior to fixation supported the localization of activation to the cell surface. The ability to specifically detect and localize LTGF-beta activation provides an important tool for studies of its regulation.

  1. Glycosylation status of vitamin D binding protein in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Rehder, Douglas S; Nelson, Randall W; Borges, Chad R

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the results of activity studies, previous reports have suggested that vitamin D binding protein (DBP) is significantly or even completely deglycosylated in cancer patients, eliminating the molecular precursor of the immunologically important Gc macrophage activating factor (GcMAF), a glycosidase-derived product of DBP. The purpose of this investigation was to directly determine the relative degree of O-linked trisaccharide glycosylation of serum-derived DBP in human breast, colorectal, pancreatic, and prostate cancer patients. Results obtained by electrospray ionization-based mass spectrometric immunoassay showed that there was no significant depletion of DBP trisaccharide glycosylation in the 56 cancer patients examined relative to healthy controls. These results suggest that alternative hypotheses regarding the molecular and/or structural origins of GcMAF must be considered to explain the relative inability of cancer patient serum to activate macrophages. PMID:19642159

  2. Glycosylation status of vitamin D binding protein in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rehder, Douglas S; Nelson, Randall W; Borges, Chad R

    2009-10-01

    On the basis of the results of activity studies, previous reports have suggested that vitamin D binding protein (DBP) is significantly or even completely deglycosylated in cancer patients, eliminating the molecular precursor of the immunologically important Gc macrophage activating factor (GcMAF), a glycosidase-derived product of DBP. The purpose of this investigation was to directly determine the relative degree of O-linked trisaccharide glycosylation of serum-derived DBP in human breast, colorectal, pancreatic, and prostate cancer patients. Results obtained by electrospray ionization-based mass spectrometric immunoassay showed that there was no significant depletion of DBP trisaccharide glycosylation in the 56 cancer patients examined relative to healthy controls. These results suggest that alternative hypotheses regarding the molecular and/or structural origins of GcMAF must be considered to explain the relative inability of cancer patient serum to activate macrophages.

  3. Deglycosylation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein leads to immunosuppression in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R; Asbell, S O

    1996-06-15

    Serum vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein) can be converted by beta-galactosidase of B cells and sialidase of T cells to a potent macrophage activating factor, a protein with N-acetylgalactosamine as the remaining sugar moiety. Thus, Gc protein is the precursor of the macrophage activating factor (MAF). Treatment of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates an extremely high titered MAF, Gc-MAF. When peripheral blood monocytes/macrophages of 52 patients bearing various types of cancer were incubated with 100 pg/ml of GcMAF, the monocytes/macrophages of all patients were efficiently activated. However, the MAF precursor activity of patient plasma Gc protein was found to be severely reduced in about 25% of this patient population. About 45% of the patients had moderately reduced MAF precursor activities. Loss of the precursor activity was found to be due to deglycosylation of plasma Gc protein by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase detected in the patient's bloodstream. The source of the enzyme appeared to be cancerous cells. Radiation therapy decreased plasma alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity with concomitant increase of precursor activity. This implies that radiation therapy decreases the number of cancerous cells capable of secreting alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. Both alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity and MAF precursor activity of Gc protein in patient bloodstream can serve as diagnostic and prognostic indices.

  4. Macrophages control vascular stem/progenitor cell plasticity through tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated nuclear factor-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Mei Mei; Chen, Yikuan; Margariti, Andriani; Winkler, Bernhard; Campagnolo, Paola; Potter, Claire; Hu, Yanhua; Xu, Qingbo

    2014-03-01

    Vascular lineage differentiation of stem/progenitor cells can contribute to both tissue repair and exacerbation of vascular diseases such as in vein grafts. The role of macrophages in controlling vascular progenitor differentiation is largely unknown and may play an important role in graft development. This study aims to identify the role of macrophages in vascular stem/progenitor cell differentiation and thereafter elucidate the mechanisms that are involved in the macrophage- mediated process. We provide in vitro evidence that macrophages can induce endothelial cell (EC) differentiation of the stem/progenitor cells while simultaneously inhibiting their smooth muscle cell differentiation. Mechanistically, both effects were mediated by macrophage-derived tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) via TNF-α receptor 1 and canonical nuclear factor-κB activation. Although the overexpression of p65 enhanced EC (or attenuated smooth muscle cell) differentiation, p65 or TNF-α receptor 1 knockdown using lentiviral short hairpin RNA inhibited EC (or rescued smooth muscle cell) differentiation in response to TNF-α. Furthermore, TNF-α-mediated EC differentiation was driven by direct binding of nuclear factor-κB (p65) to specific VE-cadherin promoter sequences. Subsequent experiments using an ex vivo decellularized vessel scaffold confirmed an increase in the number of ECs and reduction in smooth muscle cell marker expression in the presence of TNF-α. The lack of TNF-α in a knockout mouse model of vein graft decreased endothelialization and significantly increased thrombosis formation. Our study highlights the role of macrophages in directing vascular stem/progenitor cell lineage commitment through TNF-α-mediated TNF-α receptor 1 and nuclear factor-κB activation that is likely required for endothelial repair in vascular diseases such as vein graft.

  5. Macrophage activation by polysaccharides from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz through the nuclear factor-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Ji, Guang-Quan; Chen, Ren-Qiong; Zheng, Jian-Xian

    2015-04-01

    Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz is a traditional herb. Atractylodes macrocephalaon polysaccharides (AMP) have been found to enhance immunity and improve heart function. However, the mechanisms of the immunomodulatory effect have not been investigated. We examined whether AMP activated macrophages and explored the mechanisms of activation. AMP was prepared and evaluated its immunomodulatory activity (25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL) by detecting the phagocytosis and the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IFN-γ, and nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway was examined in regulating TNF-α and NO production. The phagocytosis of macrophages was enhanced by AMP in a dose-dependent manner and the maximal phagocytosis of macrophages occurred at concentrations of 100 and 200 μg/mL. NO, TNF-α, and IFN-γ release was also found to be dose dependent by increasing concentrations of AMP and reached the peak at a concentration of 200 μg/mL. In addition, AMP induced inhibitor kappaB (IκB) degradation and the activation of NF-κB by p65 nuclear translocation, and then the activation of NF-κB in nucleus peaked at a concentration of 200 μg/mL. Besides, NF-κB-specific inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) decreased AMP-induced NO and TNF-α production. These data suggest that AMP may modulate macrophage activities by stimulating NF-κB or activating NF-κB-dependent mechanisms.

  6. Structural modification of serum vitamin D3-binding protein and immunosuppression in AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R; Srinivasula, S M

    1995-11-01

    A serum glycoprotein, vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein), can be converted by beta-galactosidase of stimulated B lymphocytes and sialidase of T lymphocytes to a potent macrophage-activating factor (MAF), a protein with N-acetylgalactosamine as the remaining sugar moiety. Thus, Gc protein is a precursor for MAF. Treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates an extremely high-titered MAF (GcMAF). When peripheral blood monocytes/macrophages of 46 HIV-infected patients were treated with GcMAF (100 pg/ml), the monocytes/macrophages of all patients were efficiently activated. However, the MAF precursor activity of plasma Gc protein was low in 16 (35%) of of these patients. Loss of the MAF precursor activity appeared to be due to deglycosylation of plasma Gc protein by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase found in the patient blood stream. Levels of plasma alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity in individual patients had an inverse correlation with the MAF precursor activity of their plasma Gc protein. Thus, precursor activity of Gc protein and alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity in patient blood can serve as diagnostic and prognostic indices.

  7. Inhibition of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Activation Decreases Survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chmura, Kathryn; Ovrutsky, Alida R.; Su, Wen-Lin; Griffin, Laura; Pyeon, Dohun; McGibney, Mischa T.; Strand, Matthew J.; Numata, Mari; Murakami, Seiji; Gaido, Loretta; Honda, Jennifer R.; Kinney, William H.; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E.; Voelker, Dennis R.; Ordway, Diane J.; Chan, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that mediates pro-inflammatory responses required for host control of many microbial pathogens; on the other hand, NFκB has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other inflammatory and infectious diseases. Mice with genetic disruption of the p50 subunit of NFκB are more likely to succumb to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). However, the role of NFκB in host defense in humans is not fully understood. We sought to examine the role of NFκB activation in the immune response of human macrophages to MTB. Targeted pharmacologic inhibition of NFκB activation using BAY 11-7082 (BAY, an inhibitor of IκBα kinase) or an adenovirus construct with a dominant-negative IκBα significantly decreased the number of viable intracellular mycobacteria recovered from THP-1 macrophages four and eight days after infection. The results with BAY were confirmed in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and alveolar macrophages. NFκB inhibition was associated with increased macrophage apoptosis and autophagy, which are well-established killing mechanisms of intracellular MTB. Inhibition of the executioner protease caspase-3 or of the autophagic pathway significantly abrogated the effects of BAY. We conclude that NFκB inhibition decreases viability of intracellular MTB in human macrophages via induction of apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:23634218

  8. Macrophage activation by glycoprotein isolated from Dioscorea batatas

    PubMed Central

    Huong, Pham Thi Thu

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that glycoprotein isolated from Dioscorea batatas (GDB) activates macrophage function. Analysis of the infiltration of macrophages into peritoneal cavity showed GDB treatment significantly increased the recruitment of macrophages into the peritoneal cavity. In order to further confirm and investigate the mechanism of GDB on macrophage activation, we analyzed the effects of GDB on the cytokine expression including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in mouse peritoneal macrophages. GDB increased the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6. Cytokine induction by GDB was further confirmed by RT-PCR and ELISA in mouse macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 cells. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with GDB produced strong induction of NF-κB DNA binding and MAPK phosphorylation, markers for macrophage activation and important factors for cytokine gene expression. Collectively, this series of experiments indicates that GDB stimulates macrophage activation. PMID:24278568

  9. Alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) in the skin of patient with localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Higashi-Kuwata, Nobuyo; Makino, Takamitsu; Inoue, Yuji; Takeya, Motohiro; Ihn, Hironobu

    2009-08-01

    Localized scleroderma is a connective tissue disorder that is limited to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Macrophages have been reported to be particularly activated in patients with skin disease including systemic sclerosis and are potentially important sources for fibrosis-inducing cytokines, such as transforming growth factor beta. To clarify the features of immunohistochemical characterization of the immune cell infiltrates in localized scleroderma focusing on macrophages, skin biopsy specimens were analysed by immunohistochemistry. The number of cells stained with monoclonal antibodies, CD68, CD163 and CD204, was calculated. An evident macrophage infiltrate and increased number of alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) in their fibrotic areas were observed along with their severity of inflammation. This study revealed that alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) may be a potential source of fibrosis-inducing cytokines in localized scleroderma, and may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of localized scleroderma.

  10. ROS is Required for Alternatively Activated Macrophage Differentiation | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Macrophages are key regulators in host inflammatory responses. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) are responsible for inducing macrophage differentiation from monocytes. GM-CSF or M-CSF-differentiated macrophages can be further differentiated, or polarized, to more specialized cells. Classically activated, or M1, macrophages have immune-stimulatory properties and cytotoxic function against tumor cells. Alternatively activated, or M2, macrophages have low cytotoxic function but high tissue-remodeling activity. There are also M2-like cells called tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) that are responsible for many tumor-promoting activities. Blocking the function of TAMs inhibits tumorigenesis.

  11. Transcription factor NFAT5 promotes macrophage survival in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Susanna; Choi, Soo Youn; Kwon, H. Moo; Hwang, Daehee; Park, Yune-Jung; Cho, Chul-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Defective apoptotic death of activated macrophages has been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the molecular signatures defining apoptotic resistance of RA macrophages are not fully understood. Here, global transcriptome profiling of RA macrophages revealed that the osmoprotective transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) critically regulates diverse pathologic processes in synovial macrophages including the cell cycle, apoptosis, and proliferation. Transcriptomic analysis of NFAT5-deficient macrophages revealed the molecular networks defining cell survival and proliferation. Proinflammatory M1-polarizing stimuli and hypoxic conditions were responsible for enhanced NFAT5 expression in RA macrophages. An in vitro functional study demonstrated that NFAT5-deficient macrophages were more susceptible to apoptotic death. Specifically, CCL2 secretion in an NFAT5-dependent fashion bestowed apoptotic resistance to RA macrophages in vitro. Injection of recombinant CCL2 into one of the affected joints of Nfat5+/– mice increased joint destruction and macrophage infiltration, demonstrating the essential role of the NFAT5/CCL2 axis in arthritis progression in vivo. Moreover, after intra-articular injection, NFAT5-deficient macrophages were more susceptible to apoptosis and less efficient at promoting joint destruction than were NFAT5-sufficient macrophages. Thus, NFAT5 regulates macrophage survival by inducing CCL2 secretion. Our results provide evidence that NFAT5 expression in macrophages enhances chronic arthritis by conferring apoptotic resistance to activated macrophages. PMID:28192374

  12. Evidence for differential activation of arachidonic acid metabolism in formylpeptide- and macrophage-activation-factor-stimulated guinea-pig macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Y; Hashimoto, T; Nagai, Y; Takenawa, T

    1985-01-01

    Alterations of phospholipid and arachidonic acid metabolism were studied by treatment of guinea-pig peritoneal-exudate macrophages with chemotactic peptide, formylmethionyl-leucylphenylalanine (fMet-Leu-Phe) and macrophage activation factor (MAF). The chemotactic peptide caused a rapid rearrangement in inositol phospholipids, including a breakdown of polyphosphoinositides within 30s, followed by a resultant formation of phosphatidylinositol (PI), diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid and non-esterified arachidonic acid within 5 min. In addition to these sequential alterations, arachidonic acid was released mainly from PI. On the other hand, MAF induced a slow liberation of arachidonic acid, mainly from phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) by phospholipase A2 after the incubation period of 30 min, but not any rapid changes in phospholipids. Treatment of macrophages for 15 min with fMet-Leu-Phe produced the leukotrienes (LTs) B4, C4 and D4, prostaglandins (PG) E2 and F2 alpha and thromboxane (TX) B2. In contrast, MAF could not stimulate the production of arachidonic acid metabolites during the incubation period of 15 min, but could enhance that of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, TXB2 and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids at 6 h. However, the stimulated formation of LTs was not detected at any time. These results indicate that the effects of fMet-Leu-Phe on both phospholipid and arachidonic acid metabolism are very different from those mediated by MAF. PMID:3931627

  13. Activating transcription factor 4 underlies the pathogenesis of arsenic trioxide-mediated impairment of macrophage innate immune functions

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao

    Chronic arsenic exposure to humans is considered immunosuppressive with augmented susceptibility to several infectious diseases. The exact molecular mechanisms, however, remain unknown. Earlier, we showed the involvement of unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling in arsenic-mediated impairment of macrophage functions. Here, we show that activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a UPR transcription factor, regulates arsenic trioxide (ATO)-mediated dysregulation of macrophage functions. In ATO-treated ATF4{sup +/+} wild-type mice, a significant down-regulation of CD11b expression was associated with the reduced phagocytic functions of peritoneal and lung macrophages. This severe immuno-toxicity phenotype was not observed in ATO-treated ATF4{sup +/−} heterozygous mice. To confirm thesemore » observations, we demonstrated in Raw 264.7 cells that ATF4 knock-down rescues ATO-mediated impairment of macrophage functions including cytokine production, bacterial engulfment and clearance of engulfed bacteria. Sustained activation of ATF4 by ATO in macrophages induces apoptosis, while diminution of ATF4 expression protects against ATO-induced apoptotic cell death. Raw 264.7 cells treated with ATO also manifest dysregulated Ca{sup ++} homeostasis. ATO induces Ca{sup ++}-dependent calpain-1 and caspase-12 expression which together regulated macrophage apoptosis. Additionally, apoptosis was also induced by mitochondria-regulated pathway. Restoring ATO-impaired Ca{sup ++} homeostasis in ER/mitochondria by treatments with the inhibitors of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) attenuate innate immune functions of macrophages. These studies identify a novel role for ATF4 in underlying pathogenesis of macrophage dysregulation and immuno-toxicity of arsenic. - Highlights: • ATF4 regulates arsenic-mediated impairment in macrophage functions. • Arsenic-mediated alterations in pulmonary macrophage are diminished in ATF4{sup +/

  14. Purified umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cell treatment in a case of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Christopher D; Wongsaisri, Pornpatcharin; Htut, Thein; Grossman, Terry

    2017-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multiple organ system autoimmune disorder for which there is no known cure. We report a case of a young adult lady with SLE and Sjogren's with diagnostic and clinical resolution following purified umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and globulin component protein macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) therapy in a combined multidisciplinary integrative medicine protocol. Our patient had complete reversal of all clinical and laboratory markers. We recommend a prospective randomized double blind study to assess the sustained efficacy of MSC and GcMAF in the treatment of autoimmune connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus.

  15. ROS is Required for Alternatively Activated Macrophage Differentiation | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Macrophages are key regulators in host inflammatory responses. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) are responsible for inducing macrophage differentiation from monocytes. GM-CSF or M-CSF-differentiated macrophages can be further differentiated, or polarized, to more specialized cells. Classically activated,

  16. Functional characterization of the turkey macrophage migration inhibitory factor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a soluble protein that inhibits the random migration of macrophages and plays a pivotal immunoregulatory function in innate and adaptive immunity. The aim of this study was to clone the turkey MIF (TkMIF) gene, express the active protein, and characte...

  17. Small cell lung cancer: Recruitment of macrophages by circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Gerhard; Rath, Barbara; Klameth, Lukas; Hochmair, Maximilan J.

    2016-01-01

    -tumor HEK293 cell line revealed no induction of macrophages, whereas incubation of PBMNCs with recombinant CHI3L1 gave positive results. Thus, the specific contributions of CTCs in SCLC affect CFD/adipsin, possibly involved in immunity/cachexia, VDBP which gives rise to group-specific component protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF), GDF-15/MIC-1 which enhances the malignant phenotype of tumor cells and ENA-78/CXCL5 which attracts angiogenic neutrophils. In conclusion, CTCs are competent to specifically manipulate TAMs to increase invasiveness, angiogenesis, immunosuppression and possibly lipid catabolism. PMID:27141354

  18. Small cell lung cancer: Recruitment of macrophages by circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Gerhard; Rath, Barbara; Klameth, Lukas; Hochmair, Maximilan J

    2016-03-01

    cell line revealed no induction of macrophages, whereas incubation of PBMNCs with recombinant CHI3L1 gave positive results. Thus, the specific contributions of CTCs in SCLC affect CFD/adipsin, possibly involved in immunity/cachexia, VDBP which gives rise to group-specific component protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF), GDF-15/MIC-1 which enhances the malignant phenotype of tumor cells and ENA-78/CXCL5 which attracts angiogenic neutrophils. In conclusion, CTCs are competent to specifically manipulate TAMs to increase invasiveness, angiogenesis, immunosuppression and possibly lipid catabolism.

  19. Stimulation of monocytes, macrophages, and microglia by amphotericin B and macrophage colony-stimulating factor promotes remyelination.

    PubMed

    Döring, Axinia; Sloka, Scott; Lau, Lorraine; Mishra, Manoj; van Minnen, Jan; Zhang, Xu; Kinniburgh, David; Rivest, Serge; Yong, V Wee

    2015-01-21

    Approaches to stimulate remyelination may lead to recovery from demyelinating injuries and protect axons. One such strategy is the activation of immune cells with clinically used medications, since a properly directed inflammatory response can have healing properties through mechanisms such as the provision of growth factors and the removal of cellular debris. We previously reported that the antifungal medication amphotericin B is an activator of circulating monocytes, and their tissue-infiltrated counterparts and macrophages, and of microglia within the CNS. Here, we describe that amphotericin B activates these cells through engaging MyD88/TRIF signaling. When mice were subjected to lysolecithin-induced demyelination of the spinal cord, systemic injections of nontoxic doses of amphotericin B and another activator, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF), further elevated the representation of microglia/macrophages at the site of injury. Treatment with amphotericin B, particularly in combination with MCSF, increased the number of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and promoted remyelination within lesions; these pro-regenerative effects were mitigated in mice treated with clodronate liposomes to reduce circulating monocytes and tissue-infiltrated macrophages. Our results have identified candidates among currently used medications as potential therapies for the repair of myelin. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351136-13$15.00/0.

  20. Culture of Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor Differentiated Human Monocyte-derived Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xueting; Kruth, Howard S

    2016-06-30

    A protocol is presented for cell culture of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) differentiated human monocyte-derived macrophages. For initiation of experiments, fresh or frozen monocytes are cultured in flasks for 1 week with M-CSF to induce their differentiation into macrophages. Then, the macrophages can be harvested and seeded into culture wells at required cell densities for carrying out experiments. The use of defined numbers of macrophages rather than defined numbers of monocytes to initiate macrophage cultures for experiments yields macrophage cultures in which the desired cell density can be more consistently attained. Use of cryopreserved monocytes reduces dependency on donor availability and produces more homogeneous macrophage cultures.

  1. Rictor/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 promotes macrophage activation and kidney fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiafa; Li, Jianzhong; Feng, Ye; Shu, Bingyan; Gui, Yuan; Wei, Wei; He, Weichun; Yang, Junwei; Dai, Chunsun

    2017-08-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling controls many essential cellular functions. However, the role of Rictor/mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) in regulating macrophage activation and kidney fibrosis remains largely unknown. We report here that Rictor/mTORC2 was activated in macrophages from the fibrotic kidneys of mice. Ablation of Rictor in macrophages reduced kidney fibrosis, inflammatory cell accumulation, macrophage proliferation and polarization after unilateral ureter obstruction or ischaemia/reperfusion injury. In bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), deletion of Rictor or blockade of protein kinase Cα inhibited cell migration. Additionally, deletion of Rictor or blockade of Akt abolished interleukin-4-stimulated or transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-stimulated macrophage M2 polarization. Furthermore, deletion of Rictor downregulated TGF-β1-stimulated upregulation of multiple profibrotic cytokines, including platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and connective tissue growth factor, in BMMs. Conditioned medium from TGF-β1-pretreated Rictor -/- macrophages stimulated fibroblast activation less efficiently than that from TGF-β1-pretreated Rictor +/+ macrophages. These results demonstrate that Rictor/mTORC2 signalling can promote macrophage activation and kidney fibrosis. Targeting this signalling pathway in macrophages may shine light on ways to protect against kidney fibrosis in patients with chronic kidney diseases. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor directly inhibits proliferation, migration, and uPAR expression of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Kalvin J; Zhao, Bing; Bielenberg, Diane R; Dridi, Sami; Wu, Jason; Jiang, Weihua; Huang, Bin; Pirie-Shepherd, Steven; Fannon, Michael

    2010-10-18

    Vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf) is a potent inhibitor of tumor growth. Its activity, however, has been attributed to indirect mechanisms such as boosting the immune response by activating macrophages and inhibiting the blood vessel growth necessary for the growth of tumors. In this study we show for the first time that DBP-maf exhibits a direct and potent effect on prostate tumor cells in the absence of macrophages. DBP-maf demonstrated inhibitory activity in proliferation studies of both LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines as well as metastatic clones of these cells. Flow cytometry studies with annexin V and propidium iodide showed that this inhibitory activity is not due to apoptosis or cell death. DBP-maf also had the ability to inhibit migration of prostate cancer cells in vitro. Finally, DBP-maf was shown to cause a reduction in urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression in prostate tumor cells. There is evidence that activation of this receptor correlates with tumor metastasis. These studies show strong inhibitory activity of DBP-maf on prostate tumor cells independent of its macrophage activation.

  3. Vitamin D Binding Protein-Macrophage Activating Factor Directly Inhibits Proliferation, Migration, and uPAR Expression of Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bielenberg, Diane R.; Dridi, Sami; Wu, Jason; Jiang, Weihua; Huang, Bin; Pirie-Shepherd, Steven; Fannon, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background Vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf) is a potent inhibitor of tumor growth. Its activity, however, has been attributed to indirect mechanisms such as boosting the immune response by activating macrophages and inhibiting the blood vessel growth necessary for the growth of tumors. Methods and Findings In this study we show for the first time that DBP-maf exhibits a direct and potent effect on prostate tumor cells in the absence of macrophages. DBP-maf demonstrated inhibitory activity in proliferation studies of both LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines as well as metastatic clones of these cells. Flow cytometry studies with annexin V and propidium iodide showed that this inhibitory activity is not due to apoptosis or cell death. DBP-maf also had the ability to inhibit migration of prostate cancer cells in vitro. Finally, DBP-maf was shown to cause a reduction in urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression in prostate tumor cells. There is evidence that activation of this receptor correlates with tumor metastasis. Conclusions These studies show strong inhibitory activity of DBP-maf on prostate tumor cells independent of its macrophage activation. PMID:20976141

  4. Resveratrol Prevents Tumor Growth and Metastasis by Inhibiting Lymphangiogenesis and M2 Macrophage Activation and Differentiation in Tumor-associated Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho

    2016-01-01

    Antitumor and antimetastatic effects of resveratrol on tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis through the regulation of M2 macrophages in tumor-associated macrophages currently remain unknown. Therefore, we herein examined the effects of resveratrol on M2 macrophage activation and differentiation, and those of resveratrol-treated condition medium (CM) in M2 macrophages on vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF)-C-induced migration, invasion, and tube formation by human lymphatic endothelial cells (HLECs). Resveratrol (50 μM or 5-50 μM) inhibited the production of interleukin-10 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in M2 macrophages, whereas it promoted that of transforming growth factor-β1. Resveratrol (25 and 50 μM) inhibited the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcript 3 without affecting its expression in the differentiation process of M2 macrophages. Furthermore, resveratrol-treated CM of M2 macrophages inhibited VEGF-C-induced HLEC migration, invasion, and lymphangiogenesis. Resveratrol (25 mg/kg, twice daily) inhibited tumor growth and metastasis to the lung and also reduced the area of lymphatic endothelial cells in tumors (in vivo). These results suggest that the antitumor and antimetastatic effects of resveratrol were partly due to antilymphangiogenesis through the regulation of M2 macrophage activation and differentiation.

  5. The effects of vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor and colony-stimulating factor-1 on hematopoietic cells in normal and osteopetrotic rats.

    PubMed

    Benis, K A; Schneider, G B

    1996-10-15

    Osteopetrosis is a heterogeneous group of bone disorders characterized by the failure of osteoclasts to resorb bone and by several immunological defects including macrophage dysfunction. Two compounds, colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) were used in the present study to evaluate their effects on the peritoneal population of cells and on cells within the bone marrow microenvironment in normal and incisors absent (ia) osteopetrotic rats. Previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated that administration of DBP-MAF to newborn ia animals results in a substantial increase in bone marrow cavity size due to upregulated osteoclast function. To study the effects of these compounds on the macrophage/osteoclast precursors, DBP-MAF, CSF-1, and the combination of these compounds were given to newborn ia and normal littermate animals. Both the normal and mutant phenotypes responded similarly when treated with these compounds. Rats exhibited a profound shift toward the macrophage lineage from the neutrophil lineage when compared with vehicle-treated control animals after treatment with these compounds. In the in vivo peritoneal lavage study, animals received injections of CSF-1, DBP-MAF or DBP-MAF/CSF-1 over a 4-week period. The various types of cells in the peritoneal cavity were then enumerated. The in vitro study consisted of cells isolated from the bone marrow microenvironment and cultured on feeder layers of CSF-1, DBP-MAF, or DBP-MAF/CSF-1 for colony enumeration. The increase in macrophage numbers at the expense of neutrophil numbers could be seen in both the in vivo and in vitro experiments. The macrophage/osteoclast and neutrophil lineages have a common precursor, the granulocyte/macrophage colony-forming cell (GM-CFC). With the addition of CSF-1, the GM-CFC precursor may be induced into the macrophage/osteoclast lineage rather than the granulocyte lineage. This increased pool of cells in the

  6. Effects of macrophage colony-stimulating factor on macrophages and their related cell populations in the osteopetrosis mouse defective in production of functional macrophage colony-stimulating factor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Umeda, S.; Takahashi, K.; Shultz, L. D.; Naito, M.; Takagi, K.

    1996-01-01

    The development of macrophage populations in osteopetrosis (op) mutant mice defective in production of functional macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and the response of these cell populations to exogenous M-CSF were used to classify macrophages into four groups: 1) monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages, and osteoclasts, 2) MOMA-1-positive macrophages, 3) ER-TR9-positive macrophages, and 4) immature tissue macrophages. Monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages, osteoclasts in bone, microglia in brain, synovial A cells, and MOMA-1- or ER-TR9-positive macrophages were deficient in op/op mice. The former three populations expanded to normal levels in op/op mice after daily M-CSF administration, indicating that they are developed and differentiated due to the effect of M-CSF supplied humorally. In contrast, the other cells did not respond or very slightly responded to M-CSF, and their development seems due to either M-CSF produced in situ or expression of receptor for M-CSF. Macrophages present in tissues of the mutant mice were immature and appear to be regulated by either granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and/or interleukin-3 produced in situ or receptor expression. Northern blot analysis revealed different expressions of GM-CSF and IL-3 mRNA in various tissues of the op/op mice. However, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-3 in serum were not detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The immature macrophages differentiated and matured into resident macrophages after M-CSF administration, and some of these cells proliferated in response to M-CSF. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8701995

  7. ARL11 regulates lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage activation by promoting mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling.

    PubMed

    Arya, Subhash B; Kumar, Gaurav; Kaur, Harmeet; Kaur, Amandeep; Tuli, Amit

    2018-06-22

    A DP- r ibosylation factor- l ike GTPase 11 ( ARL11 ) is a cancer-predisposing gene that has remained functionally uncharacterized to date. In this study, we report that ARL11 is endogenously expressed in mouse and human macrophages and regulates their activation in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Accordingly, depletion of ARL11 impaired both LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages and their ability to control intracellular replication of Salmonella. LPS-stimulated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was substantially compromised in Arl11 -silenced macrophages. In contrast, increased expression of ARL11 led to constitutive ERK1/2 phosphorylation, resulting in macrophage exhaustion. Finally, we found that ARL11 forms a complex with phospho-ERK in macrophages within minutes of LPS stimulation. Taken together, our findings establish ARL11 as a novel regulator of ERK signaling in macrophages, required for macrophage activation and immune function. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Legumain is activated in macrophages during pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wartmann, Thomas; Fleming, Alicia K.; Gocheva, Vasilena; van der Linden, Wouter A.; Withana, Nimali P.; Verdoes, Martijn; Aurelio, Luigi; Edgington-Mitchell, Daniel; Lieu, TinaMarie; Parker, Belinda S.; Graham, Bim; Reinheckel, Thomas; Furness, John B.; Joyce, Johanna A.; Storz, Peter; Halangk, Walter; Bogyo, Matthew; Bunnett, Nigel W.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by dysregulated activity of digestive enzymes, necrosis, immune infiltration, and pain. Repeated incidence of pancreatitis is an important risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Legumain, a lysosomal cysteine protease, has been linked to inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, stroke, and cancer. Until now, legumain activation has not been studied during pancreatitis. We used a fluorescently quenched activity-based probe to assess legumain activation during caerulein-induced pancreatitis in mice. We detected activated legumain by ex vivo imaging, confocal microscopy, and gel electrophoresis. Compared with healthy controls, legumain activity in the pancreas of caerulein-treated mice was increased in a time-dependent manner. Legumain was localized to CD68+ macrophages and was not active in pancreatic acinar cells. Using a small-molecule inhibitor of legumain, we found that this protease is not essential for the initiation of pancreatitis. However, it may serve as a biomarker of disease, since patients with chronic pancreatitis show strongly increased legumain expression in macrophages. Moreover, the occurrence of legumain-expressing macrophages in regions of acinar-to-ductal metaplasia suggests that this protease may influence reprogramming events that lead to inflammation-induced pancreatic cancer. PMID:27514475

  9. Substance P enhances tissue factor release from granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent macrophages via the p22phox/β-arrestin 2/Rho A signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Rui; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Sakamoto, Arisa; Ishimaru, Yasuji; Narahara, Shinji; Sugiuchi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2016-03-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induces procoagulant activity of macrophages. Tissue factor (TF) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein and substance P (SP) is a pro-inflammatory neuropeptide involved in the formation of membrane blebs. This study investigated the role of SP in TF release by GM-CSF-dependent macrophages. SP significantly decreased TF levels in whole-cell lysates of GM-CSF-dependent macrophages. TF was detected in the culture supernatant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after stimulation of macrophages by SP. Aprepitant (an SP/neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist) reduced TF release from macrophages stimulated with SP. Pretreatment of macrophages with a radical scavenger(pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate) also limited the decrease of TF in whole-cell lysates after stimulation with SP. A protein kinase C inhibitor (rottlerin) partially blocked this macrophage response to SP, while it was significantly inhibited by a ROCK inhibitor (Y-27632) or a dynamin inhibitor (dinasore). An Akt inhibitor (perifosine) also partially blocked this response. Furthermore, siRNA targeting p22phox, β-arrestin 2, or Rho A, blunted the release of TF from macrophages stimulated with SP. In other experiments, visceral adipocytes derived from cryopreserved preadipocytes were found to produce SP. In conclusion, SP enhances the release of TF from macrophages via the p22phox/β-arrestin 2/Rho A signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor-induced Zn Sequestration Enhances Macrophage Superoxide and Limits Intracellular Pathogen Survival

    PubMed Central

    Vignesh, Kavitha Subramanian; Landero Figueroa, Julio A.; Porollo, Aleksey; Caruso, Joseph A.; Deepe, George S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Macrophages possess numerous mechanisms to combat microbial invasion, including sequestration of essential nutrients, like Zn. The pleiotropic cytokine granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhances antimicrobial defenses against intracellular pathogens such as Histoplasma capsulatum, but its mode of action remains elusive. We have found that GM-CSF activated infected macrophages sequestered labile Zn by inducing binding to metallothioneins (MTs) in a STAT3 and STAT5 transcription factor-dependent manner. GM-CSF upregulated expression of Zn exporters, Slc30a4 and Slc30a7 and the metal was shuttled away from phagosomes and into the Golgi apparatus. This distinctive Zn sequestration strategy elevated phagosomal H+ channel function and triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by NADPH oxidase. Consequently, H. capsulatum was selectively deprived of Zn, thereby halting replication and fostering fungal clearance. GM-CSF mediated Zn sequestration via MTs in vitro and in vivo in mice and in human macrophages. These findings illuminate a GM-CSF-induced Zn-sequestration network that drives phagocyte antimicrobial effector function. PMID:24138881

  11. Macrophage-induced angiogenesis is mediated by tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Leibovich, S J; Polverini, P J; Shepard, H M; Wiseman, D M; Shively, V; Nuseir, N

    Macrophages are important in the induction of new blood vessel growth during wound repair, inflammation and tumour growth. We show here that tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a secretory product of activated macrophages that is believed to mediate tumour cytotoxicity, is a potent inducer of new blood vessel growth (angiogenesis). In vivo, TNF-alpha induces capillary blood vessel formation in the rat cornea and the developing chick chorioallantoic membrane at very low doses. In vitro, TNF-alpha stimulates chemotaxis of bovine adrenal capillary endothelial cells and induces cultures of these cells grown on type-1 collagen gels to form capillary-tube-like structures. The angiogenic activity produced by activated murine peritoneal macrophages is completely neutralized by a polyclonal antibody to TNF-alpha, suggesting immunological features are common to TNF-alpha and the protein responsible for macrophage-derived angiogenic activity. In inflammation and wound repair, TNF-alpha could augment repair by stimulating new blood vessel growth; in tumours, TNF-alpha might both stimulate tumour development by promoting vessel growth and participate in tumour destruction by direct cytotoxicity.

  12. Macrophage heterogeneity and cholesterol homeostasis: classically-activated macrophages are associated with reduced cholesterol accumulation following treatment with oxidized LDL.

    PubMed

    Chu, Eugene M; Tai, Daven C; Beer, Jennifer L; Hill, John S

    2013-02-01

    Macrophages are centrally involved during atherosclerosis development and are the predominant cell type that accumulates cholesterol in the plaque. Macrophages however, are heterogeneous in nature reflecting a variety of microenvironments and different phenotypes may be more prone to contribute towards atherosclerosis progression. Using primary human monocyte-derived macrophages, we sought to evaluate one aspect of atherogenic potential of different macrophage phenotypes by determining their propensity to associate with and accumulate oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Classically-activated macrophages treated simultaneously with interferon γ (IFNγ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) associated with less oxLDL and accumulated less cholesterol compared to untreated controls. The combined treatment of IFNγ and TNFα reduced the mRNA expression of CD36 and the expression of both cell surface CD36 and macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1) protein. Under oxLDL loaded conditions, IFNγ and TNFα did not reduce macrophage protein expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-actived receptor γ (PPARγ) which is known to positively regulate CD36 expression. However, macrophages treated with IFNγ attenuated the ability of the PPARγ-specific agonist rosiglitazone from upregulating cell surface CD36 protein expression. Our results demonstrate that the observed reduction of cholesterol accumulation in macrophages treated with IFNγ and TNFα following oxLDL treatment was due at least in part to reduced cell surface CD36 and MSR1 protein expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of tumor necrosis factor in macrophage leishmanicidal activity in vitro and resistance to cutaneous leishmaniasis in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Theodos, C M; Povinelli, L; Molina, R; Sherry, B; Titus, R G

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and purified murine TNF were both able to activate macrophages to destroy intracellular Leishmania major in vitro. In addition, parasitizing macrophages with L. major markedly increased the ability of the cells to produce TNF. Finally, when mice were vaccinated with an avirulent form of L. major, the animals produced large amounts of TNF but no gamma interferon in response to infection with virulent L. major. Treating these mice with a neutralizing anti-TNF antibody led to partial but not complete inhibition of the resistant state, which suggests that factors other than TNF and gamma interferon contribute to resistance to L. major. PMID:1906844

  14. Novel Anti-inflammatory Activity of Epoxyazadiradione against Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Athar; Haldar, Saikat; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V.; Kumar, Rahul; Goyal, Manish; Iqbal, Mohd Shameel; Pal, Chinmay; Dey, Sumanta; Bindu, Samik; Sarkar, Souvik; Pal, Uttam; Maiti, Nakul C.; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2012-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is responsible for proinflammatory reactions in various infectious and non-infectious diseases. We have investigated the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of epoxyazadiradione, a limonoid purified from neem (Azadirachta indica) fruits, against MIF. Epoxyazadiradione inhibited the tautomerase activity of MIF of both human (huMIF) and malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum (PfMIF) and Plasmodium yoelii (PyMIF)) non-competitively in a reversible fashion (Ki, 2.11–5.23 μm). Epoxyazadiradione also significantly inhibited MIF (huMIF, PyMIF, and PfMIF)-mediated proinflammatory activities in RAW 264.7 cells. It prevented MIF-induced macrophage chemotactic migration, NF-κB translocation to the nucleus, up-regulation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase, and nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells. Epoxyazadiradione not only exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in vitro but also in vivo. We tested the anti-inflammatory activity of epoxyazadiradione in vivo after co-administering LPS and MIF in mice to mimic the disease state of sepsis or bacterial infection. Epoxyazadiradione prevented the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α when LPS and PyMIF were co-administered to BALB/c mice. The molecular basis of interaction of epoxyazadiradione with MIFs was explored with the help of computational chemistry tools and a biological knowledgebase. Docking simulation indicated that the binding was highly specific and allosteric in nature. The well known MIF inhibitor (S,R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid methyl ester (ISO-1) inhibited huMIF but not MIF of parasitic origin. In contrast, epoxyazadiradione inhibited both huMIF and plasmodial MIF, thus bearing an immense therapeutic potential against proinflammatory reactions induced by MIF of both malaria parasites and human. PMID:22645149

  15. Loss of autophagy enhances MIF/macrophage migration inhibitory factor release by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jacinta P W; Foote, Andrew; Fan, Huapeng; Peral de Castro, Celia; Lang, Tali; Jones, Sarah A; Gavrilescu, Nichita; Mills, Kingston H G; Leech, Michelle; Morand, Eric F; Harris, James

    2016-06-02

    MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor [glycosylation-inhibiting factor]) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine expressed in multiple cells types, including macrophages. MIF plays a pathogenic role in a number of inflammatory diseases and has been linked to tumor progression in some cancers. Previous work has demonstrated that loss of autophagy in macrophages enhances secretion of IL1 family cytokines. Here, we demonstrate that loss of autophagy, by pharmacological inhibition or siRNA silencing of Atg5, enhances MIF secretion by monocytes and macrophages. We further demonstrate that this is dependent on mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Induction of autophagy with MTOR inhibitors had no effect on MIF secretion, but amino acid starvation increased secretion. This was unaffected by Atg5 siRNA but was again dependent on mitochondrial ROS. Our data demonstrate that autophagic regulation of mitochondrial ROS plays a pivotal role in the regulation of inflammatory cytokine secretion in macrophages, with potential implications for the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and cancers.

  16. Tumor necrosis factor alpha mediates resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice by inducing nitric oxide production in infected gamma interferon-activated macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Silva, J S; Vespa, G N; Cardoso, M A; Aliberti, J C; Cunha, F Q

    1995-01-01

    Cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi and its intracellular replication are essential for continuation of the parasite life cycle and for production of Chagas' disease. T. cruzi is able to replicate in nucleated cells and can be killed by activated macrophages. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) is one of the major stimuli for the activation of macrophages and has been shown to be a key activation factor for the killing of intracellular parasites through a mechanism dependent upon nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis. We show that although the addition of exogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) does not potentiate the trypanocidal activity of IFN-gamma in vitro, treatment of resistant C57BI/6 mice with an anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody increased parasitemia and mortality. In addition, the anti-TNF-alpha-treated animals had decreased NO production, both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting an important role for TNF-alpha in controlling infection. In order to better understand the role of TNF-alpha in the macrophage-mediating killing of parasites, cultures of T. cruzi-infected macrophages were treated with an anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody. IFN-gamma-activated macrophages failed to kill intracellular parasites following treatment with 100 micrograms of anti-TNF-alpha. In these cultures, the number of parasites released at various time points after infection was significantly increased while NO production was significantly reduced. We conclude that IFN-gamma-activated macrophages produce TNF-alpha after infection by T. cruzi and suggest that this cytokine plays a role in amplifying NO production and parasite killing. PMID:7591147

  17. Modulation of Decidual Macrophage Polarization by Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Derived from First-Trimester Decidual Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Piao, Longzhu; Chen, Chie-Pein; Wu, Xianqing; Yeh, Chang-Ching; Masch, Rachel; Chang, Chi-Chang; Huang, S. Joseph

    2017-01-01

    During human pregnancy, immune tolerance of the fetal semiallograft occurs in the presence of abundant maternal leukocytes. At the implantation site, macrophages comprise approximately 20% of the leukocyte population and act as primary mediators of tissue remodeling. Decidual macrophages display a balance between anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory phenotypes. However, a shift to an M1 subtype is reported in preeclampsia. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating-factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) are major differentiating factors that mediate M1 and M2 polarization, respectively. Previously, we observed the following: i) the preeclamptic decidua contains an excess of both macrophages and GM-CSF, ii) the preeclampsia-associated proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, markedly enhance GM-CSF and M-CSF expression in cultured leukocyte-free first-trimester decidual cells (FTDCs), iii) FTDC-secreted GM-CSF polarizes macrophages toward an M1 subtype. The microenvironment is a key determinant of macrophage phenotype. Thus, we examined proinflammatory stimulation of FTDC-secreted M-CSF and its role in macrophage development. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated elevated M-CSF–positive decidual cell numbers in preeclamptic decidua. In FTDCs, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α signal through the NF-κB pathway to induce M-CSF production, which does the following: i) enhances differentiation of and elevates CD163 expression in macrophages, ii) increases macrophage phagocytic capacity, and iii) inhibits signal-regulatory protein α expression by macrophages. These findings suggest that FTDC-secreted M-CSF modulates the decidual immune balance by inducing M2 macrophage polarization and phagocytic capacity in response to proinflammatory stimuli. PMID:26970370

  18. The AP-1 Transcription Factor c-Jun Promotes Arthritis by Regulating Cyclooxygenase-2 and Arginase-1 Expression in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hannemann, Nicole; Jordan, Jutta; Paul, Sushmita; Reid, Stephen; Baenkler, Hanns-Wolf; Sonnewald, Sophia; Bäuerle, Tobias; Vera, Julio; Schett, Georg; Bozec, Aline

    2017-05-01

    Activation of proinflammatory macrophages is associated with the inflammatory state of rheumatoid arthritis. Their polarization and activation are controlled by transcription factors such as NF-κB and the AP-1 transcription factor member c-Fos. Surprisingly, little is known about the role of the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun in macrophage activation. In this study, we show that mRNA and protein levels of c-Jun are increased in macrophages following pro- or anti-inflammatory stimulations. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment cluster analyses of microarray data using wild-type and c-Jun-deleted macrophages highlight the central function of c-Jun in macrophages, in particular for immune responses, IL production, and hypoxia pathways. Mice deficient for c-Jun in macrophages show an amelioration of inflammation and bone destruction in the serum-induced arthritis model. In vivo and in vitro gene profiling, together with chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of macrophages, revealed direct activation of the proinflammatory factor cyclooxygenase-2 and indirect inhibition of the anti-inflammatory factor arginase-1 by c-Jun. Thus, c-Jun regulates the activation state of macrophages and promotes arthritis via differentially regulating cyclooxygenase-2 and arginase-1 levels. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  19. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression in macrophages is controlled by lymphocytes during macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chong; Yang, Xiqiang; Yao, Lan; Jiang, Liping; Liu, Wei; Li, Xin; Wang, Lijia

    2012-01-01

    The viewpoints on the control of innate immune cells by the adaptive immune system during sepsis remain controversial. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is essential to the negative control of innate immunity and suppresses the activation of macrophages by inhibiting activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The purpose of the current study was to observe inflammatory response and macrophage activation in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with endotoxemia and to determine the role of MKP-1 in the control of macrophage activation by the adaptive immune system. Endotoxemia was induced in wild-type and SCID mice by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and all of the SCID mice died. SCID mice produced more inflammatory cytokines than BALB/c mice systemically and locally. TNF-α mRNA expression was higher and MKP-1 mRNA expression was lower in peritoneal macrophages (PMa) from SCID mice compared to PMa from wild-type mice after and even before LPS injection. Thioglycollate-stimulated PMa from wild-type mice were stimulated with LPS in vitro in the presence or absence of pan-T cells. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in the supernatants from PMa cultured alone compared to PMa co-cultured with pan-T cells, and PMa MKP-1 mRNA and protein expression were higher when PMa were co-cultured with pan-T cells. Therefore, pan-T cells can up-regulate MKP-1 expression in macrophages and inhibit the secretion of inflammatory cytokines secretion by macrophages. In SCID mice, lymphocyte deficiency, especially T cell deficiency, causes insufficient MKP-1 expression in macrophages, which can be responsible for the severe inflammation and bad prognosis of septic SCID mice. MKP-1 plays an important role in the control of macrophage activation by the adaptive immune system.

  20. Identifying panaxynol, a natural activator of nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) from American ginseng as a suppressor of inflamed macrophage-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Chen; Li, Bin; Lai, Yimu; Li, Hechu; Windust, Anthony; Hofseth, Lorne J.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Wang, Xing Li; Tang, Dongqi; Janicki, Joseph S.; Tian, Xingsong; Cui, Taixing

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance American ginseng is capable of ameliorating cardiac dysfunction and activating Nrf2, a master regulator of antioxidant defense, in the heart. This study was designed to isolate compounds from American ginseng and to determine those responsible for the Nrf2-mediated resolution of inflamed macrophage-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Materials and methods A standardized crude extract of American ginseng was supplied by the National Research Council of Canada, Institute for National Measurement Standards. A bioassay-based fractionization of American ginseng was performed to identify the putative substances which could activate Nrf2-mediated suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages and macrophage-mediated pro-hypertrophic growth in cardiomyocytes. Results A hexane fraction of an anti-inflammatory crude extract of American ginseng was found to be most effective in suppressing the inflammatory responses in macrophages. Preparative, reverse-phase HPLC and a comparative analysis by analytical scale LC–UV/MS revealed the hexane fraction contains predominantly C17 polyacetylenes and linolenic acid. Panaxynol, one of the major polyacetylenes, was found to be a potent Nrf2 activator. Panaxynol posttranscriptionally activated Nrf2 by inhibiting Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (Keap) 1-mediated degradation without affecting the binding of Keap1 and Nrf2. Moreover, panaxynol suppressed a selected set of cytokine expression via the activation of Nrf2 while minimally regulating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-mediated cytokine expression in macrophages. It also dramatically inhibited the inflamed macrophage-mediated cardiomyocyte death and hypertrophy by activating Nrf2 in macrophages. Conclusions These results demonstrate that American ginseng-derived panaxynol is a specific Nrf2 activator and panaxynol-activated Nrf2 signaling is at least partly responsible for American ginseng-induced health benefit in the heart. PMID

  1. Evidence for a gamma-interferon receptor that regulates macrophage tumoricidal activity

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) is the macrophage-activating factor (MAF) produced by normal murine splenic cells and the murine T cell hybridoma 24/G1 that induces nonspecific tumoricidal activity in macrophages. Incubation of 24/G1 supernatants diluted to 8.3 IRU IFN-gamma/ml with 6 X 10(6) elicited peritoneal macrophages or bone marrow-derived macrophages for 4 h at 37 degrees C, resulted in removal of 80% of the MAF activity from the lymphokine preparation. Loss of activity appeared to result from absorption and not consumption because (a) 40% of the activity was removed after exposure to macrophage for 30 min at 4 degrees C, (b) no reduction of MAF activity was detected when the 24/G1 supernatant was incubated with macrophage culture supernatants, and (c) macrophage-treated supernatants showed a selective loss of MAF activity but not interleukin 2 (IL-2) activity. Absorption was dependent on the input of either IFN-gamma or macrophages and was time dependent at 37 degrees C but not at 4 degrees C. With four rodent species tested, absorption of murine IFN-gamma displayed species specificity. However, cultured human peripheral blood monocytes and the human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937 were able to absorb the murine lymphokine. Although the majority of murine cell lines tested absorbed 24/G1 MAF activity, two murine macrophage cell lines, P388D1 and J774, were identified which absorbed significantly reduced amounts of natural IFN- gamma. Purified murine recombinant IFN-gamma was absorbed by elicited macrophages but not by P388D1. Normal macrophages but not P388D1 bound fluoresceinated microspheres coated with recombinant IFN-gamma and binding was inhibited by pretreatment of the normal cells with 24/G1 supernatants. Scatchard plot analysis showed that 12,000 molecules of soluble 125I-recombinant IFN-gamma bound per bone marrow macrophage with a Ka of 0.9 X 10(8) M-1. Binding was quantitatively inhibitable by natural IFN-gamma but not by murine IFN alpha. IFN

  2. Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD) positively regulates ERK and Akt activation and TNF-α and NO production in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Zheng, Jin; Yin, Dan-Dan; Xiang, Jie; He, Fei; Wang, Yao-Chun; Liang, Liang; Qin, Hong-Yan; Liu, Li; Liang, Ying-Min; Han, Hua

    2012-05-01

    Macrophage activation is modulated by both environmental cues and endogenous programs. In the present study, we investigated the role of a PAQR family protein, monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD), in macrophage activation and unveiled its underlying molecular mechanism. Our results showed that while MMD expression could be detected in all tissues examined, its expression level is significantly up-regulated upon monocyte differentiation. Within cells, EGFP-MMD fusion protein could be co-localized to endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, but not lysosomes and cytoplasm. MMD expression is up-regulated in macrophages after LPS stimulation, and this might be modulated by RBP-J, the critical transcription factor of Notch signaling. Overexpression of MMD in macrophages increased the production of TNF-α and NO upon LPS stimulation. We found that MMD overexpression enhanced ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in macrophages after LPS stimulation. Blocking Erk or Akt by pharmacological agent reduced TNF-α or NO production in MMD-overexpressing macrophages, respectively. These results suggested that MMD modulates TNF-α and NO production in macrophages, and this process might involves Erk or Akt.

  3. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor deficiency is associated with impaired killing of gram-negative bacteria by macrophages and increased susceptibility to Klebsiella pneumoniae sepsis.

    PubMed

    Roger, Thierry; Delaloye, Julie; Chanson, Anne-Laure; Giddey, Marlyse; Le Roy, Didier; Calandra, Thierry

    2013-01-15

    The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an important component of the early proinflammatory response of the innate immune system. However, the antimicrobial defense mechanisms mediated by MIF remain fairly mysterious. In the present study, we examined whether MIF controls bacterial uptake and clearance by professional phagocytes, using wild-type and MIF-deficient macrophages. MIF deficiency did not affect bacterial phagocytosis, but it strongly impaired the killing of gram-negative bacteria by macrophages and host defenses against gram-negative bacterial infection, as shown by increased mortality in a Klebsiella pneumonia model. Consistent with MIF's regulatory role of Toll-like 4 expression in macrophages, MIF-deficient cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or Escherichia coli exhibited reduced nuclear factor κB activity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production. Addition of recombinant MIF or TNF corrected the killing defect of MIF-deficient macrophages. Together, these data show that MIF is a key mediator of host responses against gram-negative bacteria, acting in part via a modulation of bacterial killing by macrophages.

  4. Therapeutic potential of carbohydrates as regulators of macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, Mimmi L E; Scanlan, Eoin M; Lavelle, Ed C

    2017-12-15

    It is well established for a broad range of disease states, including cancer and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, that pathogenesis is bolstered by polarisation of macrophages towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype, known as M2. As these innate immune cells are relatively long-lived, their re-polarisation to pro-inflammatory, phagocytic and bactericidal "classically activated" M1 macrophages is an attractive therapeutic approach. On the other hand, there are scenarios where the resolving inflammation, wound healing and tissue remodelling properties of M2 macrophages are beneficial - for example the successful introduction of biomedical implants. Although there are numerous endogenous and exogenous factors that have an impact on the macrophage polarisation spectrum, this review will focus specifically on prominent macrophage-modulating carbohydrate motifs with a view towards highlighting structure-function relationships and therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential regulation of macrophage inflammatory activation by fibrin and fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Jessica Y; Smith, Tim D; Meli, Vijaykumar S; Tran, Thi N; Botvinick, Elliot L; Liu, Wendy F

    2017-01-01

    Fibrin is a major component of the provisional extracellular matrix formed during tissue repair following injury, and enables cell infiltration and anchoring at the wound site. Macrophages are dynamic regulators of this process, advancing and resolving inflammation in response to cues in their microenvironment. Although much is known about how soluble factors such as cytokines and chemokines regulate macrophage polarization, less is understood about how insoluble and adhesive cues, specifically the blood coagulation matrix fibrin, influence macrophage behavior. In this study, we observed that fibrin and its precursor fibrinogen elicit distinct macrophage functions. Culturing macrophages on fibrin gels fabricated by combining fibrinogen with thrombin stimulated secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10). In contrast, exposure of macrophages to soluble fibrinogen stimulated high levels of inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Macrophages maintained their anti-inflammatory behavior when cultured on fibrin gels in the presence of soluble fibrinogen. In addition, adhesion to fibrin matrices inhibited TNF-α production in response to stimulation with LPS and IFN-γ, cytokines known to promote inflammatory macrophage polarization. Our data demonstrate that fibrin exerts a protective effect on macrophages, preventing inflammatory activation by stimuli including fibrinogen, LPS, and IFN-γ. Together, our study suggests that the presentation of fibrin(ogen) may be a key switch in regulating macrophage phenotype behavior, and this feature may provide a valuable immunomodulatory strategy for tissue healing and regeneration. Fibrin is a fibrous protein resulting from blood clotting and provides a provisional matrix into which cells migrate and to which they adhere during wound healing. Macrophages play an important role in this process, and are needed for both advancing and resolving inflammation. We demonstrate that culture of

  6. Differential Regulation of Macrophage Glucose Metabolism by Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor and Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor: Implications for 18F FDG PET Imaging of Vessel Wall Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Sina; Short, John D.; Downs, Kevin; Nguyen, Huynh Nga; Lai, Yanlai; Zhang, Wei; Jerabek, Paul; Goins, Beth; Sadeghi, Mehran M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the divergence of immunometabolic phenotypes of macrophages stimulated with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and granulocyte-M-CSF (GM-CSF) and its implications for fluorine 18 (18F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) imaging of atherosclerosis. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the animal care committee. Uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and various indexes of oxidative and glycolytic metabolism were evaluated in nonactivated murine peritoneal macrophages (MΦ0) and macrophages stimulated with M-CSF (MΦM-CSF) or GM-CSF (MΦGM-CSF). Intracellular glucose flux was measured by using stable isotope tracing of glycolytic and tricyclic acid intermediary metabolites. 18F-FDG uptake was evaluated in murine atherosclerotic aortas after stimulation with M-CSF or GM-CSF by using quantitative autoradiography. Results Despite inducing distinct activation states, GM-CSF and M-CSF stimulated progressive but similar levels of increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake in macrophages that reached up to sixfold compared with MΦ0. The expression of glucose transporters, oxidative metabolism, and mitochondrial biogenesis were induced to similar levels in MΦM-CSF and MΦGM-CSF. Unexpectedly, there was a 1.7-fold increase in extracellular acidification rate, a 1.4-fold increase in lactate production, and overexpression of several critical glycolytic enzymes in MΦM-CSF compared with MΦGM-CSF with associated increased glucose flux through glycolytic pathway. Quantitative autoradiography demonstrated a 1.6-fold induction of 18F-FDG uptake in murine atherosclerotic plaques by both M-CSF and GM-CSF. Conclusion The proinflammatory and inflammation-resolving activation states of macrophages induced by GM-CSF and M-CSF in either cell culture or atherosclerotic plaques may not be distinguishable by the assessment of glucose uptake. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:27849433

  7. Expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in human atherosclerosis and regulation in macrophages by colony stimulating factors and oxidized low density lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Ricote, Mercedes; Huang, Jannet; Fajas, Luis; Li, Andrew; Welch, John; Najib, Jamila; Witztum, Joseph L.; Auwerx, Johan; Palinski, Wulf; Glass, Christopher K.

    1998-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that has been demonstrated to regulate fat cell development and glucose homeostasis. PPARγ is also expressed in a subset of macrophages and negatively regulates the expression of several proinflammatory genes in response to natural and synthetic ligands. We here demonstrate that PPARγ is expressed in macrophage foam cells of human atherosclerotic lesions, in a pattern that is highly correlated with that of oxidation-specific epitopes. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which are known to be present in atherosclerotic lesions, stimulated PPARγ expression in primary macrophages and monocytic cell lines. PPARγ mRNA expression was also induced in primary macrophages and THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells by the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Inhibition of protein kinase C blocked the induction of PPARγ expression by TPA, but not by oxLDL, suggesting that more than one signaling pathway regulates PPARγ expression in macrophages. TPA induced the expression of PPARγ in RAW 264.7 macrophages by increasing transcription from the PPARγ1 and PPARγ3 promoters. In concert, these observations provide insights into the regulation of PPARγ expression in activated macrophages and raise the possibility that PPARγ ligands may influence the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:9636198

  8. Toll-like receptor 4-mediated cAMP production up-regulates B-cell activating factor expression in Raw264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Yi; Lee, Yu-Sun; Choi, Wahn Soo; Lee, Mi-Hee

    2011-10-15

    B-cell activating factor (BAFF) plays a role in the generation and the maintenance of mature B cells. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased BAFF expression through the activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent signal transduction. Here, we investigated the mechanism of action on mouse BAFF (mBAFF) expression by cAMP production in Raw264.7 mouse macrophages. mBAFF expression was increased by the treatment with a cAMP analogue, dibutyryl-cAMP which is the activator of protein kinase A (PKA), cAMP effector protein. PKA activation was measured by the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) on serine 133 (S133). cAMP production and CREB (S133) phosphorylation were augmented by LPS-stimulation. While mBAFF promoter activity was enhanced by the co-transfection with pS6-RSV-CREB, it was reduced by siRNA-CREB. PKA inhibitor, H-89, reduced CREB (S133) phosphorylation and mBAFF expression in control and LPS-stimulated macrophages. Another principal cAMP effector protein is cAMP-responsive guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Epac), a Rap GDP exchange factor. Epac was activated by the treatment with 8-(4-chloro-phenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (CPT), Epac activator, as judged by the measurement of Rap1 activation. Basal level of mBAFF expression was increased by CPT treatment. LPS-stimulated mBAFF expression was also slightly enhanced by co-treatment with CPT. In addition, dibutyryl-cAMP and CPT enhanced mBAFF expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). With these data, it suggests that the activation of PKA and cAMP/Epac1/Rap1 pathways could be required for basal mBAFF expression, as well as being up-regulated in the TLR4-induced mBAFF expression. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Induction of different activated phenotypes of mouse peritoneal macrophages grown in different tissue culture media.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tomoya; Koike, Atsushi; Amano, Fumio

    2017-08-01

    The role of activated macrophages in the host defense against pathogens or tumor cells has been investigated extensively. Many researchers have been using various culture media in in vitro experiments using macrophages. We previously reported that J774.1/JA-4 macrophage-like cells showed great differences in their activated macrophage phenotypes, such as production of reactive oxygen, nitric oxide (NO) or cytokines depending on the culture medium used, either F-12 (Ham's F-12 nutrient mixture) or Dulbecco modified Eagle's medium (DMEM). To examine whether a difference in the culture medium would influence the functions of primary macrophages, we used BALB/c mouse peritoneal macrophages in this study. Among the activated macrophage phenotypes, the expression of inducible NO synthase in LPS- and/or IFN-γ-treated peritoneal macrophages showed the most remarkable differences between F-12 and DMEM; i.e., NO production by LPS- and/or IFN-γ-treated cells was far lower in DMEM than in F-12. Similar results were obtained with C57BL mouse peritoneal macrophages. Besides, dilution of F-12 medium with saline resulted in a slight decrease in NO production, whereas that of DMEM with saline resulted in a significant increase, suggesting the possibility that DMEM contained some inhibitory factor(s) for NO production. However, such a difference in NO production was not observed when macrophage-like cell lines were examined. These results suggest that phenotypes of primary macrophages could be changed significantly with respect to host inflammatory responses by the surrounding environment including nutritional factors and that these altered macrophage phenotypes might influence the biological host defense.

  10. Isolation and Differentiation of Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rios, Francisco J; Touyz, Rhian M; Montezano, Augusto C

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages play a major role in inflammation, wound healing, and tissue repair. Infiltrated monocytes differentiate into different macrophage subtypes with protective or pathogenic activities in vascular lesions. In the heart and vascular tissues, pathological activation promotes cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling and there is increasing evidence that macrophages play important mechanisms in this environment. Primary murine macrophages can be obtained from: bone marrow by different treatments (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-GM-CSF, macrophage colony-stimulating factor-M-CSF or supernatant of murine fibroblast L929), peritoneal cavity (resident or thioglycolate elicit macrophages), from the lung (alveolar macrophages) or from adipose tissue. In this chapter we describe some protocols to obtain primary murine macrophages and how to identify a pure macrophage population or activation phenotypes using different markers.

  11. Dihydro-CDDO-trifluoroethyl amide suppresses inflammatory responses in macrophages via activation of Nrf2

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bin; Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208; Abdalrahman, Akram

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Dh404 suppresses the expression of a selected set of pro-inflammatory cytokines in inflamed macrophages via activating Nrf2. • Dh404 activates Nrf2 while keeping Keap1 function intact in macrophages. • Dh404 minimally regulates NF-κB pathway in macrophages. - Abstract: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is the major regulator of cellular defenses against various pathological stresses in a variety of organ systems, thus Nrf2 has evolved to be an attractive drug target for the treatment and/or prevention of human disease. Several synthetic oleanolic triterpenoids including dihydro-CDDO-trifluoroethyl amide (dh404) appear to be potent activators of Nrf2 and exhibit chemopreventive promisesmore » in multiple disease models. While the pharmacological efficacy of Nrf2 activators may be dependent on the nature of Nrf2 activation in specific cell types of target organs, the precise role of Nrf2 in mediating biological effects of Nrf2 activating compounds in various cell types remains to be further explored. Herein we report a unique and Nrf2-dependent anti-inflammatory profile of dh404 in inflamed macrophages. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inflamed RAW264.7 macrophages, dh404 dramatically suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β), while minimally regulating the expression of interleulin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Dh404 potently activated Nrf2 signaling; however, it did not affect LPS-induced NF-κB activity. Dh404 did not interrupt the interaction of Nrf2 with its endogenous inhibitor Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1) in macrophages. Moreover, knockout of Nrf2 blocked the dh404-induced anti-inflammatory responses in LPS-inflamed macrophages. These results demonstrated that dh404 suppresses pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages via an

  12. Proprotein convertase 1/3 inhibited macrophages: A novel therapeutic based on drone macrophages.

    PubMed

    Duhamel, Marie; Rodet, Franck; Murgoci, Adriana; Wisztorski, Maxence; Day, Robert; Fournier, Isabelle; Salzet, Michel

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrated here thanks to proteomic, that proprotein convertase 1/3 knockdown macrophages present all the characteristic of activated pro-inflammatory macrophages. TLR4 and TLR9 signaling pathways can be enhanced leading to the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors and antitumor factors. We can control their activation by controlling one enzyme, PC1/3. In a tumor context, PC1/3 inhibition in macrophages may reactivate them and lead to a cytokine storm after stimulation "at distance" with a TLR ligand. Therefore, we name these proprotein convertase inhibited macrophages the "drone macrophages". They constitute an innovative cell therapy to treat efficiently tumors.

  13. Macrophage Control of Phagocytosed Mycobacteria Is Increased by Factors Secreted by Alveolar Epithelial Cells through Nitric Oxide Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Freidl, Raphaela; Fernández, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-resident macrophages are heterogeneous with tissue-specific and niche-specific functions. Thus, simplified models of macrophage activation do not explain the extent of heterogeneity seen in vivo. We focus here on the respiratory tract and ask whether factors secreted by alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) can influence the functionality of resident pulmonary macrophages (PuM). We have previously reported that factors secreted by AEC increase control of intracellular growth of BCG in macrophages. In the current study, we also aimed to investigate possible mechanisms by which AEC-derived factors increase intracellular control of BCG in both primary murine interstitial macrophages, and bone marrow-derived macrophages and characterize further the effect of these factors on macrophage differentiation. We show that; a) in contrast to other macrophage types, IFN-γ did not increase intracellular growth control of Mycobacterium bovis, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) by interstitial pulmonary macrophages although the same macrophages could be activated by factors secreted by AEC; b) the lack of response of pulmonary macrophages to IFN-γ was apparently regulated by suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1; c) AEC-derived factors did not induce pro-inflammatory pathways induced by IFN-γ e.g. expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), secretion of nitric oxide (NO), or IL-12, d) in contrast to IFN-γ, intracellular bacterial destruction induced by AEC-derived factors was not dependent on iNOS transcription and NO production. Collectively, our data show that PuM were restricted in inflammatory responses mediated by IFN-γ through SOCS1 and that factors secreted by AEC- enhanced the microbicidal capacities of macrophages by iNOS independent mechanisms. PMID:25089618

  14. Neutrophils induce macrophage anti-inflammatory reprogramming by suppressing NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Marwick, John A; Mills, Ross; Kay, Oliver; Michail, Kyriakos; Stephen, Jillian; Rossi, Adriano G; Dransfield, Ian; Hirani, Nikhil

    2018-06-04

    Apoptotic cells modulate the function of macrophages to control and resolve inflammation. Here, we show that neutrophils induce a rapid and sustained suppression of NF-κB signalling in the macrophage through a unique regulatory relationship which is independent of apoptosis. The reduction of macrophage NF-κB activation occurs through a blockade in transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and IKKβ activation. As a consequence, NF-κB (p65) phosphorylation is reduced, its translocation to the nucleus is inhibited and NF-κB-mediated inflammatory cytokine transcription is suppressed. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis reveals that this suppression of NF-κB activation is not restricted to post-translational modifications of the canonical NF-κB pathway, but is also imprinted at the transcriptional level. Thus neutrophils exert a sustained anti-inflammatory phenotypic reprogramming of the macrophage, which is reflected by the sustained reduction in the release of pro- but not anti- inflammatory cytokines from the macrophage. Together, our findings identify a novel apoptosis-independent mechanism by which neutrophils regulate the mediator profile and reprogramming of monocytes/macrophages, representing an important nodal point for inflammatory control.

  15. Microgravity inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α expression in macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chongzhen; Luo, Haiying; Zhu, Linnan; Yang, Fan; Chu, Zhulang; Tian, Hongling; Feng, Meifu; Zhao, Yong; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Microgravity environments in space can cause major abnormalities in human physiology, including decreased immunity. The underlying mechanisms of microgravity-induced inflammatory defects in macrophages are unclear. RAW264.7 cells and primary mouse macrophages were used in the present study. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine expression in mouse macrophages was detected under either simulated microgravity or 1g control. Freshly isolated primary mouse macrophages and RAW264.7 cells were cultured in a standard simulated microgravity situation using a rotary cell culture system (RCCS-1) and 1g control conditions. The cytokine expression was determined by real-time PCR and ELISA assays. Western blots were used to investigate the related intracellular signals. LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression, but not interleukin-1β expression, in mouse macrophages was significantly suppressed under simulated microgravity. The molecular mechanism studies showed that LPS-induced intracellular signal transduction including phosphorylation of IKK and JNK and nuclear translocation of NF-κB in macrophages was identical under normal gravity and simulated microgravity. Furthermore, TNF-α mRNA stability did not decrease under simulated microgravity. Finally, we found that heat shock factor-1 (HSF1), a known repressor of TNF-α promoter, was markedly activated under simulated microgravity. Short-term treatment with microgravity caused significantly decreased TNF-α production. Microgravity-activated HSF1 may contribute to the decreased TNF-α expression in macrophages directly caused by microgravity, while the LPS-induced NF-κB pathway is resistant to microgravity.

  16. Direct imaging of macrophage activation during PDT treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R.; Xing, Da

    2012-03-01

    Mounting evidence describes a more complex progress of macrophage activation during photodynamic therapy (PDT), which performing distinct immunological functions and different physiologies on surrounding cells and tissues. Macrophage-targeted PDT has been applied in the selective killing of cells involved in inflammation and tumor. We have previously shown that PDT-mediated tumor cells apoptosis can induce a higher level immune response than necrosis, and enhance the macrophage activation. However, the molecular mechanism of macrophage activation during PDT-induced apoptotic cells (AC) still unclear. Here, we use confocal microscopy to image the phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages. We also observed that PDT-treated AC can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are present on macrophages surface. Besides, the increase in nitric oxide (NO) formation in macrophages was detected in real time by a laser scanning microscopy. This study provided more details for understanding the molecular mechanism of the immune response induced by PDT-treated AC.

  17. Suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activity by theaflavin-3,3'-digallate from black tea and other polyphenols through down-regulation of IkappaB kinase activity in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pan, M H; Lin-Shiau, S Y; Ho, C T; Lin, J H; Lin, J K

    2000-02-15

    We investigated the inhibition of IkappaB kinase (IKK) activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cell line) by various polyphenols including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, theaflavin, a mixture of theaflavin-3 gallate and theaflavin-3'-gallate, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF-3), pyrocyanidin B-3, casuarinin, geraniin, and penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (5GG). TF-3 inhibited IKK activity in activated macrophages more strongly than did the other polyphenols. TF-3 strongly inhibited both IKK1 and IKK2 activity and prevented the degradation of IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta in activated macrophage cells. The results suggested that the inhibition of IKK activity by TF-3 could occur by a direct effect on IKKs or on upstream events in the signal transduction pathway. Furthermore, geraniin, 5GG, and TF-3 all blocked phosphorylation of IKB from the cytosolic fraction, inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB) activity, and inhibited increases in inducible nitric oxide synthase levels in activated macrophages. These results suggest that TF-3 may exert its anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive actions by suppressing the activation of NFkappaB through inhibition of IKK activity.

  18. Cell plasticity in wound healing: paracrine factors of M1/ M2 polarized macrophages influence the phenotypical state of dermal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Macrophages and fibroblasts are two major players in tissue repair and fibrosis. Despite the relevance of macrophages and fibroblasts in tissue homeostasis, remarkably little is known whether macrophages are able to influence the properties of fibroblasts. Here we investigated the role of paracrine factors secreted by classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) human macrophages on human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Results HDFs stimulated with paracrine factors from M1 macrophages showed a 10 to > 100-fold increase in the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL6, CCL2 and CCL7 and the matrix metalloproteinases MMP1 and MMP3. This indicates that factors produced by M1 macrophages induce a fibroblast phenotype with pro-inflammatory and extracellular matrix (ECM) degrading properties. HDFs stimulated with paracrine factors secreted by M2 macrophages displayed an increased proliferation rate. Interestingly, the M1-activated pro-inflammatory fibroblasts downregulated, after exposure to paracrine factors produced by M2 macrophages or non-conditioned media, the inflammatory markers as well as MMPs and upregulated their collagen production. Conclusions Paracrine factors of M1 or M2 polarized macrophages induced different phenotypes of HDFs and the HDF phenotypes can in turn be reversed, pointing to a high dynamic plasticity of fibroblasts in the different phases of tissue repair. PMID:23601247

  19. Exosomes derived from gastric cancer cells activate NF-κB pathway in macrophages to promote cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lijun; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Hui; Yuan, Xiao; Sun, Yaoxiang; Pan, Zhaoji; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong

    2016-09-01

    Exosomes are nano-sized membrane vesicles secreted by both normal and cancer cells. Emerging evidence indicates that cancer cells derived exosomes contribute to cancer progression through the modulation of tumor microenvironment. However, the effects of exosomes derived from gastric cancer cells on macrophages are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the biological role of gastric cancer cells derived exosomes in the activation of macrophages. We demonstrated that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes activated macrophages to express increased levels of proinflammatory factors, which in turn promoted tumor cell proliferation and migration. In addition, gastric cancer cells derived exosomes remarkably upregulated the phosphorylation of NF-κB in macrophages. Inhibiting the activation of NF-κB reversed the upregulation of proinflammatory factors in macrophages and blocked their promoting effects on gastric cancer cells. Moreover, we found that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes could also activate macrophages from human peripheral blood monocytes through the activation of NF-κB. In conclusion, our results suggest that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes stimulate the activation of NF-κB pathway in macrophages to promote cancer progression, which provides a potential therapeutic approach for gastric cancer by interfering with the interaction between exosomes and macrophages in tumor microenvironment.

  20. Activation of TNFR2 sensitizes macrophages for TNFR1-mediated necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Siegmund, Daniela; Kums, Juliane; Ehrenschwender, Martin; Wajant, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages express TNFR1 as well as TNFR2 and are also major producers of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), especially upon contact with pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Consequently, TNF not only acts as a macrophage-derived effector molecule but also regulates the activity and viability of macrophages. Here, we investigated the individual contribution of TNFR1 and TNFR2 to TNF-induced cell death in macrophages. Exclusive stimulation of TNFR1 showed no cytotoxic effect whereas selective stimulation of TNFR2 displayed mild cytotoxicity. Intriguingly, the latter was strongly enhanced by the caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. The strong cytotoxic activity of TNFR2 in the presence of zVAD-fmk was reversed by necrostatin-1, indicating necroptotic cell death. TNFR1- and TNF-deficient macrophages turned out to be resistant against TNFR2-induced cell death. In addition, the cIAP-depleting SMAC mimetic BV6 also enforced TNF/TNFR1-mediated necroptotic cell death in the presence of zVAD-fmk. In sum, our data suggest a model in which TNFR2 sensitizes macrophages for endogenous TNF-induced TNFR1-mediated necroptosis by the known ability of TNFR2 to interfere with the survival activity of TRAF2-cIAP1/2 complexes. PMID:27899821

  1. Activation of TNFR2 sensitizes macrophages for TNFR1-mediated necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Daniela; Kums, Juliane; Ehrenschwender, Martin; Wajant, Harald

    2016-09-22

    Macrophages express TNFR1 as well as TNFR2 and are also major producers of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), especially upon contact with pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Consequently, TNF not only acts as a macrophage-derived effector molecule but also regulates the activity and viability of macrophages. Here, we investigated the individual contribution of TNFR1 and TNFR2 to TNF-induced cell death in macrophages. Exclusive stimulation of TNFR1 showed no cytotoxic effect whereas selective stimulation of TNFR2 displayed mild cytotoxicity. Intriguingly, the latter was strongly enhanced by the caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. The strong cytotoxic activity of TNFR2 in the presence of zVAD-fmk was reversed by necrostatin-1, indicating necroptotic cell death. TNFR1- and TNF-deficient macrophages turned out to be resistant against TNFR2-induced cell death. In addition, the cIAP-depleting SMAC mimetic BV6 also enforced TNF/TNFR1-mediated necroptotic cell death in the presence of zVAD-fmk. In sum, our data suggest a model in which TNFR2 sensitizes macrophages for endogenous TNF-induced TNFR1-mediated necroptosis by the known ability of TNFR2 to interfere with the survival activity of TRAF2-cIAP1/2 complexes.

  2. Alternatively Activated (M2) Macrophage Phenotype Is Inducible by Endothelin-1 in Cultured Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Soldano, Stefano; Pizzorni, Carmen; Paolino, Sabrina; Trombetta, Amelia Chiara; Montagna, Paola; Brizzolara, Renata; Ruaro, Barbara; Sulli, Alberto; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Alternatively activated (M2) macrophages are phenotypically characterized by the expression of specific markers, mainly macrophage scavenger receptors (CD204 and CD163) and mannose receptor-1 (CD206), and participate in the fibrotic process by over-producing pro-fibrotic molecules, such as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta1) and metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is implicated in the fibrotic process, exerting its pro-fibrotic effects through the interaction with its receptors (ETA and ETB). The study investigated the possible role of ET-1 in inducing the transition from cultured human macrophages into M2 cells. Cultured human monocytes (THP-1 cell line) were activated into macrophages (M0 macrophages) with phorbol myristate acetate and subsequently maintained in growth medium (M0-controls) or treated with either ET-1 (100nM) or interleukin-4 (IL-4, 10ng/mL, M2 inducer) for 72 hours. Similarly, primary cultures of human peripheral blood monocyte (PBM)-derived macrophages obtained from healthy subjects, were maintained in growth medium (untreated cells) or treated with ET-1 or IL-4 for 6 days. Both M0 and PBM-derived macrophages were pre-treated with ET receptor antagonist (ETA/BRA, bosentan 10-5M) for 1 hour before ET-1 stimulation. Protein and gene expression of CD204, CD206, CD163, TGFbeta1 were analysed by immunocytochemistry, Western blotting and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Gene expression of interleukin(IL)-10 and macrophage derived chemokine (CCL-22) was evaluated by qRT-PCR. MMP-9 production was investigated by gel zymography. ET-1 significantly increased the expression of M2 phenotype markers CD204, CD206, CD163, IL-10 and CCL-22, and the production of MMP-9 in both cultures of M0 and PBM-derived macrophages compared to M0-controls and untreated cells. In cultured PBM-derived macrophages, ET-1 increased TGFbeta1 protein and gene expression compared to untreated cells. The ET-1-mediated effects were

  3. Effects of Thalidomide on Intracellular Mycobacterium leprae in Normal and Activated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, A.; Shannon, E. J.

    2005-01-01

    Thalidomide is an effective drug for the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). ENL is an inflammatory reaction that may occur in multibacillary leprosy patients. Its cause(s) as well as the mechanism of thalidomide in arresting this condition are not fully understood. It has been suggested that ENL is an immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity precipitated by the release of Mycobacterium leprae from macrophages. The released antigen may complex with precipitating antibodies, initiating complement fixation and the production of inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Thalidomide has been shown in vitro to reduce antigen- or mitogen-activated macrophage production of TNF-α. We investigated if thalidomide could also influence the viability of intracellular M. leprae. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were infected with M. leprae, activated with gamma interferon and endotoxin, or nonactivated, and treated with thalidomide. Intracellular bacilli were recovered, and metabolic activity was assessed by a radiorespirometric procedure. Thalidomide did not possess antimicrobial action against M. leprae in normal and activated host macrophages. This suggests that thalidomide does not retard the release of mycobacterial antigens, a possible prelude or precipitating factor for ENL. A distinct sequence of events explaining the mechanism of action for thalidomide's successful treatment of ENL has yet to be established. PMID:15642997

  4. Platelet factor 4 (CXCL4) facilitates human macrophage infection with HIV-1 and potentiates virus replication.

    PubMed

    Schwartzkopff, Franziska; Grimm, Tobias A; Lankford, Carla S R; Fields, Karen; Wang, Jiun; Brandt, Ernst; Clouse, Kathleen A

    2009-12-01

    Platelet factor 4 (CXCL4), a member of the CXC chemokine subfamily released in high amounts by activated platelets, has been identified as a monocyte survival factor that induces monocyte differentiation into macrophages. Although CXCL4 has been shown to have biological effects unique to chemokines, nothing is known about the role of CXCL4-derived human macrophages or CXCL4 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. In this study, CXCL4-derived macrophages are compared with macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF)-derived macrophages for their ability to support HIV-1 replication. We show that CXCL4-derived macrophages can be infected with macrophage-tropic HIV-1 that uses either CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) or CXC-chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) as a co-receptor for viral entry. We also find that M-CSF and the chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1; CCL2) and macrophage-inflammatory-protein-1-alpha (MIP-1alpha; CCL3) are produced upon R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1 replication in both M-CSF- and CXCL4-derived human macrophages. In addition, CXCL4 added to M-CSF-derived macrophages after virus adsorption and maintained throughout the infection enhances HIV-1 replication. We thus propose a novel role for CXCL4 in HIV disease.

  5. Macrophage Infiltration Is a Causative Factor for Ligamentum Flavum Hypertrophy through the Activation of Collagen Production in Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takeyuki; Hara, Masamitsu; Kumamaru, Hiromi; Kobayakawa, Kazu; Yokota, Kazuya; Kijima, Ken; Yoshizaki, Shingo; Harimaya, Katsumi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Hayashida, Mitsumasa; Inagaki, Yutaka; Shiba, Keiichiro; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Okada, Seiji

    2017-12-01

    Ligamentum flavum (LF) hypertrophy causes lumbar spinal canal stenosis, leading to leg pain and disability in activities of daily living in elderly individuals. Although previous studies have been performed on LF hypertrophy, its pathomechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that infiltrating macrophages were a causative factor for LF hypertrophy. Induction of macrophages into the mouse LF by applying a microinjury resulted in LF hypertrophy along with collagen accumulation and fibroblasts proliferation at the injured site, which were very similar to the characteristics observed in the severely hypertrophied LF of human. However, we found that macrophage depletion by injecting clodronate-containing liposomes counteracted LF hypertrophy even with microinjury. For identification of fibroblasts in the LF, we used collagen type I α 2 linked to green fluorescent protein transgenic mice and selectively isolated green fluorescent protein-positive fibroblasts from the microinjured LF using laser microdissection. A quantitative RT-PCR on laser microdissection samples revealed that the gene expression of collagen markedly increased in the fibroblasts at the injured site with infiltrating macrophages compared with the uninjured location. These results suggested that macrophage infiltration was crucial for LF hypertrophy by stimulating collagen production in fibroblasts, providing better understanding of the pathophysiology of LF hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. MIF-driven activation of macrophages induces killing of intracellular Trypanosoma cruzi dependent on endogenous production of tumor necrosis factor, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Cutrullis, Romina A; Petray, Patricia B; Corral, Ricardo S

    2017-02-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a key player in innate immunity. MIF has been considered critical for controlling acute infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Our study aimed to analyze whether MIF could favor microbicidal activity of the macrophage, a site where T. cruzi grows and the initial effector cell against this parasite. Using murine macrophages infected in vitro, we examined the effect of MIF on their parasiticidal ability and attempted to identify inflammatory agents involved in MIF-induced protection. Our findings show that MIF is readily secreted from peritoneal macrophages upon T. cruzi infection. MIF activates both primary and J774 phagocytes boosting the endogenous production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha via mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 signaling, as well as the release of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, leading to enhanced pathogen elimination. MIF can also potentiate the effect of interferon-gamma on T. cruzi killing by J774 and mouse peritoneal macrophages, rendering these cells more competent in reducing intracellular parasite burden. The present results unveil a novel innate immune pathway that contributes to host defense and broaden our understanding of the regulation of inflammatory mediators implicated in early parasite containment that is decisive for resistance to T. cruzi infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding the Mysterious M2 Macrophage through Activation Markers and Effector Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Rőszer, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    The alternatively activated or M2 macrophages are immune cells with high phenotypic heterogeneity and are governing functions at the interface of immunity, tissue homeostasis, metabolism, and endocrine signaling. Today the M2 macrophages are identified based on the expression pattern of a set of M2 markers. These markers are transmembrane glycoproteins, scavenger receptors, enzymes, growth factors, hormones, cytokines, and cytokine receptors with diverse and often yet unexplored functions. This review discusses whether these M2 markers can be reliably used to identify M2 macrophages and define their functional subdivisions. Also, it provides an update on the novel signals of the tissue environment and the neuroendocrine system which shape the M2 activation. The possible evolutionary roots of the M2 macrophage functions are also discussed. PMID:26089604

  8. Antitumor and Antimetastatic Activity of Synthetic Hydroxystilbenes Through Inhibition of Lymphangiogenesis and M2 Macrophage Differentiation of Tumor-associated Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho; Baba, Kimiye

    2016-01-01

    An increase in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) around the tumor microenvironment has been closely associated with a poor prognosis in patients with cancer, and M2 TAMs promote tumor growth and tumor metastasis by stimulating angiogenesis or lymphangiogenesis in tumors. We herein examined the effects of nine synthetic hydroxystilbenes on M2 macrophage activation and differentiation, and three selected dihydroxystilbenes on vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF)-C-induced tube formation in human lymphatic endothelial cells (HLECs) (in vitro). We also investigated the antitumor and antimetastatic effects of three synthetic dihydroxystilbenes in LM8-bearing mice in vivo. The three selected synthetic stilbenes (at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, and 50 μM) inhibited the production of interleukin-10 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in M2 macrophages, but promoted that of transforming growth factor-β1. The three dihydroxystilbenes (at concentrations of 10-50 μM) inhibited the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcript 3 without affecting its expression in the differentiation of M2 macrophages. Furthermore, the 2,3- and 4,4'-dihydroxystilbene inhibited VEGF-C-induced lymphangiogenesis in HLECs. Both 2,3- and 4,4'-dihydroxystilbene (at 10 and 25 mg/kg, twice daily) inhibited tumor growth and metastasis to the lung in mice. These results suggested that the antitumor and antimetastatic effects of 2,3- and 4,4'-dihydroxystilbene were partly due to anti-lymphangiogenesis, and the regulation of M2 macrophage activation and differentiation. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. ASK1-dependent recruitment and activation of macrophages induce hair growth in skin wounds

    PubMed Central

    Osaka, Nao; Takahashi, Takumi; Murakami, Shiori; Matsuzawa, Atsushi; Noguchi, Takuya; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Moriyama, Keiji; Takeda, Kohsuke; Ichijo, Hidenori

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein 3-kinase family that activates both c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and p38 pathways in response to inflammatory cytokines and physicochemical stress. We report that ASK1 deficiency in mice results in dramatic retardation of wounding-induced hair regrowth in skin. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis revealed that expression of several chemotactic and activating factors for macrophages, as well as several macrophage-specific marker genes, was reduced in the skin wound area of ASK1-deficient mice. Intracutaneous transplantation of cytokine-activated bone marrow-derived macrophages strongly induced hair growth in both wild-type and ASK1-deficient mice. These findings indicate that ASK1 is required for wounding-induced infiltration and activation of macrophages, which play central roles in inflammation-dependent hair regrowth in skin. PMID:17389227

  10. Augmented macrophage differentiation and polarization of tumor-associated macrophages towards M1 subtype in listeria-administered tumor-bearing host.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rakesh K; Vishvakarma, Naveen K; Mohapatra, Tribhuban M; Singh, Sukh Mahendra

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of Listeria administration on differentiation of macrophages from precursor bone marrow cells and functional status of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). Listeria administration not only resulted in an augmented infiltration of tumor by F4/80 macrophages but also repolarized the functional status of TAM displaying features of some M1 macrophage subtype with upregulated phagocytosis and tumoricidal activity accompanied by altered expression of monocarboxylate transporter-1, toll-like receptor-2, surface markers: CD11c, interleukin-2 receptor, CD62L, and secreted molecules: nitric oxide, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Declined tumor cell survival and modulated repertoire of cytokines: interferon-γ, IL-6, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-β in tumor microenvironment indicated their role in polarization of TAM towards proinflammatory state. Bone marrow cell of Listeria-administered tumor-bearing mice showed augmented survival, declined expression of p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis with an upregulated differentiation into activation responsive bone marrow-derived macrophages along with altered expression of macrophage-colony stimulating factor, macrophage-colony stimulating factor receptor, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor receptor. These findings indicate that Listeria infection is associated with an augmented differentiation of macrophages accompanied by tumoricidal activation of TAM.

  11. Native low-density lipoprotein uptake by macrophage colony-stimulating factor-differentiated human macrophages is mediated by macropinocytosis and micropinocytosis.

    PubMed

    Anzinger, Joshua J; Chang, Janet; Xu, Qing; Buono, Chiara; Li, Yifu; Leyva, Francisco J; Park, Bum-Chan; Greene, Lois E; Kruth, Howard S

    2010-10-01

    To examine the pinocytotic pathways mediating native low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake by human macrophage colony-stimulating factor-differentiated macrophages (the predominant macrophage phenotype in human atherosclerotic plaques). We identified the kinase inhibitor SU6656 and the Rho GTPase inhibitor toxin B as inhibitors of macrophage fluid-phase pinocytosis of LDL. Assessment of macropinocytosis by time-lapse microscopy revealed that both drugs almost completely inhibited macropinocytosis, although LDL uptake and cholesterol accumulation by macrophages were only partially inhibited (approximately 40%) by these agents. Therefore, we investigated the role of micropinocytosis in mediating LDL uptake in macrophages and identified bafilomycin A1 as an additional partial inhibitor (approximately 40%) of macrophage LDL uptake that targeted micropinocytosis. When macrophages were incubated with both bafilomycin A1 and SU6656, inhibition of LDL uptake was additive (reaching 80%), showing that these inhibitors target different pathways. Microscopic analysis of fluid-phase uptake pathways in these macrophages confirmed that LDL uptake occurs through both macropinocytosis and micropinocytosis. Our findings show that human macrophage colony-stimulating factor-differentiated macrophages take up native LDL by macropinocytosis and micropinocytosis, underscoring the importance of both pathways in mediating LDL uptake by these cells.

  12. Assessment of Antibody-based Drugs Effects on Murine Bone Marrow and Peritoneal Macrophage Activation.

    PubMed

    Kozicky, Lisa; Sly, Laura M

    2017-12-26

    Macrophages are phagocytic innate immune cells, which initiate immune responses to pathogens and contribute to healing and tissue restitution. Macrophages are equally important in turning off inflammatory responses. We have shown that macrophages stimulated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) can produce high amounts of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 10 (IL-10), and low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). IVIg is a polyvalent antibody, primarily immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs), pooled from the plasma of more than 1,000 blood donors. It is used to supplement antibodies in patients with immune deficiencies or to suppress immune responses in patients with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions. Infliximab, a therapeutic anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) antibody, has also been shown to activate macrophages to produce IL-10 in response to inflammatory stimuli. IVIg and other antibody-based biologics can be tested to determine their effects on macrophage activation. This paper describes methods for derivation, stimulation, and assessment of murine bone marrow macrophages activated by antibodies in vitro and murine peritoneal macrophages activated with antibodies in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate the use of western blotting to determine the contribution of specific cell signaling pathways to anti-inflammatory macrophage activity. These protocols can be used with genetically modified mice, to determine the effect of a specific protein(s) on anti-inflammatory macrophage activation. These techniques can also be used to assess whether specific biologics may act by changing macrophages to an IL-10-producing anti-inflammatory activation state that reduces inflammatory responses in vivo. This can provide information on the role of macrophage activation in the efficacy of biologics during disease models in mice, and provide insight into a potential new mechanism of action in people. Conversely, this may caution

  13. Keap1 silencing boosts lipopolysaccharide-induced transcription of interleukin 6 via activation of nuclear factor κB in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Peng; Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709; Xue, Peng

    2013-11-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL6) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates immune and inflammatory responses. Multiple transcription factors, including nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), regulate IL6 transcription. Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) is a substrate adaptor protein for the Cullin 3-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which regulates the degradation of many proteins, including Nrf2 and IκB kinase β (IKKβ). Here, we found that stable knockdown of Keap1 (Keap1-KD) in RAW 264.7 (RAW) mouse macrophages and human monocyte THP-1 cells significantly increased expression of Il6, and Nrf2-target genes, under basal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.001–0.1 μg/ml)-challenged conditions. However, Nrf2more » activation alone, by tert-butylhydroquinone treatment of RAW cells, did not increase expression of Il6. Compared to cells transduced with scrambled non-target negative control shRNA, Keap1-KD RAW cells showed enhanced protein levels of IKKβ and increased expression and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 under non-stressed and LPS-treated conditions. Because the expression of Il6 in Keap1-KD RAW cells was significantly attenuated by silencing of Ikkβ, but not Nrf2, it appears that stabilized IKKβ is responsible for the enhanced transactivation of Il6 in Keap1-KD cells. This study demonstrated that silencing of Keap1 in macrophages boosts LPS-induced transcription of Il6 via NF-κB activation. Given the importance of IL6 in the inflammatory response, the Keap1–IKKβ–NF-κB pathway may be a novel target for treatment and prevention of inflammation and associated disorders. - Highlights: • Knockdown of Keap1 increases expression of Il6 in macrophages. • Silencing of Keap1 results in protein accumulation of IKKβ and NF-κB p65. • Induction of Il6 resulting from Keap1 silencing is attributed to NF-κB activation.« less

  14. Alternatively activated macrophages in helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Timothy; Anthony, Robert M.; Urban, Joseph F.; Gause, William C.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Helminthic parasites can trigger highly polarized immune responses typically associated with increased numbers of CD4+ Th2 cells, eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils. These cell populations are thought to coordinate an effective response ultimately leading to parasite expulsion, but they also play a role in the regulation of associated pathologic inflammation. Recent studies suggest that macrophages, conventionally associated with IFNγ-dominant Th1-type responses to many bacteria and viruses, also play an essential role in the Th2-type inflammatory response. These macrophages are referred to as alternatively activated macrophages (AAMΦs) as they express a characteristic pattern of cell surface and secreted molecules distinct from that of classically activated macrophages (CAMΦs) associated with microbe infections. In this review, we will discuss recent findings regarding the role of AAMΦs in the development of disease and host protection following helminth infection. PMID:17702561

  15. Vitamin A mediates conversion of monocyte-derived macrophages into tissue resident macrophages during alternative activation

    PubMed Central

    Gundra, Uma Mahesh; Girgis, Natasha M; Gonzalez, Michael A; Tang, Mei San; Van Der Zande, Hendrik J P; Lin, Jian-Da; Ouimet, Mireille; Ma, Lily J; Poles, Jordan A; Vozhilla, Nikollaq; Fisher, Edward A; Moore, Kathryn J; Loke, P’ng

    2017-01-01

    Whether activated inflammatory macrophages can adopt features of tissue resident macrophages and what mechanisms mediate this phenotypic conversion remain unclear. Here we show that vitamin A was required for phenotypic conversion of interleukin 4 (IL-4)-activated monocyte-derived F4/80intCD206+PD-L2+MHCII+ macrophages into macrophages with a tissue-resident F4/80hiCD206−PD-L2−MHCII−UCP1+ phenotype in the peritoneal cavity of mice and during liver granuloma formation in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Phenotypic conversion of F4/80intCD206+ macrophages into F4/80hiCD206− macrophages was associated with almost complete remodeling of the chromatin landscape, as well as alteration of the transcriptional profiles. Vitamin A deficient mice infected with S. mansoni had disrupted liver granuloma architecture and increased mortality, indicating that failure to convert from F4/80intCD206+ macrophages to F4/80hiCD206− macrophages may lead to dysregulated inflammation during helminth infection. PMID:28436955

  16. PAI-1 (Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1) Expression Renders Alternatively Activated Human Macrophages Proteolytically Quiescent

    PubMed Central

    Hohensinner, Philipp J.; Baumgartner, Johanna; Kral-Pointner, Julia B.; Uhrin, Pavel; Ebenbauer, Benjamin; Thaler, Barbara; Doberer, Konstantin; Stojkovic, Stefan; Demyanets, Svitlana; Fischer, Michael B.; Huber, Kurt; Schabbauer, Gernot; Speidl, Walter S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective— Macrophages are versatile immune cells capable of polarizing into functional subsets depending on environmental stimulation. In atherosclerotic lesions, proinflammatory polarized macrophages are associated with symptomatic plaques, whereas Th2 (T-helper cell type 2) cytokine–polarized macrophages are inversely related with disease progression. To establish a functional cause for these observations, we analyzed extracellular matrix degradation phenotypes in polarized macrophages. Approach and Results— We provide evidence that proinflammatory polarized macrophages rely on membrane-bound proteases including MMP-14 (matrix metalloproteinase-14) and the serine protease uPA (urokinase plasminogen activator) together with its receptor uPAR for extracellular matrix degradation. In contrast, Th2 cytokine alternatively primed macrophages do not show different proteolytic activity in comparison to unpolarized macrophages and lack increased localization of MMP-14 and uPA receptor to the cell membrane. Nonetheless, they express the highest amount of the serine protease uPA. However, uPA activity is blocked by similarly increased expression of its inhibitor PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1). When inhibiting PAI-1 or when analyzing macrophages deficient in PAI-1, Th2 cytokine–polarized macrophages display the same matrix degradation capability as proinflammatory-primed macrophages. Within atherosclerotic lesions, macrophages positive for the alternative activation marker CD206 express high levels of PAI-1. In addition, to test changed tissue remodeling capacities of alternatively activated macrophages, we used a bleomycin lung injury model in mice reconstituted with PAI-1−/− bone marrow. These results supported an enhanced remodeling phenotype displayed by increased fibrosis and elevated MMP activity in the lung after PAI-1 loss. Conclusions— We were able to demonstrate matrix degradation dependent on membrane-bound proteases in proinflammatory

  17. Studies on the mechanisms of macrophage activation. I. Destruction of intracellular Leishmania enriettii in macrophages activated by cocultivation with stimulated lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Mauel, J; Buchmüller, Y; Behin, R

    1978-08-01

    When cultures of normal mouse peritoneal macrophages were infected with the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania enrietti, the micro-organism was found to survive intracellularly for several days, apparently without multiplication. However, exposure of infected macrophages to certain stimuli led to rapid parasite killing and digestion, providing a sensitive assay with which the mechanisms of macrophage activation can be studied. Microbicidal activity was induced by incubation of macrophages with syngeneic spleen lymphocytes, which were stimulated either by allogeneic cells in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) or by the plant lectin concanavalin A (Con A). Cocultivation with MLCs led to parasite killing within 48-72 h, whereas exposure of infected cells to Con A-stimulated lymphocytes resulted in substantial destruction of the micro-organism within less than 24 h, an effect which was dependent on the presence of thymus-derived lymphocytes and was inhibited by alpha methyl-mannoside. Incubation with Con A-stimulated lymphocytes also led to lysis of part of the macrophage monolayer. However, parasite killing did not result from decreased macrophage survival, as destruction of the micro-organism was highest under culture conditions which were the least detrimental to the phagocytes. Conversely, excess numbers of Con A-stimulated lymphocytes were less efficient at inducing macrophage activation and displayed marked toxicity to the macrophage monolayer. When spleen cells were stimulated by Con A at concentrations above 10 mug/ml, a decrease was noted in the capacity of macrophages to destroy the parasite, probably reflecting a toxicity of the lectin for lymphocytes resulting in impaired activating capacity.

  18. Activation of murine macrophages by lipoprotein and lipooligosaccharide of Treponema denticola.

    PubMed

    Rosen, G; Sela, M N; Naor, R; Halabi, A; Barak, V; Shapira, L

    1999-03-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the periodontopathogenic oral spirochete Treponema denticola possesses membrane-associated lipoproteins in addition to lipooligosaccharide (LOS). The aim of the present study was to test the potential of these oral spirochetal components to induce the production of inflammatory mediators by human macrophages, which in turn may stimulate tissue breakdown as observed in periodontal diseases. An enriched lipoprotein fraction (dLPP) from T. denticola ATCC 35404 obtained upon extraction of the treponemes with Triton X-114 was found to stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1 (IL-1) by mouse macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Induction of NO by dLPP was at 25% of the levels obtained by Salmonella typhosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at similar concentrations, while IL-1 was produced at similar levels by both inducers. dLPP-mediated macrophage activation was unaffected by amounts of polymyxin B that neutralized the induction produced by S. typhosa LPS. dLPP also induced NO and TNF-alpha secretion from macrophages isolated from endotoxin-unresponsive C3H/HeJ mice to an extent similar to the stimulation produced in endotoxin-responsive mice. Purified T. denticola LOS also produced a concentration-dependent activation of NO and TNF-alpha in LPS-responsive and -nonresponsive mouse macrophages. However, macrophage activation by LOS was inhibited by polymyxin B. These results suggest that T. denticola lipoproteins and LOS may play a role in the inflammatory processes that characterize periodontal diseases.

  19. A Nitric Oxide Storage and Transport System That Protects Activated Macrophages from Endogenous Nitric Oxide Cytotoxicity*

    PubMed Central

    Lok, Hiu Chuen; Sahni, Sumit; Jansson, Patric J.; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Hawkins, Clare L.; Richardson, Des R.

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is integral to macrophage cytotoxicity against tumors due to its ability to induce iron release from cancer cells. However, the mechanism for how activated macrophages protect themselves from endogenous NO remains unknown. We previously demonstrated by using tumor cells that glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) sequesters NO as dinitrosyl-dithiol iron complexes (DNICs) and inhibits NO-mediated iron release from cells via the transporter multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1). These prior studies also showed that MRP1 and GSTP1 protect tumor cells against NO cytotoxicity, which parallels their roles in defending cancer cells from cytotoxic drugs. Considering this, and because GSTP1 and MRP1 are up-regulated during macrophage activation, this investigation examined whether this NO storage/transport system protects macrophages against endogenous NO cytotoxicity in two well characterized macrophage cell types (J774 and RAW 264.7). MRP1 expression markedly increased upon macrophage activation, and the role of MRP1 in NO-induced 59Fe release was demonstrated by Mrp1 siRNA and the MRP1 inhibitor, MK571, which inhibited NO-mediated iron efflux. Furthermore, Mrp1 silencing increased DNIC accumulation in macrophages, indicating a role for MRP1 in transporting DNICs out of cells. In addition, macrophage 59Fe release was enhanced by silencing Gstp1, suggesting GSTP1 was responsible for DNIC binding/storage. Viability studies demonstrated that GSTP1 and MRP1 protect activated macrophages from NO cytotoxicity. This was confirmed by silencing nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which decreased MRP1 and GSTP1 expression, concomitant with reduced 59Fe release and macrophage survival. Together, these results demonstrate a mechanism by which macrophages protect themselves against NO cytotoxicity. PMID:27866158

  20. NF-kappaB Activity in Macrophages Determines Metastatic Potential of Breast Tumor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Cheng DS, Chodosh LA, Blackwell TS, Yull FE: Activation of nuclear factor kappa B in mammary epithelium promotes milk loss during mammary... microbial products (15, 16). To date, the potential role of macrophages in the fetal lung innate immune response has not been closely examined. Studies...In this model, microbial products initially activate NF-kB in lung macrophages. The release of inflammatory mediators, particularly IL-1b and/or TNF-a

  1. Macrophage activation by heparanase is mediated by TLR-2 and TLR-4 and associates with plaque progression.

    PubMed

    Blich, Miry; Golan, Amnon; Arvatz, Gil; Sebbag, Anat; Shafat, Itay; Sabo, Edmond; Cohen-Kaplan, Victoria; Petcherski, Sirouch; Avniel-Polak, Shani; Eitan, Amnon; Hammerman, Haim; Aronson, Doron; Axelman, Elena; Ilan, Neta; Nussbaum, Gabriel; Vlodavsky, Israel

    2013-02-01

    Factors and mechanisms that activate macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques are incompletely understood. We examined the capacity of heparanase to activate macrophages. Highly purified heparanase was added to mouse peritoneal macrophages and macrophage-like J774 cells, and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, matrix metalloproteinase-9, interlukin-1, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 were evaluated by ELISA. Gene expression was determined by RT-PCR. Cells collected from Toll-like receptor-2 and Toll-like receptor-4 knockout mice were evaluated similarly. Heparanase levels in the plasma of patients with acute myocardial infarction, stable angina, and healthy subjects were determined by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the expression of heparanase in control specimens and specimens of patients with stable angina or acute myocardial infarction. Addition or overexpression of heparanase variants resulted in marked increase in tumor necrosis factor-α, matrix metalloproteinase-9, interlukin-1, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels. Mouse peritoneal macrophages harvested from Toll-like receptor-2 or Toll-like receptor-4 knockout mice were not activated by heparanase. Plasma heparanase level was higher in patients with acute myocardial infarction, compared with patients with stable angina and healthy subjects. Pathologic coronary specimens obtained from vulnerable plaques showed increased heparanase staining compared with specimens of stable plaque and controls. Heparanase activates macrophages, resulting in marked induction of cytokine expression associated with plaque progression toward vulnerability.

  2. Crotoxin stimulates an M1 activation profile in murine macrophages during Leishmania amazonensis infection.

    PubMed

    Farias, L H S; Rodrigues, A P D; Coêlho, E C; Santos, M F; Sampaio, S C; Silva, E O

    2017-09-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. This protozoan employs several mechanisms to subvert the microbicidal activity of macrophages and, given the limited efficacy of current therapies, the development of alternative treatments is essential. Animal venoms are known to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including antiparasitic effects. Crotoxin (CTX) is the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, and it has several biological effects. Nevertheless, there is no report of CTX activity during macrophage - Leishmania interactions. Thus, the main objective of this study was to evaluate whether CTX has a role in macrophage M1 polarization during Leishmania infection murine macrophages, Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and L. amazonensis-infected macrophages were challenged with CTX. MTT [3-(4,5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrasodium bromide] toxicity assays were performed on murine macrophages, and no damage was observed in these cells. Promastigotes, however, were affected by treatment with CTX (IC50 = 22·86 µg mL-1) as were intracellular amastigotes. Macrophages treated with CTX also demonstrated increased reactive oxygen species production. After they were infected with Leishmania, macrophages exhibited an increase in nitric oxide production that converged into an M1 activation profile, as suggested by their elevated production of the cytokines interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α and changes in their morphology. CTX was able to reverse the L. amazonensis-mediated inhibition of macrophage immune responses and is capable of polarizing macrophages to the M1 profile, which is associated with a better prognosis for cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment.

  3. Immunostimulatory effect of spinach aqueous extract on mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Momoko; Ose, Saya; Nishi, Kosuke; Sugahara, Takuya

    2016-07-01

    We herein report the immunostimulatory effect of spinach aqueous extract (SAE) on mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages. SAE significantly enhanced the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α by both J774.1 cells and peritoneal macrophages by enhancing the expression levels of these cytokine genes. In addition, the phagocytosis activity of J774.1 cells was facilitated by SAE. Immunoblot analysis revealed that SAE activates mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB cascades. It was found that SAE activates macrophages through not only TLR4, but also other receptors. The production of IL-6 was significantly enhanced by peritoneal macrophages from SAE-administered BALB/c mice, suggesting that SAE has a potential to stimulate macrophage activity in vivo. Taken together, these data indicate that SAE would be a beneficial functional food with immunostimulatory effects on macrophages.

  4. Serum from aged F344 rats conditions the activation of young macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Christian R; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Nishimura, Sumiyo; Pérez, Viviana; Escobar, Alejandro; Salazar-Onfray, Flavio; Sabaj, Valeria; Torres, Claudio; Walter, Robin; Sierra, Felipe

    2006-03-01

    There is considerable controversy about the molecular mechanisms responsible for the variations in innate immunity associated with age. While in vivo, aged animals and humans react to an inflammatory signal with an excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, studies in vitro generally show that this response is attenuated in macrophages from old individuals. In an effort to examine possible extrinsic factors that might affect the response of macrophages to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we have challenged peritoneal macrophages obtained from young rats with sera obtained from rats of different ages. Our results indicate that the serum from aged rats significantly impairs the capacity of young macrophages to induce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production, while at the same time it increases the basal levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6). The effect of serum from aged donors on TNF-alpha secretion requires pre-incubation and is sensitive to heat inactivation. In contrast, the stimulating effect on IL-6 is resistant to heat, and thus should not be due to a protein factor. Therefore, our results indicate that the age-related changes in macrophage activity are not only the consequence of intrinsic changes, but there also appears to be a modulatory effect imparted by the external milieu.

  5. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Enzymatic Activity, Lung Inflammation, and Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Adamali, Huzaifa; Armstrong, Michelle E.; McLaughlin, Anne Marie; Cooke, Gordon; McKone, Edward; Costello, Christine M.; Gallagher, Charles G.; Leng, Lin; Baugh, John A.; Fingerle-Rowson, Günter; Bucala, Richard J.; McLoughlin, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory mediator with unique tautomerase enzymatic activity; the precise function has not been clearly defined. We previously demonstrated that individual patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) who are genetically predisposed to be high MIF producers develop accelerated end-organ injury. Objectives: To characterize the effects of the MIF-CATT polymorphism in patients with CF ex vivo. To investigate the role of MIF’s tautomerase activity in a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Methods: MIF and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α protein levels were assessed in plasma or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) supernatants by ELISA. A murine pulmonary model of chronic Pseudomonas infection was used in MIF wild-type mice (mif+/+) and in tautomerase-null, MIF gene knockin mice (mif P1G/P1G). Measurements and Main Results: MIF protein was measured in plasma and PBMCs from 5- and 6-CATT patients with CF; LPS-induced TNF-α production from PBMCs was also assessed. The effect of a specific inhibitor of MIF-tautomerase activity, ISO-1, was investigated in PBMCs. In the murine infection model, total weight loss, differential cell counts, bacterial load, and intraacinar airspace/tissue volume were measured. MIF and TNF-α levels were increased in 6-CATT compared with 5-CATT patients with CF. LPS-induced TNF-α production from PBMCs was attenuated in the presence of ISO-1. In a murine model of Pseudomonas infection, significantly less pulmonary inflammation and bacterial load was observed in mifP1G/P1G compared with mif+/+ mice. Conclusions: MIF-tautomerase activity may provide a novel therapeutic target in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases such as CF, particularly those patients who are genetically predisposed to produce increased levels of this cytokine. PMID:22592805

  6. Conditional deletion of caspase-8 in macrophages alters macrophage activation in a RIPK-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Cuda, Carla M; Misharin, Alexander V; Khare, Sonal; Saber, Rana; Tsai, FuNien; Archer, Amy M; Homan, Philip J; Haines, G Kenneth; Hutcheson, Jack; Dorfleutner, Andrea; Budinger, G R Scott; Stehlik, Christian; Perlman, Harris

    2015-10-16

    Although caspase-8 is a well-established initiator of apoptosis and suppressor of necroptosis, recent evidence suggests that this enzyme maintains functions beyond its role in cell death. As cells of the innate immune system, and in particular macrophages, are now at the forefront of autoimmune disease pathogenesis, we examined the potential involvement of caspase-8 within this population. Cre (LysM) Casp8 (fl/fl) mice were bred via a cross between Casp8 (fl/fl) mice and Cre (LysM) mice, and RIPK3 (-/-) Cre (LysM) Casp8 (fl/fl) mice were generated to assess the contribution of receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase (RIPK)3. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses were used to examine renal damage. Flow cytometric analysis was employed to characterize splenocyte distribution and activation. Cre (LysM) Casp8 (fl/fl) mice were treated with either Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists or oral antibiotics to assess their response to TLR activation or TLR agonist removal. Luminex-based assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to measure cytokine/chemokine and immunoglobulin levels in serum and cytokine levels in cell culture studies. In vitro cell culture was used to assess macrophage response to cell death stimuli, TLR activation, and M1/M2 polarization. Data were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Loss of caspase-8 expression in macrophages promotes onset of a mild systemic inflammatory disease, which is preventable by the deletion of RIPK3. In vitro cell culture studies reveal that caspase-8-deficient macrophages are prone to a caspase-independent death in response to death receptor ligation; yet, caspase-8-deficient macrophages are not predisposed to unchecked survival, as analysis of mixed bone marrow chimeric mice demonstrates that caspase-8 deficiency does not confer preferential expansion of myeloid populations. Loss of caspase-8 in macrophages dictates the response to TLR activation, as injection of TLR ligands upregulates

  7. Alternative activation modifies macrophage resistance to Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Velázquez, Uziel; Aranday-Cortés, Elihú; Gutiérrez-Pabello, José A

    2011-07-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of macrophage alternative activation in the intracellular pathogen natural disease resistance phenotype of the host. Macrophage monolayers from resistant (R) (3) or susceptible (S) (3) cattle donors were treated with 10 ng/ml of bovine recombinant IL-4 (rbIL-4), and infected with virulent and avirulent Mycobacterium bovis (MOI 10:1). Bactericidal assays were performed to assess the bacterial phagocytic index and intracellular survival. Total RNA was reverse transcribed and used to analyze the relative changes in gene expression of IL-10, IL-12, IL-18 IL-1β, TNF-α, MCP-1, MCP-2, IL-6, MIP-1, MIP-3, iNOS, ARGII and SLAM by real time PCR. Cell supernatants were collected and nitric oxide and arginase production was assessed. Apoptosis induction was measured by TUNEL. IL-4 treatment increased the phagocytic index in both R and S macrophages; however intracellular survival was augmented mainly in S macrophages. Alternative activation decreased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide production and DNA fragmentation mainly in R macrophages. On the other hand, arginase production was not different between R and S macrophages. Alternative activation modifies the macrophage response against M. bovis. IL-4 treatment minimized the functional differences that exist between R and S macrophages. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Role of interferon regulatory factor-1 in lipopolysaccharide-induced mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress responses in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Song-Yun; Zhang, Le-Meng; Ai, Yu-hang; Pan, Pin-Hua; Zhao, Shuang-Ping; Su, Xiao-Li; Wu, Dong-Dong; Tan, Hong-Yi; Zhang, Li-Na; Tsung, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis causes many early deaths; both macrophage mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress responses are key factors in its pathogenesis. Although the exact mechanisms responsible for sepsis-induced mitochondrial damage are unknown, the nuclear transcription factor, interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) has been reported to cause mitochondrial damage in several diseases. Previously, we reported that in addition to promoting systemic inflammation, IRF-1 promoted the apoptosis of and inhibited autophagy in macrophages. In the present study, we hypothesized that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IRF-1 activation in macrophages may promote mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress. In vitro, LPS was found to promote IRF-1 activation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion, superoxide dismutase (SOD) consumption, malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and mitochondrial depolarization in macrophages in a time- and dose-dependent manner. These effects were abrogated in cells in which IRF-1 was knocked down. Furthermore, IRF-1 overexpression increased LPS-induced oxidative stress responses and mitochondrial damage. In vivo, peritoneal macrophages obtained from IRF-1 knockout (KO) mice produced less ROS and had less mitochondrial depolarization and damage following the administration of LPS, when compared to their wild-type (WT) counterparts. In addition, IRF-1 KO mice exhibited a decreased release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) following the administration of LPS. Thus, IRF-1 may be a critical factor in augmenting LPS-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in macrophages. PMID:28849179

  9. Inhibition of Macrophage Nuclear Factor-κB Leads to a Dominant Anti-Inflammatory Phenotype that Attenuates Glomerular Inflammation in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Heather M.; Chettibi, Salah; Jobin, Christian; Walbaum, David; Rees, Andrew J.; Kluth, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Infiltrating macrophages (mφ) can cause injury or facilitate repair, depending on how they are activated by the microenvironment. Studies in vitro have defined the roles of individual cytokines and signaling pathways in activation, but little is known about how macrophages integrate the multiple signals they receive in vivo. We inhibited nuclear factor-κB in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) by using a recombinant adenovirus expressing dominant-negative IκB (Ad-IκB). This re-orientated macrophage activation so they became profoundly anti-inflammatory in settings where they would normally be classically activated. In vitro, the lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide, interleukin-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α synthesis was abrogated while interleukin-10 synthesis increased. In vivo, fluorescently labeled BMDMs transduced with Ad-IκB and injected into the renal artery significantly reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase and MHC class II expression when activated naturally in glomeruli of rats with nephrotoxic nephritis. Furthermore, although they only comprised 15% of glomerular macrophages, their presence significantly reduced glomerular infiltration and activation of host macrophages. Injury in nephrotoxic nephritis was also decreased when assessed morphologically and by severity of albuminuria. The results demonstrate the power of Ad-IκB-transduced BMDMs to inhibit injury when activated by acute immune-mediated inflammation within the glomerulus. PMID:15972949

  10. Biochemistry of proinflammatory macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Nonnenmacher, Yannic; Hiller, Karsten

    2018-06-01

    In the last decade, metabolism has been recognized as a major determinant of immunological processes. During an inflammatory response, macrophages undergo striking changes in their metabolism. This metabolic reprogramming is governed by a complex interplay between metabolic enzymes and metabolites of different pathways and represents the basis for proper macrophage function. It is now evident that these changes go far beyond the well-known Warburg effect and the perturbation of metabolic targets is being investigated as a means to treat infections and auto-immune diseases. In the present review, we will aim to provide an overview of the metabolic responses during proinflammatory macrophage activation and show how these changes modulate the immune response.

  11. Macrophage activation is responsible for loss of anticontractile function in inflamed perivascular fat.

    PubMed

    Withers, Sarah B; Agabiti-Rosei, Claudia; Livingstone, Daniel M; Little, Matthew C; Aslam, Rehima; Malik, Rayaz A; Heagerty, Anthony M

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether macrophages dispersed throughout perivascular fat are crucial to the loss of anticontractile function when healthy adipose tissue becomes inflamed and to gain an understanding of the mechanisms involved. Pharmacological studies on in vitro small arterial segments from a mouse model of inducible macrophage ablation and on wild-type animals were carried out with and without perivascular fat using 2 physiological stimuli of inflammation: aldosterone and hypoxia. Both inflammatory insults caused a similar loss of anticontractile capacity of perivascular fat and increased macrophage activation. Aldosterone receptor antagonism and free radical scavengers were able to restore this capacity and reduce macrophage activation. However, in a mouse deficient of macrophages CD11b-diptheria toxin receptor (CD11b-DTR), there was no increase in contractility of arteries following aldosterone incubation or hypoxia. The presence and activation of macrophages in adipose tissue is the key modulator of the increase in contractility in arteries with perivascular fat following induction of inflammation. Despite multiple factors that may be involved in bringing about the vascular consequences of obesity, the ability of eplerenone to ameliorate the inflammatory effects of both aldosterone and hypoxia may be of potential therapeutic interest.

  12. Activation of Murine Macrophages by Lipoprotein and Lipooligosaccharide of Treponema denticola

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Graciela; Sela, Michael N.; Naor, Ronit; Halabi, Amal; Barak, Vivian; Shapira, Lior

    1999-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the periodontopathogenic oral spirochete Treponema denticola possesses membrane-associated lipoproteins in addition to lipooligosaccharide (LOS). The aim of the present study was to test the potential of these oral spirochetal components to induce the production of inflammatory mediators by human macrophages, which in turn may stimulate tissue breakdown as observed in periodontal diseases. An enriched lipoprotein fraction (dLPP) from T. denticola ATCC 35404 obtained upon extraction of the treponemes with Triton X-114 was found to stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 (IL-1) by mouse macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Induction of NO by dLPP was at 25% of the levels obtained by Salmonella typhosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at similar concentrations, while IL-1 was produced at similar levels by both inducers. dLPP-mediated macrophage activation was unaffected by amounts of polymyxin B that neutralized the induction produced by S. typhosa LPS. dLPP also induced NO and TNF-α secretion from macrophages isolated from endotoxin-unresponsive C3H/HeJ mice to an extent similar to the stimulation produced in endotoxin-responsive mice. Purified T. denticola LOS also produced a concentration-dependent activation of NO and TNF-α in LPS-responsive and -nonresponsive mouse macrophages. However, macrophage activation by LOS was inhibited by polymyxin B. These results suggest that T. denticola lipoproteins and LOS may play a role in the inflammatory processes that characterize periodontal diseases. PMID:10024558

  13. Macrophage activating activity of pyrrole alkaloids from Morus alba fruits.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon Beom; Chang, Bo Yoon; Jo, Yang Hee; Lee, Sang Hoon; Han, Sang-Bae; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2013-01-09

    The fruits of Morus alba have been traditionally used as a tonic to enhance immune responses. The macrophage activating constituents of Morus alba fruits were purified using various column chromatography techniques. The structures of isolated compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation such as 1D and 2D NMR analysis. The macrophage activating activities of isolated compounds were evaluated by measuring the production of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-12 in RAW 264.7 cells. The phagocytic activity was also evaluated. Five pyrrole alkaloids, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde (1), 2-formyl-1H-pyrrole-1-butanoic acid (2), 2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-1-butanoic acid (3), 2-formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-1-butanoic acid (4) and Morrole A (5) were isolated from the fruits of Morus alba. Morrole A (5) is first reported in nature and other pyrrole alkaloids (1-4) are first reported from Morus species. Among the isolated compounds, compounds 3 and 4 significantly activated macrophage activity by the enhancement of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-12 production, and the stimulation of phagocytic activity in RAW 264.7 cells. Pyrrole alkaloids, including a new compound, were isolated from Morus alba fruits. These compounds activated macrophage activity in RAW 264.7 cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improvement of macrophage dysfunction by administration of anti-transforming growth factor-beta antibody in EL4-bearing hosts.

    PubMed

    Maeda, H; Tsuru, S; Shiraishi, A

    1994-11-01

    An experimental therapy for improvement of macrophage dysfunction caused by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) was tried in EL4 tumor-bearing mice. TGF-beta was detected in cell-free ascitic fluid from EL4-bearers, but not in that from normal mice, by western blot analysis. The ascites also showed growth-suppressive activity against Mv1Lu cells, and the suppressive activity was potentiated by transient acidification. To investigate whether the functions of peritoneal macrophages were suppressed in EL4-bearers, the abilities to produce nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation were measured. Both abilities of macrophages in EL4-bearing mice were suppressed remarkably on day 9, and decreased further by day 14, compared with non-tumor-bearing controls. TGF-beta activity was abrogated by administration of anti-TGF-beta antibody to EL4-bearing mice. While a large amount of TGF-beta was detected in ascitic fluid from control EL4-bearers, little TGF-beta was detectable in ascites from EL4-bearers given anti-TGF-beta antibody. Furthermore, while control macrophages exhibited little or no production of nitric oxide and TNF-alpha on LPS stimulation in vitro, macrophages from EL4-bearers administered with anti-TGF-beta antibody showed the same ability as normal macrophages. These results clearly indicate that TGF-beta contributes to macrophage dysfunction and that the administration of specific antibody for TGF-beta reverses macrophage dysfunction in EL4-bearing hosts.

  15. Interaction with extracellular matrix proteins influences Lsh/Ity/Bcg (candidate Nramp) gene regulation of macrophage priming/activation for tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitrite release.

    PubMed

    Formica, S; Roach, T I; Blackwell, J M

    1994-05-01

    The murine resistance gene Lsh/Ity/Bcg regulates activation of macrophages for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-dependent production of nitric oxide mediating antimicrobial activity against Leishmania, Salmonella and Mycobacterium. As Lsh is differentially expressed in macrophages from different tissue sites, experiments were performed to determine whether interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins would influence the macrophage TNF-alpha response. Plating of bone marrow-derived macrophages onto purified fibrinogen or fibronectin-rich L929 cell-derived matrices, but not onto mannan, was itself sufficient to stimulate TNF-alpha release, with significantly higher levels released from congenic B10.L-Lshr compared to C57BL/10ScSn (Lshs) macrophages. Only macrophages plated onto fibrinogen also released measurable levels of nitrites, again higher in Lshr compared to Lshs macrophages. Addition of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), but not bacterial lipopolysaccharide or mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan, as a second signal enhanced the TNF-alpha and nitrite responses of macrophages plated onto fibrinogen, particularly in the Lshr macrophages. Interaction with fibrinogen and fibronectin also primed macrophages for an enhanced TNF-alpha response to leishmanial parasites, but this was only translated into enhanced nitrite responses in the presence of IFN-gamma. In these experiments, Lshr macrophages remained superior in their TNF-alpha responses throughout, but to a degree which reflected the magnitude of the difference observed on ECM alone. Hence, the specificity for the enhanced TNF-alpha responses of Lshr macrophages lay in their interaction with fibrinogen and fibronectin ECM, while a differential nitrite response was only observed with fibrinogen and/or IFN-gamma. The results are discussed in relation to the possible function of the recently cloned candidate gene Nramp, which has structural identity to eukaryote transporters and an N-terminal cytoplasmic

  16. Functional modifications of macrophage activity after sublethal irradiation. [Toxoplasma gondii

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The modifications of macrophage activity following sublethal irradiation, both in vivo and in vitro, were studied using spreading and C3b-receptor-mediated ingestion assays. Nonelicited peritoneal washout cells were examined for changes in activity and selected population characteristics. The cells from irradiated mice were from a resident peritoneal population and not immigrating cells. The macrophage population showed enhanced activity early with a refractory period (24-48) when the macrophages were unresponsive to stimulation by irradiated lymphocytes. The enhanced activity was inversely dose dependent on macrophage. The lymphocytes showed a regulatory function(s) on the time post irradiation at which they were examined. Early lymphocytesmore » exhibited the ability to enhance the activity of normal macrophages while lymphocytes removed 24 hours post irradiation could suppress the activity of already activated macrophages. The effect(s) of the various lymphocyte populations were reproduced with cell-free supernatants which was indicative of the production of lymphokines. Separation on nylon wool columns indicated that the activity resided primarily in the T-cell population of lymphocytes. In vitro irradiation indicated that stimulation of the lymphocytes is macrophage dependent. Additional work indicated that sublethally irradiated macrophages did not inhibit replication of the coccidian protozoon Toxoplasma gondii although they did show increased phagocytosis. Examination of the serum from whole body irradiated mice showed the presence of a postirradiation substance which enhanced the phagocytosis of normal macrophages. It was not present in the serum of normal mice and was not endotoxin.« less

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist rosiglitazone attenuates postincisional pain by regulating macrophage polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa-Moriyama, Maiko, E-mail: hase-mai@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp; Ohnou, Tetsuya; Godai, Kohei

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rosiglitazone attenuated postincisional pain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rosiglitazone alters macrophage polarization to F4/80{sup +}CD206{sup +} M2 macrophages at the incisional sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transplantation of rosiglitazone-treated macrophages produced analgesic effects. -- Abstract: Acute inflammation triggered by macrophage infiltration to injured tissue promotes wound repair and may induce pain hypersensitivity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR){gamma} signaling is known to regulate heterogeneity of macrophages, which are often referred to as classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. M1 macrophages have considerable antimicrobial activity and produce a wide variety of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, M2 macrophages are involved in anti-inflammatory and homeostatic functionsmore » linked to wound healing and tissue repair. Although it has been suggested that PPAR{gamma} agonists attenuate pain hypersensitivity, the molecular mechanism of macrophage-mediated effects of PPAR{gamma} signaling on pain development has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the link between the phenotype switching of macrophage polarization induced by PPAR{gamma} signaling and the development of acute pain hypersensitivity. Local administration of rosiglitazone significantly ameliorated hypersensitivity to heat and mechanical stimuli, and paw swelling. Consistent with the down-regulation of nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF{kappa}B) phosphorylation by rosiglitazone at the incisional sites, the number of F4/80{sup +}iNOS{sup +} M1 macrophages was decreased whereas numbers of F4/80{sup +}CD206{sup +} M2 macrophages were increased in rosiglitazone-treated incisional sites 24 h after the procedure. In addition, gene induction of anti-inflammatory M2-macrophage-associated markers such as arginase1, FIZZ1 and interleukin (IL)-10 were significantly increased

  18. Effect of low extracellular pH on NF-κB activation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gerry, A B; Leake, D S

    2014-04-01

    Many diseases, including atherosclerosis, involve chronic inflammation. The master transcription factor for inflammation is NF-κB. Inflammatory sites have a low extracellular pH. Our objective was to demonstrate the effect of pH on NF-κB activation and cytokine secretion. Mouse J774 macrophages or human THP-1 or monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated at pH 7.0-7.4 and inflammatory cytokine secretion and NF-κB activity were measured. A pH of 7.0 greatly decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (TNF or IL-6) by J774 macrophages, but not THP-1 or human monocyte-derived macrophages. Upon stimulation of mouse macrophages, the levels of IκBα, which inhibits NF-κB, fell but low pH prevented its later increase, which normally restores the baseline activity of NF-κB, even though the levels of mRNA for IκBα were increased. pH 7.0 greatly increased and prolonged NF-κB binding to its consensus promoter sequence, especially the anti-inflammatory p50:p50 homodimers. Human p50 was overexpressed using adenovirus in THP-1 macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages to see if it would confer pH sensitivity to NF-κB activity in human cells. Overexpression of p50 increased p50:p50 DNA-binding and in THP-1 macrophages inhibited considerably TNF and IL-6 secretion, but there was still no effect of pH on p50:p50 DNA binding or cytokine secretion. A modest decrease in pH can sometimes have marked effects on NF-κB activation and cytokine secretion and might be one reason to explain why mice normally develop less atherosclerosis than do humans. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation in skin induces inflammation, macrophage activation, transforming growth factor beta signature gene expression, and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The crucial role of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is well established, and in the past few years the hypothesis that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induced by endogenous ligands is involved in fibrogenesis has been supported by several studies on skin, liver, and kidney fibrosis. These findings suggest that TLR4 activation can enhance transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling, providing a potential mechanism for TLR4/Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent fibrosis. Methods The expression of TLR4, CD14 and MD2 genes was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction from skin biopsies of 24 patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc. In order to investigate the effects of the chronic skin exposure to endotoxin (Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) in vivo we examined the expression of inflammation, TGF-β signaling and cellular markers genes by nanostring. We also identified cellular subsets by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Results We found that TLR4 and its co-receptors, MD2 and CD14, are over-expressed in lesional skin from patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc, and correlate significantly with progressive or regressive skin disease as assessed by the Delta Modified Rodnan Skin Score. In vivo, a model of chronic dermal LPS exposure showed overexpression of proinflammatory chemokines, recruitment and activation of macrophages, and upregulation of TGF-β signature genes. Conclusions We delineated the role of MyD88 as necessary for the induction not only for the early phase of inflammation, but also for pro-fibrotic gene expression via activation of macrophages. Chronic LPS exposure might be a model of early stage of SSc when inflammation and macrophage activation are important pathological features of the disease, supporting a role for innate immune activation in SSc skin fibrosis. PMID:24984848

  20. Chronic Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation in skin induces inflammation, macrophage activation, transforming growth factor beta signature gene expression, and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Stifano, Giuseppina; Affandi, Alsya J; Mathes, Allison L; Rice, Lisa M; Nakerakanti, Sashidhar; Nazari, Banafsheh; Lee, Jungeun; Christmann, Romy B; Lafyatis, Robert

    2014-07-01

    The crucial role of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is well established, and in the past few years the hypothesis that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induced by endogenous ligands is involved in fibrogenesis has been supported by several studies on skin, liver, and kidney fibrosis. These findings suggest that TLR4 activation can enhance transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling, providing a potential mechanism for TLR4/Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent fibrosis. The expression of TLR4, CD14 and MD2 genes was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction from skin biopsies of 24 patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc. In order to investigate the effects of the chronic skin exposure to endotoxin (Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) in vivo we examined the expression of inflammation, TGF-β signaling and cellular markers genes by nanostring. We also identified cellular subsets by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. We found that TLR4 and its co-receptors, MD2 and CD14, are over-expressed in lesional skin from patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc, and correlate significantly with progressive or regressive skin disease as assessed by the Delta Modified Rodnan Skin Score. In vivo, a model of chronic dermal LPS exposure showed overexpression of proinflammatory chemokines, recruitment and activation of macrophages, and upregulation of TGF-β signature genes. We delineated the role of MyD88 as necessary for the induction not only for the early phase of inflammation, but also for pro-fibrotic gene expression via activation of macrophages. Chronic LPS exposure might be a model of early stage of SSc when inflammation and macrophage activation are important pathological features of the disease, supporting a role for innate immune activation in SSc skin fibrosis.

  1. Artemisia asiatica Nakai Attenuates the Expression of Proinflammatory Mediators in Stimulated Macrophages Through Modulation of Nuclear Factor-κB and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Tang, Yujiao; Cha, Kwang-Suk; Choi, Heeri; Lee, Chun Bok; Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Sang Bae; Kim, Jong-Shik; Kim, Jong Moon; Han, Weon Cheol; Choi, Suck-Jun; Lee, Sangmin; Choi, Eun-Ju; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects and potential mechanism of action of Artemisia asiatica Nakai (A. asiatica Nakai) extract in activated murine macrophages. A. asiatica Nakai extract showed dose-dependent suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. It also showed dose-dependent inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus and as an inhibitor of NF-κB-alpha phosphorylation. The extract's inhibitory effects were found to be mediated through NF-κB inhibition and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 murine macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of A. asiatica Nakai. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the anti-inflammatory effects of A. asiatica Nakai on J774A.1 murine macrophages; these results may help develop functional foods possessing an anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:26061361

  2. Extracellular HSP27 acts as a signaling molecule to activate NF-κB in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Salari, Samira; Seibert, Tara; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Hu, Tieqiang; Shi, Chunhua; Zhao, Xiaoling; Cuerrier, Charles M; Raizman, Joshua E; O'Brien, Edward R

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) shows attenuated expression in human coronary arteries as the extent of atherosclerosis progresses. In mice, overexpression of HSP27 reduces atherogenesis, yet the precise mechanism(s) are incompletely understood. Inflammation plays a central role in atherogenesis, and of particular interest is the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors produced by macrophages. As nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a key immune signaling modulator in atherogenesis, and macrophages are known to secrete HSP27, we sought to determine if recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27) alters NF-κB signaling in macrophages. Treatment of THP-1 macrophages with rHSP27 resulted in the degradation of an inhibitor of NF-κB, IκBα, nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit, and increased NF-κB transcriptional activity. Treatment of THP-1 macrophages with rHSP27 yielded increased expression of a variety of genes, including the pro-inflammatory factors, IL-1β, and TNF-α. However, rHSP27 also increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory factors IL-10 and GM-CSF both at the mRNA and protein levels. Our study suggests that in macrophages, activation of NF-κB signaling by rHSP27 is associated with upregulated expression and secretion of key pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, we surmise that it is the balance in expression of these mediators and antagonists of inflammation, and hence atherogenesis, that yields a favorable net effect of HSP27 on the vessel wall.

  3. Src family kinase expression and subcellular localization in macrophages: implications for their role in CSF-1-induced macrophage migration.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Amy R; Mouchemore, Kellie A; Steer, James H; Sunderland, Andrew J; Sampaio, Natalia G; Greenland, Eloise L; Joyce, David A; Pixley, Fiona J

    2016-07-01

    A major role of colony-stimulating factor-1 is to stimulate the differentiation of mononuclear phagocytic lineage cells into adherent, motile, mature macrophages. The colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor transduces colony-stimulating factor-1 signaling, and we have shown previously that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p110δ is a critical mediator of colony-stimulating factor-1-stimulated motility through the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor pY721 motif. Src family kinases are also implicated in the regulation of macrophage motility and in colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor signaling, although functional redundancy of the multiple SFKs expressed in macrophages makes it challenging to delineate their specific functions. We report a comprehensive analysis of individual Src family kinase expression in macrophage cell lines and primary macrophages and demonstrate colony-stimulating factor-1-induced changes in Src family kinase subcellular localization, which provides clues to their distinct and redundant functions in macrophages. Moreover, expression of individual Src family kinases is both species specific and dependent on colony-stimulating factor-1-induced macrophage differentiation. Hck associated with the activated colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor, whereas Lyn associated with the receptor in a constitutive manner. Consistent with this, inhibitor studies revealed that Src family kinases were important for both colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor activation and colony-stimulating factor-1-induced macrophage spreading, motility, and invasion. Distinct colony-stimulating factor-1-induced changes in the subcellular localization of individual SFKs suggest specific roles for these Src family kinases in the macrophage response to colony-stimulating factor-1. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  4. Celastrol nanomicelles attenuate cytokine secretion in macrophages and inhibit macrophage-induced corneal neovascularization in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhanrong; Li, Jingguo; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Junjie; Yao, Lin; Liang, Dan; Wang, Liya

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of celastrol-loaded nanomicelles (CNMs) on activated macrophage-induced corneal neovascularization (CNV) in rats and cytokine secretion in macrophages. Using an angiogenesis assay in vitro, we detected the effects of CNMs on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration and invasion. In addition, the expression levels of cytokines secreted from hypoxia-induced macrophages were assessed through cytokine array analysis. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factors-1α (HIF-1α), nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65), phospho-nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (phospho-NF-κB p65), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), phospho-p38 MAPK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and phospho-ERK1/2 was analyzed by western blotting. Activated macrophages were elicited through mineral oil lumbar injection, labeled with 1,19-dioctadecyl-3-3-39,39-tetramethylindocarbocyanine (DiI) and implanted into the corneal micro-pocket to induce CNV and to assess the antiangiogenic effect in rats. CNV was morphometrically analyzed using ImageJ software. Histopathological features were evaluated by immunofluorescence immunostaining for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) on day 2 after surgery. In the present study, the results indicated that CNMs significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of HUVECs; remarkably attenuated the expression of VEGF, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1α, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 3, and MMP-9 protein; and downregulated ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, NF-κB activation, and HIF-1α expression in macrophages. The peritoneal cells elicited using mineral oil were highly purified macrophages, and the length and area of CNV were significantly decreased in the CNMs group compared with the control group. There was a significant reduction in the expression of VEGF and MMP-9 in

  5. Role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-dependent macrophages in gastric ulcer healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Y; Nakase, Y; Isomoto, Y; Matsuda, N; Amagase, K; Kato, S; Takeuchi, K

    2011-08-01

    We examined the role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-dependent macrophages in the healing of gastric ulcers in mice. Male M-CSF-deficient (op/op) and M-CSF-expressing heterozygote (+/?) mice were used. Gastric ulcers were induced by thermal cauterization under ether anesthesia, and healing was observed for 14 days after ulceration. The numbers of macrophages and microvessels in the gastric mucosa were determined immunohistochemically with anti-CD68 and anti-CD31 antibodies, respectively. Expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA was determined via real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the mucosal content of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) was determined via enzyme immunoassay on day 10 after ulceration. The healing of gastric ulcers was significantly delayed in op/op mice compared with +/? mice. Further, significantly fewer macrophages were observed in the normal gastric mucosa of op/op mice than in +/? mice. Ulcer induction caused a marked accumulation of macrophages around the ulcer base in +/? mice, but this response was attenuated in op/op mice. The mucosal PGE(2) content as well as the expression of COX-2, VEGF, and TNF-α mRNA were all upregulated in the ulcerated area of +/? mice but significantly suppressed in op/op mice. The degree of vascularization in the ulcerated area was significantly lower in op/op mice than in +/? mice. Taken together, these results suggest that M-CSF-dependent macrophages play an important role in the healing of gastric ulcers, and that this action may be associated with angiogenesis promoted by upregulation of COX-2/PGE(2) production.

  6. UV-B radiation induces macrophage migration inhibitory factor-mediated melanogenesis through activation of protease-activated receptor-2 and stem cell factor in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Akiko; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Yamakoshi, Takako; Ur Rehman, Mati; Norisugi, Osamu; Hara, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Kenji; Makino, Teruhiko; Nishihira, Jun; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2011-02-01

    UV radiation indirectly regulates melanogenesis in melanocytes through a paracrine regulatory mechanism involving keratinocytes. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 activation induces melanosome transfer by increasing phagocytosis of melanosomes by keratinocytes. This study demonstrated that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) stimulated PAR-2 expression in human keratinocytes. In addition, we showed that MIF stimulated stem cell factor (SCF) release in keratinocytes; however, MIF had no effect on the release of endothelin-1 or prostaglandin E2 in keratinocytes. In addition, MIF had no direct effect on melanin and tyrosinase synthesis in cultured human melanocytes. The effect of MIF on melanogenesis was also examined using a three-dimensional reconstituted human epidermal culture model, which is a novel, commercially available, cultured human epidermis containing functional melanocytes. Migration inhibitory factor induced an increase in melanin content in the epidermis after a 9-day culture period. Moreover, melanin synthesis induced by UV-B stimulation was significantly down-regulated by anti-MIF antibody treatment. An in vivo study showed that the back skin of MIF transgenic mice had a higher melanin content than that of wild-type mice after 12 weeks of UV-B exposure. Therefore, MIF-mediated melanogenesis occurs mainly through the activation of PAR-2 and SCF expression in keratinocytes after exposure to UV-B radiation. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cytotoxic macrophage-released tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) as a killing mechanism for cancer cell death after cold plasma activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Kaushik, Neha; Min, Booki; Choi, Ki Hong; Hong, Young June; Miller, Vandana; Fridman, Alexander; Choi, Eun Ha

    2016-03-01

    The present study aims at studying the anticancer role of cold plasma-activated immune cells. The direct anti-cancer activity of plasma-activated immune cells against human solid cancers has not been described so far. Hence, we assessed the effect of plasma-treated RAW264.7 macrophages on cancer cell growth after co-culture. In particular, flow cytometer analysis revealed that plasma did not induce any cell death in RAW264.7 macrophages. Interestingly, immunofluorescence and western blot analysis confirmed that TNF-α released from plasma-activated macrophages acts as a tumour cell death inducer. In support of these findings, activated macrophages down-regulated the cell growth in solid cancer cell lines and induced cell death in vitro. Together our findings suggest plasma-induced reactive species recruit cytotoxic macrophages to release TNF-α, which blocks cancer cell growth and can have the potential to contribute to reducing tumour growth in vivo in the near future.

  8. Candida albicans Chitin Increases Arginase-1 Activity in Human Macrophages, with an Impact on Macrophage Antimicrobial Functions.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Jeanette; MacCallum, Donna M; Brown, Gordon D; Gow, Neil A R

    2017-01-24

    of the "conditionally essential" amino acid l-arginine by the inducible nitric oxide synthase to nitric oxide is a resistance factor that is produced by the host to fight pathogens. Manipulation of these host defense mechanisms by the pathogen can be key to successful host invasion. We show here that the human opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans influences l-arginine availability for nitric oxide production by induction of the substrate-competing host enzyme arginase-1. This led to a reduced production of nitric oxide and, moreover, reduced eradication of the fungus by human macrophages. We demonstrate that blocking of host arginase-1 activity restored nitric oxide production and increased the killing potential of macrophages. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of l-arginine metabolism in fungal diseases. Copyright © 2017 Wagener et al.

  9. Arctigenin suppresses receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, A-Ram; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Lee, Jeong Min; Choi, Jung Ho; Kim, Se Na; Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Ji Hyung; Mun, Se Hwan; Kim, Jie Wan; Jeon, Hyun Soo; Kim, Young Mi; Choi, Wahn Soo

    2012-05-05

    Osteoclasts, multinucleated bone-resorbing cells, are closely associated with bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. Osteoclasts are derived from hematopoietic precursor cells, and their differentiation is mediated by two cytokines, including macrophage colony stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Previous studies have shown that arctigenin exhibits an anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effect of arctigenin on osteoclast differentiation is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we found that arctigenin inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow macrophages in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed RANKL-mediated bone resorption. Additionally, the expression of typical marker proteins, such as NFATc1, c-Fos, TRAF6, c-Src, and cathepsin K, were significantly inhibited. Arctigenin inhibited the phosphorylation of Erk1/2, but not p38 and JNK, in a dose-dependent manner. Arctigenin also dramatically suppressed immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-mediated costimulatory signaling molecules, including Syk and PLCγ2, and Gab2. Notably, arctigenin inhibited the activation of Syk through RANKL stimulation. Furthermore, arctigenin prevented osteoclast differentiation in the calvarial bone of mice following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Our results show that arctigenin inhibits osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, arctigenin may be useful for treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adipocyte-Macrophage Cross-Talk in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Engin, Ayse Basak

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by the chronic low-grade activation of the innate immune system. In this respect, macrophage-elicited metabolic inflammation and adipocyte-macrophage interaction has a primary importance in obesity. Large amounts of macrophages are accumulated by different mechanisms in obese adipose tissue. Hypertrophic adipocyte-derived chemotactic monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) pathway also promotes more macrophage accumulation into the obese adipose tissue. However, increased local extracellular lipid concentrations is a final mechanism for adipose tissue macrophage accumulation. A paracrine loop involving free fatty acids and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) between adipocytes and macrophages establishes a vicious cycle that aggravates inflammatory changes in the adipose tissue. Adipocyte-specific caspase-1 and production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) by macrophages; both adipocyte and macrophage induction by toll like receptor-4 (TLR4) through nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation; free fatty acid-induced and TLR-mediated activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-related pro-inflammatory pathways in CD11c+ immune cells; are effective in macrophage accumulation and in the development of adipose tissue inflammation. Old adipocytes are removed by macrophages through trogocytosis or sending an "eat me" signal. The obesity-induced changes in adipose tissue macrophage numbers are mainly due to increases in the triple-positive CD11b+ F4/80+ CD11c+ adipose tissue macrophage subpopulation. The ratio of M1-to-M2 macrophages is increased in obesity. Furthermore, hypoxia along with higher concentrations of free fatty acids exacerbates macrophage-mediated inflammation in obesity. The metabolic status of adipocytes is a major determinant of macrophage inflammatory output. Macrophage/adipocyte fatty-acid-binding proteins act at the interface of metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Both macrophages and

  11. Cell Elasticity Determines Macrophage Function

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Naimish R.; Bole, Medhavi; Chen, Cheng; Hardin, Charles C.; Kho, Alvin T.; Mih, Justin; Deng, Linhong; Butler, James; Tschumperlin, Daniel; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Koziel, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central mechanism that regulates macrophage function. Using macrophages of different origins and species, we report that macrophage elasticity is a major determinant of innate macrophage function. Macrophage elasticity is modulated not only by classical biologic activators such as LPS and IFN-γ, but to an equal extent by substrate rigidity and substrate stretch. Macrophage elasticity is dependent upon actin polymerization and small rhoGTPase activation, but functional effects of elasticity are not predicted by examination of gene expression profiles alone. Taken together, these data demonstrate an unanticipated role for cell elasticity as a common pathway by which mechanical and biologic factors determine macrophage function. PMID:23028423

  12. An abundant tissue macrophage population in the adult murine heart with a distinct alternatively-activated macrophage profile.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Alexander R; Paolicelli, Rosa; Salimova, Ekaterina; Gospocic, Janko; Slonimsky, Esfir; Bilbao-Cortes, Daniel; Godwin, James W; Rosenthal, Nadia A

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac tissue macrophages (cTMs) are a previously uncharacterised cell type that we have identified and characterise here as an abundant GFP(+) population within the adult Cx(3)cr1(GFP/+) knock-in mouse heart. They comprise the predominant myeloid cell population in the myocardium, and are found throughout myocardial interstitial spaces interacting directly with capillary endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Flow cytometry-based immunophenotyping shows that cTMs exhibit canonical macrophage markers. Gene expression analysis shows that cTMs (CD45(+)CD11b(+)GFP(+)) are distinct from mononuclear CD45(+)CD11b(+)GFP(+) cells sorted from the spleen and brain of adult Cx(3)cr1(GFP/+) mice. Gene expression profiling reveals that cTMs closely resemble alternatively-activated anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, expressing a number of M2 markers, including Mrc1, CD163, and Lyve-1. While cTMs perform normal tissue macrophage homeostatic functions, they also exhibit a distinct phenotype, involving secretion of salutary factors (including IGF-1) and immune modulation. In summary, the characterisation of cTMs at the cellular and molecular level defines a potentially important role for these cells in cardiac homeostasis.

  13. Antiorthostatic suspension stimulates profiles of macrophage activation in mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. S.; Bates, R. A.; Koebel, D. A.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1999-01-01

    The antiorthostatic suspension model simulates certain physiological effects of spaceflight. We have previously reported BDF1 mice suspended by the tail in the antiorthostatic orientation for 4 days express high levels of resistance to virulent Listeria monocytogenesinfection. In the present study, we examined whether the increased resistance to this organism correlates with profiles of macrophage activation, given the role of the macrophage in killing this pathogen in vivo. We infected BDF1 mice with a lethal dose of virulent L. monocytogenes on day 4 of antiorthostatic suspension and 24 h later constructed profiles of macrophage activation. Viable listeria could not be detected in mice suspended in the antiorthostatic orientation 24 h after infection. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the numbers of granulocytes and mononuclear phagocytes in the spleen of infected mice were not significantly altered as a result of antiorthostatic suspension. Splenocytes from antiorthostatically suspended infected mice produced increased titers of IL-1. Serum levels of neopterin, a nucleotide metabolite secreted by activated macrophages, were enhanced in mice infected during antiorthostatic suspension, but not in antiorthostatically suspended naive mice. Splenic macrophages from mice infected on day 4 of suspension produced enhanced levels of lysozyme. In contrast to the results from antiorthostatically suspended infected mice, macrophages from antiorthostatically suspended uninfected mice did not express enhanced bactericidal activities. The collective results indicate that antiorthostatic suspension can stimulate profiles of macrophage activation which correlate with increased resistance to infection by certain classes of pathogenic bacteria.

  14. Structural and Kinetic Analyses of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Active Site Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Crichlow, G.; Lubetsky, J; Leng, L

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a secreted protein expressed in numerous cell types that counters the antiinflammatory effects of glucocorticoids and has been implicated in sepsis, cancer, and certain autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, the structure of MIF contains a catalytic site resembling the tautomerase/isomerase sites of microbial enzymes. While bona fide physiological substrates remain unknown, model substrates have been identified. Selected compounds that bind in the tautomerase active site also inhibit biological functions of MIF. It had previously been shown that the acetaminophen metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), covalently binds to the active site of MIF. In this study, kinetic datamore » indicate that NAPQI inhibits MIF both covalently and noncovalently. The structure of MIF cocrystallized with NAPQI reveals that the NAPQI has undergone a chemical alteration forming an acetaminophen dimer (bi-APAP) and binds noncovalently to MIF at the mouth of the active site. We also find that the commonly used protease inhibitor, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), forms a covalent complex with MIF and inhibits the tautomerase activity. Crystallographic analysis reveals the formation of a stable, novel covalent bond for PMSF between the catalytic nitrogen of the N-terminal proline and the sulfur of PMSF with complete, well-defined electron density in all three active sites of the MIF homotrimer. Conclusions are drawn from the structures of these two MIF-inhibitor complexes regarding the design of novel compounds that may provide more potent reversible and irreversible inhibition of MIF.« less

  15. Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor-Activated Eosinophils Promote Interleukin-23 Driven Chronic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Griseri, Thibault; Arnold, Isabelle C.; Pearson, Claire; Krausgruber, Thomas; Schiering, Chris; Franchini, Fanny; Schulthess, Julie; McKenzie, Brent S.; Crocker, Paul R.; Powrie, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Summary The role of intestinal eosinophils in immune homeostasis is enigmatic and the molecular signals that drive them from protective to tissue damaging are unknown. Most commonly associated with Th2 cell-mediated diseases, we describe a role for eosinophils as crucial effectors of the interleukin-23 (IL-23)-granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) axis in colitis. Chronic intestinal inflammation was characterized by increased bone marrow eosinopoiesis and accumulation of activated intestinal eosinophils. IL-5 blockade or eosinophil depletion ameliorated colitis, implicating eosinophils in disease pathogenesis. GM-CSF was a potent activator of eosinophil effector functions and intestinal accumulation, and GM-CSF blockade inhibited chronic colitis. By contrast neutrophil accumulation was GM-CSF independent and dispensable for colitis. In addition to TNF secretion, release of eosinophil peroxidase promoted colitis identifying direct tissue-toxic mechanisms. Thus, eosinophils are key perpetrators of chronic inflammation and tissue damage in IL-23-mediated immune diseases and it suggests the GM-CSF-eosinophil axis as an attractive therapeutic target. PMID:26200014

  16. Advanced Glycation End Products Enhance Macrophages Polarization into M1 Phenotype through Activating RAGE/NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xian; Yao, Tongqing; Zhou, Zhong'e; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Song; Hu, Wei; Shen, Chengxing

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions are accelerated in patients with diabetes. M1 (classically activated in contrast to M2 alternatively activated) macrophages play key roles in the progression of atherosclerosis. Since advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are major pathogenic factors and active inflammation inducers in diabetes mellitus, this study assessed the effects of AGEs on macrophage polarization. The present study showed that AGEs significantly promoted macrophages to express IL-6 and TNF-α. M1 macrophage markers such as iNOS and surface markers including CD11c and CD86 were significantly upregulated while M2 macrophage markers such as Arg1 and CD206 remained unchanged after AGEs stimulation. AGEs significantly increased RAGE expression in macrophages and activated NF-κB pathway, and the aforementioned effects were partly abolished by administration of anti-RAGE antibody or NF-κB inhibitor PDTC. In conclusion, our results suggest that AGEs enhance macrophage differentiation into proinflammatory M1 phenotype at least partly via RAGE/NF-κB pathway activation. PMID:26114112

  17. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor accelerates wound healing and upregulates TGF-beta1 mRNA levels through tissue macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Yu, Y L; Galiano, R D; Roth, S I; Mustoe, T A

    1997-10-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is produced by many cell types involved in wound repair, yet it acts specifically on monocytes and macrophages. The monocyte-derived cell is thought to be important in wound healing, but the importance of the role of tissue macrophages in wound healing has not been well defined. Dermal ulcers were created in normal and ischemic ears of young rabbits. Either rhM-CSF (17 microg/wound) or buffer was applied to each wound. Wounds were bisected and analyzed histologically at Days 7 and 10 postwounding. The amounts of epithelial growth and granulation tissue deposition were measured in all wounds. The level of increase of TGF-beta1 mRNA level in M-CSF-treated wounds was examined using competitive RT-PCR. M-CSF increased new granulation tissue formation by 37% (N = 21, P < 0.01) and 50% (P < 0.01) after single and multiple treatments, respectively, in nonischemic wounds. TGF-beta1 mRNA levels in rhM-CSF-treated wounds increased 5.01-fold (N = 8) over vehicle-treated wounds under nonischemic conditions. In contrast, no effect could be detected in ischemic wounds treated with rhM-CSF, and these wounds only showed a 1.66-fold increase in TGF-beta1 mRNA levels when compared to ischemic wounds treated with vehicle alone. GAPDH, a housekeeping gene, showed no change. As mesenchymal cells lack receptors for M-CSF, the improved healing of wounds treated with topical rhM-CSF must reflect a generalized enhancement of activation and function of tissue macrophages, as demonstrated by upregulation of TGF-beta. The lack of effect under ischemic conditions suggests that either macrophage activity and/or response to M-CSF is adversely affected under those conditions; this may suggest the pathogenesis of impaired wound healing at the cellular level. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  18. Granulocyte-macrophage and macrophage colony-stimulating factors differentially regulate alpha v integrin expression on cultured human macrophages.

    PubMed

    De Nichilo, M O; Burns, G F

    1993-03-15

    The colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) greatly influence mature macrophage function in vitro: macrophage (M)-CSF induces maturation of monocytes and enhances differentiated cell function; granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF stimulates a variety of antimicrobial functions. In vivo M-CSF is thought to promote differentiation, and GM-CSF is thought to potentiate the inflammatory response. One mechanism by which these differential effects may be achieved is through the receptor-mediated interaction of macrophages with their extracellular matrix. Here we show that M-CSF induces specifically the expression of the alpha v beta 5 integrin receptor, whereas GM-CSF rapidly induces mRNA and surface expression of the alpha v beta 3 integrin. The M-CSF-treated cells acquire a flattened epitheloid phenotype, and on vitronectin the alpha v beta 5 is located in adhesion plaques. These cells do not bind collagen or laminin. In contrast, cells treated with GM-CSF adopt an elongated phenotype on a number of substrates, including collagen and laminin, and express alpha v beta 3 at the leading edge of cells on vitronectin. These results suggest that a primary means by which the CSFs exert their individual effects on mature cells may be through regulating integrin expression.

  19. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor counter-regulates dexamethasone-induced annexin 1 expression and influences the release of eicosanoids in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Wang, Yu; Li, Jia-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Hui; Tang, Hong-Tai; Xia, Zhao-Fan

    2013-10-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pro-inflammatory cytokine and glucocorticoid (GC) counter-regulator, has emerged as an important modulator of inflammatory responses. However, the molecular mechanisms of MIF counter-regulation of GC still remain incomplete. In the present study, we investigated whether MIF mediated the counter-regulation of the anti-inflammatory effect of GC by affecting annexin 1 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that stimulation of RAW 264.7 macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in down-regulation of annexin 1, while GC dexamethasone (Dex) or Dex plus LPS led to significant up-regulation of annexin 1 expression. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of intracellular MIF increased annexin 1 expression with or without incubation of Dex, whereas Dex-induced annexin 1 expression was counter-regulated by the exogenous application of recombinant MIF. Moreover, recombinant MIF counter-regulated, in a dose-dependent manner, inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) activation and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 ) release by Dex in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with LPS. Endogenous depletion of MIF enhanced the effects of Dex, reflected by further decease of cPLA2α expression and lower PGE2 and LTB4 release in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Based on these data, we suggest that MIF counter-regulates Dex-induced annexin 1 expression, further influencing the activation of cPLA2α and the release of eicosanoids. These findings will add new insights into the mechanisms of MIF counter-regulation of GC. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Lipid homeostasis and inflammatory activation are disturbed in classically activated macrophages with peroxisomal β-oxidation deficiency.

    PubMed

    Geric, Ivana; Tyurina, Yulia Y; Krysko, Olga; Krysko, Dmitri V; De Schryver, Evelyn; Kagan, Valerian E; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Baes, Myriam; Verheijden, Simon

    2018-03-01

    Macrophage activation is characterized by pronounced metabolic adaptation. Classically activated macrophages show decreased rates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation and acquire a glycolytic state together with their pro-inflammatory phenotype. In contrast, alternatively activated macrophages require oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for their anti-inflammatory function. Although it is evident that mitochondrial metabolism is regulated during macrophage polarization and essential for macrophage function, little is known on the regulation and role of peroxisomal β-oxidation during macrophage activation. In this study, we show that peroxisomal β-oxidation is strongly decreased in classically activated bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and mildly induced in alternatively activated BMDM. To examine the role of peroxisomal β-oxidation in macrophages, we used Mfp2 -/- BMDM lacking the key enzyme of this pathway. Impairment of peroxisomal β-oxidation in Mfp2 -/- BMDM did not cause lipid accumulation but rather an altered distribution of lipid species with very-long-chain fatty acids accumulating in the triglyceride and phospholipid fraction. These lipid alterations in Mfp2 -/- macrophages led to decreased inflammatory activation of Mfp2 -/- BMDM and peritoneal macrophages evidenced by impaired production of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, but did not affect anti-inflammatory polarization. The disturbed inflammatory responses of Mfp2 -/- macrophages did not affect immune cell infiltration, as mice with selective elimination of MFP2 from myeloid cells showed normal monocyte and neutrophil influx upon challenge with zymosan. Together, these data demonstrate that peroxisomal β-oxidation is involved in fine-tuning the phenotype of macrophages, probably by influencing the dynamic lipid profile during macrophage polarization. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A combined omics study on activated macrophages--enhanced role of STATs in apoptosis, immunity and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dinasarapu, Ashok Reddy; Gupta, Shakti; Ram Maurya, Mano; Fahy, Eoin; Min, Jun; Sud, Manish; Gersten, Merril J; Glass, Christopher K; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2013-11-01

    Macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharide and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been studied extensively because this model system mimics the physiological context of bacterial infection and subsequent inflammatory responses. Previous studies on macrophages elucidated the biological roles of caspase-1 in post-translational activation of interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 in inflammation and apoptosis. However, the results from these studies focused only on a small number of factors. To better understand the host response, we have performed a high-throughput study of Kdo2-lipid A (KLA)-primed macrophages stimulated with ATP. The study suggests that treating mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages with KLA and ATP produces 'synergistic' effects that are not seen with treatment of KLA or ATP alone. The synergistic regulation of genes related to immunity, apoptosis and lipid metabolism is observed in a time-dependent manner. The synergistic effects are produced by nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) and activator protein (AP)-1 through regulation of their target cytokines. The synergistically regulated cytokines then activate signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) factors that result in enhanced immunity, apoptosis and lipid metabolism; STAT1 enhances immunity by promoting anti-microbial factors; and STAT3 contributes to downregulation of cell cycle and upregulation of apoptosis. STAT1 and STAT3 also regulate glycerolipid and eicosanoid metabolism, respectively. Further, western blot analysis for STAT1 and STAT3 showed that the changes in transcriptomic levels were consistent with their proteomic levels. In summary, this study shows the synergistic interaction between the toll-like receptor and purinergic receptor signaling during macrophage activation on bacterial infection. Time-course data of transcriptomics and lipidomics can be queried or downloaded from http://www.lipidmaps.org. shankar@ucsd.edu. Supplementary

  2. Attenuated activation of macrophage TLR9 by DNA from virulent mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Kiemer, Alexandra K; Senaratne, Ryan H; Hoppstädter, Jessica; Diesel, Britta; Riley, Lee W; Tabeta, Koichi; Bauer, Stefan; Beutler, Bruce; Zuraw, Bruce L

    2009-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages are the first line of host defence against mycobacteria, but an insufficient host response allows survival of bacteria within macrophages. We aimed to investigate the role of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) activation in macrophage defence against mycobacteria. Human in vitro differentiated macrophages as well as human and mouse alveolar macrophages showed TLR9 mRNA and protein expression. The cells were markedly activated by DNA isolated from attenuated mycobacterial strains (H37Ra and Mycobacterium bovis BCG) as assessed by measuring cytokine expression by real-time PCR, whereas synthetic phosphorothioate-modified oligonucleotides had a much lower potency to activate human macrophages. Intracellular replication of H37Ra was higher in macrophages isolated from TLR9-deficient mice than in macrophages from wild-type mice, whereas H37Rv showed equal survival in cells from wild-type or mutant mice. Increased bacterial survival in mouse macrophages was accompanied by altered cytokine production as determined by Luminex bead assays. In vivo infection experiments also showed differential cytokine production in TLR9-deficient mice compared to wild-type animals. Both human monocyte-derived macrophages as well as human alveolar macrophages showed reduced activation upon treatment with DNA isolated from bacteria from virulent (M. bovis and H37Rv) compared to attenuated mycobacteria. We suggest attenuated TLR9 activation contributes to the insufficient host response against virulent mycobacteria. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The human tissue-biomaterial interface: a role for PPARγ-dependent glucocorticoid receptor activation in regulating the CD163+ M2 macrophage phenotype.

    PubMed

    Bullers, Samuel J; Baker, Simon C; Ingham, Eileen; Southgate, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    In vivo studies of implanted acellular biological scaffolds in experimental animals have shown constructive remodeling mediated by anti-inflammatory macrophages. Little is known about the human macrophage response to such biomaterials, or the nature of the signaling mechanisms that govern the macrophage phenotype in this environment. The cellular events at the interface of a tissue and implanted decellularized biomaterial were examined by establishing a novel ex vivo tissue culture model in which surgically excised human urinary tract tissue was combined with porcine acellular bladder matrix (PABM). Evaluation of the tissue-biomaterial interface showed a time-dependent infiltration of the biomaterial by CD68(+) CD80(-) macrophages. The migration of CD68(+) cells from the tissue to the interface was accompanied by maturation to a CD163(hi) phenotype, suggesting that factor(s) associated with the biomaterial or the wound edge was/were responsible for the active recruitment and polarization of local macrophages. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) signaling was investigated as candidate pathways for integrating inflammatory responses; both showed intense nuclear labeling in interface macrophages. GR and PPARγ activation polarized peripheral blood-derived macrophages from a default M1 (CD80(+)) toward an M2 (CD163(+)) phenotype, but PPARγ signaling predominated, as its antagonism blocked any GR-mediated effect. Seeding on PABM was effective at polarizing peripheral blood-derived macrophages from a default CD80(+) phenotype on glass to a CD80(-) phenotype, with intense nuclear localization of PPARγ. These results endorse in vivo observations that the infiltration of decellularized biological scaffolds, exemplified here by PABM, is pioneered by macrophages. Thus, it appears that natural factors present in PABM are involved in the active recruitment and polarization of macrophages to a CD163(+) phenotype, with

  4. Peripheral blood "endothelial progenitor cells" are derived from monocyte/macrophages and secrete angiogenic growth factors.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Jalees; Li, Jingling; Orschell, Christie M; March, Keith L

    2003-03-04

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been isolated from peripheral blood and can enhance angiogenesis after infusion into host animals. It is not known whether the proangiogenic effects are a result of such events as endothelial differentiation and subsequent proliferation of EPCs or secondary to secretion of angiogenic growth factors. Human EPCs were isolated as previously described, and their phenotypes were confirmed by uptake of acetylated LDL and binding of ulex-lectin. EPC proliferation and surface marker expression were analyzed by flow cytometry, and conditioned medium was assayed for growth factors. The majority of EPCs expressed monocyte/macrophage markers such as CD14 (95.7+/-0.3%), Mac-1 (57.6+/-13.5%), and CD11c (90.8+/-4.9%). A much lower percentage of cells expressed the specific endothelial marker VE-cadherin (5.2+/-0.7%) or stem/progenitor-cell markers AC133 (0.16+/-0.05%) and c-kit (1.3+/-0.7%). Compared with circulating monocytes, cultured EPCs showed upregulation of monocyte activation and macrophage differentiation markers. EPCs did not demonstrate any significant proliferation but did secrete the angiogenic growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Our findings suggest that acetylated LDL(+)ulex-lectin(+) cells, commonly referred to as EPCs, do not proliferate but release potent proangiogenic growth factors. The majority of acetylated LDL(+)ulex-lectin(+) cells are derived from monocyte/macrophages. The findings of low proliferation and endothelial differentiation suggest that their angiogenic effects are most likely mediated by growth factor secretion. These findings may allow for development of novel angiogenic therapies relying on secreted growth factors or on recruitment of endogenous monocytes/macrophages to sites of ischemia.

  5. Classical and alternative macrophage activation in the lung following ozone-induced oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Sunil, Vasanthi R., E-mail: sunilva@pharmacy.rutgers.edu; Patel-Vayas, Kinal; Shen, Jianliang

    Ozone is a pulmonary irritant known to cause oxidative stress, inflammation and tissue injury. Evidence suggests that macrophages play a role in the pathogenic response; however, their contribution depends on the mediators they encounter in the lung which dictate their function. In these studies we analyzed the effects of ozone-induced oxidative stress on the phenotype of alveolar macrophages (AM). Exposure of rats to ozone (2 ppm, 3 h) resulted in increased expression of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), as well as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in AM. Whereas 8-OHdG was maximum at 24 h, expression of HO-1 was biphasic increasing after 3 h andmore » 48–72 h. Cleaved caspase-9 and beclin-1, markers of apoptosis and autophagy, were also induced in AM 24 h post-ozone. This was associated with increased bronchoalveolar lavage protein and cells, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, demonstrating alveolar epithelial injury. Ozone intoxication resulted in biphasic activation of the transcription factor, NFκB. This correlated with expression of monocyte chemotactic protein‐1, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase‐2, markers of proinflammatory macrophages. Increases in arginase-1, Ym1 and galectin-3 positive anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages were also observed in the lung after ozone inhalation, beginning at 24 h (arginase-1, Ym1), and persisting for 72 h (galectin-3). This was associated with increased expression of pro-surfactant protein-C, a marker of Type II cell proliferation and activation, important steps in wound repair. These data suggest that both proinflammatory/cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages are activated early in the response to ozone-induced oxidative stress and tissue injury. -- Highlights: ► Lung macrophages are highly sensitive to ozone induced oxidative stress. ► Ozone induces autophagy and apoptosis in lung macrophages. ► Proinflammatory and wound repair macrophages are

  6. Antiosteoclastogenesis activity of a CO2 laser antagonizing receptor activator for nuclear factor kappaB ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation of murine macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chun-Liang; Kao, Chia-Tze; Fang, Hsin-Yuan; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Wen; Shie, Ming-You

    2015-03-01

    Macrophage cells are the important effector cells in the immune reaction which are indispensable for osteoclastogenesis; their heterogeneity and plasticity renders macrophages a primer target for immune system modulation. In recent years, there have been very few studies about the effects of macrophage cells on laser treatment-regulated osteoclastogenesis. In this study, RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were treated with RANKL to regulate osteoclastogenesis. We used a CO2 laser as a model biostimulation to investigate the role of osteoclastogenic. We also evaluated cell viability, cell death and cathepsin K expression. The CO2 laser inhibited a receptor activator of the NF-ĸB ligand (RANKL)-induced formation of osteoclasts during the osteoclast differentiation process. It was also found that irradiation for two times reduced RANKL-enhanced TRAP activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CO2 laser-treatment diminished the expression and secretion of cathepsin K elevated by RANKL and was concurrent with the inhibition of TRAF6 induction and NF-ĸB activation. The current report demonstrates that CO2 laser abrogated RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by retarding osteoclast differentiation. The CO2 laser can modulate every cell through dose-dependent in vitro RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, such as the proliferation and fusion of preosteoclasts and the maturation of osteoclasts. Therefore, the current results serve as an improved explanation of the cellular roles of macrophage cell populations in osteoclastogenesis as well as in alveolar bone remodeling by CO2 laser-treatment.

  7. Paeoniflorin regulates macrophage activation in dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Macrophages in other organs (e.g. kidneys, lungs, and spleen, et. al) have rarely been reported in the development of liver fibrosis. Therefore, it is important to investigate macrophage activation in the main organs in liver fibrosis. We investigated the potential antifibrogenic effects of paeoniflorin (PF) in a dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced rat model with special focus on inhibiting macrophage activation in the main organs. Methods Rat hepatic fibrosis was induced by treatment with DMN three times weekly over a 4-week period. DMN rats were treated with water, PF, or gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) from the beginning of the 3rd week. The expression of CD68, marker of macrophage, was investigated using immunohistochemical, real-time PCR, and western blot analysis. Results Hepatic hydroxyproline content markedly decreased and histopathology improved in the DMN-PF rats. Expression of desmin and collagen 1 decreased notably in DMN-PF liver. CD68 expression in the liver, spleen and kidney increased markedly after 2 weeks but decreased in DMN-water rats. PF and GdCl3 decreased CD68 expression in the liver and spleen and there was no effect on kidney. CD68 expression in the lung increased gradually during the course of DMN-induced liver fibrosis, and PF inhibited CD68 expression in the lung significantly while GdCl3 increased CD68 markedly. Expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) was decreased significantly by GdCl3 in the liver, as revealed by real-time PCR analysis. However, GdCl3 could not decrease TNF-α level in the serum by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Conclusions Macrophage activation was disrupted in the liver, spleen, lung and kidney during development of DMN-induced liver fibrosis. PF administration attenuated DMN-induced liver fibrosis at least in part by regulating macrophage disruption in the main organs. PMID:23237422

  8. Exogenous oxidants activate nuclear factor kappa B through Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation to maintain inflammatory phenotype in macrophage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Igwe, Orisa J

    2018-01-01

    Disturbances in redox equilibrium in tissue can lead to inflammatory state, which is a mediatory factor in many human diseases. The mechanism(s) by which exogenous oxidants may activate an inflammatory response is not fully understood. Emerging evidence suggests that oxidant-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation plays a major role in "sterile" inflammation. In the present study, we used murine macrophage RAW-Blue cells, which are chromosomally integrated with secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) inducible by NF-κB. We confirmed the expression of TLR4 mRNA and protein in RAW-Blue cells by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. We showed that oxidants increased intracellular reactive oxygen species production and lipid peroxidation, which resulted in decreased intracellular total antioxidant capacity. Consistent with the actions of TLR4-specific agonist LPS-EK, exogenous oxidants increased transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65 with subsequent release of NF-κB reporter gene SEAP. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with TLR4 neutralizing pAb and TLR4 signaling inhibitor CLI-095. In addition, oxidants decreased the expression of IκBα with enhanced phosphorylation at the Tyr42 residue. Finally, oxidants and LPS-EK increased TNFα production, but did not affect IL-10 production, which may cause imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes, which CLI-095 inhibited. For biological relevance, we confirmed that oxidants increased release of TNFα and IL-6 in primary macrophages derived from TLR4-WT and TLR4-KO mice. Our results support the involvement of TLR4 mediated oxidant-induced inflammatory phenotype through NF-κB activation in macrophages. Thus exogenous oxidants may play a role in activating inflammatory phenotypes that propagate and maintain chronic disease states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Macrophage immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Opuntia polyacantha

    PubMed Central

    Schepetkin, Igor A.; Xie, Gang; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Klein, Robyn A.; Jutila, Mark A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Opuntia polyacantha (prickly pear cactus) has been used extensively for its nutritional properties; however, less is known regarding medicinal properties of Opuntia tissues. In the present study, we extracted polysaccharides from O. polyacantha and used size-exclusion chromatography to fractionate the crude polysaccharides into four polysaccharide fractions (designated as Opuntia polysaccharides C-I to C-IV). The average Mr of fractions C-I through C-IV was estimated to be 733, 550, 310, and 168 kDa, respectively, and sugar composition analysis revealed that Opuntia polysaccharides consisted primarily of galactose, galacturonic acid, xylose, arabinose, and rhamnose. Analysis of the effects of Opuntia polysaccharides on human and murine macrophages demonstrated that all four fractions had potent immunomodulatory activity, inducing production of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin 6. Furthermore, modulation of macrophage function by Opuntia polysaccharides was mediated, at least in part, through activation of nuclear factor κB. Together, our results provide a molecular basis to explain a portion of the beneficial therapeutic properties of extracts from O. polyacantha and support the concept of using Opuntia polysaccharides as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. PMID:18597716

  10. IGF1 Shapes Macrophage Activation in Response to Immunometabolic Challenge.

    PubMed

    Spadaro, Olga; Camell, Christina D; Bosurgi, Lidia; Nguyen, Kim Y; Youm, Yun-Hee; Rothlin, Carla V; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2017-04-11

    In concert with their phagocytic activity, macrophages are thought to regulate the host immunometabolic responses primarily via their ability to produce specific cytokines and metabolites. Here, we show that IL-4-differentiated, M2-like macrophages secrete IGF1, a hormone previously thought to be exclusively produced from liver. Ablation of IGF1 receptors from myeloid cells reduced phagocytosis, increased macrophages in adipose tissue, elevated adiposity, lowered energy expenditure, and led to insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet. The investigation of adipose macrophage phenotype in obese myeloid IGF1R knockout (MIKO) mice revealed a reduction in transcripts associated with M2-like macrophage activation. Furthermore, the MIKO mice infected with helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis displayed delayed resolution from infection with normal insulin sensitivity. Surprisingly, cold challenge did not trigger an overt M2-like state and failed to induce tyrosine hydroxylase expression in adipose tissue macrophages of control or MIKO mice. These results show that IGF1 signaling shapes the macrophage-activation phenotype. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CDDO-Me Redirects Activation of Breast Tumor Associated Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ball, Michael S; Shipman, Emilie P; Kim, Hyunjung; Liby, Karen T; Pioli, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages can account for up to 50% of the tumor mass in breast cancer patients and high TAM density is associated with poor clinical prognosis. Because TAMs enhance tumor growth, development, and metastatic potential, redirection of TAM activation may have significant therapeutic benefit. Our studies in primary human macrophages and murine breast TAMs suggest that the synthetic oleanane triterpenoid CDDO-methyl ester (CDDO-Me) reprograms the activation profile of TAMs from tumor-promoting to tumor-inhibiting. We show that CDDO-Me treatment inhibits expression of IL-10 and VEGF in stimulated human M2 macrophages and TAMs but increases expression of TNF-α and IL-6. Surface expression of CD206 and CD163, which are characteristic of M2 activation, is significantly attenuated by CDDO-Me. In contrast, CDDO-Me up-regulates surface expression of HLA-DR and CD80, which are markers of M1 activation, and importantly potentiates macrophage activation of autologous T cells but inhibits endothelial cell vascularization. These results show for the first time that CDDO-Me redirects activation of M2 macrophages and TAMs from immune-suppressive to immune-stimulatory, and implicate a role for CDDO-Me as an immunotherapeutic in the treatment of breast and potentially other types of cancer.

  12. CDDO-Me Redirects Activation of Breast Tumor Associated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Michael S.; Shipman, Emilie P.; Kim, Hyunjung; Liby, Karen T.; Pioli, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages can account for up to 50% of the tumor mass in breast cancer patients and high TAM density is associated with poor clinical prognosis. Because TAMs enhance tumor growth, development, and metastatic potential, redirection of TAM activation may have significant therapeutic benefit. Our studies in primary human macrophages and murine breast TAMs suggest that the synthetic oleanane triterpenoid CDDO-methyl ester (CDDO-Me) reprograms the activation profile of TAMs from tumor-promoting to tumor-inhibiting. We show that CDDO-Me treatment inhibits expression of IL-10 and VEGF in stimulated human M2 macrophages and TAMs but increases expression of TNF-α and IL-6. Surface expression of CD206 and CD163, which are characteristic of M2 activation, is significantly attenuated by CDDO-Me. In contrast, CDDO-Me up-regulates surface expression of HLA-DR and CD80, which are markers of M1 activation, and importantly potentiates macrophage activation of autologous T cells but inhibits endothelial cell vascularization. These results show for the first time that CDDO-Me redirects activation of M2 macrophages and TAMs from immune-suppressive to immune-stimulatory, and implicate a role for CDDO-Me as an immunotherapeutic in the treatment of breast and potentially other types of cancer. PMID:26918785

  13. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2), platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, is expressed by macrophages in human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, T; Luoma, J S; Hiltunen, M O; Macphee, C H; Milliner, K J; Patel, L; Rice, S Q; Tew, D G; Karkola, K; Ylä-Herttuala, S

    1999-12-01

    We studied the expression of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)), an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing platelet-activating factor (PAF), PAF-like phospholipids, and polar-modified phosphatidylcholines, in human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein, which plays an important role in atherogenesis, generates biologically active PAF-like modified phospholipid derivatives with polar fatty acid chains. PAF is known to have a potent proinflammatory activity and is inactivated by its hydrolysis. On the other hand, lysophosphatidylcholine and oxidized fatty acids released from oxidized low-density lipoprotein as a result of Lp-PLA(2) activity are thought to be involved in the progression of atherosclerosis. Using combined in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry, we detected Lp-PLA(2) mRNA and protein in macrophages in both human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated an increased expression of Lp-PLA(2) mRNA in human atherosclerotic lesions. In addition, approximately 6-fold higher Lp-PLA(2) activity was detected in atherosclerotic aortas of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits compared with normal aortas from control rabbits. It is concluded that (1) macrophages in both human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions express Lp-PLA(2), which could cleave any oxidatively modified phosphatidylcholine present in the lesion area, and (2) modulation of Lp-PLA(2) activity could lead to antiatherogenic effects in the vessel wall.

  14. Periodontitis-activated monocytes/macrophages cause aortic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Miyajima, Shin-ichi; Naruse, Keiko; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Nakamura, Nobuhisa; Nishikawa, Toru; Adachi, Kei; Suzuki, Yuki; Kikuchi, Takeshi; Mitani, Akio; Mizutani, Makoto; Ohno, Norikazu; Noguchi, Toshihide; Matsubara, Tatsuaki

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis has been suggested by epidemiological studies. Ligature-induced experimental periodontitis is an adequate model for clinical periodontitis, which starts from plaque accumulation, followed by inflammation in the periodontal tissue. Here we have demonstrated using a ligature-induced periodontitis model that periodontitis activates monocytes/macrophages, which subsequently circulate in the blood and adhere to vascular endothelial cells without altering the serum TNF-α concentration. Adherent monocytes/macrophages induced NF-κB activation and VCAM-1 expression in the endothelium and increased the expression of the TNF-α signaling cascade in the aorta. Peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells from rats with experimental periodontitis showed enhanced adhesion and increased NF-κB/VCAM-1 in cultured vascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that periodontitis triggers the initial pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, inflammation of the vasculature, through activating monocytes/macrophages. PMID:24893991

  15. Macrophage mitochondrial oxidative stress promotes atherosclerosis and nuclear factor-κB-mediated inflammation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Gary Z; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Tabas, Ira

    2014-01-31

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress (mitoOS) has been shown to correlate with the progression of human atherosclerosis. However, definitive cell type-specific causation studies in vivo are lacking, and the molecular mechanisms of potential proatherogenic effects remain to be determined. Our aims were to assess the importance of macrophage mitoOS in atherogenesis and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. We first validated Western diet-fed Ldlr(-/-) mice as a model of human mitoOS-atherosclerosis association by showing that non-nuclear oxidative DNA damage, a marker of mitoOS in lesional macrophages, correlates with aortic root lesion development. To investigate the importance of macrophage mitoOS, we used a genetic engineering strategy in which the OS suppressor catalase was ectopically expressed in mitochondria (mCAT) in macrophages. MitoOS in lesional macrophages was successfully suppressed in these mice, and this led to a significant reduction in aortic root lesional area. The mCAT lesions had less monocyte-derived cells, less Ly6c(hi) monocyte infiltration into lesions, and lower levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1. The decrease in lesional monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was associated with the suppression of other markers of inflammation and with decreased phosphorylation of RelA (NF-κB p65), indicating decreased activation of the proinflammatory NF-κB pathway. Using models of mitoOS in cultured macrophages, we showed that mCAT suppressed monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression by decreasing the activation of the IκB-kinase β-RelA NF-κB pathway. MitoOS in lesional macrophages amplifies atherosclerotic lesion development by promoting NF-κB-mediated entry of monocytes and other inflammatory processes. In view of the mitoOS-atherosclerosis link in human atheromata, these findings reveal a potentially new therapeutic target to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis.

  16. Uncaria rhynchophylla inhibits the production of nitric oxide and interleukin-1β through blocking nuclear factor κB, Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Bae, Chang Hwan; Park, Sun Young; Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, YoungHee

    2010-10-01

    The stems with hook of Uncaria rhynchophylla have been used in traditional medicine as an antipyretic, antihypertensive, and anticonvulsant in China and Korea. In this study, we investigated the mechanism responsible for anti-inflammatory effects of U. rhynchophylla in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The aqueous extract of U. rhynchophylla inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin (IL)-1β secretion as well as inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression, without affecting cell viability. Furthermore, U. rhynchophylla suppressed LPS-induced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation, phosphorylation, and degradation of inhibitory protein IκB (IκB)-α, phosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38 kinase, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. These results suggest that U. rhynchophylla has the inhibitory effects on LPS-induced NO and IL-1β production in macrophages through blockade in the phosphorylation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases, following IκB-α degradation and NF-κB activation.

  17. Chimeric HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins with Potent Intrinsic Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Maikel; Cobos Jiménez, Viviana; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Sanders, Rogier W.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 acquisition can be prevented by broadly neutralizing antibodies (BrNAbs) that target the envelope glycoprotein complex (Env). An ideal vaccine should therefore be able to induce BrNAbs that can provide immunity over a prolonged period of time, but the low intrinsic immunogenicity of HIV-1 Env makes the elicitation of such BrNAbs challenging. Co-stimulatory molecules can increase the immunogenicity of Env and we have engineered a soluble chimeric Env trimer with an embedded granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) domain. This chimeric molecule induced enhanced B and helper T cell responses in mice compared to Env without GM-CSF. We studied whether we could optimize the activity of the embedded GM-CSF as well as the antigenic structure of the Env component of the chimeric molecule. We assessed the effect of truncating GM-CSF, removing glycosylation-sites in GM-CSF, and adjusting the linker length between GM-CSF and Env. One of our designed EnvGM-CSF chimeras improved GM-CSF-dependent cell proliferation by 6-fold, reaching the same activity as soluble recombinant GM-CSF. In addition, we incorporated GM-CSF into a cleavable Env trimer and found that insertion of GM-CSF did not compromise Env cleavage, while Env cleavage did not compromise GM-CSF activity. Importantly, these optimized EnvGM-CSF proteins were able to differentiate human monocytes into cells with a macrophage-like phenotype. Chimeric EnvGM-CSF should be useful for improving humoral immunity against HIV-1 and these studies should inform the design of other chimeric proteins. PMID:23565193

  18. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on protein accumulation by murine peritoneal macrophages: the correlation to activation for macrophage tumoricidal function

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    The protein synthetic patterns of tumoricidal murine peritoneal macrophage populations have been compared to those of non-tumoricidal populations utilizing two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) of (/sup 35/S)-methionine-labeled proteins. While the protein synthetic patterns exhibited by resident, inflammatory and activated macrophages had numerous common features which distinguished them from the other normal non-macrophage cell types examined, unique proteins also distinguished each macrophage population from the others. Peritoneal macrophages elicited by treatment with heat killed Propionibacterium acnes, the live, attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG, Listeria monocytogenes and the protozoan flagellate Trypanosoma rhodesiense, all exhibited tumoricidal activity in 16h or 72hmore » functional assays, and shared a common protein synthetic profile which differentiated them from the synthetic patterns characteristic of the non-tumoricidal resident and inflammatory macrophages.« less

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected macrophages produce soluble factors that cause histological and neurochemical alterations in cultured human brains.

    PubMed Central

    Pulliam, L; Herndier, B G; Tang, N M; McGrath, M S

    1991-01-01

    We wanted to establish an in vitro human model for AIDS-associated dementia and pursue the hypothesis that this disease process may be a result of soluble factors produced by HIV-infected macrophages. Human brain aggregates were prepared from nine different brain specimens, and were treated with supernatants from in vitro HIV-infected macrophages (SI), uninfected macrophages (SU), infected T cells, or macrophage-conditioned media from four AIDS patients. Seven of nine treated brains exposed to SI showed peripheral rarefaction after 1 wk of incubation that by ultrastructural analysis showed cytoplasmic vacuolation. Aggregates from two of three brain cultures treated with SI for 3 wk became smaller, an approximately 50% decrease in size. The degree of apparent toxicity in brains exposed to patient-derived macrophage supernatants paralleled the proportion of macrophages found to be expressing HIV p24. Ultrastructural abnormalities were not observed in brains treated with supernatants from HIV-infected T cells, uninfected macrophages, or LPS-activated macrophages. Levels of five neurotransmitter amino acids were decreased in comparison to the structural amino acid leucine. These findings suggest that HIV-infected macrophages, infected both in vitro as well as derived from AIDS patients' peripheral blood, produce factors that cause reproducible histochemical, ultrastructural, and functional abnormalities in human brain aggregates. Images PMID:1671392

  20. Doxorubicin resistance mediated by cytoplasmic macrophage colony-stimulating factor is associated with switch from apoptosis to autophagic cell death in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mengxia; Zhang, Hailiang; Tang, Fan; Wang, Yuhua; Mo, Zhongcheng; Lei, Xiaoyong

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor is a vital factor in maintaining the biological function of monocyte–macrophage lineage. It is expressed in many tumor tissues and cancer cells. Recent findings indicate that macrophage colony-stimulating factor might contribute to chemoresistance, but the precise mechanisms are unclear. This study was to explore the effect of macrophage colony-stimulating factor on doxorubicin resistance in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and the possible mechanism. In the study, the human breast cancer cells, MCF-7, were transfected with macrophage colony-stimulating factor. We document that cytoplasmic macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces doxorubicin resistance and inhibits apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Further studies demonstrated that cytoplasmic macrophage colony-stimulating factor-mediated apoptosis inhibition was dependent on the activation of PI3K/Akt/Survivin pathway. More importantly, we found that macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced autophagic cell death in doxorubicin-treated MCF-7 cells. Taken together, we show for the first time that macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced doxorubicin resistance is associated with the changes in cell death response with defective apoptosis and promotion of autophagic cell death. PMID:27439542

  1. Canine mammary cancer cells direct macrophages toward an intermediate activation state between M1/M2.

    PubMed

    Beirão, Breno C B; Raposo, Teresa; Pang, Lisa Y; Argyle, David J

    2015-07-15

    Canine mammary carcinoma is the most common cancer in female dogs and is often fatal due to the development of distance metastasis. The microenvironment of a tumour often contains abundant infiltrates of macrophages called tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs). TAMs express an activated phenotype, termed M2, which sustains proliferation of cancer cells, and has been correlated with poor clinical outcomes in human cancer patients. Cancer cells themselves have been implicated in stimulating the conversion of macrophages to a TAM with an M2 phenotype. This process has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we investigate the interplay between cancer cells and macrophages in the context of canine mammary carcinoma. We show that cancer cells inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage activation. Further, we show that macrophage associated proteins, colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1 and C-C motif ligand (CCL)-2, stimulate macrophages and are responsible for the effects of cancer cells on macrophages. We suggest the existence of a feedback loop between macrophages and cancer cells; while cancer cells influence the phenotype of the TAMs through CSF-1 and CCL2, the macrophages induce canine mammary cancer cells to upregulate their own expression of the receptors for CSF-1 and CCL2 and increase the cancer cellular metabolic activity. However, these cytokines in isolation induce a phenotypic state in macrophages that is between M1 and M2 phenotypes. Overall, our results demonstrate the extent to which canine mammary carcinoma cells influence the macrophage phenotype and the relevance of a feedback loop between these cells, involving CSF-1 and CCL2 as important mediators.

  2. Estrogen receptor-alpha promotes alternative macrophage activation during cutaneous repair.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Laura; Emmerson, Elaine; Williams, Helen; Saville, Charis R; Krust, Andrée; Chambon, Pierre; Mace, Kimberly A; Hardman, Matthew J

    2014-09-01

    Efficient local monocyte/macrophage recruitment is critical for tissue repair. Recruited macrophages are polarized toward classical (proinflammatory) or alternative (prohealing) activation in response to cytokines, with tight temporal regulation crucial for efficient wound repair. Estrogen acts as a potent anti-inflammatory regulator of cutaneous healing. However, an understanding of estrogen/estrogen receptor (ER) contribution to macrophage polarization and subsequent local effects on wound healing is lacking. Here we identify, to our knowledge previously unreported, a role whereby estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling preferentially polarizes macrophages from a range of sources to an alternative phenotype. Cell-specific ER ablation studies confirm an in vivo role for inflammatory cell ERα, but not ERβ, in poor healing associated with an altered cytokine profile and fewer alternatively activated macrophages. Furthermore, we reveal intrinsic changes in ERα-deficient macrophages, which are unable to respond to alternative activation signals in vitro. Collectively, our data reveal that inflammatory cell-expressed ERα promotes alternative macrophage polarization, which is beneficial for timely healing. Given the diverse physiological roles of ERs, these findings will likely be of relevance to many pathologies involving excessive inflammation.

  3. [Macrophage activation in atherosclerosis. Message 1: Activation of macrophages normally and in atherosclerotic lesions].

    PubMed

    Nikiforov, N G; Kornienko, V Y; Karagodin, V P; Orekhov, A N

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play important role in initiation and progression of inflammation in atherosclerosis. Plaque macrophages were shown to exhibit a phenotypic range that is intermediate between two extremes, M1 (proinflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory). Indeed, in atherosclerosis, macrophages demonstrate phenotypic plasticity to rapidly adjust to changing microenvironmental conditions. In plaque macrophages demonstrate different phenotypes, and besides macrophage phenotypes could be changed. Phenotypes M1, M2, M4, Mhem, HA-mac, M(Hb) u Mox are described in the article. Ability of macrophages change their phenotype also considered.

  4. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin Using Phosphatidylserine-Containing Nanoparticles in Cultured Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji; Kang, Yu-Xia; Pan, Wen; Lei, Wan; Feng, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Juan

    2016-06-20

    Macrophages are one kind of innate immune cells, and produce a variety of inflammatory cytokines in response to various stimuli, such as oxidized low density lipoprotein found in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, the effect of phosphatidylserine on anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers was investigated using macrophage cultures. Different amounts of phosphatidylserine were used in the preparation of curcumin nanoparticles, their physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities were then compared. Cellular uptake of the nanoparticles was investigated using a confocal laser scanning microscope and flow cytometry analysis in order to determine the optimal phosphatidylserine concentration. In vitro anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated in macrophages to test whether curcumin and phosphatidylserine have interactive effects on macrophage lipid uptake behavior and anti-inflammatory responses. Here, we showed that macrophage uptake of phosphatidylserine-containing nanostructured lipid carriers increased with increasing amount of phosphatidylserine in the range of 0%-8%, and decreased when the phosphatidylserine molar ratio reached over 12%. curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory factor production in cultured macrophages, and evidently promoted release of anti-inflammatory cytokines, when compared with curcumin or phosphatidylserine alone. These results suggest that the delivery system using PS-based nanoparticles has great potential for efficient delivery of drugs such as curcumin, specifically targeting macrophages and modulation of their anti-inflammatory functions.

  5. Avian macrophage: effector functions in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, M A; Heggen, C L; Hussain, I

    2000-01-01

    Monocytes-macrophages, cells belonging to the mononuclear phagocytic system, are considered as the first line of immunological defense. Being mobile scavenger cells, macrophages participate in innate immunity by serving as phagocytic cells. These cells arise in the bone marrow and subsequently enter the blood circulation as blood monocytes. Upon migration to various tissues, monocytes mature and differentiate into tissue macrophages. Macrophages then initiate the 'acquired' immune response in their capacity as antigen processing and presenting cells. While responding to their tissue microenvironment or exogenous antigenic challenge, macrophages may secrete several immunoregulatory cytokines or metabolites. Being the first line of immunological defense, macrophages therefore represent an important step during interaction with infectious agents. The outcome of the macrophage-pathogen interaction depends upon several factors including the stage of macrophage activation, the nature of the infectious agent, the level of genetic control on macrophage function as well as environmental and nutritional factors that may modulate macrophage activation and functions. Research in avian macrophages has lagged behind that in mammals. This has been largely due to the lack of harvestable resident macrophages from the chicken peritoneal cavity. However, the development of elicitation protocols to harvest inflammatory abdominal macrophages and the availability of transformed chicken macrophage cell lines, has enabled researchers to address several questions related to chicken macrophage biology and function in health and disease. In this manuscript the basic profiles of several macrophage effector functions are described. In addition, the interaction of macrophages with various pathogens as well as the effect of genetic and environmental factors on macrophage functional modulation is described.

  6. Redox Control of Inflammation in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Dehne, Nathalie; Grossmann, Nina; Jung, Michaela; Namgaladze, Dmitry; Schmid, Tobias; von Knethen, Andreas; Weigert, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Macrophages are present throughout the human body, constitute important immune effector cells, and have variable roles in a great number of pathological, but also physiological, settings. It is apparent that macrophages need to adjust their activation profile toward a steadily changing environment that requires altering their phenotype, a process known as macrophage polarization. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), derived from NADPH-oxidases, mitochondria, or NO-producing enzymes, are not necessarily toxic, but rather compose a network signaling system, known as redox regulation. Formation of redox signals in classically versus alternatively activated macrophages, their action and interaction at the level of key targets, and the resulting physiology still are insufficiently understood. We review the identity, source, and biological activities of ROS produced during macrophage activation, and discuss how they shape the key transcriptional responses evoked by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors, nuclear-erythroid 2-p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. We summarize the mechanisms how redox signals add to the process of macrophage polarization and reprogramming, how this is controlled by the interaction of macrophages with their environment, and addresses the outcome of the polarization process in health and disease. Future studies need to tackle the option whether we can use the knowledge of redox biology in macrophages to shape their mediator profile in pathophysiology, to accelerate healing in injured tissue, to fight the invading pathogens, or to eliminate settings of altered self in tumors. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 595–637. PMID:23311665

  7. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells decrease transforming growth factor β1 expression in microglia/macrophages and down-regulate plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 expression in astrocytes after stroke.

    PubMed

    Xin, Hongqi; Chopp, Michael; Shen, Li Hong; Zhang, Rui Lan; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Zheng Gang; Li, Yi

    2013-05-10

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) decrease the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) in astrocytes and subsequently decrease astrocytic plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) level in an autocrine manner. Since activated microglia/macrophages are also a source of TGFβ1 after stroke, we therefore tested whether MSCs regulate TGFβ1 expression in microglia/macrophages and subsequently alters PAI-1 expression after ischemia. TGFβ1 and its downstream effector phosphorylated SMAD 2/3 (p-SMAD 2/3) were measured in mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). MSC treatment significantly decreased TGFβ1 protein expression in both astrocytes and microglia/macrophages in the ischemic boundary zone (IBZ) at day 14 after stroke. However, the p-SMAD 2/3 was only detected in astrocytes and decreased after MSC treatment. In vitro, RT-PCR results showed that the TGFβ1 mRNA level was increased in both astrocytes and microglia/macrophages in an astrocyte-microglia/macrophage co-culture system after oxygen-glucose deprived (OGD) treatment. MSCs treatment significantly decreased the above TGFβ1 mRNA level under OGD conditions, respectively. OGD increased the PAI-1 mRNA in astrocytes in the astrocyte-microglia/macrophage co-culture system, and MSC administration significantly decreased this level. PAI-1 mRNA was very low in microglia/macrophages compared with that in astrocytes under different conditions. Western blot results also verified that MSC administration significantly decreased p-SMAD 2/3 and PAI-1 level in astrocytes in astrocyte-microglia/macrophage co-culture system under OGD conditions. Our in vivo and in vitro data, in concert, suggest that MSCs decrease TGFβ1 expression in microglia/macrophages in the IBZ which contribute to the down-regulation of PAI-1 level in astrocytes. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Characteristics of adipose tissue macrophages and macrophage-derived insulin-like growth factor-1 in virus-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Park, S; Park, H-L; Lee, S-Y; Nam, J-H

    2016-03-01

    Various pathogens are implicated in the induction of obesity. Previous studies have confirmed that human adenovirus 36 (Ad36) is associated with increased adiposity, improved glycemic control and induction of inflammation. The Ad36-induced inflammation is reflected in the infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue. However, the characteristics and role of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and macrophage-secreted factors in virus-induced obesity (VIO) are unclear. Although insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is involved in obesity metabolism, the contribution of IGF secreted by macrophages in VIO has not been studied. Four-week-old male mice were studied 1 week and 12 weeks after Ad36 infection for determining the characteristics of ATMs in VIO and diet-induced obesity (DIO). In addition, macrophage-specific IGF-1-deficient (MIKO) mice were used to study the involvement of IGF-1 in VIO. In the early stage of VIO (1 week after Ad36 infection), the M1 ATM sub-population increased, which increased the M1/M2 ratio, whereas DIO did not cause this change. In the late stage of VIO (12 weeks after Ad36 infection), the M1/M2 ratio did not change because the M1 and M2 ATM sub-populations increased to a similar extent, despite an increase in adiposity. By contrast, DIO increased the M1/M2 ratio. In addition, VIO in wild-type mice upregulated angiogenesis in adipose tissue and improved glycemic control. However, MIKO mice showed no increase in adiposity, angiogenesis, infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue, or improvement in glycemic control after Ad36 infection. These data suggest that IGF-1 secreted by macrophages may contribute to hyperplasia and hypertrophy in adipose tissue by increasing angiogenesis, which helps to maintain the 'adipose tissue robustness'.

  9. Macrophage Activation Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ravelli, Angelo; Davì, Sergio; Minoia, Francesca; Martini, Alberto; Cron, Randy Q

    2015-10-01

    Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a potentially life-threatening complication of rheumatic disorders that occurs most commonly in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. In recent years, there have been several advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of MAS. Furthermore, new classification criteria have been developed. Although the place of cytokine blockers in the management of MAS is still unclear, interleukin-1 inhibitors represent a promising adjunctive therapy, particularly in refractory cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Alternatively Activated Macrophages Drive Browning of White Adipose Tissue in Burns.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Auger, Christopher; Stanojcic, Mile; Patsouris, David; Parousis, Alexandra; Epelman, Slava; Jeschke, Marc G

    2017-08-16

    The aim of this study was to uncover the mediators and mechanistic events that facilitate the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) in response to burns. In hypermetabolic patients (eg, burns, cancer), the browning of WAT has presented substantial clinical challenges related to cachexia, atherosclerosis, and poor clinical outcomes. Browning of the adipose tissue has recently been found to induce and sustain hypermetabolism. Although browning appears central in trauma-, burn-, or cancer-induced hypermetabolic catabolism, the mediators are essentially unknown. WAT and blood samples were collected from patients admitted to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre at Sunnybrook Hospital. Wild type, CCR2 KO, and interleukin (IL)-6 KO male mice were purchased from Jax laboratories and subjected to a 30% total body surface area burn injury. WAT and serum collected were analyzed for browning markers, macrophages, and metabolic state via histology, gene expression, and mitochondrial respiration. In the present study, we show that burn-induced browning is associated with an increased macrophage infiltration, with a greater type 2 macrophage profile in the fat of burn patients. Similar to our clinical findings in burn patients, both an increase in macrophage recruitment and a type 2 macrophage profile were also observed in post burn mice. Genetic loss of the chemokine CCR2 responsible for macrophage migration to the adipose impairs burn-induced browning. Mechanistically, we show that macrophages recruited to burn-stressed subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) undergo alternative activation to induce tyrosine hydroxylase expression and catecholamine production mediated by IL-6, factors required for browning of sWAT. Together, our findings uncover macrophages as the key instigators and missing link in trauma-induced browning.

  11. M1 Macrophages but Not M2 Macrophages Are Characterized by Upregulation of CRP Expression via Activation of NFκB: a Possible Role for Ox-LDL in Macrophage Polarization.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Marielle; Shur, Anna; Tendler, Yvgeny

    2018-04-23

    Arterial macrophages comprise a heterogeneous population: pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2). Since C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced by macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions, understanding of CRP regulation in macrophages could be crucial to decipher inflammatory patterns in atherogenesis. We aimed to analyze CRP expression in M1/M2 macrophages and to question whether it involves NFκB signaling pathway. Furthermore, we questioned whether oxidative stress affect macrophage phenotype and modulate macrophage CRP expression. M1/M2 macrophage polarization was validated using THP-1 macrophages. CRP mRNA and protein expression were determined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Involvement of NFκB was determined by nuclear translocation of p50 subunit and the use of NFκB inhibitor. Involvement of oxidative stress in macrophage phenotypes induction was studied using oxidized-LDL (Ox-LDL) and antioxidants. M1 macrophages were characterized by elevated CRP mRNA expression (by 67%), CRP protein levels (by 108%), and upregulation of NFκB activation compared to control, but these features were not shared by M2 macrophages. Macrophages incubation with Ox-LDL led to a moderate M1 phenotype combined with a M2 phenotype, correlated with increased CRP mRNA expression. Antioxidants inhibited by up to 86% IL6 expression but did not significantly affect IL10 secretion. Antioxidants significantly inhibited CRP expression in M1 macrophages, but not in M2 macrophages. Elevated expression of CRP was characteristic of M1 macrophages rather than M2 through NFκB activation. Oxidative stress could be one of the endogenous triggers for macrophage activation to a mixed M1 and M2 phenotype, in association with increased expression of CRP.

  12. Unlike PPAR{gamma}, PPAR{alpha} or PPAR{beta}/{delta} activation does not promote human monocyte differentiation toward alternative macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Bouhlel, Mohamed Amine; Inserm U545, F-59000 Lille; UDSL, F-59000 Lille

    2009-08-28

    Macrophages adapt their response to micro-environmental signals. While Th1 cytokines promote pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, Th2 cytokines promote an 'alternative' anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors expressed in macrophages where they control the inflammatory response. It has been shown that PPAR{gamma} promotes the differentiation of monocytes into anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in humans and mice, while a role for PPAR{beta}/{delta} in this process has been reported only in mice and no data are available for PPAR{alpha}. Here, we show that in contrast to PPAR{gamma}, expression of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta}/{delta} overall does not correlate with the expressionmore » of M2 markers in human atherosclerotic lesions, whereas a positive correlation with genes of lipid metabolism exists. Moreover, unlike PPAR{gamma}, PPAR{alpha} or PPAR{beta}/{delta} activation does not influence human monocyte differentiation into M2 macrophages in vitro. Thus, PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta}/{delta} do not appear to modulate the alternative differentiation of human macrophages.« less

  13. Tumor-associated macrophages as a paradigm of macrophage plasticity, diversity, and polarization: lessons and open questions.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Alberto; Locati, Massimo

    2013-07-01

    Macrophages are present in all body compartments, including cancerous tissues, and their functions are profoundly affected by signals from the microenvironment under homeostatic and pathological conditions. Tumor-associated macrophages are a major cellular component of cancer-related inflammation and have served as a paradigm for the plasticity and functional polarization of mononuclear phagocytes. Tumor-associated macrophages can exert dual influence of cancer depending on the activation state, with classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) cells generally exerting antitumoral and protumoral functions, respectively. These are extremes in a continuum of polarization states in a universe of diversity. Tumor-associated macrophages affect virtually all aspects of tumor tissues, including stem cells, metabolism, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Progress has been made in defining signaling molecules, transcription factors, epigenetic changes, and repertoire of microRNAs underlying macrophage polarization. Preclinical and early clinical data suggest that macrophages may serve as tools for the development of innovative diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in cancer and chronic nonresolving inflammatory diseases.

  14. Cranberry Proanthocyanidins - Protein complexes for macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Sergio M; Haas, Linda; Krueger, Christian G; Reed, Jess D

    2017-09-20

    In this work we characterize the interaction of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins (PAC) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) and determine the effects of these complexes on macrophage activation and antigen presentation. We isolated PAC from cranberry and complexed the isolated PAC with BSA and HEL. The properties of the PAC-protein complexes were studied by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), gel electrophoresis and zeta-potential. The effects of PAC-BSA complexes on macrophage activation were studied in RAW 264.7 macrophage like cells after treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Fluorescence microscopy was used to study the endocytosis of PAC-BSA complexes. The effects of the PAC complexes on macrophage antigen presentation were studied in an in vitro model of HEL antigen presentation by mouse peritoneal mononuclear cells to a T-cell hybridoma. The mass spectra of the PAC complexes with BSA and HEL differed from the spectra of the proteins alone by the presence of broad shoulders on the singly and doubly charged protein peaks. Complexation with PAC altered the electrophoretic mobility shift assay in native agarose gel and the electrophoretic mobility (ζ-potential) values. These results indicate that the PAC-protein complexes are stable and alter the protein structure without precipitating the protein. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the RAW 264.7 macrophages endocytosed BSA and PAC-BSA complexes in discrete vesicles that surrounded the nucleus. Macrophages treated with increasing amounts of PAC-BSA complexes had significantly reduced COX-2 and iNOS expression in response to treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in comparison to the controls. The PAC-HEL complexes modulated antigen uptake, processing and presentation in murine peritoneal macrophages. After 4 h of pre-incubation, only trace amounts of IL-2 were detected in the co-cultures treated with HEL

  15. Baculovirus-expressed vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf) activates osteoclasts and binding of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) does not influence this activity.

    PubMed

    Swamy, N; Ghosh, S; Schneider, G B; Ray, R

    2001-01-01

    Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) is a multi-functional serum protein that is converted to vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf) by post-translational modification. DBP-maf is a new cytokine that mediates bone resorption by activating osteoclasts, which are responsible for resorption of bone. Defective osteoclast activation leads to disorders like osteopetrosis, characterized by excessive accumulation of bone mass. Previous studies demonstrated that two nonallelic mutations in the rat with osteopetrosis have independent defects in the cascade involved in the conversion of DBP to DBP-maf. The skeletal defects associated with osteopetrosis are corrected in these mutants with in vivo DBP-maf treatment. This study evaluates the effects of various forms of DBP-maf (native, recombinant, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) bound) on osteoclast function in vitro in order to determine some of the structural requirements of this protein that relate to bone resorbing activities. Osteoclast activity was determined by evaluating pit formation using osteoclasts, isolated from the long bones of newborn rats, incubated on calcium phosphate coated, thin film, Ostologic MultiTest Slides. Incubation of osteoclasts with ex vivo generated native DBP-maf resulted in a dose dependent, statistically significant, activation of the osteoclasts. The activation was similar whether or not the vitamin D binding site of the DBP-maf was occupied. The level of activity in response to DBP-maf was greater than that elicited by optimal doses of other known stimulators (PTH and 1,25(OH(2)D(3)) of osteoclast function. Furthermore, another potent macrophage activating factor, interferon--gamma, had no effect on osteoclast activity. The activated form of a full length recombinant DBP, expressed in E. coli showed no activity in the in vitro assay. Contrary to this finding, baculovirus-expressed recombinant DBP-maf demonstrated significant osteoclast activating activity. The normal

  16. Alternatively activated macrophages produce catecholamines to sustain adaptive thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Khoa D.; Qiu, Yifu; Cui, Xiaojin; Goh, Y.P. Sharon; Mwangi, Julia; David, Tovo; Mukundan, Lata; Brombacher, Frank; Locksley, Richard M.; Chawla, Ajay

    2011-01-01

    All homeotherms utilize thermogenesis to maintain core body temperature, ensuring that cellular functions and physiologic processes can ensue in cold environments1-3. In the prevailing model, when the hypothalamus senses cold temperatures, it triggers sympathetic discharge, resulting in the release of noradrenaline in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT)4,5. Acting via the β3-adrenergic receptors, noradrenaline induces lipolysis in white adipocytes6, whereas it stimulates the expression of thermogenic genes, such as PPARγ coactivator 1a (Ppargc1a), uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), and acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (Acsl1), in brown adipocytes7-9. However, the precise nature of all the cell types involved in this efferent loop is not well established. Here we report an unexpected requirement for the interleukin 4 (IL4)-stimulated program of alternative macrophage activation in adaptive thermogenesis. Cold exposure rapidly promoted alternative activation of adipose tissue macrophages, which secrete catecholamines to induce thermogenic gene expression in BAT and lipolysis in WAT. Absence of alternatively activated macrophages impaired metabolic adaptations to cold, whereas administration of IL4 increased thermogenic gene expression, fatty acid mobilization, and energy expenditure, all in a macrophage-dependent manner. We have thus discovered a surprising role for alternatively activated macrophages in the orchestration of an important mammalian stress response, the response to cold. PMID:22101429

  17. "In vivo" murine macrophages activation by a dichloromethane extract of Tilia x viridis.

    PubMed

    Davicino, Roberto; Micucci, Patricia; Zettler, Gabriela; Ferraro, Graciela; Anesini, Claudia

    2010-09-01

    Macrophages are involved in the host defense against infectious pathogens and tumors. Tilia species have been used in folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases, previously it was demonstrated that a dichloromethane (DM) extract possess antiproliferative action "in vitro" on a lymphoma cell line. The aim of this work was to study the "in vivo" effect of DM extract upon mice peritoneal macrophages. DM extract-activated macrophages phagocytosis through hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and nitric oxide (NO) production (phagocytosis (%): basal 16.93 +/- 0.18, DM extract 25.93 +/- 2.8; H(2)O(2) (M): basal 0.0022 +/- 0.00016, DM extract 0.0036 +/- 0.0005; NO (mM): basal 0.0052 +/- 0.0007, DM extract 0.0099 +/- 0.0004). These actions were mediated by cell superoxide dismutase activation. On the other hand, DM extract decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha but increased interleukin-10 in serum. These results suggest that the modulation activity exerted by the extract on immune system cells could be an important mechanism to acquire resistance to tumors and infectious diseases.

  18. Keratinocyte Growth Factor Administration Attenuates Murine Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection through Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor (GM-CSF)-dependent Macrophage Activation and Phagolysosome Fusion*

    PubMed Central

    Pasula, Rajamouli; Azad, Abul K.; Gardner, Jason C.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; McCormack, Francis X.

    2015-01-01

    Augmentation of innate immune defenses is an appealing adjunctive strategy for treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections, especially those caused by drug-resistant strains. The effect of intranasal administration of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), an epithelial mitogen and differentiation factor, on M. tuberculosis infection in mice was tested in prophylaxis, treatment, and rescue scenarios. Infection of C57BL6 mice with M. tuberculosis resulted in inoculum size-dependent weight loss and mortality. A single dose of KGF given 1 day prior to infection with 105 M. tuberculosis bacilli prevented weight loss and enhanced pulmonary mycobacterial clearance (compared with saline-pretreated mice) for up to 28 days. Similar effects were seen when KGF was delivered intranasally every third day for 15 days, but weight loss and bacillary growth resumed when KGF was withdrawn. For mice with a well established M. tuberculosis infection, KGF given every 3 days beginning on day 15 postinoculation was associated with reversal of weight loss and an increase in M. tuberculosis clearance. In in vitro co-culture experiments, M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages exposed to conditioned medium from KGF-treated alveolar type II cell (MLE-15) monolayers exhibited enhanced GM-CSF-dependent killing through mechanisms that included promotion of phagolysosome fusion and induction of nitric oxide. Alveolar macrophages from KGF-treated mice also exhibited enhanced GM-CSF-dependent phagolysosomal fusion. These results provide evidence that administration of KGF promotes M. tuberculosis clearance through GM-CSF-dependent mechanisms and enhances host defense against M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:25605711

  19. Ketamine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interleukin-6 gene expressions in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages through suppression of toll-like receptor 4-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and activator protein-1 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.-J.; Department of Anesthesiology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan

    2008-04-01

    Our previous study showed that ketamine, an intravenous anesthetic agent, has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we further evaluated the effects of ketamine on the regulation of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) gene expressions and its possible signal-transducing mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Exposure of macrophages to 1, 10, and 100 {mu}M ketamine, 100 ng/ml LPS, or a combination of ketamine and LPS for 1, 6, and 24 h was not cytotoxic to macrophages. A concentration of 1000 {mu}M of ketamine alone or in combined treatment with LPS caused significant cell death. Administration of LPS increased cellular TNF-{alpha}more » and IL-6 protein levels in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Meanwhile, treatment with ketamine concentration- and time-dependently alleviated the enhanced effects. LPS induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 mRNA syntheses. Administration of ketamine at a therapeutic concentration (100 {mu}M) significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 mRNA expressions. Application of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) small interfering (si)RNA into macrophages decreased cellular TLR4 levels. Co-treatment of macrophages with ketamine and TLR4 siRNA decreased the LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 productions more than alone administration of TLR4 siRNA. LPS stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos from the cytoplasm to nuclei. However, administration of ketamine significantly decreased LPS-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos. LPS increased the binding of nuclear extracts to activator protein-1 consensus DNA oligonucleotides. Administration of ketamine significantly ameliorated LPS-induced DNA binding activity of activator protein-1. Therefore, a clinically relevant concentration of ketamine can inhibit TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 gene expressions in LPS-activated macrophages. The suppressive

  20. Ketamine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 gene expressions in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages through suppression of toll-like receptor 4-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and activator protein-1 activation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gone-Jhe; Chen, Ta-Liang; Ueng, Yune-Fang; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2008-04-01

    Our previous study showed that ketamine, an intravenous anesthetic agent, has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we further evaluated the effects of ketamine on the regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) gene expressions and its possible signal-transducing mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Exposure of macrophages to 1, 10, and 100 microM ketamine, 100 ng/ml LPS, or a combination of ketamine and LPS for 1, 6, and 24 h was not cytotoxic to macrophages. A concentration of 1000 microM of ketamine alone or in combined treatment with LPS caused significant cell death. Administration of LPS increased cellular TNF-alpha and IL-6 protein levels in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Meanwhile, treatment with ketamine concentration- and time-dependently alleviated the enhanced effects. LPS induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA syntheses. Administration of ketamine at a therapeutic concentration (100 microM) significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA expressions. Application of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) small interfering (si)RNA into macrophages decreased cellular TLR4 levels. Co-treatment of macrophages with ketamine and TLR4 siRNA decreased the LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 productions more than alone administration of TLR4 siRNA. LPS stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos from the cytoplasm to nuclei. However, administration of ketamine significantly decreased LPS-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos. LPS increased the binding of nuclear extracts to activator protein-1 consensus DNA oligonucleotides. Administration of ketamine significantly ameliorated LPS-induced DNA binding activity of activator protein-1. Therefore, a clinically relevant concentration of ketamine can inhibit TNF-alpha and IL-6 gene expressions in LPS-activated macrophages. The suppressive mechanisms occur through

  1. Biological role of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) on cells of the myeloid lineage

    PubMed Central

    Ushach, Irina; Zlotnik, Albert

    2016-01-01

    M-CSF and GM-CSF are 2 important cytokines that regulate macrophage numbers and function. Here, we review their known effects on cells of the macrophage-monocyte lineage. Important clues to their function come from their expression patterns. M-CSF exhibits a mostly homeostatic expression pattern, whereas GM-CSF is a product of cells activated during inflammatory or pathologic conditions. Accordingly, M-CSF regulates the numbers of various tissue macrophage and monocyte populations without altering their "activation" status. Conversely, GM-CSF induces activation of monocytes/macrophages and also mediates differentiation to other states that participate in immune responses [i.e., dendritic cells (DCs)]. Further insights into their function have come from analyses of mice deficient in either cytokine. M-CSF signals through its receptor (CSF-1R). Interestingly, mice deficient in CSF-1R expression exhibit a more significant phenotype than mice deficient in M-CSF. This observation was explained by the discovery of a novel cytokine (IL-34) that represents a second ligand of CSF-1R. Information about the function of these ligands/receptor system is still developing, but its complexity is intriguing and strongly suggests that more interesting biology remains to be elucidated. Based on our current knowledge, several therapeutic molecules targeting either the M-CSF or the GM-CSF pathways have been developed and are currently being tested in clinical trials targeting either autoimmune diseases or cancer. It is intriguing to consider how evolution has directed these pathways to develop; their complexity likely mirrors the multiple functions in which cells of the monocyte/macrophage system are involved. PMID:27354413

  2. Alternative activation of macrophages and pulmonary fibrosis are modulated by scavenger receptor, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Shubha; Larson-Casey, Jennifer L; Ryan, Alan J; He, Chao; Kobzik, Lester; Carter, A Brent

    2015-08-01

    Alternative activation of alveolar macrophages is linked to fibrosis following exposure to asbestos. The scavenger receptor, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), provides innate immune defense against inhaled particles and pathogens; however, a receptor for asbestos has not been identified. We hypothesized that MARCO acts as an initial signaling receptor for asbestos, polarizes macrophages to a profibrotic M2 phenotype, and is required for the development of asbestos-induced fibrosis. Compared with normal subjects, alveolar macrophages isolated from patients with asbestosis express higher amounts of MARCO and have greater profibrotic polarization. Arginase 1 (40-fold) and IL-10 (265-fold) were higher in patients. In vivo, the genetic deletion of MARCO attenuated the profibrotic environment and pulmonary fibrosis in mice exposed to chrysotile. Moreover, alveolar macrophages from MARCO(-/-) mice polarize to an M1 phenotype, whereas wild-type mice have higher Ym1 (>3.0-fold) and nearly 7-fold more active TGF-β1 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (BALF). Arg(432) and Arg(434) in domain V of MARCO are required for the polarization of macrophages to a profibrotic phenotype as mutation of these residues reduced FIZZ1 expression (17-fold) compared with cells expressing MARCO. These observations demonstrate that a macrophage membrane protein regulates the fibrotic response to lung injury and suggest a novel target for therapeutic intervention. © FASEB.

  3. Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates the stimulating activities of chitosan oligosaccharide on macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei; Liu, Weizhi; Peng, Yanfei; Han, Baoqin; Yang, Yan

    2014-11-01

    The in vivo and in vitro immunostimulating properties of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of chitosan and the mechanisms mediating the effects were investigated. Our data showed that the highly active chitosanase isolated could hydrolyze chitosan to the polymerization degree of 3-8. The resulting COS was an efficient immunostimulator. COS markedly enhanced the proliferation and neutral red phagocytosis by RAW 264.7 macrophages. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by macrophages was significantly increased after incubation with COS. Oral administration of COS in mice could increase spleen index and serum immunoglobin G (IgG) contents. COS was labeled with FITC to study the pinocytosis by macrophages. Results showed that FITC-COS was phagocyted by macrophages and anti-murine TLR4 antibody completely blocked FITC-COS pinocytosis. RT-PCR indicated that COS treatment of macrophages significantly increased TLR4 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA levels. When cells were pretreated with anti-murine TLR4 antibody, the effect of COS on TLR4 and iNOS mRNA induction was decreased. COS-induced NO secretion by macrophages was also markedly decreased by anti-murine TLR4 antibody pretreatment. In conclusion, the present study revealed that COS possesses potent immune-stimulating properties by activating TLR4 on macrophages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High and low molecular weight hyaluronic acid differentially influence macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Rayahin, Jamie E.; Buhrman, Jason S.; Zhang, Yu; Koh, Timothy J.; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages exhibit phenotypic diversity permitting wide-ranging roles in maintaining physiologic homeostasis. Hyaluronic acid, a major glycosaminoglycan of the extracellular matrix, has been shown to have differential signaling based on its molecular weight. With this in mind, the main objective of this study was to elucidate the role of hyaluronic acid molecular weight on macrophage activation and reprogramming. Changes in macrophage activation were assessed by activation state selective marker measurement, specifically quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction, and cytokine enzyme-linked immunoassays, after macrophage treatment with differing molecular weights of hyaluronic acid under four conditions: the resting state, concurrent with classical activation, and following inflammation involving either classically or alternatively activated macrophages. Regardless of initial polarization state, low molecular weight hyaluronic acid induced a classically activated-like state, confirmed by up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes, including nos2, tnf, il12b, and cd80, and enhanced secretion of nitric oxide and TNF-α. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid promoted an alternatively activated-like state, confirmed by up regulation of pro-resolving gene transcription, including arg1, il10, and mrc1, and enhanced arginase activity. Overall, our observations suggest that macrophages undergo phenotypic changes dependent on molecular weight of hyaluronan that correspond to either (1) pro-inflammatory response for low molecular weight HA or (2) pro-resolving response for high molecular weight HA. These observations bring significant further understanding of the influence of extracellular matrix polymers, hyaluronic acid in particular, on regulating the inflammatory response of macrophages. This knowledge can be used to guide the design of HA-containing biomaterials to better utilize the natural response to HAs. PMID:26280020

  5. The toothless osteopetrotic rat has a normal vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) cascade and chondrodysplasia resistant to treatments with colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and/or DBP-MAF.

    PubMed

    Odgren, P R; Popoff, S N; Safadi, F F; MacKay, C A; Mason-Savas, A; Seifert, M F; Marks, S C

    1999-08-01

    The osteopetrotic rat mutation toothless (tl) is characterized by little or no bone resorption, few osteoclasts and macrophages, and chondrodysplasia at the growth plates. Short-term treatment of tl rats with colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) has been shown to increase the number of osteoclasts and macrophages, producing dramatic resolution of skeletal sclerosis at some, but not all, sites. Defects in production of vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) have been identified in two other independent osteopetrotic mutations of the rat (op and ia), and two in the mouse (op and mi), in which macrophages and osteoclasts can be activated by the administration of exogenous DBP-MAF. The present studies were undertaken to examine the histology and residual growth defects in tl rats following longer CSF-1 treatments, to investigate the possibility that exogenous DBP-MAF might act synergistically with CSF-1 to improve the tl phenotype, and to assess the integrity of the endogenous DBP-MAF pathway in this mutation. CSF-1 treatment-with or without DBP-MAF-induced resorption of metaphyseal bone to the growth plate on the marrow side, improved slightly but did not normalize long bone growth, and caused no improvement in the abnormal histology of the growth plate. Injections of lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-Pc) to prime macrophage activation via the DBP-MAF pathway raised superoxide production to similar levels in peritoneal macrophages from both normal and mutant animals, indicating no defect in the DBP-MAF pathway in tl rats. Interestingly, pretreatments with CSF-1 alone also increased superoxide production, although the mechanism for this remains unknown. In summary, we find that, unlike other osteopetrotic mutations investigated to date, the DBP-MAF pathway does not appear to be defective in the tl rat; that additional DBP-MAF does not augment the beneficial skeletal effects seen with CSF-1 alone; and that the growth plate chondrodystrophy seen in

  6. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A): a signature marker of alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cathcart, Martha K.; Bhattacharjee, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are versatile cells centrally involved in host defense and immunity. Th1 cytokines induce a classical activation program in monocytes/macrophages leading to a proinflammatory M1 macrophage phenotype while Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 promote monocyte differentiation into an alternatively activated, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Although monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is primarily known for its action in the nervous system, several recent studies have identified MAO-A as a signature marker of alternative activation of monocytes/macrophages. In this brief review we explore the signaling pathways/molecules that regulate MAO-A expression in alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages. We further discuss the contribution of MAO-A to the resolution of inflammation and identify potential therapeutic targets for controlling inflammation. Altogether this review provides deeper insight into the role of MAO-A in alternative activation of monocytes/macrophages and their participation in the inflammatory response. PMID:26052543

  7. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A): a signature marker of alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Martha K; Bhattacharjee, Ashish

    Monocytes/macrophages are versatile cells centrally involved in host defense and immunity. Th1 cytokines induce a classical activation program in monocytes/macrophages leading to a proinflammatory M1 macrophage phenotype while Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 promote monocyte differentiation into an alternatively activated, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Although monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is primarily known for its action in the nervous system, several recent studies have identified MAO-A as a signature marker of alternative activation of monocytes/macrophages. In this brief review we explore the signaling pathways/molecules that regulate MAO-A expression in alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages. We further discuss the contribution of MAO-A to the resolution of inflammation and identify potential therapeutic targets for controlling inflammation. Altogether this review provides deeper insight into the role of MAO-A in alternative activation of monocytes/macrophages and their participation in the inflammatory response.

  8. Cot/tpl2 participates in the activation of macrophages by adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Garcia, Carlos; Nagy, Laura E; Lasunción, Miguel A; Fernandez, Margarita; Alemany, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Whereas the main function of APN is to enhance insulin activity, it is also involved in modulating the macrophage phenotype. Here, we demonstrate that at physiological concentrations, APN activates Erk1/2 via the IKKβ-p105/NF-κΒ1-Cot/tpl2 intracellular signal transduction cassette in macrophages. In peritoneal macrophages stimulated with APN, Cot/tpl2 influences the ability to phagocytose beads. However, Cot/tpl2 did not modulate the known capacity of APN to decrease lipid content in peritoneal macrophages in response to treatment with oxLDL or acLDL. A microarray analysis of gene-expression profiles in BMDMs exposed to APN revealed that APN modulated the expression of ∼3300 genes; the most significantly affected biological functions were the inflammatory and the infectious disease responses. qRT-PCR analysis of WT and Cot/tpl2 KO macrophages stimulated with APN for 0, 3, and 18 h revealed that Cot/tpl2 participated in the up-regulation of APN target inflammatory mediators included in the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway (KEGG ID 4060). In accordance with these data, macrophages stimulated with APN increased secretion of cytokines and chemokines, including IL-1β, IL-1α, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-12, IL-6, and CCL2. Moreover, Cot/tpl2 also played an important role in the production of these inflammatory mediators upon stimulation of macrophages with APN. It has been reported that different types of signals that stimulate TLRs, IL-1R, TNFR, FcγR, and proteinase-activated receptor-1 activate Cot/tpl2. Here, we demonstrate that APN is a new signal that activates the IKKβ-p105/NF-κΒ1-Cot/tpl2-MKK1/2-Erk1/2 axis in macrophages. Furthermore, this signaling cassette modulates the biological functions triggered by APN in macrophages. © 2014 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  9. Cot/tpl2 participates in the activation of macrophages by adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Garcia, Carlos; Nagy, Laura E.; Lasunción, Miguel A.; Fernandez, Margarita; Alemany, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the main function of APN is to enhance insulin activity, it is also involved in modulating the macrophage phenotype. Here, we demonstrate that at physiological concentrations, APN activates Erk1/2 via the IKKβ-p105/NF-κΒ1-Cot/tpl2 intracellular signal transduction cassette in macrophages. In peritoneal macrophages stimulated with APN, Cot/tpl2 influences the ability to phagocytose beads. However, Cot/tpl2 did not modulate the known capacity of APN to decrease lipid content in peritoneal macrophages in response to treatment with oxLDL or acLDL. A microarray analysis of gene-expression profiles in BMDMs exposed to APN revealed that APN modulated the expression of ∼3300 genes; the most significantly affected biological functions were the inflammatory and the infectious disease responses. qRT-PCR analysis of WT and Cot/tpl2 KO macrophages stimulated with APN for 0, 3, and 18 h revealed that Cot/tpl2 participated in the up-regulation of APN target inflammatory mediators included in the cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction pathway (KEGG ID 4060). In accordance with these data, macrophages stimulated with APN increased secretion of cytokines and chemokines, including IL-1β, IL-1α, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-12, IL-6, and CCL2. Moreover, Cot/tpl2 also played an important role in the production of these inflammatory mediators upon stimulation of macrophages with APN. It has been reported that different types of signals that stimulate TLRs, IL-1R, TNFR, FcγR, and proteinase-activated receptor-1 activate Cot/tpl2. Here, we demonstrate that APN is a new signal that activates the IKKβ-p105/NF-κΒ1-Cot/tpl2-MKK1/2-Erk1/2 axis in macrophages. Furthermore, this signaling cassette modulates the biological functions triggered by APN in macrophages. PMID:24532642

  10. Alveolar macrophage activation and an emphysema-like phenotype in adiponectin-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Summer, R.; Little, F. F.; Ouchi, N.; Takemura, Y.; Aprahamian, T.; Dwyer, D.; Fitzsimmons, K.; Suki, B.; Parameswaran, H.; Fine, A.; Walsh, K.

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived collectin that acts on a wide range of tissues including liver, brain, heart, and vascular endothelium. To date, little is known about the actions of adiponectin in the lung. Herein, we demonstrate that adiponectin is present in lung lining fluid and that adiponectin deficiency leads to increases in proinflammatory mediators and an emphysema-like phenotype in the mouse lung. Alveolar macrophages from adiponectin-deficient mice spontaneously display increased production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-12) activity. Consistent with these observations, we found that pretreatment of alveolar macrophages with adiponectin leads to TNF-α and MMP-12 suppression. Together, our findings show that adiponectin leads to macrophage suppression in the lung and suggest that adiponectin-deficient states may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung conditions such as emphysema. PMID:18326826

  11. Arctigenin Induces an Activation Response in Porcine Alveolar Macrophage Through TLR6-NOX2-MAPKs Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zheng; Chang, Lingling; Du, Qian; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Xiujuan; Wu, Xingchen; Zhang, Jie; Li, Ruizhen; Zhang, Zelin; Zhang, Wenlong; Zhao, Xiaomin; Tong, Dewen

    2018-01-01

    Arctigenin (ARG), one of the most active ingredients abstracted from seeds of Arctium lappa L. , has been proved to exert promising biological activities such as immunomodulatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer etc. However, the mechanism behind its immunomodulatory function still remains elusive to be further investigated. In this study, we found that ARG had no significant effects on the cell proliferation in both porcine alveolar macrophage cell line (3D4/21) and primary porcine derived alveolar macrophage. It remarkably increased the expression and secretion of the two cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1) in a dose-dependent manner with the concomitant enhancement of phagocytosis, which are the indicators of macrophage activation. ARG also elevated the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by activating NOX2-based NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, inhibition of ROS generation by diphenyliodonium and apocynin significantly suppressed ARG-induced cytokine secretion and phagocytosis increase, indicating the requirement of ROS for the porcine alveolar macrophage activation. In addition, TLR6-My88 excitation, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were all involved in the process. As blocking TLR6 receptor dramatically attenuated the NOX2 oxidase activation, cytokine secretion and phagocytosis increase. Inhibiting ROS generation almost abolished p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and the cytokine secretion could also be remarkably reduced by p38 and ERK1/2 inhibitors (SB203580 and UO126). Our finding gave a new insight of understanding that ARG could improve the immune-function of porcine alveolar macrophages through TLR6-NOX2 oxidase-MAPKs signaling pathway.

  12. Arctigenin Induces an Activation Response in Porcine Alveolar Macrophage Through TLR6-NOX2-MAPKs Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zheng; Chang, Lingling; Du, Qian; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Xiujuan; Wu, Xingchen; Zhang, Jie; Li, Ruizhen; Zhang, Zelin; Zhang, Wenlong; Zhao, Xiaomin; Tong, Dewen

    2018-01-01

    Arctigenin (ARG), one of the most active ingredients abstracted from seeds of Arctium lappa L., has been proved to exert promising biological activities such as immunomodulatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer etc. However, the mechanism behind its immunomodulatory function still remains elusive to be further investigated. In this study, we found that ARG had no significant effects on the cell proliferation in both porcine alveolar macrophage cell line (3D4/21) and primary porcine derived alveolar macrophage. It remarkably increased the expression and secretion of the two cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1) in a dose-dependent manner with the concomitant enhancement of phagocytosis, which are the indicators of macrophage activation. ARG also elevated the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by activating NOX2-based NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, inhibition of ROS generation by diphenyliodonium and apocynin significantly suppressed ARG-induced cytokine secretion and phagocytosis increase, indicating the requirement of ROS for the porcine alveolar macrophage activation. In addition, TLR6-My88 excitation, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were all involved in the process. As blocking TLR6 receptor dramatically attenuated the NOX2 oxidase activation, cytokine secretion and phagocytosis increase. Inhibiting ROS generation almost abolished p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and the cytokine secretion could also be remarkably reduced by p38 and ERK1/2 inhibitors (SB203580 and UO126). Our finding gave a new insight of understanding that ARG could improve the immune-function of porcine alveolar macrophages through TLR6-NOX2 oxidase-MAPKs signaling pathway. PMID:29867481

  13. Increased pro-angiogenic factors, infiltrating neutrophils and CD163(+) macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Xiang-dong; Shi, Yu; Yang, Lang; Xu, Sen-lin; Chen, Cong; Cui, You-hong; Zhang, Xia; Bian, Xiu-wu

    2014-05-01

    Infiltration of inflammatory cells and production of pro-angiogenic factors are important in lung cancer immunity. The distributions of those cells and their contributions to the production of pro-angiogenic factors and the activation phenotype of macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from lung cancer patients remain unclear. We analyzed the presence of distinct inflammatory cells and the macrophage activation phenotype together with the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) within BALF from 54 smoking lung cancer patients including 36 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 9 adenocarcinoma (AC), and 9 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in comparison with those from 13 non-smoking and 7 smoking patients with nonspecific chronic inflammation and 8 non-smoking normal controls. We found a significantly lower percentage of total macrophages and a much higher percentage of neutrophils among all inflammatory cells in BALF from lung cancer and non-specific chronic inflammation patients. BALF from AC patients had a significantly higher percentage of lymphocytes. CD163(+)) macrophages predominantly existed in BALF from SCLC patients. BALF of lung cancer patients had markedly higher levels of IL-8 and VEGF. Interestingly, IL-8 level was positively correlated to the numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes. VEGF level was inversely correlated to the number of lymphocytes but positively to cancer cells in SCC cases, whereas no correlation existed between CD163(+)) macrophages and the levels of IL-8 and VEGF. Our results suggest that the detection of infiltrating inflammatory cells and pro-angiogenic factors in BALF will be helpful for diagnosis of cancerous inflammation in lungs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway mediates DBP-maf-induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gumireddy, Kiranmai; Reddy, C Damodar; Swamy, Narasimha

    2003-09-01

    Vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage-activating factor (DBP-maf) is derived from serum vitamin D binding protein (DBP) by selective deglycosylation during inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DBP-maf on RAW 264.7 macrophages and the underlying intracellular signal transduction pathways. DBP-maf increased proapoptotic caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities and induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells. However, DBP, the precursor to DBP-maf did not induce apoptosis in these cells. Cell cycle analysis of DBP-maf-treated RAW 264.7 cells revealed growth arrest with accumulation of cells in sub-G(0)/G(1) phase. We also investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in the DBP-maf-induced apoptosis of RAW264.7 cells. DBP-maf increased the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK1/2, while it decreased the ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Treatment with the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB202190, attenuated DBP-maf-induced apoptosis. PD98059, a MEK specific inhibitor, did not show a significant inhibition of apoptosis induced by DBP-maf. Taken together, these results suggest that the p38 MAPK pathway plays a crucial role in DBP-maf-mediated apoptosis of macrophages. Our studies indicate that, during inflammation DBP-maf may function positively by causing death of the macrophages when activated macrophages are no longer needed at the site of inflammation. In summary, we report for the first time that DBP-maf induces apoptosis in macrophages via p38 and JNK1/2 pathway. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Functional Roles of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanyan; Yu, Tao; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yoo, Byong Chul

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a natural host defensive process that is largely regulated by macrophages during the innate immune response. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are proline-directed serine and threonine protein kinases that regulate many physiological and pathophysiological cell responses. p38 MAPKs are key MAPKs involved in the production of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). p38 MAPK signaling plays an essential role in regulating cellular processes, especially inflammation. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of p38 signaling in macrophage-mediated inflammation. In addition, we discuss the potential of using inhibitors targeting p38 expression in macrophages to treat inflammatory diseases. PMID:24771982

  16. Tie2 signaling cooperates with TNF to promote the pro-inflammatory activation of human macrophages independently of macrophage functional phenotype.

    PubMed

    García, Samuel; Krausz, Sarah; Ambarus, Carmen A; Fernández, Beatriz Malvar; Hartkamp, Linda M; van Es, Inge E; Hamann, Jörg; Baeten, Dominique L; Tak, Paul P; Reedquist, Kris A

    2014-01-01

    Angiopoietin (Ang) -1 and -2 and their receptor Tie2 play critical roles in regulating angiogenic processes during development, homeostasis, tumorigenesis, inflammation and tissue repair. Tie2 signaling is best characterized in endothelial cells, but a subset of human and murine circulating monocytes/macrophages essential to solid tumor formation express Tie2 and display immunosuppressive properties consistent with M2 macrophage polarization. However, we have recently shown that Tie2 is strongly activated in pro-inflammatory macrophages present in rheumatoid arthritis patient synovial tissue. Here we examined the relationship between Tie2 expression and function during human macrophage polarization. Tie2 expression was observed under all polarization conditions, but was highest in IFN-γ and IL-10 -differentiated macrophages. While TNF enhanced expression of a common restricted set of genes involved in angiogenesis and inflammation in GM-CSF, IFN-γ and IL-10 -differentiated macrophages, expression of multiple chemokines and cytokines, including CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL8, IL6, and IL12B was further augmented in the presence of Ang-1 and Ang-2, via Tie2 activation of JAK/STAT signaling. Conditioned medium from macrophages stimulated with Ang-1 or Ang-2 in combination with TNF, sustained monocyte recruitment. Our findings suggest a general role for Tie2 in cooperatively promoting the inflammatory activation of macrophages, independently of polarization conditions.

  17. Effect of low-level laser therapy on the modulation of the mitochondrial activity of macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Nadhia H. C.; Ferrari, Raquel A. M.; Silva, Daniela F. T.; Nunes, Fabio D.; Bussadori, Sandra K.; Fernandes, Kristianne P. S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a major role among the inflammatory cells that invade muscle tissue following an injury. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has long been used in clinical practice to accelerate the muscle repair process. However, little is known regarding its effect on macrophages. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of LLLT on the mitochondrial activity (MA) of macrophages. METHOD: J774 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon - gamma (IFN-γ) (activation) for 24 h to simulate an inflammatory process, then irradiated with LLLT using two sets of parameters (780 nm; 70 mW; 3 J/cm2 and 660 nm; 15 mW; 7.5 J/cm2). Non-activated/non-irradiated cells composed the control group. MA was evaluated by the cell mitochondrial activity (MTT) assay (after 1, 3 and 5 days) in three independent experiments. The data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: After 1 day of culture, activated and 780 nm irradiated macrophages showed lower MA than activated macrophages, but activated and 660 nm irradiated macrophages showed MA similar to activated cells. After 3 days, activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm) macrophages showed greater MA than activated macrophages, and after 5 days, the activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm) macrophages showed similar MA to the activated macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that 660 nm and 780 nm LLLT can modulate the cellular activation status of macrophages in inflammation, highlighting the importance of this resource and of the correct determination of its parameters in the repair process of skeletal muscle. PMID:25076002

  18. The effect of TNFα secreted from macrophages activated by titanium particles on osteogenic activity regulated by WNT/BMP signaling in osteoprogenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Soo; Sharma, Ashish R; Choi, Byung-Soo; Jung, Jun-Sub; Chang, Jun-Dong; Park, Seonghun; Salvati, Eduardo A; Purdue, Edward P; Song, Dong-Keun; Nam, Ju-Suk

    2012-06-01

    Wear particles are the major cause of osteolysis associated with failure of implant following total joint replacement. During this pathologic process, activated macrophages mediate inflammatory responses to increase osteoclastogenesis, leading to enhanced bone resorption. In osteolysis caused by wear particles, osteoprogenitors present along with macrophages at the implant interface may play significant roles in bone regeneration and implant osteointegration. Although the direct effects of wear particles on osteoblasts have been addressed recently, the role of activated macrophages in regulation of osteogenic activity of osteoblasts has scarcely been studied. In the present study, we examined the molecular communication between macrophages and osteoprogenitor cells that may explain the effect of wear particles on impaired bone forming activity in inflammatory bone diseases. It has been demonstrated that conditioned medium of macrophages challenged with titanium particles (Ti CM) suppresses early and late differentiation markers of osteoprogenitors, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen synthesis, matrix mineralization and expression of osteocalcin and Runx2. Moreover, bone forming signals such as WNT and BMP signaling pathways were inhibited by Ti CM. Interestingly, TNFα was identified as a predominant factor in Ti CM to suppress osteogenic activity as well as WNT and BMP signaling activity. Furthermore, Ti CM or TNFα induces the expression of sclerostin (SOST) which is able to inhibit WNT and BMP signaling pathways. It was determined that over-expression of SOST suppressed ALP activity, whereas the inhibition of SOST by siRNA partially restored the effect of Ti CM on ALP activity. This study highlights the role of activated macrophages in regulation of impaired osteogenic activity seen in inflammatory conditions and provides a potential mechanism for autocrine regulation of WNT and BMP signaling mediated by TNFα via induction of SOST in

  19. 6-Mercaptopurine reduces macrophage activation and gut epithelium proliferation through inhibition of GTPase Rac1.

    PubMed

    Marinković, Goran; Hamers, Anouk A J; de Vries, Carlie J M; de Waard, Vivian

    2014-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation. Azathioprine and its metabolite 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are effective immunosuppressive drugs that are widely used in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. However, established understanding of their immunosuppressive mechanism is limited. Azathioprine and 6-MP have been shown to affect small GTPase Rac1 in T cells and endothelial cells, whereas the effect on macrophages and gut epithelial cells is unknown. Macrophages (RAW cells) and gut epithelial cells (Caco-2 cells) were activated by cytokines and the effect on Rac1 signaling was assessed in the presence or absence of 6-MP. Rac1 is activated in macrophages and epithelial cells, and treatment with 6-MP resulted in Rac1 inhibition. In macrophages, interferon-γ induced downstream signaling through c-Jun-N-terminal Kinase (JNK) resulting in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. iNOS expression was reduced by 6-MP in a Rac1-dependent manner. In epithelial cells, 6-MP efficiently inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α-induced expression of the chemokines CCL2 and interleukin-8, although only interleukin-8 expression was inhibited in a Rac1-dependent manner. In addition, activation of the transcription factor STAT3 was suppressed in a Rac1-dependent fashion by 6-MP, resulting in reduced proliferation of the epithelial cells due to diminished cyclin D1 expression. These data demonstrate that 6-MP affects macrophages and gut epithelial cells beneficially, in addition to T cells and endothelial cells. Furthermore, mechanistic insight is provided to support development of Rac1-specific inhibitors for clinical use in inflammatory bowel disease.

  20. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Knockout of SIRT2 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression. • Lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production is decreased in SIRT2 KO macrophage. • SIRT2 deficiency suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced ROS production in macrophage. • M1-macrophage related factors are decreased in SIRT2 deficient cells. • SIRT2 deficiency decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NFκB. - Abstract: Introduction: SIRT2 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases and associated with numerous processes such as infection, carcinogenesis, DNA damage and cell cycle regulation. However, the role of SIRT2 in inflammatory process in macrophage remains unclear. Materials and methods: In the present study, we have evaluated the regulatory effects of SIRT2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophagesmore » isolated from SIRT2 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice or Raw264.7 macrophage cells. As inflammatory parameters, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the productions of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and M1-macrophage-related factors were evaluated. We also examined the effects of SIRT2 on activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) signaling. Results: SIRT2 deficiency inhibits LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression in bone marrow derived macrophages. SIRT2-siRNA transfection also suppressed LPS-induced iNOS expression in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. Bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from SIRT2 KO mice produced lower nitric oxide and expressed lower levels of M1-macrophage related markers including iNOS and CD86 in response to LPS than WT mice. Decrease of SIRT2 reduced the LPS-induced reactive oxygen species production. Deficiency of SIRT2 resulted in inhibition of NFκB activation through reducing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. The phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 was significantly decreased in SIRT2-deficient macrophages after LPS stimulation. Discussion: Our data suggested

  1. CFTR-dependent defect in alternatively-activated macrophages in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tarique, Abdullah A; Sly, Peter D; Holt, Patrick G; Bosco, Anthony; Ware, Robert S; Logan, Jayden; Bell, Scott C; Wainwright, Claire E; Fantino, Emmanuelle

    2017-07-01

    The role of the macrophages in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease has been poorly studied. We hypothesized that alternatively activated M2 macrophages are abnormal in CF lung disease. Blood samples were collected from adults (n=13) children (n=27) with CF on admission for acute pulmonary exacerbation and when clinically stable. Monocytes were differentiated into macrophages and polarized into classical (M1) and alternatively-activated (M2) phenotypes, function determined ex-vivo and compared with healthy controls. In the absence of functional cystic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator (CFTR), either naturally in patients with CF or induced with CFTR inhibitors, monocyte-derived macrophages do not respond to IL-13/IL-4, fail to polarize into M2s associated with a post-transcriptional failure to produce and express IL-13Rα1 on the macrophage surface Polarization to the M1 phenotype was unaffected. CFTR-dependent imbalance of macrophage phenotypes and functions could contribute to the exaggerated inflammatory response seen in CF lung disease. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Interacts with the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta to Induce Genes Affecting Fatty Acid Oxidation in Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kemmerer, Marina; Finkernagel, Florian; Cavalcante, Marcela Frota; Abdalla, Dulcineia Saes Parra; Müller, Rolf; Brüne, Bernhard; Namgaladze, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) maintains energy homeostasis by suppressing cellular ATP-consuming processes and activating catabolic, ATP-producing pathways such as fatty acid oxidation (FAO). The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) also affects fatty acid metabolism, stimulating the expression of genes involved in FAO. To question the interplay of AMPK and PPARδ in human macrophages we transduced primary human macrophages with lentiviral particles encoding for the constitutively active AMPKα1 catalytic subunit, followed by microarray expression analysis after treatment with the PPARδ agonist GW501516. Microarray analysis showed that co-activation of AMPK and PPARδ increased expression of FAO genes, which were validated by quantitative PCR. Induction of these FAO-associated genes was also observed upon infecting macrophages with an adenovirus coding for AMPKγ1 regulatory subunit carrying an activating R70Q mutation. The pharmacological AMPK activator A-769662 increased expression of several FAO genes in a PPARδ- and AMPK-dependent manner. Although GW501516 significantly increased FAO and reduced the triglyceride amount in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)-loaded foam cells, AMPK activation failed to potentiate this effect, suggesting that increased expression of fatty acid catabolic genes alone may be not sufficient to prevent macrophage lipid overload.

  3. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Interacts with the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta to Induce Genes Affecting Fatty Acid Oxidation in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kemmerer, Marina; Finkernagel, Florian; Cavalcante, Marcela Frota; Abdalla, Dulcineia Saes Parra; Müller, Rolf; Brüne, Bernhard; Namgaladze, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) maintains energy homeostasis by suppressing cellular ATP-consuming processes and activating catabolic, ATP-producing pathways such as fatty acid oxidation (FAO). The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) also affects fatty acid metabolism, stimulating the expression of genes involved in FAO. To question the interplay of AMPK and PPARδ in human macrophages we transduced primary human macrophages with lentiviral particles encoding for the constitutively active AMPKα1 catalytic subunit, followed by microarray expression analysis after treatment with the PPARδ agonist GW501516. Microarray analysis showed that co-activation of AMPK and PPARδ increased expression of FAO genes, which were validated by quantitative PCR. Induction of these FAO-associated genes was also observed upon infecting macrophages with an adenovirus coding for AMPKγ1 regulatory subunit carrying an activating R70Q mutation. The pharmacological AMPK activator A-769662 increased expression of several FAO genes in a PPARδ- and AMPK-dependent manner. Although GW501516 significantly increased FAO and reduced the triglyceride amount in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)-loaded foam cells, AMPK activation failed to potentiate this effect, suggesting that increased expression of fatty acid catabolic genes alone may be not sufficient to prevent macrophage lipid overload. PMID:26098914

  4. LL-37 immunomodulatory activity during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Torres-Juarez, Flor; Cardenas-Vargas, Albertina; Montoya-Rosales, Alejandra; González-Curiel, Irma; Garcia-Hernandez, Mariana H; Enciso-Moreno, Jose A; Hancock, Robert E W; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. The susceptibility to this disease depends to a great extent on the innate immune response against mycobacteria. Host defense peptides (HDP) are one of the first barriers to counteract infection. Cathelicidin (LL-37) is an HDP that has many immunomodulatory effects besides its weak antimicrobial activity. Despite advances in the study of the innate immune response in tuberculosis, the immunological role of LL-37 during M. tuberculosis infection has not been clarified. Monocyte-derived macrophages were infected with M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv and then treated with 1, 5, or 15 μg/ml of exogenous LL-37 for 4, 8, and 24 h. Exogenous LL-37 decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) while inducing anti-inflammatory IL-10 and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Interestingly, the decreased production of anti-inflammatory cytokines did not reduce antimycobacterial activity. These results are consistent with the concept that LL-37 can modulate the expression of cytokines during mycobacterial infection and this activity was independent of the P2X7 receptor. Thus, LL-37 modulates the response of macrophages during infection, controlling the expression of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Activated prostaglandin D2 receptors on macrophages enhance neutrophil recruitment into the lung

    PubMed Central

    Jandl, Katharina; Stacher, Elvira; Bálint, Zoltán; Sturm, Eva Maria; Maric, Jovana; Peinhaupt, Miriam; Luschnig, Petra; Aringer, Ida; Fauland, Alexander; Konya, Viktoria; Dahlen, Sven-Erik; Wheelock, Craig E.; Kratky, Dagmar; Olschewski, Andrea; Marsche, Gunther; Schuligoi, Rufina; Heinemann, Akos

    2016-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is an early-phase mediator in inflammation, but its action and the roles of the 2 D-type prostanoid receptors (DPs) DP1 and DP2 (also called chemoattractant receptor–homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells) in regulating macrophages have not been elucidated to date. Objective We investigated the role of PGD2 receptors on primary human macrophages, as well as primary murine lung macrophages, and their ability to influence neutrophil action in vitro and in vivo. Methods In vitro studies, including migration, Ca2+ flux, and cytokine secretion, were conducted with primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and neutrophils and freshly isolated murine alveolar and pulmonary interstitial macrophages. In vivo pulmonary inflammation was assessed in male BALB/c mice. Results Activation of DP1, DP2, or both receptors on human macrophages induced strong intracellular Ca2+ flux, cytokine release, and migration of macrophages. In a murine model of LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, activation of each PGD2 receptor resulted in aggravated airway neutrophilia, tissue myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine contents, and decreased lung compliance. Selective depletion of alveolar macrophages abolished the PGD2-enhanced inflammatory response. Activation of PGD2 receptors on human macrophages enhanced the migratory capacity and prolonged the survival of neutrophils in vitro. In human lung tissue specimens both DP1 and DP2 receptors were located on alveolar macrophages along with hematopoietic PGD synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme of PGD2 synthesis. Conclusion For the first time, our results show that PGD2 markedly augments disease activity through its ability to enhance the proinflammatory actions of macrophages and subsequent neutrophil activation. PMID:26792210

  6. Activated prostaglandin D2 receptors on macrophages enhance neutrophil recruitment into the lung.

    PubMed

    Jandl, Katharina; Stacher, Elvira; Bálint, Zoltán; Sturm, Eva Maria; Maric, Jovana; Peinhaupt, Miriam; Luschnig, Petra; Aringer, Ida; Fauland, Alexander; Konya, Viktoria; Dahlen, Sven-Erik; Wheelock, Craig E; Kratky, Dagmar; Olschewski, Andrea; Marsche, Gunther; Schuligoi, Rufina; Heinemann, Akos

    2016-03-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is an early-phase mediator in inflammation, but its action and the roles of the 2 D-type prostanoid receptors (DPs) DP1 and DP2 (also called chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T(H)2 cells) in regulating macrophages have not been elucidated to date. We investigated the role of PGD2 receptors on primary human macrophages, as well as primary murine lung macrophages, and their ability to influence neutrophil action in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies, including migration, Ca(2+) flux, and cytokine secretion, were conducted with primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and neutrophils and freshly isolated murine alveolar and pulmonary interstitial macrophages. In vivo pulmonary inflammation was assessed in male BALB/c mice. Activation of DP1, DP2, or both receptors on human macrophages induced strong intracellular Ca(2+) flux, cytokine release, and migration of macrophages. In a murine model of LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, activation of each PGD2 receptor resulted in aggravated airway neutrophilia, tissue myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine contents, and decreased lung compliance. Selective depletion of alveolar macrophages abolished the PGD2-enhanced inflammatory response. Activation of PGD2 receptors on human macrophages enhanced the migratory capacity and prolonged the survival of neutrophils in vitro. In human lung tissue specimens both DP1 and DP2 receptors were located on alveolar macrophages along with hematopoietic PGD synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme of PGD2 synthesis. For the first time, our results show that PGD2 markedly augments disease activity through its ability to enhance the proinflammatory actions of macrophages and subsequent neutrophil activation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Kmif (Kveim-induced macrophage migration inhibition factor) test in sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, W. Jones; Pioli, E.; Jones, D. J.; Dighero, M.

    1972-01-01

    Circulating lymphocytes from 30 patients with sarcoidosis when stimulated in vitro with Kveim-induced macrophage migration factor, the Kmif test, produced a guinea-pig macrophage migration inhibition factor in 21 of 30 cases (70%). In those patients not on steroids the results showed a good correlation with the cutaneous Kveim test. One positive test was found in 16 normal subjects. Our results suggest that the Kmif test may prove a useful rapid alternative to the Kveim test. PMID:4675181

  8. Interferon-gamma receptor-deficiency renders mice highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis by decreased macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Deckert-Schlüter, M; Rang, A; Weiner, D; Huang, S; Wiestler, O D; Hof, H; Schlüter, D

    1996-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii may cause severe infections in immunocompromised patients including fetuses and those with AIDS. Among the factors mediating protection against T. gondii, IFN-gamma has gained special attention. To analyze the role of IFN-gamma in the early phase of toxoplasmosis, IFN-gamma receptor-deficient (IFN-gamma R0/0) mice were orally infected with low-virulent toxoplasms. IFN-gamma R0/0 mice died of the disease up to day 10 postinfection, whereas immunocompetent wild-type (WT) mice developed a chronic toxoplasmosis. Histopathology revealed that in IFN-gamma R0/0 mice, the parasite multiplied unrestrictedly in the small intestine, the intestinal lymphatic tissue, the liver, and the spleen. Ultimately, animals died of a necrotizing hepatitis. In WT mice, the same organs were effected, but multiplication of the parasite was effectively limited. Compared with WT mice, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry demonstrated that in IFN-gamma R0/0 mice, macrophages were only marginally activated in response to the infection, as evidenced by a reduced expression of major histocompatability complex class II antigens. In addition, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR showed a reduced production of the macrophage-derived cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and IL-1 beta in the liver of IFN-gamma R0/0 mice. In contrast, activation of T cells, recruitment of immune cells to inflammatory foci, and anti-T. gondii IgM antibody production were unaffected by the mutation of the IFN-gamma R. Moreover, induction of IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 mRNA transcripts in the liver was normal in IFN-gamma R0/0 mice. Adoptive transfer experiments revealed that the immune T cells of WT animals did not protect IFN-gamma R0/0 mice from lethal infection with highly virulent toxoplasms, whereas WT mice were significantly protected by the adoptive transfer. Based on these studies, we conclude that IFN-gamma is absolutely required for an efficient activation of

  9. Oxygen tension limits nitric oxide synthesis by activated macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, C C; Li, W P; Calero, M

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have established that constitutive calcium-dependent ('low-output') nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is regulated by oxygen tension. We have investigated the role of oxygen tension in the synthesis of NO by the 'high-output' calcium-independent NOS in activated macrophages. Hypoxia increased macrophage NOS gene expression in the presence of one additional activator, such as lipopolysaccharide or interferon-gamma, but not in the presence of both. Hypoxia markedly reduced the synthesis of NO by activated macrophages (as measured by accumulation of nitrite and citrulline), such that, at 1% oxygen tension, NO accumulation was reduced by 80-90%. The apparent K(m) for oxygen calculated from cells exposed to a range of oxygen tensions was found to be 10.8%, or 137 microM, O(2) This value is considerably higher than the oxygen tension in tissues, and is virtually identical to that reported recently for purified recombinant macrophage NOS. The decrease in NO synthesis did not appear to be due to diminished arginine or cofactor availability, since arginine transport and NO synthesis during recovery in normoxia were normal. Analysis of NO synthesis during hypoxia as a function of extracellular arginine indicated that an altered V(max), but not K(m)(Arg), accounted for the observed decrease in NO synthesis. We conclude that oxygen tension regulates the synthesis of NO in macrophages by a mechanism similar to that described previously for the calcium-dependent low-output NOS. Our data suggest that oxygen tension may be an important physiological regulator of macrophage NO synthesis in vivo. PMID:10970783

  10. Substrate Stiffness Regulates Proinflammatory Mediator Production through TLR4 Activity in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Previtera, Michelle L.; Sengupta, Amitabha

    2015-01-01

    Clinical data show that disease adversely affects tissue elasticity or stiffness. While macrophage activity plays a critical role in driving disease pathology, there are limited data available on the effects of tissue stiffness on macrophage activity. In this study, the effects of substrate stiffness on inflammatory mediator production by macrophages were investigated. Bone marrow–derived macrophages were grown on polyacrylamide gels that mimicked the stiffness of a variety of soft biological tissues. Overall, macrophages grown on soft substrates produced less proinflammatory mediators than macrophages grown on stiff substrates when the endotoxin LPS was added to media. In addition, the pathways involved in stiffness–regulated proinflammation were investigated. The TLR4 signaling pathway was examined by evaluating TLR4, p–NF–κB p65, MyD88, and p–IκBα expression as well as p–NF–κB p65 translocation. Expression and translocation of the various signaling molecules were higher in macrophages grown on stiff substrates than on soft substrates. Furthermore, TLR4 knockout experiments showed that TLR4 activity enhanced proinflammation on stiff substrates. In conclusion, these results suggest that proinflammatory mediator production initiated by TLR4 is mechanically regulated in macrophages. PMID:26710072

  11. Macrophages inhibit human osteosarcoma cell growth after activation with the bacterial cell wall derivative liposomal muramyl tripeptide in combination with interferon-γ.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Jens H W; Kwappenberg, Kitty M C; Varypataki, Eleni M; Santos, Susy J; Kuijjer, Marieke L; Mohamed, Susan; Wijnen, Juul T; van Tol, Maarten J D; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Egeler, R Maarten; Jiskoot, Wim; Lankester, Arjan C; Schilham, Marco W

    2014-03-10

    In osteosarcoma, the presence of tumor-infiltrating macrophages positively correlates with patient survival in contrast to the negative effect of tumor-associated macrophages in patients with other tumors. Liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide (L-MTP-PE) has been introduced in the treatment of osteosarcoma patients, which may enhance the potential anti-tumor activity of macrophages. Direct anti-tumor activity of human macrophages against human osteosarcoma cells has not been described so far. Hence, we assessed osteosarcoma cell growth after co-culture with human macrophages. Monocyte-derived M1-like and M2-like macrophages were polarized with LPS + IFN-γ, L-MTP-PE +/- IFN-γ or IL-10 and incubated with osteosarcoma cells. Two days later, viable tumor cell numbers were analyzed. Antibody-dependent effects were investigated using the therapeutic anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab. M1-like macrophages inhibited osteosarcoma cell growth when activated with LPS + IFN-γ. Likewise, stimulation of M1-like macrophages with liposomal muramyl tripeptide (L-MTP-PE) inhibited tumor growth, but only when combined with IFN-γ. Addition of the tumor-reactive anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab did not further improve the anti-tumor activity of activated M1-like macrophages. The inhibition was mediated by supernatants of activated M1-like macrophages, containing TNF-α and IL-1β. However, specific blockage of these cytokines, nitric oxide or reactive oxygen species did not inhibit the anti-tumor effect, suggesting the involvement of other soluble factors released upon macrophage activation. While LPS + IFN-γ-activated M2-like macrophages had low anti-tumor activity, IL-10-polarized M2-like macrophages were able to reduce osteosarcoma cell growth in the presence of the anti-EGFR cetuximab involving antibody-dependent tumor cell phagocytosis. This study demonstrates that human macrophages can be induced to exert direct anti-tumor activity against osteosarcoma cells. Our

  12. Macrophage Depletion Impairs Skeletal Muscle Regeneration: the Roles of Pro-fibrotic Factors, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Weihua; Liu, Yu; Chen, Peijie

    2016-12-01

    Muscle contusion is one of the most common muscle injuries in sports medicine. Macrophages play complex roles in the regeneration of skeletal muscle. However, the roles of macrophages, especially the mechanisms involved, in the regeneration of muscle contusion are still not fully understood. We hypothesize that the depletion of macrophages impairs skeletal muscle regeneration and that pro-fibrotic factors, inflammation, and oxidative stress may be involved in the process. To test these hypotheses, we constructed a muscle contusion injury and a macrophage depletion model and followed it up with morphological and gene expression analyses. The data showed that fibrotic scars were formed in the muscle of contusion injury, and they deteriorated in the mice of macrophage depletion. Furthermore, the sizes of regenerating myofibers were significantly reduced by macrophage depletion. Pro-fibrotic factors, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and oxidative stress-related enzymes increased significantly after muscle injury. Moreover, the expression of these factors was delayed by macrophage depletion. Most of them were still significantly higher in the later stage of regeneration. These results suggest that macrophage depletion impairs skeletal muscle regeneration and that pro-fibrotic factors, inflammation, and oxidative stress may play important roles in the process.

  13. 4-Methoxylonchocarpin attenuates inflammation by inhibiting lipopolysaccharide binding to Toll-like receptor of macrophages and M1 macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyo-Min; Kang, Geum-Dan; Van Le, Thi Kim; Lim, Su-Min; Jang, Dae-Sik; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2017-04-01

    The roots of Abrus precatorius (AP, Fabaceae) have traditionally been used in Vietnam and China for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as stomatitis, asthma, bronchitis, and hepatitis. Therefore, in this study, we isolated 4-methoxylonchocarpin (ML), an anti-inflammatory compound present in AP, and studied its anti-inflammatory effects in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages, ML was found to inhibit nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-6 expression by inhibiting LPS binding to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in vitro. Oral administration of ML in mice with TNBS-induced colitis suppressed colon shortening and colonic myeloperoxidase activity. ML treatment significantly inhibited the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and phosphorylation of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 in the colon. Treatment with ML also inhibited TNBS-induced expression of IL-1β, IL-17A, and TNF. While ML reduced the TNBS-induced expression of M1 macrophage markers such as arginase-2 and TNF, it was found to increase the expression of M2 macrophage markers such as arginase-1 and IL-10. In conclusion, oral administration of ML attenuated colitis in mice by inhibiting the binding of LPS to TLR4 on immune cells and increasing the polarization of M1 macrophages to M2 macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adenosine A2A Receptor Activation and Macrophage-mediated Experimental Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Gabriela E.; Truong, Luan D.; Li, Ping; Zhang, Ping; Du, Jie; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Feng, Lili

    2010-01-01

    In immune-induced inflammation, leukocytes are key mediators of tissue damage. Since A2A adenosine receptors (A2AR) are endogenous suppressors of inflammation, we examined cellular and molecular mechanisms of kidney damage to determine whether selective activation of A2AR will suppress inflammation in a rat model of glomerulonephritis. Activation of A2AR reduced the degree of kidney injury in both the acute inflammatory phase and the progressive phase of glomerulonephritis. This protection against acute and chronic inflammation was associated with suppression of the glomerular expression of the MDC/CCL22 chemokine and down-regulation of MIP-1α/CCL3, RANTES/CCL5, MIP-1β/CCL4, and MCP-1/CCL2 chemokines. The expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, also increased. The mechanism for these anti-inflammatory responses to the A2AR agonist was suppression of macrophages function. A2AR expression was increased in macrophages, macrophage-derived chemokines were reduced in response to the A2AR agonist, and chemokines not expressed in macrophages did not respond to A2AR activation. Thus, activation of the A2AR on macrophages inhibits immune-associated inflammation. In glomerulonephritis, A2AR activation modulates inflammation and tissue damage even in the progressive phase of glomerulonephritis. Accordingly, pharmacological activation of A2AR could be developed into a novel treatment for glomerulonephritis and other macrophage-related inflammatory diseases. PMID:17898087

  15. The active enhancer network operated by liganded RXR supports angiogenic activity in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Bence; Hah, Nasun; Horvath, Attila; Czimmerer, Zsolt; Poliska, Szilard; Gyuris, Tibor; Keirsse, Jiri; Gysemans, Conny; Van Ginderachter, Jo A.; Balint, Balint L.; Evans, Ronald M.; Barta, Endre; Nagy, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    RXR signaling is predicted to have a major impact in macrophages, but neither the biological consequence nor the genomic basis of its ligand activation is known. Comprehensive genome-wide studies were carried out to map liganded RXR-mediated transcriptional changes, active binding sites, and cistromic interactions in the context of the macrophage genome architecture. The macrophage RXR cistrome has 5200 genomic binding sites, which are not impacted by ligand. Active enhancers are characterized by PU.1 binding, an increase of enhancer RNA, and P300 recruitment. Using these features, 387 liganded RXR-bound enhancers were linked to 226 genes, which predominantly reside in CTCF/cohesin-limited functional domains. These findings were molecularly validated using chromosome conformation capture (3C) and 3C combined with sequencing (3C-seq), and we show that selected long-range enhancers communicate with promoters via stable or RXR-induced loops and that some of the enhancers interact with each other, forming an interchromosomal network. A set of angiogenic genes, including Vegfa, has liganded RXR-controlled enhancers and provides the macrophage with a novel inducible program. PMID:25030696

  16. Functional characterization of the turkey macrophage migration inhibitory factor.

    PubMed

    Park, Myeongseon; Kim, Sungwon; Fetterer, Raymond H; Dalloul, Rami A

    2016-08-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a soluble protein that inhibits the random migration of macrophages and plays a pivotal immunoregulatory function in innate and adaptive immunity. The aim of this study was to clone the turkey MIF (TkMIF) gene, express the active protein, and characterize its basic function. The full-length TkMIF gene was amplified from total RNA extracted from turkey spleen, followed by cloning into a prokaryotic (pET11a) expression vector. Sequence analysis revealed that TkMIF consists of 115 amino acids with 12.5 kDa molecular weight. Multiple sequence alignment revealed 100%, 65%, 95% and 92% identity with chicken, duck, eagle and zebra finch MIFs, respectively. Recombinant TkMIF (rTkMIF) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified through HPLC and endotoxin removal. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed an approximately 13.5 kDa of rTkMIF monomer containing T7 tag in soluble form. Western blot analysis showed that anti-chicken MIF (ChMIF) polyclonal antisera detected a monomer form of TkMIF at approximately 13.5 kDa size. Further functional analysis revealed that rTkMIF inhibits migration of both mononuclear cells and splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner, but was abolished by the addition of anti-ChMIF polyclonal antisera. qRT-PCR analysis revealed elevated transcripts of pro-inflammatory cytokines by rTkMIF in LPS-stimulated monocytes. rTkMIF also led to increased levels of IFN-γ and IL-17F transcripts in Con A-activated splenocytes, while IL-10 and IL-13 transcripts were decreased. Overall, the sequences of both the turkey and chicken MIF have high similarity and comparable biological functions with respect to migration inhibitory activities of macrophages and enhancement of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, suggesting that turkey and chicken MIFs would be biologically cross-reactive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential activation of Fyn kinase distinguishes saturated and unsaturated fats in mouse macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tarabra, Elena; An Lee, Ting-Wen; Zammit, Victor A.; Vatish, Manu; Yamada, Eijiro; Pessin, Jeffrey E.; Bastie, Claire C.

    2017-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity is associated with increased adipose tissue activated macrophages. Yet, how macrophages integrate fatty acid (FA) signals remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that Fyn deficiency (fynKO) protects against high fat diet-induced adipose tissue macrophage accumulation. Herein, we show that inflammatory markers and reactive oxygen species are not induced in fynKO bone marrow-derived macrophages exposed to the saturated FA palmitate, suggesting that Fyn regulates macrophage function in response to FA signals. Palmitate activates Fyn and re-localizes Fyn into the nucleus of RAW264.7, J774 and wild-type bone marrow-derived macrophages. Similarly, Fyn activity is increased in cells of adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction of high fat-fed control mice, with Fyn protein being located in the nucleus of these cells. We demonstrate that Fyn modulates palmitate-dependent oxidative stress in macrophages. Moreover, Fyn catalytic activity is necessary for its nuclear re-localization and downstream effects, as Fyn pharmacological inhibition abolishes palmitate-induced Fyn nuclear redistribution and palmitate-dependent increase of oxidative stress markers. Importantly, mono-or polyunsaturated FAs do not activate Fyn, and fail to re-localize Fyn to the nucleus. Together these data demonstrate that macrophages integrate nutritional FA signals via a differential activation of Fyn that distinguishes, at least partly, the effects of saturated versus unsaturated fats. PMID:29156823

  18. Differential activation of Fyn kinase distinguishes saturated and unsaturated fats in mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tarabra, Elena; An Lee, Ting-Wen; Zammit, Victor A; Vatish, Manu; Yamada, Eijiro; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Bastie, Claire C

    2017-10-17

    Diet-induced obesity is associated with increased adipose tissue activated macrophages. Yet, how macrophages integrate fatty acid (FA) signals remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that Fyn deficiency ( fynKO ) protects against high fat diet-induced adipose tissue macrophage accumulation. Herein, we show that inflammatory markers and reactive oxygen species are not induced in fynKO bone marrow-derived macrophages exposed to the saturated FA palmitate, suggesting that Fyn regulates macrophage function in response to FA signals. Palmitate activates Fyn and re-localizes Fyn into the nucleus of RAW264.7, J774 and wild-type bone marrow-derived macrophages. Similarly, Fyn activity is increased in cells of adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction of high fat-fed control mice, with Fyn protein being located in the nucleus of these cells. We demonstrate that Fyn modulates palmitate-dependent oxidative stress in macrophages. Moreover, Fyn catalytic activity is necessary for its nuclear re-localization and downstream effects, as Fyn pharmacological inhibition abolishes palmitate-induced Fyn nuclear redistribution and palmitate-dependent increase of oxidative stress markers. Importantly, mono-or polyunsaturated FAs do not activate Fyn, and fail to re-localize Fyn to the nucleus. Together these data demonstrate that macrophages integrate nutritional FA signals via a differential activation of Fyn that distinguishes, at least partly, the effects of saturated versus unsaturated fats.

  19. Pneumolysin activates macrophage lysosomal membrane permeabilization and executes apoptosis by distinct mechanisms without membrane pore formation.

    PubMed

    Bewley, Martin A; Naughton, Michael; Preston, Julie; Mitchell, Andrea; Holmes, Ashleigh; Marriott, Helen M; Read, Robert C; Mitchell, Timothy J; Whyte, Moira K B; Dockrell, David H

    2014-10-07

    Intracellular killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae is complemented by induction of macrophage apoptosis. Here, we show that the toxin pneumolysin (PLY) contributes both to lysosomal/phagolysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), an upstream event programing susceptibility to apoptosis, and to apoptosis execution via a mitochondrial pathway, through distinct mechanisms. PLY is necessary but not sufficient for the maximal induction of LMP and apoptosis. PLY's ability to induce both LMP and apoptosis is independent of its ability to form cytolytic pores and requires only the first three domains of PLY. LMP involves TLR (Toll-like receptor) but not NLRP3/ASC (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain [Nod]-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing protein 3/apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain) signaling and is part of a PLY-dependent but phagocytosis-independent host response that includes the production of cytokines, including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). LMP involves progressive and selective permeability to 40-kDa but not to 250-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran, as PLY accumulates in the cytoplasm. In contrast, the PLY-dependent execution of apoptosis requires phagocytosis and is part of a host response to intracellular bacteria that also includes NO generation. In cells challenged with PLY-deficient bacteria, reconstitution of LMP using the lysomotrophic detergent LeuLeuOMe favored cell necrosis whereas PLY reconstituted apoptosis. The results suggest that PLY contributes to macrophage activation and cytokine production but also engages LMP. Following bacterial phagocytosis, PLY triggers apoptosis and prevents macrophage necrosis as a component of a broad-based antimicrobial strategy. This illustrates how a key virulence factor can become the focus of a multilayered and coordinated innate response by macrophages, optimizing pathogen clearance and limiting inflammation. Importance: Streptococcus

  20. The phosphoproteome of toll-like receptor-activated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Weintz, Gabriele; Olsen, Jesper V; Frühauf, Katja; Niedzielska, Magdalena; Amit, Ido; Jantsch, Jonathan; Mages, Jörg; Frech, Cornelie; Dölken, Lars; Mann, Matthias; Lang, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Recognition of microbial danger signals by toll-like receptors (TLR) causes re-programming of macrophages. To investigate kinase cascades triggered by the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on systems level, we performed a global, quantitative and kinetic analysis of the phosphoproteome of primary macrophages using stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture, phosphopeptide enrichment and high-resolution mass spectrometry. In parallel, nascent RNA was profiled to link transcription factor (TF) phosphorylation to TLR4-induced transcriptional activation. We reproducibly identified 1850 phosphoproteins with 6956 phosphorylation sites, two thirds of which were not reported earlier. LPS caused major dynamic changes in the phosphoproteome (24% up-regulation and 9% down-regulation). Functional bioinformatic analyses confirmed canonical players of the TLR pathway and highlighted other signalling modules (e.g. mTOR, ATM/ATR kinases) and the cytoskeleton as hotspots of LPS-regulated phosphorylation. Finally, weaving together phosphoproteome and nascent transcriptome data by in silico promoter analysis, we implicated several phosphorylated TFs in primary LPS-controlled gene expression. PMID:20531401

  1. Berberine augments ATP-induced inflammasome activation in macrophages by enhancing AMPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li-Hui; Liang, Yi-Dan; Wei, Hong-Xia; Hu, Bo; Pan, Hao; Zha, Qing-Bing; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; He, Xian-Hui

    2017-01-01

    The isoquinoline alkaloid berberine possesses many pharmacological activities including antibacterial infection. Although the direct bactericidal effect of berberine has been documented, its influence on the antibacterial functions of macrophages is largely unknown. As inflammasome activation in macrophages is important for the defense against bacterial infection, we aimed to investigate the influence of berberine on inflammasome activation in murine macrophages. Our results showed that berberine significantly increased ATP-induced inflammasome activation as reflected by enhanced pyroptosis as well as increased release of caspase-1p10 and mature interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in macrophages. Such effects of berberine could be suppressed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor compound C or by knockdown of AMPKα expression, indicating the involvement of AMPK signaling in this process. In line with increased IL-1β release, the ability of macrophages to kill engulfed bacteria was also intensified by berberine. This was corroborated by the in vivo finding that the peritoneal live bacterial load was decreased by berberine treatment. Moreover, berberine administration significantly improved survival of bacterial infected mice, concomitant with increased IL-1β levels and elevated neutrophil recruitment in the peritoneal cavity. Collectively, these data suggested that berberine could enhance bacterial killing by augmenting inflammasome activation in macrophages through AMPK signaling. PMID:27980220

  2. Berberine augments ATP-induced inflammasome activation in macrophages by enhancing AMPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen-Guang; Yan, Liang; Jing, Yan-Yun; Xu, Li-Hui; Liang, Yi-Dan; Wei, Hong-Xia; Hu, Bo; Pan, Hao; Zha, Qing-Bing; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; He, Xian-Hui

    2017-01-03

    The isoquinoline alkaloid berberine possesses many pharmacological activities including antibacterial infection. Although the direct bactericidal effect of berberine has been documented, its influence on the antibacterial functions of macrophages is largely unknown. As inflammasome activation in macrophages is important for the defense against bacterial infection, we aimed to investigate the influence of berberine on inflammasome activation in murine macrophages. Our results showed that berberine significantly increased ATP-induced inflammasome activation as reflected by enhanced pyroptosis as well as increased release of caspase-1p10 and mature interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in macrophages. Such effects of berberine could be suppressed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor compound C or by knockdown of AMPKα expression, indicating the involvement of AMPK signaling in this process. In line with increased IL-1β release, the ability of macrophages to kill engulfed bacteria was also intensified by berberine. This was corroborated by the in vivo finding that the peritoneal live bacterial load was decreased by berberine treatment. Moreover, berberine administration significantly improved survival of bacterial infected mice, concomitant with increased IL-1β levels and elevated neutrophil recruitment in the peritoneal cavity. Collectively, these data suggested that berberine could enhance bacterial killing by augmenting inflammasome activation in macrophages through AMPK signaling.

  3. Downregulation of peritoneal macrophage activity in mice exposed to bisphenol A during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Myoung Yun; Kim, Hae Ju; Back, Seung Kyung; Yang, Mihi

    2007-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disrupter that is known to be transferred to the fetus via the placenta and to the neonate via milk. In this study, we investigated BPA-induced alterations of the activities of murine peritoneal macrophages in dams and 7 week old offspring of dams exposed to BPA from gestational day 7 until lactation on day 21 after delivery, i.e. 34-36 days. BPA was administered in drinking water at three doses, 15, 75, and 300 mg/L. Dams were sacrificed 21 days after delivery and offspring at the age of 7 weeks. Peritoneal macrophages were cultured in the presence of LPS or LPS plus IFN-gamma for 2 or 4 days. We found that nitric oxide (NO) production by maternal macrophages was significantly decreased in a BPA-dose dependent manner. However, while a significant reduction of NO production by macrophages in the offspring was observed at BPA concentrations of 75 mg/L and 300 mg/L in drinking water, this effect was not seen at the lowest concentration of 15 mg/L. Similar inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production was observed with macrophages from both BPA-exposed dams and offspring. Thus, our results suggest that exposure to BPA during gestation and lactation induces downregulation of the activities of macrophages in both dams and offspring.

  4. Carbon nanohorns allow acceleration of osteoblast differentiation via macrophage activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Eri; Miyako, Eijiro; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Ushijima, Natsumi; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Russier, Julie; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio; Bianco, Alberto; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2016-07-01

    Carbon nanohorns (CNHs), formed by a rolled graphene structure and terminating in a cone, are promising nanomaterials for the development of a variety of biological applications. Here we demonstrate that alkaline phosphatase activity is dramatically increased by coculture of human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the presence of CNHs. CNHs were mainly localized in the lysosome of macrophages more than in hMSCs during coculturing. At the same time, the amount of Oncostatin M (OSM) in the supernatant was also increased during incubation with CNHs. Oncostatin M (OSM) from activated macrophage has been reported to induce osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization through STAT3. These results suggest that the macrophages engulfed CNHs and accelerated the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteoblast via OSM release. We expect that the proof-of-concept on the osteoblast differentiation capacity by CNHs will allow future studies focused on CNHs as ideal therapeutic materials for bone regeneration.Carbon nanohorns (CNHs), formed by a rolled graphene structure and terminating in a cone, are promising nanomaterials for the development of a variety of biological applications. Here we demonstrate that alkaline phosphatase activity is dramatically increased by coculture of human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the presence of CNHs. CNHs were mainly localized in the lysosome of macrophages more than in hMSCs during coculturing. At the same time, the amount of Oncostatin M (OSM) in the supernatant was also increased during incubation with CNHs. Oncostatin M (OSM) from activated macrophage has been reported to induce osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization through STAT3. These results suggest that the macrophages engulfed CNHs and accelerated the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteoblast via OSM release. We expect that the

  5. Effect of particle size on hydroxyapatite crystal-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nadra, Imad; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Philippidis, Pandelis; Whelan, Linda C; McCarthy, Geraldine M; Haskard, Dorian O; Landis, R Clive

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages may promote a vicious cycle of inflammation and calcification in the vessel wall by ingesting neointimal calcific deposits (predominantly hydroxyapatite) and secreting tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, itself a vascular calcifying agent. Here we have investigated whether particle size affects the proinflammatory potential of hydroxyapatite crystals in vitro and whether the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway plays a role in the macrophage TNFalpha response. The particle size and nano-topography of nine different crystal preparations was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and gas sorbtion analysis. Macrophage TNFalpha secretion was inversely related to hydroxyapatite particle size (P=0.011, Spearman rank correlation test) and surface pore size (P=0.014). A necessary role for the NF-kappaB pathway was demonstrated by time-dependent I kappaB alpha degradation and sensitivity to inhibitors of I kappaB alpha degradation. To test whether smaller particles were intrinsically more bioactive, their mitogenic activity on fibroblast proliferation was examined. This showed close correlation between TNFalpha secretion and crystal-induced fibroblast proliferation (P=0.007). In conclusion, the ability of hydroxyapatite crystals to stimulate macrophage TNFalpha secretion depends on NF-kappaB activation and is inversely related to particle and pore size, with crystals of 1-2 microm diameter and pore size of 10-50 A the most bioactive. Microscopic calcific deposits in early stages of atherosclerosis may therefore pose a greater inflammatory risk to the plaque than macroscopically or radiologically visible deposits in more advanced lesions.

  6. High salt reduces the activation of IL-4- and IL-13-stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Binger, Katrina J; Gebhardt, Matthias; Heinig, Matthias; Rintisch, Carola; Schroeder, Agnes; Neuhofer, Wolfgang; Hilgers, Karl; Manzel, Arndt; Schwartz, Christian; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Voelkl, Jakob; Schatz, Valentin; Linker, Ralf A; Lang, Florian; Voehringer, David; Wright, Mark D; Hubner, Norbert; Dechend, Ralf; Jantsch, Jonathan; Titze, Jens; Müller, Dominik N

    2015-11-02

    A high intake of dietary salt (NaCl) has been implicated in the development of hypertension, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. We have recently shown that salt has a proinflammatory effect and boosts the activation of Th17 cells and the activation of classical, LPS-induced macrophages (M1). Here, we examined how the activation of alternative (M2) macrophages is affected by salt. In stark contrast to Th17 cells and M1 macrophages, high salt blunted the alternative activation of BM-derived mouse macrophages stimulated with IL-4 and IL-13, M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages. Salt-induced reduction of M(IL-4+IL-13) activation was not associated with increased polarization toward a proinflammatory M1 phenotype. In vitro, high salt decreased the ability of M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages to suppress effector T cell proliferation. Moreover, mice fed a high salt diet exhibited reduced M2 activation following chitin injection and delayed wound healing compared with control animals. We further identified a high salt-induced reduction in glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolic output, coupled with blunted AKT and mTOR signaling, which indicates a mechanism by which NaCl inhibits full M2 macrophage activation. Collectively, this study provides evidence that high salt reduces noninflammatory innate immune cell activation and may thus lead to an overall imbalance in immune homeostasis.

  7. Macrophage polarisation: an immunohistochemical approach for identifying M1 and M2 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Barros, Mário Henrique M; Hauck, Franziska; Dreyer, Johannes H; Kempkes, Bettina; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Macrophage polarization is increasingly recognised as an important pathogenetic factor in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Proinflammatory M1 macrophages promote T helper (Th) 1 responses and show tumoricidal activity. M2 macrophages contribute to tissue repair and promote Th2 responses. CD68 and CD163 are used to identify macrophages in tissue sections. However, characterisation of polarised macrophages in situ has remained difficult. Macrophage polarisation is regulated by transcription factors, pSTAT1 and RBP-J for M1, and CMAF for M2. We reasoned that double-labelling immunohistochemistry for the detection of macrophage markers together with transcription factors may be suitable to characterise macrophage polarisation in situ. To test this hypothesis, we have studied conditions associated with Th1- and Th2-predominant immune responses: infectious mononucleosis and Crohn's disease for Th1 and allergic nasal polyps, oxyuriasis, wound healing and foreign body granulomas for predominant Th2 response. In all situations, CD163+ cells usually outnumbered CD68+ cells. Moreover, CD163+ cells, usually considered as M2 macrophages, co-expressing pSTAT1 and RBP-J were found in all conditions examined. The numbers of putative M1 macrophages were higher in Th1- than in Th2-associated diseases, while more M2 macrophages were seen in Th2- than in Th1 related disorders. In most Th1-related diseases, the balance of M1 over M2 cells was shifted towards M1 cells, while the reverse was observed for Th2-related conditions. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct clusters: cluster I included Th1 diseases together with cases with high numbers of CD163+pSTAT1+, CD68+pSTAT1+, CD163+RBP-J+ and CD68+RBP-J+ macrophages; cluster II comprised Th2 conditions together with cases displaying high numbers of CD163+CMAF+ and CD68+CMAF+ macrophages. These results suggest that the detection of pSTAT1, RBP-J, and CMAF in the context of CD68 or CD163 expression is a suitable tool for

  8. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus multiplication by activated macrophages: a role for arginase?

    PubMed

    Wildy, P; Gell, P G; Rhodes, J; Newton, A

    1982-07-01

    Proteose-peptone-activated mouse macrophages can prevent productive infection by herpes simplex virus in neighboring cells in vitro whether or not those cells belong to the same animal species. The effect does not require contact between the macrophages and the infected cells, may be prevented by adding extra arginine to the medium, and may be reversed when extra arginine is added 24 h after the macrophages. Arginase activity was found both intracellularly and released from the macrophages. The extracellular enzyme is quite stable; 64% activity was found after 48 h of incubation at 37 degrees C in tissue culture medium. No evidence was found that the inefficiency of virus replication in macrophages was due to self-starvation by arginase. As might be predicted macrophages can, by the same mechanism, limit productive infection by vaccinia virus.

  9. Silica nanoparticles inhibit macrophage activity and angiogenesis via VEGFR2-mediated MAPK signaling pathway in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Duan, Junchao; Hu, Hejing; Feng, Lin; Yang, Xiaozhe; Sun, Zhiwei

    2017-09-01

    The safety evaluation of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) are getting great attention due to its widely-used in food sciences, chemical industry and biomedicine. However, the adverse effect and underlying mechanisms of SiNPs on cardiovascular system, especially on angiogenesis is still unclear. This study was aimed to illuminate the possible mechanisms of SiNPs on angiogenesis in zebrafish transgenic lines, Tg(fli-1:EGFP) and Albino. SiNPs caused the cardiovascular malformations in a dose-dependent manner via intravenous microinjection. The incidences of cardiovascular malformations were observed as: Pericardial edema > Bradycardia > Blood deficiency. The area of subintestinal vessels (SIVs) was significant reduced in SiNPs-treated groups, accompanied with the weaken expression of vascular endothelial cells in zebrafish embryos. Using neutral red staining, the quantitative number of macrophage was declined; whereas macrophage inhibition rate was elevated in a dose-dependent way. Furthermore, SiNPs significantly decreased the mRNA expression of macrophage activity related gene, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and the angiogenesis related gene, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). The protein levels of p-Erk1/2 and p-p38 MAPK were markedly decreased in zebrafish exposed to SiNPs. Our results implicate that SiNPs inhibited the macrophage activity and angiogenesis via the downregulation of MAPK singaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasticity of Human THP-1 Cell Phagocytic Activity during Macrophagic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kurynina, A V; Erokhina, M V; Makarevich, O A; Sysoeva, V Yu; Lepekha, L N; Kuznetsov, S A; Onishchenko, G E

    2018-03-01

    Studies of the role of macrophages in phagocytosis are of great theoretical and practical importance for understanding how these cells are involved in the organism's defense response and in the development of various pathologies. Here we investigated phagocytic plasticity of THP-1 (acute monocytic human leukemia) cells at different stages (days 1, 3, and 7) of phorbol ester (PMA)-induced macrophage differentiation. Analysis of cytokine profiles showed that PMA at a concentration of 100 nM induced development of the proinflammatory macrophage population. The functional activity of macrophages was assessed on days 3 and 7 of differentiation using unlabeled latex beads and latex beads conjugated with ligands (gelatin, mannan, and IgG Fc fragment) that bind to the corresponding specific receptors. The general phagocytic activity increased significantly (1.5-2.0-fold) in the course of differentiation; phagocytosis occurred mostly through the Fc receptors, as shown previously for M1 macrophages. On day 7, the levels of phagocytosis of gelatin- and Fc-covered beads were high; however, the intensity of ingestion of mannan-conjugated beads via mannose receptors increased 2.5-3.0-fold as well, which indicated formation of cells with an alternative phenotype similar to that of M2 macrophages. Thus, the type and the plasticity of phagocytic activity at certain stages of macrophage differentiation can be associated with the formation of functionally mature morphological phenotype. This allows macrophages to exhibit their phagocytic potential in response to specific ligands. These data are of fundamental importance and can be used to develop therapeutic methods for correcting the M1/M2 macrophage ratio in an organism.

  11. Important role of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 in the interferon response of mouse macrophages upon infection by Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Wilden, Holger; Schirrmacher, Volker; Fournier, Philippe

    2011-08-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an interesting agent for activating innate immune activity in macrophages including secretion of TNF-α and IFN-α, upregulation of TRAIL and activation of NF-κB and iNOS. However, the molecular mechanism of such cellular activities remains largely unknown. Tumor selectivity of replication of NDV has been described to be linked to deviations in tumor cells of the type I interferon response. We therefore focused on the interferon response to NDV of macrophages as part of innate anti-viral and anti-tumor activity. In particular, we investigated the functional significance of the interferon regulatory factor genes (IRF)-3 and IRF-7. Deletion of the IRF-3 or IRF-7 gene was found to increase susceptibility of mouse macrophages to virus infection. Surprisingly, NDV replicated better in IRF-3 KO than in IRF-7 KO macrophages. Further analysis showed that IRF-3 KO macrophages have a lower basal and NDV-induced RIG-I expression in comparison to IRF-7 KO macrophages. This might explain why, in IRF-3 KO macrophages, the secretion of type I interferons after NDV infection is delayed, when compared to IRF-7 KO and wild-type macrophages. In addition, IRF-3 KO cells showed reduced NDV-induced levels of IRF-7. This effect could be prevented by priming the cells first by interferon-α. Further results indicated that an early production of type I interferon rather than high maximal levels at later time points are important for resistance to infection by NDV. In conclusion, these results demonstrate an important role of IRF-3 for the innate anti-viral response to NDV of mouse macrophages.

  12. Gremlin-1 inhibits macrophage migration inhibitory factor-dependent monocyte function and survival.

    PubMed

    Müller, Iris I; Chatterjee, Madhumita; Schneider, Martina; Borst, Oliver; Seizer, Peter; Schönberger, Tanja; Vogel, Sebastian; Müller, Karin A L; Geisler, Tobias; Lang, Florian; Langer, Harald; Gawaz, Meinrad

    2014-10-20

    Monocyte migration and their differentiation into macrophages critically regulate vascular inflammation and atherogenesis and are governed by macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Gremlin-1 binds to MIF. Current experimental evidences present Gremlin-1 as a potential physiological agent that might counter-regulate the inflammatory attributes of MIF. We found that Gremlin-1 inhibited MIF-dependent monocyte migration and adhesion to activated endothelial cells in flow chamber perfusion assay in vitro and to the injured carotid artery of WT and ApoE-/- mice in vivo as deciphered by intravital microscopy. Intravenous administration of Gremlin-1, but not of control protein, significantly reduced leukocyte recruitment towards the inflamed carotid artery of ApoE-/- mice. Besides, leukocytes from MIF-/- when administered into ApoE-/- mice showed lesser adhesion as compared to wild type. In the presence of Gremlin-1 however, adhesion of wild type, but not of MIF-/- leukocytes, to the carotid artery was significantly inhibited as compared to control. Gremlin-1 also inhibited the MIF-induced differentiation of monocytes into macrophages. Gremlin-1 substantially inhibited the anti-apoptotic impact of MIF on monocytes against BH3 mimetic ABT-737-induced apoptosis as verified by Annexin V-binding, caspase 3 activity, and mitochondrial depolarization. Therefore Gremlin-1 can modulate MIF dependent monocyte adhesion, migration, differentiation and survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Activin A-Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Axis Contributes to the Transcriptome of GM-CSF-Conditioned Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Concha; Bragado, Rafael; Municio, Cristina; Sierra-Filardi, Elena; Alonso, Bárbara; Escribese, María M; Domínguez-Andrés, Jorge; Ardavín, Carlos; Castrillo, Antonio; Vega, Miguel A; Puig-Kröger, Amaya; Corbí, Angel L

    2018-01-01

    GM-CSF promotes the functional maturation of lung alveolar macrophages (A-MØ), whose differentiation is dependent on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) transcription factor. In fact, blockade of GM-CSF-initiated signaling or deletion of the PPARγ-encoding gene PPARG leads to functionally defective A-MØ and the onset of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. In vitro , macrophages generated in the presence of GM-CSF display potent proinflammatory, immunogenic and tumor growth-limiting activities. Since GM-CSF upregulates PPARγ expression, we hypothesized that PPARγ might contribute to the gene signature and functional profile of human GM-CSF-conditioned macrophages. To verify this hypothesis, PPARγ expression and activity was assessed in human monocyte-derived macrophages generated in the presence of GM-CSF [proinflammatory GM-CSF-conditioned human monocyte-derived macrophages (GM-MØ)] or M-CSF (anti-inflammatory M-MØ), as well as in ex vivo isolated human A-MØ. GM-MØ showed higher PPARγ expression than M-MØ, and the expression of PPARγ in GM-MØ was found to largely depend on activin A. Ligand-induced activation of PPARγ also resulted in distinct transcriptional and functional outcomes in GM-MØ and M-MØ. Moreover, and in the absence of exogenous activating ligands, PPARγ knockdown significantly altered the GM-MØ transcriptome, causing a global upregulation of proinflammatory genes and significantly modulating the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and migration. Similar effects were observed in ex vivo isolated human A-MØ, where PPARγ silencing led to enhanced expression of genes coding for growth factors and chemokines and downregulation of cell surface pathogen receptors. Therefore, PPARγ shapes the transcriptome of GM-CSF-dependent human macrophages ( in vitro derived GM-MØ and ex vivo isolated A-MØ) in the absence of exogenous activating ligands, and its expression is primarily regulated by activin A

  14. Negative regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity by macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) family members in non-small cell lung carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Brock, Stephanie E; Rendon, Beatriz E; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Mitchell, Robert A

    2012-11-02

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a nutrient- and metabolic stress-sensing enzyme activated by the tumor suppressor kinase, LKB1. Because macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its functional homolog, d-dopachrome tautomerase (d-DT), have protumorigenic functions in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) but have AMPK-activating properties in nonmalignant cell types, we set out to investigate this apparent paradox. Our data now suggest that, in contrast to MIF and d-DTs AMPK-activating properties in nontransformed cells, MIF and d-DT act cooperatively to inhibit steady-state phosphorylation and activation of AMPK in LKB1 wild type and LKB1 mutant human NSCLC cell lines. Our data further indicate that MIF and d-DT, acting through their shared cell surface receptor, CD74, antagonize NSCLC AMPK activation by maintaining glucose uptake, ATP production, and redox balance, resulting in reduced Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase β-dependent AMPK activation. Combined, these studies indicate that MIF and d-DT cooperate to inhibit AMPK activation in an LKB1-independent manner.

  15. Development of ostrich thrombocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in culture and the control of Toxoplasma gondii reproduction after macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Farlen J B; Damasceno-Sá, João Cláudio; DaMatta, Renato A

    2016-01-01

    Raising ostriches became an important economic activity after their products became commodities. The health of farm animals is of paramount importance, so assessing basic immunological responses is necessary to better understand health problems. We developed a method to obtain ostrich thrombocytes and macrophages. The thrombocytes died by apoptosis after 48 h in culture, and the macrophages expanded in size and increased the number of acidic compartments. Macrophages were activated by chicken interferon-γ, producing high levels of nitric oxide. Toxoplasma gondii was able to infect these macrophages, and activation controlled parasitic reproduction. T. gondii, however, persisted in these cells, and infection reduced the production of nitric oxide. These results are important for the future assessment of the basic cellular and immunobiology of ostriches and demonstrate T. gondii suppression of nitric oxide production. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Trehalose diester glycolipids are superior to the monoesters in binding to Mincle, activation of macrophages in vitro and adjuvant activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huber, Alexandra; Kallerup, Rie S; Korsholm, Karen S; Franzyk, Henrik; Lepenies, Bernd; Christensen, Dennis; Foged, Camilla; Lang, Roland

    2016-08-01

    The T-cell adjuvanticity of mycobacterial cord factor trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) is well established. The identification of the C-type lectin Mincle on innate immune cells as the receptor for TDM and its synthetic analogue trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB) has raised interest in development of synthetic Mincle ligands as novel adjuvants. Trehalose mono- (TMXs) and diesters (TDXs) with symmetrically shortened acyl chains [denoted by X: arachidate (A), stearate (S), palmitate (P), and myristate (M)] were tested. Upon stimulation of murine macrophages, G-CSF secretion and NO production were strongly augmented by all TDXs tested, in a wide concentration range. In contrast, the TMXs triggered macrophage activation only at high concentrations. Macrophage activation by all TDXs required Mincle, but was independent of MyD88. The superior capacity of TDXs for activating macrophages was paralleled by direct binding of TDXs, but not of TMXs, to a Mincle-Fc fusion protein. Insertion of a short polyethylene glycol between the sugar and acyl chain in TDS reduced Mincle-binding and macrophage activation. Immunization of mice with cationic liposomes containing the analogues demonstrated the superior adjuvant activity of trehalose diesters. Overall, immune activation in vitro and in vivo by trehalose esters of simple fatty acids requires two acyl chains of length and involves Mincle. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Killing of Leishmania parasites in activated murine macrophages is based on an L-arginine-dependent process that produces nitrogen derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Maul, J.R.; Ransijn, A.; Buchmueller-Rouiller, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The experiments described in this report were aimed at determining whether L-arginine (L-arg)-derived nitrogen oxidation products (nitric oxide, nitrous acid, nitrites) are involved in the intracellular killing of Leishmania parasites by activated murine macrophages in vitro. Peritoneal or bone marrow-derived macrophages were infected with L. enriettii or L. major, then activated by exposure to recombinant murine interferon-gamma or to macrophage activating factor (MAF)-rich media in the presence of lipopolysaccharide. Activation of macrophages in regular (i.e., arginine-containing) culture medium led to complete destruction of the microorganisms within 24 h (L. enriettii) or 48 h (L. major), concomitant with accumulation of nitritesmore » (NO2-) in the culture fluids. When macrophage activation was carried out in L-arg-free medium, however, neither parasite killing nor NO2- production was obtained. A similar inhibition of macrophage leishmanicidal activity and of NO2- release was observed using media treated with arginase (which converts L-arg to urea and ornithine), or supplemented with NG-monomethyl-L-arg or guanidine (which inhibit the conversion of L-arg to nitrogen oxidation products). In all these situations, an excellent correlation between the levels of NO2- production by macrophages and intracellular killing of Leishmania was observed, whereas no strict correlation was detectable between leishmanicidal activity and superoxide production. Intracellular parasite killing by activated macrophages could be prevented by addition of iron salts to the incubation fluids. Incubation of free parasites with NaNO2 at acid pH led to immobilisation, multiplication arrest, and morphological degeneration of the microorganisms. Similarly, exposure of infected cells to NaNO2 led to killing of the intracellular parasite without affecting macrophage viability.« less

  18. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus multiplication by activated macrophages: a role for arginase?

    PubMed Central

    Wildy, P; Gell, P G; Rhodes, J; Newton, A

    1982-01-01

    Proteose-peptone-activated mouse macrophages can prevent productive infection by herpes simplex virus in neighboring cells in vitro whether or not those cells belong to the same animal species. The effect does not require contact between the macrophages and the infected cells, may be prevented by adding extra arginine to the medium, and may be reversed when extra arginine is added 24 h after the macrophages. Arginase activity was found both intracellularly and released from the macrophages. The extracellular enzyme is quite stable; 64% activity was found after 48 h of incubation at 37 degrees C in tissue culture medium. No evidence was found that the inefficiency of virus replication in macrophages was due to self-starvation by arginase. As might be predicted macrophages can, by the same mechanism, limit productive infection by vaccinia virus. PMID:6286497

  19. UV-B Radiation Induces Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor–Mediated Melanogenesis through Activation of Protease-Activated Receptor-2 and Stem Cell Factor in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, Akiko; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Yamakoshi, Takako; Ur Rehman, Mati; Norisugi, Osamu; Hara, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Kenji; Makino, Teruhiko; Nishihira, Jun; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2011-01-01

    UV radiation indirectly regulates melanogenesis in melanocytes through a paracrine regulatory mechanism involving keratinocytes. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 activation induces melanosome transfer by increasing phagocytosis of melanosomes by keratinocytes. This study demonstrated that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) stimulated PAR-2 expression in human keratinocytes. In addition, we showed that MIF stimulated stem cell factor (SCF) release in keratinocytes; however, MIF had no effect on the release of endothelin-1 or prostaglandin E2 in keratinocytes. In addition, MIF had no direct effect on melanin and tyrosinase synthesis in cultured human melanocytes. The effect of MIF on melanogenesis was also examined using a three-dimensional reconstituted human epidermal culture model, which is a novel, commercially available, cultured human epidermis containing functional melanocytes. Migration inhibitory factor induced an increase in melanin content in the epidermis after a 9-day culture period. Moreover, melanin synthesis induced by UV-B stimulation was significantly down-regulated by anti-MIF antibody treatment. An in vivo study showed that the back skin of MIF transgenic mice had a higher melanin content than that of wild-type mice after 12 weeks of UV-B exposure. Therefore, MIF-mediated melanogenesis occurs mainly through the activation of PAR-2 and SCF expression in keratinocytes after exposure to UV-B radiation. PMID:21281800

  20. Suppressive immunoregulatory effects of three antidepressants via inhibition of the nuclear factor-κB activation assessed using primary macrophages of carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Wenhui

    Antidepressants, having been applied for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions for decades, are among the most commonly detected human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. This study evaluated the immunotoxicity of acute exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of amitriptyline, fluoxetine and mianserin using an in vitro primary macrophage model isolated from red common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and also explored their potential mechanisms of action. A potential suppressive immunoregulatory effect of antidepressant exposure was suggested based on the observed suppressive effects on oxidative stress parameters, bactericidal activity, NO production, and NO synthase activity, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokinemore » gene expression, and a significant stimulatory effect on anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 and interferon cytokine gene expression and ATPase activities in macrophages after 6 h-exposure to three individual antidepressants and a combination thereof. Notably, we also found these effects were significantly associated with a corresponding decrease in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity after antidepressants exposure, and the NF-κB antagonist significantly restrained the effects of antidepressants on gene expression of cytokines, indicating that antidepressants could alter the response of various immune-associated components via the inhibition of NF-κB. Moreover, time-dependent lethal concentrations of three antidepressants on primary macrophages were firstly determined at mg/L levels, and the synergetic effects of antidepressant mixtures were suggested and in particular, for some parameters including total antioxidant capacity and cytokine genes expression, they could be significantly affected by antidepressants exposure at concentrations as low as 10 ng/L, which together thereby revealed the potential risk of antidepressants to aquatic life. - Highlights: • Three different antidepressants all have

  1. p62 regulates CD40-mediated NFκB activation in macrophages through interaction with TRAF6

    SciTech Connect

    Seibold, Kristina; Ehrenschwender, Martin, E-mail: martin.ehrenschwender@ukr.de

    CD40 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. Activation-induced recruitment of adapter proteins, so-called TNF-receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) to the cytoplasmic tail of CD40 triggers signaling cascades important in the immune system, but has also been associated with excessive inflammation in diseases such as atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Especially, pro-inflammatory nuclear factor κB (NFκB) signaling emanating from CD40-associated TRAF6 appears to be a key pathogenic driving force. Consequently, targeting the CD40-TRAF6 interaction is emerging as a promising therapeutic strategy, but the underlying molecular machinery of this signaling axis is to date poorly understood. Here, we identified themore » multifunctional adaptor protein p62 as a critical regulator in CD40-mediated NFκB signaling via TRAF6. CD40 activation triggered formation of a TRAF6-p62 complex. Disturbing this interaction tremendously reduced CD40-mediated NFκB signaling in macrophages, while TRAF6-independent signaling pathways remained unaffected. This highlights p62 as a potential target in hyper-inflammatory, CD40-associated pathologies. - Highlights: • CD40 activation triggers interaction of the adapter protein TRAF6 with p62. • TRAF6-p62 interaction regulates CD40-mediated NFκB signaling in macrophages. • Defective TRAF6-p62 interaction reduces CD40-mediated NFκB activation in macrophages.« less

  2. Brazilian Red Propolis Attenuates Inflammatory Signaling Cascade in LPS-Activated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Kawamoto, Dione; Ando-Suguimoto, Ellen S.; Alencar, Severino M.; Rosalen, Pedro L.; Mayer, Marcia P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies suggested an anti-inflammatory property of Brazilian red propolis (BRP), the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of BRP and its activity on macrophages were still not elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate whether BRP attenuates the inflammatory effect of LPS on macrophages and to investigate its underlying mechanisms. BRP was added to RAW 264.7 murine macrophages after activation with LPS. NO production, cell viability, cytokines profile were evaluated. Activation of inflammatory signaling pathways and macrophage polarization were determined by RT-qPCR and Western blot. BRP at 50 μg/ml inhibited NO production by 78% without affecting cell viability. Cd80 and Cd86 were upregulated whereas mrc1 was down regulated by BRP indicating macrophage polarization at M1. BRP attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-12, GM-CSF, IFN-Ɣ, IL-1β in cell supernatants although levels of TNF- α and IL-6 were slightly increased after BRP treatment. Levels of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β were also reduced by BRP. BRP significantly reduced the up-regulation promoted by LPS of transcription of genes in inflammatory signaling (Pdk1, Pak1, Nfkb1, Mtcp1, Gsk3b, Fos and Elk1) and of Il1β and Il1f9 (fold-change rate > 5), which were further confirmed by the inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Furthermore, the upstream adaptor MyD88 adaptor-like (Mal), also known as TIRAP, involved in TLR2 and TLR4 signaling, was down- regulated in BRP treated LPS-activated macrophages. Given that BRP inhibited multiple signaling pathways in macrophages involved in the inflammatory process activated by LPS, our data indicated that BRP is a noteworthy food-source for the discovery of new bioactive compounds and a potential candidate to attenuate exhacerbated inflammatory diseases. PMID:26660901

  3. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Release by Macrophages after Ingestion of Plasmodium chabaudi-Infected Erythrocytes: Possible Role in the Pathogenesis of Malarial Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Martiney, James A.; Sherry, Barbara; Metz, Christine N.; Espinoza, Marisol; Ferrer, Angel S.; Calandra, Thierry; Broxmeyer, Hal E.; Bucala, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Human falciparum malaria, caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection, results in 1 to 2 million deaths per year, mostly children under the age of 5 years. The two main causes of death are severe anemia and cerebral malaria. Malarial anemia is characterized by parasite red blood cell (RBC) destruction and suppression of erythropoiesis (the mechanism of which is unknown) in the presence of a robust host erythropoietin response. The production of a host-derived erythropoiesis inhibitor in response to parasite products has been implicated in the pathogenesis of malarial anemia. The identity of this putative host factor is unknown, but antibody neutralization studies have ruled out interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and gamma interferon while injection of interleukin-12 protects susceptible mice against lethal P. chabaudi infection. In this study, we report that ingestion of P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes or malarial pigment (hemozoin) induces the release of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) from macrophages. MIF, a proinflammatory mediator and counter-regulator of glucocorticoid action, inhibits erythroid (BFU-E), multipotential (CFU-GEMM), and granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) progenitor-derived colony formation. MIF was detected in the sera of P. chabaudi-infected BALB/c mice, and circulating levels correlated with disease severity. Liver MIF immunoreactivity increased concomitant with extensive pigment and parasitized RBC deposition. Finally, MIF was elevated three- to fourfold in the spleen and bone marrow of P. chabaudi-infected mice with active disease, as compared to early disease, or of uninfected controls. In summary, the present results suggest that MIF may be a host-derived factor involved in the pathophysiology of malaria anemia. PMID:10722628

  4. Effects of vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) infusion on bone resorption in two osteopetrotic mutations.

    PubMed

    Schneider, G B; Benis, K A; Flay, N W; Ireland, R A; Popoff, S N

    1995-06-01

    Osteopetrosis is a heterogeneous group of bone diseases characterized by an excess accumulation of bone and a variety of immune defects. Osteopetrosis (op) and incisors absent (ia) are two nonallelic mutations in the rat which demonstrated these skeletal defects as a result of reduced bone resorption. Osteopetrotic (op) rats have severe sclerosis as a result of reduced numbers of osteoclasts which are structurally abnormal. The sclerosis in ia rats is not as severe as in op mutants; they have elevated numbers of osteoclasts, but they are also morphologically abnormal, lacking a ruffled border. Both of these mutations have defects in the inflammation-primed activation of macrophages. They demonstrate independent defects in the cascade involved in the conversion of vitamin D binding protein (DBP) to a potent macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF). Because this factor may also play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoclastic dysfunction, the effects of ex vivo-generated DBP-MAF were evaluated on the skeletal system of these two mutations. Newborn ia and op rats and normal littermate controls were injected with DBP-MAF or vehicle once every 4 days from birth until 2 weeks of age, at which time bone samples were collected to evaluate a number of skeletal parameters. DBP-MAF treated op rats had an increased number of osteoclasts and the majority of them exhibited normal structure. There was also reduced bone volume in the treated op animals and an associated increased cellularity of the marrow spaces. The skeletal sclerosis was also corrected in the ia rats; the bone marrow cavity size was significantly enlarged and the majority of the osteoclasts appeared normal with extensive ruffled borders.

  5. Activation of AMPA receptor promotes TNF-α release via the ROS-cSrc-NFκB signaling cascade in RAW264.7 macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Xiu-Li; Ding, Fan; Li, Hui

    2015-05-29

    The relationship between glutamate signaling and inflammation has not been well defined. This study aimed to investigate the role of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) in the expression and release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from macrophages and the underlying mechanisms. A series of approaches, including confocal microscopy, immunofluorescency, flow cytometry, ELISA and Western blotting, were used to estimate the expression of AMPAR and downstream signaling molecules, TNF-α release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. The results demonstrated that AMPAR was expressed in RAW264.7 cells. AMPA significantly enhanced TNF-α release from RAW264.7 cells, and this effect wasmore » abolished by CNQX (AMPAR antagonist). AMPA also induced elevation of ROS production, phosphorylation of c-Src and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in RAW264.7 cells. Blocking c-Src by PP2, scavenging ROS by glutathione (GSH) or inhibiting NF-κB activation by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) decreased TNF-α production from RAW264.7 cells. We concluded that AMPA promotes TNF-α release in RAW264.7 macrophages likely through the following signaling cascade: AMPAR activation → ROS generation → c-Src phosphorylation → NF-κB activation → TNF-α elevation. The study suggests that AMPAR may participate in macrophage activation and inflammation. - Highlights: • AMPAR is expressed in RAW264.7 macrophages and is upregulated by AMPA stimulation. • Activation of AMPAR stimulates TNF-α release in macrophages through the ROS-cSrc-NFκB signaling cascade. • Macrophage AMPAR signaling may play an important role in inflammation.« less

  6. The Dipeptidyl Peptidases 4, 8, and 9 in Mouse Monocytes and Macrophages: DPP8/9 Inhibition Attenuates M1 Macrophage Activation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Waumans, Yannick; Vliegen, Gwendolyn; Maes, Lynn; Rombouts, Miche; Declerck, Ken; Van Der Veken, Pieter; Vanden Berghe, Wim; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Schrijvers, Dorien; De Meester, Ingrid

    2016-02-01

    Atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of death in Western countries. Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4 has emerged as a novel target for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. Family members DPP8 and 9 are abundantly present in macrophage-rich regions of atherosclerotic plaques, and DPP9 inhibition attenuates activation of human M1 macrophages in vitro. Studying this family in a mouse model for atherosclerosis would greatly advance our knowledge regarding their potential as therapeutic targets. We found that DPP4 is downregulated during mouse monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. DPP8 and 9 expression seems relatively low in mouse monocytes and macrophages. Viability of primary mouse macrophages is unaffected by DPP4 or DPP8/9 inhibition. Importantly, DPP8/9 inhibition attenuates macrophage activation as IL-6 secretion is significantly decreased. Mouse macrophages respond similarly to DPP inhibition, compared to human macrophages. This shows that the mouse could become a valid model species for the study of DPPs as therapeutic targets in atherosclerosis.

  7. Macrophage activation syndrome associated with griscelli syndrome type 2: case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sefsafi, Zakia; Hasbaoui, Brahim El; Kili, Amina; Agadr, Aomar; Khattab, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a severe and potentially fatal life-threatening condition associated with excessive activation and expansion of T cells with macrophages and a high expression of cytokines, resulting in an uncontrolled inflammatory response, with high levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor and causing multiorgan damage. This syndrome is classified into primary (genetic/familial) or secondary forms to several etiologies, such as infections, neoplasias mainly hemopathies or autoimmune diseases. It is characterised clinically by unremitting high fever, pancytopaenia, hepatosplenomegaly, hepatic dysfunction, encephalopathy, coagulation abnormalities and sharply increased levels of ferritin. The pathognomonic feature of the syndrome is seen on bone marrow examination, which frequently, though not always, reveals numerous morphologically benign macrophages exhibiting haemophagocytic activity. Because MAS can follow a rapidly fatal course, prompt recognition of its clinical and laboratory features and immediate therapeutic intervention are essential. However, it is difficult to distinguish underlying disease flare, infectious complications or medication side effects from MAS. Although, the pathogenesis of MAS is unclear, the hallmark of the syndrome is an uncontrolled activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes and macrophages, leading to massive hypersecretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mutations in cytolytic pathway genes are increasingly being recognised in children who develop MAS in his secondary form. We present here a case of Macrophage activation syndrome associated with Griscelli syndrome type 2 in a 3-years-old boy who had been referred due to severe sepsis with non-remitting high fever, generalized lymphoadenopathy and hepato-splenomegaly. Laboratory data revealed pancytopenia with high concentrations of triglycerides, ferritin and lactic dehydrogenase while the bone marrow revealed numerous morphologically benign

  8. Macrophage Biochemistry, Activation and Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    vacuolar apparatus become more abundant. Functional capabilities, including phagocytic activity, protein synthesis and surface receptors, also increase...properties of cell components of other tissues has led to the following assignment of marker enzymes to specific macrophage components. This assessment is...subfractions. The surface area of each histogram bar then gives the frac- tional amount of constituent present within each normalized fraction. Distribution

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury via the activation of M2 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    -6 and tumor necrosis factor α were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, macrophage-depleted mice with intramuscular injection of glycerol were subjected to a single injection of different types of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Mice infused with M0 and M1 macrophages suffered a more severe histological and functional injury, while mice transfused with MSC-educated M2 macrophages showed reduced kidney injury. Conclusions Our findings suggested that MSCs can ameliorate rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI via the activation of macrophages to a trophic M2 phenotype, which supports the transition from tubule injury to tubule repair. PMID:24961539

  10. Dexamethasone targeted directly to macrophages induces macrophage niches that promote erythroid expansion.

    PubMed

    Falchi, Mario; Varricchio, Lilian; Martelli, Fabrizio; Masiello, Francesca; Federici, Giulia; Zingariello, Maria; Girelli, Gabriella; Whitsett, Carolyn; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Moestrup, Søren Kragh; Zeuner, Ann; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2015-02-01

    Cultures of human CD34(pos) cells stimulated with erythroid growth factors plus dexamethasone, a model for stress erythropoiesis, generate numerous erythroid cells plus a few macrophages (approx. 3%; 3:1 positive and negative for CD169). Interactions occurring between erythroblasts and macrophages in these cultures and the biological effects associated with these interactions were documented by live phase-contrast videomicroscopy. Macrophages expressed high motility interacting with hundreds/thousands of erythroblasts per hour. CD169(pos) macrophages established multiple rapid 'loose' interactions with proerythroblasts leading to formation of transient erythroblastic island-like structures. By contrast, CD169(neg) macrophages established 'tight' interactions with mature erythroblasts and phagocytosed these cells. 'Loose' interactions of CD169(pos) macrophages were associated with proerythroblast cytokinesis (the M phase of the cell cycle) suggesting that these interactions may promote proerythroblast duplication. This hypothesis was tested by experiments that showed that as few as 103 macrophages significantly increased levels of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide incorporation frequency in S/G2/M and cytokinesis expressed by proerythroblasts over 24 h of culture. These effects were observed also when macrophages were co-cultured with dexamethasone directly conjugated to a macrophage-specific CD163 antibody. In conclusion, in addition to promoting proerythroblast proliferation directly, dexamethasone stimulates expansion of these cells indirectly by stimulating maturation and cytokinesis supporting activity of macrophages. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  11. Identification of Caspase-6 as a New Regulator of Alternatively Activated Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yongfang; Shi, Qian; Chen, Bing; Wang, Qingsong; Li, Xinda; Li, Long; Huang, Yahong; Ji, Jianguo; Shen, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) play essential roles in the promotion of tissue remodeling, vasculogenesis, and tumor progression; however, the detailed mechanisms underlying the activation of AAMs remain largely unknown. Here, by using quantitative proteomic analysis, we identified 62 proteins that were up-regulated in IL-4-induced macrophages. Among these, Caspase-6 was increased significantly. Caspase-6 is important in the apoptotic signaling pathway; however, its role in non-apoptosis is also reported. Here, we first examined the non-apoptotic role of Caspase-6 in the alternative activation of macrophages after administration of IL-4, 4T1 tumor conditional medium, or co-culture with 4T1 cells. Both treatments promoted alternative activation of RAW264.7 cells and primary macrophages, whereas disruption of caspase-6 expression and activity could markedly suppress the biomarker levels of AAMs. Overexpression of Caspase-6 could significantly promote the activation of AAMs. Importantly, we further present evidence that caspase-6 could regulate breast cancer cell invasion by modulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in 4T1 tumor-associated macrophages, as ablation of protein levels or activity of caspase-6 suppressed tumor cell invasion in vitro. In conclusion, the observed results markedly expanded our views of the dynamic changes in protein composition during alternative activation of macrophages, and they revealed a critical new role of caspase-6 in regulating this cellular biological process, which suggested that caspase-6 might be a key nod molecule to regulate immunological steady-state and be a therapeutic candidate for tumor immunotherapy. PMID:27325699

  12. Investigation of Dracocephalum kostchyi plant extract on the effective inflammatory transcription factors and mediators in activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kalantar, Kurosh; Gholijani, Nasser; Mousaei, Nashmin; Yazdani, Malihe; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2018-06-07

    Dracocephalum kotschyi is traditionally used for its anti-inflammatory effects. We aimed to investigate the effects of ethyl acetate extract of D. kotschyi on the expression of key inflammatory mediators and main signaling molecules involved in regulation of inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774.1 mouse macrophages were cultured in the presence of the plant extract and examined by the real time-PCR for gene expressions of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Cytokine levels and phosphorylated forms of stress-activated protein kinases/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3, p38, IκB-α and nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 were determined using ELISA. The extract significantly reduced the expression of key mediators of inflammation. iNOS expression level decreased from 138±8.5 fold in LPS-only treated cells to 6.5±2.6 fold after treatment with 25 ug/ml of the extract (p<0.001). Similarly, COX-2 expression decreased from 632 ±98.8 fold in control to 124 ±24.6 fold (p<0.01). Treatment of cells with the extract significantly reduced IL-1β and TNF-α cytokines at both gene and protein expression levels. The extract at 25 µg/ml caused significant decreases in phospho-SAPK/JNK and phospho-STAT3 levels in macrophages (p<0.01). Proteins of phospho-p38, NFκB-p65 and phospho-NF-κB p65 had a reduced levels in treated cells (p<0.05). No significant change in phospho-IĸB level was observed. These findings suggested that D. kotschyi with inhibition of NF-κB, SAPK/JNK, STAT-3 and p-38 might have reduced the expression levels of key inflammatory mediators and thus possibly have potential beneficial impact on inflammatory diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. The Effect of Fucoidan from the Brown Alga Fucus evanescence on the Activity of α-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase of Human Colon Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Bakunina, Irina; Chadova, Oksana; Malyarenko, Olesya; Ermakova, Svetlana

    2018-05-10

    α- N -acetylgalactosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.49) (alpha-NaGalase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of N -acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-galactoside residues from non-reducing ends of various complex carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. It is known that human cancer cells express an alpha-NaGalase, which accumulates in the blood plasma of patients. The enzyme deglycosylates the Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) and inhibits macrophage activity acting as an immunosuppressor. The high specific activity 0.033 ± 0.002 μmol mg −1 min −1 of the enzyme was found in human colon carcinoma cells DLD-1. The alpha-NaGalase of DLD-1 cells was isolated and biochemical characterized. The enzyme exhibits maximum activity at pH 5.2 and temperature 55 °C. The K m is 2.15 mM, V max ⁻0.021 μmol min −1 mL −1 , k cat ⁻1.55 min −1 and k cat / K m ⁻0.72 min −1 mM −1 at 37 °C, pH 5.2. The effects of fucoidan from the brown alga Fucus evanescence on the activity of alpha-NaGalase in human colon carcinoma DLD-1 cells and on the biosynthesis of this enzyme were investigated. It was shown that fucoidan did not inhibit free alpha-NaGalase, however, it reduced the expression of the enzyme in the DLD-1 cells at IC 50 73 ± 4 μg mL −1 .

  14. Interferon-gamma regulates nucleoside transport systems in macrophages through signal transduction and activator of transduction factor 1 (STAT1)-dependent and -independent signalling pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Concepció; Felipe, Antonio; García-Manteiga, José; Serra, Maria; Guillén-Gómez, Elena; Casado, F Javier; MacLeod, Carol; Modolell, Manuel; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal; Celada, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The expressions of CNT and ENT (concentrative and equilibrative nucleoside transporters) in macrophages are differentially regulated by IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). This cytokine controls gene expression through STAT1-dependent and/or -independent pathways (where STAT1 stands for signal transduction and activator of transcription 1). In the present study, the role of STAT1 in the response of nucleoside transporters to IFN-gamma was studied using macrophages from STAT1 knockout mice. IFN-gamma triggered an inhibition of ENT1-related nucleoside transport activity through STAT1-dependent mechanisms. Such inhibition of macrophage growth and ENT1 activity by IFN-gamma is required for DNA synthesis. Interestingly, IFN-gamma led to an induction of the CNT1- and CNT2-related nucleoside transport activities independent of STAT1, thus ensuring the supply of extracellular nucleosides for the STAT1-independent RNA synthesis. IFN-gamma up-regulated CNT2 mRNA and CNT1 protein levels and down-regulated ENT1 mRNA in both wild-type and STAT1 knockout macrophages. This is consistent with a STAT1-independent, long-term-mediated, probably transcription-dependent, regulation of nucleoside transporter genes. Moreover, STAT1-dependent post-transcriptional mechanisms are implicated in the regulation of ENT1 activity. Although nitric oxide is involved in the regulation of ENT1 activity in B-cells at a post-transcriptional level, our results show that STAT1-dependent induction of nitric oxide by IFN-gamma is not implicated in the regulation of ENT1 activity in macrophages. Our results indicate that both STAT1-dependent and -independent pathways are involved in the regulation of nucleoside transporters by IFN-gamma in macrophages. PMID:12868960

  15. Unfolding the relationship between secreted molecular chaperones and macrophage activation states

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, it has emerged that many molecular chaperones and protein-folding catalysts are secreted from cells and function, somewhat in the manner of cytokines, as pleiotropic signals for a variety of cells, with much attention being focused on the macrophage. During the last decade, it has become clear that macrophages respond to bacterial, protozoal, parasitic and host signals to generate phenotypically distinct states of activation. These activation states have been termed ‘classical’ and ‘alternative’ and represent not a simple bifurcation in response to external signals but a range of cellular phenotypes. From an examination of the literature, the hypothesis is propounded that mammalian molecular chaperones are able to induce a wide variety of alternative macrophage activation states, and this may be a system for relating cellular or tissue stress to appropriate macrophage responses to restore homeostatic equilibrium. PMID:18958583

  16. Macrophage depletion impairs skeletal muscle regeneration: The roles of regulatory factors for muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Liu, Yu; Zhao, Linlin; Zeng, Zhigang; Xiao, Weihua; Chen, Peijie

    2017-03-01

    Though macrophages are essential for skeletal muscle regeneration, which is a complex process, the roles and mechanisms of the macrophages in the process of muscle regeneration are still not fully understood. The objective of this study is to explore the roles of macrophages and the mechanisms involved in the regeneration of injured skeletal muscle. One hundred and twelve C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into muscle contusion and macrophages depleted groups. Their gastrocnemius muscles were harvested at the time points of 12 h, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 d post-injury. The changes in skeletal muscle morphology were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stain. The gene expression was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The data showed that CL-liposomes treatment did affect the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MyoD, myogenin) after injury. In addition, CL-liposomes treatment decreased the expression of regulatory factors of muscle regeneration (HGF, uPA, COX-2, IGF-1, MGF, FGF6) and increased the expression of inflammatory cytokines (TGF-β1, TNF-α, IL-1β, RANTES) in the late stage of regeneration. Moreover, there were significant correlations between macrophages and some regulatory factors (such as HGF, uPA) for muscle regeneration. These results suggested that macrophages depletion impairs skeletal muscle regeneration and that the regulatory factors for muscle regeneration may play important roles in this process. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  17. Characterization of Neospora caninum macrophage migration inhibitory factor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study is the first characterization of Neospora caninum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (NcMIF). BLAST-N analysis of NcMIF revealed high similarity (87%) to the Toxoplasma gondii MIF. NcMIF was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli in three forms, NcMIF (mature protein), NcMI...

  18. Alternatively Activated Macrophages Play an Important Role in Vascular Remodeling and Hemorrhaging in Patients with Brain Arteriovenous Malformation.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yukihiko; Sugita, Yasuo; Nakashima, Shinji; Okada, Yousuke; Yoshitomi, Munetake; Kimura, Yoshizou; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Morioka, Motohiro; Ohshima, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    Angiogenic and immunoactive lesions in brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) contribute to hemorrhagic events and the growth of BAVMs. However, the detailed mechanism is unclear. Our objective is to clarify the relationship between hemorrhagic events of BAVM and alternatively activated macrophages in the perinidal dilated capillary network (PDCN). We examined microsurgical specimens of BVMs (n = 29) and focused on the PDCN area. Ten autopsied brains without intracranial disease were the controls. We performed immunostaining of the inflammatory and endothelial cell markers, macrophage markers (CD163 and CD68), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). We evaluated each cell's density and the vessel density in the PDCN and analyzed the relationship to hemorrhagic events of BAVM. The PDCN was involved in all the resected arteriovenous malformations, and these vessels showed a high rate of CD105 expression (72.0 ± 10.64%), indicating newly proliferating vessels. Alternatively activated macrophages were found, with a high rate (85.6%) for all macrophages (controls, 56.6%). In the hemorrhagic cases, the cell density was significantly higher than that in the nonhemorrhagic cases and controls (hemorrhagic group, 290 ± 44 cells/mm(2); nonhemorrhagic group, 180 ± 59 cells/mm(2); and control, 19 ± 8 cells/mm(2)). The cell density of alternatively activated macrophages showed a positive correlation with the vessel density of the PDCN. Double immunostaining showed that VEGF-A was secreted by alternatively activated macrophages. Our data suggest that alternatively activated macrophages may have some relationships with angiogenesis of PDCN and hemorrhagic event of BAVM. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Purinergic signaling during macrophage differentiation results in M2 alternative activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Barberà-Cremades, Maria; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Pelegrín, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Macrophages represent a highly heterogenic cell population of the innate immune system, with important roles in the initiation and resolution of the inflammatory response. Purinergic signaling regulates both M1 and M2 macrophage function at different levels by controlling the secretion of cytokines, phagocytosis, and the production of reactive oxygen species. We found that extracellular nucleotides arrest macrophage differentiation from bone marrow precursors via adenosine and P2 receptors. This results in a mature macrophage with increased expression of M2, but not M1, genes. Similar to adenosine and ATP, macrophage growth arrested with LPS treatment resulted in an increase of the M2-related marker Ym1. Recombinant Ym1 was able to affect macrophage proliferation and could, potentially, be involved in the arrest of macrophage growth during hematopoiesis. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) root extracts in LPS-stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Marzocco, Stefania; Calabrone, Luana; Adesso, Simona; Larocca, Marilena; Franceschelli, Silvia; Autore, Giuseppina; Martelli, Giuseppe; Rossano, Rocco

    2015-12-01

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family. Horseradish root is used as a condiment due to its extremely pungent flavour, deriving from the high content of glucosinolates and their breakdown products such as isothiocyanates and other sulfur compounds. Horseradish also has a long history in ethnomedicine. In this study the anti-inflammatory potential of three accessions of Armoracia rusticana on lipopolysaccharide from E. coli treated J774A.1 murine macrophages was evaluated. Our results demonstrate that Armoracia rusticana reduced nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release and nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages, acting on nuclear transcription factor NF-κB p65 activation. Moreover Armoracia rusticana reduced reactive oxygen species release and increased heme-oxygenase-1 expression, thus contributing to the cytoprotective cellular effect during inflammation.

  1. Candida albicans Chitin Increases Arginase-1 Activity in Human Macrophages, with an Impact on Macrophage Antimicrobial Functions

    PubMed Central

    MacCallum, Donna M.; Brown, Gordon D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT   The opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can cause a variety of diseases, ranging from superficial mucosal infections to life-threatening systemic infections. Phagocytic cells of the innate immune response, such as neutrophils and macrophages, are important first-line responders to an infection and generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as part of their protective antimicrobial response. During an infection, host cells generate nitric oxide through the enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) to kill the invading pathogen. Inside the phagocyte, iNOS competes with the enzyme arginase-1 for a common substrate, the amino acid l-arginine. Several pathogenic species, including bacteria and parasitic protozoans, actively modulate the production of nitric oxide by inducing their own arginases or the host’s arginase activity to prevent the conversion of l-arginine to nitric oxide. We report here that C. albicans blocks nitric oxide production in human-monocyte-derived macrophages by induction of host arginase activity. We further determined that purified chitin (a fungal cell wall polysaccharide) and increased chitin exposure at the fungal cell wall surface induces this host arginase activity. Blocking the C. albicans-induced arginase activity with the arginase-specific substrate inhibitor Nω-hydroxy-nor-arginine (nor-NOHA) or the chitinase inhibitor bisdionin F restored nitric oxide production and increased the efficiency of fungal killing. Moreover, we determined that C. albicans influences macrophage polarization from a classically activated phenotype toward an alternatively activated phenotype, thereby reducing antimicrobial functions and mediating fungal survival. Therefore, C. albicans modulates l-arginine metabolism in macrophages during an infection, potentiating its own survival. PMID:28119468

  2. 5-Lipoxygenase contributes to PPARγ activation in macrophages in response to apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    von Knethen, Andreas; Sha, Lisa K; Kuchler, Laura; Heeg, Annika K; Fuhrmann, Dominik; Heide, Heinrich; Wittig, Ilka; Maier, Thorsten J; Steinhilber, Dieter; Brüne, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    Macrophage polarization to an anti-inflammatory phenotype upon contact with apoptotic cells is a contributing hallmark to immune suppression during the late phase of sepsis. Although the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) supports this macrophage phenotype switch, it remains elusive how apoptotic cells activate PPARγ. Assuming that a molecule causing PPARγ activation in macrophages originates in the cell membrane of apoptotic cells we analyzed lipid rafts from apoptotic, necrotic, and living human Jurkat T cells which showed the presence of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) in lipid rafts of apoptotic cells only. Incubating macrophages with lipid rafts of apoptotic, but not necrotic or living cells, induced PPAR responsive element (PPRE)-driven mRuby reporter gene expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages stably transduced with a 4xPPRE containing vector. Experiments with lipid rafts of apoptotic murine EL4 T cells revealed similar results. To verify the involvement of 5-LO in activating PPARγ in macrophages, Jurkat T cells were incubated with the 5-LO inhibitor MK-866 prior to induction of apoptosis, which failed to induce mRuby expression. Similar results were obtained with lipid rafts of apoptotic EL4 T cells preexposed to the 5-LO inhibitors zileuton and CJ-13610. Interestingly, Jurkat T cells overexpressing 5-LO failed to activate PPARγ in macrophages, while their 5-LO overexpressing apoptotic counterparts did. Our results suggest that during apoptosis 5-LO gets associated with lipid rafts and synthesizes ligands that in turn stimulate PPARγ in macrophages. © 2013.

  3. Essential oil from leaves of Liquidambar formosana ameliorates inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hua, Kuo-Feng; Yang, Tzu-Jung; Chiu, Huan-Wen; Ho, Chen-Lung

    2014-06-01

    The essential oil from Liquidambar formosana leaves (EOLF) was demonstrated to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in mouse macrophages. EOLF reduced nitrite oxide generation, secretion levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, and expression levels of prointerleukin-beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse macrophages. EOLF also reduced NLRP3 inflammasome-derived interleukin-1beta secretion. The underlying mechanisms for the EOLF-mediated anti-inflammatory activity were (1) reduction of LPS-induced reactive oxygen species generation; (2) reduction of LPS-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38 MAP kinase; (3) reduction of LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappaBeta activation. Furthermore, 25 compounds were identified in the EOLF using GC-FID and GC-MS and the major compounds were terpinen-4-ol (32.0%), beta-pinene (18.0%), gamma-terpinene (13.8%), and alpha-terpinene (9.7%). We found that LPS-induced nitrite oxide generation was inhibited significantly by terpinen-4-ol. Our results indicated that EOLF has anti-inflammatory activity and may provide a molecular rationale for future therapeutic interventions in immune modulation.

  4. Protopine reduces the inflammatory activity of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bae, Deok Sung; Kim, Young Hoon; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Nho, Chu Won; Samdan, Javzan; Yansan, Jamyansan; Lee, Jae Kown

    2012-02-01

    Protopine is an isoquinoline alkaloid contained in plants in northeast Asia. In this study, we investigated whether protopine derived from Hypecoum erectum L could suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in murine macrophages (Raw 264.7 cells). Protopine was found to reduce nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production by LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells, without a cytotoxic effect. Pre-treatment of Raw 264.7 cells with protopine reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These inhibitory effects were caused by blocking phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases) and also blocking activation of a nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB).

  5. In vivo two-photon imaging of macrophage activities in skeletal muscle regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhongya; Long, Yanyang; Sun, Qiqi; He, Sicong; Li, Xuesong; Chen, Congping; Wu, Zhenguo; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2018-02-01

    Macrophages are essential for the regeneration of skeletal muscle after injury. It has been demonstrated that depletion of macrophages results in delay of necrotic fiber phagocytosis and decreased size of regenerated myofibers. In this work, we developed a multi-modal two-photon microscope system for in vivo study of macrophage activities in the regenerative and fibrotic healing process of injured skeletal muscles. The system is capable to image the muscles based on the second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) signals simultaneously. The dynamic activities of macrophages and muscle satellite cells are recorded in different time windows post the muscle injury. Moreover, we found that infiltrating macrophages emitted strong autofluorescence in the injured skeletal muscle of mouse model, which has not been reported previously. The macrophage autofluorescence was characterized in both spectral and temporal domains. The information extracted from the autofluorescence signals may facilitate the understanding on the formation mechanisms and possible applications in biological research related to skeletal muscle regeneration.

  6. Loss of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 alters macrophage polarization and reduces NFκB activation in the foreign body response.

    PubMed

    Moore, Laura Beth; Sawyer, Andrew J; Charokopos, Antonios; Skokos, Eleni A; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of biomaterials elicits a foreign body response characterized by fusion of macrophages to form foreign body giant cells and fibrotic encapsulation. Studies of the macrophage polarization involved in this response have suggested that alternative (M2) activation is associated with more favorable outcomes. Here we investigated this process in vivo by implanting mixed cellulose ester filters or polydimethylsiloxane disks in the peritoneal cavity of wild-type (WT) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) knockout mice. We analyzed classical (M1) and alternative (M2) gene expression via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in both non-adherent cells isolated by lavage and implant-adherent cells. Our results show that macrophages undergo unique activation that displays features of both M1 and M2 polarization including induction of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF), which induces the expression and nuclear translocation of p50 and RelA determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Both processes were compromised in fusion-deficient MCP-1 KO macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, inclusion of BAY 11-7028, an inhibitor of NFκB activation, reduced nuclear translocation of RelA and fusion in WT macrophages. Our studies suggest that peritoneal implants elicit a unique macrophage polarization phenotype leading to induction of TNF and activation of the NFκB pathway. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. [Study of the antitumor activity of alveolar macrophages after transfected human INF-γ gene].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fengli; Bi, Xiaogang; Zhang, Tiantuo; Huang, Jing

    2011-05-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) activated have the antitumor activity. The interferon-γ (INF-γ) is one of the stimulating factors. INF-γ can enhance the immune function of AMs in vitro. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of human INF-γ gene on the antitumor activity of AMs when transfected into the alveolar macrophages (AMs) from the patients with lung cancer in vitro. AMs obtained by brochoalveolar lavage were separated and transfected by INF-γ gene. RT-PCR and ELISA were applied to determine whether the transfection was successful. The levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) produced by AMs and the killing activity of AMs against L1210 cells was detected respectively. Both RT-PCR and ELISA demonstrated that human INF-γ gene had been successfully transfected into AMs. When transfected by human INF-γ gene, the levels of TNF-α, NO and IL-1 produced by AMs from the patients with lung cancer and the killing activity of AMs against L1210 cells were significantly higher than those of the control groups. Human INF-γ gene can enhance the antitumor activity of AMs when transfected into AMs from the patients with lung cancer.

  8. The response of macrophages to titanium particles is determined by macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Pajarinen, Jukka; Kouri, Vesa-Petteri; Jämsen, Eemeli; Li, Tian-Fang; Mandelin, Jami; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2013-11-01

    Aseptic loosening of total joint replacements is driven by the reaction of macrophages to foreign body particles released from the implant. It was hypothesized that the macrophages' response to these particles is dependent, in addition to particle characteristics and contaminating biomolecules, on the state of macrophage polarization as determined by the local cytokine microenvironment. To test this hypothesis we differentiated M1 and M2 macrophages from human peripheral blood monocytes and compared their responses to titanium particles using genome-wide microarray analysis and a multiplex cytokine assay. In comparison to non-activated M0 macrophages, the overall chemotactic and inflammatory responses to titanium particles were greatly enhanced in M1 macrophages and effectively suppressed in M2 macrophages. In addition, the genome-wide approach revealed several novel, potentially osteolytic, particle-induced mediators, and signaling pathway analysis suggested the involvement of toll-like and nod-like receptor signaling in particle recognition. It is concluded that the magnitude of foreign body reaction caused by titanium particles is dependent on the state of macrophage polarization. Thus, by limiting the action of M1 polarizing factors, e.g. bacterial biofilm formation, in peri-implant tissues and promoting M2 macrophage polarization by biomaterial solutions or pharmacologically, it might be possible to restrict wear-particle-induced inflammation and osteolysis. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) extract on macrophage activity.

    PubMed

    Pinello, Kátia Cristina; Fonseca, Evelise de S M; Akisue, Gokithi; Silva, Ana Paula; Salgado Oloris, Silvia Catarina; Sakai, Mônica; Matsuzaki, Patrícia; Nagamine, Márcia Kazumi; Palermo Neto, João; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan

    2006-02-16

    The roots of Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) have been indicated for the treatment of several diseases and as an analgesic and antiinflamatory drug. Treatment of mice with 200 mg/kg of the powdered root of P. paniculata reduced the Ehrlich ascitic volume [Matsuzaki, P., Akisue, G., Salgado Oloris, S.C., Gorniak, S.L., Zaidan Dagli, M.L., 2003. Effect of Pffafia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) on the Ehrlich tumor on its ascitic form. Life Sciences, Dec 19; 74 (5), 573-579.]. One of the putative means to control the Ehrlich tumor growth is by increasing macrophage activity [Kleeb, S.R., Xavier, J.G., Frussa-Filho, R., Dagli, M.L.Z., 1997. Effect of haloperidol on the development of the solid Ehrlich tumor in mice. Life Sciences, 60 (4/5), 69-742.]. The aim of this study was to investigate experimentally the effects of the methanolic extract of P. paniculata roots on macrophage activity. Male mice received, by gavage, once a day, different doses (100, 250, or 500 mg/kg) of the methanolic extract of P. paniculata or filtered water, as control, for 10 days. Macrophage activity was evaluated through the phagocytosis index (PI), spreading index (SI), production of peroxide oxigen and nitric oxide. The peritoneal cells were activated with ip inoculation of Ehrlich ascitic cells, 24 h before the macrophage harvesting. The methanolic extract raised significantly the SI of mice from group of 500 mg/kg in comparison with the control group and group of 100 mg/kg. This raise of SI possibly induced the higher phagocytic activity observed in the experimental situation. Increased macrophage activity may be one of the effects contributing to inhibition of the Ehrlich ascitic tumor growth in mice.

  10. Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus dysregulates the expression of cytokines in macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, F; Machado, J; Bertoni, G; Seow, H F; Dobbelaere, D A; Peterhans, E

    1997-01-01

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus of goats that leads to chronic mononuclear infiltration of various tissues, in particular, the radiocarpal joints. Cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage are the major host cells of CAEV in vivo. We have shown that infection of cultured goat macrophages with CAEV results in an alteration of cytokine expression in vitro. Constitutive expression of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) was increased in infected macrophages, whereas transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA was down-regulated. When macrophages were infected with a CAEV clone lacking the trans-acting nuclear regulatory gene tat, IL-8 and MCP-1 were also increased. No significant differences from cells infected with the wild-type clone were observed, suggesting that Tat is not required for the increased expression of IL-8 and MCP-1 in infected macrophages. Furthermore, infection with CAEV led to an altered pattern of cytokine expression in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes plus gamma interferon, or fixed cells of Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I. In infected macrophages, tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 mRNA expression was reduced in response to all stimuli tested whereas changes in expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor depended on the stimulating agent. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that, in contrast to effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection of macrophages, CAEV infection had no effect on the level of constitutive nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity or on the level of LPS-stimulated NF-kappaB activity, suggesting that NF-kappaB is not involved in altered regulation of cytokine expression in CAEV-infected cells. In contrast, activator protein 1 (AP-1) binding activity was decreased in infected macrophages. These data show that CAEV infection may result in a dysregulation of

  11. Comparison between Peritoneal Macrophage Activation by Bougainvillea xbuttiana Extract and LPS and/or Interleukins

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Activation of macrophages may be one of the possible approaches in modulating inflammation. We previously reported that Bougainvillea xbuttiana extract showed an immunomodulatory activity. Here we compare the activation of macrophages exposed to B. xbuttiana extract and compare it with the other treatments such as LPS, IL-4, and IL-10. The cytotoxic effect of extract on peritoneal macrophages was determined by the technique of violet crystal staining. To verify the activation of macrophages we used the tests of vacuolization, hydrogen peroxide production, and percentages of cellular expansion and phagocytosis. The levels of interleukins secreted by macrophages treated with the extract, LPS, and cytokines were determined by the biological assay for the determination of TNF levels and by ELISA for all other interleukins. NO levels were evaluated by colorimetric reactions using Griess reagent. Our results showed that B. xbuttiana extract induced (a) low cytotoxicity percentages, (b) increased vacuolization, hydrogen peroxide production and cell expansion and phagocytosis percentages, and (c) decreased production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-6 and potentiated production of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β. These results suggest that B. xbuttiana extract was able to activate the murine macrophages in a manner similar to those macrophages exposed to IL-4 and IL-10. PMID:29279849

  12. Factors involved in the cytotoxicity of kaolinite towards macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, R

    1983-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of a high purity Cornish kaolinite toward mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro was examined. The material was cytotoxic towards these cells, the activity could be decreased substantially by pretreating the dust with poly(2-vinylpyridine N-oxide). Pretreatment of the dusts with poly(acrylic acid) had a small effect on cytotoxicity, but combinations of the polymer treatments virtually abolished the material's biological activity towards macrophages. These studies indicated that the cytotoxicity of kaolinite is not due to its flakelike morphology. Images FIGURE 1. PMID:6641658

  13. AMP-activated protein kinase enhances the phagocytic ability of macrophages and neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hong-Beom; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W.; Deshane, Jessy S.; Tadie, Jean-Marc; Chaplin, David D.; Takashima, Seiji; Abraham, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Although AMPK plays well-established roles in the modulation of energy balance, recent studies have shown that AMPK activation has potent anti-inflammatory effects. In the present experiments, we examined the role of AMPK in phagocytosis. We found that ingestion of Escherichia coli or apoptotic cells by macrophages increased AMPK activity. AMPK activation increased the ability of neutrophils or macrophages to ingest bacteria (by 46±7.8 or 85±26%, respectively, compared to control, P<0.05) and the ability of macrophages to ingest apoptotic cells (by 21±1.4%, P<0.05 compared to control). AMPK activation resulted in cytoskeletal reorganization, including enhanced formation of actin and microtubule networks. Activation of PAK1/2 and WAVE2, which are downstream effectors of Rac1, accompanied AMPK activation. AMPK activation also induced phosphorylation of CLIP-170, a protein that participates in microtubule synthesis. The increase in phagocytosis was reversible by the specific AMPK inhibitor compound C, siRNA to AMPKα1, Rac1 inhibitors, or agents that disrupt actin or microtubule networks. In vivo, AMPK activation resulted in enhanced phagocytosis of bacteria in the lungs by 75 ± 5% vs. control (P<0.05). These results demonstrate a novel function for AMPK in enhancing the phagocytic activity of neutrophils and macrophages.—Bae, H. -B., Zmijewski, J. W., Deshane, J. S., Tadie, J. -M., Chaplin, D. D., Takashima, S., Abraham, E. AMP-activated protein kinase enhances the phagocytic ability of macrophages and neutrophils. PMID:21885655

  14. Paeonia japonica, Houttuynia cordata, and Aster scaber water extracts induce nitric oxide and cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin; Park, Chang-Shin; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2009-04-01

    Natural products are increasingly recognized as potential targets for drug discovery and development. We previously reported that Paeonia japonica, Houttuynia cordata, and Aster scaber enhanced macrophage activation both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we investigated the immunomodulating effects of these plants on lipopolysacharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. An aqueous extract of each plant was administered to female BALB/c mice every other day for 4 weeks. Peritoneal macrophages were then collected and incubated to examine the immunoreactivity of macrophages against LPS at different time points. The expression levels of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthetase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and inhibitory factor kappaB alpha (IkappaBalpha) proteins and the production of NO metabolite (nitrite), prostaglandin (PG) E(2), and the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were determined in the activated macrophages treated with extracts from each plant individually or combined. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were produced by A. scaber-, P. japonica-, and H. cordata-treated macrophages following 24 hours of LPS stimulation. P. japonica, H. cordata, and A. scaber treatment also induced the production of nitrate by LPS-treated macrophages. Induction of iNOS mRNA and protein was also different in each group. PGE(2) secretion was up-regulated by all extract-treated macrophages at early time points; however, no significant differences were observed between the groups by 8 hours post-LPS stimulation. Treatment with A. scaber extract resulted in the highest levels of IkappaBalpha degradation. Our findings illustrate that the natural plant products P. japonica, H. cordata, and A. scaber may enhance immune function by modulating ex vivo pro-inflammatory cytokine and NO production as well as the expression of iNOS and COX-2.

  15. Downregulated expression of microRNA-124 in pediatric intestinal failure patients modulates macrophages activation by inhibiting STAT3 and AChE

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yong-Tao; Wang, Jun; Lu, Wei; Cao, Yi; Cai, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of intestinal failure (IF). The macrophages are essential to maintain the intestinal homeostasis. However, the underlying mechanisms of intestinal macrophages activation remain poorly understood. Since microRNAs (miRNAs) have pivotal roles in regulation of immune responses, here we aimed to investigate the role of miR-124 in the activation of intestinal macrophages. In this study, we showed that the intestinal macrophages increased in pediatric IF patients and resulted in the induction of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The miRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that the expression of miR-124 significantly reduced in intestinal macrophages in IF patients. Overexpression of miR-124 was sufficient to inhibit intestinal macrophages activation by attenuating production of IL-6 and TNF-α. Further studies showed that miR-124 could directly target the 3′-untranslated region of both signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) mRNAs, and suppress their protein expressions. The AChE potentially negates the cholinergic anti-inflammatory signal by hydrolyzing the acetylcholine. We here showed that intestinal macrophages increasingly expressed the AChE and STAT3 in IF patients when compared with controls. The inhibitors against to STAT3 and AChE significantly suppressed the lipopolysaccharides-induced IL-6 and TNF-α production in macrophages. Taken together, these findings highlight an important role for miR-124 in the regulation of intestinal macrophages activation, and suggest a potential application of miR-124 in pediatric IF treatment regarding as suppressing intestinal inflammation. PMID:27977009

  16. Triamcinolone acetonide activates an anti-inflammatory and folate receptor-positive macrophage that prevents osteophytosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Siebelt, Michiel; Korthagen, Nicoline; Wei, Wu; Groen, Harald; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Yvonne; Müller, Christina; Waarsing, Jan Hendrik; de Jong, Marion; Weinans, Harrie

    2015-12-05

    Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is used for osteoarthritis management to reduce pain, and pre-clinical studies have shown that TA limits osteophyte formation. Osteophyte formation is known to be facilitated by synovial macrophage activation. TA injections might influence macrophage activation and subsequently reduce osteophytosis. Although widely applied in clinical care, the mechanism through which TA exerts this effect remains unknown. In this animal study, we investigated the in vivo effects of TA injections on macrophage activation, osteophyte development and joint degeneration. Furthermore, in vitro macrophage differentiation experiments were conducted to further explain working mechanisms of TA effects found in vivo. Osteoarthritis was induced in rat knees using papain injections and a running protocol. Untreated and TA-treated animals were longitudinally monitored for 12 weeks with in vivo micro-computed tomography (μCT) to measure subchondral bone changes. Synovial macrophage activation was measured in vivo using folate receptor β (FRβ)-targeted single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography. Articular cartilage was analyzed at 6 and 12 weeks with ex vivo contrast-enhanced μCT and histology. To further explain the outcomes of our in vivo study, TA on macrophages was also studied in vitro. These cultured macrophages were either M1- or M2-activated, and they were analyzed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting for CD163 and FRβ expression as well as for messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of interleukin (IL)-10. Our in vivo study showed that intra-articular injections with TA strongly enhanced FRβ(+) macrophage activation. Despite stimulated macrophage activation, osteophyte formation was fully prevented. There was no beneficial effect of TA against cartilage degradation or subchondral bone sclerosis. In vitro macrophage cultures showed that TA strongly induced monocyte differentiation towards CD163(+) and FRβ(+) macrophages. Furthermore

  17. PPE57 induces activation of macrophages and drives Th1-type immune responses through TLR2.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Yang, Enzhuo; Huang, Qi; Ni, Wenwen; Kong, Cong; Liu, Guoyuan; Li, Guanghua; Su, Haibo; Wang, Honghai

    2015-06-01

    Proline-glutamic acid (PE) and proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) are related proteins exclusive to Mycobacteria that play diverse roles in modulating critical innate immune pathways. In this study, we observed that the PPE57 protein is associated with the cell wall and is exposed on the cell surface. PPE57 enhances Mycobacterium spp. entering into macrophages and plays a role in macrophage phagocytosis. To explore the underlying mechanism, we demonstrated that PPE57 is able to recognise Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and further induce macrophage activation by augmenting the expression of several cell surface molecules (CD40, CD80, CD86 and MHC class II) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12p40) within macrophages. These molecules are involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signalling pathways. We demonstrated that PPE57 effectively polarises T cells to secrete interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-2 and to up-regulate CXCR3 expression in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that this protein may contribute to Th1 polarisation during the immune response. Moreover, recombinant Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) over-expressing PPE57 could provide better protective efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge compared with BCG. Taken together, our data provides several pieces of evidence that PPE57 may regulate innate and adaptive immunity by interacting with TLR2. These findings indicate that PPE57 protein is a potential antigen for the rational design of an efficient vaccine against M. tuberculosis. PPE57 is located on the cell surface and enhances mycobacterium entry into macrophage. PPE57 interacts directly with TLR2 on macrophages. PPE57 plays a key role in the activation of macrophages in a TLR2-dependent manner. PPE57 induces a Th1 immune response via TLR2-mediated macrophage functions. Recombinant BCG over-expressing PPE57 could improve protective efficacy against M. tuberculosis.

  18. Effect of age on marrow macrophage number and function.

    PubMed

    Wang, C Q; Udupa, K B; Xiao, H; Lipschitz, D A

    1995-10-01

    Employing flow cytometry and a monoclonal antibody against the murine macrophage antigen, Mac-1, we found a significant increase in the number of marrow macrophages in aged mice. This was reflected as significant increase with age in the number of alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase positive cells, as well as in colony forming unit-macrophage (CFU-M) progenitor cells. Macrophages from the marrow of old mice generated significantly less tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) than did macrophages from young mice, either spontaneously or when activated by granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Furthermore, conditioned medium (CM) derived from either marrow or peritoneal macrophages of old mice caused less suppression of burst forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) colony growth than did CM obtained from young mice. Aging, therefore, is associated with an increase in the number of marrow macrophages that have an impaired ability to generate or release cytokines. The increase in macrophage number may reflect a compensation for their reduced function. Altered macrophage number and function may contribute to the age-related decline in hematopoietic reserve capacity.

  19. PPAR Activation Induces M1 Macrophage Polarization via cPLA2-COX-2 Inhibition, Activating ROS Production against Leishmania mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Gandarilla, J. A.; Osorio-Trujillo, C.; Hernández-Ramírez, V. I.; Talamás-Rohana, P.

    2013-01-01

    Defence against Leishmania depends upon Th1 inflammatory response and, a major problem in susceptible models, is the turnoff of the leishmanicidal activity of macrophages with IL-10, IL-4, and COX-2 upregulation, as well as immunosuppressive PGE2, all together inhibiting the respiratory burst. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) activation is responsible for macrophages polarization on Leishmania susceptible models where microbicide functions are deactivated. In this paper, we demonstrated that, at least for L. mexicana, PPAR activation, mainly PPARγ, induced macrophage activation through their polarization towards M1 profile with the increase of microbicide activity against intracellular pathogen L. mexicana. PPAR activation induced IL-10 downregulation, whereas the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 remained high. Moreover, PPAR agonists treatment induced the deactivation of cPLA2-COX-2-prostaglandins pathway together with an increase in TLR4 expression, all of whose criteria meet the M1 macrophage profile. Finally, parasite burden, in treated macrophages, was lower than that in infected nontreated macrophages, most probably associated with the increase of respiratory burst in these treated cells. Based on the above data, we conclude that PPAR agonists used in this work induces M1 macrophages polarization via inhibition of cPLA2 and the increase of aggressive microbicidal activity via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. PMID:23555077

  20. Promising landscape for regulating macrophage polarization: epigenetic viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Zhang, Wen; Xu, Zhenyu; Zuo, Jian; Jiang, Hui; Luan, Jiajie

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages are critical myeloid cells with the hallmark of phenotypic heterogeneity and functional plasticity. Macrophages phenotypes are commonly described as classically-activated M1 and alternatively-activated M2 macrophages which play an essential role in the tissues homeostasis and diseases pathogenesis. Alternations of macrophage polarization and function states require precise regulation of target-gene expression. Emerging data demonstrate that epigenetic mechanisms and transcriptional factors are becoming increasingly appreciated in the orchestration of macrophage polarization in response to local environmental signals. This review is to focus on the advanced concepts of epigenetics changes involved with the macrophage polarization, including microRNAs, DNA methylation and histone modification, which are responsible for the altered cellular signaling and signature genes expression during M1 or M2 polarization. Eventually, the persistent investigation and understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in tissue macrophage polarization and function will enhance the potential to develop novel therapeutic targets for various diseases. PMID:28915705

  1. Anti- Schistosomular Activity of Human Monocytes/Macrophages in Response to Interleukin-3 and Granulocyte-Macrophage Colonystimulating Factor Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Nissimov, L.; Lengy, J.; Keisari, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Human monocytes, co-incubated for 7 days in culture with GM-CSF or IL-3 but not with IFN-γ, exerted a variable schistosotnulicidal effect on Schistosoma mansoni parasites when grown in 96-well round-bottomed plates but not in flat-bottomed plates. Addition of LPS or IFN-γ or both, for the last 48 h did not enhance the cidal effect. Addition of LPS but not IFN-γ to the pre-incubated cells with GM-CSF or IL-3 markedly stimulated TNF-α production by the cells but not their cidal activity. The variable cidal effects obtained with the monocytes/macrophages from different donors suggest that these effects may be genetically predetermined and are possibly linked to blood group markers or to MHC class I or II antigens. PMID:18475576

  2. β-glucans from Coriolus versicolor protect mice against S. typhimurium challenge by activation of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shao-Hua; Yang, Wen-Tao; Huang, Ke-Yan; Jiang, Yan-Long; Yang, Gui-Lian; Wang, Chun-Feng; Li, Yu

    2016-05-01

    The effects of β-glucans from Coriolus versicolor (CVP), which are extracted from a well-known immune stimulator C. versicolor, have been demonstrated extensively in vitro and in vivo. However, until now, the phagocytic activity has not been elucidated. Hence, the objective of the present study was to identify the antibacterial activity of CVP or CVP-treated macrophages by an analysis of cell cytotoxicity, phagocytic activity, intracellular bacterial survival, macrophage activation, production of nitric oxide (NO) and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in CVP-treated macrophages using flow cytometry, RT-PCR, a gentamicin protection assay, a Nitric oxide assay and an iNOS enzymatic activity assay. The results indicate that CVP-treated macrophages can phagocytize and kill bacteria, probably due to the production of NO and iNOS. More importantly, CVP-treated macrophages are effective at protecting mice against the challenge of Salmonella typhimurium. The results of this study suggest that the antibacterial effects of CVP are probably caused by the activation of innate immune cells, especially macrophages, because the activated macrophage produces NO, which kills bacteria. These phenomena indicate the possibility of CVP as a potential alternative for antibiotics against resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulation of Alternative Macrophage Activation in the Liver following Acetaminophen Intoxication by Stem Cell-Derived Tyrosine Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Carol R.; Hankey, Pamela; Mishin, Vladimir; Francis, Mary; Yu, Shan; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell-derived tyrosine kinase (STK) is a transmembrane receptor reported to play a role in macrophage switching from a classically activated/proinflammatory phenotype to an alternatively activated/wound repair phenotype. In the present studies, STK−/− mice were used to assess the role of STK in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity as evidence suggests that the pathogenic process involves both of these macrophage subpopulations. In wild type mice, centrilobular hepatic necrosis and increases in serum transaminase levels were observed within 6 hr of acetaminophen administration (300 mg/kg, i.p.). Loss of STK resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity of mice to the hepatotoxic effects of acetaminophen and increased mortality, effects independent of its metabolism. This was associated with reduced levels of hepatic glutathione, rapid upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and prolonged induction of heme oxygenase-1, suggesting excessive oxidative stress in STK−/− mice. F4/80, a marker of mature macrophages, was highly expressed on subpopulations of Kupffer cells in livers of wild type, but not STK −/− mice. Whereas F4/80+ macrophages rapidly declined in the livers of wild type mice following acetaminophen intoxication, they increased in STK−/− mice. In wild type mice hepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12, products of classically activated macrophages, increased after acetaminophen administration. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and its receptor, CCR2, as well as IL-10, mediators involved in recruiting and activating anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages, also increased in wild type mice after acetaminophen. Loss of STK blunted the effects of acetaminophen on expression of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12, MCP-1 and CCR2, while expression of IL-10 increased. Hepatic expression of CX3CL1, and its receptor, CX3CR1 also increased in STK−/− mice treated with acetaminophen. These data

  4. Cervical cancer cell supernatants induce a phenotypic switch from U937-derived macrophage-activated M1 state into M2-like suppressor phenotype with change in Toll-like receptor profile.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Reyes, Karina; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Hernández-Flores, Georgina; Lerma-Díaz, José Manuel; Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Gómez-Lomelí, Paulina; de Celis, Ruth; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Domínguez-Rodríguez, Jorge Ramiro; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for developing CC. Macrophages are important immune effector cells; they can be differentiated into two phenotypes, identified as M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated). Macrophage polarization exerts profound effects on the Toll-like receptor (TLR) profile. In this study, we evaluated whether the supernatant of human CC cells HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A induces a shift of M1 macrophage toward M2 macrophage in U937-derived macrophages. The results showed that soluble factors secreted by CC cells induce a change in the immunophenotype of macrophages from macrophage M1 into macrophage M2. U937-derived macrophages M1 released proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide; however, when these cells were treated with the supernatant of CC cell lines, we observed a turnover of M1 toward M2. These cells increased CD163 and IL-10 expression. The expression of TLR-3, -7, and -9 is increased when the macrophages were treated with the supernatant of CC cells. Our result strongly suggests that CC cells may, through the secretion of soluble factors, induce a change of immunophenotype M1 into M2 macrophages.

  5. Hemistepsin A ameliorates acute inflammation in macrophages via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB and activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Ji Eun; Jung, Eun Hye; Jung, Ji Yun; Jung, Dae Hwa; Ku, Sae Kwang; Cho, Il Je; Kim, Sang Chan

    2018-01-01

    Hemistepsin A (HsA) is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Hemistepta lyrata (Bunge) Bunge. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of HsA and sought to determine its mechanisms of action in macrophages. HsA pretreatment inhibited nitric oxide production, and reduced the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in Toll-like receptor ligand-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, HsA decreased the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Kupffer cells as well as in RAW 264.7 cells. HsA inhibited phosphorylation of IKKα/β and degradation of IκBα, resulting in decreased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its transcriptional activity. Moreover, HsA phosphorylated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), increased expression levels of antioxidant genes, and attenuated LPS-stimulated H 2 O 2 production. Phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase was required for HsA-mediated Nrf2 phosphorylation. In a D-galactosamine/LPS-induced liver injury model, HsA ameliorated D-galactosamine/LPS-induced hepatocyte degeneration and inflammatory cells infiltration. Moreover, immunohistochemical analyses using nitrotyrosine, 4-hydroxynonenal, and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase antibodies revealed that HsA protected the liver from oxidative stress. Furthermore, HsA reduced the numbers of proinflammatory cytokine-positive cells in hepatic tissues. Thus, these results suggest HsA may be a promising natural product to manage inflammation-mediated tissue injuries through inhibition of NF-κB and activation of Nrf2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Extracts of Crinum latifolium inhibit the cell viability of mouse lymphoma cell line EL4 and induce activation of anti-tumour activity of macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoang-Yen T; Vo, Bach-Hue T; Nguyen, Lac-Thuy H; Bernad, Jose; Alaeddine, Mohamad; Coste, Agnes; Reybier, Karine; Pipy, Bernard; Nepveu, Françoise

    2013-08-26

    Crinum latifolium L. (CL) leaf extracts have been traditionally used in Vietnam and are now used all over the world for the treatment of prostate cancer. However, the precise cellular mechanisms of the action of CL extracts remain unclear. To examine the effects of CL samples on the anti-tumour activity of peritoneal murine macrophages. The properties of three extracts (aqueous, flavonoid, alkaloid), one fraction (alkaloid), and one pure compound (6-hydroxycrinamidine) obtained from CL, were studied (i) for redox capacities (DPPH and bleaching beta-carotene assays), (ii) on murine peritoneal macrophages (MTT assay) and on lymphoma EL4-luc2 cells (luciferine assay) for cytotoxicity, (iii) on macrophage polarization (production of ROS and gene expression by PCR), and (iv) on the tumoricidal functions of murine peritoneal macrophages (lymphoma cytotoxicity by co-culture with syngeneic macrophages). The total flavonoid extract with a high antioxidant activity (IC50=107.36 mg/L, DPPH assay) showed an inhibitory action on cancer cells. Alkaloid extracts inhibited the proliferation of lymphoma cells either by directly acting on tumour cells or by activating of the tumoricidal functions of syngeneic macrophages. The aqueous extract induced mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) indicating differentiation of macrophages into pro-inflammatory M1 polarized macrophages. The total flavonoid, alkaloid extracts and an alkaloid fraction induced the expression of the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) on the surface of the polarized macrophages that could lead to the activation of macrophages towards the M1 phenotype. Aqueous and flavonoid extracts enhanced NADPH quinine oxido-reductase 1 (NQO1) mRNA expression in polarized macrophages which could play an important role in cancer chemoprevention. All the samples studied were non-toxic to normal living cells and the pure alkaloid tested, 6-hydroxycrinamidine, was not

  7. An activating NLRC4 inflammasome mutation causes autoinflammation with recurrent macrophage activation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Canna, Scott W.; de Jesus, Adriana Almeida; Gouni, Sushanth; Brooks, Stephen R.; Marrero, Bernadette; Liu, Yin; DiMattia, Michael A.; Zaal, Kristien J.M.; Montealegre Sanchez, Gina A.; Kim, Hanna; Chapelle, Dawn; Plass, Nicole; Huang, Yan; Villarino, Alejandro V.; Biancotto, Angelique; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Duncan, Joseph A.; O’Shea, John J; Benseler, Susanne; Grom, Alexei; Deng, Zuoming; Laxer, Ronald M; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2014-01-01

    Inflammasomes are innate immune sensors that respond to pathogen and damage-associated signals with caspase-1 activation, IL-1β and IL-18 secretion, and macrophage pyroptosis. The discovery that dominant gain-of-function mutations in NLRP3 cause the Cryopyrin Associated Periodic Syndromes (CAPS) and trigger spontaneous inflammasome activation and IL-1β oversecretion, led to successful treatment with IL-1 blocking agents1. Herein, we report a de novo missense mutation, c.1009A>T, p.Thr337Ser, in the nucleotide-binding domain of inflammasome component NLRC4 (IPAF/CARD12) that causes early-onset recurrent fever flares and Macrophage Activation Syndrome (MAS). Functional analyses demonstrated spontaneous inflammasome formation and production of the inflammasome-dependent cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, the latter exceeding levels in CAPS. The NLRC4 mutation caused constitutive caspase-1 cleavage in transduced cells and increased production of IL-18 by both patient and NLRC4 mutant macrophages. Thus, we describe a novel monoallelic inflammasome defect that expands the monogenic autoinflammatory disease spectrum to include MAS and suggests novel targets for therapy. PMID:25217959

  8. Antimicrobial peptide hLF1-11 directs granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-driven monocyte differentiation toward macrophages with enhanced recognition and clearance of pathogens.

    PubMed

    van der Does, Anne M; Bogaards, Sylvia J P; Ravensbergen, Bep; Beekhuizen, Henry; van Dissel, Jaap T; Nibbering, Peter H

    2010-02-01

    The human lactoferrin-derived peptide hLF1-11 displays antimicrobial activities in vitro and is effective against infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans in animals. However, the mechanisms underlying these activities remain largely unclear. Since hLF1-11 is ineffective in vitro at physiological salt concentrations, we suggested modulation of the immune system as an additional mechanism of action of the peptide. We investigated whether hLF1-11 affects human monocyte-macrophage differentiation and determined the antimicrobial activities of the resulting macrophages. Monocytes were cultured for 7 days with GM-CSF in the presence of hLF1-11, control peptide, or saline for various intervals. At day 6, the cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), or heat-killed C. albicans for 24 h. Thereafter, the levels of cytokines in the culture supernatants, the expression of pathogen recognition receptors, and the antimicrobial activities of these macrophages were determined. The results showed that a short exposure of monocytes to hLF1-11 during GM-CSF-driven differentiation is sufficient to direct differentiation of monocytes toward a macrophage subset characterized by both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production and increased responsiveness to microbial structures. Moreover, these macrophages are highly effective against C. albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. In conclusion, hLF1-11 directs GM-CSF-driven differentiation of monocytes toward macrophages with enhanced effector functions.

  9. NFAT5-Regulated Macrophage Polarization Supports the Proinflammatory Function of Macrophages and T Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Tellechea, Mónica; Buxadé, Maria; Tejedor, Sonia; Aramburu, Jose; López-Rodríguez, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Macrophages are exquisite sensors of tissue homeostasis that can rapidly switch between pro- and anti-inflammatory or regulatory modes to respond to perturbations in their microenvironment. This functional plasticity involves a precise orchestration of gene expression patterns whose transcriptional regulators have not been fully characterized. We had previously identified the transcription factor NFAT5 as an activator of TLR-induced responses, and in this study we explore its contribution to macrophage functions in different polarization settings. We found that both in classically and alternatively polarized macrophages, NFAT5 enhanced functions associated with a proinflammatory profile such as bactericidal capacity and the ability to promote Th1 polarization over Th2 responses. In this regard, NFAT5 upregulated the Th1-stimulatory cytokine IL-12 in classically activated macrophages, whereas in alternatively polarized ones it enhanced the expression of the pro-Th1 mediators Fizz-1 and arginase 1, indicating that it could promote proinflammatory readiness by regulating independent genes in differently polarized macrophages. Finally, adoptive transfer assays in vivo revealed a reduced antitumor capacity in NFAT5-deficient macrophages against syngeneic Lewis lung carcinoma and ID8 ovarian carcinoma cells, a defect that in the ID8 model was associated with a reduced accumulation of effector CD8 T cells at the tumor site. Altogether, detailed analysis of the effect of NFAT5 in pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages uncovered its ability to regulate distinct genes under both polarization modes and revealed its predominant role in promoting proinflammatory macrophage functions. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Evidence for the separate human T-lymphocyte subpopulations that collaborate with autologous monocyte/macrophages in the elaboration of colony-stimulating activity and those that suppress this collaboration.

    PubMed

    Verma, D S; Johnston, D A; McCredie, K B

    1983-11-01

    We investigated the interaction of monocyte/macrophages and autologous T lymphocytes in the methanol extraction residue (MER) of BCG-induced production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating activity (CSA). Coincubation of monocyte/macrophages and T lymphocytes at a 1:3 ratio produces an optimum collaboration; a change to a 1:9 ratio diminished this collaboration. Coincubation of monocyte/macrophages and T lymphocytes primed with lithium carbonate (2 meq/liter) for 40 hr synergistically increased CSA elaboration and prevented the decline in CSA noted for the 1:9 monocyte/macrophage: T lymphocyte ratio. In contrast, concanavalin-A-primed T lymphocytes did not enhance CSA elaboration at any monocyte/macrophage:T lymphocyte ratio except, occasionally, at 1:9. However, this was overcome if the T lymphocytes were primed with both concanavalin-A and lithium carbonate before their coincubation with monocyte/macrophages. Further cell-mixing experiments revealed that concanavalin-A-primed T lymphocytes contained a subpopulation that suppressed monocyte/macrophage and T-lymphocyte collaboration. Activation of suppressor T lymphocytes could be effectively prevented by lithium carbonate and, in a dose-dependent manner, by irradiation. Also, suppressor T lymphocytes not only diminished the elaboration of colony-stimulating factor(s), but also elaborated an inhibitor of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells. We further demonstrated that the respective hemopoietic helper and suppressor T-lymphocyte activities could be enriched with OKT8- (or OKT4+) and OKT8+ subpopulations.

  11. Colony-Stimulating Factor 1 Receptor Antagonists Sensitize Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Macrophages to TRAIL-Mediated Killing

    PubMed Central

    Cunyat, Francesc; Rainho, Jennifer N.; West, Brian; Swainson, Louise; McCune, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strategies aimed at eliminating persistent viral reservoirs from HIV-1-infected individuals have focused on CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. However, very little attention has been given to approaches that could promote elimination of tissue macrophage reservoirs. HIV-1 infection of macrophages induces phosphorylation of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R), which confers resistance to apoptotic pathways driven by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), thereby promoting viral persistence. In this study, we assessed whether CSF-1R antagonists (PLX647, PLX3397, and PLX5622) restored apoptotic sensitivity of HIV-1-infected macrophages in vitro. PLX647, PLX3397, and PLX5622 at clinically relevant concentrations blocked the activation of CSF-1R and reduced the viability of infected macrophages, as well as the extent of viral replication. Our data show that strategies targeting monocyte colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) signaling could be used to promote elimination of HIV-1-infected myeloid cells and to contribute to the elimination of persistent viral reservoirs. IMPORTANCE As the HIV/AIDS research field explores approaches to eliminate HIV-1 in individuals on suppressive antiviral therapy, those approaches will need to eliminate both CD4+ T-cell and myeloid cell reservoirs. Most of the attention has focused on CD4+ T-cell reservoirs, and scant attention has been paid to myeloid cell reservoirs. The distinct nature of the infection in myeloid cells versus CD4+ T cells will likely dictate different approaches in order to achieve their elimination. For CD4+ T cells, most strategies focus on promoting virus reactivation to promote immune-mediated clearance and/or elimination by viral cytopathicity. Macrophages resist viral cytopathic effects and CD8+ T-cell killing. Therefore, we have explored clearance strategies that render macrophages sensitive to viral cytopathicity. This research helps inform the design of strategies to promote

  12. PDT-treated apoptotic cells induce macrophage synthesis NO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.; Xing, D.; Zhou, F. F.; Chen, W. R.

    2009-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a biologically active molecule which has multi-functional in different species. As a second messenger and neurotransmitter, NO is not only an important regulatory factor between cells' information transmission, but also an important messenger in cell-mediated immunity and cytotoxicity. On the other side, NO is involving in some diseases' pathological process. In pathological conditions, the macrophages are activated to produce a large quantity of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which can use L-arginine to produce an excessive amount of NO, thereby killing bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, tumor cells, as well as in other series of the immune process. In this paper, photofrin-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) was used to treat EMT6 mammary tumors in vitro to induce apoptotic cells, and then co-incubation both apoptotic cells and macrophages, which could activate macrophage to induce a series of cytotoxic factors, especially NO. This, in turn, utilizes macrophages to activate a cytotoxic response towards neighboring tumor cells. These results provided a new idea for us to further study the immunological mechanism involved in damaging effects of PDT, also revealed the important function of the immune effect of apoptotic cells in PDT.

  13. Glycyrrhizic Acid Promotes M1 Macrophage Polarization in Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages Associated with the Activation of JNK and NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yulong; Wang, Baikui; Xu, Xin; Du, Wei; Li, Weifen; Wang, Youming

    2015-01-01

    The roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza species (licorice) have been widely used as natural sweeteners and herbal medicines. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from licorice on macrophage polarization. Both phenotypic and functional activities of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) treated by GA were assessed. Our results showed that GA obviously increased the cell surface expression of CD80, CD86, and MHCII molecules. Meanwhile, GA upregulated the expression of CCR7 and the production of TNF-α, IL-12, IL-6, and NO (the markers of classically activated (M1) macrophages), whereas it downregulated the expression of MR, Ym1, and Arg1 (the markers of alternatively activated (M2) macrophage). The functional tests showed that GA dramatically enhanced the uptake of FITC-dextran and E. coli K88 by BMDMs and decreased the intracellular survival of E. coli K88 and S. typhimurium. Moreover, we demonstrated that JNK and NF-κB activation are required for GA-induced NO and M1-related cytokines production, while ERK1/2 pathway exhibits a regulatory effect via induction of IL-10. Together, these findings indicated that GA promoted polarization of M1 macrophages and enhanced its phagocytosis and bactericidal capacity. The results expanded our knowledge about the role of GA in macrophage polarization.

  14. Novel phosphate-activated macrophages prevent ectopic calcification by increasing extracellular ATP and pyrophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Bellosta, Ricardo; Hamczyk, Magda R.; Andrés, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Phosphorus is an essential nutrient involved in many pathobiological processes. Less than 1% of phosphorus is found in extracellular fluids as inorganic phosphate ion (Pi) in solution. High serum Pi level promotes ectopic calcification in many tissues, including blood vessels. Here, we studied the effect of elevated Pi concentration on macrophage polarization and calcification. Macrophages, present in virtually all tissues, play key roles in health and disease and display remarkable plasticity, being able to change their physiology in response to environmental cues. Methods and results High-throughput transcriptomic analysis and functional studies demonstrated that Pi induces unpolarized macrophages to adopt a phenotype closely resembling that of alternatively-activated M2 macrophages, as revealed by arginine hydrolysis and energetic and antioxidant profiles. Pi-induced macrophages showed an anti-calcifying action mediated by increased availability of extracellular ATP and pyrophosphate. Conclusion We conclude that the ability of Pi-activated macrophages to prevent calcium-phosphate deposition is a compensatory mechanism protecting tissues from hyperphosphatemia-induced pathologic calcification. PMID:28362852

  15. YC-1 potentiates cAMP-induced CREB activation and nitric oxide production in alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Tang, Ming-Chi; Kuo, Liang-Mou; Chang, Wen-De; Chung, Pei-Jen; Chang, Ya-Wen; Fang, Yao-Ching

    2012-04-15

    Alveolar macrophages play significant roles in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory lung diseases. Increases in exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are well documented to reflect disease severity in the airway. In this study, we investigated the effect of 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole (YC-1), a known activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase, on prostaglandin (PG)E₁ (a stable PGE₂ analogue) and forskolin (a adenylate cyclase activator) induced NO production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383). YC-1 did not directly cause NO production or iNOS expression, but drastically potentiated PGE₁- or forskolin-induced NO production and iNOS expression in NR8383 alveolar macrophages. Combination treatment with YC-1 and PGE₁ significantly increased phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), but not nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. The combined effect on NO production, iNOS expression, and CREB phosphorylation was reversed by a protein kinase (PK)A inhibitor (H89), suggesting that the potentiating functions were mediated through a cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Consistent with this, cAMP analogues, but not the cGMP analogue, caused NO release, iNOS expression, and CREB activation. YC-1 treatment induced an increase in PGE₁-induced cAMP formation, which occurred through the inhibition of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. Furthermore, the combination of rolipram (an inhibitor of PDE4), but not milronone (an inhibitor of PDE3), and PGE₁ also triggered NO production and iNOS expression. In summary, YC-1 potentiates PGE₁-induced NO production and iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages through inhibition of cAMP PDE activity and activation of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Soluble human leukocyte antigen G5 polarizes differentiation of macrophages toward a decidual macrophage-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheuk-Lun; Guo, YiFan; So, Kam-Hei; Vijayan, Madhavi; Guo, Yue; Wong, Vera H H; Yao, YuanQing; Lee, Kai-Fai; Chiu, Philip C N; Yeung, William S B

    2015-10-01

    What are the actions of soluble human leukocyte antigen G5 (sHLAG5) on macrophage differentiation? sHLAG5 polarizes the differentiation of macrophages toward a decidual macrophage-like phenotype, which could regulate fetomaternal tolerance and placental development. sHLAG5 is a full-length soluble isoform of human leukocyte antigen implicated in immune tolerance during pregnancy. Low or undetectable circulating level of sHLAG5 in first trimester of pregnancy is associated with pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia and spontaneous abortion. Decidual macrophages are located in close proximity to invasive trophoblasts, and are involved in regulating fetomaternal tolerance and placental development. Human peripheral blood monocytes were differentiated into macrophages by treatment with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the presence or absence of recombinant sHLAG5 during the differentiation process. The phenotypes and the biological activities of the resulting macrophages were compared. Recombinant sHLAG5 was produced in Escherichia coli BL21 and the protein identity was verified by tandem mass spectrometry. The expression of macrophage markers were analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative PCR. Phagocytosis was determined by flow cytometry. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 expression and activity were measured by western blot analysis and kynurenine assay, respectively. Cell proliferation and cell cycling were determined by fluorometric cell proliferation assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Cytokine secretion was determined by cytokine array and ELISA kits. Intracellular cytokine expression was measured by flow cytometry. Cell invasion and migration were determined by trans-well invasion and migration assay, respectively. sHLAG5 drove the differentiation of macrophages with 'immuno-modulatory' characteristics, including reduced expression of M1 macrophage marker CD86 and increased expression of M2 macrophage marker CD163. sHLAG5-polarized

  17. Puerarin Suppresses Macrophage Activation via Antioxidant Mechanisms in a CaPO4-Induced Mouse Model of Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Teruyoshi; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio; Yamanouchi, Dai

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysm is characterized by balloon-like expansion of the arterial wall and eventual rupture of the aorta. The pathogenesis of aneurysm is associated with the degradation of matrix proteins by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by activated macrophages. Although aneurysm is associated with significant mortality and morbidity, surgical intervention is the only proven treatment strategy. Therefore, development of therapeutic agents for aneurysm is greatly anticipated. Here, we demonstrated the protective effects of the major isoflavone puerarin, which is found in kudzu roots and vines. Aneurysms were surgically induced in ten-wk-old male mice using CaPO 4 . Subsequently, animals were intraperitoneally injected daily with puerarin at 2.5 mg/kg body weight or with vehicle alone for 2 wk. CaPO 4 -induced aneurysm was significantly suppressed by puerarin administration. In subsequent macrophage activation assays using Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) and CaPO 4 crystals in vitro, puerarin decreased Mmp9 mRNA expression and secreted protein levels. Moreover, induction of IκB, ERK, and p38 phosphorylation by TNFα and CaPO 4 in macrophages was suppressed by puerarin treatments. Finally, puerarin attenuated reactive oxygen species production, following induction by TNFα and CaPO 4 . Taken together, the present data demonstrate that puerarin suppresses macrophage activation by inhibiting IκB, ERK, and p38 activity and reactive oxygen species production in a CaPO 4 -induced mouse model of aneurysm.

  18. Sympathetic innervation regulates macrophage activity in rats with polycystic ovary.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Florencia; Mendoza, Gisela; Cardozo, Darío; Mohamed, Fabián; Oliveros, Liliana; Forneris, Myriam

    2018-07-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a low-grade inflammatory disease characterized by hyperandrogenism and ovarian hyperinnervation. The aim of this work is to investigate whether in vivo bilateral superior ovarian nerve (SON) section in adult rats with estradiol valerate-induced PCOS (PCO rats) affects macrophage spleen cells (MФ) and modifies the steroidogenic ability of their secretions. Culture media of MФ from PCO rats and PCO rats with SON section (PCO-SON rats) were used to stimulate in vitro intact ovaries. Compared with macrophages PCO, macrophages from PCO-SON rats released less tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide, expressed lower Bax and Nfkb mRNA and showed reduced TUNEL staining. Also, in PCO rats, the SON section decreased kisspeptin and nerve growth factor mRNA expressions, without changes in Trka receptor mRNA levels. Macrophage secretions from PCO-SON rats decreased androstenedione and stimulated progesterone release in PCO ovaries, compared to macrophage secretions from PCO rats. No changes were observed in ovarian estradiol response. These findings emphasize the importance of the SON in spleen MΦ, since its manipulation leads to secondary modifications of immunological and neural mediators, which might influence ovarian steroidogenesis. In PCO ovaries, the reduction of androstenedione and the improvement of progesterone release induced by PCO-SON MΦ secretion, might be beneficial considering the hormonal anomalies characteristic of PCOS. We present functional evidence that modulation of the immune-endocrine function by peripheral sympathetic nervous system might have implications for understanding the pathophysiology of PCOS. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. MicroRNA-16 suppresses the activation of inflammatory macrophages in atherosclerosis by targeting PDCD4

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, XUE; XU, ZHAO; YUAN, MENG; ZHANG, YUE; ZHAO, BO; WANG, JUNQIAN; ZHANG, AIXUE; LI, GUANGPING

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) is involved in a number of bioprocesses, such as apoptosis and inflammation. However, its regulatory mechanisms in atherosclerosis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanisms of action of PDCD4 in high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in mice and in foam cells (characteristic pathological cells in atherosclerotic lesions) derived from ox-LDL-stimulated macrophages. MicroRNA (miR)-16 was predicted to bind PDCD4 by bioinformatics analysis. In the mice with atherosclerosis and in the foam cells, PDCD4 protein expression (but not the mRNA expression) was enhanced, while that of miR-16 was reduced. Transfection with miR-16 mimic decreased the activity of a luciferase reporter containing the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of PDCD4 in the macrophage-derived foam cells. Conversely, treatment with miR-16 inhibitor enhanced the luciferase activity. However, by introducing mutations in the predicted binding site located in the 3′UTR of PDCD4, the miR-16 mimic and inhibitor were unable to alter the level of PDCD4, suggesting that miR-16 is a direct negative regulator of PDCD4 in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, transfection wtih miR-16 mimic and siRNA targeting PDCD4 suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory factors, such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), whereas it enhanced the secretion and mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory factor, IL-10. Treatment with miR-16 inhibitor exerted the opposite effects. In addition, the phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression were altered by miR-16. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the targeting of PDCD4 by miR-16 may suppress the activation of inflammatory macrophages though mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB signaling in atherosclerosis; thus, PDCD4 may prove to be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of

  20. Apolipoprotein E Enhances microRNA-146a in Monocytes and Macrophages to Suppress Nuclear Factor-κB–Driven Inflammation and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kang; Ching, Daniel; Luk, Fu Sang; Raffai, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Apolipoprotein E (apoE) exerts anti-inflammatory properties that protect against atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases. However, mechanisms by which apoE suppresses the cellular activation of leukocytes commonly associated with atherosclerosis remain incompletely understood. Objective To test the hypothesis that apoE suppresses inflammation and atherosclerosis by regulating cellular microRNA levels in these leukocytes. Methods and Results An assessment of apoE expression among such leukocyte subsets in wild-type mice revealed that only macrophages and monocytes express apoE abundantly. An absence of apoE expression in macrophages and monocytes resulted in enhanced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling and an exaggerated inflammatory response upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. This correlated with reduced levels of microRNA-146a, a critical negative regulator of NF-κB signaling. Ectopic apoE expression in Apoe−/− macrophages and monocytes raised miR-146a levels, while its silencing in wild-type cells had an opposite effect. Mechanistically, apoE increased the expression of transcription factor PU.1, which raised levels of pri-miR-146 transcripts, demonstrating that apoE exerts transcriptional control over miR-146a. In vivo, even a small amount of apoE expression in macrophages and monocytes of hypomorphic apoE mice led to increased miR-146a levels, and inhibited macrophage pro-inflammatory responses, Ly-6Chigh monocytosis, and atherosclerosis in the settings of hyperlipidemia. Accordingly, cellular enrichment of miR-146a through the systemic delivery of miR-146a mimetics in Apoe−/−Ldlr−/− and Ldlr−/− mice attenuated monocyte/macrophage activation and atherosclerosis in the absence of plasma lipid reduction. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that cellular apoE expression suppresses NF-κB–mediated inflammation and atherosclerosis by enhancing miR-146a levels in monocytes and macrophages. PMID:25904598

  1. Reduced expression of IL-12 p35 by SJL/J macrophages responding to Theiler's virus infection is associated with constitutive activation of IRF-3

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlberg, Angela; Auble, Mark R.; Petro, Thomas M.

    2006-09-30

    Macrophages responding to viral infections may contribute to autoimmune demyelinating diseases (ADD). Macrophages from ADD-susceptible SJL/J mice responding to Theiler's Virus (TMEV) infection, the TLR7 agonist loxoribine, or the TLR4 agonist-LPS expressed less IL-12 p35 but more IL-12/23 p40 and IFN-{beta} than macrophages from ADD-resistant B10.S mice. While expression of IRF-1 and -7 was similar between B10.S and SJL/J TMEV-infected macrophages, SJL/J but not B10.S macrophages exhibited constitutively active IRF-3. In contrast to overexpressed IRF-1, IRF-5, and IRF-7, which stimulated p35 promoter reporter activity, overexpressed IRF-3 repressed p35 promoter activity in response to TMEV infection, loxoribine, IFN-{gamma}/LPS, but not IFN-{gamma}more » alone. IRF-3 lessened but did not eliminate IRF-1-stimulated p35 promoter activity. Repression by IRF-3 required bp -172 to -122 of the p35 promoter. The data suggest that pre-activated IRF-3 is a major factor in the differences in IL-12 production between B10.S and SJL/J macrophages responding to TMEV.« less

  2. Cot/tpl2-MKK1/2-Erk1/2 controls mTORC1-mediated mRNA translation in Toll-like receptor–activated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    López-Pelaéz, Marta; Fumagalli, Stefano; Sanz, Carlos; Herrero, Clara; Guerra, Susana; Fernandez, Margarita; Alemany, Susana

    2012-01-01

    Cot/tpl2 is the only MAP3K that activates MKK1/2-Erk1/2 in Toll-like receptor–activated macrophages. Here we show that Cot/tpl2 regulates RSK, S6 ribosomal protein, and 4E-BP phosphorylation after stimulation of bone marrow–derived macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), poly I:C, or zymosan. The dissociation of the 4E-BP–eIF4E complex, a key event in the cap-dependent mRNA translation initiation, is dramatically reduced in LPS-stimulated Cot/tpl2-knockout (KO) macrophages versus LPS-stimulated wild-type (Wt) macrophages. Accordingly, after LPS activation, increased cap-dependent translation is observed in Wt macrophages but not in Cot/tpl2 KO macrophages. In agreement with these data, Cot/tpl2 increases the polysomal recruitment of the 5´ TOP eEF1α and eEF2 mRNAs, as well as of inflammatory mediator gene–encoding mRNAs, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and KC in LPS-stimulated macrophages. In addition, Cot/tpl2 deficiency also reduces total TNFα, IL-6, and KC mRNA expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages, which is concomitant with a decrease in their mRNA half-lives. Macrophages require rapid fine control of translation to provide an accurate and not self-damaging response to host infection, and our data show that Cot/tpl2 controls inflammatory mediator gene–encoding mRNA translation in Toll-like receptor–activated macrophages. PMID:22675026

  3. Cot/tpl2-MKK1/2-Erk1/2 controls mTORC1-mediated mRNA translation in Toll-like receptor-activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    López-Pelaéz, Marta; Fumagalli, Stefano; Sanz, Carlos; Herrero, Clara; Guerra, Susana; Fernandez, Margarita; Alemany, Susana

    2012-08-01

    Cot/tpl2 is the only MAP3K that activates MKK1/2-Erk1/2 in Toll-like receptor-activated macrophages. Here we show that Cot/tpl2 regulates RSK, S6 ribosomal protein, and 4E-BP phosphorylation after stimulation of bone marrow-derived macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), poly I:C, or zymosan. The dissociation of the 4E-BP-eIF4E complex, a key event in the cap-dependent mRNA translation initiation, is dramatically reduced in LPS-stimulated Cot/tpl2-knockout (KO) macrophages versus LPS-stimulated wild-type (Wt) macrophages. Accordingly, after LPS activation, increased cap-dependent translation is observed in Wt macrophages but not in Cot/tpl2 KO macrophages. In agreement with these data, Cot/tpl2 increases the polysomal recruitment of the 5´ TOP eEF1α and eEF2 mRNAs, as well as of inflammatory mediator gene-encoding mRNAs, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and KC in LPS-stimulated macrophages. In addition, Cot/tpl2 deficiency also reduces total TNFα, IL-6, and KC mRNA expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages, which is concomitant with a decrease in their mRNA half-lives. Macrophages require rapid fine control of translation to provide an accurate and not self-damaging response to host infection, and our data show that Cot/tpl2 controls inflammatory mediator gene-encoding mRNA translation in Toll-like receptor-activated macrophages.

  4. [The activating action of mercaptobenzimidazole derivatives on peritoneal macrophages].

    PubMed

    Ratnikov, V I; Ratnikova, L I

    1991-01-01

    It was established that derivatives of mercaptobenzimidazole (bemitil, methoxybemitil, 5-ethoxy-2-ethylmercaptobenzimidazole hydrochloride) in a dose of 25 mg/kg stimulate the mouse peritoneal macrophages by increasing their phagocytic activity and phagocytosis index. Among the studied agents 5-ethoxy-2-ethylmercaptobenzimidazole hydrochloride possesses the greatest effect. The increase of phagocytosis processes was shown to be accompanied with a growth of the number of macrophages reducing nitroblue tetrazolium in diphormazan and with an enhancement of secretion of lysosomal enzymes.

  5. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid suppresses TXNIP mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in MSU crystal stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages through the upregulation of Nrf2 transcription factor and alleviates MSU crystal induced inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Dinesh, Palani; Rasool, MahaboobKhan

    2017-03-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the therapeutic potential of berberine on monosodium urate (MSU) crystal stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and in MSU crystal induced rats. Our results indicate that berberine (25, 50 and 75μM) suppressed the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)) and intracellular reactive oxygen species in MSU crystal stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, caspase 1, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) and kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) were found downregulated with the upregulation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor and its associated anti-oxidant enzymes: Heme oxygenase I (HO-1), superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and catalase (CAT) in MSU crystal stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages upon berberine treatment. Subsequently, western blot analysis revealed that berberine decreased the protein expression of IL-1β and caspase 1 and increased Nrf2 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Immunofluorescence analysis also explored increased expression of Nrf2 in MSU crystal stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages by berberine treatment. In addition, the paw edema, pain score, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα) and articular elastase activity were found significantly reduced in berberine (50mg/kgb·wt) administered MSU crystal-induced rats. Conclusively, our current findings suggest that berberine may represent as a potential candidate for the treatment of gouty arthritis by suppressing inflammatory mediators and activating Nrf2 anti-oxidant pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Beta 2-adrenergic receptor agonists are novel regulators of macrophage activation in diabetic renal and cardiovascular complications.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hyunjin; Yu, Mi Ra; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Ji Hye; Park, Byoung-Won; Wu, I-Hsien; Matsumoto, Motonobu; King, George L

    2017-07-01

    Macrophage activation is increased in diabetes and correlated with the onset and progression of vascular complications. To identify drugs that could inhibit macrophage activation, we developed a cell-based assay and screened a 1,040 compound library for anti-inflammatory effects. Beta2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonists were identified as the most potent inhibitors of phorbol myristate acetate-induced tumor necrosis factor-α production in rat bone marrow macrophages. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, β2AR agonists inhibited diabetes-induced tumor necrosis factor-α production, which was prevented by co-treatment with a selective β2AR blocker. To clarify the underlying mechanisms, THP-1 cells and bone marrow macrophages were exposed to high glucose. High glucose reduced β-arrestin2, a negative regulator of NF-κB activation, and its interaction with IκBα. This subsequently enhanced phosphorylation of IκBα and activation of NF-κB. The β2AR agonists enhanced β-arrestin2 and its interaction with IκBα, leading to downregulation of NF-κB. A siRNA specific for β-arrestin2 reversed β2AR agonist-mediated inhibition of NF-κB activation and inflammatory cytokine production. Treatment of Zucker diabetic fatty rats with a β2AR agonist for 12 weeks attenuated monocyte activation as well as pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses in the kidneys and heart. Thus, β2AR agonists might have protective effects against diabetic renal and cardiovascular complications. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fibronectin induces macrophage migration through a SFK-FAK/CSF-1R pathway.

    PubMed

    Digiacomo, Graziana; Tusa, Ignazia; Bacci, Marina; Cipolleschi, Maria Grazia; Dello Sbarba, Persio; Rovida, Elisabetta

    2017-07-04

    Integrins, following binding to proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) including collagen, laminin and fibronectin (FN), are able to transduce molecular signals inside the cells and to regulate several biological functions such as migration, proliferation and differentiation. Besides activation of adaptor molecules and kinases, integrins transactivate Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTK). In particular, adhesion to the ECM may promote RTK activation in the absence of growth factors. The Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor (CSF-1R) is a RTK that supports the survival, proliferation, and motility of monocytes/macrophages, which are essential components of innate immunity and cancer development. Macrophage interaction with FN is recognized as an important aspect of host defense and wound repair. The aim of the present study was to investigate on a possible cross-talk between FN-elicited signals and CSF-1R in macrophages. FN induced migration in BAC1.2F5 and J774 murine macrophage cell lines and in human primary macrophages. Adhesion to FN determined phosphorylation of the Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Src Family Kinases (SFK) and activation of the SFK/FAK complex, as witnessed by paxillin phosphorylation. SFK activity was necessary for FAK activation and macrophage migration. Moreover, FN-induced migration was dependent on FAK in either murine macrophage cell lines or human primary macrophages. FN also induced FAK-dependent/ligand-independent CSF-1R phosphorylation, as well as the interaction between CSF-1R and β1. CSF-1R activity was necessary for FN-induced macrophage migration. Indeed, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of CSF-1R prevented FN-induced macrophage migration. Our results identified a new SFK-FAK/CSF-1R signaling pathway that mediates FN-induced migration of macrophages.

  8. Stem bromelain-induced macrophage apoptosis and activation curtail Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Sahil; Chandra, Vemika; Dave, Sandeep; Nanduri, Ravikanth; Gupta, Pawan

    2012-08-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, has a remarkable ability to usurp its host's innate immune response, killing millions of infected people annually. One approach to manage infection is prevention through the use of natural agents. In this regard, stem bromelain (SBM), a pharmacologically active member of the sulfhydryl proteolytic enzyme family, obtained from Ananas comosus and possessing a remarkable ability to induce the innate and acquired immune systems, is important. We evaluated SBM's ability to induce apoptosis and free-radical generation in macrophages. We also studied antimycobacterial properties of SBM and its effect on foamy macrophages. SBM treatment of peritoneal macrophages resulted in the upregulation of proapoptotic proteins and downregulation of antiapoptotic proteins. Additionally, SBM treatment activated macrophages, curtailed the levels of free glutathione, and augmented the production of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, peroxynitrite, and nitric oxide. SBM cleaves CD36 and reduced the formation of foam cells, the hallmark of M. tuberculosis infection. These conditions created an environment for the increased clearance of M. tuberculosis. Together these data provide a mechanism for antimycobacterial activity of SBM and provide important insights for the use of cysteine proteases as immunomodulatory agents.

  9. Expression of Fgf23 in activated dendritic cells and macrophages in response to immunological stimuli in mice.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yuki; Ohta, Hiroya; Morita, Yumiko; Nakayama, Yoshiaki; Miyake, Ayumi; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Konishi, Morichika

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) are polypeptide growth factors with diverse biological activities. While several studies have revealed that Fgf23 plays important roles in the regulation of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, the additional physiological roles of Fgf23 remain unclear. Although it is believed that osteoblasts/osteocytes are the main sources of Fgf23, we previously found that Fgf23 mRNA is also expressed in the mouse thymus, suggesting that it might be involved in the immune system. In this study we examined the potential roles of Fgf23 in immunological responses. Mouse serum Fgf23 levels were significantly increased following inoculation with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus or intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide. We also identified activated dendritic cells and macrophages that potentially contributed to increased serum Fgf23 levels. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling was essential for the induction of Fgf23 expression in dendritic cells in response to immunological stimuli. Moreover, we examined the effects of recombinant Fgf23 protein on immune cells in vitro. Fgfr1c, a potential receptor for Fgf23, was abundantly expressed in macrophages, suggesting that Fgf23 might be involved in signal transduction in these cells. Our data suggest that Fgf23 potentially increases the number in macrophages and induces expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine. Collectively, these data suggest that Fgf23 might be intimately involved in inflammatory processes.

  10. Macrophages in tissue repair, regeneration, and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Thomas A.; Vannella, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory monocytes and resident tissue macrophages are key regulators of tissue repair, regeneration, and fibrosis. Following tissue injury, monocytes and macrophages undergo marked phenotypic and functional changes to play critical roles during the initiation, maintenance, and resolution phases of tissue repair. Disturbances in macrophage function can lead to aberrant repair, with uncontrolled inflammatory mediator and growth factor production, deficient generation of anti-inflammatory macrophages, or failed communication between macrophages and epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and stem or tissue progenitor cells all contributing to a state of persistent injury, which may lead to the development of pathological fibrosis. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that instruct macrophages to adopt pro-inflammatory, pro-wound healing, pro-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, pro-resolving, and tissue regenerating phenotypes following injury, and highlight how some of these mechanisms and macrophage activation states could be exploited therapeutically. PMID:26982353

  11. Assessment of the cytotoxicity of a mineral trioxide aggregate-based sealer with respect to macrophage activity.

    PubMed

    Braga, Julia Mourão; Oliveira, Ricardo Reis; de Castro Martins, Renata; Vieira, Leda Quercia; Sobrinho, Antonio Paulino Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    To assess the influence of co-culture with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and MTA Fillapex (FLPX) on the viability, adherence, and phagocytosis activity of peritoneal macrophages from two mouse strains. Cellular viability, adherence, and phagocytosis of Saccharomyces boulardii were assayed in the presence of capillaries containing MTA and MTA Fillapex. The data were analyzed using parametric (Student's t) and non-parametric (Mann-Whitney) tests. FLPX was severely cytotoxic and decreased cell viability, adherence, and phagocytic activity of both macrophage subtypes. Cells that were treated with MTA Fillapex remained viable (>80%) for only 4 h after stimulation. Macrophages from C57BL/6 mice presented higher adherence and higher phagocytic activity compared with macrophages from BALB/c mice. Comparison of MTA and FLPX effects upon macrophages indicates that FLPX may impair macrophage activity and viability, while MTA seems to increase phagocytic activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Immunostimulative Activity of Low Molecular Weight Chitosans in RAW264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ning; Wen, Zheng-Shun; Xiang, Xing-Wei; Huang, Yan-Na; Gao, Yang; Qu, You-Le

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan and its derivatives such as low molecular weight chitosans (LMWCs) have been reported to exert many biological activities, such as antioxidant and antitumor effects. However, complex and molecular weight dependent effects of chitosan remain controversial and the mechanisms that mediate these complex effects are still poorly defined. This study was carried out to investigate the immunostimulative effect of different molecular weight chitosan in RAW264.7 macrophages. Our data suggested that two LMWCs (molecular weight of 3 kDa and 50 kDa) both possessed immunostimulative activity, which was dependent on dose and, at the higher doses, also on the molecular weight. LMWCs could significantly enhance the the pinocytic activity, and induce the production of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a molecular weight and concentration-dependent manner. LMWCs were further showed to promote the expression of the genes including iNOS, TNF-α. Taken together, our findings suggested that LMWCs elicited significantly immunomodulatory response through up-regulating mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and activated RAW264.7 macrophage in a molecular weight- and concentration-dependent manner. PMID:26437419

  13. Susceptibility of bone marrow-derived macrophages to influenza virus infection is dependent on macrophage phenotype.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Gillian M; Nicol, Marlynne Q; Dransfield, Ian; Shaw, Darren J; Nash, Anthony A; Dutia, Bernadette M

    2015-10-01

    The role of the macrophage in influenza virus infection is complex. Macrophages are critical for resolution of influenza virus infections but implicated in morbidity and mortality in severe infections. They can be infected with influenza virus and consequently macrophage infection is likely to have an impact on the host immune response. Macrophages display a range of functional phenotypes, from the prototypical pro-inflammatory classically activated cell to alternatively activated anti-inflammatory macrophages involved in immune regulation and wound healing. We were interested in how macrophages of different phenotype respond to influenza virus infection and therefore studied the infection of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) of classical and alternative phenotype in vitro. Our results show that alternatively activated macrophages are more readily infected and killed by the virus than classically activated. Classically activated BMDMs express the pro-inflammatory markers inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNF-α, and TNF-α expression was further upregulated following infection. Alternatively activated macrophages express Arginase-1 and CD206; however, following infection, expression of these markers was downregulated whilst expression of iNOS and TNF-α was upregulated. Thus, infection can override the anti-inflammatory state of alternatively activated macrophages. Importantly, however, this results in lower levels of pro-inflammatory markers than those produced by classically activated cells. Our results showed that macrophage phenotype affects the inflammatory macrophage response following infection, and indicated that modulating the macrophage phenotype may provide a route to develop novel strategies to prevent and treat influenza virus infection.

  14. Roles of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Yuko; Hikita, Atsuhiko; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Hoshi, Kazuto

    2018-02-01

    To obtain stable outcomes in regenerative medicine, understanding and controlling immunological responses in transplanted tissues are of great importance. In our previous study, auricular chondrocytes in tissue-engineered cartilage transplanted in mice were shown to express immunological factors, including macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Since MIF exerts pleiotropic functions, in this study, we examined the roles of MIF in cartilage regenerative medicine. We made tissue-engineered cartilage consisting of auricular chondrocytes of C57BL/6J mouse, atellocollagen gel and a PLLA scaffold, and transplanted the construct subcutaneously in a syngeneic manner. Localization of MIF was prominent in cartilage areas of tissue-engineered cartilage at 2 weeks after transplantation, though it became less apparent by 8 weeks. Co-culture with RAW264 significantly increased the expression of MIF in chondrocytes, suggesting that the transplanted chondrocytes in tissue-engineered cartilage could enhance the expression of MIF by stimulation of surrounding macrophages. When MIF was added in the culture of chondrocytes, the expression of type II collagen was increased, indicating that MIF could promote the maturation of chondrocytes. Meanwhile, toluidine blue staining of constructs containing wild type (Mif+/+) chondrocytes showed increased metachromasia compared to MIF-knockout (Mif-/-) constructs at 2 weeks. However, this tendency was reversed by 8 weeks, suggesting that the initial increase in cartilage maturation in Mif+/+ constructs deteriorated by 8 weeks. Since the Mif+/+ constructs included more iNOS-positive inflammatory macrophages at 2 weeks, MIF might induce an M1 macrophage-polarized environment, which may eventually worsen the maturation of tissue-engineered cartilage in the long term. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [Macrophage colony stimulating factor enhances non-small cell lung cancer invasion and metastasis by promoting macrophage M2 polarization].

    PubMed

    Li, Y J; Yang, L; Wang, L P; Zhang, Y

    2017-06-23

    Objective: To investigate the key cytokine which polarizes M2 macrophages and promotes invasion and metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: After co-culture with A549 cells in vitro, the proportion of CD14(+) CD163(+) M2 macrophages in monocytes and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) levels in culture supernatant were detected by flow cytometry, ELISA assay and real-time qPCR, respectively. The effects of CD14(+) CD163(+) M2 macrophages on invasion of A549 cells and angiogenesis of HUVEC cells were measured by transwell assay and tubule formation assay, respectively. The clinical and prognostic significance of M-CSF expression in NSCLC was further analyzed. Results: The percentage of CD14(+) CD163(+) M2 macrophages in monocytes and the concentration of M-CSF in the supernatant followed by co-culture was (12.03±0.46)% and (299.80±73.76)pg/ml, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in control group [(2.80±1.04)% and (43.07±11.22)pg/ml, respectively, P < 0.05]. Human recombinant M-CSF promoted M2 polarization of macrophages in vitro . M2 macrophages enhanced the invasion of A549 cells (66 cells/field vs. 26 cells/field) and the angiogenesis of HUVEC cells (22 tubes/field vs. 8 tubes/field). The mRNA expression of M-CSF in stage Ⅰ-Ⅱ patients (16.23±4.83) was significantly lower than that in stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ (53.84±16.08; P <0.05). M-CSF levels were associated with poorer overall survival and disease-free survival in NSCLC patients ( P <0.05). Conclusions: Tumor-derived M-CSF can induce CD14(+) CD163(+) M2 polarization of macrophages, which can further promote the metastasis and angiogenesis of NSCLC. M-CSF could be used as a potential therapeutic target of NSCLC.

  16. Trypanosomatid Infections: How Do Parasites and Their Excreted–Secreted Factors Modulate the Inducible Metabolism of l-Arginine in Macrophages?

    PubMed Central

    Holzmuller, Philippe; Geiger, Anne; Nzoumbou-Boko, Romaric; Pissarra, Joana; Hamrouni, Sarra; Rodrigues, Valérie; Dauchy, Frédéric-Antoine; Lemesre, Jean-Loup; Vincendeau, Philippe; Bras-Gonçalves, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages) are among the first host cells to face intra- and extracellular protozoan parasites such as trypanosomatids, and significant expansion of macrophages has been observed in infected hosts. They play essential roles in the outcome of infections caused by trypanosomatids, as they can not only exert a powerful antimicrobial activity but also promote parasite proliferation. These varied functions, linked to their phenotypic and metabolic plasticity, are exerted via distinct activation states, in which l-arginine metabolism plays a pivotal role. Depending on the environmental factors and immune response elements, l-arginine metabolites contribute to parasite elimination, mainly through nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, or to parasite proliferation, through l-ornithine and polyamine production. To survive and adapt to their hosts, parasites such as trypanosomatids developed mechanisms of interaction to modulate macrophage activation in their favor, by manipulating several cellular metabolic pathways. Recent reports emphasize that some excreted–secreted (ES) molecules from parasites and sugar-binding host receptors play a major role in this dialog, particularly in the modulation of the macrophage’s inducible l-arginine metabolism. Preventing l-arginine dysregulation by drugs or by immunization against trypanosomatid ES molecules or by blocking partner host molecules may control early infection and is a promising way to tackle neglected diseases including Chagas disease, leishmaniases, and African trypanosomiases. The present review summarizes recent knowledge on trypanosomatids and their ES factors with regard to their influence on macrophage activation pathways, mainly the NO synthase/arginase balance. The review ends with prospects for the use of biological knowledge to develop new strategies of interference in the infectious processes used by trypanosomatids, in particular for the development of vaccines

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lactobacillus Rahmnosus and Bifidobacterium Breve on Cigarette Smoke Activated Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mortaz, Esmaeil; Adcock, Ian M; Ricciardolo, Fabio L M; Varahram, Mohammad; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Velayati, Ali Akbar; Folkerts, Gert; Garssen, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem with cigarette smoke (CS) as the main risk factor for its development. Airway inflammation in COPD involves the increased expression of inflammatory mediators such as CXCL-8 and IL-1β which are important mediators for neutrophil recruitment. Macrophages are an important source of these mediators in COPD. Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) and Befidobacterium breve (B. breve) attenuate the development of 'allergic asthma' in animals but their effects in COPD are unknown. To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of L. rhamnosus and B. breve on CS and Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. We stimulated the human macrophage cell line THP-1 with CS extract in the presence and absence of L. rhamnosus and B. breve and measured the expression and release of inflammatory mediators by RT-qPCR and ELISA respectively. An activity assay and Western blotting were used to examine NF-κB activation. Both L. rhamnosus and B. breve were efficiently phagocytized by human macrophages. L. rhamnosus and B. breve significantly suppressed the ability of CS to induce the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-23, TNFα, CXCL-8 and HMGB1 release (all p<0.05) in human THP-1 macrophages. Similar suppression of TLR4- and TLR9-induced CXCL8 expression was also observed (p<0.05). The effect of L. rhamnosus and B. breve on inflammatory mediator release was associated with the suppression of CS-induced NF-κB activation (p<0.05). This data indicate that these probiotics may be useful anti-inflammatory agents in CS-associated disease such as COPD.

  18. Asian Dust Particles Induce Macrophage Inflammatory Responses via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation and Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    PubMed Central

    Higashisaka, Kazuma; Fujimura, Maho; Taira, Mayu; Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Baba, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Nasu, Masao; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Asian dust is a springtime meteorological phenomenon that originates in the deserts of China and Mongolia. The dust is carried by prevailing winds across East Asia where it causes serious health problems. Most of the information available on the impact of Asian dust on human health is based on epidemiological investigations, so from a biological standpoint little is known of its effects. To clarify the effects of Asian dust on human health, it is essential to assess inflammatory responses to the dust and to evaluate the involvement of these responses in the pathogenesis or aggravation of disease. Here, we investigated the induction of inflammatory responses by Asian dust particles in macrophages. Treatment with Asian dust particles induced greater production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) compared with treatment with soil dust. Furthermore, a soil dust sample containing only particles ≤10 μm in diameter provoked a greater inflammatory response than soil dust samples containing particles >10 μm. In addition, Asian dust particles-induced TNF-α production was dependent on endocytosis, the production of reactive oxygen species, and the activation of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Together, these results suggest that Asian dust particles induce inflammatory disease through the activation of macrophages. PMID:24987712

  19. In vitro photodynamic effects of scavenger receptor targeted-photoactivatable nanoagents on activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yi, Bong Gu; Park, Ok Kyu; Jeong, Myeong Seon; Kwon, Seung Hae; Jung, Jae In; Lee, Seongsoo; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Won; Moon, Won-Jin; Park, Kyeongsoon

    2017-04-01

    Scavenger receptors (SRs) expressed on the activated macrophages in inflammation sites have been considered as the most interesting and important target biomarker for targeted drug delivery, imaging and therapy. In the present study, we fabricated the scavenger receptor-A (SR-A) targeted-photoactivatable nanoagents (termed as Ce6/DS-DOCA) by entrapping chlorin e6 (Ce6) into the amphiphilic dextran sulfate-deoxycholic acid (DS-DOCA) conjugates via physically hydrophobic interactions. Insoluble Ce6 was easily encapsulated into DS-DOCA nanoparticles by a dialysis method and the loading efficiency was approximately 51.7%. The Ce6/DS-DOCA formed nano-sized self-assembled aggregates (28.8±5.6nm in diameter), confirmed by transmission electron microscope, UV/Vis and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The Ce6/DS-DOCA nanoagents could generate highly reactive singlet oxygen under laser irradiation. Also, in vitro studies showed that they were more specifically taken up by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activated macrophages (RAW 264.7) via a SR-A-mediated endocytosis, relative to by non-activated macrophages, and notably induced cell death of activated macrophages under laser irradiation. Therefore, SR-A targetable and photoactivatable Ce6/DS-DOCA nanoagents with more selective targeting to the activated macrophages will have great potential for treatment of inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on macrophage enzyme levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierangeli, Silvia S.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Murine peritoneal macrophages were treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). Measurements of changes in acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase levels were made as an indication of activation by cytokine treatment. IFN-gamma or TNF-gamma treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of both enzymes measured in the cell lysates. This increase was observable after 6 h of incubation, but reached its maximum level after 24 h of incubation. The effect of the treatment of the cell with both cytokines together was additive. No synergistic effect of addition of both cytokines on the enzyme levels was observed.

  1. Structural characterization and macrophage immunomodulatory activity of a novel polysaccharide from Smilax glabra Roxb.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Zhao, Jing-Wen; Lu, Chuan-Jian; Zhu, Wei

    2017-01-20

    A novel heteropolysaccharide (SGRP1) with great immunomodulatory activity was isolated from the root of Smilax glabra Roxb. by hot water extraction. Physical and chemical analyses showed that SGRP1 had an average molecular weight of 1.26×10 4 Da and was composed of mannose, fucose and glucose in molar ratio of 1.00:3.09:39.41. The glycosidic linkage types of SGRP1 were proven to be (1→3)-linked -α-l-Fuc, (1→3)-linked-α-l-Man, (1→)-linked-α-d-Glc, and (1→6)-linked-α-d-Glc. The in vitro immunomodulatory assays demonstrated that SGRP1 could evidently promote the phagocytosis and increase macrophage-derived biological factors including nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion via JNK and ERK signaling pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway. The data supported that SGRP1 had immunomodulatory potential through activating macrophages and enhancing host immune system function, which enabled it to be a novel immunomodulator for application in immunological diseases or functional food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. TRANSCRIPTIONAL INHIBITION OF INTERLEUKIN-12 PROMOTER ACTIVITY IN LEISHMANIA SPP.-INFECTED MACROPHAGES

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Asha; Widenmaier, Robyn; Ma, Xiaojing; McDowell, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    To establish and persist within a host, Leishmania spp. parasites delay the onset of cell-mediated immunity by suppressing interleukin-12 (IL-12) production from host macrophages. Although it is established that Leishmania spp.-infected macrophages have impaired IL-12 production, the mechanisms that account for this suppression remain to be completely elucidated. Using a luciferase reporter assay assessing IL-12 transcription, we report here that Leishmania major, Leishmania donovani, and Leishmania chagasi inhibit IL-12 transcription in response to interferon-gamma, lipopolysaccharide, and CD40 ligand and that Leishmania spp. lipophosphoglycan, phosphoglycans, and major surface protein are not necessary for inhibition. In addition, all the Leishmania spp. strains and life-cycle stages tested inhibited IL-12 promoter activity. Our data further reveal that autocrine-acting host factors play no role in the inhibitory response and that phagocytosis signaling is necessary for inhibition of IL-12. PMID:18372625

  3. Effects of oxaliplatin and oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor on murine and human microglia.

    PubMed

    Branca, Jacopo J V; Morucci, Gabriele; Malentacchi, Francesca; Gelmini, Stefania; Ruggiero, Marco; Pacini, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    The biological properties and characteristics of microglia in rodents have been widely described, but little is known about these features in human microglia. Several murine microglial cell lines are used to investigate neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory conditions; however, the extrapolation of the results to human conditions is frequently met with criticism because of the possibility of species-specific differences. This study compares the effects of oxaliplatin and of oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (OA-GcMAF) on two microglial cell lines, murine BV-2 cells and human C13NJ cells. Cell viability, cAMP levels, microglial activation, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were evaluated. Our data demonstrate that oxaliplatin induced a significant decrease in cell viability in BV-2 and in C13NJ cells and that this effect was not reversed with OA-GcMAF treatment. The signal transduction pathway involving cAMP/VEGF was activated after treatment with oxaliplatin and/or OA-GcMAF in both cell lines. OA-GcMAF induced a significant increase in microglia activation, as evidenced by the expression of the B7-2 protein, in BV-2 as well as in C13NJ cells that was not associated with a concomitant increase in cell number. Furthermore, the effects of oxaliplatin and OA-GcMAF on coculture morphology and apoptosis were evaluated. Oxaliplatin-induced cell damage and apoptosis were nearly completely reversed by OA-GcMAF treatment in both BV-2/SH-SY5Y and C13NJ/SH-SY5Y cocultures. Our data show that murine and human microglia share common signal transduction pathways and activation mechanisms, suggesting that the murine BV-2 cell line may represent an excellent model for studying human microglia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms Induce Macrophage Dysfunction Through Leukocidin AB and Alpha-Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Scherr, Tyler D.; Hanke, Mark L.; Huang, Ouwen; James, David B. A.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Bayles, Kenneth W.; Fey, Paul D.; Torres, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The macrophage response to planktonic Staphylococcus aureus involves the induction of proinflammatory microbicidal activity. However, S. aureus biofilms can interfere with these responses in part by polarizing macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory profibrotic phenotype. Here we demonstrate that conditioned medium from mature S. aureus biofilms inhibited macrophage phagocytosis and induced cytotoxicity, suggesting the involvement of a secreted factor(s). Iterative testing found the active factor(s) to be proteinaceous and partially agr-dependent. Quantitative mass spectrometry identified alpha-toxin (Hla) and leukocidin AB (LukAB) as critical molecules secreted by S. aureus biofilms that inhibit murine macrophage phagocytosis and promote cytotoxicity. A role for Hla and LukAB was confirmed by using hla and lukAB mutants, and synergy between the two toxins was demonstrated with a lukAB hla double mutant and verified by complementation. Independent confirmation of the effects of Hla and LukAB on macrophage dysfunction was demonstrated by using an isogenic strain in which Hla was constitutively expressed, an Hla antibody to block toxin activity, and purified LukAB peptide. The importance of Hla and LukAB during S. aureus biofilm formation in vivo was assessed by using a murine orthopedic implant biofilm infection model in which the lukAB hla double mutant displayed significantly lower bacterial burdens and more macrophage infiltrates than each single mutant. Collectively, these findings reveal a critical synergistic role for Hla and LukAB in promoting macrophage dysfunction and facilitating S. aureus biofilm development in vivo. PMID:26307164

  5. Gamma-tocotrienol inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced interlukin-6 and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor by suppressing C/EBP-β and NF-κB in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Jiang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytokines generated from macrophages contributes to pathogenesis of inflammation-associated diseases. Here we show that gamma-tocotrienol (γ-TE), a natural vitamin E form, inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) production without affecting TNFα, IL-10 or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) up-regulation in murine RAW267.4 macrophages. Mechanistic studies indicate that nuclear factor (NF)-κB, but not JNK, p38 or ERK MAP kinases, is important to IL-6 production and γ-TE treatment blocks NF-κB activation. In contrast, COX-2 appears to be regulated by p38 MAPK in RAW cells, but γ-TE has no effect on LPS-stimulated p38 phosphorylation. Despite necessary for IL-6, NF-κB activation by TNFα or other cytokines is not sufficient for IL-6 induction with exception of LPS. CCAAT-enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) appears to be involved in IL-6 formation, because LPS induces C/EBPβ up-regulation, which parallels IL-6 production, and knockdown of C/EBPβ with siRNA results in diminished IL-6. LPS but not individual cytokines is capable of stimulating C/EBPβ and IL-6 in macrophages. Consistent with its dampening effect on IL-6, γ-TE blunts LPS-induced up-regulation of C/EBPβ without affecting C/EBPδ. γ-TE also decreases LPS-stimulated granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a C/EBPβ target gene. Compared with RAW267.4 cells, γ-TE shows similar or stronger inhibitory effects on LPS-triggered activation of NF-κB, C/EPBβ and C/EBPδ, and more potently suppresses IL-6 and G-CSF in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Our study demonstrates that γ-TE has anti-inflammatory activities by inhibition of NF-κB and C/EBPs activation in macrophages. PMID:23246159

  6. Decursin inhibits induction of inflammatory mediators by blocking nuclear factor-kappaB activation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hee; Jeong, Ji-Hye; Jeon, Sung-Tak; Kim, Ho; Ock, Jiyeon; Suk, Kyoungho; Kim, Sang-In; Song, Kyung-Sik; Lee, Won-Ha

    2006-06-01

    In the course of screening inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 induction in macrophages, we isolated decursin, a coumarin compound, from the roots of Angelicae gigas. As a marker for the screening and isolation, we tested expression of MMP-9 in RAW264.7 cells and THP-1 cells after treatment with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the TLR-4 ligand. Decursin suppressed MMP-9 expression in cells stimulated by LPS in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations below 60 microM with no sign of cytotoxicity. The suppressive effect of decursin was observed not only in cells stimulated with ligands for TLR4, TLR2, TLR3, and TLR9 but also in cells stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, indicating that the molecular target of decursin is common signaling molecules induced by these stimulants. In addition to the suppression of MMP-9 expression, decursin blocked nitric oxide production and cytokine (IL-8, MCP-1, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha) secretion induced by LPS. To find out the molecular mechanism responsible for the suppressive effect of decursin, we analyzed signaling molecules involved in the TLR-mediated activation of MMP-9 and cytokines. Decursin blocked phosphorylation of IkappaB and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in THP-1 cells activated with LPS. Furthermore, expression of a luciferase reporter gene under the promoter containing NF-kappaB binding sites was blocked by decursin. These data indicate that decursin is a novel inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation in signaling induced by TLR ligands and cytokines.

  7. Macrophages produce IL-33 by activating MAPK signaling pathway during RSV infection.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feifei; Bai, Song; Wang, Dandan; Xu, Lei; Hu, Haiyan; Zeng, Sheng; Chai, Ruonan; Liu, Beixing

    2017-07-01

    It has been reported that RSV infection can enhance IL-33 production in lung macrophages. However, little is known about specific signaling pathways for activation of macrophages during RSV infection. In the present study, by using real-time RT-PCR as well as western blot assay, it became clear that RSV infection can enhance not only the expression of mRNAs for MAPK molecules (including p38, JNK1/2, and ERK1/2), but also the levels of MAPK proteins in lung macrophages as well as RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, infection with RSV resulted in an increased level of phosphorylated MAPK proteins in RAW264.7 cells, suggesting that MAPK signaling pathway may participate in the process of RSV-induced IL-33 secretion by macrophages. In fact, the elevated production of IL-33 in RAW264.7 was attenuated significantly by pretreatment of the cells with special MAPK inhibitor before RSV infection, further confirming the function of MAPKs pathway in RSV-induced IL-33 production in macrophages. In contrast, the expression of NF-κB mRNA as well as the production of NF-κB protein in lung macrophages and RAW264.7 cells was not enhanced markedly after RSV infection. Moreover, RSV infection failed to induce the phosphorylation of NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells, suggesting that NF-κB signaling pathway may be not involved in RSV-induced IL-33 production in macrophages. Conclusion, these results indicate that RSV-induced production of IL-33 in macrophages is dependent on the activation of MAPK signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Components in Plasma-Derived Factor VIII, But Not in Recombinant Factor VIII Downregulate Anti-Inflammatory Surface Marker CD163 in Human Macrophages through Release of CXCL4 (Platelet Factor 4)

    PubMed Central

    Bertling, Anne; Brodde, Martin F.; Visser, Mayken; Treffon, Janina; Fennen, Michelle; Fender, Anke C.; Kelsch, Reinhard; Kehrel, Beate E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Hemarthrosis, or bleeding into the joints, is a hallmark of hemophilia. Heme triggers oxidative stress, inflammation, and destruction of cartilage and bone. The haptoglobin-CD163-heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway circumvents heme toxicity through enzymatic degradation of heme and transcription of antioxidant genes. Plasma-derived factor concentrates contain many proteins that might impact on cellular pathways in joints, blood, and vessels. Methods Activation of platelets from healthy volunteers was assessed by flow cytometry analysis of fibrinogen binding and CD62P expression. Platelet CXCL4 release was measured by ELISA. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were exposed to CXCL4 or platelet supernatants (untreated or pre-stimulated with factor VIII (FVIII) products) during their differentiation to macrophages and analyzed for CD163 expression. Some macrophage cultures were additionally incubated with autologous hemoglobin for 18 h for analysis of HO-1 expression. Results Platelet CXCL4 release was increased by all 8 tested plasma-derived FVIII products but not the 3 recombinant products. Macrophages exposed to supernatant from platelets treated with some plasma-derived FVIII products downregulated CD163 surface expression and failed to upregulate the athero- and joint protective enzyme HO-1 in response to hemoglobin. Conclusion Plasma-derived FVIII products might promote bleeding-induced joint injury via generation of macrophages that are unable to counteract redox stress. PMID:29070980

  9. Components in Plasma-Derived Factor VIII, But Not in Recombinant Factor VIII Downregulate Anti-Inflammatory Surface Marker CD163 in Human Macrophages through Release of CXCL4 (Platelet Factor 4).

    PubMed

    Bertling, Anne; Brodde, Martin F; Visser, Mayken; Treffon, Janina; Fennen, Michelle; Fender, Anke C; Kelsch, Reinhard; Kehrel, Beate E

    2017-09-01

    Hemarthrosis, or bleeding into the joints, is a hallmark of hemophilia. Heme triggers oxidative stress, inflammation, and destruction of cartilage and bone. The haptoglobin-CD163-heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway circumvents heme toxicity through enzymatic degradation of heme and transcription of antioxidant genes. Plasma-derived factor concentrates contain many proteins that might impact on cellular pathways in joints, blood, and vessels. Activation of platelets from healthy volunteers was assessed by flow cytometry analysis of fibrinogen binding and CD62P expression. Platelet CXCL4 release was measured by ELISA. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were exposed to CXCL4 or platelet supernatants (untreated or pre-stimulated with factor VIII (FVIII) products) during their differentiation to macrophages and analyzed for CD163 expression. Some macrophage cultures were additionally incubated with autologous hemoglobin for 18 h for analysis of HO-1 expression. Platelet CXCL4 release was increased by all 8 tested plasma-derived FVIII products but not the 3 recombinant products. Macrophages exposed to supernatant from platelets treated with some plasma-derived FVIII products downregulated CD163 surface expression and failed to upregulate the athero- and joint protective enzyme HO-1 in response to hemoglobin. Plasma-derived FVIII products might promote bleeding-induced joint injury via generation of macrophages that are unable to counteract redox stress.

  10. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Induces Inflammation and Predicts Spinal Progression in Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Vidya; Ciccia, Francesco; Zeng, Fanxing; Sari, Ismail; Guggino, Guiliana; Muralitharan, Janogini; Gracey, Eric; Haroon, Nigil

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Patients who met the modified New York criteria for AS were recruited for the study. Healthy volunteers, rheumatoid arthritis patients, and osteoarthritis patients were included as controls. Based on the annual rate of increase in modified Stoke AS Spine Score (mSASSS), AS patients were classified as progressors or nonprogressors. MIF levels in serum and synovial fluid were quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Predictors of AS progression were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis of ileal tissue was performed to identify MIF-producing cells. Flow cytometry was used to identify MIF-producing subsets, expression patterns of the MIF receptor (CD74), and MIF-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production in the peripheral blood. MIF-induced mineralization of osteoblast cells (SaOS-2) was analyzed by alizarin red S staining, and Western blotting was used to quantify active β-catenin levels. Baseline serum MIF levels were significantly elevated in AS patients compared to healthy controls and were found to independently predict AS progression. MIF levels were higher in the synovial fluid of AS patients, and MIF-producing macrophages and Paneth cells were enriched in their gut. MIF induced TNF production in monocytes, activated β-catenin in osteoblasts, and promoted the mineralization of osteoblasts. Our findings indicate an unexplored pathogenic role of MIF in AS and a link between inflammation and new bone formation. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Glutamine Modulates Macrophage Lipotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    He, Li; Weber, Kassandra J.; Schilling, Joel D.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes are associated with excessive inflammation and impaired wound healing. Increasing evidence suggests that macrophage dysfunction is responsible for these inflammatory defects. In the setting of excess nutrients, particularly dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs), activated macrophages develop lysosome dysfunction, which triggers activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and cell death. The molecular pathways that connect lipid stress to lysosome pathology are not well understood, but may represent a viable target for therapy. Glutamine uptake is increased in activated macrophages leading us to hypothesize that in the context of excess lipids glutamine metabolism could overwhelm the mitochondria and promote the accumulation of toxic metabolites. To investigate this question we assessed macrophage lipotoxicity in the absence of glutamine using LPS-activated peritoneal macrophages exposed to the SFA palmitate. We found that glutamine deficiency reduced lipid induced lysosome dysfunction, inflammasome activation, and cell death. Under glutamine deficient conditions mTOR activation was decreased and autophagy was enhanced; however, autophagy was dispensable for the rescue phenotype. Rather, glutamine deficiency prevented the suppressive effect of the SFA palmitate on mitochondrial respiration and this phenotype was associated with protection from macrophage cell death. Together, these findings reveal that crosstalk between activation-induced metabolic reprogramming and the nutrient microenvironment can dramatically alter macrophage responses to inflammatory stimuli. PMID:27077881

  12. In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxicity of two root canal sealers on macrophage activity.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Mendes, Sônia Teresa; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino; de Carvalho, André Teixeira; de Souza Côrtes, Maria Ilma; Vieira, Leda Quercia

    2003-02-01

    Although some studies have been concerned with the cytotoxicity of endodontic sealers and their components, few have approached the effects of endodontic sealers on macrophage viability and activity. In this study the effect of two zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealers, freshly prepared or after setting for 24 h, was determined on macrophage activity in vitro. Sealers were placed inside a glass capillary tube and added to mouse-elicited macrophage cultures. Sealers did not affect macrophage viability; however, adherence to glass and phagocytosis were impaired. Moreover, nitric oxide production in response to activation with interferon-gamma was diminished, but interleukin-12 production in response to Listeria monocytogenes was not altered. Interestingly, freshly mixed and solid test samples had similar inhibitory activities. In conclusion, the tested sealers did not affect a pro-inflammatory response (interleukin-12 production) but had an inhibitory effect on the effector responses measured (phagocytosis and nitric oxide production).

  13. Macrophage activation induced by Brucella DNA suppresses bacterial intracellular replication via enhancing NO production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Lin; Sun, Changjiang; Yang, Li; Tang, Bin; Sun, Wanchun; Peng, Qisheng

    2015-12-01

    Brucella DNA can be sensed by TLR9 on endosomal membrane and by cytosolic AIM2-inflammasome to induce proinflammatory cytokine production that contributes to partially activate innate immunity. Additionally, Brucella DNA has been identified to be able to act as a major bacterial component to induce type I IFN. However, the role of Brucella DNA in Brucella intracellular growth remains unknown. Here, we showed that stimulation with Brucella DNA promote macrophage activation in TLR9-dependent manner. Activated macrophages can suppresses wild type Brucella intracellular replication at early stage of infection via enhancing NO production. We also reported that activated macrophage promotes bactericidal function of macrophages infected with VirB-deficient Brucella at the early or late stage of infection. This study uncovers a novel function of Brucella DNA, which can help us further elucidate the mechanism of Brucella intracellular survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Scavenger receptor B1 facilitates macrophage uptake of silver nanoparticles and cellular activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldossari, Abdullah A.; Shannahan, Jonathan H.; Podila, Ramakrishna; Brown, Jared M.

    2015-07-01

    Due to increased use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for their antimicrobial activity, concerns have risen regarding potential adverse human health effects. Scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1), a major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), is expressed by macrophages and has also been reported to play a role in recognition of negatively charged particles. We, therefore, hypothesized that SR-B1 mediates macrophage uptake of AgNPs and inflammatory activation. To test this hypothesis, we exposed a mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 (RAW) and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) to 20 nm citrate-suspended AgNPs. To verify the role of the SR-B1 receptor, we utilized a SR-B1 inhibitor (Blt2). In vitro studies demonstrated uptake of AgNPs and HDL-coated AgNPs by macrophages which were significantly reduced following pretreatment with Blt2. Inflammatory cytokine arrays revealed that macrophages exposed to AgNPs up-regulated expression of Tnf- α, Oncostatin m (OSM), Ccl4, Il17f, Ccl7, and Ccl2, whereas Il16 was found to be down-regulated. Macrophage activation was observed following AgNP and HDL-coated AgNP exposure as measured by OSM protein production and increased surface expression of CD86. These markers of activation were reduced with Blt2 pretreatment. The in vitro findings were confirmed in vivo through pulmonary instillation of AgNPs in mice. Pulmonary instillation of AgNPs resulted in a recruitment of inflammatory cells that were reduced in SR-B1-deficient mice or following Blt2 pretreatment. This study suggests that SR-B1 plays a major role in cellular recognition of AgNPs and the induction of cell responses that could contribute to inflammation caused by AgNP exposure.

  15. Genetic programs expressed in resting and IL-4 alternatively activated mouse and human macrophages: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Fernando O; Helming, Laura; Milde, Ronny; Varin, Audrey; Melgert, Barbro N; Draijer, Christina; Thomas, Benjamin; Fabbri, Marco; Crawshaw, Anjali; Ho, Ling Pei; Ten Hacken, Nick H; Cobos Jiménez, Viviana; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Hamann, Jörg; Greaves, David R; Locati, Massimo; Mantovani, Alberto; Gordon, Siamon

    2013-02-28

    The molecular repertoire of macrophages in health and disease can provide novel biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Th2-IL-4–activated macrophages (M2) have been associated with important diseases in mice, yet no specific markers are available for their detection in human tissues. Although mouse models are widely used for macrophage research, translation to the human can be problematic and the human macrophage system remains poorly described. In the present study, we analyzed and compared the transcriptome and proteome of human and murine macrophages under resting conditions (M0) and after IL-4 activation (M2). We provide a resource for tools enabling macrophage detection in human tissues by identifying a set of 87 macrophage-related genes. Furthermore, we extend current understanding of M2 activation in different species and identify Transglutaminase 2 as a conserved M2 marker that is highly expressed by human macrophages and monocytes in the prototypic Th2 pathology asthma.

  16. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor-CXCR4 Receptor Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Deepa; Gröning, Sabine; Schmitz, Corinna; Zierow, Swen; Drucker, Natalie; Bakou, Maria; Kohl, Kristian; Mertens, André; Lue, Hongqi; Weber, Christian; Xiao, Annie; Luker, Gary; Kapurniotu, Aphrodite; Lolis, Elias; Bernhagen, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    An emerging number of non-chemokine mediators are found to bind to classical chemokine receptors and to elicit critical biological responses. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an inflammatory cytokine that exhibits chemokine-like activities through non-cognate interactions with the chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4, in addition to activating the type II receptor CD74. Activation of the MIF-CXCR2 and -CXCR4 axes promotes leukocyte recruitment, mediating the exacerbating role of MIF in atherosclerosis and contributing to the wealth of other MIF biological activities. Although the structural basis of the MIF-CXCR2 interaction has been well studied and was found to engage a pseudo-ELR and an N-like loop motif, nothing is known about the regions of CXCR4 and MIF that are involved in binding to each other. Using a genetic strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that expresses a functional CXCR4 receptor, site-specific mutagenesis, hybrid CXCR3/CXCR4 receptors, pharmacological reagents, peptide array analysis, chemotaxis, fluorescence spectroscopy, and circular dichroism, we provide novel molecular information about the structural elements that govern the interaction between MIF and CXCR4. The data identify similarities with classical chemokine-receptor interactions but also provide evidence for a partial allosteric agonist compared with CXCL12 that is possible due to the two binding sites of CXCR4. PMID:27226569

  17. Trichomonas vaginalis homolog of macrophage migration inhibitory factor induces prostate cell growth, invasiveness, and inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Twu, Olivia; Dessí, Daniele; Vu, Anh; Mercer, Frances; Stevens, Grant C; de Miguel, Natalia; Rappelli, Paola; Cocco, Anna Rita; Clubb, Robert T; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Johnson, Patricia J

    2014-06-03

    The human-infective parasite Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Infections in men may result in colonization of the prostate and are correlated with increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer. We have found that T. vaginalis secretes a protein, T. vaginalis macrophage migration inhibitory factor (TvMIF), that is 47% similar to human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (HuMIF), a proinflammatory cytokine. Because HuMIF is reported to be elevated in prostate cancer and inflammation plays an important role in the initiation and progression of cancers, we have explored a role for TvMIF in prostate cancer. Here, we show that TvMIF has tautomerase activity, inhibits macrophage migration, and is proinflammatory. We also demonstrate that TvMIF binds the human CD74 MIF receptor with high affinity, comparable to that of HuMIF, which triggers activation of ERK, Akt, and Bcl-2-associated death promoter phosphorylation at a physiologically relevant concentration (1 ng/mL, 80 pM). TvMIF increases the in vitro growth and invasion through Matrigel of benign and prostate cancer cells. Sera from patients infected with T. vaginalis are reactive to TvMIF, especially in males. The presence of anti-TvMIF antibodies indicates that TvMIF is released by the parasite and elicits host immune responses during infection. Together, these data indicate that chronic T. vaginalis infections may result in TvMIF-driven inflammation and cell proliferation, thus triggering pathways that contribute to the promotion and progression of prostate cancer.

  18. Essential Cell-Autonomous Role for Interferon (IFN) Regulatory Factor 1 in IFN-γ-Mediated Inhibition of Norovirus Replication in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Nicole S.; Thackray, Larissa B.; Goel, Gautam; Hwang, Seungmin; Duan, Erning; Vachharajani, Punit; Xavier, Ramnik

    2012-01-01

    Noroviruses (NVs) cause the majority of cases of epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and contribute to endemic enteric disease. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for immune control of their replication are not completely understood. Here we report that the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) is required for control of murine NV (MNV) replication and pathogenesis in vivo. This led us to studies documenting a cell-autonomous role for IRF-1 in gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-mediated inhibition of MNV replication in primary macrophages. This role of IRF-1 in the inhibition of MNV replication by IFN-γ is independent of IFN-αβ signaling. While the signal transducer and activator of transcription STAT-1 was also required for IFN-γ-mediated inhibition of MNV replication in vitro, class II transactivator (CIITA), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7) were not required. We therefore hypothesized that there must be a subset of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) regulated by IFN-γ in a manner dependent only on STAT-1 and IRF-1. Analysis of transcriptional profiles of macrophages lacking various transcription factors confirmed this hypothesis. These studies identify a key role for IRF-1 in IFN-γ-dependent control of norovirus infection in mice and macrophages. PMID:22973039

  19. Role of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Production by T Cells during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Rothchild, Alissa C; Stowell, Britni; Goyal, Girija; Nunes-Alves, Cláudio; Yang, Qianting; Papavinasasundaram, Kadamba; Sassetti, Christopher M; Dranoff, Glenn; Chen, Xinchun; Lee, Jinhee; Behar, Samuel M

    2017-10-24

    Mice deficient for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF -/- ) are highly susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis , and clinical data have shown that anti-GM-CSF neutralizing antibodies can lead to increased susceptibility to tuberculosis in otherwise healthy people. GM-CSF activates human and murine macrophages to inhibit intracellular M. tuberculosis growth. We have previously shown that GM-CSF produced by iNKT cells inhibits growth of M. tuberculosis However, the more general role of T cell-derived GM-CSF during infection has not been defined and how GM-CSF activates macrophages to inhibit bacterial growth is unknown. Here we demonstrate that, in addition to nonconventional T cells, conventional T cells also produce GM-CSF during M. tuberculosis infection. Early during infection, nonconventional iNKT cells and γδ T cells are the main source of GM-CSF, a role subsequently assumed by conventional CD4 + T cells as the infection progresses. M. tuberculosis -specific T cells producing GM-CSF are also detected in the peripheral blood of infected people. Under conditions where nonhematopoietic production of GM-CSF is deficient, T cell production of GM-CSF is protective and required for control of M. tuberculosis infection. However, GM-CSF is not required for T cell-mediated protection in settings where GM-CSF is produced by other cell types. Finally, using an in vitro macrophage infection model, we demonstrate that GM-CSF inhibition of M. tuberculosis growth requires the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Thus, we identified GM-CSF production as a novel T cell effector function. These findings suggest that a strategy augmenting T cell production of GM-CSF could enhance host resistance against M. tuberculosis IMPORTANCE Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium that causes tuberculosis, the leading cause of death by any infection worldwide. T cells are critical components of the immune

  20. Conditioned medium from persistently RSV-infected macrophages alters transcriptional profile and inflammatory response of non-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Toledo, Evelyn; Salido-Guadarrama, Iván; Rodríguez-Dorantes, Mauricio; Torres-González, Laura; Santiago-Olivares, Carlos; Gómez, Beatriz

    2017-02-15

    Cells susceptible to persistent viral infections undergo important changes in their biological functions as a consequence of the expression of viral gene products that are capable of altering the gene expression profile of the host cell. Previously, we reported that persistence of the RSV genome in a mouse macrophage cell line induces important alterations in cell homeostasis, including constitutive expression of IFN-β and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we postulated that changes in the homeostasis of non-infected macrophages could be induced by soluble factors secreted by persistently RSV- infected macrophages. To test this hypothesis, non-infected mouse macrophages were treated with conditioned medium (CM) collected from cultures of persistently RSV-infected macrophages. Total RNA was extracted and a microarray-based gene expression analysis was performed. Non-infected macrophages, treated under similar conditions with CM obtained from cultures of non-infected macrophages, were used as a control to establish differential gene expression between the two conditions. Results showed that CM from the persistently RSV-infected cultures altered expression of a total of 95 genes in non-infected macrophages, resulting in an antiviral gene-transcription profile along with inhibition of the inflammatory response, since some inflammatory genes were down-regulated, including Nlrp3 and Il-1 β, both related to the inflammasome pathway. However, down-regulation of Nlrp3 and Il-1 β was reversible upon acute RSV infection. Additionally, we observed that the inflammatory response, evaluated by secreted IL-1 β, a final product of the inflammasome activity, was enhanced during acute RSV infection in macrophages treated with CM from persistently RSV-infected cultures, compared to that in macrophages treated with the control CM. This suggests that soluble factors secreted during RSV persistence may induce an exacerbated inflammatory response in non-infected cells

  1. Hyperglycemia Suppresses Calcium Phosphate-Induced Aneurysm Formation Through Inhibition of Macrophage Activation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Teruyoshi; Takei, Yuichiro; Yamanouchi, Dai

    2016-03-28

    The aim of this study was to elucidate aspects of diabetes mellitus-induced suppression of aneurysm. We hypothesized that high glucose suppresses aneurysm by inhibiting macrophage activation via activation of Nr1h2 (also known as liver X receptor β), recently characterized as a glucose-sensing nuclear receptor. Calcium phosphate (CaPO4)-induced aneurysm formation was significantly suppressed in the arterial wall in type 1 and 2 diabetic mice. A murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, was treated with tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) plus CaPO4 and showed a significant increase in matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Mmp9) mRNA and secreted protein expression compared with TNF-α alone. Elevated Mmp9 expression was significantly suppressed by hyperglycemic conditions (15.5 mmol/L glucose) compared with normoglycemic conditions (5.5 mmol/L glucose) or normoglycemic conditions with high osmotic pressure (5.5 mmol/L glucose +10.0 mmol/L mannitol). Nr1h2 mRNA and protein expression were suppressed by treatment with TNF-α plus CaPO4 but were restored by hyperglycemic conditions. Activation of Nr1h2 by the antagonist GW3965 during stimulation with TNF-α plus CaPO4 mimicked hyperglycemic conditions and inhibited Mmp9 upregulation, whereas the deactivation of Nr1h2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) under hyperglycemic conditions canceled the suppressive effect and restored Mmp9 expression induced by TNF-α plus CaPO4. Moreover, Nr1h2 activation with GW3965 significantly suppressed CaPO4-induced aneurysm in mice compared with vehicle-injected control mice. Our results show that hyperglycemia suppresses macrophage activation and aneurysmal degeneration through the activation of Nr1h2. Although further validation of the underlying pathway is necessary, targeting Nr1h2 is a potential therapeutic approach to treating aneurysm. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  2. Macrophages from Behcet's Disease Patients Express Decreased Level of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) mRNA.

    PubMed

    Palizgir, Mohammad Taghi; Akhtari, Maryam; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Mostafaei, Shayan; Rezaeimanesh, Alireza; Akhlaghi, Massoomeh; Shahram, Farhad

    2017-10-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor, connecting environmental stimulators with the immune system. M1 macrophages are a part of immune system that contribute to the inflammatory events in the pathogenesis of Behcet's disease (BD). The effect of AHR on the macrophages in BD patients is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the mRNA expression of AHR in the monocyte-derived and M1 macrophages in active BD patients in comparison to healthy controls. Isolated monocytes from 10 healthy controls and 10 active BD patients were differentiated to macrophages by macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) for 7 days. Cells were then polarized to M1 macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) for 24h. Monocyte purity and macrophage markers expression were analyzed by flow cytometry. Analysis of AHR mRNA expression was performed by SYBR Green real-time PCR. Our results showed that AHR expression is significantly down-regulated in M1 macrophages compare to monocyte-derived macrophages. It was shown that both monocyte-derived macrophages and M1 macrophages from BD patients significantly express lower level of AHR mRNA compared to healthy individuals. Our results demonstrate an anti-inflammatory role for AHR in macrophages, which suggest that decreased AHR expression is associated with pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage and BD susceptibility.

  3. Regulation of macrophage migration by products of the complement system.

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, C; Götze, O; Cohn, Z A

    1979-01-01

    Agents formerly shown to induce rapid macrophage spreading were examined for their ability to modify the migration of macrophages in the capillary tube assay. Products of the activation of the contact phase of blood coagulation as well as the purified component Bb, the large cleavage fragment of factor B of the alternative complement pathway produced a dose-dependent inhibition of migration. In addition, inflammatory macrophages elicited with either a lipopolysaccharide endotoxin or thioglycollate medium exhibited rapid spreading and inhibited migration, whereas resident cells did not. A close correlation existed, therefore, between enhanced spreading and inhibited migration under both in vitro induced and in vivo situations. Cleavage products of component C5 of the classical complement pathway enhanced macrophage migration and did not alter spreading. In mixtures of C5 cleavage products and Bb, the predominant peptide determined the outcome of the reaction. Factor B, a normal secretory product of macrophages, may represent a common substrate for several of the proteases that induce spreading, inhibit migration, and lead to the generation of the enzymatically active fragment Bb. PMID:284412

  4. Heterochromatin protein 1 gamma and IκB kinase alpha interdependence during tumour necrosis factor gene transcription elongation in activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Thorne, James L; Ouboussad, Lylia; Lefevre, Pascal F

    2012-09-01

    IκB kinase α (IKKα) is part of the cytoplasmic IKK complex regulating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) release and translocation into the nucleus in response to pro-inflammatory signals. IKKα can also be recruited directly to the promoter of NF-κB-dependent genes by NF-κB where it phosphorylates histone H3 at serine 10, triggering recruitment of the bromodomain-containing protein 4 and the positive transcription elongation factor b. Herein, we report that IKKα travels with the elongating form of ribonucleic acid polymerase II together with heterochromatin protein 1 gamma (HP1γ) at NF-κB-dependent genes in activated macrophages. IKKα binds to and phosphorylates HP1γ, which in turn controls IKKα binding to chromatin and phosphorylation of the histone variant H3.3 at serine 31 within transcribing regions. Downstream of transcription end sites, IKKα accumulates with its inhibitor the CUE-domain containing protein 2, suggesting a link between IKKα inactivation and transcription termination.

  5. Pneumolysin-Dependent Calpain Activation and Interleukin-1α Secretion in Macrophages Infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Fang, Rendong; Wu, Rui; Du, Huihui; Jin, Meilan; Liu, Yajing; Lei, Guihua; Jiang, Bing; Lei, Zehui; Peng, Yuanyi; Nie, Kui; Tsuchiya, Kohsuke

    2017-09-01

    Pneumolysin (PLY), a major virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae , is a pore-forming cytolysin that modulates host innate responses contributing to host defense against and pathogenesis of pneumococcal infections. Interleukin-1α (IL-1α) has been shown to be involved in tissue damage in a pneumococcal pneumonia model; however, the mechanism by which this cytokine is produced during S. pneumoniae infection remains unclear. In this study, we examined the role of PLY in IL-1α production. Although the strains induced similar levels of pro-IL-1α expression, wild-type S. pneumoniae D39, but not a deletion mutant of the ply gene (Δ ply ), induced the secretion of mature IL-1α from host macrophages, suggesting that PLY is critical for the maturation and secretion of IL-1α during S. pneumoniae infection. Further experiments with calcium chelators and calpain inhibitors indicated that extracellular calcium ions and calpains (calcium-dependent proteases) facilitated the maturation and secretion of IL-1α from D39-infected macrophages. Moreover, we found that PLY plays a critical role in calcium influx and calpain activation, as elevated intracellular calcium levels and the degradation of the calpain substrate α-fodrin were detected in macrophages infected with D39 but not the Δ ply strain. These results suggested that PLY induces the influx of calcium in S. pneumoniae -infected macrophages, followed by calpain activation and subsequent IL-1α maturation and secretion. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. YC-1 potentiates cAMP-induced CREB activation and nitric oxide production in alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Tsong-Long, E-mail: htl@mail.cgu.edu.tw; Chinese Herbal Medicine Research Team, Healthy Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Tang, Ming-Chi

    2012-04-15

    Alveolar macrophages play significant roles in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory lung diseases. Increases in exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are well documented to reflect disease severity in the airway. In this study, we investigated the effect of 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole (YC-1), a known activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase, on prostaglandin (PG)E{sub 1} (a stable PGE{sub 2} analogue) and forskolin (a adenylate cyclase activator) induced NO production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383). YC-1 did not directly cause NO production or iNOS expression, but drastically potentiated PGE{sub 1}- or forskolin-induced NO production and iNOS expression in NR8383more » alveolar macrophages. Combination treatment with YC-1 and PGE{sub 1} significantly increased phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), but not nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. The combined effect on NO production, iNOS expression, and CREB phosphorylation was reversed by a protein kinase (PK)A inhibitor (H89), suggesting that the potentiating functions were mediated through a cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Consistent with this, cAMP analogues, but not the cGMP analogue, caused NO release, iNOS expression, and CREB activation. YC-1 treatment induced an increase in PGE{sub 1}-induced cAMP formation, which occurred through the inhibition of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. Furthermore, the combination of rolipram (an inhibitor of PDE4), but not milronone (an inhibitor of PDE3), and PGE{sub 1} also triggered NO production and iNOS expression. In summary, YC-1 potentiates PGE{sub 1}-induced NO production and iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages through inhibition of cAMP PDE activity and activation of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. Highlights: ► YC-1 potentiated PGE1-induced iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages. ► The combination of YC-1 and PGE1 increased CREB but not NFκ

  7. Translocator protein as an imaging marker of macrophage and stromal activation in RA pannus.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Nehal; Owen, David; Mandhair, Harpreet; Smyth, Erica; Carlucci, Francesco; Saleem, Azeem; Gunn, Roger; Rabiner, Eugenii Ilan A; Wells, Lisa; Dakin, Stephanie; Sabokbar, Afsie; Taylor, Peter

    2018-01-04

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) radioligands targeted to Translocator protein (TSPO), offer a highly sensitive and specific means of imaging joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Through high expression of TSPO on activated macrophages, TSPO PET has been widely reported in several studies of RA as a means of imaging synovial macrophages in vivo. However, this premise does not take into account the ubiquitous expression of TSPO. This study aimed to investigate TSPO expression in major cellular constituents of RA pannus; monocytes, macrophages, fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and CD4+ T lymphocytes, to more accurately interpret TSPO PET signal from RA synovium. Methods: 3 RA patients and 3 healthy volunteers underwent PET both knees using the TSPO radioligand 11 C-PBR28. Through synovial tissue 3H-PBR28 autoradiography and immunostaining of 6 RA patients and 6 healthy volunteers, cellular expression of TSPO in synovial tissue was evaluated. TSPO mRNA expression and 3H-PBR28 radioligand binding was assessed using in vitro monocytes, macrophages, FLS and CD4+ T-lymphocytes. Results: 11 C-PBR28 PET signal was significantly higher in RA compared to healthy joints (average SUV 0.82± 0.12 compared to 0.03± 0.004 respectively, p<0.01). Further, 3H-PBR28 specific binding in synovial tissue was approximately 10-fold higher in RA compared to healthy controls. Immunofluorescence revealed TSPO expression on macrophages, FLS and CD4+ T cells. In vitro study demonstrated highest TSPO mRNA expression and 3H-PBR28 specific binding, in activated FLS, non-activated and activated 'M2' reparative macrophages, with least TSPO expression in activated and non-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Conclusion: This study is the first evaluation of cellular TSPO expression in synovium, finding highest TSPO expression and PBR28 binding on activated synovial FLS and M2 phenotype macrophages. TSPO targeted PET may therefore have unique sensitivity to detect FLS and macrophage

  8. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Deficiency in Macrophages Inhibits Neointimal Hyperplasia and Suppresses Macrophage Inflammation Through SGK1-AP1/NF-κB Pathways.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Yong; Li, Chao; Shen, Zhu-Xia; Zhang, Wu-Chang; Ai, Tang-Jun; Du, Lin-Juan; Zhang, Yu-Yao; Yao, Gao-Feng; Liu, Yan; Sun, Shuyang; Naray-Fejes-Toth, Aniko; Fejes-Toth, Geza; Peng, Yong; Chen, Mao; Liu, Xiaojing; Tao, Jun; Zhou, Bin; Yu, Ying; Guo, Feifan; Du, Jie; Duan, Sheng-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention remains to be a serious medical problem. Although mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) has been implicated as a potential target for treating restenosis, the cellular and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aims to explore the functions of macrophage MR in neointimal hyperplasia and to delineate the molecular mechanisms. Myeloid MR knockout (MMRKO) mice and controls were subjected to femoral artery injury. MMRKO reduced intima area and intima/media ratio, Ki67- and BrdU-positive vascular smooth muscle cells, expression of proinflammatory molecules, and macrophage accumulation in injured arteries. MMRKO macrophages migrated less in culture. MMRKO decreased Ki67- and BrdU-positive macrophages in injured arteries. MMRKO macrophages were less Ki67-positive in culture. Conditioned media from MMRKO macrophages induced less migration, Ki67 positivity, and proinflammatory gene expression of vascular smooth muscle cells. After lipopolysaccharide treatment, MMRKO macrophages had decreased p-cFos and p-cJun compared with control macrophages, suggesting suppressed activation of activator protein-1 (AP1). Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway was also inhibited by MMRKO, manifested by decreased p-IκB kinase-β and p-IκBα, increased IκBα expression, decreased nuclear translocation of p65 and p50, as welll as decreased phosphorylation and expression of p65. Finally, overexpression of serum-and-glucocorticoid-inducible-kinase-1 (SGK1) attenuated the effects of MR deficiency in macrophages. Selective deletion of MR in myeloid cells limits macrophage accumulation and vascular inflammation and, therefore, inhibits neointimal hyperplasia and vascular remodeling. Mechanistically, MR deficiency suppresses migration and proliferation of macrophages and leads to less vascular smooth muscle cell activation. At the molecular level, MR deficiency suppresses macrophage inflammatory response via SGK1-AP1/NF-κB pathways.

  9. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulatory Factor Enhances the Pro-Inflammatory Response of Interferon-γ-Treated Macrophages to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sonali; Barr, Helen; Liu, Yi-Chia; Robins, Adrian; Heeb, Stephan; Williams, Paul; Fogarty, Andrew; Cámara, Miguel; Martínez-Pomares, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe infections at compromised epithelial surfaces, such those found in burns, wounds, and in lungs damaged by mechanical ventilation or recurrent infections, particularly in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. CF patients have been proposed to have a Th2 and Th17-biased immune response suggesting that the lack of Th1 and/or over exuberant Th17 responses could contribute to the establishment of chronic P. aeruginosa infection and deterioration of lung function. Accordingly, we have observed that interferon (IFN)-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CF patients positively correlated with lung function, particularly in patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. In contrast, IL-17A levels tended to correlate negatively with lung function with this trend becoming significant in patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. These results are in agreement with IFN-γ and IL-17A playing protective and detrimental roles, respectively, in CF. In order to explore the protective effect of IFN-γ in CF, the effect of IFN-γ alone or in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), on the ability of human macrophages to control P. aeruginosa growth, resist the cytotoxicity induced by this bacterium or promote inflammation was investigated. Treatment of macrophages with IFN-γ, in the presence and absence of GM-CSF, failed to alter bacterial growth or macrophage survival upon P. aeruginosa infection, but changed the inflammatory potential of macrophages. IFN-γ caused up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and TNF-α and down-regulation of IL-10 expression by infected macrophages. GM-CSF in combination with IFN-γ promoted IL-6 production and further reduction of IL-10 synthesis. Comparison of TNF-α vs. IL-10 and IL-6 vs. IL-10 ratios revealed the following hierarchy in regard to the pro-inflammatory potential of human macrophages

  10. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulatory factor enhances the pro-inflammatory response of interferon-γ-treated macrophages to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sonali; Barr, Helen; Liu, Yi-Chia; Robins, Adrian; Heeb, Stephan; Williams, Paul; Fogarty, Andrew; Cámara, Miguel; Martínez-Pomares, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe infections at compromised epithelial surfaces, such those found in burns, wounds, and in lungs damaged by mechanical ventilation or recurrent infections, particularly in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. CF patients have been proposed to have a Th2 and Th17-biased immune response suggesting that the lack of Th1 and/or over exuberant Th17 responses could contribute to the establishment of chronic P. aeruginosa infection and deterioration of lung function. Accordingly, we have observed that interferon (IFN)-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CF patients positively correlated with lung function, particularly in patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. In contrast, IL-17A levels tended to correlate negatively with lung function with this trend becoming significant in patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. These results are in agreement with IFN-γ and IL-17A playing protective and detrimental roles, respectively, in CF. In order to explore the protective effect of IFN-γ in CF, the effect of IFN-γ alone or in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), on the ability of human macrophages to control P. aeruginosa growth, resist the cytotoxicity induced by this bacterium or promote inflammation was investigated. Treatment of macrophages with IFN-γ, in the presence and absence of GM-CSF, failed to alter bacterial growth or macrophage survival upon P. aeruginosa infection, but changed the inflammatory potential of macrophages. IFN-γ caused up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and TNF-α and down-regulation of IL-10 expression by infected macrophages. GM-CSF in combination with IFN-γ promoted IL-6 production and further reduction of IL-10 synthesis. Comparison of TNF-α vs. IL-10 and IL-6 vs. IL-10 ratios revealed the following hierarchy in regard to the pro-inflammatory potential of human macrophages

  11. Design of Recombinant Stem Cell Factor macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Fusion Proteins and their Biological Activity In Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Yang, Jie; Wang, Yuelang; Zhan, Chenyang; Zang, Yuhui; Qin, Junchuan

    2005-05-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) can act in synergistic way to promote the growth of mononuclear phagocytes. SCF-M-CSF fusion proteins were designed on the computer using the Homology and Biopolymer modules of the software packages InsightII. Several existing crystal structures were used as templates to generate models of the complexes of receptor with fusion protein. The structure rationality of the fusion protein incorporated a series of flexible linker peptide was analyzed on InsightII system. Then, a suitable peptide GGGGSGGGGSGG was chosen for the fusion protein. Two recombinant SCF-M-CSF fusion proteins were generated by construction of a plasmid in which the coding regions of human SCF (1-165aa) and M-CSF (1-149aa) cDNA were connected by this linker peptide coding sequence followed by subsequent expression in insect cell. The results of Western blot and activity analysis showed that these two recombinant fusion proteins existed as a dimer with a molecular weight of 84 KD under non-reducing conditions and a monomer of 42 KD at reducing condition. The results of cell proliferation assays showed that each fusion protein induced a dose-dependent proliferative response. At equimolar concentration, SCF/M-CSF was about 20 times more potent than the standard monomeric SCF in stimulating TF-1 cell line growth, while M-CSF/SCF was 10 times of monomeric SCF. No activity difference of M-CSF/SCF or SCF/M-CSF to M-CSF (at same molar) was found in stimulating the HL-60 cell linear growth. The synergistic effect of SCF and M-CSF moieties in the fusion proteins was demonstrated by the result of clonogenic assay performed with human bone mononuclear, in which both SCF/M-CSF and M-CSF/SCF induced much higher number of CFU-M than equimolar amount of SCF or M-CSF or that of two cytokines mixture.

  12. Lineage-specific enhancers activate self-renewal genes in macrophages and embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Soucie, Erinn L.; Weng, Ziming; Geirsdóttir, Laufey; Molawi, Kaaweh; Maurizio, Julien; Fenouil, Romain; Mossadegh-Keller, Noushine; Gimenez, Gregory; VanHille, Laurent; Beniazza, Meryam; Favret, Jeremy; Berruyer, Carole; Perrin, Pierre; Hacohen, Nir; Andrau, J.-C.; Ferrier, Pierre; Dubreuil, Patrice; Sidow, Arend; Sieweke, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated macrophages can self-renew in tissues and expand long-term in culture, but the gene regulatory mechanisms that accomplish self-renewal in the differentiated state have remained unknown. Here we show that in mice, the transcription factors MafB and c-Maf repress a macrophage-specific enhancer repertoire associated with a gene network controlling self-renewal. Single cell analysis revealed that, in vivo, proliferating resident macrophages can access this network by transient down-regulation of Maf transcription factors. The network also controls embryonic stem cell self-renewal but is associated with distinct embryonic stem cell-specific enhancers. This indicates that distinct lineage-specific enhancer platforms regulate a shared network of genes that control self-renewal potential in both stem and mature cells. PMID:26797145

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lactobacillus Rahmnosus and Bifidobacterium Breve on Cigarette Smoke Activated Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Mortaz, Esmaeil; Adcock, Ian M.; Ricciardolo, Fabio L. M.; Varahram, Mohammad; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Velayati, Ali Akbar; Folkerts, Gert; Garssen, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem with cigarette smoke (CS) as the main risk factor for its development. Airway inflammation in COP