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Sample records for macroscopic bioreaction models

  1. Validation of Travel-Time based Nonlinear Bioreactive Transport Models under Flow and Transport Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz Prat, A.; Lu, C.; Cirpka, O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Travel-time based models are presented as an alternative to traditional spatially explicit models to solve nonlinear reactive-transport problems. The main advantage of the travel-time approach is that it does not require multi-dimensional characterization of physical and chemical parameters, and transport is one-dimensional. Spatial dimensions are replaced by groundwater travel time, defined as the time required by a water particle to reach an observation point or the outflow boundary, respectively. The fundamental hypothesis is that locations of the same groundwater age exhibit the same reactive-species concentrations. This is true in strictly advective-reactive transport in steady-state flows if the coefficients of reactions are uniform and the concentration is uniform over the inflow boundary. We hypothesize that the assumption still holds when adding some dispersion in coupled flow and transport dynamics. We compare a two-dimensional, spatially explicit, bioreactive, advective-dispersive transport model, considered as "virtual truth", with three 1-D travel-time based models which differ by the conceptualization of longitudinal dispersion: (i) neglecting dispersive mixing altogether, (ii) introducing a local-scale longitudinal dispersivity constant in time and space, and (iii) using an effective longitudinal dispersivity that increases linearly with distance. We consider biodegradation of organic matter catalyzed by non-competitive inhibitive microbial populations. The simulated inflow contains oxygen, nitrate, and DOC. The domain contains growing aerobic and denitrifying bacteria, the latter being inhibited by oxygen. This system is computed in 1-D, and in 2-D heterogeneous domains. We conclude that the conceptualization of nonlinear bioreactive transport in complex multi-dimensional domains by quasi 1-D travel-time models is valid for steady-state flow if the reactants are introduced over a wide cross-section, flow is at quasi-steady state, and dispersive

  2. Macroscopic-microscopic mass models

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, J.R.; Moller, P.

    1995-07-01

    We discuss recent developments in macroscopic-microscopic mass models, including the 1992 finite-range droplet model, the 1992 extended- Thomas-Fermi Strutinsky-integral model, and the 1994 Thomas-Fermi model, with particular emphasis on how well they extrapolate to new regions of nuclei. We also address what recent developments in macroscopic-microscopic mass models are teaching us about such physically relevant issues as the nuclear curvature energy, a new congruence energy arising from a greater-than-average overlap of neutron and proton wave functions, the nuclear incompressibility coefficient, and the coulomb redistribution energy arising from a central density depression. We conclude with a brief discussion of the recently discovered rock of metastable superheavy nuclei near {sup 272}110 that had been correctly predicted by macroscopic-microscopic models, along with a possible new tack for reaching an island near {sup 290}110 beyond our present horizon.

  3. Development of bioreaction engineering.

    PubMed

    Schügerl, K

    2000-01-01

    In addition to summarizing the early investigations in bioreaction engineering, the present short review covers the development of the field in the last 50 years. A brief overview of the progress of the fundamentals is presented in the first part of this article and the key issues of bioreaction engineering are advanced in its second part.

  4. On the validity of travel-time based nonlinear bioreactive transport models in steady-state flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2015-04-01

    Travel-time based models simplify the description of reactive transport by replacing the spatial coordinates with the groundwater travel time, posing a quasi one-dimensional (1-D) problem and potentially rendering the determination of multidimensional parameter fields unnecessary. While the approach is exact for strictly advective transport in steady-state flow if the reactive properties of the porous medium are uniform, its validity is unclear when local-scale mixing affects the reactive behavior. We compare a two-dimensional (2-D), spatially explicit, bioreactive, advective-dispersive transport model, considered as "virtual truth", with three 1-D travel-time based models which differ in the conceptualization of longitudinal dispersion: (i) neglecting dispersive mixing altogether, (ii) introducing a local-scale longitudinal dispersivity constant in time and space, and (iii) using an effective longitudinal dispersivity that increases linearly with distance. The reactive system considers biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon, which is introduced into a hydraulically heterogeneous domain together with oxygen and nitrate. Aerobic and denitrifying bacteria use the energy of the microbial transformations for growth. We analyze six scenarios differing in the variance of log-hydraulic conductivity and in the inflow boundary conditions (constant versus time-varying concentration). The concentrations of the 1-D models are mapped to the 2-D domain by means of the kinematic (for case i), and mean groundwater age (for cases ii & iii), respectively. The comparison between concentrations of the "virtual truth" and the 1-D approaches indicates extremely good agreement when using an effective, linearly increasing longitudinal dispersivity in the majority of the scenarios, while the other two 1-D approaches reproduce at least the concentration tendencies well. At late times, all 1-D models give valid approximations of two-dimensional transport. We conclude that the

  5. On the validity of travel-time based nonlinear bioreactive transport models in steady-state flow.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2015-01-01

    Travel-time based models simplify the description of reactive transport by replacing the spatial coordinates with the groundwater travel time, posing a quasi one-dimensional (1-D) problem and potentially rendering the determination of multidimensional parameter fields unnecessary. While the approach is exact for strictly advective transport in steady-state flow if the reactive properties of the porous medium are uniform, its validity is unclear when local-scale mixing affects the reactive behavior. We compare a two-dimensional (2-D), spatially explicit, bioreactive, advective-dispersive transport model, considered as "virtual truth", with three 1-D travel-time based models which differ in the conceptualization of longitudinal dispersion: (i) neglecting dispersive mixing altogether, (ii) introducing a local-scale longitudinal dispersivity constant in time and space, and (iii) using an effective longitudinal dispersivity that increases linearly with distance. The reactive system considers biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon, which is introduced into a hydraulically heterogeneous domain together with oxygen and nitrate. Aerobic and denitrifying bacteria use the energy of the microbial transformations for growth. We analyze six scenarios differing in the variance of log-hydraulic conductivity and in the inflow boundary conditions (constant versus time-varying concentration). The concentrations of the 1-D models are mapped to the 2-D domain by means of the kinematic (for case i), and mean groundwater age (for cases ii & iii), respectively. The comparison between concentrations of the "virtual truth" and the 1-D approaches indicates extremely good agreement when using an effective, linearly increasing longitudinal dispersivity in the majority of the scenarios, while the other two 1-D approaches reproduce at least the concentration tendencies well. At late times, all 1-D models give valid approximations of two-dimensional transport. We conclude that the

  6. Macroscopic Modeling of Polymer-Electrolyte Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.Z.; Newman, J.

    2007-04-01

    In this chapter, the various approaches for the macroscopic modeling of transport phenomena in polymer-electrolyte membranes are discussed. This includes general background and modeling methodologies, as well as exploration of the governing equations and some membrane-related topic of interest.

  7. A bioreaction-diffusion model for growth of marine sponge explants in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Garcia Camacho, F; Chileh, T; Cerón García, M C; Sánchez Mirón, A; Belarbi, E H; Chisti, Y; Molina Grima, E

    2006-12-01

    Marine sponges are sources of high-value bioactives. Engineering aspects of in vitro culture of sponges from cuttings (explants) are poorly understood. This work develops a diffusion-controlled growth model for sponge explants. The model assumes that the explant growth is controlled by diffusive transport of at least some nutrients from the surrounding medium into the explant that generally has a poorly developed aquiferous system for internal irrigation during early stages of growth. Growth is assumed to obey Monod-type kinetics. The model is shown to satisfactorily explain the measured growth behavior of the marine sponge Crambe crambe in two different growth media. In addition, the model is generally consistent with published data for growth of explants of the sponges Disidea avara and Hemimycale columella. The model predicted that nutrient concentration profiles for nutrients, such as dissolved oxygen within the explant, are consistent with data published by independent researchers. In view of the proposed model's ability to explain available data for growth of several species of sponge explants, diffusive transport does play a controlling role in explant growth at least until a fully developed aquiferous system has become established. According to the model and experimental observations, the instantaneous growth rate depends on the size of the explant and all those factors that influence the diffusion of critical nutrients within the explant. Growth follows a hyperbolic profile that is consistent with the Monod kinetics.

  8. Macroscopic balance model for wave rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model for multi-port wave rotors is described. The wave processes that effect energy exchange within the rotor passage are modeled using one-dimensional gas dynamics. Macroscopic mass and energy balances relate volume-averaged thermodynamic properties in the rotor passage control volume to the mass, momentum, and energy fluxes at the ports. Loss models account for entropy production in boundary layers and in separating flows caused by blade-blockage, incidence, and gradual opening and closing of rotor passages. The mathematical model provides a basis for predicting design-point wave rotor performance, port timing, and machine size. Model predictions are evaluated through comparisons with CFD calculations and three-port wave rotor experimental data. A four-port wave rotor design example is provided to demonstrate model applicability. The modeling approach is amenable to wave rotor optimization studies and rapid assessment of the trade-offs associated with integrating wave rotors into gas turbine engine systems.

  9. Modeling Dissociation-Vibration Coupling with the Macroscopic Chemistry Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, Charles R.; Macrossan, Michael N.

    2005-05-01

    We test the recently developed macroscopic approach to modeling chemistry in DSMC, by simulating the flow of rarefied dissociating nitrogen over a blunt cylinder. In this macroscopic method, chemical reactions are decoupled from the collision routine. Molecules are chosen to undergo dissociation at each time step, after the collisions are calculated. The required number of reaction events is calculated from macroscopic reaction rate expressions with macroscopic information taken from the time-averaged cell properties. One advantage of this method is that "state-of-the-art" macroscopic information about reaction rates can be used directly in DSMC in the same way as in continuum codes. Hybrid Navier-Stokes/DSMC codes can therefore easily use the same chemical models in both rarefied and continuum flow regions. Here we show that the macroscopic method can capture dissociation-vibration (DV) coupling, which is an important effect in vibrationally cold blunt body flows because it results in increased surface heat fluxes. We use the macroscopic method with Park's two-temperature rate model, often used in continuum studies, to capture DV coupling in DSMC. This produces a flowfield in reasonable agreement with that calculated using the conventional collision-based threshold line dissociation model.

  10. Hyperspectral unmixing using macroscopic and microscopic mixture models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Ryan; Gader, Paul; Wilson, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Macroscopic and microscopic mixture models and algorithms for hyperspectral unmixing are presented. Unmixing algorithms are derived from an objective function. The objective function incorporates the linear mixture model for macroscopic unmixing and a nonlinear mixture model for microscopic unmixing. The nonlinear mixture model is derived from a bidirectional reflectance distribution function for microscopic mixtures. The algorithm is designed to unmix hyperspectral images composed of macroscopic or microscopic mixtures. The mixture types and abundances at each pixel can be estimated directly from the data without prior knowledge of mixture types. Endmembers can also be estimated. Results are presented using synthetic data sets of macroscopic and microscopic mixtures and using well-known, well-characterized laboratory data sets. The unmixing accuracy of this new physics-based algorithm is compared to linear methods and to results published for other nonlinear models. The proposed method achieves the best unmixing accuracy.

  11. Macroscopic model of scanning force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Guerra-Vela, Claudio; Zypman, Fredy R.

    2004-10-05

    A macroscopic version of the Scanning Force Microscope is described. It consists of a cantilever under the influence of external forces, which mimic the tip-sample interactions. The use of this piece of equipment is threefold. First, it serves as direct way to understand the parts and functions of the Scanning Force Microscope, and thus it is effectively used as an instructional tool. Second, due to its large size, it allows for simple measurements of applied forces and parameters that define the state of motion of the system. This information, in turn, serves to compare the interaction forces with the reconstructed ones, which cannot be done directly with the standard microscopic set up. Third, it provides a kinematics method to non-destructively measure elastic constants of materials, such as Young's and shear modules, with special application for brittle materials.

  12. Microwave Diffraction Techniques from Macroscopic Crystal Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, William Henry

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the construction of a diffractometer table and four microwave models which are built of styrofoam balls with implanted metallic reflecting spheres and designed to simulate the structures of carbon (graphite structure), sodium chloride, tin oxide, and palladium oxide. Included are samples of Bragg patterns and computer-analysis results.…

  13. Microscopic to Macroscopic Dynamical Models of Sociality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis Salas, Citlali; Woolley, Thomas; Pearce, Eiluned; Dunbar, Robin; Maini, Philip; Social; Evolutionary Neuroscience Research Group (Senrg) Collaboration

    To help them survive, social animals, such as humans, need to share knowledge and responsibilities with other members of the species. The larger their social network, the bigger the pool of knowledge available to them. Since time is a limited resource, a way of optimising its use is meeting amongst individuals whilst fulfilling other necessities. In this sense it is useful to know how many, and how often, early humans could meet during a given period of time whilst performing other necessary tasks, such as food gathering. Using a simplified model of these dynamics, which comprehend encounter and memory, we aim at producing a lower-bound to the number of meetings hunter-gatherers could have during a year. We compare the stochastic agent-based model to its mean-field approximation and explore some of the features necessary for the difference between low population dynamics and its continuum limit. We observe an emergent property that could have an inference in the layered structure seen in each person's social organisation. This could give some insight into hunter-gatherer's lives and the development of the social layered structure we have today. With support from the Mexican Council for Science and Technology (CONACyT), the Public Education Secretariat (SEP), and the Mexican National Autonomous University's Foundation (Fundacion UNAM).

  14. Fast Analytical Methods for Macroscopic Electrostatic Models in Biomolecular Simulations*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhenli; Cai, Wei

    2013-01-01

    We review recent developments of fast analytical methods for macroscopic electrostatic calculations in biological applications, including the Poisson–Boltzmann (PB) and the generalized Born models for electrostatic solvation energy. The focus is on analytical approaches for hybrid solvation models, especially the image charge method for a spherical cavity, and also the generalized Born theory as an approximation to the PB model. This review places much emphasis on the mathematical details behind these methods. PMID:23745011

  15. Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Borghero, F.; Demontis, F.; Pennisi, S.

    2013-11-15

    Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.

  16. Fission barriers in a macroscopic-microscopic model

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrowolski, A.; Pomorski, K.; Bartel, J.

    2007-02-15

    In the framework of the macroscopic-microscopic model, this study investigates fission barriers in the region of actinide nuclei. A very effective four-dimensional shape parametrization for fissioning nuclei is proposed. Taking, in particular, the left-right mass asymmetric and nonaxial shapes into account is demonstrated to have a substantial effect on fission barrier heights. The influence of proton versus neutron deformation differences on the potential energy landscape of fissioning nuclei is also discussed.

  17. The mirrors model: macroscopic diffusion without noise or chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiffaudel, Yann; Lefevere, Raphaël

    2016-03-01

    Before stating our main result, we first clarify through classical examples the status of the laws of macroscopic physics as laws of large numbers. We next consider the mirrors model in a finite d-dimensional domain and connected to particles reservoirs at fixed chemical potentials. The dynamics is purely deterministic and non-ergodic but takes place in a random environment. We study the macroscopic current of particles in the stationary regime. We show first that when the size of the system goes to infinity, the behaviour of the stationary current of particles is governed by the proportion of orbits crossing the system. This allows us to formulate a necessary and sufficient condition on the distribution of the set of orbits that ensures the validity of Fick’s law. Using this approach, we show that Fick’s law relating the stationary macroscopic current of particles to the concentration difference holds in three dimensions and above. The negative correlations between crossing orbits play a key role in the argument.

  18. Improved macroscopic traffic flow model for aggressive drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, A. R.; Velasco, R. M.

    2011-03-24

    As has been done for the treatment of diluted gases, kinetic methods are formulated for the study of unidirectional freeway traffic. Fluid dynamic models obtained from kinetic equations have inherent restrictions, the principal one is the restriction to the low density regime. Macroscopic models obtained from kinetic equations tends to selfrestrict to this regime and makes impossible to observe the medium density region. In this work, we present some results heading to improve this model and extend the observable region. Now, we are presenting a fluid dynamic model for aggressive drivers obtained from kinetic assumptions to extend the model to the medium density region in order to study synchronization phenomena which is a very interesting transition phase between free flow and traffic jams. We are changing the constant variance prefactor condition imposed before by a variance prefactor density dependent, the numerical solution of the model is presented, analyzed and contrasted with the previous one. We are also comparing our results with heuristic macroscopic models and real traffic observations.

  19. Macroscopic traffic modeling with the finite difference method

    SciTech Connect

    Mughabghab, S.; Azarm, A.; Stock, D.

    1996-03-15

    A traffic congestion forecasting model (ATOP), developed in the present investigation, is described briefly. Several macroscopic models, based on the solution of the partial differential equation of conservation of vehicles by the finite difference method, were tested using actual traffic data. The functional form, as well as the parameters, of the equation of state which describes the relation between traffic speed and traffic density, were determined for a section of the Long Island Expressway. The Lax method and the forward difference technique were applied. The results of extensive tests showed that the Lax method, in addition to giving very good agreement with the traffic data, produces stable solutions.

  20. Macroscopic modeling of plant water uptake: soil and root resistances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Tomas; Votrubova, Jana; Dohnal, Michal; Dusek, Jaromir

    2014-05-01

    The macroscopic physically-based plant root water uptake (RWU) model, based on water-potential-gradient formulation (Vogel et al., 2013), was used to simulate the observed soil-plant-atmosphere interactions at a forest site located in a temperate humid climate of central Europe and to gain an improved insight into the mutual interplay of RWU parameters that affects the soil water distribution in the root zone. In the applied RWU model, the uptake rates are directly proportional to the potential gradient and indirectly proportional to the local soil and root resistances to water flow. The RWU algorithm is implemented in a one-dimensional dual-continuum model of soil water flow based on Richards' equation. The RWU model is defined by four parameters (root length density distribution, average active root radius, radial root resistance, and the threshold value of the root xylem potential). In addition, soil resistance to water extraction by roots is related to soil hydraulic conductivity function and actual soil water content. The RWU model is capable of simulating both the compensatory root water uptake, in situations when reduced uptake from dry layers is compensated by increased uptake from wetter layers, and the root-mediated hydraulic redistribution of soil water, contributing to more natural soil moisture distribution throughout the root zone. The present study focusses on the sensitivity analysis of the combined soil water flow and RWU model responses in respect to variations of RWU model parameters. Vogel T., M. Dohnal, J. Dusek, J. Votrubova, and M. Tesar. 2013. Macroscopic modeling of plant water uptake in a forest stand involving root-mediated soil-water redistribution. Vadose Zone Journal, 12, 10.2136/vzj2012.0154.

  1. Nonclassical interactions portrait in a macroscopic pedestrian flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosini, Massimiliano D.

    In this paper we describe the main characteristics of the macroscopic model for pedestrian flows introduced in [R.M. Colombo, M.D. Rosini, Pedestrian flows and non-classical shocks, Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 28 (13) (2005) 1553-1567] and recently sperimentally verified in [D. Helbing, A. Johansson, H.Z. Al-Abideen, Dynamics of crowd disasters: An empirical study, Phys. Rev. E (Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics) 75 (4) (2007) 046109]. After a detailed study of all the possible wave interactions, we prove the existence of a weighted total variation that does not increase after any interaction. This is the main ingredient used in [R.M. Colombo, M.D. Rosini, Existence of nonclassical Cauchy problem modeling pedestrian flows, technical report, Brescia Department of Mathematics, 2008] to tackle the Cauchy problem through wave front tracking, see [A. Bressan, Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws. The One-Dimensional Cauchy Problem, Oxford Lecture Ser. Math. Appl., vol. 20, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 2000, The one-dimensional Cauchy problem; A. Bressan, The front tracking method for systems of conservation laws, in: C.M. Dafermos, E. Feireisl (Eds.), Handbook of Differential Equations; Evolutionary Equations, vol. 1, Elsevier, 2004, pp. 87-168; R.M. Colombo, Wave front tracking in systems of conservation laws, Appl. Math. 49 (6) (2004) 501-537]. From the mathematical point of view, this model is one of the few examples of conservation laws in which nonclassical solutions have a physical motivation, see [P.G. Lefloch, Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws, Lectures Math. ETH Zürich, Birkhäuser, Basel, 2002, The theory of classical and nonclassical shock waves], and an existence result is available.

  2. Using travel times to simulate multi-dimensional bioreactive transport in time-periodic flows.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2016-04-01

    In travel-time models, the spatially explicit description of reactive transport is replaced by associating reactive-species concentrations with the travel time or groundwater age at all locations. These models have been shown adequate for reactive transport in river-bank filtration under steady-state flow conditions. Dynamic hydrological conditions, however, can lead to fluctuations of infiltration velocities, putting the validity of travel-time models into question. In transient flow, the local travel-time distributions change with time. We show that a modified version of travel-time based reactive transport models is valid if only the magnitude of the velocity fluctuates, whereas its spatial orientation remains constant. We simulate nonlinear, one-dimensional, bioreactive transport involving oxygen, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, aerobic and denitrifying bacteria, considering periodic fluctuations of velocity. These fluctuations make the bioreactive system pulsate: The aerobic zone decreases at times of low velocity and increases at those of high velocity. For the case of diurnal fluctuations, the biomass concentrations cannot follow the hydrological fluctuations and a transition zone containing both aerobic and obligatory denitrifying bacteria is established, whereas a clear separation of the two types of bacteria prevails in the case of seasonal velocity fluctuations. We map the 1-D results to a heterogeneous, two-dimensional domain by means of the mean groundwater age for steady-state flow in both domains. The mapped results are compared to simulation results of spatially explicit, two-dimensional, advective-dispersive-bioreactive transport subject to the same relative fluctuations of velocity as in the one-dimensional model. The agreement between the mapped 1-D and the explicit 2-D results is excellent. We conclude that travel-time models of nonlinear bioreactive transport are adequate in systems of time-periodic flow if the flow direction does not change.

  3. Using travel times to simulate multi-dimensional bioreactive transport in time-periodic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2016-04-01

    In travel-time models, the spatially explicit description of reactive transport is replaced by associating reactive-species concentrations with the travel time or groundwater age at all locations. These models have been shown adequate for reactive transport in river-bank filtration under steady-state flow conditions. Dynamic hydrological conditions, however, can lead to fluctuations of infiltration velocities, putting the validity of travel-time models into question. In transient flow, the local travel-time distributions change with time. We show that a modified version of travel-time based reactive transport models is valid if only the magnitude of the velocity fluctuates, whereas its spatial orientation remains constant. We simulate nonlinear, one-dimensional, bioreactive transport involving oxygen, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, aerobic and denitrifying bacteria, considering periodic fluctuations of velocity. These fluctuations make the bioreactive system pulsate: The aerobic zone decreases at times of low velocity and increases at those of high velocity. For the case of diurnal fluctuations, the biomass concentrations cannot follow the hydrological fluctuations and a transition zone containing both aerobic and obligatory denitrifying bacteria is established, whereas a clear separation of the two types of bacteria prevails in the case of seasonal velocity fluctuations. We map the 1-D results to a heterogeneous, two-dimensional domain by means of the mean groundwater age for steady-state flow in both domains. The mapped results are compared to simulation results of spatially explicit, two-dimensional, advective-dispersive-bioreactive transport subject to the same relative fluctuations of velocity as in the one-dimensional model. The agreement between the mapped 1-D and the explicit 2-D results is excellent. We conclude that travel-time models of nonlinear bioreactive transport are adequate in systems of time-periodic flow if the flow direction does not change.

  4. Analyses and models of the autogenous shrinkage of hardening cement paste. 1: Modeling at macroscopic scale

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, C.; Ehrlacher, A.; Acker, P.

    1995-10-01

    After having studied phenomena linked to hydration and self-desiccation, one notes that capillary depression is the main origin of the autogenous shrinkage of hardening cement paste. Based on this mechanism, modeling at macroscopic scale is undertaken for a commonly used cement paste (CPA 55) with a W/C ratio = 0.42. It consists in introducing a macroscopic stress due to the capillary depression and characterizing the viscoelastic aging behavior of the material. The result is in satisfactory agreement with measurements.

  5. Macroscopic model and truncation error of discrete Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Yao-Hsin

    2016-10-01

    A derivation procedure to secure the macroscopically equivalent equation and its truncation error for discrete Boltzmann method is proffered in this paper. Essential presumptions of two time scales and a small parameter in the Chapman-Enskog expansion are disposed of in the present formulation. Equilibrium particle distribution function instead of its original non-equilibrium form is chosen as key variable in the derivation route. Taylor series expansion encompassing fundamental algebraic manipulations is adequate to realize the macroscopically differential counterpart. A self-contained and comprehensive practice for the linear one-dimensional convection-diffusion equation is illustrated in details. Numerical validations on the incurred truncation error in one- and two-dimensional cases with various distribution functions are conducted to verify present formulation. As shown in the computational results, excellent agreement between numerical result and theoretical prediction are found in the test problems. Straightforward extensions to more complicated systems including convection-diffusion-reaction, multi-relaxation times in collision operator as well as multi-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are also exposed in the Appendix to point out its expediency in solving complicated flow problems.

  6. Microscopic reversibility and macroscopic irreversibility: A lattice gas model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Cárdenas, Fernando C.; Resca, Lorenzo; Pegg, Ian L.

    2016-09-01

    We present coarse-grained descriptions and computations of the time evolution of a lattice gas system of indistinguishable particles, whose microscopic laws of motion are exactly reversible, in order to investigate how or what kind of macroscopically irreversible behavior may eventually arise. With increasing coarse-graining and number of particles, relative fluctuations of entropy rapidly decrease and apparently irreversible behavior unfolds. Although that behavior becomes typical in those limits and within a certain range, it is never absolutely irreversible for any individual system with specific initial conditions. Irreversible behavior may arise in various ways. We illustrate one possibility by replacing detailed integer occupation numbers at lattice sites with particle probability densities that evolve diffusively.

  7. Applicability of Travel- and Exposure-Time Concepts to Nonlinear Bioreactive Transport in Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arie Cirpka, Olaf; Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Loschko, Matthias; Finkel, Michael; Lu, Chuanhe

    2016-04-01

    Travel-time based concepts of modeling subsurface transport have been established as computationally efficient alternatives to spatially explicit simulation methods. The spatial coordinates are replaced by travel time, resulting in one-dimensional transport with a constant „velocity" of unity. The concept is straight forward in linear transport applications, and under these conditions the results are exact provided that the coefficients of linear transport don't vary in space. In nonlinear transport, mixing can jeopardize the validity of the approach. This holds particularly true for transverse mixing, exchanging solute mass between streamtubes. We have performed systematic analyses of nonlinear bioreactive transport, involving oxygen, nitrate, organic carbon, as well as aerobic and denitrifying bacteria to analyzed under which conditions the errors introduced by travel-time and similar formulations are negligible. In steady-state flows with uniform reactive parameters, an excellent agreement between multi-dimensional reactive transport results, affected by transverse dispersion and flow heterogeneity, and one-dimensional travel-time results could be achieved by mapping the reactive-species concentrations to the multi-dimensional domain according to the local mean groundwater age. Aliasing of local transverse dispersion to macroscopically longitudinal mixing can be addressed by using a distance-dependent longitudinal dispersion coefficient. The approach also works for transient flows as long as the direction of flow remains constant and only the magnitude varies. Under these conditions, the groundwater age for the time-averaged velocity field is an adequate mapping variable, provided that flow transients are accounted for in the one- and multi-dimensional simulations. If the reaction takes place only in specific regions, the time of exposure to the according conditions is a better predictor of reactive transport than the overall travel time. Spatially variable

  8. Wind Conditions in Idealized Building Clusters: Macroscopic Simulations Using a Porous Turbulence Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, Jian; Li, Yuguo

    2010-07-01

    Simulating turbulent flows in a city of many thousands of buildings using general high-resolution microscopic simulations requires a grid number that is beyond present computer resources. We thus regard a city as porous media and divide the whole hybrid domain into a porous city region and a clear fluid region, which are represented by a macroscopic k-{\\varepsilon} model. Some microscopic information is neglected by the volume-averaging technique in the porous city to reduce the calculation load. A single domain approach is used to account for the interface conditions. We investigated the turbulent airflow through aligned cube arrays (with 7, 14 or 21 rows). The building height H, the street width W, and the building width B are the same (0.15 m), and the fraction of the volume occupied by fluid (i.e. the porosity) is 0.75; the approaching flow is parallel to the main streets. There are both microscopic and macroscopic simulations, with microscopic simulations being well validated by experimental data. We analysed microscopic wind conditions and the ventilation capacity in such cube arrays, and then calculated macroscopic time-averaged properties to provide a comparison for macroscopic simulations. We found that the macroscopic k-{\\varepsilon} turbulence model predicted the macroscopic flow reduction through porous cube clusters relatively well, but under-predicted the macroscopic turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) near the windward edge of the porous region. For a sufficiently long porous cube array, macroscopic flow quantities maintain constant conditions in a fully developed region.

  9. Macroscopic Conduction Models by Volume Averaging for Two-Phase Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyeau, Benoît

    The aim here is to describe macroscopic models of conductive heat transfer within systems comprising two solid phases, using the method of volume averaging. The presentation of this technique largely stems from work by Carbonell, Quintard, and Whitaker [1-3]. The macroscopic conservation equations are set up under the assumption of local thermal equilibrium, leading to a model governed by a single equation. The effective thermal conductivity of the equivalent medium is obtained by solving the associated closure problems. The case where thermal equilibrium does not pertain, leading to a model with two energy conservation equations, is discussed briefly.

  10. Analog modeling of Worm-Like Chain molecules using macroscopic beads-on-a-string.

    PubMed

    Tricard, Simon; Feinstein, Efraim; Shepherd, Robert F; Reches, Meital; Snyder, Phillip W; Bandarage, Dileni C; Prentiss, Mara; Whitesides, George M

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes an empirical model of polymer dynamics, based on the agitation of millimeter-sized polymeric beads. Although the interactions between the particles in the macroscopic model and those between the monomers of molecular-scale polymers are fundamentally different, both systems follow the Worm-Like Chain theory.

  11. A macroscopic model for magnetic shape-memory single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessoud, Anne-Laure; Kružík, Martin; Stefanelli, Ulisse

    2013-04-01

    A rate-independent model for the quasi-static magneto-elastic evolution of a magnetic shape-memory single crystal is presented. In particular, the purely mechanical Souza-Auricchio model for shape-memory alloys is here combined with classical micro-magnetism by suitably associating magnetization and inelastic strain. By balancing the effect of conservative and dissipative actions, a nonlinear evolution PDE system of rate-independent type is obtained. We prove the existence of so-called energetic solutions to this system. Moreover, we discuss several limits for the model corresponding to parameter asymptotics by means of a rigorous Γ-convergence argument.

  12. From microscopic taxation and redistribution models to macroscopic income distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertotti, Maria Letizia; Modanese, Giovanni

    2011-10-01

    We present here a general framework, expressed by a system of nonlinear differential equations, suitable for the modeling of taxation and redistribution in a closed society. This framework allows one to describe the evolution of income distribution over the population and to explain the emergence of collective features based on knowledge of the individual interactions. By making different choices of the framework parameters, we construct different models, whose long-time behavior is then investigated. Asymptotic stationary distributions are found, which enjoy similar properties as those observed in empirical distributions. In particular, they exhibit power law tails of Pareto type and their Lorenz curves and Gini indices are consistent with some real world ones.

  13. Microscopic and macroscopic modeling of femtosecond laser ablation of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povarnitsyn, Mikhail E.; Fokin, Vladimir B.; Levashov, Pavel R.

    2015-12-01

    Simulation of femtosecond laser ablation of a bulk aluminum target is performed using two complementary approaches. The first method is single-fluid two-temperature hydrodynamics (HD) completed with a two-temperature equation of state (EOS). The second approach is a combination of classical molecular dynamics (MD) and a continuum model of a free electron subsystem. In both methods, an identical and accurate description of optical and transport properties of the electron subsystem is based on wide-range models reproducing effects of electron heat wave propagation, electron-phonon/ion coupling and laser energy absorption on a time-dependent profile of the dielectric function. For simulation of homogeneous nucleation in a metastable liquid phase, a kinetic model of nucleation is implemented in the HD approach. The phase diagrams of the EOS and MD potential are in good agreement that gives opportunity to compare the dynamics of laser ablation obtained by both methods directly. Results of simulation are presented in the range of incident fluences 0.1-20 J/cm2 and match well with experimental findings for an ablation crater depth. The MD accurately reproduces nonequilibrium phase transitions and takes into account surface effects on nanoscale. The HD approach demonstrates good qualitative agreement with the MD method in the dynamics of phase explosion and spallation. Other advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are examined and discussed.

  14. General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal; Vinokur, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model's accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy

  15. General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal; Vinokur, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model's accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy

  16. Macroscopic modeling for heat and water vapor transfer in dry snow by homogenization.

    PubMed

    Calonne, Neige; Geindreau, Christian; Flin, Frédéric

    2014-11-26

    Dry snow metamorphism, involved in several topics related to cryospheric sciences, is mainly linked to heat and water vapor transfers through snow including sublimation and deposition at the ice-pore interface. In this paper, the macroscopic equivalent modeling of heat and water vapor transfers through a snow layer was derived from the physics at the pore scale using the homogenization of multiple scale expansions. The microscopic phenomena under consideration are heat conduction, vapor diffusion, sublimation, and deposition. The obtained macroscopic equivalent model is described by two coupled transient diffusion equations including a source term arising from phase change at the pore scale. By dimensional analysis, it was shown that the influence of such source terms on the overall transfers can generally not be neglected, except typically under small temperature gradients. The precision and the robustness of the proposed macroscopic modeling were illustrated through 2D numerical simulations. Finally, the effective vapor diffusion tensor arising in the macroscopic modeling was computed on 3D images of snow. The self-consistent formula offers a good estimate of the effective diffusion coefficient with respect to the snow density, within an average relative error of 10%. Our results confirm recent work that the effective vapor diffusion is not enhanced in snow. PMID:25011981

  17. Macroscopic modeling for heat and water vapor transfer in dry snow by homogenization.

    PubMed

    Calonne, Neige; Geindreau, Christian; Flin, Frédéric

    2014-11-26

    Dry snow metamorphism, involved in several topics related to cryospheric sciences, is mainly linked to heat and water vapor transfers through snow including sublimation and deposition at the ice-pore interface. In this paper, the macroscopic equivalent modeling of heat and water vapor transfers through a snow layer was derived from the physics at the pore scale using the homogenization of multiple scale expansions. The microscopic phenomena under consideration are heat conduction, vapor diffusion, sublimation, and deposition. The obtained macroscopic equivalent model is described by two coupled transient diffusion equations including a source term arising from phase change at the pore scale. By dimensional analysis, it was shown that the influence of such source terms on the overall transfers can generally not be neglected, except typically under small temperature gradients. The precision and the robustness of the proposed macroscopic modeling were illustrated through 2D numerical simulations. Finally, the effective vapor diffusion tensor arising in the macroscopic modeling was computed on 3D images of snow. The self-consistent formula offers a good estimate of the effective diffusion coefficient with respect to the snow density, within an average relative error of 10%. Our results confirm recent work that the effective vapor diffusion is not enhanced in snow.

  18. General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yen Vinokur, Marcel; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal

    2015-04-07

    This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model’s accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy

  19. Microscopic Simulation and Macroscopic Modeling for Thermal and Chemical Non-Equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Vinokur, Marcel; Clarke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the accurate microscopic simulation and macroscopic modeling of extreme non-equilibrium phenomena, such as encountered during hypersonic entry into a planetary atmosphere. The state-to-state microscopic equations involving internal excitation, de-excitation, dissociation, and recombination of nitrogen molecules due to collisions with nitrogen atoms are solved time-accurately. Strategies to increase the numerical efficiency are discussed. The problem is then modeled using a few macroscopic variables. The model is based on reconstructions of the state distribution function using the maximum entropy principle. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe the non-equilibrium gases. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients. The modeling is completely physics-based, and its accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used. The model makes no assumption at the microscopic level, and all possible collisional and radiative processes are allowed. The model is applicable to both atoms and molecules and their ions. Several limiting cases are presented to show that the model recovers the classical twotemperature models if all states are in one group and the model reduces to the microscopic equations if each group contains only one state. Numerical examples and model validations are carried out for both the uniform and linear distributions. Results show that the original over nine thousand microscopic equations can be reduced to 2 macroscopic equations using 1 to 5 groups with excellent agreement. The computer time is decreased from 18 hours to less than 1 second.

  20. Collective molecular dissipation on Navier-Stokes macroscopic scales: Accretion disc viscous modeling in SPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzafame, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    In the nonlinear Navier-Stokes viscous flow dynamics, physical damping is mathematically accomplished by a braking term in the momentum equation, corresponding to a heating term in the energy equation, both responsible of the conversion of mechanical energy into heat. In such two terms, it is essential the role of the viscous stress tensor, relative to contiguous macroscopic moving flow components, depending on the macroscopic viscosity coefficient ν. A working formulation for ν can always be found analytically, tuning some arbitrary parameters in the current known formulations, according to the geometry, morphology and physics of the flow. Instead, in this paper, we write an alternative hybrid formulation for ν, where molecular parameters are also included. Our expression for ν has a more physical interpretation of the internal damping in dilute gases because the macroscopic viscosity is related to the small scale molecular dissipation, not strictly dependent on the flow morphology, as well as it is free of any arbitrary parameter. Results for some basic 2D tests are shown in the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) framework. An application to the 3D accretion disc modeling for low mass cataclysmic variables is also discussed. Consequences of the macroscopic viscosity coefficient reformulation in a more strictly physical terms on the thermal conductivity coefficient for dilute gases are also discussed.

  1. Determination of the low concentration correction in the macroscopic singlet oxygen model for PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Michele M.; Penjweini, Rozhin; Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2016-03-01

    The macroscopic singlet oxygen model has been used for singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The photophysical parameters for commonly used sensitizers, HPPH and BPD, have been investigated in pre-clinical studies using mouse models. So far, studies have involved optimizing fitting algorithms to obtain the some of the photophysical parameters (ξ, σ, g) and the threshold singlet oxygen dose ([1O2]rx,sh), while other parameters such as the low concentration correction, δ, has been kept as a constant. In this study, using photobleaching measurements of mice in vivo, the value of δ was also optimized and fit to better describe experimental data. Furthermore, the value of the specific photobleaching ratio (σ) was also fine-tuned using the photobleaching results. Based on literature values of δ, σ for photosensitizers can be uniquely determined using the additional photobleaching measurements. This routine will further improve the macroscopic model of singlet oxygen production for use in explicit dosimetry.

  2. Scaling Properties and Asymptotic Spectra of Finite Models of Phase Transitions as They Approach Macroscopic Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, D. J.; Turner, P. S.; Rosensteel, G.

    2004-11-01

    The asymptotic spectra and scaling properties of a mixed-symmetry Hamiltonian, which exhibits a second-order phase transition in its macroscopic limit, are examined for a system of N interacting bosons. A second interacting boson-model Hamiltonian, which exhibits a first-order phase transition, is also considered. The latter shows many parallel characteristics and some notable differences, leaving it open to question as to the nature of its asymptotic critical-point properties.

  3. Scaling properties and asymptotic spectra of finite models of phase transitions as they approach macroscopic limits.

    PubMed

    Rowe, D J; Turner, P S; Rosensteel, G

    2004-12-01

    The asymptotic spectra and scaling properties of a mixed-symmetry Hamiltonian, which exhibits a second-order phase transition in its macroscopic limit, are examined for a system of N interacting bosons. A second interacting boson-model Hamiltonian, which exhibits a first-order phase transition, is also considered. The latter shows many parallel characteristics and some notable differences, leaving it open to question as to the nature of its asymptotic critical-point properties.

  4. Modeling the macroscopic behavior of two-phase nonlinear composites by infinite-rank laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idiart, Martín I.

    A new approach is proposed for estimating the macroscopic behavior of two-phase nonlinear composites with random, particulate microstructures. The central idea is to model composites by sequentially laminated constructions of infinite rank whose macroscopic behavior can be determined exactly. The resulting estimates incorporate microstructural information up to the two-point correlation functions, and require the solution to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the inclusion concentration and the macroscopic fields playing the role of 'time' and 'spatial' variables, respectively. Because they are realizable, by construction, these estimates are guaranteed to be convex, to satisfy all pertinent bounds, to exhibit no duality gap, and to be exact to second order in the heterogeneity contrast. Sample results are provided for two- and three-dimensional power-law composites, and are compared with other homogenization estimates, as well as with numerical simulations available from the literature. The estimates are found to give physically sensible predictions for all the cases considered, even for extreme values of the nonlinearity and heterogeneity contrast. Interestingly, in the case of isotropic porous materials under hydrostatic loadings, the estimates agree exactly with standard Gurson-type models for viscoplastic porous media.

  5. Fission properties of Po isotopes in different macroscopic-microscopic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartel, J.; Pomorski, K.; Nerlo-Pomorska, B.; Schmitt, Ch

    2015-11-01

    Fission-barrier heights of nuclei in the Po isotopic chain are investigated in several macroscopic-microscopic models. Using the Yukawa-folded single-particle potential, the Lublin-Strasbourg drop (LSD) model, the Strutinsky shell-correction method to yield the shell corrections and the BCS theory for the pairing contributions, fission-barrier heights are calculated and found in quite good agreement with the experimental data. This turns out, however, to be only the case when the underlying macroscopic, liquid-drop (LD) type, theory is well chosen. Together with the LSD approach, different LD parametrizations proposed by Moretto et al are tested. Four deformation parameters describing respectively elongation, neck-formation, reflectional-asymmetric, and non-axiality of the nuclear shape thus defining the so called modified Funny Hills shape parametrization are used in the calculation. The present study clearly demonstrates that nuclear fission-barrier heights constitute a challenging and selective tool to discern between such different macroscopic approaches.

  6. Population dynamics of the modified theta model: macroscopic phase reduction and bifurcation analysis link microscopic neuronal interactions to macroscopic gamma oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Kotani, Kiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Ikuhiro; Yoshida, Lui; Jimbo, Yasuhiko; Ermentrout, G. Bard

    2014-01-01

    Gamma oscillations of the local field potential are organized by collective dynamics of numerous neurons and have many functional roles in cognition and/or attention. To mathematically and physiologically analyse relationships between individual inhibitory neurons and macroscopic oscillations, we derive a modification of the theta model, which possesses voltage-dependent dynamics with appropriate synaptic interactions. Bifurcation analysis of the corresponding Fokker–Planck equation (FPE) enables us to consider how synaptic interactions organize collective oscillations. We also develop the adjoint method (infinitesimal phase resetting curve) for simultaneous equations consisting of ordinary differential equations representing synaptic dynamics and a partial differential equation for determining the probability distribution of the membrane potential. This method provides a macroscopic phase response function (PRF), which gives insights into how it is modulated by external perturbation or internal changes of parameters. We investigate the effects of synaptic time constants and shunting inhibition on these gamma oscillations. The sensitivity of rising and decaying time constants is analysed in the oscillatory parameter regions; we find that these sensitivities are not largely dependent on rate of synaptic coupling but, rather, on current and noise intensity. Analyses of shunting inhibition reveal that it can affect both promotion and elimination of gamma oscillations. When the macroscopic oscillation is far from the bifurcation, shunting promotes the gamma oscillations and the PRF becomes flatter as the reversal potential of the synapse increases, indicating the insensitivity of gamma oscillations to perturbations. By contrast, when the macroscopic oscillation is near the bifurcation, shunting eliminates gamma oscillations and a stable firing state appears. More interestingly, under appropriate balance of parameters, two branches of bifurcation are found in our

  7. An extended bioreaction database that significantly improves reconstruction and analysis of genome-scale metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Stelzer, Michael; Sun, Jibin; Kamphans, Tom; Fekete, Sándor P; Zeng, An-Ping

    2011-11-01

    The bioreaction database established by Ma and Zeng (Bioinformatics, 2003, 19, 270-277) for in silico reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks has been widely used. Based on more recent information in the reference databases KEGG LIGAND and Brenda, we upgrade the bioreaction database in this work by almost doubling the number of reactions from 3565 to 6851. Over 70% of the reactions have been manually updated/revised in terms of reversibility, reactant pairs, currency metabolites and error correction. For the first time, 41 spontaneous sugar mutarotation reactions are introduced into the biochemical database. The upgrade significantly improves the reconstruction of genome scale metabolic networks. Many gaps or missing biochemical links can be recovered, as exemplified with three model organisms Homo sapiens, Aspergillus niger, and Escherichia coli. The topological parameters of the constructed networks were also largely affected, however, the overall network structure remains scale-free. Furthermore, we consider the problem of computing biologically feasible shortest paths in reconstructed metabolic networks. We show that these paths are hard to compute and present solutions to find such paths in networks of small and medium size.

  8. Macroscopic Models of Local Field Potentials and the Apparent 1/f Noise in Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bédard, Claude; Destexhe, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The power spectrum of local field potentials (LFPs) has been reported to scale as the inverse of the frequency, but the origin of this 1/f noise is at present unclear. Macroscopic measurements in cortical tissue demonstrated that electric conductivity (as well as permittivity) is frequency-dependent, while other measurements failed to evidence any dependence on frequency. In this article, we propose a model of the genesis of LFPs that accounts for the above data and contradictions. Starting from first principles (Maxwell equations), we introduce a macroscopic formalism in which macroscopic measurements are naturally incorporated, and also examine different physical causes for the frequency dependence. We suggest that ionic diffusion primes over electric field effects, and is responsible for the frequency dependence. This explains the contradictory observations, and also reproduces the 1/f power spectral structure of LFPs, as well as more complex frequency scaling. Finally, we suggest a measurement method to reveal the frequency dependence of current propagation in biological tissue, and which could be used to directly test the predictions of this formalism. PMID:19348744

  9. Multivariate crash modeling for motor vehicle and non-motorized modes at the macroscopic level.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaeyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Jiang, Ximiao

    2015-05-01

    Macroscopic traffic crash analyses have been conducted to incorporate traffic safety into long-term transportation planning. This study aims at developing a multivariate Poisson lognormal conditional autoregressive model at the macroscopic level for crashes by different transportation modes such as motor vehicle, bicycle, and pedestrian crashes. Many previous studies have shown the presence of common unobserved factors across different crash types. Thus, it was expected that adopting multivariate model structure would show a better modeling performance since it can capture shared unobserved features across various types. The multivariate model and univariate model were estimated based on traffic analysis zones (TAZs) and compared. It was found that the multivariate model significantly outperforms the univariate model. It is expected that the findings from this study can contribute to more reliable traffic crash modeling, especially when focusing on different modes. Also, variables that are found significant for each mode can be used to guide traffic safety policy decision makers to allocate resources more efficiently for the zones with higher risk of a particular transportation mode.

  10. Noninteractive macroscopic reliability model for ceramic matrix composites with orthotropic material symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Stephen F.; Manderscheid, Jane M.

    1989-01-01

    A macroscopic noninteractive reliability model for ceramic matrix composites is presented. The model is multiaxial and applicable to composites that can be characterized as orthotropic. Tensorial invariant theory is used to create an integrity basis with invariants that correspond to physical mechanisms related to fracture. This integrity basis is then used to construct a failure function per unit volume (or area) of material. It is assumed that the overall strength of the composite is governed by weakest link theory. This leads to a Weibull type model similar in nature to the principle of independent action (PIA) model for isotropic monolithic ceramics. An experimental program to obtain model parameters is briefly discussed. In addition, qualitative features of the model are illustrated by presenting reliability surfaces for various model parameters.

  11. Modeling of Macroscopic/Microscopic Transport and Growth Phenomena in Zeolite Crystal Solutions Under Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatsonis, Nikos A.; Alexandrou, Andreas; Shi, Hui; Ongewe, Bernard; Sacco, Albert, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    . At the same time, however, there is increased urgency to develop such an understanding in order to more accurately quantify the process. In order to better understand the results obtained from our prior space experiments, and design future experiments, a detailed fluid dynamic model simulating the crystal growth mechanism is required. This will not only add to the fundamental knowledge on the crystallization of zeolites, but also be useful in predicting the limits of size and growth of these important industrial materials. Our objective is to develop macro/microscopic theoretical and computational models to study the effect of transport phenomena in the growth of crystals grown in solutions. Our effort has concentrated so far in the development of separate macroscopic and microscopic models. The major highlights of our accomplishments are described.

  12. Geometric-Phase approach to macroscopic polarization in lattice fermion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Gerardo; Martin, Richard M.; Ordejón, Pablo

    1996-03-01

    The Geometric-Phase approach is a convenient way to calculate changes in the macroscopic polarization of an insulating system, based on the concept that the integrated current is connected to the phase of the wavefunction of interacting electrons. The method has provided a powerful mathematical scheme to study dielectric phenomena in correlated systems. We have applied these ideas to a variety of strongly correlated lattice fermion models in one and two dimensions; in particular, the 3-band Hubbard model in Cu-O planes in the parent compounds of High-Temperature superconductors. We analyze the information contained in the phase when a quantum transition takes place as one parameter of the hamiltonian is adiabatically changed. Previous results assume a correlated insulator in zero macroscopic electric field. In presence of such a singular perturbation there is no stable ground state. We present a way to overcome this problem, the main idea of which consists in constraining the manifold where the electrons move, i.e., the configuration space of the N identical particles.

  13. Macroscopic modelling of bioethanol production from potato peel wastes in batch cultures supplemented with inorganic nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Richelle, A; Ben Tahar, I; Hassouna, M; Bogaerts, Ph

    2015-09-01

    Inorganic nitrogen supplementation is commonly used to boost fermentation metabolism in yeast cultures. However, an excessive addition can induce an opposite effect. Hence, it is important to ensure that the ammonia supplemented to the culture leads to an improvement of the ethanol production while avoiding undesirable inhibition effects. To this end, a macroscopic model describing the influence of ammonia addition on Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism during bioethanol production from potato peel wastes has been developed. The model parameters are obtained by a simplified identification methodology in five steps. It is validated with experimental data and successfully predicts the dynamics of growth, substrate consumption (ammonia and fermentable sugar sources) and bioethanol production, even in cross validation. The model is used to determine the optimal quantity of supplemented ammonia required for maximizing bioethanol production from potato peel wastes in batch cultures. PMID:26059818

  14. Macroscopic cloud properties in the WRF NWP model: An assessment using sky camera and ceilometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbizu-Barrena, Clara; Pozo-Vázquez, David; Ruiz-Arias, José A.; Tovar-Pescador, Joaquín.

    2015-10-01

    The ability of six microphysical parameterizations included in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical weather prediction (NWP) model to represent various macroscopic cloud characteristics at multiple spatial and temporal resolutions is investigated. In particular, the model prediction skills of cloud occurrence, cloud base height, and cloud cover are assessed. When it is possible, the results are provided separately for low-, middle-, and high-level clouds. The microphysical parameterizations assessed are WRF single-moment six-class, Thompson, Milbrandt-Yau, Morrison, Stony Brook University, and National Severe Storms Laboratory double moment. The evaluated macroscopic cloud properties are determined based on the model cloud fractions. Two cloud fraction approaches, namely, a binary cloud fraction and a continuous cloud fraction, are investigated. Model cloud cover is determined by overlapping the vertically distributed cloud fractions following three different strategies. The evaluation is conducted based on observations gathered with a ceilometer and a sky camera located in Jaén (southern Spain). The results prove that the reliability of the WRF model mostly depends on the considered cloud parameter, cloud level, and spatiotemporal resolution. In our test bed, it is found that WRF model tends to (i) overpredict the occurrence of high-level clouds irrespectively of the spatial resolution, (ii) underestimate the cloud base height, and (iii) overestimate the cloud cover. Overall, the best cloud estimates are found for finer spatial resolutions (1.3 and 4 km with slight differences between them) and coarser temporal resolutions. The roles of the parameterization choice of the microphysics scheme and the cloud overlapping strategy are, in general, less relevant.

  15. Global properties of even-even superheavy nuclei in macroscopic-microscopic models

    SciTech Connect

    Baran, Andrzej; Lojewski, Zdzislaw; Sieja, Kamila; Kowal, Michal

    2005-10-01

    A systematic study of global properties of superheavy nuclei in the framework of macroscopic-microscopic method is performed. Equilibrium deformations, masses, quadrupole moments, radii, shell energies, fission barriers and half-lives are calculated using the following macroscopic models: Myers-Swiatecki liquid drop, droplet, Yukawa-plus-exponential, and Lublin-Strasbourg drop. Shell and pairing energies are calculated in Woods-Saxon potential with a universal set of parameters. The analysis covers a wide range of even-even superheavy nuclei from Z=100 to 122. Magic and semimagic numbers occurring in this region are indicated and their influence on the observables is discussed. The strongest shell effects appear at proton number Z=114 and at neutron number N=184. Deformed shell closures are found at N=152 and 162. Spontaneous fission half-lives are calculated in a dynamical approach where the full minimization of the action integral in a three-dimensional deformation space of {beta} deformations is performed. The fission half-lives obtained this way are two orders of magnitude smaller than the ones resulting from static calculations. The agreement of theoretical results and experimental data is satisfying.

  16. Multiphase bioreaction microsystem with automated on-chip droplet operation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Burns, Mark A

    2010-05-21

    A droplet-based bioreaction microsystem has been developed with automated droplet generation and confinement. On-chip electronic sensing is employed to track the position of the droplets by sensing the oil/aqueous interface in real time. The sensing signal is also used to control the pneumatic supply for moving as well as automatically generating four different nanolitre-sized droplets. The actual size of droplets is very close to the designed droplet size with a standard deviation less than 3% of the droplet size. The automated droplet generation can be completed in less than 2 s, which is 5 times faster than using manual operation that takes at least 10 s. Droplets can also be automatically confined in the reaction region with feedback pneumatic control and digital or analog sensing. As an example bioreaction, PCR has been successfully performed in the automated generated droplets. Although the amplification yield was slightly reduced with the droplet confinement, especially while using the analog sensing method, adding additional reagents effectively alleviated this inhibition.

  17. A Microscopic “Social Norm” Model to Obtain Realistic Macroscopic Velocity and Density Pedestrian Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Zanlungo, Francesco; Ikeda, Tetsushi; Kanda, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    We propose a way to introduce in microscopic pedestrian models a “social norm” in collision avoiding and overtaking, i.e. the tendency, shared by pedestrians belonging to the same culture, to avoid collisions and perform overtaking in a preferred direction. The “social norm” is implemented, regardless of the specific collision avoiding model, as a rotation in the perceived velocity vector of the opponent at the moment of computation of the collision avoiding strategy, and justified as an expectation that the opponent will follow the same “social norm” (for example a tendency to avoid on the left and overtake on the right, as proposed in this work for Japanese pedestrians). By comparing with real world data, we show that the introduction of this norm allows for a better reproduction of macroscopic pedestrian density and velocity patterns. PMID:23227202

  18. Shock structure and temperature overshoot in macroscopic multi-temperature model of mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Madjarević, Damir Simić, Srboljub; Ruggeri, Tommaso

    2014-10-15

    The paper discusses the shock structure in macroscopic multi-temperature model of gaseous mixtures, recently established within the framework of extended thermodynamics. The study is restricted to weak and moderate shocks in a binary mixture of ideal gases with negligible viscosity and heat conductivity. The model predicts the existence of temperature overshoot of heavier constituent, like more sophisticated approaches, but also puts in evidence its non-monotonic behavior not documented in other studies. This phenomenon is explained as a consequence of weak energy exchange between the constituents, either due to large mass difference, or large rarefaction of the mixture. In the range of small Mach number it is also shown that shock thickness (or equivalently, the inverse of Knudsen number) decreases with the increase of Mach number, as well as when the mixture tends to behave like a single-component gas (small mass difference and/or presence of one constituent in traces)

  19. Micromechanical and macroscopic models of ductile fracture in particle reinforced metallic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chao; Bai, Jie; Ghosh, Somnath

    2007-06-01

    This paper is aimed at developing two modules contributing to the overall framework of multi-scale modelling of ductile fracture of particle reinforced metallic materials. The first module is for detailed micromechanical analysis of particle fragmentation and matrix cracking of heterogeneous microstructures. The Voronoi cell FEM for particle fragmentation is extended in this paper to incorporate ductile failure through matrix cracking in the form of void growth and coalescence using a non-local Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model. In the resulting enriched Voronoi cell finite element model (VCFEM) or E-VCFEM, the assumed stress-based hybrid VCFEM formulation is overlaid with narrow bands of displacement based elements to accommodate strain softening in the constitutive behaviour. The second module develops an anisotropic plasticity-damage model in the form of the GTN model for macroscopic analysis in the multi-scale material model. Parameters in this model are calibrated from results of homogenization of microstructural variables obtained by E-VCFEM analysis of microstructural representative volume element. Numerical examples conducted yield satisfactory results.

  20. Numerical model for macroscopic quantum superpositions based on phase-covariant quantum cloning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buraczewski, A.; Stobińska, M.

    2012-10-01

    Macroscopically populated quantum superpositions pose a question to what extent the macroscopic world obeys quantum mechanical laws. Recently, such superpositions for light, generated by an optimal quantum cloner, have been demonstrated. They are of fundamental and technological interest. We present numerical methods useful for modeling of these states. Their properties are governed by a Gaussian hypergeometric function, which cannot be reduced to either elementary or easily tractable functions. We discuss the method of efficient computation of this function for half-integer parameters and a moderate value of its argument. We show how to dynamically estimate a cutoff for infinite sums involving this function performed over its parameters. Our algorithm exceeds double precision and is parallelizable. Depending on the experimental parameters it chooses one of the several ways of summation to achieve the best efficiency. The methods presented here can be adjusted for analysis of similar experimental schemes. Program summary Program title: MQSVIS Catalogue identifier: AEMR_ v1_ 0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1643 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13212 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C with OpenMP extensions (main numerical program), Python (helper scripts). Computer: Modern PC (tested on AMD and Intel processors), HP BL2x220. Operating system: Unix/Linux. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes (OpenMP). RAM: 200 MB for single run for 1000×1000 tile Classification: 4.15, 18. External routines: OpenMP Nature of problem: Recently, macroscopically populated quantum superpositions for light, generated by an optimal quantum cloner, have

  1. Improving macroscopic modeling of the effect of water and osmotic stresses on root water uptake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorda Guerra, Helena; Vanderborght, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Accurate modeling of water and salt stresses on root water uptake is critical for predicting impacts of global change and climate variability on crop production and soil water balances. Soil-hydrological models use reduction functions to represent the effect of osmotic stress in transpiration. However, these functions, which were developed empirically, present limitations in relation to the time and spatial scale at which they need to be used, fail to include compensation processes and do not agree on how water and salt stresses interact. This research intends to develop a macroscopic reduction function for water and osmotic stresses based on biophysical knowledge. Simulation experiments are conducted for a range of atmospheric conditions, soil and plant properties, irrigation water quality and scheduling using a 3-D physically-based model that resolves flow and transport to individual root segments and that couples flow in the soil and root system (Schröder et al., 2013). The effect of salt concentrations on water flow in the soil-root system is accounted for by including osmotic water potential gradients between the solution at the soil root interface and the root xylem sap in the hydraulic gradient between the soil and root. In a first step, simulation experiments are carried out in a soil volume around a single root segment. We discuss how the simulation setup can be defined so as to represent: (i) certain characteristics of the root system such as rooting depth and root length density, (ii) plant transpiration rate, (iii) leaching fraction of the irrigation, and (iii) salinity of the irrigation water. The output of these simulation experiments gives a first insight in the effect of salinity on transpiration and on the relation between the bulk salinity in the soil voxel, which is used in macroscopic salt stress functions of models that do not resolve processes at the root segment scale, and the salinity at the soil-root interface, which determines the actual

  2. A Macroscopic Mathematical Model for Cell Migration Assays Using a Real-Time Cell Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Claudia; Carfora, Maria Francesca; Carriero, Maria Vincenza; Natalini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Experiments of cell migration and chemotaxis assays have been classically performed in the so-called Boyden Chambers. A recent technology, xCELLigence Real Time Cell Analysis, is now allowing to monitor the cell migration in real time. This technology measures impedance changes caused by the gradual increase of electrode surface occupation by cells during the course of time and provide a Cell Index which is proportional to cellular morphology, spreading, ruffling and adhesion quality as well as cell number. In this paper we propose a macroscopic mathematical model, based on advection-reaction-diffusion partial differential equations, describing the cell migration assay using the real-time technology. We carried out numerical simulations to compare simulated model dynamics with data of observed biological experiments on three different cell lines and in two experimental settings: absence of chemotactic signals (basal migration) and presence of a chemoattractant. Overall we conclude that our minimal mathematical model is able to describe the phenomenon in the real time scale and numerical results show a good agreement with the experimental evidences. PMID:27680883

  3. A sodium channel gating model based on single channel, macroscopic ionic, and gating currents in the squid giant axon.

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, C A; Bezanilla, F

    1991-01-01

    Sodium channel gating behavior was modeled with Markovian models fitted to currents from the cut-open squid giant axon in the absence of divalent cations. Optimum models were selected with maximum likelihood criteria using single-channel data, then models were refined and extended by simultaneous fitting of macroscopic ionic currents, ON and OFF gating currents, and single-channel first latency densities over a wide voltage range. Best models have five closed states before channel opening, with inactivation from at least one closed state as well as the open state. Forward activation rate constants increase with depolarization, and deactivation rate constants increase with hyperpolarization. Rates of inactivation from the open or closed states are generally slower than activation or deactivation rates and show little or no voltage dependence. Channels tend to reopen several times before inactivating. Macroscopic rates of activation and inactivation result from a combination of closed, open and inactivated state transitions. At negative potentials the time to first opening dominates the macroscopic current due to slow activation rates compared with deactivation rates: channels tend to reopen rarely, and often inactivate from closed states before they reopen. At more positive potentials, the time to first opening and burst duration together produce the macroscopic current. PMID:1663796

  4. In vivo outcome study of BPD-mediated PDT using a macroscopic singlet oxygen model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Michele M.; Penjweini, Rozhin; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2015-03-01

    Macroscopic modeling of the apparent reacted singlet oxygen concentration ([1O2]rx) for use with photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been developed and studied for benzoporphryin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD), a common photosensitizer. The four photophysical parameters (ξ, σ, β, δ) and threshold singlet oxygen dose ([1O2]rx, sh) have been investigated and determined using the RIF model of murine fibrosarcomas and interstitial treatment delivery. These parameters are examined and verified further by monitoring tumor growth post-PDT. BPD was administered at 1 mg/kg, and mice were treated 3 hours later with fluence rates ranging between 75 - 150 mW/cm2 and total fluences of 100 - 350 J/cm2. Treatment was delivered superficially using a collimated beam. Changes in tumor volume were tracked following treatment. The tumor growth rate was fitted for each treatment condition group and compared using dose metrics including total light dose, PDT dose, and reacted singlet oxygen. Initial data showing the correlation between outcomes and various dose metrics indicate that reacted singlet oxygen serves as a good dosimetric quantity for predicting PDT outcome.

  5. A robust macroscopic model for normal-shear coupling, asymmetric and anisotropic behaviors of polycrystalline SMAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghi, M.; Damanpack, A. R.; Liao, W. H.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a robust macroscopic bi-axial model to capture self-accommodation, martensitic transformation/orientation/reorientation, normal-shear deformation coupling and asymmetric/anisotropic strain generation in polycrystalline shape memory alloys. By considering the volume fraction of martensite and its preferred direction as scalar and directional internal variables, constitutive relations are derived to describe basic mechanisms of accommodation, transformation and orientation/reorientation of martensite variants. A new definition is introduced for maximum recoverable strain, which allows the model to capture the effects of tension-compression asymmetry and transformation anisotropy. Furthermore, the coupling effects between normal and shear deformation modes are considered by merging inelastic strain components together. By introducing a calibration approach, material and kinetic parameters of the model are recast in terms of common quantities that characterize a uniaxial phase kinetic diagram. The solution algorithm of the model is presented based on an elastic-predictor inelastic-corrector return mapping process. In order to explore and demonstrate capabilities of the proposed model, theoretical predictions are first compared with existing experimental results on uniaxial tension, compression, torsion and combined tension-torsion tests. Afterwards, experimental results of uniaxial tension, compression, pure bending and buckling tests on {{NiTi}} rods and tubes are replicated by implementing a finite element method along with the Newton-Raphson and Riks techniques to trace non-linear equilibrium path. A good qualitative and quantitative correlation is observed between numerical and experimental results, which verifies the accuracy of the model and the solution procedure.

  6. A robust macroscopic model for normal–shear coupling, asymmetric and anisotropic behaviors of polycrystalline SMAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghi, M.; Damanpack, A. R.; Liao, W. H.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a robust macroscopic bi-axial model to capture self-accommodation, martensitic transformation/orientation/reorientation, normal–shear deformation coupling and asymmetric/anisotropic strain generation in polycrystalline shape memory alloys. By considering the volume fraction of martensite and its preferred direction as scalar and directional internal variables, constitutive relations are derived to describe basic mechanisms of accommodation, transformation and orientation/reorientation of martensite variants. A new definition is introduced for maximum recoverable strain, which allows the model to capture the effects of tension–compression asymmetry and transformation anisotropy. Furthermore, the coupling effects between normal and shear deformation modes are considered by merging inelastic strain components together. By introducing a calibration approach, material and kinetic parameters of the model are recast in terms of common quantities that characterize a uniaxial phase kinetic diagram. The solution algorithm of the model is presented based on an elastic-predictor inelastic-corrector return mapping process. In order to explore and demonstrate capabilities of the proposed model, theoretical predictions are first compared with existing experimental results on uniaxial tension, compression, torsion and combined tension–torsion tests. Afterwards, experimental results of uniaxial tension, compression, pure bending and buckling tests on {{NiTi}} rods and tubes are replicated by implementing a finite element method along with the Newton–Raphson and Riks techniques to trace non-linear equilibrium path. A good qualitative and quantitative correlation is observed between numerical and experimental results, which verifies the accuracy of the model and the solution procedure.

  7. How to bridge the gap between local root water uptake processes and macroscopic hydrological models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaux, M.; Couvreur, V.; Vereecken, H.; Vanderborght, J.

    2013-12-01

    Modeling root water uptake in hydrological models remains challenging given the scale gap between the local uptake processes and the model resolutions. When Richards equation is used, root water uptake is modeled with a sink-term spatially resolved at the grid element scale (~cm...m), much larger than the root segment scale (~mm). Typically this sink-term contains four functions: (i) a root resistance function, (ii) a soil resistance function, (iii) a stress function and (iv) a compensation function. Thanks to novel detailed 3-D and 1-D models that contain the current knowledge on soil and root water flow, we propose improvements for the four functions used in macroscopic sink terms, which respect biophysical principles. We show that (1) root resistance may be well defined by the root length density but only for relatively wet soil and no limiting xylem conductance; (2) soil resistance cannot be neglected, in particular in the rhizosphere where specific process may occur, which alter the soil hydraulic properties and thereby affect uptake and the stress functions; (3) stress and compensation are two different processes not linked to each other; (4) compensation occurs as soon as there is a heterogeneous distribution of the soil water potential around the root system; (5) stress function should be defined as a maximal actual transpiration in function of an integrated or root-sensed averaged water head rather than in terms of local water heads; and (6) non linearity in the stress function is expected to arise from evolution with pressure heads or time of the hydraulic resistances in the soil-plant system.

  8. Final Report: Model interacting particle systems for simulation and macroscopic description of particulate suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Peter J. Mucha

    2007-08-30

    Suspensions of solid particles in liquids appear in numerous applications, from environmental settings like river silt, to industrial systems of solids transport and water treatment, and biological flows such as blood flow. Despite their importance, much remains unexplained about these complicated systems. Mucha's research aims to improve understanding of basic properties of suspensions through a program of simulating model interacting particle systems with critical evaluation of proposed continuum equations, in close collaboration with experimentalists. Natural to this approach, the original proposal centered around collaboration with studies already conducted in various experimental groups. However, as was detailed in the 2004 progress report, following the first year of this award, a number of the questions from the original proposal were necessarily redirected towards other specific goals because of changes in the research programs of the proposed experimental collaborators. Nevertheless, the modified project goals and the results that followed from those goals maintain close alignment with the main themes of the original proposal, improving efficient simulation and macroscopic modeling of sedimenting and colloidal suspensions. In particular, the main investigations covered under this award have included: (1) Sedimentation instabilities, including the sedimentation analogue of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (for heavy, particle-laden fluid over lighter, clear fluid). (2) Ageing dynamics of colloidal suspensions at concentrations above the glass transition, using simplified interactions. (3) Stochastic reconstruction of velocity-field dependence for particle image velocimetry (PIV). (4) Stochastic modeling of the near-wall bias in 'nano-PIV'. (5) Distributed Lagrange multiplier simulation of the 'internal splash' of a particle falling through a stable stratified interface. (6) Fundamental study of velocity fluctuations in sedimentation. (7) Parallelization of

  9. A connectivity-based modeling approach for representing hysteresis in macroscopic two-phase flow properties

    SciTech Connect

    Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Trevisan, Luca; Bianchi, Marco; Zhou, Quanlin; Illangasekare, Tissa

    2014-12-31

    During CO2 injection and storage in deep reservoirs, the injected CO2 enters into an initially brine saturated porous medium, and after the injection stops, natural groundwater flow eventually displaces the injected mobile-phase CO2, leaving behind residual non-wetting fluid. Accurate modeling of two-phase flow processes are needed for predicting fate and transport of injected CO2, evaluating environmental risks and designing more effective storage schemes. The entrapped non-wetting fluid saturation is typically a function of the spatially varying maximum saturation at the end of injection. At the pore-scale, distribution of void sizes and connectivity of void space play a major role for the macroscopic hysteresis behavior and capillary entrapment of wetting and non-wetting fluids. This paper presents development of an approach based on the connectivity of void space for modeling hysteretic capillary pressure-saturation-relative permeability relationships. The new approach uses void-size distribution and a measure of void space connectivity to compute the hysteretic constitutive functions and to predict entrapped fluid phase saturations. Two functions, the drainage connectivity function and the wetting connectivity function, are introduced to characterize connectivity of fluids in void space during drainage and wetting processes. These functions can be estimated through pore-scale simulations in computer-generated porous media or from traditional experimental measurements of primary drainage and main wetting curves. The hysteresis model for saturation-capillary pressure is tested successfully by comparing the model-predicted residual saturation and scanning curves with actual data sets obtained from column experiments found in the literature. A numerical two-phase model simulator with the new hysteresis functions is tested against laboratory experiments conducted in a quasi-two-dimensional flow cell (91.4cm×5.6cm×61cm

  10. A connectivity-based modeling approach for representing hysteresis in macroscopic two-phase flow properties

    DOE PAGES

    Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Trevisan, Luca; Bianchi, Marco; Zhou, Quanlin; Illangasekare, Tissa

    2014-12-31

    During CO2 injection and storage in deep reservoirs, the injected CO2 enters into an initially brine saturated porous medium, and after the injection stops, natural groundwater flow eventually displaces the injected mobile-phase CO2, leaving behind residual non-wetting fluid. Accurate modeling of two-phase flow processes are needed for predicting fate and transport of injected CO2, evaluating environmental risks and designing more effective storage schemes. The entrapped non-wetting fluid saturation is typically a function of the spatially varying maximum saturation at the end of injection. At the pore-scale, distribution of void sizes and connectivity of void space play a major role formore » the macroscopic hysteresis behavior and capillary entrapment of wetting and non-wetting fluids. This paper presents development of an approach based on the connectivity of void space for modeling hysteretic capillary pressure-saturation-relative permeability relationships. The new approach uses void-size distribution and a measure of void space connectivity to compute the hysteretic constitutive functions and to predict entrapped fluid phase saturations. Two functions, the drainage connectivity function and the wetting connectivity function, are introduced to characterize connectivity of fluids in void space during drainage and wetting processes. These functions can be estimated through pore-scale simulations in computer-generated porous media or from traditional experimental measurements of primary drainage and main wetting curves. The hysteresis model for saturation-capillary pressure is tested successfully by comparing the model-predicted residual saturation and scanning curves with actual data sets obtained from column experiments found in the literature. A numerical two-phase model simulator with the new hysteresis functions is tested against laboratory experiments conducted in a quasi-two-dimensional flow cell (91.4cm×5.6cm×61cm), packed with homogeneous and

  11. The retention of uranium and europium onto sepiolite investigated by macroscopic, spectroscopic and modeling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yubing; Li, Jiaxing; Wang, Xiangke

    2014-09-01

    Clay minerals have been proposed for the potential retention of the high-level radioactive wastes in deep geological repositories. The retention of uranium (U(VI)) and europium (Eu(III)) onto well-characterized sepiolite was elucidated by using microscopic adsorption, spectroscopic techniques and surface complexation modeling. The results of macroscopic adsorption experiments showed that the uptake of U(VI) and Eu(III) onto sepiolite significantly increased with increasing pH 4.0-7.0, whereas the decrease adsorption of U(VI) at pH > 7.0 and in the presence of carbonate (10-3 mol/L) was attributed to the electrostatic repulsion. The chemical affinity of U(VI) with sepiolite was stronger than that of Eu(III) with sepiolite in terms of batch desorption tests. Based on the EXAFS spectra analysis, the interatomic distances of U-Si at ∼3.16 Å was observed in U(VI)/sepiolite systems, which indicated that the inner-sphere surface species were coordinated on SiO4 tetrahedra via bidentate configuration. The U-C shell at ∼2.9 Å in the presence of carbonate revealed the U(VI)-carbonate ternary complexes at sepiolite-water interface. The results from the three common surface complexation models (SCMs), including constant-capacitance model (CCM), diffuse-layer model (DLM), and triple-layer model (TLM), can give an excellent fit to the experimental data with the bidentate edge-sharing (E2, >SO2M(n - 2)+), bidentate corner-sharing (C2, (>SO)2M(OH)2(n - 4)+) and >SOMCO3(n - 3)+ inner-sphere surface complexes in ambient environments. However, the second ternary surface complex >SOCO2M(n - 1)+ was determined in the presence of carbonate. The findings presented in this study are significant toward the description and predication of fate and transport of radionuclides at the water-mineral interface in the natural environment.

  12. Interaction of nanoparticles with proteins: relation to bio-reactivity of the nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Saptarshi, Shruti R; Duschl, Albert; Lopata, Andreas L

    2013-07-19

    Interaction of nanoparticles with proteins is the basis of nanoparticle bio-reactivity. This interaction gives rise to the formation of a dynamic nanoparticle-protein corona. The protein corona may influence cellular uptake, inflammation, accumulation, degradation and clearance of the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the nanoparticle surface can induce conformational changes in adsorbed protein molecules which may affect the overall bio-reactivity of the nanoparticle. In depth understanding of such interactions can be directed towards generating bio-compatible nanomaterials with controlled surface characteristics in a biological environment. The main aim of this review is to summarise current knowledge on factors that influence nanoparticle-protein interactions and their implications on cellular uptake.

  13. Estimation of Enthalpy of Formation of Liquid Transition Metal Alloys: A Modified Prescription Based on Macroscopic Atom Model of Cohesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Subramanian; Saibaba, Saroja

    2016-09-01

    The enthalpy of formation Δo H f is an important thermodynamic quantity, which sheds significant light on fundamental cohesive and structural characteristics of an alloy. However, being a difficult one to determine accurately through experiments, simple estimation procedures are often desirable. In the present study, a modified prescription for estimating Δo H f L of liquid transition metal alloys is outlined, based on the Macroscopic Atom Model of cohesion. This prescription relies on self-consistent estimation of liquid-specific model parameters, namely electronegativity ( ϕ L) and bonding electron density ( n b L ). Such unique identification is made through the use of well-established relationships connecting surface tension, compressibility, and molar volume of a metallic liquid with bonding charge density. The electronegativity is obtained through a consistent linear scaling procedure. The preliminary set of values for ϕ L and n b L , together with other auxiliary model parameters, is subsequently optimized to obtain a good numerical agreement between calculated and experimental values of Δo H f L for sixty liquid transition metal alloys. It is found that, with few exceptions, the use of liquid-specific model parameters in Macroscopic Atom Model yields a physically consistent methodology for reliable estimation of mixing enthalpies of liquid alloys.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROTOCOL: BIOREACTION SYSTEM CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a generic test plan for bioreaction systems that use biological tools to act as contaminant sorbers and biodegraders. These are usually biofilters and bioreactors which are packed bed reactors using peat, soil, etc., biotrickling filters which handle liquid phase ...

  15. A nonlinear macroscopic multi-phasic model for describing interactions between solid, fluid and ionic species in biological tissue materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long-yuan; Pinsky, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    A nonlinear, macroscopic multi-phasic model for describing the interactions between solid, fluid, and ionic species in porous materials is presented. Governing equations are derived based on the nonlinear theories of solid mechanics, linear flow theory of Newtonian fluids, and theory of irreversible thermodynamics for the transport of ions and ionic solutions. The model shows that the transport coupling between ions and ionic solution exists only when the porous material has a membrane-like feature, which could be inside the material or on the material boundaries. Otherwise, the coupling occurs only between the solid and fluid phases and the transport of ionic species will have no effect on the macroscopic stresses, strains and displacements of the porous material. As an application of the present multi-phasic model, a numerical example of the human cornea under the shock of NaCl hypertonic solution applied to its endothelial surface is presented. This is a typical example of how ionic transport induces swelling in biological tissues. The results obtained from the present multi-phasic model demonstrate that the mechanical properties of the tissue have an important influence on the swelling of the cornea. Without taking into account this influence, the predicted swelling may be exaggerated.

  16. Macroscopic rates, microscopic observations, and molecular models of the dissolution of carbonate phases.

    SciTech Connect

    Duckworth, Owen W.; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Martin, Scot T.

    2004-05-01

    Bulk and surface energies are calculated for endmembers of the isostructural rhombohedral carbonate mineral family, including Ca, Cd, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, and Zn compositions. The calculations for the bulk agree with the densities, bond distances, bond angles, and lattice enthalpies reported in the literature. The calculated energies also correlate with measured dissolution rates: the lattice energies show a log-linear relationship to the macroscopic dissolution rates at circumneutral pH. Moreover, the energies of ion pairs translated along surface steps are calculated and found to predict experimentally observed microscopic step retreat velocities. Finally, pit formation excess energies decrease with increasing pit size, which is consistent with the nonlinear dissolution kinetics hypothesized for the initial stages of pit formation.

  17. Connecting Pore Scale Dynamics to Macroscopic Models for Two-Fluid Phase Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, J. E.; Dye, A. L.; Miller, C. T.; Gray, W. G.

    2015-12-01

    Imaging technologies such as computed micro-tomography (CMT) provide high resolution three-dimensional images of real porous medium systems that reveal the true geometric structure of fluid and solid phases. Simulation and analysis tools are essential to extract knowledge from this raw data, and can be applied in tandem to provide information that is otherwise inaccessible. Guidance from multi-scale averaging theory is used to develop a multi-scale analysis framework to determine phase connectivity and extract interfacial areas, curvatures, common line length, contact angle and the velocities of the interface and common curve. The approach is applied to analyze pore-scale dynamics based on a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method. Dense sets of simulations are performed to evaluate the equilibrium relationship between capillary pressure, saturation and interfacial area for several experimentally imaged porous media. The approach is also used study the evolution of macroscopic quantities under dynamic conditions, which is compared to the equilibrium data.

  18. Intense nonneutral beam propagation in a periodic solenoidal field using a macroscopic fluid model with zero thermal emittance

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.C.; Stoltz, P.; Chen, C.

    1997-08-01

    A macroscopic fluid model is developed to describe the nonlinear dynamics and collective processes in an intense high-current beam propagating in the z-direction through a periodic focusing solenoidal field B{sub z}(z + S) = B{sub z}(z), where S is the axial periodicity length. The analysis assumes that space-charge effects dominate the effects of thermal beam emittance, Kr{sub b}{sup 2} {much_gt} {epsilon}{sub th}{sup 2}, and is based on the macroscopic moment-Maxwell equations, truncated by neglecting the pressure tensor and higher-order moments. Assuming a thin beam with r{sub b} {much_lt} S, azimuthally symmetric beam equilibria with {partial_derivative}/{partial_derivative}t = 0 = {partial_derivative}/{partial_derivative}{theta} are investigated. To illustrate the considerable flexibility of the macroscopic formalism, assuming (nearly) uniform axial flow velocity V{sub b} over the beam cross section, beam equilibrium properties are calculated for two examples: (a) uniform radial density profile over the interval 0 {le} r < r{sub b}(z), and (b) an infinitesimally thin annular beam centered at r = r{sub b}(z). The analysis generally allows for the azimuthal flow velocity V{sub {theta}b}(r,z) to differ from the Larmor frequency, and the model is used to calculate the (leading-order) correction {delta}V{sub zb}(r,z) to the axial flow velocity for the step-function density profile in case (a) above.

  19. Explicit dosimetry for 2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a-mediated photodynamic therapy: macroscopic singlet oxygen modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penjweini, Rozhin; Liu, Baochang; Kim, Michele M.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2015-12-01

    Type II photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the photochemical reactions mediated through an interaction between a photosensitizer, ground-state oxygen ([O]), and light excitation at an appropriate wavelength, which results in production of reactive singlet oxygen ([]rx). We use an empirical macroscopic model based on four photochemical parameters for the calculation of []rx threshold concentration ([]rx,sh) causing tissue necrosis in tumors after PDT. For this reason, 2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH)-mediated PDT was performed interstitially on mice with radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors. A linear light source at 665 nm with total energy released per unit length of 12 to 100 J/cm and source power per unit length (LS) of 12 to 150 mW/cm was used to induce different radii of necrosis. Then the amount of []rx calculated by the macroscopic model incorporating explicit PDT dosimetry of light fluence distribution, tissue optical properties, and HPPH concentration was correlated to the necrotic radius to obtain the model parameters and []rx,sh. We provide evidence that []rx is a better dosimetric quantity for predicting the treatment outcome than PDT dose, which is proportional to the time integral of the products of the photosensitizer concentration and light fluence rate.

  20. Explicit dosimetry for 2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a-mediated photodynamic therapy: macroscopic singlet oxygen modeling.

    PubMed

    Penjweini, Rozhin; Liu, Baochang; Kim, Michele M; Zhu, Timothy C

    2015-01-01

    Type II photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the photochemical reactions mediated through an interaction between a photosensitizer, ground-state oxygen ([(3)O2]), and light excitation at an appropriate wavelength, which results in production of reactive singlet oxygen ([(1)O2]rx). We use an empirical macroscopic model based on four photochemical parameters for the calculation of [(1)O2]rx threshold concentration ([(1)O2]rx,sh) causing tissue necrosis in tumors after PDT. For this reason, 2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH)-mediated PDT was performed interstitially on mice with radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors. A linear light source at 665 nm with total energy released per unit length of 12 to 100  J/cm and source power per unit length (LS) of 12 to 150  mW/cm was used to induce different radii of necrosis. Then the amount of [(1)O2]rx calculated by the macroscopic model incorporating explicit PDT dosimetry of light fluence distribution, tissue optical properties, and HPPH concentration was correlated to the necrotic radius to obtain the model parameters and [(1)O2]rx,sh. We provide evidence that [(1)O2]rx is a better dosimetric quantity for predicting the treatment outcome than PDT dose, which is proportional to the time integral of the products of the photosensitizer concentration and light fluence rate. PMID:26720883

  1. Nano-titanium dioxide bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells: Investigating crystalline phase as a critical determinant.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Berhanu, Deborah; Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Thorley, Andrew J; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Tetley, Teresa D

    2015-05-01

    There can be significant variability between bioreactivity studies of nanomaterials that are apparently the same, possibly reflecting differences in the models used and differing sources of experimental material. In this study, we have generated two crystal forms of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), pure anatase and pure rutile to address the hypothesis that the bioreactivity of these nanoparticles with human alveolar epithelium will depend on their crystal phase. We used a human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cell model (TT1; generated in-house from primary human alveolar epithelial type II cells); these cells cover 95% of the alveolar epithelial surface area and are an important target cell for inhaled nanomaterials. Using literature as a guide, we hypothesised that pure anatase nano-TiO2 would display greater bioreactivity with TT1 cells in comparison to pure rutile nano-TiO2. However, we found the profile and pattern of inflammatory mediator release was similar between these two nano-TiO2 formats, although pure rutile treatment caused a small, but consistently greater, response for IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1. Interestingly, the temporal induction of oxidative stress (increased reactive oxygen species levels and depleted glutathione) varied markedly between the different nano-TiO2 formats. We have shown that a combination of using nanomaterials synthesised specifically for toxicological study and the use of a highly relevant, reproducible human lung cell model, offers a useful approach to delineating the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials that may be important in their cellular reactivity.

  2. Continuous Feedback and Macroscopic Coherence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombesi, Paolo; Vitali, David

    1996-01-01

    We show that a model, recently introduced for quantum nondemolition measurements of a quantum observable, can be adapted to obtain a measurement scheme which is able to slow down the destruction of macroscopic coherence due to the measurement apparatus.

  3. Modeling ancient Egyptian mummification on fresh human tissue: macroscopic and histological aspects.

    PubMed

    Papageorgopoulou, Christina; Shved, Natallia; Wanek, Johann; Rühli, Frank J

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have been concerned with the ancient Egyptian mummification method; nevertheless, little effort has been made to explore it experimentally. The goal of this study is to apply evidence-based diagnostic criteria and state-of-the art methodology in order to improve knowledge on soft tissues preservation and postmortem alterations. Two human lower limbs (LL) from a female donor were (1) "naturally" mummified by dry heat and (2) artificially in natron. At specific time intervals a macroscopic and radiological examination of the LL was performed and skin and muscle samples were taken for histological and biomolecular analysis. Temperature, humidity, pH, and weight of the LL were systematically measured. The mummification by dry heat was stopped after 7 days due to unexpected lack of mummification progress. The mummification in natron was completed successfully after 208 days. The humidity, the external temperature, and the pH were proven with Pearson correlation and principal component analysis as important factors for the mummification process. The steady removal of water from the tissues through the natron has prevented the putrefaction. This is also evident in the absence of bacteria or fungi through the microbiological analysis. The histological analysis revealed very good preservation of the skin and the muscle tissues. In the muscular sample certain degree of structural disintegration can be seen, particularly affecting the epimysium whilst in the skin samples the epidermis, especially the stratum corneum, is mostly affected. The samples show better preservation compared with ancient Egyptian sections and other mummified tissues from historic or forensic context.

  4. Macroscopic modeling of heat and water vapor transfer with phase change in dry snow based on an upscaling method: Influence of air convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calonne, N.; Geindreau, C.; Flin, F.

    2015-12-01

    At the microscopic scale, i.e., pore scale, dry snow metamorphism is mainly driven by the heat and water vapor transfer and the sublimation-deposition process at the ice-air interface. Up to now, the description of these phenomena at the macroscopic scale, i.e., snow layer scale, in the snowpack models has been proposed in a phenomenological way. Here we used an upscaling method, namely, the homogenization of multiple-scale expansions, to derive theoretically the macroscopic equivalent modeling of heat and vapor transfer through a snow layer from the physics at the pore scale. The physical phenomena under consideration are steady state air flow, heat transfer by conduction and convection, water vapor transfer by diffusion and convection, and phase change (sublimation and deposition). We derived three different macroscopic models depending on the intensity of the air flow considered at the pore scale, i.e., on the order of magnitude of the pore Reynolds number and the Péclet numbers: (A) pure diffusion, (B) diffusion and moderate convection (Darcy's law), and (C) strong convection (nonlinear flow). The formulation of the models includes the exact expression of the macroscopic properties (effective thermal conductivity, effective vapor diffusion coefficient, and intrinsic permeability) and of the macroscopic source terms of heat and vapor arising from the phase change at the pore scale. Such definitions can be used to compute macroscopic snow properties from 3-D descriptions of snow microstructures. Finally, we illustrated the precision and the robustness of the proposed macroscopic models through 2-D numerical simulations.

  5. A Lumped, Macroscopic Approach to Modeling Soil Moisture, CO2 Transport, and Chemical Weathering in the Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porporato, A. M.; Parolari, A.

    2015-12-01

    Ecohydrological processes in the root zone act as a dynamic interface between the atmosphere and the deeper soil layers, modulating the conditions that drive chemical weathering along the soil profile. Among these processes, soil moisture dynamics respond to intermittent rainfall pulses and to runoff and evapotranspiration losses. In addition, carbon dioxide (CO2) and its associated acidity are introduced into the soil moisture via root and microbial respiration. The coupling of soil moisture and CO2 dynamics in the root zone acts as an important controller of the critical zone development through the chemical weathering and water chemistry exported through runoff and percolation. Due to spatial and temporal variability and non-linearity, modeling these coupled root zone soil moisture and CO2 dynamics presents a number of challenges. In this talk, a lumped, macroscopic approach to modeling soil moisture, CO2 transport, and chemical weathering in the critical zone is introduced. The model considers a homogeneous soil column, therefore simplifying known spatial heterogeneities, and focuses on temporal variability resulting from non-linear processes and stochastic rainfall forcing. First, at short time-scales, the deterministic temporal evolution of soil moisture, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, and alkalinity is analyzed using a dynamical system approach. Second, at longer inter-annual time-scales where rainfall stochasticity becomes an important driver of the system behavior, the system is analyzed probabilistically and its average behavior described using a novel macroscopic approach. This averaging of the nonlinear stochastic dynamics results in a closure problem that is addressed through a first-order approximation of non-linear fluxes, including the correlation between soil moisture and solutes. The model provides a method to assess how changes in external forcing or system properties propagate into and alter critical zone structure and function, and to isolate

  6. Macroscopic constraints on string unification

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.R.

    1989-03-01

    The comparison of sting theory with experiment requires a huge extrapolation from the microscopic distances, of order of the Planck length, up to the macroscopic laboratory distances. The quantum effects give rise to large corrections to the macroscopic predictions of sting unification. I discus the model-independent constraints on the gravitational sector of string theory due to the inevitable existence of universal Fradkin-Tseytlin dilatons. 9 refs.

  7. Bioreaction engineering. Vol. 1: Fundamentals, thermodynamics, formal kinetics, idealized reactor types and operation modes

    SciTech Connect

    Schugeri, K.

    1987-01-01

    This volume, provides view of the current state of bioreaction engineering, the science of the reaction engineering of cells and microorganisms. Topics covered include the modus operandi of bioreactors, basic types, reactors circuits, formal kinetics of cell growth and product formation, growth in idealized reactors, substrate-limited growth, operation modes in stirred reactors, discontinuous (batch) operation, continuous operation, dynamic behavior of open and closed loop reactors, and more.

  8. Effects of bioreactive acrolein from automotive exhaust gases on human cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jaganjac, Morana; Prah, Iva Ozana; Cipak, Ana; Cindric, Marina; Mrakovcic, Lidija; Tatzber, Franz; Ilincic, Petar; Rukavina, Vinko; Spehar, Branka; Vukovic, Jelena Parlov; Telen, Sanda; Uchida, Koji; Lulic, Zoran; Zarkovic, Neven

    2012-11-01

    Acrolein is a toxic unsaturated aldehyde and widespread environmental pollutant produced during lipid peroxidation and also by burning of tobacco or liquid fuels. Inhalation or dermal exposure to acrolein could be toxic to organisms. This very reactive aldehyde has a strong affinity for binding to proteins thus forming pathogenic protein-adducts. In the present study we have analyzed formation of bioreactive acrolein-protein adducts in bovine serum albumin solution exposed to exhaust gases of mineral diesel fuel and of mineral diesel fuel supplemented with different amounts of a novel diesel fuel additive denoted Ecodiesel (produced by a genuine procedure of recycling of plant oils used for food preparation). The effects of acrolein-protein adducts were tested on human microvascular endothelial cells and on human osteosarcoma cells that are sensitive to bioactivities of lipid peroxidation products. The results have shown a reduction of the bioreactive acrolein in exhaust gases when mineral diesel was supplemented with 5-20% Ecodiesel. Moreover, acrolein-protein adducts obtained from mineral diesel supplemented with Ecodiesel were less toxic than those obtained from mineral diesel alone. Thus, we assume that supplementing mineral diesel fuel with Ecodiesel would be of benefit for the use of renewable energy, for environment and for human health due to reduced environmental pollution with bioreactive acrolein.

  9. Macroscopic modeling of pedestrian and bicycle crashes: A cross-comparison of estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Saberi, Meead; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a cross-comparison of different estimation methods to model pedestrian and bicycle crashes. The study contributes to macro level safety studies by providing further methodological and empirical evidence on the various factors that influence the frequency of pedestrian and bicycle crashes at the planning level. Random parameter negative binomial (RPNB) models are estimated to explore the effects of various planning factors associated with total, serious injury and minor injury crashes while accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. Results of the RPNB models were compared with the results of a non-spatial negative binomial (NB) model and a Poisson-Gamma-CAR model. Key findings are, (1) the RPNB model performed best with the lowest mean absolute deviation, mean squared predicted error and Akaiki information criterion measures and (2) signs of estimated parameters are consistent if these variables are significant in models with the same response variables. We found that vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT), population, percentage of commuters cycling or walking to work, and percentage of households without motor vehicles have a significant and positive correlation with the number of pedestrian and bicycle crashes. Mixed land use is also found to have a positive association with the number of pedestrian and bicycle crashes. Results have planning and policy implications aimed at encouraging the use of sustainable modes of transportation while ensuring the safety of pedestrians and cyclist. PMID:27209153

  10. Tundish Open Eye Formation in Inert Gas-Shrouded Tundishes: A Macroscopic Model from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Saikat; Chattopadhyay, Kinnor

    2016-10-01

    Open eye formation in tundishes can result in reoxidation of liquid steel leading to the formation of harmful inclusions. Moreover, it is also a site for heat loss, gas absorption, and slag emulsification. All these factors make it necessary to understand the fundamentals of open eye formation, which in turn will allow us to prevent or control its harmful effects. In the present study, the bubble plume regions in a ladle and tundish were compared, and it was observed that there are significant differences between the two. Moreover, a simplistic model for predicting the open eye area in tundishes for `thin slag' practices was derived using the principles of conservation of mass and momentum. The proposed model was able to predict open eye areas in tundish reasonably well and was compared with other models, and experimental results.

  11. Tundish Open Eye Formation in Inert Gas-Shrouded Tundishes: A Macroscopic Model from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Saikat; Chattopadhyay, Kinnor

    2016-07-01

    Open eye formation in tundishes can result in reoxidation of liquid steel leading to the formation of harmful inclusions. Moreover, it is also a site for heat loss, gas absorption, and slag emulsification. All these factors make it necessary to understand the fundamentals of open eye formation, which in turn will allow us to prevent or control its harmful effects. In the present study, the bubble plume regions in a ladle and tundish were compared, and it was observed that there are significant differences between the two. Moreover, a simplistic model for predicting the open eye area in tundishes for `thin slag' practices was derived using the principles of conservation of mass and momentum. The proposed model was able to predict open eye areas in tundish reasonably well and was compared with other models, and experimental results.

  12. The Macroscopic Entrainment Processes of Simulated Cumulus Ensemble. Part II: Testing the Entraining-Plume Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chichung; Arakawa, Akio

    1997-04-01

    According to Part I of this paper, it seems that ignoring the contribution from descendent cloud air in a cloud model for cumulus parameterization (CMCP), such as the spectral cumulus ensemble model in the Arakawa-Schubert parameterization, is an acceptable simplification for tropical deep convection. Since each subensemble in the spectral cumulus ensemble model is formally analogous to an entraining plume, the latter is examined using the simulated data from a cloud-resolving model (CRM). The authors first follow the analysis procedure of Warner. With the data from a nonprecipitating experiment, the authors show that the entraining-plume model cannot simultaneously predict the mean liquid water profile and cloud top height of the clouds simulated by the CRM. However, the mean properties of active elements of clouds, which are characterized by strong updrafts, can be described by an entraining plume of similar top height.With the data from a precipitating experiment, the authors examine the spectral cumulus ensemble model using the Paluch diagram. It is found that the spectral cumulus ensemble model appears adequate if different types of clouds in the spectrum are interpreted as subcloud elements with different entrainment characteristics. The resolved internal structure of clouds can thus be viewed as a manifestation of a cloud spectrum. To further investigate whether the fractional rate of entrainment is an appropriate parameter for characterizing cloud types in the spectral cumulus ensemble model, the authors stratify the simulated saturated updrafts (subcloud elements) into different types according to their eventual heights and calculate the cloud mass flux and mean moist static energy for each type. Entrainment characteristics are then inferred through the cloud mass flux and in-cloud moist static energy. It is found that different types of subcloud elements have distinguishable thermodynamic properties and entrainment characteristics. However, for each cloud

  13. Studying Nuclear Level Densities of 238U in the Nuclear Reactions within the Macroscopic Nuclear Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Rohallah; Rahmatinejad, Azam; Kakavand, Tayeb; Taheri, Fariba; Aghajani, Maghsood; Khooy, Asghar

    2016-02-01

    In this work the nuclear level density parameters of 238U have been extracted in the back-shifted Fermi gas model (BSFGM), as well as the constant temperature model (CTM), through fitting with the recent experimental data on nuclear level densities measured by the Oslo group. The excitation functions for 238U(p,2nα)233Pa, and 238U(p,4n)235Np reactions and the fragment yields for the fragments of the 238U(p,f) reaction have been calculated using obtained level density parameters. The results are compared to their corresponding experimental values. It was found that the extracted excitation functions and the fragment yields in the CTM coincide well with the experimental values in the low-energy region. This finding is according to the claim made by the Oslo group that the extracted level densities of 238U show a constant temperature behaviour.

  14. A three-dimensional meso-macroscopic model for Li-Ion intercalation batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Allu, S.; Kalnaus, S.; Simunovic, S.; Nanda, J.; Turner, J. A.; Pannala, S.

    2016-06-09

    Through this study, we present a three-dimensional computational formulation for electrode-electrolyte-electrode system of Li-Ion batteries. The physical consistency between electrical, thermal and chemical equations is enforced at each time increment by driving the residual of the resulting coupled system of nonlinear equations to zero. The formulation utilizes a rigorous volume averaging approach typical of multiphase formulations used in other fields and recently extended to modeling of supercapacitors [1]. Unlike existing battery modeling methods which use segregated solution of conservation equations and idealized geometries, our unified approach can model arbitrary battery and electrode configurations. The consistency of multi-physics solution also allowsmore » for consideration of a wide array of initial conditions and load cases. The formulation accounts for spatio-temporal variations of material and state properties such as electrode/void volume fractions and anisotropic conductivities. The governing differential equations are discretized using the finite element method and solved using a nonlinearly consistent approach that provides robust stability and convergence. The new formulation was validated for standard Li-ion cells and compared against experiments. Finally, its scope and ability to capture spatio-temporal variations of potential and lithium distribution is demonstrated on a prototypical three-dimensional electrode problem.« less

  15. From Stories to Scientific Models and Back: Narrative framing in modern macroscopic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Hans U.

    2015-04-01

    Narrative in science learning has become an important field of inquiry. Most applications of narrative are extrinsic to science-such as when they are used for creating affect and context. Where they are intrinsic, they are often limited to special cases and uses. To extend the reach of narrative in science, a hypothesis of narrative framing of natural and technical scenes is formulated. The term narrative framing is used in a double sense, to represent (1) the enlisting of narrative intelligence in the perception of phenomena and (2) the telling of stories that contain conceptual elements used in the creation of scientific models of these phenomena. The concrete case for narrative framing is made by conceptual analyses of simple stories of natural phenomena and of products related to modern continuum thermodynamics that reveal particular figurative structures. Importantly, there is evidence for a medium-scale perceptual gestalt called force of nature that is structured metaphorically and narratively. The resulting figurative conceptual structure gives rise to the notion of natural agents acting and suffering in storyworlds. In order to show that formal scientific models are deeply related to these storyworlds, a link between using (i.e. simulating) models and storytelling is employed. This link has recently been postulated in studies of narrative in computational science and economics.

  16. A three-dimensional meso-macroscopic model for Li-Ion intercalation batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allu, S.; Kalnaus, S.; Simunovic, S.; Nanda, J.; Turner, J. A.; Pannala, S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present a three-dimensional computational formulation for electrode-electrolyte-electrode system of Li-Ion batteries. The physical consistency between electrical, thermal and chemical equations is enforced at each time increment by driving the residual of the resulting coupled system of nonlinear equations to zero. The formulation utilizes a rigorous volume averaging approach typical of multiphase formulations used in other fields and recently extended to modeling of supercapacitors [1]. Unlike existing battery modeling methods which use segregated solution of conservation equations and idealized geometries, our unified approach can model arbitrary battery and electrode configurations. The consistency of multi-physics solution also allows for consideration of a wide array of initial conditions and load cases. The formulation accounts for spatio-temporal variations of material and state properties such as electrode/void volume fractions and anisotropic conductivities. The governing differential equations are discretized using the finite element method and solved using a nonlinearly consistent approach that provides robust stability and convergence. The new formulation was validated for standard Li-ion cells and compared against experiments. Its scope and ability to capture spatio-temporal variations of potential and lithium distribution is demonstrated on a prototypical three-dimensional electrode problem.

  17. Revealing the activation pathway for TMEM16A chloride channels from macroscopic currents and kinetic models.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Vite, Juan A; Cruz-Rangel, Silvia; De Jesús-Pérez, José J; Figueroa, Iván A Aréchiga; Rodríguez-Menchaca, Aldo A; Pérez-Cornejo, Patricia; Hartzell, H Criss; Arreola, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    TMEM16A (ANO1), the pore-forming subunit of calcium-activated chloride channels, regulates several physiological and pathophysiological processes such as smooth muscle contraction, cardiac and neuronal excitability, salivary secretion, tumour growth and cancer progression. Gating of TMEM16A is complex because it involves the interplay between increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), membrane depolarization, extracellular Cl(-) or permeant anions and intracellular protons. Our goal here was to understand how these variables regulate TMEM16A gating and to explain four observations. (a) TMEM16A is activated by voltage in the absence of intracellular Ca(2+). (b) The Cl(-) conductance is decreased after reducing extracellular Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-)]o). (c) ICl is regulated by physiological concentrations of [Cl(-)]o. (d) In cells dialyzed with 0.2 μM [Ca(2+)]i, Cl(-) has a bimodal effect: at [Cl(-)]o <30 mM TMEM16A current activates with a monoexponential time course, but above 30 mM, [Cl(-)]o ICl activation displays fast and slow kinetics. To explain the contribution of Vm, Ca(2+) and Cl(-) to gating, we developed a 12-state Markov chain model. This model explains TMEM16A activation as a sequential, direct, and Vm-dependent binding of two Ca(2+) ions coupled to a Vm-dependent binding of an external Cl(-) ion, with Vm-dependent transitions between states. Our model predicts that extracellular Cl(-) does not alter the apparent Ca(2+) affinity of TMEM16A, which we corroborated experimentally. Rather, extracellular Cl(-) acts by stabilizing the open configuration induced by Ca(2+) and by contributing to the Vm dependence of activation. PMID:27138167

  18. Revealing the activation pathway for TMEM16A chloride channels from macroscopic currents and kinetic models.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Vite, Juan A; Cruz-Rangel, Silvia; De Jesús-Pérez, José J; Figueroa, Iván A Aréchiga; Rodríguez-Menchaca, Aldo A; Pérez-Cornejo, Patricia; Hartzell, H Criss; Arreola, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    TMEM16A (ANO1), the pore-forming subunit of calcium-activated chloride channels, regulates several physiological and pathophysiological processes such as smooth muscle contraction, cardiac and neuronal excitability, salivary secretion, tumour growth and cancer progression. Gating of TMEM16A is complex because it involves the interplay between increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), membrane depolarization, extracellular Cl(-) or permeant anions and intracellular protons. Our goal here was to understand how these variables regulate TMEM16A gating and to explain four observations. (a) TMEM16A is activated by voltage in the absence of intracellular Ca(2+). (b) The Cl(-) conductance is decreased after reducing extracellular Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-)]o). (c) ICl is regulated by physiological concentrations of [Cl(-)]o. (d) In cells dialyzed with 0.2 μM [Ca(2+)]i, Cl(-) has a bimodal effect: at [Cl(-)]o <30 mM TMEM16A current activates with a monoexponential time course, but above 30 mM, [Cl(-)]o ICl activation displays fast and slow kinetics. To explain the contribution of Vm, Ca(2+) and Cl(-) to gating, we developed a 12-state Markov chain model. This model explains TMEM16A activation as a sequential, direct, and Vm-dependent binding of two Ca(2+) ions coupled to a Vm-dependent binding of an external Cl(-) ion, with Vm-dependent transitions between states. Our model predicts that extracellular Cl(-) does not alter the apparent Ca(2+) affinity of TMEM16A, which we corroborated experimentally. Rather, extracellular Cl(-) acts by stabilizing the open configuration induced by Ca(2+) and by contributing to the Vm dependence of activation.

  19. Macroscopic Response Of The Retinal Mosaic To The Light Stimulus: Linear Array Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, P. K.; Calvo, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    It is known that the cones and rods of the retina have directional sensitivity. For a normal observer, in the absence of aberrations like myopia, astigmatism, etc. the light entering the pupil of the eye is directly focussed on the retinal plane by the optical system of the eye. There, in the retina, the cones and the rods are regularly distributed in different retinal regions forming a mosaic structure. It is very well established from the earlier works of Enoch, (1), that both types of optical photoreceptors act as optical waveguides. This behaviour can be accounted for due to their special optical properties allowing conditions for total internal reflections inside its structure. At the time of the confinement of the energy inside each single receptor an important phenomenon of orientation takes place as well. In this work, we wish to establish that the various effects arising out of this phenomenon can be interpreted in terms of a possible apodising action of the eye.It will be shown that an improvement in the resolution of the retinal image detection is possible by comparing the human visual system with an apodised optical system. For that purpose we have established a linear array model for a section of the fovea, ( all receptors having the same geometry and optical properties ), then, we have calculated the distribution of the density of energy captured in this particular section of the retina, by assuming that the receptors are acting as monomode optical waveguides.The orientation mechanism is also considered, by including an inclination factor affecting each single receptor. We have compared the so obtained distribution to the one associated to a single receptor

  20. Macroscopic Magnetic Frustration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellado, Paula; Concha, Andres; Mahadevan, L.

    2012-12-01

    Although geometrical frustration transcends scale, it has primarily been evoked in the micro- and mesoscopic realm to characterize such phases as spin ice, liquids, and glasses and to explain the behavior of such materials as multiferroics, high-temperature superconductors, colloids, and copolymers. Here we introduce a system of macroscopic ferromagnetic rotors arranged in a planar lattice capable of out-of-plane movement that exhibit the characteristic honeycomb spin ice rules studied and seen so far only in its mesoscopic manifestation. We find that a polarized initial state of this system settles into the honeycomb spin ice phase with relaxation on multiple time scales. We explain this relaxation process using a minimal classical mechanical model that includes Coulombic interactions between magnetic charges located at the ends of the magnets and viscous dissipation at the hinges. Our study shows how macroscopic frustration arises in a purely classical setting that is amenable to experiment, easy manipulation, theory, and computation, and shows phenomena that are not visible in their microscopic counterparts.

  1. Static and Statistical Properties of Hot Rotating Nuclei in a Macroscopic Temperature-Dependent Finite-Range Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabov, E.G.; Adeev, G.D.

    2005-09-01

    A macroscopic temperature-dependent model that takes into account nuclear forces of finite range is used to calculate the static and statistical properties of hot rotating compound nuclei. The level-density parameter is approximated by an expression of the leptodermous type. The resulting expansion coefficients are in good agreement with their counterparts proposed previously by A.V. Ignatyuk and his colleagues. The effect of taking simultaneously into account the temperature of a nucleus and its angular momentum on the quantities under study, such as the heights and positions of fission barriers and the effective moments of inertia of nuclei at the barrier, is considered, and the importance of doing this is demonstrated. The fissility parameter (Z{sup 2}/A){sub crit} and the position of the Businaro-Gallone point are studied versus temperature. It is found that, with increasing temperature, both parameters are shifted to the region of lighter nuclei. It is shown that the inclusion of temperature leads to qualitatively the same effects as the inclusion of the angular momentum of a nucleus, but, quantitatively, thermal excitation leads to smaller effects than rotational excitation.

  2. A macroscopic model of proton transport through the membrane-ionomer interface of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Milan; Edwards, Brian J; Paddison, Stephen J

    2013-02-14

    The membrane-ionomer interface is the critical interlink of the electrodes and catalyst to the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM); together forming the membrane electrode assembly in current state-of-the-art PEM fuel cells. In this paper, proton conduction through the interface is investigated to understand its effect on the performance of a PEM fuel cell. The water containing domains at this interface were modeled as cylindrical pores/channels with the anionic groups (i.e., -SO(3)(-)) assumed to be fixed on the pore wall. The interactions of each species with all other species and an applied external field were examined. Molecular-based interaction potential energies were computed in a small test element of the pore and were scaled up in terms of macroscopic variables. Evolution equations of the density and momentum of the species (water molecules and hydronium ions) were derived within a framework of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The resulting evolution equations for the species were solved analytically using an order-of-magnitude analysis to obtain an expression for the proton conductivity. Results show that the conductivity increases with increasing water content and pore radius, and strongly depends on the separation distance between the sulfonate groups and their distribution on the pore wall. It was also determined that the conductivity of two similar pores of different radii in series is limited by the pore with the smaller radius.

  3. Calcite surface structure and reactivity: molecular dynamics simulations and macroscopic surface modelling of the calcite-water interface.

    PubMed

    Wolthers, M; Di Tommaso, D; Du, Z; de Leeuw, N H

    2012-11-21

    Calcite-water interactions are important not only in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle, but also in contaminant behaviour in calcite-bearing host rock and in many industrial applications. Here we quantify the effect of variations in surface structure on calcite surface reactivity. Firstly, we employ classical Molecular Dynamics simulations of calcite surfaces containing an etch pit and a growth terrace, to show that the local environment in water around structurally different surface sites is distinct. In addition to observing the expected formation of more calcium-water interactions and hydrogen-bonds at lower-coordinated sites, we also observed subtle differences in hydrogen bonding around acute versus obtuse edges and corners. We subsequently used this information to refine the protonation constants for the calcite surface sites, according to the Charge Distribution MUltiSite Ion Complexation (CD-MUSIC) approach. The subtle differences in hydrogen bonding translate into markedly different charging behaviour versus pH, in particular for acute versus obtuse corner sites. The results show quantitatively that calcite surface reactivity is directly related to surface topography. The information obtained in this study is not only crucial for the improvement of existing macroscopic surface models of the reactivity of calcite towards contaminants, but also improves our atomic-level understanding of mineral-water interactions.

  4. Nuclear physics: Macroscopic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    A systematic macroscopic, leptodermous approach to nuclear statics and dynamics is described, based formally on the assumptions {h_bar} {yields} 0 and b/R << 1, where b is the surface diffuseness and R the nuclear radius. The resulting static model of shell-corrected nuclear binding energies and deformabilities is accurate to better than 1 part in a thousand and yields a firm determination of the principal properties of the nuclear fluid. As regards dynamics, the above approach suggests that nuclear shape evolutions will often be dominated by dissipation, but quantitative comparisons with experimental data are more difficult than in the case of statics. In its simplest liquid drop version the model exhibits interesting formal connections to the classic astronomical problem of rotating gravitating masses.

  5. Linkage between transient physical forcing and export flux of bioreactive materials to the deep oligotrophic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, M. H.; Dickey, T. D.; Weber, J. C.; Johnson, R. J.; Knap, A. H.

    2002-12-01

    Considerable attention has recently been focused on the role of eddies in affecting biogeochemical fluxes and budgets of the Sargasso Sea. The Bermuda Testbed Mooring (BTM) and Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) shipboard sampling evidenced a large phytoplankton bloom at the Bermuda time-series site in late fall 1996 which was strongly forced by the interplay between seasonal mixed layer destratification and perturbation of mixed layer dynamics due to the presence of a warm mesoscale feature, possibly an eddy remnant, which was characterized by a thick warm, low salinity thermostad more than 180m in depth.. Nutrients, chlorophyll and pigment profiles indicated high primary production stimulated by nutrient entrainment and intermittent deep mixing. Zooplankton biomass and 200 m export flux also were greatly elevated. Nearly coincident with the arrival of this feature in surface waters, the Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) sediment traps recorded an abrupt, factor of 2.5 increase in mass flux at 3200 m depth. More dramatic was the increase in flux of labile bioreactive organic matter. Fluxes of primary phytoplankton and bacteria-derived compounds and their early degradation products increased by factors of 5-30 Their covariation indicated that the settling phytoplankton bloom material contained elevated bacterial populations and was undergoing active degradation when it entered the 3200 m trap cup. These results show that transient, physical forcing by warm mesoscale features - which include but are not limited to eddies - can have an enormous effect on the export flux of bioreactive organic material. The contribution to the longer term average is not presently known, but the occurrence of episodic high flux events throughout the OFP time-series record suggests that they may be responsible for a significant fraction of the total export of bioreactive carbon and associated elements to the deep oligotrophic ocean.

  6. Engineered passive bioreactive barriers: risk-managing the legacy of industrial soil and groundwater pollution.

    PubMed

    Kalin, Robert M

    2004-06-01

    Permeable reactive barriers are a technology that is one decade old, with most full-scale applications based on abiotic mechanisms. Though there is extensive literature on engineered bioreactors, natural biodegradation potential, and in situ remediation, it is only recently that engineered passive bioreactive barrier technology is being considered at the commercial scale to manage contaminated soil and groundwater risks. Recent full-scale studies are providing the scientific confidence in our understanding of coupled microbial (and genetic), hydrogeologic, and geochemical processes in this approach and have highlighted the need to further integrate engineering and science tools.

  7. A Model Study of Inclusions Deposition, Macroscopic Transport, and Dynamic Removal at Steel-Slag Interface for Different Tundish Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Ni, Peiyuan; Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar; Tilliander, Anders; Cheng, Guoguang; Jönsson, Pär Göran

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation results of inclusions macroscopic transport as well as dynamic removal in tundishes. A novel treatment was implemented using the deposition velocity calculated by a revised unified Eulerian deposition model to replace the widely used Stokes rising velocity in the boundary conditions for inclusions removal at the steel-slag interface in tundishes. In this study, the dynamic removal for different size groups of inclusions at different steel-slag interfaces (smooth or rough) with different absorption conditions at the interface (partially or fully absorbed) in two tundish designs was studied. The results showed that the dynamic removal ratios were higher for larger inclusions than for smaller inclusions. Besides, the dynamic removal ratio was higher for rough interfaces than for smooth interfaces. On the other hand, regarding the cases when inclusions are partially or fully absorbed at a smooth steel-slag interface, the removal ratio values are proportional to the absorption proportion of inclusions at the steel-slag interface. Furthermore, the removal of inclusions in two tundish designs, i.e., with and without a weir and a dam were compared. Specifically, the tundish with a weir and a dam exhibited a better performance with respect to the removal of bigger inclusions (radii of 5, 7, and 9 μm) than that of the case without weir and dam. That was found to be due to the strong paralleling flow near the middle part of the top surface. However, the tundish without weir and dam showed a higher removal ratio of smaller inclusions (radius of 1 μm). The reason could be the presence of a paralleling flow near the inlet zone, where the inclusions deposition velocities were much higher than in other parts.

  8. Transient physical forcing of pulsed export of bioreactive material to the deep Sargasso Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, M. H.; Dickey, T. D.; Weber, J. C.; Johnson, R. J.; Knap, A. H.

    2003-10-01

    Considerable attention has recently been focused on the role of eddies in affecting biogeochemical fluxes and budgets of the Sargasso Sea. In late November 1996, the Bermuda Testbed Mooring (BTM) and Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) shipboard sampling evidenced a fall phytoplankton bloom at the Bermuda time-series site which was strongly forced by the interplay between seasonal mixed layer destratification and perturbation of mixed layer dynamics due to passage of a warm mesoscale feature. The feature was characterized by clockwise current vector rotation from near the surface to about 200 m and a thick, warm, low salinity isothermal layer >180 m in depth. Nutrients, chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment profiles indicated high primary production stimulated by enhancement of nutrient entrainment and intermittent deep mixing down to the base of the feature's isothermal layer. Nearly coincident with the arrival of this productive feature at the BTM site, the Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) sediment traps recorded an abrupt, factor of 2.5 increase in mass flux at 3200 m depth. Even more dramatic was the observed increase in flux of labile bioreactive organic matter. Fluxes of primary phytoplankton-derived compounds increased by factors of 7-30, bacteria-derived compounds by 6-9, and early degradation products of sterols by a factor of 10. The covariation of early degradation products and bacteria-derived compounds with phytoplankton-derived compounds indicated that the settling phytoplankton bloom material contained elevated bacterial populations and was undergoing active degradation when it entered the 3200 m trap cup. The increase in the flux of bulk components, especially the residual silicate fraction, and refractory organic compounds clearly preceded the main pulse of the labile, surface-derived phytoplankton organic material. The coincident increase in the flux of refractory and zooplankton-derived compounds suggests that in the initial stage of the deep flux event

  9. Rank distributions: A panoramic macroscopic outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a panoramic macroscopic outlook of rank distributions. We establish a general framework for the analysis of rank distributions, which classifies them into five macroscopic "socioeconomic" states: monarchy, oligarchy-feudalism, criticality, socialism-capitalism, and communism. Oligarchy-feudalism is shown to be characterized by discrete macroscopic rank distributions, and socialism-capitalism is shown to be characterized by continuous macroscopic size distributions. Criticality is a transition state between oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, which can manifest allometric scaling with multifractal spectra. Monarchy and communism are extreme forms of oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, respectively, in which the intrinsic randomness vanishes. The general framework is applied to three different models of rank distributions—top-down, bottom-up, and global—and unveils each model's macroscopic universality and versatility. The global model yields a macroscopic classification of the generalized Zipf law, an omnipresent form of rank distributions observed across the sciences. An amalgamation of the three models establishes a universal rank-distribution explanation for the macroscopic emergence of a prevalent class of continuous size distributions, ones governed by unimodal densities with both Pareto and inverse-Pareto power-law tails.

  10. Rank distributions: a panoramic macroscopic outlook.

    PubMed

    Eliazar, Iddo I; Cohen, Morrel H

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a panoramic macroscopic outlook of rank distributions. We establish a general framework for the analysis of rank distributions, which classifies them into five macroscopic "socioeconomic" states: monarchy, oligarchy-feudalism, criticality, socialism-capitalism, and communism. Oligarchy-feudalism is shown to be characterized by discrete macroscopic rank distributions, and socialism-capitalism is shown to be characterized by continuous macroscopic size distributions. Criticality is a transition state between oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, which can manifest allometric scaling with multifractal spectra. Monarchy and communism are extreme forms of oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, respectively, in which the intrinsic randomness vanishes. The general framework is applied to three different models of rank distributions-top-down, bottom-up, and global-and unveils each model's macroscopic universality and versatility. The global model yields a macroscopic classification of the generalized Zipf law, an omnipresent form of rank distributions observed across the sciences. An amalgamation of the three models establishes a universal rank-distribution explanation for the macroscopic emergence of a prevalent class of continuous size distributions, ones governed by unimodal densities with both Pareto and inverse-Pareto power-law tails. PMID:24580176

  11. Salinization alters fluxes of bioreactive elements from stream ecosystems across land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, S.; Kaushal, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    There has been increased salinization of fresh water over decades due to the use of road salt deicers, wastewater discharges, saltwater intrusion, human-accelerated weathering, and groundwater irrigation. Salinization can mobilize bioreactive elements (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur) chemically via ion exchange and/or biologically via influencing of microbial activity. However, the effects of salinization on coupled biogeochemical cycles are still not well understood. We investigated potential impacts of increased salinization on fluxes of bioreactive elements from stream ecosystems (sediments and riparian soils) to overlying stream water and evaluated the implications of percent urban land use on salinization effects. Two-day incubations of sediments and soils with stream and deionized water across three salt levels were conducted at eight routine monitoring stations across a land-use gradient at the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Results indicated (1) salinization typically increased sediment releases of labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total dissolved Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) (ammonium + ammonia + dissolved organic nitrogen), and sediment transformations of nitrate; (2) salinization generally decreased DOC aromaticity and fluxes of soluble reactive phosphorus from both sediments and soils; (3) the effects of increased salinization on sediment releases of DOC and TKN and DOC quality increased with percentage watershed urbanization. Biogeochemical responses to salinization varied between sediments and riparian soils in releases of DOC and DIC, and nitrate transformations. The differential responses of riparian soils and sediments to increased salinization were likely due to differences in organic matter sources and composition. Our results suggest that short-term increases in salinization can cause releases of significant amounts of labile organic

  12. Constitutive model for flake graphite cast iron automotive brake discs: from macroscopic multiscale models to a 1D rheological description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustins, L.; Billardon, R.; Hild, F.

    2016-07-01

    One of the critical points of the thermomechanical fatigue design process is the correct description of the cyclic behavior of the material. This work focuses on the material of automotive brake discs, namely flake graphite cast iron. The specificity of this material is its asymmetric behavior under tensile and compressive loadings, which is due to the shape of graphite that acts as small cracks. Multiscale models inspired from the literature are first presented. They lead to a good description of the material behavior under cyclic loadings. An elastoviscoplastic constitutive model is then proposed in a one-dimensional setting in order to accurately describe cyclic tests from room temperature up to {600^{circ}{C}}.

  13. Variability in Bioreactivity Linked to Changes in Size and Zeta Potential of Diesel Exhaust Particles in Human Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Srijata; Zhang, Lin; Subramaniam, Prasad; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Strickland, Pamela A. Ohman.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lioy, Paul J.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Ryan, Mary; Porter, Alex; Schwander, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Acting as fuel combustion catalysts to increase fuel economy, cerium dioxide (ceria, CeO2) nanoparticles have been used in Europe as diesel fuel additives (Envirox™). We attempted to examine the effects of particles emitted from a diesel engine burning either diesel (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) or diesel doped with various concentrations of CeO2 (DEP-Env) on innate immune responses in THP-1 and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Batches of DEP and DEP-Env were obtained on three separate occasions using identical collection and extraction protocols with the aim of determining the reproducibility of particles generated at different times. However, we observed significant differences in size and surface charge (zeta potential) of the DEP and DEP-Env across the three batches. We also observed that exposure of THP-1 cells and PBMC to identical concentrations of DEP and DEP-Env from the three batches resulted in statistically significant differences in bioreactivity as determined by IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-12p40 mRNA (by qRT-PCR) and protein expression (by ELISPOT assays). Importantly, bioreactivity was noted in very tight ranges of DEP size (60 to 120 nm) and zeta potential (−37 to −41 mV). Thus, these physical properties of DEP and DEP-Env were found to be the primary determinants of the bioreactivity measured in this study. Our findings also point to the potential risk of over- or under- estimation of expected bioreactivity effects (and by inference of public health risks) from bulk DEP use without taking into account potential batch-to-batch variations in physical (and possibly chemical) properties. PMID:24825358

  14. A coupled geochemical and biogeochemical approach to characterize the bioreactivity of dissolved organic matter from a headwater stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleighter, Rachel L.; Cory, Rose M.; Kaplan, Louis A.; Abdulla, Hussain A. N.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2014-08-01

    The bioreactivity or susceptibility of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to microbial degradation in streams and rivers is of critical importance to global change studies, but a comprehensive understanding of DOM bioreactivity has been elusive due, in part, to the stunningly diverse assemblages of organic molecules within DOM. We approach this problem by employing a range of techniques to characterize DOM as it flows through biofilm reactors: dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, excitation emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMs), and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry. The EEMs and mass spectral data were analyzed using a combination of multivariate statistical approaches. We found that 45% of stream water DOC was biodegraded by microorganisms, including 31-45% of the humic DOC. This bioreactive DOM separated into two different groups: (1) H/C centered at 1.5 with O/C 0.1-0.5 or (2) low H/C of 0.5-1.0 spanning O/C 0.2-0.7 that were positively correlated (Spearman ranking) with chromophoric and fluorescent DOM (CDOM and FDOM, respectively). DOM that was more recalcitrant and resistant to microbial degradation aligned tightly in the center of the van Krevelen space (H/C 1.0-1.5, O/C 0.25-0.6) and negatively correlated (Spearman ranking) with CDOM and FDOM. These findings were supported further by principal component analysis and 2-D correlation analysis of the relative magnitudes of the mass spectral peaks assigned to molecular formulas. This study demonstrates that our approach of processing stream water through bioreactors followed by EEMs and FTICR-MS analyses, in combination with multivariate statistical analysis, allows for precise, robust characterization of compound bioreactivity and associated molecular level composition.

  15. Effective diffusivity in partially-saturated carbon-fiber gas diffusion layers: Effect of local saturation and application to macroscopic continuum models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Salaberri, Pablo A.; Gostick, Jeff T.; Hwang, Gisuk; Weber, Adam Z.; Vera, Marcos

    2015-11-01

    Macroscopic continuum models are an essential tool to understand the complex transport phenomena that take place in gas diffusion layers (GDLs) used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Previous work has shown that macroscopic models require effective properties obtained under uniform saturation conditions to get a consistent physical formulation. This issue, mostly unappreciated in the open literature, is addressed in detail in this work. To this end, lattice Boltzmann simulations were performed on tomographic images of dry and water-invaded carbon-paper GDL subsamples with nearly uniform porosity and saturation distributions. The computed effective diffusivity shows an anisotropic dependence on local porosity similar to that reported for morphologically analogous GDLs. In contrast, the dependence on local saturation is rather isotropic, following a nearly quadratic power law. The capability of the local correlations to recover the layer-scale properties obtained from inhomogeneous GDLs is checked by global averaging. Good agreement is found between the upscaled results and the diffusivity data of the GDL from which the present subsamples were taken, as well as other global data presented in the literature. A higher blockage effect of local saturation is, however, expected for the under-the-rib region in operating PEFCs.

  16. Connecting grain-scale physics to macroscopic granular flow behavior using discrete contact-dynamics simulations, centrifuge experiments, and continuum modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Meredith; Stark, Colin; Hung, Chi-Yao; Smith, Breannan; Grinspin, Eitan; Capart, Herve; Li, Liming; Crone, Timothy; Hsu, Leslie; Ling, Hoe

    2014-05-01

    characterize both the convergence of these grain-scale parameters toward the empirical coefficients of the macroscopic descriptions, and the deviations from continuum model predictions caused by nonlocal granular effects for quantities such as erosion rate. We will also summarize the context and implications of our work for both granular physics theory and granular flow hazard risk assessment.

  17. Single macroscopic pillars as model system for bioinspired adhesives: influence of tip dimension, aspect ratio, and tilt angle.

    PubMed

    Micciché, Maurizio; Arzt, Eduard; Kroner, Elmar

    2014-05-28

    The goal of our study is to better understand the design parameters of bioinspired dry adhesives inspired by geckos. For this, we fabricated single macroscopic pillars of 400 μm diameter with different aspect ratios and different tip shapes (i.e., flat tips, spherical tips with different radii, and mushroom tips with different diameters). Tilt-angle-dependent adhesion measurements showed that although the tip shape of the pillars strongly influences the pull-off force, the pull-off strength is similar for flat and mushroom-shaped tips. We found no tilt-angle dependency of adhesion for spherical tip structures and, except for high tilt angle and low preload experiments, no tilt-angle effect for mushroom-tip pillars. For flat-tip pillars, we found a strong influence of tilt angle on adhesion, which decreased linearly with increasing aspect ratio. The experiments show that for the tested aspect ratios between 1 and 5, a linear decrease of tilt-angle dependency is found. The results of our studies will help to design bioinspired adhesives for application on smooth and rough surfaces.

  18. Aerobrake plasmadynamics - Macroscopic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1990-06-01

    The flow around an aerobraking spacecraft (such as the Aeroassist Flight Experiment reentry vehicle) will contain a region of partially ionized gas, that is, a plasma. It is shown here by numerical simulation that macroscopic plasmadynamic effects (which are not included in standard aerothermodynamic simulations) will have a noticeable effect on the reentry flow field. In particular, there are thermoelectric phenomena which can have a major influence in flow dynamics at the front of an ionizing bowshock. These thermoelectric phenomena arise because of the presence of large density and temperature gradients at the front of a reentry bowshock, and they include strong local magnetic fields, electric currents, and ohmic heating. One important result is the dramatic increase in temperature (over the case where plasma effects are neglected) at a reentry shock front; the implication is that macroscopic plasmadynamic effects can no longer be neglected in simulations of hypersonic reentry flow fields.

  19. Chemical composition and bioreactivity of PM2.5 during 2013 haze events in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kin-Fai; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Huang, Ru-Jin; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Cao, Jun-Ji; Han, Yongming; Lui, Ka-Hei; Ning, Zhi; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Cheng, Tsun-Jen; Lee, Shun-Cheng; Hu, Di; Wang, Bei; Zhang, Renjian

    2016-02-01

    Chemical composition and bioreactivity of PM2.5 samples collected from Beijing (BJ), Xi'an (XA), Xiamen (XM) and Hong Kong (HK) in China during haze events were characterized. PM2.5 mass concentrations in BJ, XA, XM and HK in the episodes were found to be 258 ± 100 μg m-3, 233 ± 52 μg m-3, 46 ± 9 μg m-3 and 48 ± 13 μg m-3, respectively. Significant increase of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium concentrations in northern cities were observed. High contributions of biomass burning emissions to organic carbon (OC) in northern cities were estimated in this study implying frequent biomass burning during the haze periods. The urea concentrations in PM2.5 were 1855 ± 755 ng m-3 (BJ), 1124 ± 243 ng m-3 (XA), 543 ± 104 ng m-3 (XM) and 363 ± 61 ng m-3 (HK) suggesting higher or close to upper limits compared to other regions in the world. Dose-dependent alterations in oxidative potential, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α levels were also investigated. The oxidative potential levels are BJ > XM > XA > HK, whereas levels of IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α were BJ > XA > XM > HK. The sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, OC, urea and levoglucosan are associated with oxidative-inflammatory responses. These experimental results are crucial for the policymakers to implement cost-effective abatement strategies for improving air quality.

  20. Interstellar simulations using a unified microscopic-macroscopic Monte Carlo model with a full gas-grain network including bulk diffusion in ice mantles

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Qiang; Herbst, Eric

    2014-06-01

    We have designed an improved algorithm that enables us to simulate the chemistry of cold dense interstellar clouds with a full gas-grain reaction network. The chemistry is treated by a unified microscopic-macroscopic Monte Carlo approach that includes photon penetration and bulk diffusion. To determine the significance of these two processes, we simulate the chemistry with three different models. In Model 1, we use an exponential treatment to follow how photons penetrate and photodissociate ice species throughout the grain mantle. Moreover, the products of photodissociation are allowed to diffuse via bulk diffusion and react within the ice mantle. Model 2 is similar to Model 1 but with a slower bulk diffusion rate. A reference Model 0, which only allows photodissociation reactions to occur on the top two layers, is also simulated. Photodesorption is assumed to occur from the top two layers in all three models. We found that the abundances of major stable species in grain mantles do not differ much among these three models, and the results of our simulation for the abundances of these species agree well with observations. Likewise, the abundances of gas-phase species in the three models do not vary. However, the abundances of radicals in grain mantles can differ by up to two orders of magnitude depending upon the degree of photon penetration and the bulk diffusion of photodissociation products. We also found that complex molecules can be formed at temperatures as low as 10 K in all three models.

  1. Microscopic, Macroscopic, and Megascopic Melts: a simple model to synthesize simulation, spectroscopy, shock, and sink/float constraints on silicate melts and magma oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimow, P. D.; Thomas, C.; Wolf, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Silicate melts are the essential agents of planetary differentiation and evolution. Their phase relations, element partitioning preferences, density, and transport properties determine the fates of heat and mass flow in the high-temperature interior of active planets. In the early Earth and in extrasolar super-Earth-mass terrestrial planets it is these properties at very high pressure (> 100 GPa) that control the evolution from possible magma oceans to solid-state convecting mantles. Yet these melts are complex, dynamic materials that present many challenges to experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding or prediction of their properties. There has been encouraging convergence among various approaches to understanding the structure and dynamics of silicate melts at multiple scales: nearest- and next-nearest neighbor structural information is derived from spectroscopic techniques such as high-resolution multinuclear NMR; first-principles molecular dynamics probe structure and dynamics at scales up to hundreds of atoms; Archimedean, ultrasonic, sink/float, and shock wave methods probe macroscopic properties (and occasionally dynamics); and deformation and diffusion experiments probe dynamics at macroscopic scale and various time scales. One challenge that remains to integrating all this information is a predictive model of silicate liquid structure that agrees with experiments and simulation both at microscopic and macroscopic scale. In addition to our efforts to collect macroscopic equation of state data using shock wave methods across ever-wider ranges of temperature, pressure, and composition space, we have introduced a simple model of coordination statistics around cations that can form the basis of a conceptual and predictive link across scales and methods. This idea is explored in this presentation specifically with regard to the temperature dependence of sound speed in ultramafic liquids. This is a highly uncertain quantity and yet it is key, in

  2. Size-dependent tuning of horseradish peroxidase bioreactivity by gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haohao; Liu, Yi; Li, Meng; Chong, Yu; Zeng, Mingyong; Lo, Y. Martin; Yin, Jun-Jie

    2015-02-01

    Molecules with diverse biological functions, such as heme peroxidases, can be useful tools for identifying potential biological effects of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at the molecular level. Here, using UV-Vis, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy, we report tuning of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) bioactivity by reactant-free AuNPs with diameters of 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 nm (Au-5 nm, Au-10 nm, Au-15 nm, Au-30 nm and Au-60 nm). HRP conjugation to AuNPs was observed with only Au-5 nm and Au-10 nm prominently increasing the α-helicity of the enzyme to extents inversely related to their size. Au-5 nm inhibited both HRP peroxidase activity toward 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine and HRP compound I/II reactivity toward 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide. Au-5 nm enhanced the HRP peroxidase activity toward ascorbic acid and the HRP compound I/II reactivity toward redox-active residues in the HRP protein moiety. Further, Au-5 nm also decreased the catalase- and oxidase-like activities of HRP. Au-10 nm showed similar, but weaker effects, while Au-15 nm, Au-30 nm and Au-60 nm had no effect. Results suggest that AuNPs can size-dependently enhance or inhibit HRP bioreactivity toward substrates with different redox potentials via a mechanism involving extension of the HRP substrate access channel and decline in the redox potentials of HRP catalytic intermediates.Molecules with diverse biological functions, such as heme peroxidases, can be useful tools for identifying potential biological effects of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at the molecular level. Here, using UV-Vis, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy, we report tuning of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) bioactivity by reactant-free AuNPs with diameters of 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 nm (Au-5 nm, Au-10 nm, Au-15 nm, Au-30 nm and Au-60 nm). HRP conjugation to AuNPs was observed with only Au-5 nm and Au-10 nm prominently increasing the

  3. Evaluation of a Laboratory-Scale Bioreactive In Situ Sediment Cap for the Treatment of Organic Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Himmelheber, David W.; Pennell, Kurt D.; Hughes, Joseph B.

    2011-01-01

    The development of bioreactive sediment caps, in which microorganisms capable of contaminant transformation are placed within an in situ cap, provides a potential remedial design that can sustainably treat sediment and groundwater contaminants. The goal of this study was to evaluate the ability and limitations of a mixed, anaerobic dechlorinating consortium to treat chlorinated ethenes within a sand-based cap. Results of batch experiments demonstrate that a tetrachloroethene (PCE)-to-ethene mixed consortium was able to completely dechlorinate dissolved-phase PCE to ethene when supplied only with sediment porewater obtained from a sediment column. To simulate a bioreactive cap, laboratory-scale sand columns inoculated with the mixed culture were placed in series with an upflow sediment column and directly supplied sediment effluent and dissolved-phase chlorinated ethenes. The mixed consortium was not able to sustain dechlorination activity at a retention time of 0.5 days without delivery of amendments to the sediment effluent, evidenced by the loss of cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) dechlorination to vinyl chloride. When soluble electron donor was supplied to the sediment effluent, complete dechlorination of cis-DCE to ethene was observed at retention times of 0.5 days, suggesting that sediment effluent lacked sufficient electron donor to maintain active dechlorination within the sediment cap. Introduction of elevated contaminant concentrations also limited biotransformation performance of the dechlorinating consortium within the cap. These findings indicate that in situ bioreactive capping can be a feasible remedial approach, provided that residence times are adequate and that appropriate levels of electron donor and contaminant exist within the cap. PMID:21872291

  4. Evaluation of solid polymeric organic materials for use in bioreactive sediment capping to stimulate the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Atashgahi, Siavash; Maphosa, Farai; De Vrieze, Jo; Haest, Pieter Jan; Boon, Nico; Smidt, Hauke; Springael, Dirk; Dejonghe, Winnie

    2014-03-01

    In situ bioreactive capping is a promising technology for mitigation of surface water contamination by discharging polluted groundwater. Organohalide respiration (OHR) of chlorinated ethenes in bioreactive caps can be stimulated through incorporation of solid polymeric organic materials (SPOMs) that provide a sustainable electron source for organohalide respiring bacteria. In this study, wood chips, hay, straw, tree bark and shrimp waste, were assessed for their long term applicability as an electron donor for OHR of cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) in sediment microcosms. The initial release of fermentation products, such as acetate, propionate and butyrate led to the onset of extensive methane production especially in microcosms amended with shrimp waste, straw and hay, while no considerable stimulation of VC dechlorination was obtained in any of the SPOM amended microcosms. However, in the longer term, short chain fatty acids accumulation decreased as well as methanogenesis, whereas high dechlorination rates of VC and cDCE were established with concomitant increase of Dehalococcoides mccartyi and vcrA and bvcA gene numbers both in the sediment and on the SPOMs. A numeric simulation indicated that a capping layer of 40 cm with hay, straw, tree bark or shrimp waste is suffice to reduce the groundwater VC concentration below the threshold level of 5 μg/l before discharging into the Zenne River, Belgium. Of all SPOMs, the persistent colonization of tree bark by D. mccartyi combined with the lowest stimulation of methanogenesis singled out tree bark as a long-term electron donor for OHR of cDCE/VC in bioreactive caps.

  5. Changes in macroscopic viscosity do not affect the release of aroma aldehydes from a pectinaceous food model system of low sucrose content.

    PubMed

    Bylaite, Egle; Meyer, Anne S; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2003-12-31

    The effects of pectin and viscosity on the release of a systematic series of aldehydes (alkanals, methyl-alkanals, alkenals, and alkandienals) were studied in a food model system of low sucrose content (10% w/w). The viscosity was varied by adding different amounts of Ca(2+) (0, 13.5, and 27 mg/g pectin) to the model system of constant pectin concentration (0.4% w/w). Air-liquid partition coefficients, K (37 degrees C), of the aroma compounds were determined in aqueous and pectin-thickened solutions. Diffusivities of the aroma compounds in water and three pectin-thickened solutions were estimated from release rate constants that were obtained via timed collection of volatiles in the gas phase and quantifications by dynamic headspace-gas chromatography. The partition coefficients increased as the carbon chain increased within each homologous series. Overall, no significant difference was found between partition coefficients of aldehydes in water and in pectin solutions except for 2-methyl-propanal and butanal that showed higher K values when pectin was present. Furthermore, the diffusional properties of the model system with a constant pectin level (0.4% w/w) remained constant when the viscosity was increased from 0.001 to 150 Pa s. It was concluded that neither pectin nor alterations in macroscopic viscosity as such influenced the release of aldehydes from the pectin-thickened food model system.

  6. A combined microscopic and macroscopic approach to modeling the transport of pathogenic microorganisms from nonpoint sources of pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeghiazarian, L. L.; Walker, M. J.; Binning, P.; Parlange, J.-Y.; Montemagno, C. D.

    2006-09-01

    Recent outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis raise serious concerns about the effectiveness of watershed management in controlling the risk of contamination by pathogens. A modeling strategy that takes into account the inherent randomness of the occurrence and transport of pathogens in surface water is important for accurate risk assessment and prediction of water contamination events. This paper presents a stochastic Markov model of microorganism transport, with distinct states of microorganism behavior capturing the microbial partitioning between solid and aqueous phases in runoff and soil surface, including the partitioning among soil particles of various sizes. A connection between the soil sediment and microbial transport is established through the incorporation of an erosion model (WEPP) into the microorganism transport model. Probability distribution functions of microorganism occurrence in time and space are constructed, and their properties are analyzed. A deterministic mathematical model of coupled pathogen and sediment transport is developed in parallel to parameterize the Markov process. The numerical values for the Markov model parameters were derived from two sets of experimental data. Model results show that areas with clay soils are more likely than sandy soils to contribute to contamination events and that the most influential transport parameters are the saturated hydraulic conductivity, rainfall intensity, and topographic slope.

  7. Local Realism of Macroscopic Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, R.; Paterek, T.; Kay, A.; Kurzyński, P.; Kaszlikowski, D.

    2011-08-01

    We identify conditions under which correlations resulting from quantum measurements performed on macroscopic systems (systems composed of a number of particles of the order of the Avogadro number) can be described by local realism. We argue that the emergence of local realism at the macroscopic level is caused by an interplay between the monogamous nature of quantum correlations and the fact that macroscopic measurements do not reveal properties of individual particles.

  8. Stability of an overland flow scheme in the framework of a fully coupled eco-hydrological model based on the Macroscopic Cellular Automata approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendicino, Giuseppe; Pedace, Jessica; Senatore, Alfonso

    2015-04-01

    Cellular Automata are often used for modeling the evolution in time of environmental systems mainly because they are directly compatible with parallel programming. Nevertheless, defining the optimal time step criterion for integrating forward in time numerical processes can further enhance model computational efficiency. To this aim, a numerical stability analysis of an original overland flow model, within the framework of a fully coupled eco-hydrological system based on the Macroscopic Cellular Automata paradigm, is performed. According to the other modules of the system describing soil water flow, soil-surface-atmosphere fluxes and vegetation dynamics, overland flow model equations were derived through a direct discrete formulation (i.e. no differential equations were discretized), adopting the diffusion wave model as an approximation of the full De Saint Venant equations and including the capability of accounting for specific processes, such as the increasing roughness effects due to vegetation growth or surface-soil water exchanges. Suitable formulations of robust tools usually applied in the stability analyses, such as Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy and von Neumann conditions, were initially derived for the CA-based overland flow model. Afterwards, the theoretical stability conditions were compared to experimental time step constraints through several numerical simulations of a 5-h rain event. Specifically, adopting a constant (i.e. not adaptive) time step for simulations, and discretizing head losses in a way that increases model stability, experimental upper limits preventing numerical instability were found for 13 test cases with different slopes, precipitation intensities, vegetation densities and depths of surface depressions. Even though von Neumann condition and experimental values were well positively correlated, the latter were almost always sensibly lower, excluding cases when free surface gradients tended to zero. Therefore, based on the original method

  9. A non-local Richards equation to model infiltration into highly heterogeneous media under macroscopic non-equilibrium pressure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuweiler, I.; Dentz, M.; Erdal, D.

    2012-04-01

    Infiltration into dry strongly heterogeneous media, such as fractured rocks, can often not be modelled by a standard Richards equation with homogeneous parameters, as the averaged water content is not in equilibrium with the averaged pressure. Often, double continua approaches are used for such cases. We describe infiltration into strongly heterogeneous media by a Richards model for the mobile domain, that is characterized by a memory kernel that encodes the local mass transfer dynamics as well as the geometry of the immobile zone. This approach is based on the assumption that capillary flow can be approximated as diffusion. We demonstrate that this approximation is in many cases justified. Comparison of the model predictions to the results of numerical simulations of infiltration into vertically layered media shows that the non-local approach describes well non-equilibrium effects due to mass transfer between high and low conductivity zones.

  10. Including Thermal Fluctuations in Actomyosin Stable States Increases the Predicted Force per Motor and Macroscopic Efficiency in Muscle Modelling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Muscle contractions are generated by cyclical interactions of myosin heads with actin filaments to form the actomyosin complex. To simulate actomyosin complex stable states, mathematical models usually define an energy landscape with a corresponding number of wells. The jumps between these wells are defined through rate constants. Almost all previous models assign these wells an infinite sharpness by imposing a relatively simple expression for the detailed balance, i.e., the ratio of the rate constants depends exponentially on the sole myosin elastic energy. Physically, this assumption corresponds to neglecting thermal fluctuations in the actomyosin complex stable states. By comparing three mathematical models, we examine the extent to which this hypothesis affects muscle model predictions at the single cross-bridge, single fiber, and organ levels in a ceteris paribus analysis. We show that including fluctuations in stable states allows the lever arm of the myosin to easily and dynamically explore all possible minima in the energy landscape, generating several backward and forward jumps between states during the lifetime of the actomyosin complex, whereas the infinitely sharp minima case is characterized by fewer jumps between states. Moreover, the analysis predicts that thermal fluctuations enable a more efficient contraction mechanism, in which a higher force is sustained by fewer attached cross-bridges. PMID:27626630

  11. Including Thermal Fluctuations in Actomyosin Stable States Increases the Predicted Force per Motor and Macroscopic Efficiency in Muscle Modelling.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, Lorenzo; Washio, Takumi; Yanagida, Toshio

    2016-09-01

    Muscle contractions are generated by cyclical interactions of myosin heads with actin filaments to form the actomyosin complex. To simulate actomyosin complex stable states, mathematical models usually define an energy landscape with a corresponding number of wells. The jumps between these wells are defined through rate constants. Almost all previous models assign these wells an infinite sharpness by imposing a relatively simple expression for the detailed balance, i.e., the ratio of the rate constants depends exponentially on the sole myosin elastic energy. Physically, this assumption corresponds to neglecting thermal fluctuations in the actomyosin complex stable states. By comparing three mathematical models, we examine the extent to which this hypothesis affects muscle model predictions at the single cross-bridge, single fiber, and organ levels in a ceteris paribus analysis. We show that including fluctuations in stable states allows the lever arm of the myosin to easily and dynamically explore all possible minima in the energy landscape, generating several backward and forward jumps between states during the lifetime of the actomyosin complex, whereas the infinitely sharp minima case is characterized by fewer jumps between states. Moreover, the analysis predicts that thermal fluctuations enable a more efficient contraction mechanism, in which a higher force is sustained by fewer attached cross-bridges. PMID:27626630

  12. The bioreactivity of the sub-10 μm component of volcanic ash: Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat.

    PubMed

    Jones, Timothy; Bérubé, Kelly

    2011-10-30

    With the recent eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyafallajökull and resulting ash cloud over much of Europe there was considerable concern about possible respiratory hazards. Volcanic ash can contain minerals that are known human respiratory health hazards such as cristobalite. Short-term ash exposures can cause skin sores, respiratory and ocular irritations and exacerbation of pre-existing lung conditions such as asthma. Long-term occupational level exposures to crystalline silicon dioxide can cause lung inflammation, oedema, fibrosis and cancer. The potential health effects would be dependent on factors including mineralogy, surface chemistry, size, and levels and duration of exposure. Bulk ash from the Soufrière Hills volcano was sourced and inhalable (<2.5 μm) ash samples prepared and physicochemically characterised. The fine ash samples were tested for bioreactivity by SDS-PAGE which determined the strength of binding between mineral grains and lung proteins. Selected proteins bound tightly to cristobalite, and bound loosely to other ash components. A positive correlation was seen between the amount of SiO(2) in the sample and the strength of the binding. The strength of binding is a function of the mineral's bioreactivity, and therefore, a potential geo-biomarker of respiratory risk. PMID:21872393

  13. Development and Characterization of a Rate-Dependent Three-Dimensional Macroscopic Plasticity Model Suitable for Use in Composite Impact Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.; DuBois, Paul; Hoffarth, Canio; Rajan, Subramaniam; Blankenhorn, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    Several key capabilities have been identified by the aerospace community as lacking in the material/models for composite materials currently available within commercial transient dynamic finite element codes such as LS-DYNA. Some of the specific desired features that have been identified include the incorporation of both plasticity and damage within the material model, the capability of using the material model to analyze the response of both three-dimensional solid elements and two dimensional shell elements, and the ability to simulate the response of composites composed with a variety of composite architectures, including laminates, weaves and braids. In addition, a need has been expressed to have a material model that utilizes tabulated experimentally based input to define the evolution of plasticity and damage as opposed to utilizing discrete input parameters (such as modulus and strength) and analytical functions based on curve fitting. To begin to address these needs, an orthotropic macroscopic plasticity based model suitable for implementation within LS-DYNA has been developed. Specifically, the Tsai-Wu composite failure model has been generalized and extended to a strain-hardening based orthotropic plasticity model with a non-associative flow rule. The coefficients in the yield function are determined based on tabulated stress-strain curves in the various normal and shear directions, along with selected off-axis curves. Incorporating rate dependence into the yield function is achieved by using a series of tabluated input curves, each at a different constant strain rate. The non-associative flow-rule is used to compute the evolution of the effective plastic strain. Systematic procedures have been developed to determine the values of the various coefficients in the yield function and the flow rule based on the tabulated input data. An algorithm based on the radial return method has been developed to facilitate the numerical implementation of the material

  14. Macroscopic impacts of cloud and precipitation processes on maritime shallow convection as simulated by a large eddy simulation model with bin microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, W. W.; Wang, L.-P.; Prabha, T. V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses impacts of cloud and precipitation processes on macrophysical properties of shallow convective clouds as simulated by a large eddy model applying warm-rain bin microphysics. Simulations with and without collision-coalescence are considered with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations of 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg-1. Simulations with collision-coalescence include either the standard gravitational collision kernel or a novel kernel that includes enhancements due to the small-scale cloud turbulence. Simulations with droplet collisions were discussed in Wyszogrodzki et al. (2013) focusing on the impact of the turbulent collision kernel. The current paper expands that analysis and puts model results in the context of previous studies. Despite a significant increase of the drizzle/rain with the decrease of CCN concentration, enhanced by the effects of the small-scale turbulence, impacts on the macroscopic cloud field characteristics are relatively minor. Model results show a systematic shift in the cloud-top height distributions, with an increasing contribution of deeper clouds for stronger precipitating cases. We show that this is consistent with the explanation suggested in Wyszogrodzki et al. (2013); namely, the increase of drizzle/rain leads to a more efficient condensate offloading in the upper parts of the cloud field. A second effect involves suppression of the cloud droplet evaporation near cloud edges in low-CCN simulations, as documented in previous studies (e.g., Xue and Feingold, 2006). We pose the question whether the effects of cloud turbulence on drizzle/rain formation in shallow cumuli can be corroborated by remote sensing observations, for instance, from space. Although a clear signal is extracted from model results, we argue that the answer is negative due to uncertainties caused by the temporal variability of the shallow convective cloud field, sampling and spatial resolution of the satellite data, and overall accuracy of

  15. Lozenge Tilings, Glauber Dynamics and Macroscopic Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laslier, Benoît; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio

    2015-09-01

    We study the Glauber dynamics on the set of tilings of a finite domain of the plane with lozenges of side 1/ L. Under the invariant measure of the process (the uniform measure over all tilings), it is well known (Cohn et al. J Am Math Soc 14:297-346, 2001) that the random height function associated to the tiling converges in probability, in the scaling limit , to a non-trivial macroscopic shape minimizing a certain surface tension functional. According to the boundary conditions, the macroscopic shape can be either analytic or contain "frozen regions" (Arctic Circle phenomenon Cohn et al. N Y J Math 4:137-165, 1998; Jockusch et al. Random domino tilings and the arctic circle theorem, arXiv:math/9801068, 1998). It is widely conjectured, on the basis of theoretical considerations (Henley J Statist Phys 89:483-507, 1997; Spohn J Stat Phys 71:1081-1132, 1993), partial mathematical results (Caputo et al. Commun Math Phys 311:157-189, 2012; Wilson Ann Appl Probab 14:274-325, 2004) and numerical simulations for similar models (Destainville Phys Rev Lett 88:030601, 2002; cf. also the bibliography in Henley (J Statist Phys 89:483-507, 1997) and Wilson (Ann Appl Probab 14:274-325, 2004), that the Glauber dynamics approaches the equilibrium macroscopic shape in a time of order L 2+ o(1). In this work we prove this conjecture, under the assumption that the macroscopic equilibrium shape contains no "frozen region".

  16. Quantal radiation from macroscopic rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutinsky, V.; Plujko, V.

    1988-09-01

    Macroscopic rotation of deformed excited nuclei may under certain conditions be accompanied by radiation of quasi-discrete gamma rays which resemble the cascade of transitions between nuclear rotational states.

  17. Toward a macroscopic parameterization of iceberg calving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundson, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Parameterization of iceberg calving for prognostic glacier and ice sheet models remains a major challenge due to a poor understanding of the physical processes governing calving. Here, I propose a semi-empirical, macroscopic parameterization of calving that ignores the complex physics of the glacier-ocean interface, can be applied to any calving margin, and is easy to implement with very little computational cost. To test the parameterization, I apply it to a one-dimensional flowline model of an Alaskan-style tidewater glacier and subject the model to various climatic forcings. The model produces results that are roughly consistent with observations, i.e., rapid retreat and flow acceleration through an overdeepening over decades and slow re-advance over millenia. Model results are compared to the previously proposed water depth, height above flotation, and crevasse-depth calving parameterizations to show that they are consistent with the macroscopic parameterization under certain conditions. Although there remains a great deal of uncertainty in the exact form of the macroscopic parameterization, it does appear to be a promising and simple way to model the glacier-ocean boundary.

  18. Are cloned quantum states macroscopic?

    PubMed

    Fröwis, F; Dür, W

    2012-10-26

    We study quantum states produced by optimal phase covariant quantum cloners. We argue that cloned quantum superpositions are not macroscopic superpositions in the spirit of Schrödinger's cat, despite their large particle number. This is indicated by calculating several measures for macroscopic superpositions from the literature, as well as by investigating the distinguishability of the two superposed cloned states. The latter rapidly diminishes when considering imperfect detectors or noisy states and does not increase with the system size. In contrast, we find that cloned quantum states themselves are macroscopic, in the sense of both proposed measures and their usefulness in quantum metrology with an optimal scaling in system size. We investigate the applicability of cloned states for parameter estimation in the presence of different kinds of noise.

  19. Transient Macroscopic Chemistry in the DSMC Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsworthy, M. J.; Macrossan, M. N.; Abdel-Jawad, M.

    2008-12-01

    In the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method, a combination of statistical and deterministic procedures applied to a finite number of `simulator' particles are used to model rarefied gas-kinetic processes. Traditionally, chemical reactions are modelled using information from specific colliding particle pairs. In the Macroscopic Chemistry Method (MCM), the reactions are decoupled from the specific particle pairs selected for collisions. Information from all of the particles within a cell is used to determine a reaction rate coefficient for that cell. MCM has previously been applied to steady flow DSMC simulations. Here we show how MCM can be used to model chemical kinetics in DSMC simulations of unsteady flow. Results are compared with a collision-based chemistry procedure for two binary reactions in a 1-D unsteady shock-expansion tube simulation and during the unsteady development of 2-D flow through a cavity. For the shock tube simulation, close agreement is demonstrated between the two methods for instantaneous, ensemble-averaged profiles of temperature and species mole fractions. For the cavity flow, a high degree of thermal non-equilibrium is present and non-equilibrium reaction rate correction factors are employed in MCM. Very close agreement is demonstrated for ensemble averaged mole fraction contours predicted by the particle and macroscopic methods at three different flow-times. A comparison of the accumulated number of net reactions per cell shows that both methods compute identical numbers of reaction events. For the 2-D flow, MCM required similar CPU and memory resources to the particle chemistry method. The Macroscopic Chemistry Method is applicable to any general DSMC code using any viscosity or non-reacting collision models and any non-reacting energy exchange models. MCM can be used to implement any reaction rate formulations, whether these be from experimental or theoretical studies.

  20. Characterization of chemical components and bioreactivity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during incense burning.

    PubMed

    Lui, K H; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Cao, Jun-Ji; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Lee, S C; Hu, Di; Ho, K F

    2016-06-01

    The chemical and bioreactivity properties of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emitted during controlled burning of different brands of incense were characterized. Incenses marketed as being environmentally friendly emitted lower mass of PM2.5 particulates than did traditional incenses. However, the environmentally friendly incenses produced higher total concentrations of non-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs). Human alveolar epithelial A549 cells were exposed to the collected PM2.5, followed by determining oxidative stress and inflammation. There was moderate to strong positive correlation (R > 0.60, p < 0.05) between selected PAHs and OPAHs against oxidative-inflammatory responses. Strong positive correlation was observed between interleukin 6 (IL-6) and summation of total Group B2 PAHs/OPAHs (∑7PAHs/ΣOPAHs). The experimental data indicate that emissions from the environmentally friendly incenses contained higher concentrations of several PAH and OPAH compounds than did traditional incense. Moreover, these PAHs and OPAHs were strongly correlated with inflammatory responses. The findings suggest a need to revise existing regulation of such products.

  1. Dip-pen nanolithography on (bio)reactive monolayer and block-copolymer platforms: deposition of lines of single macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Ramon B; Shovsky, Alexander; Schönherr, Holger; Vancso, G Julius

    2006-11-01

    The application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip-mediated molecular transfer (dip-pen nanolithography or DPN) to fabricate nanopatterned (bio)reactive platforms based on dendrimers on reactive self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and polymer thin films is discussed. The transfer of high-molar-mass polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (generation 5) and the rapid in situ covalent attachment of the deposited adsorbates onto reactive N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) terminated SAMs on gold and NHS-activated polystyrene-block-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PS(690)-b-PtBA(1210)) block copolymer thin films were investigated as strategies to suppress line broadening by surface diffusion in DPN. By exploiting carefully controlled environmental conditions (such as temperature and relative humidity), scan rates, and in particular the covalent attachment of the dendrimers to the reactive films, the observed line broadening and hence the lateral diffusion of dendrimers was substantially less pronounced compared to that observed with DPN of thiols on gold. By this method, high-definition patterns of dendrimers were conveniently fabricated down to 30-nm length scales. The presence of primary amino groups in the deposited dendrimers ultimately offers the possibility to anchor biochemically relevant molecules, such as proteins and polypeptides, to these nanostructured platforms for a wide range of possible applications in the life sciences and in particular for the investigation of controlled cell-surface interactions. PMID:17192974

  2. Macroscopic resonances in planar geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutinsky, V.; Vydrug-Vlasenko, S.; Magner, A.

    1987-09-01

    Resonating response is a characteristic feature of free-particle system contained between two vibrating planar surfaces. Resonance frequencies and widths are determined by a mean period of motion of particles reflected from the walls. Resonances due to quasiperiodic macroscopic motion appear when the interaction among quasi-particles by means of perturbations of the common self-consistent field is included. They have finite widths corresponding to collisionless Landau dissipation. Possible relationship of this phenomenon to nuclear giant resonances is discussed.

  3. Optimal Estimation of Ion-Channel Kinetics from Macroscopic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xuhui; Yao, Jing; Yuchi, Ming; Ding, Jiuping

    2012-01-01

    Markov modeling provides an effective approach for modeling ion channel kinetics. There are several search algorithms for global fitting of macroscopic or single-channel currents across different experimental conditions. Here we present a particle swarm optimization(PSO)-based approach which, when used in combination with golden section search (GSS), can fit macroscopic voltage responses with a high degree of accuracy (errors within 1%) and reasonable amount of calculation time (less than 10 hours for 20 free parameters) on a desktop computer. We also describe a method for initial value estimation of the model parameters, which appears to favor identification of global optimum and can further reduce the computational cost. The PSO-GSS algorithm is applicable for kinetic models of arbitrary topology and size and compatible with common stimulation protocols, which provides a convenient approach for establishing kinetic models at the macroscopic level. PMID:22536358

  4. Macroscopic theory for capillary-pressure hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Athukorallage, Bhagya; Aulisa, Eugenio; Iyer, Ram; Zhang, Larry

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we present a theory of macroscopic contact angle hysteresis by considering the minimization of the Helmholtz free energy of a solid-liquid-gas system over a convex set, subject to a constant volume constraint. The liquid and solid surfaces in contact are assumed to adhere weakly to each other, causing the interfacial energy to be set-valued. A simple calculus of variations argument for the minimization of the Helmholtz energy leads to the Young-Laplace equation for the drop surface in contact with the gas and a variational inequality that yields contact angle hysteresis for advancing/receding flow. We also show that the Young-Laplace equation with a Dirichlet boundary condition together with the variational inequality yields a basic hysteresis operator that describes the relationship between capillary pressure and volume. We validate the theory using results from the experiment for a sessile macroscopic drop. Although the capillary effect is a complex phenomenon even for a droplet as various points along the contact line might be pinned, the capillary pressure and volume of the drop are scalar variables that encapsulate the global quasistatic energy information for the entire droplet. Studying the capillary pressure versus volume relationship greatly simplifies the understanding and modeling of the phenomenon just as scalar magnetic hysteresis graphs greatly aided the modeling of devices with magnetic materials.

  5. Macroscopic theory for capillary-pressure hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Athukorallage, Bhagya; Aulisa, Eugenio; Iyer, Ram; Zhang, Larry

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we present a theory of macroscopic contact angle hysteresis by considering the minimization of the Helmholtz free energy of a solid-liquid-gas system over a convex set, subject to a constant volume constraint. The liquid and solid surfaces in contact are assumed to adhere weakly to each other, causing the interfacial energy to be set-valued. A simple calculus of variations argument for the minimization of the Helmholtz energy leads to the Young-Laplace equation for the drop surface in contact with the gas and a variational inequality that yields contact angle hysteresis for advancing/receding flow. We also show that the Young-Laplace equation with a Dirichlet boundary condition together with the variational inequality yields a basic hysteresis operator that describes the relationship between capillary pressure and volume. We validate the theory using results from the experiment for a sessile macroscopic drop. Although the capillary effect is a complex phenomenon even for a droplet as various points along the contact line might be pinned, the capillary pressure and volume of the drop are scalar variables that encapsulate the global quasistatic energy information for the entire droplet. Studying the capillary pressure versus volume relationship greatly simplifies the understanding and modeling of the phenomenon just as scalar magnetic hysteresis graphs greatly aided the modeling of devices with magnetic materials. PMID:25646688

  6. Measurement contextuality is implied by macroscopic realism

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zeqian; Montina, A.

    2011-04-15

    Ontological theories of quantum mechanics provide a realistic description of single systems by means of well-defined quantities conditioning the measurement outcomes. In order to be complete, they should also fulfill the minimal condition of macroscopic realism. Under the assumption of outcome determinism and for Hilbert space dimension greater than 2, they were all proved to be contextual for projective measurements. In recent years a generalized concept of noncontextuality was introduced that applies also to the case of outcome indeterminism and unsharp measurements. It was pointed out that the Beltrametti-Bugajski model is an example of measurement noncontextual indeterminist theory. Here we provide a simple proof that this model is the only one with such a feature for projective measurements and Hilbert space dimension greater than 2. In other words, there is no extension of quantum theory providing more accurate predictions of outcomes and simultaneously preserving the minimal labeling of events through projective operators. As a corollary, noncontextuality for projective measurements implies noncontextuality for unsharp measurements. By noting that the condition of macroscopic realism requires an extension of quantum theory, unless a breaking of unitarity is invoked, we arrive at the conclusion that the only way to solve the measurement problem in the framework of an ontological theory is by relaxing the hypothesis of measurement noncontextuality in its generalized sense.

  7. Peak cardiac power measured noninvasively with a bioreactance technique is a predictor of adverse outcomes in patients with advanced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Hannah; Helmke, Stephen; Williams, Paula; Teruya, Sergio; Jones, Margaret; Burkhoff, Daniel; Mancini, Donna; Maurer, Mathew S

    2010-01-01

    Peak oxygen consumption (VO(2) ) during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a powerful predictor of survival, providing an indirect assessment of cardiac output (CO). Noninvasive indices of CO derived from bioreactance methodology would add significantly to peak VO(2) as a means of risk-stratifying patients with heart failure. In this study, 127 patients (53 ± 14 years of age, 66% male) with heart failure and an average ejection fraction of 31% ± 15% underwent symptom-limited CPET using a bicycle ergometer while measuring CO noninvasively by a bioreactance technique. Peak cardiac power was derived from the product of the peak mean arterial blood pressure and CO divided by 451. Follow-up averaged 404 ± 179 days (median, 366 days) to assess endpoints including death (n=3), heart transplant (n=10), or left ventricular assisted device implantation (n=2). Peak VO(2) and peak power had similar areas under the curve (0.77 and 0.76), which increased to 0.83 when combined. Kaplan-Meier cumulative survival curves demonstrated different outcomes in the subgroup with a VO(2) <14 mL/kg/min when stratified by a cardiac power above or below 1.5 W (92.2% vs 82.1% at 1 year and 81.6% vs 58.3% at last follow-up, P=.02 by log-rank test). Among patients with heart failure, peak cardiac power measured with bioreactance methodology and peak VO(2) had similar associations with adverse outcomes and peak power added independent prognostic information to peak VO(2) in those with advanced disease (eg, VO(2) <14 mL/kg/min).

  8. High resolution and dynamic imaging of biopersistence and bioreactivity of extra and intracellular MWNTs exposed to microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez Carter, Daniel A.; Motskin, Michael; Pienaar, Ilse S.; Chen, Shu; Hu, Sheng; Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Ryan, Mary P.; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Dexter, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are increasingly being developed both as neuro-therapeutic drug delivery systems to the brain and as neural scaffolds to drive tissue regeneration across lesion sites. MWNTs with different degrees of acid oxidation may have different bioreactivities and propensities to aggregate in the extracellular environment, and both individualised and aggregated MWNTs may be expected to be found in the brain. Before practical application, it is vital to understand how both aggregates and individual MWNTs will interact with local phagocytic immune cells, the microglia, and ultimately to determine their biopersistence in the brain. The processing of extra- and intracellular MWNTs (both pristine and when acid oxidised) by microglia was characterised across multiple length scales by correlating a range of dynamic, quantitative and multi-scale techniques, including: UV-vis spectroscopy, light microscopy, focussed ion beam scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Dynamic, live cell imaging revealed the ability of microglia to break apart and internalise micron-sized extracellular agglomerates of acid oxidised MWNT, but not pristine MWNTs. The total amount of MWNTs internalised by, or strongly bound to, microglia was quantified as a function of time. Neither the significant uptake of oxidised MWNTs, nor the incomplete uptake of pristine MWNTs affected microglial viability, pro-inflammatory cytokine release or nitric oxide production. However, after 24 hrs exposure to pristine MWNTs, a significant increase in the production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Small aggregates and individualised oxidised MWNTs were present in the cytoplasm and vesicles, including within multilaminar bodies, after 72 hours. Some evidence of morphological damage to oxidised MWNT structure was observed including highly disordered graphitic structures, suggesting possible biodegradation. This work demonstrates the utility of dynamic

  9. High resolution and dynamic imaging of biopersistence and bioreactivity of extra and intracellular MWNTs exposed to microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Goode, Angela E; Gonzalez Carter, Daniel A; Motskin, Michael; Pienaar, Ilse S; Chen, Shu; Hu, Sheng; Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Ryan, Mary P; Shaffer, Milo S P; Dexter, David T; Porter, Alexandra E

    2015-11-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are increasingly being developed both as neuro-therapeutic drug delivery systems to the brain and as neural scaffolds to drive tissue regeneration across lesion sites. MWNTs with different degrees of acid oxidation may have different bioreactivities and propensities to aggregate in the extracellular environment, and both individualised and aggregated MWNTs may be expected to be found in the brain. Before practical application, it is vital to understand how both aggregates and individual MWNTs will interact with local phagocytic immune cells, the microglia, and ultimately to determine their biopersistence in the brain. The processing of extra- and intracellular MWNTs (both pristine and when acid oxidised) by microglia was characterised across multiple length scales by correlating a range of dynamic, quantitative and multi-scale techniques, including: UV-vis spectroscopy, light microscopy, focussed ion beam scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Dynamic, live cell imaging revealed the ability of microglia to break apart and internalise micron-sized extracellular agglomerates of acid oxidised MWNTs, but not pristine MWNTs. The total amount of MWNTs internalised by, or strongly bound to, microglia was quantified as a function of time. Neither the significant uptake of oxidised MWNTs, nor the incomplete uptake of pristine MWNTs affected microglial viability, pro-inflammatory cytokine release or nitric oxide production. However, after 24 h exposure to pristine MWNTs, a significant increase in the production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Small aggregates and individualised oxidised MWNTs were present in the cytoplasm and vesicles, including within multilaminar bodies, after 72 h. Some evidence of morphological damage to oxidised MWNT structure was observed including highly disordered graphitic structures, suggesting possible biodegradation. This work demonstrates the utility of dynamic

  10. Deterministic Creation of Macroscopic Cat States

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Daniel; Twamley, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Despite current technological advances, observing quantum mechanical effects outside of the nanoscopic realm is extremely challenging. For this reason, the observation of such effects on larger scale systems is currently one of the most attractive goals in quantum science. Many experimental protocols have been proposed for both the creation and observation of quantum states on macroscopic scales, in particular, in the field of optomechanics. The majority of these proposals, however, rely on performing measurements, making them probabilistic. In this work we develop a completely deterministic method of macroscopic quantum state creation. We study the prototypical optomechanical Membrane In The Middle model and show that by controlling the membrane’s opacity, and through careful choice of the optical cavity initial state, we can deterministically create and grow the spatial extent of the membrane’s position into a large cat state. It is found that by using a Bose-Einstein condensate as a membrane high fidelity cat states with spatial separations of up to ∼300 nm can be achieved. PMID:26345157

  11. Macroscopic and microscopic aspects in nuclear fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutinsky, V.

    1989-10-01

    Nuclear macroscopic properties are determined as statistical averages and it is then recognized that several levels of macroscopic descriptions may exist. By zooming the averaging scale the gross shell structures are distinguished from the macroscopic background and a theory can be formed consistently combining both the macroscopic and microscopic features. The shell structure varies in the fissioning nucleus on its way to scission leading to a double-humped shape of the fission barrier. This is due to modifications of the classical periodic paths responsible for the quantal non-uniformity of the single-particle phase space. Briefly results of the combined theory for the fission process are outlined.

  12. Macroscopic definition of distributed swarm morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aznar, Fidel; Pujol, Mar; Rizo, Ramón

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we present a system that will be able to obtain microscopic assembly behaviours for a robotic swarm to achieve an assembly target (macroscopic model). It will be designed taking into consideration the essential features of a self-assembling system needed to be implemented in a real robotic swarm. This system is composed of a typology of generative languages PD0L, and an algorithm for generating individual rules to be processed by the robots. The assembly process will be performed in a distributed manner, and will be also designed to require minimal communication capabilities between robots. Both the expressive capacities of language and the rule generation algorithm will be demonstrated by evaluating their performance with a core set of test morphologies widely used in self-assembly tasks. Furthermore, we compare the assembly time and the number of messages required between a classic controller (centralised) and our distributed approach.

  13. Microscopic versus macroscopic calculation of dielectric nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, M.; Kliem, H.

    2008-12-01

    The issue of nanodielectrics has recently become an important field of interest. The term describes nanometric dielectrics, i. e. dielectric materials with structural dimensions typically smaller than 100 run. In contrast to the behaviour of a bulk material the nanodielectrics can behave completely different. With shrinking dimensions the surface or rather boundary effects outweigh the volume effects. This leads to a different observable physics at the nanoscale. A crucial point is the question whether a continuum model for the calculation of dielectric properties is still applicable for these nanomaterials. In order to answer this question we simulated dielectric nanospheres with a microscopic local field method and compared the results to the macroscopic mean field theory.

  14. Graphene chiral liquid crystals and macroscopic assembled fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhen; Gao, Chao

    2011-12-01

    Chirality and liquid crystals are both widely expressed in nature and biology. Helical assembly of mesophasic molecules and colloids may produce intriguing chiral liquid crystals. To date, chiral liquid crystals of 2D colloids have not been explored. As a typical 2D colloid, graphene is now receiving unprecedented attention. However, making macroscopic graphene fibres is hindered by the poor dispersibility of graphene and by the lack of an assembly method. Here we report that soluble, chemically oxidized graphene or graphene oxide sheets can form chiral liquid crystals in a twist-grain-boundary phase-like model with simultaneous lamellar ordering and long-range helical frustrations. Aqueous graphene oxide liquid crystals were continuously spun into metres of macroscopic graphene oxide fibres; subsequent chemical reduction gave the first macroscopic neat graphene fibres with high conductivity and good mechanical performance. The flexible, strong graphene fibres were knitted into designed patterns and into directionally conductive textiles.

  15. Graphene chiral liquid crystals and macroscopic assembled fibres

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen; Gao, Chao

    2011-01-01

    Chirality and liquid crystals are both widely expressed in nature and biology. Helical assembly of mesophasic molecules and colloids may produce intriguing chiral liquid crystals. To date, chiral liquid crystals of 2D colloids have not been explored. As a typical 2D colloid, graphene is now receiving unprecedented attention. However, making macroscopic graphene fibres is hindered by the poor dispersibility of graphene and by the lack of an assembly method. Here we report that soluble, chemically oxidized graphene or graphene oxide sheets can form chiral liquid crystals in a twist-grain-boundary phase-like model with simultaneous lamellar ordering and long-range helical frustrations. Aqueous graphene oxide liquid crystals were continuously spun into metres of macroscopic graphene oxide fibres; subsequent chemical reduction gave the first macroscopic neat graphene fibres with high conductivity and good mechanical performance. The flexible, strong graphene fibres were knitted into designed patterns and into directionally conductive textiles. PMID:22146390

  16. Atomistic Simulation of the Transition from Atomistic to Macroscopic Cratering

    SciTech Connect

    Samela, Juha; Nordlund, Kai

    2008-07-11

    Using large-scale atomistic simulations, we show that the macroscopic cratering behavior emerges for projectile impacts on Au at projectile sizes between 1000 and 10 000 Au atoms at impact velocities comparable to typical meteoroid velocities. In this size regime, we detect a compression of material in Au nanoparticle impacts similar to that observed for hypervelocity macroscopic impacts. The simulated crater volumes agree with the values calculated using the macroscopic crater size scaling law, in spite of a downwards extrapolation over more than 15 orders of magnitude in terms of the impactor volume. The result demonstrates that atomistic simulations can be used as a tool to understand the strength properties of materials in cases where only continuum models have been possible before.

  17. Macroscopic characterisations of Web accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rui; Carriço, Luis

    2010-12-01

    The Web Science framework poses fundamental questions on the analysis of the Web, by focusing on how microscopic properties (e.g. at the level of a Web page or Web site) emerge into macroscopic properties and phenomena. One research topic on the analysis of the Web is Web accessibility evaluation, which centres on understanding how accessible a Web page is for people with disabilities. However, when framing Web accessibility evaluation on Web Science, we have found that existing research stays at the microscopic level. This article presents an experimental study on framing Web accessibility evaluation into Web Science's goals. This study resulted in novel accessibility properties of the Web not found at microscopic levels, as well as of Web accessibility evaluation processes themselves. We observed at large scale some of the empirical knowledge on how accessibility is perceived by designers and developers, such as the disparity of interpretations of accessibility evaluation tools warnings. We also found a direct relation between accessibility quality and Web page complexity. We provide a set of guidelines for designing Web pages, education on Web accessibility, as well as on the computational limits of large-scale Web accessibility evaluations.

  18. Cloud Macroscopic Organization: Order Emerging from Randomness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Tianle

    2011-01-01

    Clouds play a central role in many aspects of the climate system and their forms and shapes are remarkably diverse. Appropriate representation of clouds in climate models is a major challenge because cloud processes span at least eight orders of magnitude in spatial scales. Here we show that there exists order in cloud size distribution of low-level clouds, and that it follows a power-law distribution with exponent gamma close to 2. gamma is insensitive to yearly variations in environmental conditions, but has regional variations and land-ocean contrasts. More importantly, we demonstrate this self-organizing behavior of clouds emerges naturally from a complex network model with simple, physical organizing principles: random clumping and merging. We also demonstrate symmetry between clear and cloudy skies in terms of macroscopic organization because of similar fundamental underlying organizing principles. The order in the apparently complex cloud-clear field thus has its root in random local interactions. Studying cloud organization with complex network models is an attractive new approach that has wide applications in climate science. We also propose a concept of cloud statistic mechanics approach. This approach is fully complementary to deterministic models, and the two approaches provide a powerful framework to meet the challenge of representing clouds in our climate models when working in tandem.

  19. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of solute transport in heterogeneous porous media with conduits to estimate macroscopic continuous time random walk model parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Anwar, S.; Cortis, A.; Sukop, M.

    2008-10-20

    Lattice Boltzmann models simulate solute transport in porous media traversed by conduits. Resulting solute breakthrough curves are fitted with Continuous Time Random Walk models. Porous media are simulated by damping flow inertia and, when the damping is large enough, a Darcy's Law solution instead of the Navier-Stokes solution normally provided by the lattice Boltzmann model is obtained. Anisotropic dispersion is incorporated using a direction-dependent relaxation time. Our particular interest is to simulate transport processes outside the applicability of the standard Advection-Dispersion Equation (ADE) including eddy mixing in conduits. The ADE fails to adequately fit any of these breakthrough curves.

  20. Simulations of Self-Expanding Braided Stent Using Macroscopic Model of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys Covering R-Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, M.; Sedlák, P.; Kruisová, A.; Landa, M.

    2014-07-01

    Self-expanding stents or stentgrafts made from Nitinol superelastic alloy are widely used for a less invasive treatment of disease-induced localized flow constriction in the cardiovascular system. The therapy is based on insertion of a stent into a blood vessel to maintain the inner diameter of the vessel; it provides highly effective results at minimal cost and with reduced hospital stays. However, since stent is an external mechanical healing tool implemented into human body for quite a long time, information on the mechanical performance of it is of fundamental importance with respect to patient's safety and comfort. Advantageously, computational structural analysis can provide valuable information on the response of the product in an environment where in vivo experimentation is extremely expensive or impossible. With this motivation, a numerical model of a particular braided self-expanding stent was developed. As a reasonable approximation substantially reducing computational demands, the stent was considered to be composed of a set of helical springs with specific constrains reflecting geometry of the structure. An advanced constitutive model for NiTi-based shape memory alloys including R-phase transition was employed in analysis. Comparison to measurements shows a very good match between the numerical solution and experimental results. Relation between diameter of the stent and uniform radial pressure on its surface is estimated. Information about internal phase and stress state of the material during compression loading provided by the model is used to estimate fatigue properties of the stent during cyclic loading.

  1. Variation in Quantity, Source and Bioreactivity of Dissolved Organic Matter in Streams Draining Watersheds along a Gradient of Agricultural Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, P.; Lu, Y.; Jaffe, R.; Du, Y.; Findlay, R.

    2015-12-01

    In order to address the effects of agricultural land use on stream water dissolved organic matter (DOM), we sampled a regional group of second to third order streams draining watersheds along a gradient of percentage agricultural lands in northwestern Alabama, USA. Samples were collected under baseflow conditions, five different times over the year 2014. We analyzed dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, DOM optical properties (i.e. ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectrophotometry), and DOM bioreactivity over the course of 22 d incubation. We found that air temperature and antecedent precipitation intensity (API) were two major factors positively controlling DOC concentrations. High DOC concentrations were associated with high fluorescence index values, low percent contributions from terrestrially derived humic-like DOM fluorescence component (C1), and high percent contributions from microbially derived humic-like DOM fluorescence component (C3). We suggest that elevated microbial DOM production under high temperature and API was the primary reason for DOC enrichment in stream water. Percentage agricultural land was the secondary predictor of DOM characteristics. The percentages of forest land use within watersheds positively correlated with percent protein-like DOM fluorescence component (C4). DOC concentrations and relative abundance of humic-like DOM fluorescence components (C1, C2 and C3) were higher in agricultural streams than in forested streams, which could be attributed to flow path differences between agricultural and forested watersheds. Larger amount and percentage of bioreactive DOC was observed in agricultural streams, which might decrease oxygen level and impact fluvial ecosystem in downstream regions during degradation.

  2. Effect of the Plasmid-DNA Vaccination on Macroscopic and Microscopic Damage Caused by the Experimental Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in the Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia C.; García-Mendoza, Humberto; Aranda-Fraustro, Alberto; Ballinas-Verdugo, Martha A.; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Rosales-Encina, José Luis; Arce-Fonseca, Minerva

    2013-01-01

    The dog is considered the main domestic reservoir for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and a suitable experimental animal model to study the pathological changes during the course of Chagas disease (CD). Vaccine development is one of CD prevention methods to protect people at risk. Two plasmids containing genes encoding a trans-sialidase protein (TcSP) and an amastigote-specific glycoprotein (TcSSP4) were used as DNA vaccines in a canine model. Splenomegaly was not found in either of the recombinant plasmid-immunized groups; however, cardiomegaly was absent in animals immunized only with the plasmid containing the TcSSP4 gene. The inflammation of subendocardial and myocardial tissues was prevented only with the immunization with TcSSP4 gene. In conclusion, the vaccination with these genes has a partial protective effect on the enlargement of splenic and cardiac tissues during the chronic CD and on microscopic hearth damage, since both plasmids prevented splenomegaly but only one avoided cardiomegaly, and the lesions in heart tissue of dog immunized with plasmid containing the TcSSP4 gene covered only subepicardial tissue. PMID:24163822

  3. Effect of the plasmid-DNA vaccination on macroscopic and microscopic damage caused by the experimental chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the canine model.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia C; García-Mendoza, Humberto; Aranda-Fraustro, Alberto; Ballinas-Verdugo, Martha A; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Rosales-Encina, José Luis; Vallejo, Maite; Arce-Fonseca, Minerva

    2013-01-01

    The dog is considered the main domestic reservoir for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and a suitable experimental animal model to study the pathological changes during the course of Chagas disease (CD). Vaccine development is one of CD prevention methods to protect people at risk. Two plasmids containing genes encoding a trans-sialidase protein (TcSP) and an amastigote-specific glycoprotein (TcSSP4) were used as DNA vaccines in a canine model. Splenomegaly was not found in either of the recombinant plasmid-immunized groups; however, cardiomegaly was absent in animals immunized only with the plasmid containing the TcSSP4 gene. The inflammation of subendocardial and myocardial tissues was prevented only with the immunization with TcSSP4 gene. In conclusion, the vaccination with these genes has a partial protective effect on the enlargement of splenic and cardiac tissues during the chronic CD and on microscopic hearth damage, since both plasmids prevented splenomegaly but only one avoided cardiomegaly, and the lesions in heart tissue of dog immunized with plasmid containing the TcSSP4 gene covered only subepicardial tissue. PMID:24163822

  4. Towards a macroscopic generator coordinate method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutinsky, V. M.; Ivanyuk, F. A.; Vydrug-Vlasenko, S. M.

    1992-09-01

    Collective quantities are defined as macroscopic statistical averages over many level crossing points where microscopic densities are redistributed. Accordingly, the generator coordinate method (GCM) is reconsidered. It is concluded that, contrary to earlier arguments, the macroscopically defined inertia parameter which appears in the GCM Hamiltonian has a finite value close to that obtained using traditional theories assuming the existence of the adiabatic BCS ground state.

  5. From a Microscopic to a Macroscopic Model for Alzheimer Disease: Two-Scale Homogenization of the Smoluchowski Equation in Perforated Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchi, Bruno; Lorenzani, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study the homogenization of a set of Smoluchowski's discrete diffusion-coagulation equations modeling the aggregation and diffusion of β -amyloid peptide (Aβ ), a process associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease. In particular, we define a periodically perforated domain Ω _{ɛ }, obtained by removing from the fixed domain Ω (the cerebral tissue) infinitely many small holes of size ɛ (the neurons), which support a non-homogeneous Neumann boundary condition describing the production of Aβ by the neuron membranes. Then, we prove that, when ɛ → 0, the solution of this micromodel two-scale converges to the solution of a macromodel asymptotically consistent with the original one. Indeed, the information given on the microscale by the non-homogeneous Neumann boundary condition is transferred into a source term appearing in the limiting (homogenized) equations. Furthermore, on the macroscale, the geometric structure of the perforated domain induces a correction in that the scalar diffusion coefficients defined at the microscale are replaced by tensorial quantities.

  6. Macroscopic orientation effects in broadline NMR-spectra of model membranes at high magnetic field strength: A method preventing such effects.

    PubMed

    Brumm, T; Möps, A; Dolainsky, C; Brückner, S; Bayerl, T M

    1992-04-01

    The partial orientation of multilamellar vesicles (MLV) in high magnetic fields has been studied and a method to prevent such effects is herewith proposed. The orientation effect was measured with (2)H-, (31)P-NMR and electron microscopy on MLVs of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine with 30 mol% cholesterol. We present the first freeze-etch electron microscopy data obtained from MLV samples that were frozen directly in the NMR magnet at a field strength of 9.4 Tesla. These experiments clearly show that the MLVs adopt an ellipsoidal (but not a cylindrical) shape in the magnetic field. Best fit (31)P-NMR lineshape calculations assuming an ellipsoidal distribution of molecular director axes to the experimentally obtained spectra provide a quantitative measure of the average semiaxis ratio of the ellipsoidal MLVs and its change with temperature. The application of so-called spherical supported vesicles (SSV) is found to prevent any partial orientation effects so that undistorted NMR powder pattern of the bilayer can be measured independently of magnetic field strength and temperature.The usefulness of SSVs is further demonstrated by a direct comparison of spectral data such as (31)P-and (2)H-NMR lineshapes and relaxation times as well as (2)H-NMR dePaked spectra obtained for both model systems. These experiments show that spectral data obtained from partially oriented MLVs are not unambiguous to interpret, in particular, if an external parameter such as temperature is varied.

  7. Macroscopic Equations Governing Noisy Spiking Neuronal Populations with Linear Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Galtier, Mathieu N.; Touboul, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Deriving tractable reduced equations of biological neural networks capturing the macroscopic dynamics of sub-populations of neurons has been a longstanding problem in computational neuroscience. In this paper, we propose a reduction of large-scale multi-population stochastic networks based on the mean-field theory. We derive, for a wide class of spiking neuron models, a system of differential equations of the type of the usual Wilson-Cowan systems describing the macroscopic activity of populations, under the assumption that synaptic integration is linear with random coefficients. Our reduction involves one unknown function, the effective non-linearity of the network of populations, which can be analytically determined in simple cases, and numerically computed in general. This function depends on the underlying properties of the cells, and in particular the noise level. Appropriate parameters and functions involved in the reduction are given for different models of neurons: McKean, Fitzhugh-Nagumo and Hodgkin-Huxley models. Simulations of the reduced model show a precise agreement with the macroscopic dynamics of the networks for the first two models. PMID:24236067

  8. A quantitative link between microplastic instability and macroscopic deformation behaviors in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Chen, G. L.; Hui, X. D.; Liu, C. T.; Lin, Y.; Shang, X. C.; Lu, Z. P.

    2009-10-01

    Based on mechanical instability of individual shear transformation zones (STZs), a quantitative link between the microplastic instability and macroscopic deformation behavior of metallic glasses was proposed. Our analysis confirms that macroscopic metallic glasses comprise a statistical distribution of STZ embryos with distributed values of activation energy, and the microplastic instability of all the individual STZs dictates the macroscopic deformation behavior of amorphous solids. The statistical model presented in this paper can successfully reproduce the macroscopic stress-strain curves determined experimentally and readily be used to predict strain-rate effects on the macroscopic responses with the availability of the material parameters at a certain strain rate, which offer new insights into understanding the actual deformation mechanism in amorphous solids.

  9. Model experiments on macroscopic thermoelectromagnetic convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Cramer, A.; Lange, A.; Gerbeth, G.

    2009-03-01

    The interaction between a thermoelectric current and an imposed magnetic field may produce thermoelectromagnetic convection (TEMC). In the present paper, an experimental study on TEMC in a generic configuration is reported. While the necessary temperature gradient Grad T in a square box was accomplished by heating and cooling of two opposing side walls, respectively, utilising a massive nickel plate for the bottom of the electrically conducting container established a material discontinuity with respect to the liquid metal layer. Primarily, such a jump in the related Seebeck coefficient non-parallel to Grad T is a pre-requisite for the existence of a thermoelectric current. The second condition for TEMC, which is a non-vanishing curl of the Lorentz force, was fulfilled using a permanent magnet producing an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry was used to quantify the TEMC flow field. The measurements demonstrate that even a moderate temperature difference can produce a distinct convection. Locating the magnet, the direction of magnetization of which was parallel to Grad T, close to either side wall produced a single vortex spreading throughout the entire box. Moving the magnet to the centre led to a modified distribution of the magnetic field, which, in turn, altered the flow pattern. A convective pattern consisting of four vortices developed and the velocity fluctuations were intensified. The numerical results for the distribution of the magnetic field in the presence of the ferromagnetic bottom support the experimental findings. Figs 11, Refs 21.

  10. Macroscopic Description for Networks of Spiking Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montbrió, Ernest; Pazó, Diego; Roxin, Alex

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of neuroscience, statistical physics, and nonlinear dynamics is to understand how brain function arises from the collective dynamics of networks of spiking neurons. This challenge has been chiefly addressed through large-scale numerical simulations. Alternatively, researchers have formulated mean-field theories to gain insight into macroscopic states of large neuronal networks in terms of the collective firing activity of the neurons, or the firing rate. However, these theories have not succeeded in establishing an exact correspondence between the firing rate of the network and the underlying microscopic state of the spiking neurons. This has largely constrained the range of applicability of such macroscopic descriptions, particularly when trying to describe neuronal synchronization. Here, we provide the derivation of a set of exact macroscopic equations for a network of spiking neurons. Our results reveal that the spike generation mechanism of individual neurons introduces an effective coupling between two biophysically relevant macroscopic quantities, the firing rate and the mean membrane potential, which together govern the evolution of the neuronal network. The resulting equations exactly describe all possible macroscopic dynamical states of the network, including states of synchronous spiking activity. Finally, we show that the firing-rate description is related, via a conformal map, to a low-dimensional description in terms of the Kuramoto order parameter, called Ott-Antonsen theory. We anticipate that our results will be an important tool in investigating how large networks of spiking neurons self-organize in time to process and encode information in the brain.

  11. Nanoplasmon-enabled macroscopic thermal management

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Gustav Edman; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In numerous applications of energy harvesting via transformation of light into heat the focus recently shifted towards highly absorptive nanoplasmonic materials. It is currently established that noble metals-based absorptive plasmonic platforms deliver significant light-capturing capability and can be viewed as super-absorbers of optical radiation. Naturally, approaches to the direct experimental probing of macroscopic temperature increase resulting from these absorbers are welcomed. Here we derive a general quantitative method of characterizing heat-generating properties of optically absorptive layers via macroscopic thermal imaging. We further monitor macroscopic areas that are homogeneously heated by several degrees with nanostructures that occupy a mere 8% of the surface, leaving it essentially transparent and evidencing significant heat generation capability of nanoplasmon-enabled light capture. This has a direct bearing to a large number of applications where thermal management is crucial. PMID:24870613

  12. Indirect measurement of interfacial melting from macroscopic ice observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saruya, Tomotaka; Kurita, Kei; Rempel, Alan W.

    2014-06-01

    Premelted water that is adsorbed to particle surfaces and confined to capillary regions remains in the liquid state well below the bulk melting temperature and can supply the segregated growth of ice lenses. Using macroscopic measurements of ice-lens initiation position in step-freezing experiments, we infer how the nanometer-scale thicknesses of premelted films depend on temperature depression below bulk melting. The interfacial interactions between ice, liquid, and soda-lime glass particles exhibit a power-law behavior that suggests premelting in our system is dominated by short-range electrostatic forces. Using our inferred film thicknesses as inputs to a simple force-balance model with no adjustable parameters, we obtain good quantitative agreement between numerical predictions and observed ice-lens thickness. Macroscopic observations of lensing behavior have the potential as probes of premelting behavior in other systems.

  13. Indirect measurement of interfacial melting from macroscopic ice observations.

    PubMed

    Saruya, Tomotaka; Kurita, Kei; Rempel, Alan W

    2014-06-01

    Premelted water that is adsorbed to particle surfaces and confined to capillary regions remains in the liquid state well below the bulk melting temperature and can supply the segregated growth of ice lenses. Using macroscopic measurements of ice-lens initiation position in step-freezing experiments, we infer how the nanometer-scale thicknesses of premelted films depend on temperature depression below bulk melting. The interfacial interactions between ice, liquid, and soda-lime glass particles exhibit a power-law behavior that suggests premelting in our system is dominated by short-range electrostatic forces. Using our inferred film thicknesses as inputs to a simple force-balance model with no adjustable parameters, we obtain good quantitative agreement between numerical predictions and observed ice-lens thickness. Macroscopic observations of lensing behavior have the potential as probes of premelting behavior in other systems.

  14. Quantum communication with macroscopically bright nonclassical states.

    PubMed

    Usenko, Vladyslav C; Ruppert, Laszlo; Filip, Radim

    2015-11-30

    We analyze homodyne detection of macroscopically bright multimode nonclassical states of light and propose their application in quantum communication. We observe that the homodyne detection is sensitive to a mode-matching of the bright light to the highly intense local oscillator. Unmatched bright modes of light result in additional noise which technically limits detection of Gaussian entanglement at macroscopic level. When the mode-matching is sufficient, we show that multimode quantum key distribution with bright beams is feasible. It finally merges the quantum communication with classical optical technology of visible beams of light.

  15. Berkeley Experiments on Superfluid Macroscopic Quantum Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, Richard

    2006-09-07

    This paper provides a brief history of the evolution of the Berkeley experiments on macroscopic quantum effects in superfluid helium. The narrative follows the evolution of the experiments proceeding from the detection of single vortex lines to vortex photography to quantized circulation in 3He to Josephson effects and superfluid gyroscopes in both 4He and 3He.

  16. [Macroscopic hematuria in an adolescent in Chad].

    PubMed

    Ballivet de Régloix, S; Maurin, O; Douniama Ondaï, C

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old Chadian boy referred for chronic macroscopic hematuria and dysuria, diagnosed as urinary schistosomiasis, contracted while bathing in contaminated fresh water. The diagnostic approach and treatment in light of the limited resources available in Africa are described in detail.

  17. Separation of the Microscopic and Macroscopic Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zandt, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the possibility of observing interference in quantum magnification experiments such as the celebrated "Schroedinger cat". Uses the possibility of observing interference for separating the realm of microscopic from macroscopic dynamics; estimates the dividing line to fall at system sizes of about 100 Daltons. (MLH)

  18. Macroscopic noncontextuality as a principle for almost-quantum correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henson, Joe; Sainz, Ana Belén

    2015-04-01

    Quantum mechanics allows only certain sets of experimental results (or "probabilistic models") for Bell-type quantum nonlocality experiments. A derivation of this set from simple physical or information theoretic principles would represent an important step forward in our understanding of quantum mechanics, and this problem has been intensely investigated in recent years. "Macroscopic locality," which requires the recovery of locality in the limit of large numbers of trials, is one of several principles discussed in the literature that place a bound on the set of quantum probabilistic models. A similar question can also be asked about probabilistic models for the more general class of quantum contextuality experiments. Here, we extend the macroscopic locality principle to this more general setting, using the hypergraph approach of Acín, Fritz, Leverrier, and Sainz [Comm. Math. Phys. 334(2), 533-628 (2015), 10.1007/s00220-014-2260-1], which provides a framework to study both phenomena of nonlocality and contextuality in a unified manner. We find that the set of probabilistic models allowed by our macroscopic noncontextuality principle is equivalent to an important and previously studied set in this formalism, which is slightly larger than the quantum set. In the particular case of Bell scenarios, this set is equivalent to the set of "almost-quantum" models, which is of particular interest since the latter was recently shown to satisfy all but one of the principles that have been proposed to bound quantum probabilistic models, without being implied by any of them (or even their conjunction). Our condition is the first characterization of the almost-quantum set from a simple physical principle.

  19. Microscopic time-reversibility and macroscopic irreversibility: Still a paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Posch, H.A.; Dellago, Ch.; Hoover, W.G.; Kum, O. |

    1995-09-13

    Microscopic time reversibility and macroscopic irreversibility are a paradoxical combination. This was first observed by J. Loschmidt in 1876 and was explained, for conservative systems, by L. Boltzmann the following year. Both these features are also present in modern simulations of classic many-body systems in steady nonequilibrium states. We illustrate them here for the simplest possible models, a continuous one-dimensional model of field-driven diffusion, the so-called driven Lorentz gas or Galton Board, and an ergodic time reversible dissipative map.

  20. Linking measures for macroscopic quantum states via photon-spin mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröwis, F.; Sangouard, N.; Gisin, N.

    2015-02-01

    We review and compare several measures that identify quantum states that are 'macroscopically quantum'. These measures were initially formulated either for photonic systems or for spin ensembles. Here, we compare them through a simple model which maps photonic states to spin ensembles. On one hand, we reveal problems for some spin measures to handle correctly photonic states that typically are considered to be macroscopically quantum. On the other hand, we find significant similarities between other measures even though they were differently motivated.

  1. Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianzhong; Luo, Yu; Zhang, Jingjing; Jiang, Kyle; Pendry, John B; Zhang, Shuang

    2011-01-01

    Invisibility cloaks, which used to be confined to the realm of fiction, have now been turned into a scientific reality thanks to the enabling theoretical tools of transformation optics and conformal mapping. Inspired by those theoretical works, the experimental realization of electromagnetic invisibility cloaks has been reported at various electromagnetic frequencies. All the invisibility cloaks demonstrated thus far, however, have relied on nano- or micro-fabricated artificial composite materials with spatially varying electromagnetic properties, which limit the size of the cloaked region to a few wavelengths. Here, we report the first realization of a macroscopic volumetric invisibility cloak constructed from natural birefringent crystals. The cloak operates at visible frequencies and is capable of hiding, for a specific light polarization, three-dimensional objects of the scale of centimetres and millimetres. Our work opens avenues for future applications with macroscopic cloaking devices.

  2. Macroscopic Quantum Superposition in Cavity Optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Tian, Lin

    Quantum superposition in mechanical systems is not only a key evidence of macroscopic quantum coherence, but can also be utilized in modern quantum technology. Here we propose an efficient approach for creating macroscopically distinct mechanical superposition states in a two-mode optomechanical system. Photon hopping between the two cavity-modes is modulated sinusoidally. The modulated photon tunneling enables an ultrastrong radiation-pressure force acting on the mechanical resonator, and hence significantly increases the mechanical displacement induced by a single photon. We present systematic studies on the generation of the Yurke-Stoler-like states in the presence of system dissipations. The state generation method is general and it can be implemented with either optomechanical or electromechanical systems. The authors are supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. NSF-DMR-0956064 and the DARPA ORCHID program through AFOSR.

  3. Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xianzhong; Luo, Yu; Zhang, Jingjing; Jiang, Kyle; Pendry, John B.; Zhang, Shuang

    2011-01-01

    Invisibility cloaks, which used to be confined to the realm of fiction, have now been turned into a scientific reality thanks to the enabling theoretical tools of transformation optics and conformal mapping. Inspired by those theoretical works, the experimental realization of electromagnetic invisibility cloaks has been reported at various electromagnetic frequencies. All the invisibility cloaks demonstrated thus far, however, have relied on nano- or micro-fabricated artificial composite materials with spatially varying electromagnetic properties, which limit the size of the cloaked region to a few wavelengths. Here, we report the first realization of a macroscopic volumetric invisibility cloak constructed from natural birefringent crystals. The cloak operates at visible frequencies and is capable of hiding, for a specific light polarization, three-dimensional objects of the scale of centimetres and millimetres. Our work opens avenues for future applications with macroscopic cloaking devices. PMID:21285954

  4. Macroscopic invisibility cloak for visible light.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baile; Luo, Yuan; Liu, Xiaogang; Barbastathis, George

    2011-01-21

    Invisibility cloaks, a subject that usually occurs in science fiction and myths, have attracted wide interest recently because of their possible realization. The biggest challenge to true invisibility is known to be the cloaking of a macroscopic object in the broad range of wavelengths visible to the human eye. Here we experimentally solve this problem by incorporating the principle of transformation optics into a conventional optical lens fabrication with low-cost materials and simple manufacturing techniques. A transparent cloak made of two pieces of calcite is created. This cloak is able to conceal a macroscopic object with a maximum height of 2 mm, larger than 3500 free-space-wavelength, inside a transparent liquid environment. Its working bandwidth encompassing red, green, and blue light is also demonstrated.

  5. Polarization properties of macroscopic Bell states

    SciTech Connect

    Iskhakov, Timur Sh.; Chekhova, Maria V.; Leuchs, Gerd

    2011-10-15

    The four two-photon polarization Bell states are one of the main instruments in the toolbox of quantum optics and quantum information. In our experiment we produce their multiphoton counterparts, macroscopic Bell states. These are relevant to applications in quantum technologies because they provide efficient interactions with material quantum objects and with each other via nonlinear interactions. Furthermore, we study the polarization properties of these states using the concept of second-order degree of polarization and its higher-order generalization.

  6. Can a macroscopic gyroscope feel torsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeger, W. R.; Yasskin, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    We demonstrate that for a large class of Lagrangian-based torsion theories a macroscopic gyroscope is insensitive to the torsion field: there can be no coupling of the torsion to the gyroscope's angular momentum of rotation. To detect torsion a polarized system with a net elementary particle spin is needed. These conclusions are evident from the conservation laws, which form the basis for deriving the equations of motion.

  7. Active Polar Two-Fluid Macroscopic Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleiner, Harald; Svensek, Daniel; Brand, Helmut R.

    2014-03-01

    We study the dynamics of systems with a polar dynamic preferred direction. Examples include the pattern-forming growth of bacteria (in a solvent, shoals of fish (moving in water currents), flocks of birds and migrating insects (flying in windy air). Because the preferred direction only exists dynamically, but not statically, the macroscopic variable of choice is the macroscopic velocity associated with the motion of the active units. We derive the macroscopic equations for such a system and discuss novel static, reversible and irreversible cross-couplings connected to this second velocity. We find a normal mode structure quite different compared to the static descriptions, as well as linear couplings between (active) flow and e.g. densities and concentrations due to the genuine two-fluid transport derivatives. On the other hand, we get, quite similar to the static case, a direct linear relation between the stress tensor and the structure tensor. This prominent ``active'' term is responsible for many active effects, meaning that our approach can describe those effects as well. In addition, we also deal with explicitly chiral systems, which are important for many active systems. In particular, we find an active flow-induced heat current specific for the dynamic chiral polar order.

  8. Macroscopic aspects of the Unruh effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Detlev; Verch, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Macroscopic concepts pertaining to the Unruh effect are elaborated and used to clarify its physical manifestations. Based on a description of the motion of accelerated, spatially extended laboratories in Minkowski space in terms of Poincaré transformations, it is shown that, from a macroscopic perspective, an accelerated observer will not register with his measuring instruments any global thermal effects of acceleration in the inertial (Minkowskian) vacuum state. As is explained, this result is not in conflict with the well-known fact that microscopic probes used as thermometers respond non-trivially to acceleration if coupled to the vacuum. But this response cannot be interpreted as the effect of some exchange of thermal energy with a gas surrounding the observer; in fact, it is induced by the measuring process itself. It is also shown that genuine equilibrium states in a uniformly accelerated laboratory cannot be spatially homogeneous. In particular, these states coincide with the homogeneous inertial vacuum at sufficiently large distances from the horizon of the observer and consequently have the same (zero) temperature there. The analysis is carried out in the theory of a free massless scalar field; however the conclusion that the Unruh effect is not of a macroscopic thermal origin is generally valid.

  9. Effects of Microstructure Variations on Macroscopic Terahertz Metafilm Properties

    DOE PAGES

    O'Hara, John F.; Smirnova, Evgenya; Azad, Abul K.; Chen, Hou-Tong; Taylor, Antoinette J.

    2007-01-01

    The properties of planar, single-layer metamaterials, or metafilms, are studied by varying the structural components of the split-ring resonators used to comprise the overall medium. Measurements and simulations reveal how minor design variations in split-ring resonator structures can result in significant changes in the macroscopic properties of the metafilm. A transmission-line/circuit model is also used to clarify some of the behavior and design limitations of the metafilms. Though our results are illustrated in the terahertz frequency range, the work has broader implications, particularly with respect to filtering, modulation, and switching devices.

  10. Interdisciplinary applications of network dynamics: From microscopic to Macroscopic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hawoong

    ``Everything touches everything.'' We are living in a connected world, which has been modeled successfully by complex networks. Ever since, network science becomes new paradigm for understanding our connected yet complex world. After investigating network structure itself, our focus naturally moved to dynamics of/on the network because our connected world is not static but dynamic. In this presentation, we will briefly review the historical development of network science and show some applications of network dynamics ranging from microscopic (metabolic engineering, PNAS, 104 13638) to macroscopic scale (price of anarchy in transportation network, Phys.Rev.Lett. 101 128701). Supported by National Research Foundation of Korea through Grant No. 2011-0028908.

  11. The effect of head up tilting on bioreactance cardiac output and stroke volume readings using suprasternal transcutaneous Doppler as a control in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Critchley, Lester A H; Lee, Daniel C W; Khaw, Kim S; Lee, Shara W Y

    2016-10-01

    To compare the performance of a bioreactance cardiac output (CO) monitor (NICOM) and transcutaneous Doppler (USCOM) during head up tilting (HUT). Healthy young adult subjects, age 22 ± 1 years, 7 male and 7 female, were tilted over 3-5 s from supine to 70° HUT, 30° HUT and back to supine. Positions were held for 3 min. Simultaneous readings of NICOM and USCOM were performed 30 s into each new position. Mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), CO and stroke volume (SV), and thoracic fluid content (TFC) were recorded. Bland-Altman, percentage changes and analysis of variance for repeated measures were used for statistical analysis. Pre-tilt NICOM CO and SV readings (6.1 ± 1.0 L/min and 113 ± 25 ml) were higher than those from USCOM (4.1 ± 0.6 L/min and 77 ± 9 ml) (P < 0.001). Bland-Altman limits of agreement for CO were wide with a percentage error of 38 %. HUT increased MBP and HR (P < 0.001). CO and SV readings decreased with HUT. However, the percentage changes in USCOM and NICOM readings did not concur (P < 0.001). Whereas USCOM provided gravitational effect proportional changes in SV readings of 23 ± 15 % (30° half tilt) and 44 ± 11 % (70° near full tilt), NICOM changes did not being 28 ± 10 and 33 ± 11 %. TFC decreased linearly with HUT. The NICOM does not provide linear changes in SV as predicted by physiology when patients are tilted. Furthermore there is a lack of agreement with USCOM measurements at baseline and during tilting.

  12. Macroscopic nanowire networks from hierarchically assembled mesostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Donghai

    Nanoscale building blocks, such as nanocrystals and one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures, have attracted tremendous attention due to their peculiar and fascinating properties. It is necessary to assemble the low dimensional nanoscale building blocks into macroscopic nanostructured architectures for potential applications in energy storage, separation, catalysis, computation, sensing, etc. This dissertation demonstrates synthesis, characterization and applications of macroscopic hierarchical metal or semiconductor (e.g., Pt, CdSe) nanowire networks. These nanowire networks were synthesized by electrodeposition within the pores of highly-ordered mesoporous silica template followed by removal of the silica template, resulting in robust nanowire networks with replicated mesopore structure. The nanowire diameter (3-10 nm) and network mesostructures (e.g. 2D, 3D and superstructures) are controlled by the pore size and the mesostructure of the silica template. As-synthesized metal nanowires self support to form networks with high electrochemical active surface area, which are further applied in enzymatic glucose sensing. Semiconductor CdSe nanowire networks show tunable optical properties dependent on nanowire diameter and have been demonstrated as a good electron acceptor in CdSe nanowire network/polymer photovoltaic devices. The dissertation also describes self-assembly behavior of composite mesostructures under physical confined environment. Novel mesostructures and mesostructured nanowire superstructures have been achieved by the confined assembly and the replication procedure mentioned above. Our approach provides an easy and efficient way to synthesize macroscopic hierarchical nanowire networks with well-controlled diameter and mesoscale arrangement, which will be of great interest for sensor, photovoltaic, and other applications.

  13. Compressor Has No Moving Macroscopic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, Max

    1995-01-01

    Compressor containing no moving macroscopic parts functions by alternating piston and valve actions of successive beds of magnetic particles. Fabricated easily because no need for precisely fitting parts rotating or sliding on each other. Also no need for lubricant fluid contaminating fluid to be compressed. Compressor operates continuously, eliminating troublesome on/off cycling of other compressors, and decreasing consumption of energy. Phased cells push fluid from bottom to top, adding increments of pressure. Each cell contains magnetic powder particles loose when electromagnet coil deenergized, but tightly packed when coil energized.

  14. Macroscopic polarization in crystalline dielectrics: the geometric phase approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resta, Raffaele

    1994-07-01

    The macroscopic electric polarization of a crystal is often defined as the dipole of a unit cell. In fact, such a dipole moment is ill defined, and the above definition is incorrect. Looking more closely, the quantity generally measured is differential polarization, defined with respect to a "reference state" of the same material. Such differential polarizations include either derivatives of the polarization (dielectric permittivity, Born effective charges, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity) or finite differences (ferroelectricity). On the theoretical side, the differential concept is basic as well. Owing to continuity, a polarization difference is equivalent to a macroscopic current, which is directly accessible to the theory as a bulk property. Polarization is a quantum phenomenon and cannot be treated with a classical model, particularly whenever delocalized valence electrons are present in the dielectric. In a quantum picture, the current is basically a property of the phase of the wave functions, as opposed to the charge, which is a property of their modulus. An elegant and complete theory has recently been developed by King-Smith and Vanderbilt, in which the polarization difference between any two crystal states-in a null electric field-takes the form of a geometric quantum phase. The author gives a comprehensive account of this theory, which is relevant for dealing with transverse-optic phonons, piezoelectricity, and ferroelectricity. Its relation to the established concepts of linear-response theory is also discussed. Within the geometric phase approach, the relevant polarization difference occurs as the circuit integral of a Berry connection (or "vector potential"), while the corresponding curvature (or "magnetic field") provides the macroscopic linear response.

  15. A Macroscopic Realization of the Weak Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimori, Arito

    2003-01-01

    A.J.Leggett suggested in 1977 that a permanent electric dipole moment due to the parity-nonconserving electron-nucleon interaction, even though it is extremely small, could be measured in the superfluid He-3 B because the moment should be proportional to the size of the sample in this system. If this moment is observed, it will be the first example of a macroscopic realization of the weak interaction. In our planned experiments, a high electric field of up to 6 kV/cm is applied between two parallel electrodes in the He-3 sample. We expect to observe the NMR frequency of the lowest-lying spin-wave mode trapped by the liquid crystal-like texture of the B phase rotation axis in our geometry. The interaction of the electric field and the macroscopic permanent electric dipole moment, which is oriented along the rotation axis, will cause a small change in the texture and hence a small increase in the frequency of the spin wave mode. Besides the basic ideas, we present the purpose and the design of our first cell that is under construction.

  16. Macroscopic strain potentials in nonlinear porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Liu; Zhuping, Huang

    2003-02-01

    By taking a hollow sphere as a representative volume element (RVE), the macroscopic strain potentials of porous materials with power-law incompressible matrix are studied in this paper. According to the principles of the minimum potential energy in nonlinear elasticity and the variational procedure, static admissible stress fields and kinematic admissible displacement fields are constructed, and hence the upper and the lower bounds of the macroscopic strain potential are obtained. The bounds given in the present paper differ so slightly that they both provide perfect approximations of the exact strain potential of the studied porous materials. It is also found that the upper bound proposed by previous authors is much higher than the present one, and the lower bounds given by Cocks is much lower. Moreover, the present calculation is also compared with the variational lower bound of Ponte Castañeda for statistically isotropic porous materials. Finally, the validity of the hollow spherical RVE for the studied nonlinear porous material is discussed by the difference between the present numerical results and the Cocks bound.

  17. Entangling macroscopic diamonds at room temperature: Bounds on the continuous-spontaneous-localization parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belli, Sebastiano; Bonsignori, Riccarda; D'Auria, Giuseppe; Fant, Lorenzo; Martini, Mirco; Peirone, Simone; Donadi, Sandro; Bassi, Angelo

    2016-07-01

    A recent experiment [K. C. Lee et al., Science 334, 1253 (2011)], 10.1126/science.1211914 succeeded in detecting entanglement between two macroscopic specks of diamonds, separated by a macroscopic distance, at room temperature. This impressive result is a further confirmation of the validity of quantum theory in (at least parts of) the mesoscopic and macroscopic domain, and poses a challenge to collapse models, which predict a violation of the quantum superposition principle, which is bigger the larger the system. We analyze the experiment in the light of such models. We will show that the bounds placed by experimental data are weaker than those coming from matter-wave interferometry and noninterferometric tests of collapse models.

  18. On the macroscopic quantization in mesoscopic rings and single-electron devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Andrew G.

    2016-05-01

    In this letter we investigate the phenomenon of macroscopic quantization and consider particle on the ring interacting with the dissipative bath as an example. We demonstrate that even in presence of environment, there is macroscopically quantized observable which can take only integer values in the zero temperature limit. This fact follows from the total angular momentum conservation combined with momentum quantization for bare particle on the ring. The nontrivial thing is that the model under consideration, including the notion of quantized observable, can be mapped onto the Ambegaokar-Eckern-Schon model of the single-electron box (SEB). We evaluate SEB observable, originating after mapping, and reveal new physics, which follows from the macroscopic quantization phenomenon and the existence of additional conservation law. Some generalizations of the obtained results are also presented.

  19. Ground testing of bioconvective variables such as morphological characterizations and mechanisms which regulate macroscopic patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Adriel D.

    1992-01-01

    Conditions simulating low- and high-gravity, reveal changes in macroscopic pattern formation in selected microorganisms, but whether these structures are gravity dependent is not clear. Two theories have been identified in the fluid dynamics community which support macroscopic pattern formation. The first one is gravity dependent (fluid density models) where small concentrated regions of organisms sink unstably, and the second is gravity independent (wave reinforcement theory) where organisms align their movements in concert, such that either their swimming strokes beat in phase or their vortices entrain neighbors to follow parallel paths. Studies have shown that macroscopic pattern formation is consistent with the fluid density models for protozoa and algae and wave reinforcement hypothesis for caprine spermatozoa.

  20. Macroscopically local correlations can violate information causality.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Daniel; Salles, Alejo; Scarani, Valerio

    2010-01-01

    Although quantum mechanics is a very successful theory, its foundations are still a subject of intense debate. One of the main problems is that quantum mechanics is based on abstract mathematical axioms, rather than on physical principles. Quantum information theory has recently provided new ideas from which one could obtain physical axioms constraining the resulting statistics one can obtain in experiments. Information causality (IC) and macroscopic locality (ML) are two principles recently proposed to solve this problem. However, none of them were proven to define the set of correlations one can observe. In this study, we show an extension of IC and study its consequences. It is shown that the two above-mentioned principles are inequivalent: if the correlations allowed by nature were the ones satisfying ML, IC would be violated. This gives more confidence in IC as a physical principle, defining the possible correlation allowed by nature. PMID:21266986

  1. Making Macroscopic Assemblies of Aligned Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Richard E.; Colbert, Daniel T.; Smith, Ken A.; Walters, Deron A.; Casavant, Michael J.; Qin, Xiaochuan; Yakobson, Boris; Hauge, Robert H.; Saini, Rajesh Kumar; Chiung, Wan-Ting; Huffman, Charles B.

    2005-01-01

    A method of aligning and assembling single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to fabricate macroscopic structures has been invented. The method entails suspending SWNTs in a fluid, orienting the SWNTs by use of a magnetic and/or electric field, and then removing the aligned SWNTs from suspension in such a way as to assemble them while maintaining the alignment. SWNTs are essentially tubular extensions of fullerene molecules. It is desirable to assemble aligned SWNTs into macroscopic structures because the common alignment of the SWNTs in such a structure makes it possible to exploit, on a macroscopic scale, the unique mechanical, chemical, and electrical properties that individual oriented SWNTs exhibit at the molecular level. Because of their small size and high electrical conductivity, carbon nanotubes, and especially SWNTs, are useful for making electrical connectors in integrated circuits. Carbon nanotubes can be used as antennas at optical frequencies, and as probes in scanning tunneling microscopes, atomic-force microscopes, and the like. Carbon nanotubes can be used with or instead of carbon black in tires. Carbon nanotubes are useful as supports for catalysts. Ropes of SWNTs are metallic and, as such, are potentially useful in some applications in which electrical conductors are needed - for example, they could be used as additives in formulating electrically conductive paints. Finally, macroscopic assemblies of aligned SWNTs can serve as templates for the growth of more and larger structures of the same type. The great variety of tubular fullerene molecules and of the structures that could be formed by assembling them in various ways precludes a complete description of the present method within the limits of this article. It must suffice to present a typical example of the use of one of many possible variants of the method to form a membrane comprising SWNTs aligned substantially parallel to each other in the membrane plane. The apparatus used in this variant

  2. Taming macroscopic jamming in transportation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Nishi, Ryosuke; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-06-01

    In transportation networks, a spontaneous jamming transition is often observed, e.g. in urban road networks and airport networks. Because of this instability, flow distribution is significantly imbalanced on a macroscopic level. To mitigate the congestion, we consider a simple control method, in which congested nodes are closed temporarily, and investigate how it influences the overall system. Depending on the timing of the node closure and opening, and congestion level of a network, the system displays three different phases: free-flow phase, controlled phase, and deadlock phase. We show that when the system is in the controlled phase, the average flow is significantly improved, whereas when in the deadlock phase, the flow drops to zero. We study how the control method increases the network flow and obtain their transition boundary analytically.

  3. Photo- and bio-reactivity patterns of dissolved organic matter from biomass and soil leachates and surface waters in a subtropical wetland.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meilian; Jaffé, Rudolf

    2014-09-15

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements and optical properties were applied to assess the photo- and bio-reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from different sources, including biomass leaching, soil leaching and surface waters in a subtropical wetland ecosystem. Samples were exposed to light and/or dark incubated through controlled laboratory experiments. Changes in DOC, ultraviolet (UV-Vis) visible absorbance, and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) were performed to assess sample degradation. Degradation experiments showed that while significant amounts of DOC were consumed during bio-incubation for biomass leachates, a higher degree of bio-recalcitrance for soil leachate and particularly surface waters was displayed. Photo- and bio-humification transformations were suggested for sawgrass, mangrove, and seagrass leachates, as compared to substantial photo-degradation and very little to almost no change after bio-incubation for the other samples. During photo-degradation in most cases the EEM-PARAFAC components displayed photo-decay as compared to a few cases which featured photo-production. In contrast during bio-incubation most EEM-PARAFAC components proved to be mostly bio-refractory although some increases and decreases in abundance were also observed. Furthermore, the sequential photo- followed by bio-degradation showed, with some exceptions, a "priming effect" of light exposure on the bio-degradation of DOM, and the combination of these two processes resulted in a DOM composition more similar to that of the natural surface water for the different sub-environments. In addition, for leachate samples there was a general enrichment of one of the EEM-PARAFAC humic-like component (Ex/Em: <260(305)/416 nm) during photo-degradation and an enrichment of a microbial humc-like component (Ex/Em: <260(325)/406 nm and of a tryptophan-like component (Ex/Em: 300/342 nm) during the bio-degradation process

  4. Macroscopic entanglement in many-particle quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichy, Malte C.; Park, Chae-Yeun; Kang, Minsu; Jeong, Hyunseok; Mølmer, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    We elucidate the relationship between Schrödinger-cat-like macroscopicity and geometric entanglement and argue that these quantities are not interchangeable. While both properties are lost due to decoherence, we show that macroscopicity is rare in uniform and in so-called random physical ensembles of pure quantum states, despite possibly large geometric entanglement. In contrast, permutation-symmetric pure states feature rather low geometric entanglement and strong and robust macroscopicity.

  5. Multi-walled carbon nanotube length as a critical determinant of bioreactivity with primary human pulmonary alveolar cells

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Berhanu, Deborah; Misra, Superb K.; Thorley, Andrew J.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) length is suggested to critically determine their pulmonary toxicity. This stems from in vitro and in vivo rodent studies and in vitro human studies using cell lines (typically cancerous). There is little data using primary human lung cells. We addressed this knowledge gap, using highly relevant, primary human alveolar cell models exposed to precisely synthesized and thoroughly characterized MWCNTs. In this work, transformed human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells (TT1), primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cells (ATII) and alveolar macrophages (AM) were treated with increasing concentrations of MWCNTs before measuring cytotoxicity, inflammatory mediator release and MAP kinase signalling. Strikingly, we observed that short MWCNTs (~0.6 µm in length) induced significantly greater responses from the epithelial cells, whilst AM were particularly susceptible to long MWCNTs (~20 µm). These differences in the pattern of mediator release were associated with alternative profiles of JNK, p38 and ERK1/2 MAP kinase signal transduction within each cell type. This study, using highly relevant target human alveolar cells and well defined and characterized MWCNTs, shows marked cellular responses to the MWCNTs that vary according to the target cell type, as well as the aspect ratio of the MWCNT. PMID:25780270

  6. Dissipative Optomechanical Preparation of Macroscopic Quantum Superposition States.

    PubMed

    Abdi, M; Degenfeld-Schonburg, P; Sameti, M; Navarrete-Benlloch, C; Hartmann, M J

    2016-06-10

    The transition from quantum to classical physics remains an intensely debated question even though it has been investigated for more than a century. Further clarifications could be obtained by preparing macroscopic objects in spatial quantum superpositions and proposals for generating such states for nanomechanical devices either in a transient or a probabilistic fashion have been put forward. Here, we introduce a method to deterministically obtain spatial superpositions of arbitrary lifetime via dissipative state preparation. In our approach, we engineer a double-well potential for the motion of the mechanical element and drive it towards the ground state, which shows the desired spatial superposition, via optomechanical sideband cooling. We propose a specific implementation based on a superconducting circuit coupled to the mechanical motion of a lithium-decorated monolayer graphene sheet, introduce a method to verify the mechanical state by coupling it to a superconducting qubit, and discuss its prospects for testing collapse models for the quantum to classical transition. PMID:27341233

  7. Dissipative Optomechanical Preparation of Macroscopic Quantum Superposition States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdi, M.; Degenfeld-Schonburg, P.; Sameti, M.; Navarrete-Benlloch, C.; Hartmann, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    The transition from quantum to classical physics remains an intensely debated question even though it has been investigated for more than a century. Further clarifications could be obtained by preparing macroscopic objects in spatial quantum superpositions and proposals for generating such states for nanomechanical devices either in a transient or a probabilistic fashion have been put forward. Here, we introduce a method to deterministically obtain spatial superpositions of arbitrary lifetime via dissipative state preparation. In our approach, we engineer a double-well potential for the motion of the mechanical element and drive it towards the ground state, which shows the desired spatial superposition, via optomechanical sideband cooling. We propose a specific implementation based on a superconducting circuit coupled to the mechanical motion of a lithium-decorated monolayer graphene sheet, introduce a method to verify the mechanical state by coupling it to a superconducting qubit, and discuss its prospects for testing collapse models for the quantum to classical transition.

  8. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in a stack of capacitively-coupled intrinsic Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Tomio; Machida, Masahiko

    2008-04-01

    A macroscopic quantum theory for the phase dynamics in capacitively-coupled intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ's) is constructed. We quantize the capacitively-coupled IJJ model in terms of the canonical quantization method. The multi-junction effect for the macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) to the first resistive branch is clarified. It is shown that the escape rate is greatly enhanced by the capacitive coupling between junctions. We also discuss the origin of the N2 -enhancement in the escape rate observed in the uniformly switching in Bi-2212 IJJ's.

  9. The Proell Effect: A Macroscopic Maxwell's Demon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauen, Kenneth M.

    2011-12-01

    Maxwell's Demon is a legitimate challenge to the Second Law of Thermodynamics when the "demon" is executed via the Proell effect. Thermal energy transfer according to the Kinetic Theory of Heat and Statistical Mechanics that takes place over distances greater than the mean free path of a gas circumvents the microscopic randomness that leads to macroscopic irreversibility. No information is required to sort the particles as no sorting occurs; the entire volume of gas undergoes the same transition. The Proell effect achieves quasi-spontaneous thermal separation without sorting by the perturbation of a heterogeneous constant volume system with displacement and regeneration. The classical analysis of the constant volume process, such as found in the Stirling Cycle, is incomplete and therefore incorrect. There are extra energy flows that classical thermo does not recognize. When a working fluid is displaced across a regenerator with a temperature gradient in a constant volume system, complimentary compression and expansion work takes place that transfers energy between the regenerator and the bulk gas volumes of the hot and cold sides of the constant volume system. Heat capacity at constant pressure applies instead of heat capacity at constant volume. The resultant increase in calculated, recyclable energy allows the Carnot Limit to be exceeded in certain cycles. Super-Carnot heat engines and heat pumps have been designed and a US patent has been awarded.

  10. Macroscopic hematuria in patients on anticoagulation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mariyanovski, Valeri; Hadzhiyska, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Visible hematuria is not rare in patients on anticoagulant therapy. There is no consensus regarding the diagnostic approach for them; some authors suggest restricted volume of diagnostic procedures because of the low number of urological etiology found. Some antibiotics have been reported to potentiate the effect of oral anticoagulants. Material and methods The study addresses the need for urological assessment of patients on anticoagulation therapy and the possible role of some drugs administrated simultaneously with an oral anticoagulant, for the onset of macroscopic hematuria. Patients hospitalized with hematuria, both with or without anticoagulation therapy, were investigated and followed up. Results The onset of hematuria depends on the monitoring of oral anticoagulation. INR (International Normalized Ratio) value corresponds with the probability of non-urological etiology, where INR>4 carries relatively low risk for urological and malignant etiology. Some antibiotics may influence the anticoagulation effect, so INR value may be elevated and hematuria may occur. Conclusions Anticoagulation therapy should be administrated carefully and individually. The risk of urological etiology of hematuria is lower in patients on oral anticoagulants (especially when INR >4), however, it is not zero. PMID:26568876

  11. Macroscopic characteristics of the praying mantis electroretinogram.

    PubMed

    Popkiewicz, Barbara; Prete, Frederick R

    2013-08-01

    We described the macroscopic characteristics of the praying mantis ERG in three species, Tenodera aridifolia sinensis, Sphodromantis lineola, and Popa spurca. In all cases, when elicited by square wave light pulses longer than 400 ms, light adapted (LA) ERGs consisted of four component waveforms: a cornea negative transient and sustained ON, a cornea negative transient OFF, and a cornea positive sustained OFF. The former two ON, and the latter OFF components were attributed to photoreceptor depolarization and repolarization, respectively. Metabolic stress via CO2 induced anoxia selectively eliminated the transient OFF (independent of its effect on the other components) suggesting the transient OFF represents activity of the lamina interneurons on which the photoreceptors synapse. Dark adapted (DA) ERGs differed from LA ERGs in that the sustained ON and OFF amplitudes were larger, and the transient ON and OFF components were absent. Increased stimulus durations increased the amplitudes and derivatives of, and decreased the latencies to the maximum amplitudes of the OFF components. Increasing stimulus intensity increased the amplitude of the sustained ON and OFF components, but not the transient OFF. These results suggest that the mantis' visual system displays increased contrast coding efficiency with increased light adaptation, and that there are differences in gain between photoreceptor and lamina interneuron responses. Finally, responses to luminance decrements as brief a 1 ms were evident in LA recordings, and were resolved at frequencies up to 60 Hz. PMID:23684801

  12. Macroscopic resonant tunnelling through Andreev interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goorden, M. C.; Jacquod, Ph; Weiss, J.

    2008-04-01

    We investigate the conductance through and the spectrum of ballistic chaotic quantum dots attached to two s-wave superconductors, as a function of the phase difference phi between the two order parameters. A combination of analytical techniques—random matrix theory, Nazarov's circuit theory and the trajectory-based semiclassical theory—allows us to explore the quantum-to-classical crossover in detail. When the superconductors are not phase-biased, phi = 0, we recover known results that the spectrum of the quantum dot exhibits an excitation gap, while the conductance across two normal leads carrying NN channels and connected to the dot via tunnel contacts of transparency ΓN is \\propto \\Gamma_{\\mathrm {N}}^2 N_{\\mathrm {N}} . In contrast, when phi = π, the excitation gap closes and the conductance becomes G \\propto \\Gamma_{\\mathrm {N}} N_{\\mathrm {N}} in the universal regime. For \\Gamma_{\\mathrm {N}} \\ll 1 , we observe an order-of-magnitude enhancement of the conductance towards G \\propto N_{\\mathrm {N}} in the short-wavelength limit. We relate this enhancement to resonant tunnelling through a macroscopic number of levels close to the Fermi energy. Our predictions are corroborated by numerical simulations.

  13. Macroscopic resonant tunnelling through Andreev interferometers.

    PubMed

    Goorden, M C; Jacquod, Ph; Weiss, J

    2008-04-01

    We investigate the conductance through and the spectrum of ballistic chaotic quantum dots attached to two s-wave superconductors, as a function of the phase difference phi between the two order parameters. A combination of analytical techniques-random matrix theory, Nazarov's circuit theory and the trajectory-based semiclassical theory-allows us to explore the quantum-to-classical crossover in detail. When the superconductors are not phase-biased, phi = 0, we recover known results that the spectrum of the quantum dot exhibits an excitation gap, while the conductance across two normal leads carrying N(N) channels and connected to the dot via tunnel contacts of transparency Gamma(N) is [Formula: see text]. In contrast, when phi = pi, the excitation gap closes and the conductance becomes [Formula: see text] in the universal regime. For [Formula: see text], we observe an order-of-magnitude enhancement of the conductance towards [Formula: see text] in the short-wavelength limit. We relate this enhancement to resonant tunnelling through a macroscopic number of levels close to the Fermi energy. Our predictions are corroborated by numerical simulations. PMID:19636148

  14. Predicting metapopulation lifetime from macroscopic network properties.

    PubMed

    Drechsler, Martin

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a comparatively simple approximation formula for the mean life time of a metapopulation in a habitat network where habitat patch arrangement may be irregular and patch sizes differ. It is based on previous work on the development of an analytical approximation formula by Frank and Wissel [K. Frank, C. Wissel, A formula for the mean lifetime of metapopulations in heterogeneous landscapes, Am. Nat. 159 (2002) 530] and extends it by abstracting from individual patch locations. The mean metapopulation lifetime is expressed as a function of four macroscopic network properties: the ratio of dispersal range and network size, the ratio of range of environmental correlation and network size, and the total number and (geometric mean) size of the patches. The analysis takes into account that (ceteris paribus) patches close to the boundary of the habitat network contribute less to metapopulation survival than patches close to the centre of the network. Ignoring this fact can lead to a substantial overestimation of the mean metapopulation lifetime. Due to its numerical simplicity, the formula can be used as a conservation objective function even in complex network design problems where the number of patches to be allocated is very large. Numerical tests of the formula show that it performs very well within a wide range of network structures. PMID:19159631

  15. Investigation of dissipative forces near macroscopic media

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R.S.

    1982-12-01

    The interaction of classical charged particles with the fields they induce in macroscopic dielectric media is investigated. For 10- to 1000-eV electrons, the angular perturbation of the trajectory by the image potential for surface impact parameters of 50 to 100 A is shown to be of the order of 0.001 rads over a distance of 100 A. The energy loss incurred by low-energy particles due to collective excitations such as surface plasmons is shown to be observable with a transition probability of 0.01 to 0.001 (Becker, et al., 1981b). The dispersion of real surface plasmon modes in planar and cylindrical geometries is discussed and is derived for pinhole geometry described in terms of a single-sheeted hyperboloid of revolution. An experimental apparatus for the measurement of collective losses for medium-energy electrons translating close to a dielectric surface is described and discussed. Data showing such losses at electron energies of 500 to 900 eV in silver foils containing many small apertures are presented and shown to be in good agreement with classical stopping power calculations and quantum mechanical calculations carried out in the low-velocity limit. The data and calculations are compared and contrasted with earlier transmission and reflection measurements, and the course of further investigation is discussed.

  16. Macroscopic quantum tunnelling in a current biased Josephson junction

    SciTech Connect

    Martinis, J.M.; Devoret, M.H.; Clarke, J.; Urbina, C.

    1984-11-01

    We discuss in this work an attempt to answer experimentally the question: do macroscopic variables obey quantum mechanics. More precisely, this experiment deals with the question of quantum-mechanical tunnelling of a macroscopic variable, a subject related to the famous Schrodinger's cat problem in the theory of measurement.

  17. State-space based analysis and forecasting of macroscopic road safety trends in Greece.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, macroscopic road safety trends in Greece are analyzed using state-space models and data for 52 years (1960-2011). Seemingly unrelated time series equations (SUTSE) models are developed first, followed by richer latent risk time-series (LRT) models. As reliable estimates of vehicle-kilometers are not available for Greece, the number of vehicles in circulation is used as a proxy to the exposure. Alternative considered models are presented and discussed, including diagnostics for the assessment of their model quality and recommendations for further enrichment of this model. Important interventions were incorporated in the models developed (1986 financial crisis, 1991 old-car exchange scheme, 1996 new road fatality definition) and found statistically significant. Furthermore, the forecasting results using data up to 2008 were compared with final actual data (2009-2011) indicating that the models perform properly, even in unusual situations, like the current strong financial crisis in Greece. Forecasting results up to 2020 are also presented and compared with the forecasts of a model that explicitly considers the currently on-going recession. Modeling the recession, and assuming that it will end by 2013, results in more reasonable estimates of risk and vehicle-kilometers for the 2020 horizon. This research demonstrates the benefits of using advanced state-space modeling techniques for modeling macroscopic road safety trends, such as allowing the explicit modeling of interventions. The challenges associated with the application of such state-of-the-art models for macroscopic phenomena, such as traffic fatalities in a region or country, are also highlighted. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that it is possible to apply such complex models using the relatively short time-series that are available in macroscopic road safety analysis.

  18. Sintering Concepts - Atomistic Mass Flow, Microstructure Evolution, and Macroscopic Property Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, R. M.

    2002-12-01

    Sintering is the process for bonding contacting particles by the application of thermal energy. At the atomistic level, mass flow is random, yet biased by subtle surface curvature gradients. During sintering microstructure changes become noticable and eventually bulk macroscopic property changes, such as strength increases and pore elimination, can be observed. Computer modeling of sintering has evolved to help understand and link the atomistic and macroscopic aspects. The recent emphasis in sintering models has forced theory to face up to some basic problems. From a perdictive view, the computer models are still behind observations, largely because of errors in our understanding of material property changes and the interactions between the evolving microstructure and kinetics of mass flow. New trends in sintering models will be introduced to show how accurate models require a firm grasp of these issues to predict bulk property changes. The identification of such problems sets in place an agenda for the sintering research community.

  19. Chaotic advection at the pore scale: Mechanisms, upscaling and implications for macroscopic transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, D. R.; Trefry, M. G.; Metcalfe, G.

    2016-11-01

    The macroscopic spreading and mixing of solute plumes in saturated porous media is ultimately controlled by processes operating at the pore scale. Whilst the conventional picture of pore-scale mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion leading to persistent hydrodynamic dispersion is well accepted, this paradigm is inherently two-dimensional (2D) in nature and neglects important three-dimensional (3D) phenomena. We discuss how the kinematics of steady 3D flow at the pore scale generate chaotic advection-involving exponential stretching and folding of fluid elements-the mechanisms by which it arises and implications of microscopic chaos for macroscopic dispersion and mixing. Prohibited in steady 2D flow due to topological constraints, these phenomena are ubiquitous due to the topological complexity inherent to all 3D porous media. Consequently 3D porous media flows generate profoundly different fluid deformation and mixing processes to those of 2D flow. The interplay of chaotic advection and broad transit time distributions can be incorporated into a continuous-time random walk (CTRW) framework to predict macroscopic solute mixing and spreading. We show how these results may be generalised to real porous architectures via a CTRW model of fluid deformation, leading to stochastic models of macroscopic dispersion and mixing which both honour the pore-scale kinematics and are directly conditioned on the pore-scale architecture.

  20. Experimental demonstration of macroscopic quantum coherence in Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik L.; Takeno, Yuishi; Yukawa, Mitsuyoshi; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Furusawa, Akira

    2007-09-15

    We witness experimentally the presence of macroscopic coherence in Gaussian quantum states using a recently proposed criterion [E. G. Cavalcanti and M. D. Reid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 170405 (2006)]. The macroscopic coherence stems from interference between macroscopically distinct states in phase space, and we prove experimentally that a coherent state contains these features with a distance in phase space of 0.51{+-}0.02 shot noise units. This is surprising because coherent states are generally considered being at the border between classical and quantum states, not yet displaying any nonclassical effect. For squeezed and entangled states the effect may be larger but depends critically on the state purity.

  1. Macroscopic hotspots identification: A Bayesian spatio-temporal interaction approach.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ni; Huang, Helai; Lee, Jaeyoung; Gao, Mingyun; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a Bayesian spatio-temporal interaction approach for hotspot identification by applying the full Bayesian (FB) technique in the context of macroscopic safety analysis. Compared with the emerging Bayesian spatial and temporal approach, the Bayesian spatio-temporal interaction model contributes to a detailed understanding of differential trends through analyzing and mapping probabilities of area-specific crash trends as differing from the mean trend and highlights specific locations where crash occurrence is deteriorating or improving over time. With traffic analysis zones (TAZs) crash data collected in Florida, an empirical analysis was conducted to evaluate the following three approaches for hotspot identification: FB ranking using a Poisson-lognormal (PLN) model, FB ranking using a Bayesian spatial and temporal (B-ST) model and FB ranking using a Bayesian spatio-temporal interaction (B-ST-I) model. The results show that (a) the models accounting for space-time effects perform better in safety ranking than does the PLN model, and (b) the FB approach using the B-ST-I model significantly outperforms the B-ST approach in correctly identifying hotspots by explicitly accounting for the space-time variation in addition to the stable spatial/temporal patterns of crash occurrence. In practice, the B-ST-I approach plays key roles in addressing two issues: (a) how the identified hotspots have evolved over time and (b) the identification of areas that, whilst not yet hotspots, show a tendency to become hotspots. Finally, it can provide guidance to policy decision makers to efficiently improve zonal-level safety.

  2. Macroscopic hotspots identification: A Bayesian spatio-temporal interaction approach.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ni; Huang, Helai; Lee, Jaeyoung; Gao, Mingyun; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a Bayesian spatio-temporal interaction approach for hotspot identification by applying the full Bayesian (FB) technique in the context of macroscopic safety analysis. Compared with the emerging Bayesian spatial and temporal approach, the Bayesian spatio-temporal interaction model contributes to a detailed understanding of differential trends through analyzing and mapping probabilities of area-specific crash trends as differing from the mean trend and highlights specific locations where crash occurrence is deteriorating or improving over time. With traffic analysis zones (TAZs) crash data collected in Florida, an empirical analysis was conducted to evaluate the following three approaches for hotspot identification: FB ranking using a Poisson-lognormal (PLN) model, FB ranking using a Bayesian spatial and temporal (B-ST) model and FB ranking using a Bayesian spatio-temporal interaction (B-ST-I) model. The results show that (a) the models accounting for space-time effects perform better in safety ranking than does the PLN model, and (b) the FB approach using the B-ST-I model significantly outperforms the B-ST approach in correctly identifying hotspots by explicitly accounting for the space-time variation in addition to the stable spatial/temporal patterns of crash occurrence. In practice, the B-ST-I approach plays key roles in addressing two issues: (a) how the identified hotspots have evolved over time and (b) the identification of areas that, whilst not yet hotspots, show a tendency to become hotspots. Finally, it can provide guidance to policy decision makers to efficiently improve zonal-level safety. PMID:27110645

  3. High-throughput imaging of adult fluorescent zebrafish with an LED fluorescence macroscope

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Jessica S; Liu, Sali; Raimondi, Aubrey R; Ignatius, Myron S; Salthouse, Christopher D; Langenau, David M

    2011-01-01

    Zebrafish are a useful vertebrate model for the study of development, behavior, disease and cancer. A major advantage of zebrafish is that large numbers of animals can be economically used for experimentation; however, high-throughput methods for imaging live adult zebrafish had not been developed. Here, we describe protocols for building a light-emitting diode (LED) fluorescence macroscope and for using it to simultaneously image up to 30 adult animals that transgenically express a fluorescent protein, are transplanted with fluorescently labeled tumor cells or are tagged with fluorescent elastomers. These protocols show that the LED fluorescence macroscope is capable of distinguishing five fluorescent proteins and can image unanesthetized swimming adult zebrafish in multiple fluorescent channels simultaneously. The macroscope can be built and used for imaging within 1 day, whereas creating fluorescently labeled adult zebrafish requires 1 hour to several months, depending on the method chosen. The LED fluorescence macroscope provides a low-cost, high-throughput method to rapidly screen adult fluorescent zebrafish and it will be useful for imaging transgenic animals, screening for tumor engraftment, and tagging individual fish for long-term analysis. PMID:21293462

  4. Toward Understanding Whether Interactive Surface Area Could Direct Ordered Macroscopic Supramolecular Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Akram, Raheel; Cheng, Mengjiao; Guo, Fengli; Iqbal, Saleem; Shi, Feng

    2016-04-19

    The mismatching phenomena are ubiquitous in complex and advanced self-assembly, such as hierarchical assembly, macroscopic supramolecular assembly, and so on. Recently, for macroscopic supramolecular assembly, the strategy of maximizing the interactive surface area was used and supposed to handle this problem; however, now there is little understanding of whether interactive surface area is the dominant factor to guide the assembly patterns. Herein by taking millimeter cylinder building blocks with different diameter/height (d/h) ratios as model systems, we have investigated the interactive-surface-area-dependent assembling behaviors in macroscopic supramolecular assembly. The results showed that the increasing d/h ratio of cylinders contributed to selectivity of face-to-face assembled pattern over face-to-side or side-to-side geometries, thus having improved the ordering degree of the assembled structures; however, the mismatching phenomena could not be totally avoided due to high colliding chances in kinetics and the thermally favorable stability of these structures. We further confirmed the above hypothesis by in situ measurements of interactive forces of building blocks with different assembled patterns. This work of macroscopic supramolecular assembly provides an in situ visible platform, which is significant to clarify the influences of interactive surface area on the assembly behaviors.

  5. Microscopic and Macroscopic Studies on Resistance Responses to Daylily Rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection process of Puccinia hemerocallidis, the causal agent of daylily rust, and resistance responses in eight daylily cultivars were studied macroscopically and microscopically. After germination of urediniospores, appressoria formed at the tip of germ tubes and penetrated through stomatal openi...

  6. Assembly of graphene sheets into 3D macroscopic structures.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shengyan; Niu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaodong

    2012-08-20

    Integration of graphene sheets, 2D nanoscale building blocks, into 3D macroscopic assemblies and ultimately into a functional system is essential to explore the advanced properties of individual graphene sheets for macroscopic applications. This Concept paper summarizes different ways, such as flow-directed assembly, layer-by-layer deposition, template-directed method, and leavening strategy to assemble graphene sheets into the layered and porous 3D macroscopic structures. The obtained structures show unique properties, such as flexible network, high specific surface area, and outstanding electrical and mechanical properties. Furthermore, the functional systems based on such graphene 3D macroscopic structures have shown enhanced performance in the applications of energy storage, catalysis, environmental remediation, and sensing.

  7. Comment on 'How macroscopic properties dictate microscopic probabilities'

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, J.

    2003-02-01

    Aharonov and Reznik have argued [in Phys. Rev A 65, 052116 (2002)] that the form of the probabilistic predictions of quantum theory can be seen to follow from properties of macroscopic systems. An error in their argument is identified.

  8. Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling of Solitons in Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Joseph A.; Carr, Lincoln D.

    2011-05-01

    We study the macroscopic quantum tunneling of ultracold bosons in one-dimensional optical lattices. A bright matter-wave soliton behind a potential barrier is allowed to tunnel out of confinement by tuning the barrier width and the attractive particle-particle interactions. We predict the escape time for the soliton, that is, when the norm remaining behind the barrier drops to 1/e, modeling how the interaction strength, the system size, and the barrier dimensions affect the escape time. We preform quasi-exact simulations of the quantum many-body entangled dynamics with Time-Evolving Block Decimation (TEBD), a matrix product state numerical method. Independently, we check our results near the weakly interacting limit with mean-field theory. Our findings show the regimes in which mean-field theory is widely inadequate, and the appreciable differences between a mean-field and a full quantum many-body approach. We then use TEBD to model the dynamics far beyond the mean-field limit. We calculate the entropy of entanglement between the soliton body behind the barrier and the escaped soliton tail past the barrier over time. We use density-density correlation functions to examine how particles in different regions of the system (behind, under, or past the barrier) are entangled to one another. Funded by NSF

  9. Transport Theoretical Studies of Some Microscopic and Macroscopic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astwood, Alden Matthew

    This dissertation is a report on theoretical transport studies of two systems of vastly different sizes. The first topic is electronic motion in quantum wires. In recent years, it has become possible to fabricate wires that are so small that quantum effects become important. The conduction properties of these wires are quite different than those of macroscopic wires. In this dissertation, we seek to understand scattering effects in quantum wires in a simple way. Some of the existing formalisms for studying transport in quantum wires are reviewed, and one such formalism is applied to calculate conductance in some simple systems. The second topic concerns animals which move in groups, such as flocking birds or schooling fish. Exact analytic calculations of the transport properties of such systems are very difficult because a flock is a system that is far from equilibrium and consists of many interacting particles. We introduce two simplified models of flocking which are amenable to analytic study. The first model consists of a set of overdamped Brownian particles that interact via spring forces. The exact solution for the probability distribution is calculated, and equations of motion for continuous coarse-grained quantities, such as the density, are obtained from the full solution. The second model consists of particles which move in one dimension at constant speed, but which change their directions at random. The flipping rates are constructed in such a way that particles tend to align their directions with each other. The model is solved exactly for one and two particles, the first two moments are obtained, and equations of motion for continuous coarse-grained quantities are written. The model cannot be solved exactly for many particles, but the first and second moments are calculated. Finally, two additional topics are briefly discussed. The first is transport in disordered lattices, and the second is a static magnetic model of flocking.

  10. Macroscopic quantum effects in intrinsic Josephson junction stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, T.; Machida, M.

    2008-09-01

    A macroscopic quantum theory for the capacitively-coupled intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ’s) is constructed. We clarify the multi-junction effect for the macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) to the first resistive branch. It is shown that the escape rate is greatly enhanced by the capacitive coupling between junctions. We also discuss the origin of the N2-enhancement in the escape rate observed in the uniformly switching in Bi-2212 IJJ’s.

  11. The many-nucleon theory of nuclear collective structure and its macroscopic limits: an algebraic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, D. J.; McCoy, A. E.; Caprio, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    The nuclear collective models introduced by Bohr, Mottelson and Rainwater, together with the Mayer-Jensen shell model, have provided the central framework for the development of nuclear physics. This paper reviews the microscopic evolution of the collective models and their underlying foundations. In particular, it is shown that the Bohr-Mottelson models have expressions as macroscopic limits of microscopic models that have precisely defined expressions in many-nucleon quantum mechanics. Understanding collective models in this way is especially useful because it enables the analysis of nuclear properties in terms of them to be revisited and reassessed in the light of their microscopic foundations.

  12. Entropy production for velocity-dependent macroscopic forces: The problem of dissipation without fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerino, L.; Puglisi, A.

    2015-08-01

    In macroscopic systems, velocity-dependent phenomenological forces F(v) are used to model friction, feedback devices or self-propulsion. Such forces usually include a dissipative component which conceals the fast energy exchanges with a thermostat at the environment temperature T, ruled by a microscopic Hamiltonian H. The mapping (H,T) \\to F(v) —even if effective for many purposes— may lead to applications of stochastic thermodynamics where an incomplete fluctuating entropy production (FEP) is derived. An enlighting example is offered by recent macroscopic experiments where dissipation is dominated by solid-on-solid friction, typically modelled through a deterministic Coulomb force F(v). Through an adaptation of the microscopic Prandtl-Tomlinson model for friction, we show how the FEP is dominated by the heat released to the T-thermostat, ignored by the macroscopic Coulomb model. This problem, which haunts several studies in the literature, cannot be cured by weighing the time-reversed trajectories with a different auxiliary dynamics: it is only solved by a more accurate stochastic modelling of the thermostat underlying dissipation.

  13. Accumulation of small protein molecules in a macroscopic complex coacervate.

    PubMed

    Lindhoud, Saskia; Claessens, Mireille M A E

    2016-01-14

    To obtain insight into the accumulation of proteins into macroscopic complex coacervate phases, the lysozyme concentration in complex coacervates containing the cationic polyelectrolyte poly-(N,N dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and the anionic polyelectrolyte polyacrylic acid was investigated as a function of the mixing ratio, protein concentration and ionic strength. Maximal protein enrichment of the complex coacervate phase was observed to require the presence of all three macromolecules. Under optimized conditions the protein concentrations in the complex coacervate were as high as 200 g L(-1). Such high concentrations are comparable to the protein concentration in the cytosol, suggesting that these interesting liquid phases may serve a suitable model system for the phase behavior of the cytosol and genesis and function of membrane-less organelles. The high stability of the complexes and the salt dependent uptake of protein suggest that complex coacervates may provide a way to store hydrated proteins at high concentrations and might therefore be of interest in the formulation of high protein foods.

  14. Theory and feasibility tests for a seismic scanning tunnelling macroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Gerard T.; Hanafy, Sherif; Huang, Yunsong

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunnelling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect subwavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the scatterer is in the near-field region. This means that, as the scatterer approaches the source, imaging of the scatterer with super-resolution can be achieved. Acoustic and elastic simulations support this concept, and a seismic experiment in an Arizona tunnel shows a TRM profile with super-resolution adjacent to the fault location. The SSTM is analogous to the optical scanning tunnelling microscopes having subwavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by the imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  15. Study of Fission Barrier Heights of Uranium Isotopes by the Macroscopic-Microscopic Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Chun-Lai; Fan, Tie-Shuan

    2014-09-01

    Potential energy surfaces of uranium nuclei in the range of mass numbers 229 through 244 are investigated in the framework of the macroscopic-microscopic model and the heights of static fission barriers are obtained in terms of a double-humped structure. The macroscopic part of the nuclear energy is calculated according to Lublin—Strasbourg-drop (LSD) model. Shell and pairing corrections as the microscopic part are calculated with a folded-Yukawa single-particle potential. The calculation is carried out in a five-dimensional parameter space of the generalized Lawrence shapes. In order to extract saddle points on the potential energy surface, a new algorithm which can effectively find an optimal fission path leading from the ground state to the scission point is developed. The comparison of our results with available experimental data and others' theoretical results confirms the reliability of our calculations.

  16. A review of macroscopic ductile failure criteria.

    SciTech Connect

    Corona, Edmundo; Reedlunn, Benjamin

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to describe several of the ductile failure criteria com- monly used to solve practical problems. The following failure models were considered: equivalent plastic strain, equivalent plastic strain in tension, maximum shear, Mohr- Coulomb, Wellman's tearing parameter, Johnson-Cook and BCJ MEM. The document presents the main characteristics of each failure model as well as sample failure predic- tions for simple proportional loading stress histories in three dimensions and in plane stress. Plasticity calculations prior to failure were conducted with a simple, linear hardening, J2 plasticity model. The resulting failure envelopes were plotted in prin- cipal stress space and plastic strain space, where the dependence on stress triaxiality and Lode angle are clearly visible. This information may help analysts select a ductile fracture model for a practical problem and help interpret analysis results.

  17. Studies into the averaging problem: Macroscopic gravity and precision cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijenayake, Tharake S.

    With the tremendous improvement in the precision of available astrophysical data in the recent past, it becomes increasingly important to examine some of the underlying assumptions behind the standard model of cosmology and take into consideration nonlinear and relativistic corrections which may affect it at percent precision level. Due to its mathematical rigor and fully covariant and exact nature, Zalaletdinov's macroscopic gravity (MG) is arguably one of the most promising frameworks to explore nonlinearities due to inhomogeneities in the real Universe. We study the application of MG to precision cosmology, focusing on developing a self-consistent cosmology model built on the averaging framework that adequately describes the large-scale Universe and can be used to study real data sets. We first implement an algorithmic procedure using computer algebra systems to explore new exact solutions to the MG field equations. After validating the process with an existing isotropic solution, we derive a new homogeneous, anisotropic and exact solution. Next, we use the simplest (and currently only) solvable homogeneous and isotropic model of MG and obtain an observable function for cosmological expansion using some reasonable assumptions on light propagation. We find that the principal modification to the angular diameter distance is through the change in the expansion history. We then linearize the MG field equations and derive a framework that contains large-scale structure, but the small scale inhomogeneities have been smoothed out and encapsulated into an additional cosmological parameter representing the averaging effect. We derive an expression for the evolution of the density contrast and peculiar velocities and integrate them to study the growth rate of large-scale structure. We find that increasing the magnitude of the averaging term leads to enhanced growth at late times. Thus, for the same matter content, the growth rate of large scale structure in the MG model

  18. Numerical Investigation of Macroscopic Cardiac Mechanics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxton, Gavin; Balazs, Anna

    2003-03-01

    In order to gain insight into the complex interactions between electrical excitation of the myocardial tissue, the mechanical contraction of the heart muscles and cardiac fluid dynamics, three computational techniques are successfully coupled. A Gerhardt-Schuster-Tyson Cellular Automata algorithm enables the excitation kinetics of myocardial tissue to be simulated in a computationally efficient manner. The cardiac excitation spreading is then coupled with a dynamic Born Lattice Spring Model which enables the contraction of the heart muscles and their subsequent relaxation to be modelled. The velocities at the inner surfaces of the heart can then be transferred to a Lattice Boltzmann simulation of blood flow within the cardiac chambers. The interactions (and complex feedback mechanisms) between electrical excitation, mechanical deformation, and fluid flow in the heart are explored through these three-dimensional models and the regular functionality of the whole heart is visualised.

  19. Macroscopic magnetic islands and plasma energy transport

    SciTech Connect

    Cima, G; Porcelli, F; Rossi, E; Wootton, A J

    1998-12-03

    A model is presented, based on the combined effects of m=n=l magnetic island dynamics, localized heat sources, large heat diffusivity along magnetic field lines and plasma rotation, which may explain the multipeaked temperature profiles and transport barriers observed in tokamak plasmas heated by electron cyclotron resonant waves.

  20. Fibrous random materials: From microstructure to macroscopic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdchi, K.; Luding, S.

    2013-06-01

    Fibrous porous materials are involved in a wide range of applications including composite materials, fuel cells, heat exchangers and (biological)filters. Fluid flow through these materials plays an important role in many engineering applications and processes, such as textiles and paper manufacturing or transport of (under)ground water and pollutants. While most porous materials have complex geometry, some can be seen as two-dimensional particulate/fibrous systems, in which we introduce several microscopic quantities, based on Voronoi and Delaunay tessellations, to characterize their microstructure. In particular, by analyzing the topological properties of Voronoi polygons, we observe a smooth transition from disorder to order, for increasing packing fraction. Using fully resolved finite element (FE) simulations of Newtonian, incompressible fluid flow perpendicular to the fibres, the macroscopic permeability is calculated in creeping flow regimes. The effect of fibre arrangement and local crystalline regions on the macroscopic permeability is discussed and the macroscopic property is linked to the microscopic structural quantities.

  1. [Studies on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of Ophiocordyceps xuefengensis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Zhen, Lan-ping; Zhu, Ru-cai; Zhang, Shui-han; Huang, Hui-yong

    2015-07-01

    The macroscopic characteristics, tissue, caterpillar body wall and powder of Ophiocordyceps xuefengensis in different batch numbers were observed and researched by the macroscopic and microscopic identification methods. The result shows that the morphology, size, abdominal annulations of caterpillar, etc. of 0. xuefengensis are the macroscopic identification characteristics, the caterpillar body surface mycelium, body wall sculpture and crochets on abdominal legs are the microscopic identification characteristics. These characters are stable and regular discriminant features, which are proved to be the identification basis of O. xuefengensis. In addition, The characters such as crochets on abdominal legs arrange in two parallel ellipse rings, the inner crochets are long strip, and the external toes are unciform, are specific. PMID:26666033

  2. Macroscopic quantumness: Theory and applications in optical sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyunseok; Sasaki, Masahide

    2015-02-01

    Since the early days of quantum mechanics, as illustrated by Schrödinger's Gedankenexperiment, macroscopic quantum phenomena have attracted great interest among scientists and general audience. As highlighted by the Nobel prize in Physics in 2012, the scientific community could assent that the state-of-the-art technology to measure and manipulate individual quantum systems is now available in laboratories. We believe that the next step in order is to collectively control large quantum systems even at a 'macroscopic' level. This will be an intriguing challenge, from the fundamental point of view, for testing quantum mechanics in the macroscopic limit. Furthermore, it will make another major step forward to practical implementations of quantum information technologies.

  3. Broadband macroscopic cortical oscillations emerge from intrinsic neuronal response failures.

    PubMed

    Goldental, Amir; Vardi, Roni; Sardi, Shira; Sabo, Pinhas; Kanter, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Broadband spontaneous macroscopic neural oscillations are rhythmic cortical firing which were extensively examined during the last century, however, their possible origination is still controversial. In this work we show how macroscopic oscillations emerge in solely excitatory random networks and without topological constraints. We experimentally and theoretically show that these oscillations stem from the counterintuitive underlying mechanism-the intrinsic stochastic neuronal response failures (NRFs). These NRFs, which are characterized by short-term memory, lead to cooperation among neurons, resulting in sub- or several- Hertz macroscopic oscillations which coexist with high frequency gamma oscillations. A quantitative interplay between the statistical network properties and the emerging oscillations is supported by simulations of large networks based on single-neuron in-vitro experiments and a Langevin equation describing the network dynamics. Results call for the examination of these oscillations in the presence of inhibition and external drives. PMID:26578893

  4. Role of macroscopic particles in deep-sea oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Bochdansky, Alexander B; van Aken, Hendrik M; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2010-05-01

    Macroscopic particles (>500 mum), including marine snow, large migrating zooplankton, and their fast-sinking fecal pellets, represent primary vehicles of organic carbon flux from the surface to the deep sea. In contrast, freely suspended microscopic particles such as bacteria and protists do not sink, and they contribute the largest portion of metabolism in the upper ocean. In bathy- and abyssopelagic layers of the ocean (2,000-6,000 m), however, microscopic particles may not dominate oxygen consumption. In a section across the tropical Atlantic, we show that macroscopic particle peaks occurred frequently in the deep sea, whereas microscopic particles were barely detectable. In 10 of 17 deep-sea profiles (>2,000 m depth), macroscopic particle abundances were more strongly cross-correlated with oxygen deficits than microscopic particles, suggesting that biomass bound to large particles dominates overall deep-sea metabolism.

  5. The Advantages of Not Entangling Macroscopic Diamonds at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Brezinski, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    The recent paper entitled by K. C. Lee et al. (2011) establishes nonlocal macroscopic quantum correlations, which they term “entanglement”, under ambient conditions. Photon(s)-phonon entanglements are established within each interferometer arm. However, our analysis demonstrates, the phonon fields between arms become correlated as a result of single-photon wavepacket path indistinguishability, not true nonlocal entanglement. We also note that a coherence expansion (as opposed to decoherence) resulted from local entanglement which was not recognized. It occurred from nearly identical Raman scattering in each arm (importantly not meeting the Born and Markovian approximations). The ability to establish nonlocal macroscopic quantum correlations through path indistinguishability rather than entanglement offers the opportunity to greatly expand quantum macroscopic theory and application, even though it was not true nonlocal entanglement. PMID:27429619

  6. Broadband macroscopic cortical oscillations emerge from intrinsic neuronal response failures

    PubMed Central

    Goldental, Amir; Vardi, Roni; Sardi, Shira; Sabo, Pinhas; Kanter, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Broadband spontaneous macroscopic neural oscillations are rhythmic cortical firing which were extensively examined during the last century, however, their possible origination is still controversial. In this work we show how macroscopic oscillations emerge in solely excitatory random networks and without topological constraints. We experimentally and theoretically show that these oscillations stem from the counterintuitive underlying mechanism—the intrinsic stochastic neuronal response failures (NRFs). These NRFs, which are characterized by short-term memory, lead to cooperation among neurons, resulting in sub- or several- Hertz macroscopic oscillations which coexist with high frequency gamma oscillations. A quantitative interplay between the statistical network properties and the emerging oscillations is supported by simulations of large networks based on single-neuron in-vitro experiments and a Langevin equation describing the network dynamics. Results call for the examination of these oscillations in the presence of inhibition and external drives. PMID:26578893

  7. Macroscopic Measurement of Resonant Magnetization Tunneling in High-Spin Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Jonathan R.; Sarachik, M. P.; Tejada, J.; Maciejewski, J.; Ziolo, R.

    1996-03-01

    We report the observation of steps in the hysteresis loop of a macroscopic sample of oriented crystals of Mn_12O_12(CH_3COO)_16(H_2O)_4, a high-spin (S=10) molecule. The steps occur at regular intervals of magnetic field, every 0.46 T. The magnetic relaxation rate increases substantially when the field is tuned to a step. We interpret these effects as manifestations of thermally assisted, field-tuned resonant tunneling between quantum spin states. A simple model is presented that accounts for the observations and yields good quantitative agreement with measured values of the anisotropy barrier. We attribute the observation of quantum-mechanical phenomena on a macroscopic scale to tunneling in a large (Avogadro's) number of magnetically identical molecules.

  8. Determination of macroscopic transport coefficients of a dissipative particle dynamics solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarnykh, Dmitrii; Litvinov, Sergey; Bian, Xin; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to determine macroscopic transport coefficients of a dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) solvent. Shear viscosity, isothermal speed of sound, and bulk viscosity result from DPD-model input parameters and can be determined only a posteriori. For this reason approximate predictions of these quantities are desirable in order to set appropriate DPD input parameters. For the purpose of deriving an improved approximate prediction we analyze the autocorrelation of shear and longitudinal modes in Fourier space of a DPD solvent for Kolmogorov flow. We propose a fitting function with nonexponential properties which gives a good approximation to these autocorrelation functions. Given this fitting function we improve significantly the capability of a priori determination of macroscopic solvent transport coefficients in comparison to previously used exponential fitting functions.

  9. Determination of macroscopic transport coefficients of a dissipative particle dynamics solvent.

    PubMed

    Azarnykh, Dmitrii; Litvinov, Sergey; Bian, Xin; Adams, Nikolaus A

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to determine macroscopic transport coefficients of a dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) solvent. Shear viscosity, isothermal speed of sound, and bulk viscosity result from DPD-model input parameters and can be determined only a posteriori. For this reason approximate predictions of these quantities are desirable in order to set appropriate DPD input parameters. For the purpose of deriving an improved approximate prediction we analyze the autocorrelation of shear and longitudinal modes in Fourier space of a DPD solvent for Kolmogorov flow. We propose a fitting function with nonexponential properties which gives a good approximation to these autocorrelation functions. Given this fitting function we improve significantly the capability of a priori determination of macroscopic solvent transport coefficients in comparison to previously used exponential fitting functions. PMID:26871186

  10. A macroscopic relationship for preferential flow in the vadose zone: Theory and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.H.; Zhang, R.D.

    2010-02-15

    Preferential flow commonly observed in unsaturated soils allows rapid movement of solute from the ground surface or vadose zone to the groundwater, bypassing a significant volume of unsaturated soil and increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A variety of evidence indicates that complex preferential flow patterns observed from fields are fractals. This paper discusses a macroscopic rela-tionship for modeling preferential flow in the vadose zone. Conceptually, the flow domain can be di-vided into active and inactive regions. Flow occurs preferentially in the active region (characterized by fractals), and inactive region is simply bypassed. The portion of the active region was found to be a power function of saturation. The validity of this macroscopic relationship is demonstrated by its consistency with field observations and the related numerical experiments.

  11. Decoherence-free emergence of macroscopic local realism for entangled photons in a cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Portolan, S.; Rossi, F.; Di Stefano, O.; Savasta, S.; Girlanda, R.

    2006-02-15

    We investigate the influence of environmental noise on polarization entangled light generated by parametric emission in a cavity. By adopting a recent separability criterion, we show that (i) self-stimulation may suppress the detrimental influence of noise on entanglement, but (ii) once it becomes effective, a noise-equipped classical model of parametric emission provides the same results of quantum theory with respect to the separability criterion. More generally we also show that, in the macroscopic limit, it is not possible to observe violations of local realism with measurements of finite order n-particle correlations only. These results provide a prototypical case of the emergence of macroscopic local realism in the presence of strong entanglement even in the absence of decoherence.

  12. Macroscopic quasi-linear theory and particle-in-cell simulation of helium ion anisotropy instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Seough, Jungjoon; Hwang, Junga; Nariyuki, Yasuhiro

    2015-08-01

    The protons and helium ions in the solar wind are observed to possess anisotropic temperature profiles. The anisotropy appears to be limited by various marginal instability conditions. One of the efficient methods to investigate the global dynamics and distribution of various temperature anisotropies in the large-scale solar wind models may be that based upon the macroscopic quasi-linear approach. The present paper investigates the proton and helium ion anisotropy instabilities on the basis of the quasi-linear theory versus particle-in-cell simulation. It is found that the overall dynamical development of the particle temperatures is quite accurately reproduced by the macroscopic quasi-linear scheme. The wave energy development in time, however, shows somewhat less restrictive comparisons, indicating that while the quasi-linear method is acceptable for the particle dynamics, the wave analysis probably requires higher-order physics, such as wave-wave coupling or nonlinear wave-particle interaction.

  13. Macroscopic nucleation phenomena in continuum media with long-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Masamichi; Enachescu, Cristian; Miyashita, Seiji; Rikvold, Per Arne; Boukheddaden, Kamel; Varret, François

    2011-11-01

    Nucleation, commonly associated with discontinuous transformations between metastable and stable phases, is crucial in fields as diverse as atmospheric science and nanoscale electronics. Traditionally, it is considered a microscopic process (at most nano-meter), implying the formation of a microscopic nucleus of the stable phase. Here we show for the first time, that considering long-range interactions mediated by elastic distortions, nucleation can be a macroscopic process, with the size of the critical nucleus proportional to the total system size. This provides a new concept of ``macroscopic barrier-crossing nucleation''. We demonstrate the effect in molecular dynamics simulations of a model spin-crossover system with two molecular states of different sizes, causing elastic distortions.

  14. Macroscopicity in an optomechanical matter-wave interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuereb, André; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Paternostro, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    We analyse a proposal that we have recently put forward for an interface between matter-wave and optomechanical technologies from the perspective of macroscopic quantumness. In particular, by making use of a measure of macroscopicity in quantum superpositions that is particularly well suited for continuous variables systems, we demonstrate the existence of working points for our interface at which a quantum mechanical superposition of genuinely mesoscopic states is achieved. Our proposal thus holds the potential to affirm itself as a viable atom-to-mechanics transducer of quantum coherences.

  15. Quantum correlation for two-qubit systems interacting with macroscopic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mei-Wen; Liu, Yan; Lu, Jing; Zhou, Lan

    2016-07-01

    We consider two particles of spin-[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] interacting with two one-dimensional N-spin arrays, respectively, which is an exactly solvable model. In this model, the one-dimensional N-spin arrays can be regarded as a macroscopic medium if we consider the number N of spins being large enough. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord of the spins of two particles in the case of two particles passing through the macroscopic mediums synchronously and out-sync. In both case, we can obtain that the entanglement decreases monotonically with time and may suffer a sudden death in the evolution. Different from the entanglement dynamics, quantum discord first remains unchanged during a period of time and decreases later, which can be described as the sudden transition between classical and quantum decoherence. We also observe that the entanglement and quantum discord decay to zero in the case of enough large N, which can be understood that the interaction with the macroscopic medium can destroy the quantum correlation of a two-qubit system.

  16. Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO). Testing quantum and gravitational physics with massive mechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Hechenblaikner, Gerald; Kiesel, Nikolai; Romero-Isart, Oriol; Schwab, Keith C.; Johann, Ulrich; Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2012-10-01

    Quantum physics challenges our understanding of the nature of physical reality and of space-time and suggests the necessity of radical revisions of their underlying concepts. Experimental tests of quantum phenomena involving massive macroscopic objects would provide novel insights into these fundamental questions. Making use of the unique environment provided by space, MAQRO aims at investigating this largely unexplored realm of macroscopic quantum physics. MAQRO has originally been proposed as a medium-sized fundamental-science space mission for the 2010 call of Cosmic Vision. MAQRO unites two experiments: DECIDE (DECoherence In Double-Slit Experiments) and CASE (Comparative Acceleration Sensing Experiment). The main scientific objective of MAQRO, which is addressed by the experiment DECIDE, is to test the predictions of quantum theory for quantum superpositions of macroscopic objects containing more than 108 atoms. Under these conditions, deviations due to various suggested alternative models to quantum theory would become visible. These models have been suggested to harmonize the paradoxical quantum phenomena both with the classical macroscopic world and with our notion of Minkowski space-time. The second scientific objective of MAQRO, which is addressed by the experiment CASE, is to demonstrate the performance of a novel type of inertial sensor based on optically trapped microspheres. CASE is a technology demonstrator that shows how the modular design of DECIDE allows to easily incorporate it with other missions that have compatible requirements in terms of spacecraft and orbit. CASE can, at the same time, serve as a test bench for the weak equivalence principle, i.e., the universality of free fall with test-masses differing in their mass by 7 orders of magnitude.

  17. Probing deformed commutators with macroscopic harmonic oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Bawaj, Mateusz; Biancofiore, Ciro; Bonaldi, Michele; Bonfigli, Federica; Borrielli, Antonio; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Marconi, Lorenzo; Marino, Francesco; Natali, Riccardo; Pontin, Antonio; Prodi, Giovanni A.; Serra, Enrico; Vitali, David; Marin, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A minimal observable length is a common feature of theories that aim to merge quantum physics and gravity. Quantum mechanically, this concept is associated with a nonzero minimal uncertainty in position measurements, which is encoded in deformed commutation relations. In spite of increasing theoretical interest, the subject suffers from the complete lack of dedicated experiments and bounds to the deformation parameters have just been extrapolated from indirect measurements. As recently proposed, low-energy mechanical oscillators could allow to reveal the effect of a modified commutator. Here we analyze the free evolution of high-quality factor micro- and nano-oscillators, spanning a wide range of masses around the Planck mass mP (≈22 μg). The direct check against a model of deformed dynamics substantially lowers the previous limits on the parameters quantifying the commutator deformation. PMID:26088965

  18. Emergence of macroscopic directed motion in populations of motile colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricard, Antoine; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Desreumaux, Nicolas; Dauchot, Olivier; Bartolo, Denis

    2013-11-01

    From the formation of animal flocks to the emergence of coordinated motion in bacterial swarms, populations of motile organisms at all scales display coherent collective motion. This consistent behaviour strongly contrasts with the difference in communication abilities between the individuals. On the basis of this universal feature, it has been proposed that alignment rules at the individual level could solely account for the emergence of unidirectional motion at the group level. This hypothesis has been supported by agent-based simulations. However, more complex collective behaviours have been systematically found in experiments, including the formation of vortices, fluctuating swarms, clustering and swirling. All these (living and man-made) model systems (bacteria, biofilaments and molecular motors, shaken grains and reactive colloids) predominantly rely on actual collisions to generate collective motion. As a result, the potential local alignment rules are entangled with more complex, and often unknown, interactions. The large-scale behaviour of the populations therefore strongly depends on these uncontrolled microscopic couplings, which are extremely challenging to measure and describe theoretically. Here we report that dilute populations of millions of colloidal rolling particles self-organize to achieve coherent motion in a unique direction, with very few density and velocity fluctuations. Quantitatively identifying the microscopic interactions between the rollers allows a theoretical description of this polar-liquid state. Comparison of the theory with experiment suggests that hydrodynamic interactions promote the emergence of collective motion either in the form of a single macroscopic `flock', at low densities, or in that of a homogenous polar phase, at higher densities. Furthermore, hydrodynamics protects the polar-liquid state from the giant density fluctuations that were hitherto considered the hallmark of populations of self-propelled particles. Our

  19. Heterogeneous microstructures and macroscopic creep behavior of polycrystalline ice (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebensohn, R.

    2009-12-01

    We present results of two complementary formulations, a full-field approach based on fast Fourier transforms (FFT) [1] and a mean-field approach based on rigorous nonlinear homogenization [2] to study the influence of different microstructural features on the macroscopic behavior of polycrystalline ice. The FFT-based model is used for the prediction of local fields in columnar ice polycrystals deforming in compression by dislocation creep [3]. The predicted intragranular mechanical fields are in qualitative good agreement with experimental observations, in particular those involving the formation of shear and kink bands. These localization bands are associated with the large internal stresses that develop during creep in such anisotropic material, and their location, intensity, morphology and extension are found to depend strongly on the crystallographic orientation of the grains and on their interaction with neighbor crystals. In turn, this numerically-intensive full-field formulation is used to validate the predictions of different, more efficient homogenization approaches. We show that a recent second-order formulation, which explicitly uses information on average intragranular field fluctuations, implemented within the widely used ViscoPlastic Self-Consistent (VPSC) code [4], yields the most accurate results. References: [1] H. Moulinec and P. Suquet, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 157, 69 (1998). [2] P. Ponte Castañeda, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 50, 737 (2002). [3] R.A. Lebensohn, M. Montagnat, P. Mansuy et al. Acta Mater. 57, 1405, (2009). [4] R.A. Lebensohn, C.N. Tomé and P. Ponte Castañeda. Phil. Mag. 87, 4287 (2007).

  20. From macroscopic yield criteria to atomic stresses in polymer glasses

    SciTech Connect

    MacNeill, David; Rottler, Joerg

    2010-01-15

    The relationship between macroscopic shear yield criteria and local stress distributions in deformed polymer glasses is investigated via molecular dynamics simulations on different scales of coarse-graining. Macroscopic shear stresses at the yield point obey a pressure-modified von Mises (pmvM) criterion for many different loading conditions and strain rates. Average local stresses in small volume elements obey the same yield criterion for volumes containing approx. 100 atoms or more. Qualitatively different behavior is observed on smaller scales: the average octahedral atomic shear stress has a simple linear relationship to hydrostatic pressure regardless of macroscopic stress state and failure mode. Local plastic events are identified through a threshold in the mean-squared nonaffine displacement and compared to the local stress state. We find that the pmvM criterion only predicts local yield events when stress and displacements are averaged over at least 100 atoms. By contrast, macroscopic shear yield criteria appear to lose their ability to predict plastic activity on the atomic scale.

  1. A Macroscopic Analogue of the Nuclear Pairing Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    A macroscopic system involving permanent magnets is used as an analogue to nucleons in a nucleus to illustrate the significance of the pairing interaction. This illustrates that the view of the total nuclear energy based only on the nucleon occupancy of the energy levels can yield erroneous results and it is only when the pairing interaction is…

  2. From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus

    2016-08-01

    Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying. PMID:27389477

  3. Implementing the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm with macroscopic ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenenko, Henry; Byrnes, Tim

    2016-05-01

    Quantum computing implementations under consideration today typically deal with systems with microscopic degrees of freedom such as photons, ions, cold atoms, and superconducting circuits. The quantum information is stored typically in low-dimensional Hilbert spaces such as qubits, as quantum effects are strongest in such systems. It has, however, been demonstrated that quantum effects can be observed in mesoscopic and macroscopic systems, such as nanomechanical systems and gas ensembles. While few-qubit quantum information demonstrations have been performed with such macroscopic systems, a quantum algorithm showing exponential speedup over classical algorithms is yet to be shown. Here, we show that the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm can be implemented with macroscopic ensembles. The encoding that we use avoids the detrimental effects of decoherence that normally plagues macroscopic implementations. We discuss two mapping procedures which can be chosen depending upon the constraints of the oracle and the experiment. Both methods have an exponential speedup over the classical case, and only require control of the ensembles at the level of the total spin of the ensembles. It is shown that both approaches reproduce the qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm, and are robust under decoherence.

  4. Testing macroscopic realism through high-mass interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emary, Clive; Cotter, J. P.; Arndt, Markus

    2014-10-01

    We define a quantum witness for high-mass matter-wave interferometers that allows us to test fundamental assumptions of macroscopic realism. We propose an experimental realization using absorptive laser gratings and show that such systems can strongly violate a macrorealistic quantum-witness equality. The measurement of the witness can therefore provide clear evidence of physics beyond macrorealism for macromolecules and nanoparticles.

  5. Generation of macroscopic superposition states with small nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, H.; Ralph, T.C.; Kim, M. S.; Ham, B.S.

    2004-12-01

    We suggest a scheme to generate a macroscopic superposition state ('Schroedinger cat state') of a free-propagating optical field using a beam splitter, homodyne measurement, and a very small Kerr nonlinear effect. Our scheme makes it possible to reduce considerably the required nonlinear effect to generate an optical cat state using simple and efficient optical elements.

  6. Stereodynamics: From elementary processes to macroscopic chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, Toshio; Che, Dock-Chil; Tsai, Po-Yu; Lin, King-Chuen; Palazzetti, Federico; Aquilanti, Vincenzo

    2015-12-31

    This paper aims at discussing new facets on stereodynamical behaviors in chemical reactions, i.e. the effects of molecular orientation and alignment on reactive processes. Further topics on macroscopic processes involving deviations from Arrhenius behavior in the temperature dependence of chemical reactions and chirality effects in collisions are also discussed.

  7. From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus

    2016-08-01

    Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying.

  8. LEAD SORPTION ON RUTHENIUM OXIDE: A MACROSCOPIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption and desorption of Pb on RuO2 xH2O were examined kinetically and thermodynamically via spectroscopic and macroscopic investigations. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was employed to determine the sorption mechanism with regard to identity of nearest atomic neighbo...

  9. Enhanced plasticity in a bulk amorphous matrix composite: macroscopic and microscopic viewpoint studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae-Chul . E-mail: jclee001@korea.ac.kr; Kim, Yu-Chan; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2005-01-03

    We developed the (Cu{sub 60}Zr{sub 30}Ti{sub 10}){sub 0.95}Ta{sub 5} amorphous matrix composite, which is a Cu-based bulk amorphous composite reinforced with a micron-sized Ta-rich crystalline phase. The composite demonstrated an ultimate strength of 2332 MPa with a dramatically enhanced fracture strain of 15.3%. Macroscopic observation of the fractured (Cu{sub 60}Zr{sub 30}Ti{sub 10}){sub 0.95}Ta{sub 5} amorphous composite using scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of multiple shear bands along with numerous secondary shear bands, which spread from the primary shear bands. On the other hand, microscopic observation of the fractured composite using transmission electron microscopy showed that the cracks propagate through the amorphous matrix in a jagged manner. The observed macroscopic and microscopic behaviors, involving shear band formation and crack propagation, are believed to be responsible for the enhanced plasticity. Finite element calculations using the Mohr-Coulomb model of hydrostatic pressure dependent materials were conducted, in order to gain a better understanding of various aspects of the macroscopic deformation behavior, such as the interaction of the shear bands with the crystalline particles, the initiation site of the shear bands, and the formation of multiple shear bands, while the microscopic deformation behavior was explained based on the formation of nanocrystallites that had precipitated under quasistatic compression.

  10. A new macroscopic classification predicts prognosis for patient with liver metastases from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, K; Hirai, T; Kato, T; Torii, A; Uesaka, K; Morimoto, T; Kodera, Y; Yamamura, Y; Kito, T; Hamajima, N

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors defined a new macroscopic classification of liver metastases from colorectal cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: There were different prognostic results after the same operative procedure for liver metastases with similar background factors. METHODS: Eighty-one resected liver metastases were classified into simple nodular (SN) or confluent nodular (CN) types according to the characteristics of the cut surface of the tumor. RESULTS: The 5-year survival rates after hepatectomy were 41.7% for the SN lesions (n = 39) and 23.1% for the CN lesions (n = 42). The difference between the survival curves was statistically significant (p = 0.0307). Multivariate analysis using Cox's proportional hazards model revealed that the macroscopic type (p = 0.023), the tumor diameter (p = 0.0001), and the presence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.0016) were statistically significant independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: The new macroscopic classification may be valuable as a prognostic factor reflecting the biologic behavior of liver metastases. Images Figure 1. PMID:9389391

  11. Basic Characteristics of a Macroscopic Measure for Detecting Abnormal Changes in a Multiagent System

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Multiagent application systems must deal with various changes in both the system and the system environment at runtime. Generally, such changes have undesirable negative effects on the system. To manage and control the system, it is important to observe and detect negative effects using an appropriate observation function of the system’s behavior. This paper focuses on the design of this function and proposes a new macroscopic measure with which to observe behavioral characteristics of a runtime multiagent system. The proposed measure is designed as the variance of fluctuation of a macroscopic activity factor of the whole system, based on theoretical analysis of the macroscopic behavioral model of a multiagent system. Experiments are conducted to investigate basic characteristics of the proposed measure, using a test bed system. The results of experiments show that the proposed measure reacts quickly and increases drastically in response to abnormal changes in the system. Hence, the proposed measure is considered a measure that can be used to detect undesirable changes in a multiagent system. PMID:25897499

  12. Triboelectricity: macroscopic charge patterns formed by self-arraying ions on polymer surfaces.

    PubMed

    Burgo, Thiago A L; Ducati, Telma R D; Francisco, Kelly R; Clinckspoor, Karl J; Galembeck, Fernando; Galembeck, Sergio E

    2012-05-15

    Tribocharged polymers display macroscopically patterned positive and negative domains, verifying the fractal geometry of electrostatic mosaics previously detected by electric probe microscopy. Excess charge on contacting polyethylene (PE) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) follows the triboelectric series but with one caveat: net charge is the arithmetic sum of patterned positive and negative charges, as opposed to the usual assumption of uniform but opposite signal charging on each surface. Extraction with n-hexane preferentially removes positive charges from PTFE, while 1,1-difluoroethane and ethanol largely remove both positive and negative charges. Using suitable analytical techniques (electron energy-loss spectral imaging, infrared microspectrophotometry and carbonization/colorimetry) and theoretical calculations, the positive species were identified as hydrocarbocations and the negative species were identified as fluorocarbanions. A comprehensive model is presented for PTFE tribocharging with PE: mechanochemical chain homolytic rupture is followed by electron transfer from hydrocarbon free radicals to the more electronegative fluorocarbon radicals. Polymer ions self-assemble according to Flory-Huggins theory, thus forming the experimentally observed macroscopic patterns. These results show that tribocharging can only be understood by considering the complex chemical events triggered by mechanical action, coupled to well-established physicochemical concepts. Patterned polymers can be cut and mounted to make macroscopic electrets and multipoles.

  13. Pore-Scale Simulation of Intragranular Diffusion: Effects of Incomplete Mixing on Macroscopic Manifestations

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Hou, Zhangshuan; Palmer, Bruce J.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-07-01

    Diffusive mass transfer into and out of intragranular micropores ("intragranular diffusion") plays an important role in the large-scale transport of some groundwater contaminants. We are interested in understanding the combined effect of pore-scale advection and intragranular diffusion on solute transport at the effective porous medium scale. To study this problem, we have developed a three-dimensional pore-scale model of fluid flow and solute transport that incorporates diffusion into and out of intragranular pore spaces. Our model is based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation method, which represents fluid and solid phases by a mesh-free particle discretization. In the pore spaces, fluid flow is simulated by discretizing the Navier-Stokes equations using the SPH approach. Solute transport is represented by advection, diffusion within the fluid phase, and diffusion between the fluid and solid phases. Our model is implemented on large-scale parallel computing hardware, allowing us to simulate millions of computational particles and represent fully three-dimensional systems of pores and grains with arbitrarily complex physical geometry. We have used this model system to perform numerical experiments using various model porous media systems, which allows us to draw comparisons between macroscopic measures computed from the pore-scale simulations (such as breakthrough curves) and those predicted by macroscopic formulations that assume complete mixing over the representative volume. In this paper we present results of 3D simulations of pore-scale flow and transport, including cases with and without intragranular diffusion, in two model porous media, one with randomly-packed uniform spherical grains and a second with randomly-packed spheres drawn from a binary grain size distribution. Breakthrough curves were computed from the 3D simulations at various transport distances. Comparable breakthrough curves were computed using 1D macroscopic models with

  14. Macroscopic control parameter for avalanche models for bursty transport

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, S. C.; Rowlands, G.; Watkins, N. W.

    2009-01-15

    Similarity analysis is used to identify the control parameter R{sub A} for the subset of avalanching systems that can exhibit self-organized criticality (SOC). This parameter expresses the ratio of driving to dissipation. The transition to SOC, when the number of excited degrees of freedom is maximal, is found to occur when R{sub A}{yields}0. This is in the opposite sense to (Kolmogorov) turbulence, thus identifying a deep distinction between turbulence and SOC and suggesting an observable property that could distinguish them. A corollary of this similarity analysis is that SOC phenomenology, that is, power law scaling of avalanches, can persist for finite R{sub A} with the same R{sub A}{yields}0 exponent if the system supports a sufficiently large range of lengthscales, necessary for SOC to be a candidate for physical (R{sub A} finite) systems.

  15. Screen-imaging guidance using a modified portable video macroscope for middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xingbao; Luo, Junli; Liu, Yun; Chen, Guolong; Liu, Song; Ruan, Qiangjin; Deng, Xunding; Wang, Dianchun; Fan, Quanshui; Pan, Xinghua

    2012-04-25

    The use of operating microscopes is limited by the focal length. Surgeons using these instruments cannot simultaneously view and access the surgical field and must choose one or the other. The longer focal length (more than 1 000 mm) of an operating telescope permits a position away from the operating field, above the surgeon and out of the field of view. This gives the telescope an advantage over an operating microscope. We developed a telescopic system using screen-imaging guidance and a modified portable video macroscope constructed from a Computar MLH-10 × macro lens, a DFK-21AU04 USB CCD Camera and a Dell laptop computer as monitor screen. This system was used to establish a middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats. Results showed that magnification of the modified portable video macroscope was appropriate (5-20 ×) even though the Computar MLH-10 × macro lens was placed 800 mm away from the operating field rather than at the specified working distance of 152.4 mm with a zoom of 1-40 ×. The screen-imaging telescopic technique was clear, life-like, stereoscopic and matched the actual operation. Screen-imaging guidance led to an accurate, smooth, minimally invasive and comparatively easy surgical procedure. Success rate of the model establishment evaluated by neurological function using the modified neurological score system was 74.07%. There was no significant difference in model establishment time, sensorimotor deficit and infarct volume percentage. Our findings indicate that the telescopic lens is effective in the screen surgical operation mode referred to as "long distance observation and short distance operation" and that screen-imaging guidance using an modified portable video macroscope can be utilized for the establishment of a middle cerebral artery occlusion model and micro-neurosurgery. PMID:25722675

  16. From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying.Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, SEM and TEM images, and digital photographs. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr04429h

  17. Macroscopic ordering of helical pores for arraying guest molecules noncentrosymmetrically

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunji; Cho, Joonil; Yamada, Kuniyo; Hashizume, Daisuke; Araoka, Fumito; Takezoe, Hideo; Aida, Takuzo; Ishida, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Helical nanostructures have attracted continuous attention, not only as media for chiral recognition and synthesis, but also as motifs for studying intriguing physical phenomena that never occur in centrosymmetric systems. To improve the quality of signals from these phenomena, which is a key issue for their further exploration, the most straightforward is the macroscopic orientation of helices. Here as a versatile scaffold to rationally construct this hardly accessible structure, we report a polymer framework with helical pores that unidirectionally orient over a large area (∼10 cm2). The framework, prepared by crosslinking a supramolecular liquid crystal preorganized in a magnetic field, is chemically robust, functionalized with carboxyl groups and capable of incorporating various basic or cationic guest molecules. When a nonlinear optical chromophore is incorporated in the framework, the resultant complex displays a markedly efficient nonlinear optical output, owing to the coherence of signals ensured by the macroscopically oriented helical structure. PMID:26416086

  18. Macroscopic ordering of helical pores for arraying guest molecules noncentrosymmetrically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunji; Cho, Joonil; Yamada, Kuniyo; Hashizume, Daisuke; Araoka, Fumito; Takezoe, Hideo; Aida, Takuzo; Ishida, Yasuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Helical nanostructures have attracted continuous attention, not only as media for chiral recognition and synthesis, but also as motifs for studying intriguing physical phenomena that never occur in centrosymmetric systems. To improve the quality of signals from these phenomena, which is a key issue for their further exploration, the most straightforward is the macroscopic orientation of helices. Here as a versatile scaffold to rationally construct this hardly accessible structure, we report a polymer framework with helical pores that unidirectionally orient over a large area (~10 cm2). The framework, prepared by crosslinking a supramolecular liquid crystal preorganized in a magnetic field, is chemically robust, functionalized with carboxyl groups and capable of incorporating various basic or cationic guest molecules. When a nonlinear optical chromophore is incorporated in the framework, the resultant complex displays a markedly efficient nonlinear optical output, owing to the coherence of signals ensured by the macroscopically oriented helical structure.

  19. Macroscopically Separated Gaps in Dimer Coverings of Aztec Rectangles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciucu, Mihai

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we determine the interaction of diagonal defect clusters in regions of an Aztec rectangle that scale to arbitrary points on its symmetry axis (in earlier work we treated the case when this point was the center of the scaled Aztec rectangle). We use the resulting formulas to determine the asymptotics of the correlation of defects that are macroscopically separated from one another and feel the influence of the boundary. In several of the treated situations this seems not to be accomplishable by previous methods. Our applications include the case of two long neutral strings, which turn out to interact by an analog of the Casimir force, two families of neutral doublets that turn out to interact completely independently of one another, a neutral doublet and a very long neutral string, a general collection of macroscopically separated monomer and separation defects, and the case of long strings consisting of consecutive monomers.

  20. Has Macroscopic Superposition in Superconducting Qubits Really Been Demonstrated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadin, Alan M.; Kaplan, Steven B.

    Quantum computing depends on many qubits coupled via quantum entanglement, where each qubit must be a simultaneous superposition of two quantum states of different energies, rather than one state or the other as in classical bits. It is widely believed that observations of energy quantization and Rabi oscillations in macroscopic superconducting circuits prove that these are proper qubits with quantum superposition. But is this really the only interpretration? We propose a novel paradigm for macroscopic quantum systems, in which energies are quantized (with photon-mediated transitions), but the quantized states are realistic objects without superposition. For example, a circuit could make a transition from one quantized value of flux to another, but would never have both at the same time. We further suggest a superconducting circuit that can put this proposal to a test. Without quantum superposition, most of the potential benefit of quantum computing would be lost.

  1. Macroscopic view of light pressure on a continuous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorkunov, M. V.; Kondratov, A. V.

    2013-07-01

    The ambiguity of the macroscopic description of light pressure on a continuous medium originates from the uncertainty of dividing the energy-momentum tensor of electromagnetically excited matter into a material and field parts or, equivalently, the total acting force into pressure and deformation terms. We show that, although there exists a continuum of formally correct formulations, one can adopt the appropriate form of the macroscopic field stress tensor that allows a unified description of pressure during elementary light-matter interactions, such as reflection, refraction, absorption, and nonlinear conversion. The derived simple expressions for the pressure force are compatible with the polariton momentum ℏk. The corresponding relation for the electromagnetic momentum density generalizes Rytov's definition for right-handed and left-handed frequency dispersive media.

  2. Macroscopic description of complex adaptive networks coevolving with dynamic node states.

    PubMed

    Wiedermann, Marc; Donges, Jonathan F; Heitzig, Jobst; Lucht, Wolfgang; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    In many real-world complex systems, the time evolution of the network's structure and the dynamic state of its nodes are closely entangled. Here we study opinion formation and imitation on an adaptive complex network which is dependent on the individual dynamic state of each node and vice versa to model the coevolution of renewable resources with the dynamics of harvesting agents on a social network. The adaptive voter model is coupled to a set of identical logistic growth models and we mainly find that, in such systems, the rate of interactions between nodes as well as the adaptive rewiring probability are crucial parameters for controlling the sustainability of the system's equilibrium state. We derive a macroscopic description of the system in terms of ordinary differential equations which provides a general framework to model and quantify the influence of single node dynamics on the macroscopic state of the network. The thus obtained framework is applicable to many fields of study, such as epidemic spreading, opinion formation, or socioecological modeling. PMID:26066206

  3. Optical detection of the Casimir force between macroscopic objects.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Victor; Petrov, Mikhail; Bryksin, Valeriy; Petter, Juergen; Tschudi, Theo

    2006-11-01

    We report the optical detection of mechanical deformation of a macroscopic object induced by the Casimir force. An adaptive holographic interferometer based on a photorefractive BaTiO3:Co crystal was used to measure periodical nonlinear deformations of a thin pellicle caused by an oscillating Casimir force. A reasonable agreement between the experimental and calculated values of the first and second harmonics of the Casimir force oscillations has been obtained. PMID:17041670

  4. Random-phase approximation as a macroscopic description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutinsky, V. M.; Abrosimov, V. I.

    1990-09-01

    Analysis of nuclear processes in terms of cross-sections averaged over the many microscopic channels, as in the “poor resolution” experiments, corresponds to a macroscopic level of description. In this paper energy-averaged strength function is considered. In order to determine the frequency dependence of this quantity statistically averaged single-particle density is introduced for which equations are obtained analogous to random phase approximation.

  5. Macroscopic phase separation in high-temperature superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hai-Hu

    2000-01-01

    High-temperature superconductivity is recovered by introducing extra holes to the Cu-O planes, which initially are insulating with antiferromagnetism. In this paper I present data to show the macroscopic electronic phase separation that is caused by either mobile doping or electronic instability in the overdoped region. My results clearly demonstrate that the electronic inhomogeneity is probably a general feature of high-temperature superconductors. PMID:11027323

  6. Macroscopic vacuum effects in an inhomogeneous and nonstationary electromagnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Gal'tsov, D.V.; Nikitina, N.S.

    1983-04-01

    Macroscopic effects of vacuum polarization by a strong nonuniform and nonstationary fields, which are kinematically forbidden in the case of a uniform magnetic field, are considered. Calculations are perfomed for the deflection of a light beam in the field of a magnetic dipole, for the production of photon pairs by an inclined rotator, and for doubling and modulation of the frequency in scattering of low-frequency electromagnetic waves by the magnetic field of an inclined rotator.

  7. Optimal asymptotic learning rate: Macroscopic versus microscopic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leen, Todd K.; Schottky, Bernhard; Saad, David

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the asymptotic dynamics of on-line learning for neural networks, and provide an exact solution to the network dynamics at late times under various annealing schedules. The dynamics is solved using two different frameworks: the master equation and order parameter dynamics, which concentrate on microscopic and macroscopic parameters, respectively. The two approaches provide complementary descriptions of the dynamics. Optimal annealing rates and the corresponding prefactors are derived for soft committee machine networks with hidden layers of arbitrary size.

  8. Macroscopic superposition of ultracold atoms with orbital degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-March, M. A.; Carr, L. D.; Dounas-Frazer, D. R.

    2011-04-15

    We introduce higher dimensions into the problem of Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential, taking into account orbital angular momentum. We completely characterize the eigenstates of this system, delineating new regimes via both analytical high-order perturbation theory and numerical exact diagonalization. Among these regimes are mixed Josephson- and Fock-like behavior, crossings in both excited and ground states, and shadows of macroscopic superposition states.

  9. Quantitatively Resolving Multivalent Interactions on Macroscopic Scale Using Force Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qiongzheng; Yang, Haopeng; Wang, Yuhong; Xu, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    Multivalent interactions remain difficult to be characterized and consequently controlled, particularly on a macroscopic scale. Using force-induced remnant magnetization spectroscopy (FIRMS), we have resolved the single-, double-, and triple- biotin—streptavidin interactions, multivalent DNA interactions and CXCL12-CXCR4 interactions, on millimetre-scale surfaces. Our results establish FIRMS as a viable method for systematic resolution and controlled formation of multivalent interactions. PMID:26864087

  10. Optomechanical entanglement of a macroscopic oscillator by quantum feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, E.; Li, Fengzhi; Zhang, Xuefeng; Ma, Yonghong

    2016-07-01

    We propose a scheme to generate the case of macroscopic entanglement in the optomechanical system, which consist of Fabry-Perot cavity and a mechanical oscillator by applying a homodyne-mediated quantum feedback. We explore the effect of feedback on the entanglement in vacuum and coherent state, respectively. The results show that the introduction of quantum feedback can increase the entanglement effectively between the cavity mode and the oscillator mode.

  11. Measurement-Induced Macroscopic Superposition States in Cavity Optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Ulrich B.; Kollath-Bönig, Johann; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas S.; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2016-09-01

    A novel protocol for generating quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states of a bulk mechanical oscillator is proposed, compatible with existing optomechanical devices operating in the bad-cavity limit. By combining a pulsed optomechanical quantum nondemolition (QND) interaction with nonclassical optical resources and measurement-induced feedback, the need for strong single-photon coupling is avoided. We outline a three-pulse sequence of QND interactions encompassing squeezing-enhanced cooling by measurement, state preparation, and tomography.

  12. Anisotropic magnetothermopower in ferromagnetic thin films grown on macroscopic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayathilaka, P. B.; Belyea, D. D.; Fawcett, T. J.; Miller, Casey W.

    2015-05-01

    We report observing the anisotropic magnetothermopower in a variety of ferromagnetic thin films grown on macroscopic substrates. These measurements were enabled by eliminating spurious signals related to the Anomalous Nernst Effect by butt-mounting the sample to the heat source and sink, and appropriate positioning of electrical contacts to avoid unwanted thermal gradients. This protocol enabled detailed measurements of the magnetothermopower in the transverse and longitudinal configurations. This may enable Spin Seebeck Effect studies in the in-plane geometry.

  13. Accelerating multi-scale sheet forming simulations by exploiting local macroscopic quasi-homogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawad, J.; Khairullah, Md; Roose, D.; Van Bael, A.

    2016-08-01

    Multi-scale simulations are computationally expensive if a two-way coupling is employed. In the context of sheet metal forming simulations, a fine-scale representative volume element (RVE) crystal plasticity (CP) model would supply the Finite Element analysis with plastic properties, taking into account the evolution of crystallographic texture and other microstructural features. The main bottleneck is that the fine-scale model must be evaluated at virtually every integration point in the macroscopic FE mesh. We propose to address this issue by exploiting a verifiable assumption that fine-scale state variables of similar RVEs, as well as the derived properties, subjected to similar macroscopic boundary conditions evolve along nearly identical trajectories. Furthermore, the macroscopic field variables primarily responsible for the evolution of fine-scale state variables often feature local quasi-homogeneities. Adjacent integration points in the FE mesh can be then clustered together in the regions where the field responsible for the evolution shows low variance. This way the fine-scale evolution is tracked only at a limited number of material points and the derived plastic properties are propagated to the surrounding integration points subjected to similar deformation. Optimal configurations of the clusters vary in time as the local deformation conditions may change during the forming process, so the clusters must be periodically adapted. We consider two operations on the clusters of integration points: splitting (refinement) and merging (unrefinement). The concept is tested in the Hierarchical Multi-Scale (HMS) framework [1] that computes macroscopic deformations by means of the FEM, whereas the micro-structural evolution at the individual FE integration points is predicted by a CP model. The HMS locally and adaptively approximates homogenized stress responses of the CP model by means of analytical plastic potential or yield criterion function. Our earlier work

  14. The macroscopic polarization effect on thermal conductivity of binary nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, S. K.; Sahoo, B. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2013-10-01

    We theoretically investigate the effect of macroscopic polarization on phonon thermal conductivity of wurtzite (WZ) binary nitrides (AlN, GaN and InN). Our results show that macroscopic polarization contributes to the effective elastic constant of the wurtzite nitrides and modifies the phonon group velocity, Debye frequency, and Debye temperature. Using revised phonon velocity and Debye temperature, different phonon scattering rates and combined scattering rate are calculated as functions of the phonon frequency at room temperature. We estimate phonon thermal conductivity of binary nitrides using these modified parameters. The theoretical analysis shows that up to a certain temperature (different for AlN, GaN, and InN) the polarization effect acts as ill effect and reduces the thermal conductivity. However, after this temperature, the thermal conductivity is significantly enhanced by the polarization effect. The revised thermal conductivity at room temperature is found to be increased by 12% in GaN, 18% in InN and 20% in case of AlN due to macroscopic polarization, i.e., maximum polarization effect is observed in AlN and minimum in GaN. The method we have developed can be used for calculation of thermal energy in the active region of nitride optoelectronic devices.

  15. Entanglement analysis for macroscopic Schrödinger's Cat state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan

    2015-02-01

    Macroscopic entanglement, or say the Schrödinger's Cat state has attracted much attention for a long time. Recently, the first theoretical work of Fröwis and Dür (Phys. Rev. Lett., 106 (2011) 110402) and the first experiment of Lu et al. (Nat. Photon., 8 (2014) 364) both showed that, a new type of Schrödinger's Cat state, the logic-qubit entanglement (concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state) is immune and robust to the noise, and is possible to be applied in future large-scale quantum networks. In this paper, we describe a protocol of entanglement analysis for this kind of Schrödinger's Cat state. Both the Bell-state type of logic-qubit entanglement and multipartite C-GHZ state can be completely distinguished. Based on the entanglement analysis, an arbitrary unknown macroscopic Schrödinger's Cat superposed state can be teleportated and we can also perform the macroscopic entanglement swapping. Our protocol shows that it is possible to realize long-distance quantum communication and large-scale quantum network based on logic-qubit entanglement.

  16. Solvable Quantum Macroscopic Motions and Decoherence Mechanisms in Quantum Mechanics on Nonstandard Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Tsunehiro

    1996-01-01

    Quantum macroscopic motions are investigated in the scheme consisting of N-number of harmonic oscillators in terms of ultra-power representations of nonstandard analysis. Decoherence is derived from the large internal degrees of freedom of macroscopic matters.

  17. Macroscopic order in a nematic liquid crystal: Perturbation by spontaneous director fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Hamasuna, Daichi; Hashim, Rauzah; Kasatani, Atsuhiro; Luckhurst, Geoffrey R; Sugimura, Akihiko; Timimi, Bakir A; Zimmermann, Herbert

    2015-06-01

    The dynamic alignment of the nematic director by near-orthogonal electric and magnetic fields has been investigated. The intermediate states during the relaxation process were found, with the aid of time-resolved deuterium NMR spectroscopy, to be markedly nonuniform. The macroscopic order was perturbed, although the initial and final states of the director appear to be essentially uniform. However, the initial state does have a profound influence on the uniformity of the director in the intermediate states. We have developed a fundamental model based on the effect of spontaneous director fluctuations to explain these unusual NMR observations.

  18. Entanglement of mixed macroscopic superpositions: An entangling-power study

    SciTech Connect

    Paternostro, M.; Kim, M. S.; Jeong, H.

    2006-01-15

    We investigate entanglement properties of a recently introduced class of macroscopic quantum superpositions in two-mode mixed states. One of the tools we use in order to infer the entanglement in this non-Gaussian class of states is the power to entangle a qubit system. Our study reveals features which are hidden in a standard approach to entanglement investigation based on the uncertainty principle of the quadrature variables. We briefly describe the experimental setup corresponding to our theoretical scenario and a suitable modification of the protocol which makes our proposal realizable within the current experimental capabilities.

  19. Violation of smooth observable macroscopic realism in a harmonic oscillator.

    PubMed

    Leshem, Amir; Gat, Omri

    2009-08-14

    We study the emergence of macrorealism in a harmonic oscillator subject to consecutive measurements of a squeezed action. We demonstrate a breakdown of dynamical realism in a wide parameter range that is maximized in a scaling limit of extreme squeezing, where it is based on measurements of smooth observables, implying that macroscopic realism is not valid in the harmonic oscillator. We propose an indirect experimental test of these predictions with entangled photons by demonstrating that local realism in a composite system implies dynamical realism in a subsystem.

  20. Macroscopic Test of the Aharonov-Bohm Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Caprez, Adam; Barwick, Brett; Batelaan, Herman

    2007-11-23

    The Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect is a purely quantum mechanical effect. The original (classified as type-I) AB-phase shift exists in experimental conditions where the electromagnetic fields and forces are zero. It is the absence of forces that makes the AB effect entirely quantum mechanical. Although the AB-phase shift has been demonstrated unambiguously, the absence of forces in type-I AB effects has never been shown. Here, we report the observation of the absence of time delays associated with forces of the magnitude needed to explain the AB-phase shift for a macroscopic system.

  1. Single-atom quantum control of macroscopic mechanical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bariani, F.; Otterbach, J.; Tan, Huatang; Meystre, P.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a hybrid electromechanical system consisting of a pair of charged macroscopic mechanical oscillators coupled to a small ensemble of Rydberg atoms. The resonant dipole-dipole coupling between an internal atomic Rydberg transition and the mechanics allows cooling to its motional ground state with a single atom despite the considerable mass imbalance between the two subsystems. We show that the rich electronic spectrum of Rydberg atoms, combined with their high degree of optical control, paves the way towards implementing various quantum-control protocols for the mechanical oscillators.

  2. A macroscopic non-destructive testing system based on the cantilever-sample contact resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ji; Lin, Lizhi; Zhou, Xilong; Li, Yingwei; Li, Faxin

    2012-12-01

    Detecting the inside or buried defects in materials and structures is always a challenge in the field of nondestructive testing (NDT). In this paper, enlightened by the operation principle of the contact resonance force microscopy or atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM), we proposed a macroscopic NDT system based on contact resonance of the cantilever-sample surface to detect the local stiffness variations in materials or structures. We fabricated a piezoelectric unimorph with the dimension typically of 150 mm × 8 mm × 2 mm to act as a macroscopic cantilever, whose flexural mode vibration was driven by a wideband power amplifier together with a signal generator. The vibration signal of the macroscopic cantilever is detected by a high sensitive strain gauge bonded on the cantilever surface which is much more stable than the laser diode sensor in AFAM, thus making it very suitable for outdoor operations. Scanning is realized by a three-dimensional motorized stage with the Z axis for pressing force setting. The whole system is controlled by a LabVIEW-based homemade software. Like the AFAM, this NDT system can also work in two modes, i.e., the single-frequency mode and the resonance-tracking mode. In the latter mode, the contact stiffness at each pixel of the sample can be obtained by using the measured contact resonance frequency and a beam dynamics model. Testing results of this NDT system on a grid structure with an opaque panel show that in both modes the prefabricated defect beneath the panel can be detected and the grid structures can be clearly "seen," which indicates the validity of this NDT system. The sensitivity of this NDT system was also examined.

  3. Critical behavior of a two-dimensional complex fluid: Macroscopic and mesoscopic views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhuri, Madhumita; Datta, Alokmay

    2016-04-01

    Liquid disordered (Ld) to liquid ordered (Lo) phase transition in myristic acid [MyA, CH3(CH2) 12COOH ] Langmuir monolayers was studied macroscopically as well as mesoscopically to locate the critical point. Macroscopically, isotherms of the monolayer were obtained across the 20 ∘C-38 ∘Ctemperature (T ) range and the critical point was estimated, primarily from the vanishing of the order parameter, at ≈38 ∘C. Mesoscopically, domain morphology in the Ld-Lo coexistence regime was imaged using the technique of Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) as a function of T and the corresponding power spectral density function (PSDF) obtained. Monolayer morphology passed from stable circular domains and a sharp peak in PSDF to stable dendritic domains and a divergence of the correlation length as the critical point was approached from below. The critical point was found to be consistent at ≈38 ∘Cfrom both isotherm and BAM results. In the critical regime the scaling behavior of the transition followed the two-dimensional Ising model. Additionally, we obtained a precritical regime, over a temperature range of ≈8 ∘C below Tc, characterized by fluctuations in the order parameter at the macroscopic scale and at the mesoscopic scale characterized by unstable domains of fingering or dendritic morphology as well as proliferation of a large number of small sized domains, multiple peaks in the power spectra, and a corresponding fluctuation in the peak q values with T . Further, while comparing temperature studies on an ensemble of MyA monolayers with those on a single monolayer, the system was found to be not strictly ergodic in that the ensemble development did not strictly match with the time development in the system. In particular, the critical temperature was found to be lowered in the latter. These results clearly show that the critical behavior in fatty acid monolayer phase transitions have features of both complex and nonequilibrium systems.

  4. Macroscopic descriptions of rarefied gases from the elimination of fast variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellar, Paul J.

    2007-10-01

    The Boltzmann equation describing a dilute monatomic gas is equivalent to an infinite hierarchy of evolution equations for successive moments of the distribution function. The five moments giving the macroscopic mass, momentum, and energy densities are unaffected by collisions between atoms, while all other moments naturally evolve on a fast collisional time scale. We show that the macroscopic equations of Chen, Rao, and Spiegel [Phys. Lett. A 271, 87 (2000)], like the familiar Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, emerge from using a systematic procedure to eliminate the higher moments, leaving closed evolution equations for the five moments unaffected by collisions. The two equation sets differ through their treatment of contributions from the temperature to the momentum and energy fluxes. Using moment equations offers a definitive treatment of the Prandtl number problem using model collision operators, greatly reduces the labor of deriving equations for different collision operators, and clarifies the role of solvability conditions applied to the distribution function. The original Chen-Rao-Spiegel approach offers greatly improved agreement with experiments for the phase speed of ultrasound, but when corrected to match the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations at low frequencies, it then underestimates the phase speed at high frequencies. Our introduction of a translational temperature, as in the kinetic theory of polyatomic gases, motivates a distinction in the energy flux between advection of internal energy and the work done by the pressure. Exploiting this distinction yields macroscopic equations that offer further improvement in agreement with experimental data, and arise more naturally as an approximation to the infinite hierarchy of evolution equations for moments.

  5. Investigating macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic connections in a college-level general chemistry laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thadison, Felicia Culver

    Explanations of chemical phenomena rely on understanding the behavior of submicroscopic particles. Because this level is "invisible," it is described using symbols such as models, diagrams and equations. For this reason, students often view chemistry as a "difficult" subject. The laboratory offers a unique opportunity for the students to experience chemistry macroscopically as well as symbolically. The purpose of this investigation was to determine how chemistry lab students explained chemical phenomenon on the macroscopic, submicroscopic, and representational/symbolic level. The participants were undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory level general chemistry lab course. Students' background information (gender, the number of previous chemistry courses), scores on final exams, and final average for the course were collected. Johnstone's triangle of representation guided the design and implementation of this study. A semi-structured interview was also conducted to bring out student explanations. The questionnaires required students to draw a molecule of water, complete acid base reaction equations, represent, submicroscopically, the four stages of an acid-base titration, and provide definitions of various terms. Students were able represent the submicroscopic level of water. Students were not able to represent the submicroscopic level of the reaction between an acid and a base. Students were able to represent the macroscopic level of an acid base reaction. Students were able to symbolically represent the reaction of an acid and a base. These findings indicate that students can use all three levels of chemical representation. However, students showed an inability to connect the levels in relation to acid-base chemistry. There was no relationship between a student's ability to use the levels and his or her final score in the course.

  6. Micro/macroscopic fluid flow in open cell fibrous structures and porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamayol, Ali

    Fibrous porous materials are involved in a wide range of applications including composite fabrication, filtration, compact heat exchangers, fuel cell technology, and tissue engineering to name a few. Fibrous structures, such as metalfoams, have unique characteristics such as low weight, high porosity, high mechanical strength, and high surface to volume ratio. More importantly, in many applications the fibrous microstructures can be tailored to meet a range of requirements. Therefore, fibrous materials have the potential to be used in emerging sustainable energy conversion applications. The first step for analyzing transport phenomena in porous materials is to determine the micro/macroscopic flow-field inside the medium. In applications where the porous media is confined in a channel, the system performance is tightly related to the flow properties of the porous medium and its interaction with the channel walls, i.e., macroscopic velocity distribution. Therefore, the focus of the study has been on: developing new mechanistic model(s) for determining permeability and inertial coefficient of fibrous porous materials; investigating the effects of microstructural and mechanical parameters such as porosity, fiber orientation, mechanical compression, and fiber distribution on the flow properties and pressure drop of fibrous structures; determining the macroscopic flow-field in confined porous media where the porous structure fills the channel cross-section totally or partially. A systematic approach has been followed to study different aspects of the flow through fibrous materials. The complex microstructure of real materials has been modelled using unit cells that have been assumed to be repeated throughout the media. Implementing various exact and approximate analytical techniques such as integral technique, point matching, blending rules, and scale analysis the flow properties of such media have been modelled; the targeted properties include permeability and inertial

  7. Nonlinear photomechanics of nematic networks: upscaling microscopic behaviour to macroscopic deformation

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hayoung; Choi, Joonmyung; Yun, Jung-Hoon; Cho, Maenghyo

    2016-01-01

    A liquid crystal network whose chromophores are functionalized by photochromic dye exhibits light-induced mechanical behaviour. As a result, the micro-scaled thermotropic traits of the network and the macroscopic phase behaviour are both influenced as light alternates the shape of the dyes. In this paper, we present an analysis of this photomechanical behaviour based on the proposed multiscale framework, which incorporates the molecular details of microstate evolution into a continuum-based understanding. The effects of trans-to-cis photoisomerization driven by actinic light irradiation are first examined using molecular dynamics simulations, and are compared against the predictions of the classical dilution model; this reveals certain characteristics of mesogenic interaction upon isomerization, followed by changes in the polymeric structure. We then upscale the thermotropic phase-related information with the aid of a nonlinear finite element analysis; macroscopic deflection with respect to the wide ranges of temperature and actinic light intensity are thereby examined, which reveals that the classical model underestimates the true deformation. This work therefore provides measures for analysing photomechanics in general by bridging the gap between the micro- and macro-scales. PMID:26828417

  8. Nonlinear photomechanics of nematic networks: upscaling microscopic behaviour to macroscopic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hayoung; Choi, Joonmyung; Yun, Jung-Hoon; Cho, Maenghyo

    2016-02-01

    A liquid crystal network whose chromophores are functionalized by photochromic dye exhibits light-induced mechanical behaviour. As a result, the micro-scaled thermotropic traits of the network and the macroscopic phase behaviour are both influenced as light alternates the shape of the dyes. In this paper, we present an analysis of this photomechanical behaviour based on the proposed multiscale framework, which incorporates the molecular details of microstate evolution into a continuum-based understanding. The effects of trans-to-cis photoisomerization driven by actinic light irradiation are first examined using molecular dynamics simulations, and are compared against the predictions of the classical dilution model; this reveals certain characteristics of mesogenic interaction upon isomerization, followed by changes in the polymeric structure. We then upscale the thermotropic phase-related information with the aid of a nonlinear finite element analysis; macroscopic deflection with respect to the wide ranges of temperature and actinic light intensity are thereby examined, which reveals that the classical model underestimates the true deformation. This work therefore provides measures for analysing photomechanics in general by bridging the gap between the micro- and macro-scales.

  9. Macroscopic electrical field distribution and field-induced surface stresses of needle-shaped field emitters.

    PubMed

    Moy, Charles; Ranzi, Gianluca; Petersen, T C; Ringer, Simon

    2011-05-01

    One major concern since the development of the field ion microscope is the mechanical strength of the specimens. The macroscopic shape of the imaging tip greatly influences field-induced stresses and there is merit in further study of this phenomenon from a classical perspective. Understanding the geometrical, as opposed to localized electronic, factors that affect the stress might improve the quality and success rate of atom probe experiments. This study uses macroscopic electrostatic principles and finite element modelling to investigate field-induced stresses in relation to the shape of the tip. Three two-dimensional idealized models are considered, namely hyperbolic, parabolic and sphere-on-orthogonal-cone; the shapes of which are compared to experimental tips prepared by electro-polishing. Three dimensional morphologies of both a nano-porous and single-crystal aluminium tip are measured using electron tomography to quantitatively test the assumption of cylindrical symmetry for electro-polished tips. The porous tip was prepared and studied to demonstrate a fragile specimen for which such finite element studies could determine potential mechanical failure, prior to any exhaustive atom probe investigation. PMID:21664539

  10. Adhesion of hydrogels under water by hydrogen bonding: from molecular interactions to macroscopic adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creton, Costantino

    2012-02-01

    Hydrogels are an essential part of living organisms and are widely used in biotechnologies, health care and food science. Although swelling properties, cell adhesion on gel surfaces and gel elasticity have attracted much interest, macroscopic adhesion of hydrogels on solid surfaces in aqueous environment is much less well understood. We studied systematically and in aqueous environment, the reversible adhesion by hydrogen bonding of macroscopic model hydrogels of polydimethylacrylamide (PDMA) or of polyacrylamide (PAAm) on solid surfaces functionalized with polyacrylic acid (PAA) polymer brushes. The hydrogels were synthesized by free radical polymerization and the brushes were prepared by grafting polytertbutyl acrylate chains and converting them by pyrolisis into polyacrylic acid. A new adhesion tester based on the flat punch geometry was designed and used to control the contact area, contact time, contact pressure and debonding velocity of the gels from the surface while the samples were fully immersed in water. The adhesion tests were performed at different pH and temperatures and the modulus of the gel and grafting density and molecular weight of the brushes was varied. Macroscopic adhesion results were compared with phase diagrams in dilute solution to detect molecular interactions. While the PDMA/PAA pair behaved very similarly in solution and in macroscopic adhesion tests, the PAAm/PAA pair showed an unexpectedly high adhesion level relatively to its complexation ability in dilute solution. Surprisingly, time dependent experiments showed that the kinetics of H-bond formation and breakup at interfaces was very slow resulting in adhesion energies which were very dependent on contact time up to one hour of contact. At the molecular level, neutron reflectivity showed that the equilibrium brush conformation when in contact with the gels was more extended at pH2 (H-bonds activated) than at pH9 (H-bonds deactivated) and that a certain applied pressure was

  11. Microstructural evolution and macroscopic shrinkage in the presence of density gradients and agglomeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Peizhen

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) can characterize internal density gradients. An in-situ laser dilatometry has been constructed to track dimensional change at different positions of a sample during binder removal and sintering. This combination of tools not only allows us to better understand how microscopic change affects macroscopic dimensions, but also provides guidance for a variety of ceramic processes. Non-uniform agglomerate packing and deformation provide density gradients which drive binder migration during binder removal. Simultaneously, density undergoes a slight decrease accompanied by a 1.0% loss in dimensional tolerance. This and CT difference images suggest that capillary forces generated during binder melting can change the density distribution. During sintering, nonuniformities present in the green state persist into the fired state and become exaggerated. Regions of different initial density can occupy different stages sintering. At ˜88% sintered density, CT clearly showed that open porosity follows the distribution of low density areas. Mercury porosimetry detected three distinct levels of porosity. Microstructural examination correlated the porosity level with the coordination of (i) two to three or (ii) multiple grains around pores. Microstructural packing controls both the observed macroscopic expansion at T ≤ 1000°C and the onset of shrinkage. Neck formation initiates during expansion and not exclusively during shrinkage. Inter- and intra-agglomerate expansion/shrinkage proceed simultaneously but the effective 'transmission' of particle-level behavior to the macroscopic level appears to be controlled by the initial agglomerate bonding and internal agglomerate densities. Discrete element modeling provides corroborating evidence regarding the importance of compact continuity. Following the expansion-shrinkage transition, the higher the zone density the faster the initial shrinkage. The 25% RH sample shrank more rapidly than the same zone in

  12. Macroscopic Subdivision of Silica Aerogel Collectors for Sample Return Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, H A; Bradley, J P

    2005-09-14

    Silica aerogel collector tiles have been employed for the collection of particles in low Earth orbit and, more recently, for the capture of cometary particles by NASA's Stardust mission. Reliable, reproducible methods for cutting these and future collector tiles from sample return missions are necessary to maximize the science output from the extremely valuable embedded particles. We present a means of macroscopic subdivision of collector tiles by generating large-scale cuts over several centimeters in silica aerogel with almost no material loss. The cut surfaces are smooth and optically clear allowing visual location of particles for analysis and extraction. This capability is complementary to the smaller-scale cutting capabilities previously described [Westphal (2004), Ishii (2005a, 2005b)] for removing individual impacts and particulate debris in tiny aerogel extractions. Macroscopic cuts enable division and storage or distribution of portions of aerogel tiles for immediate analysis of samples by certain techniques in situ or further extraction of samples suited for other methods of analysis.

  13. Inverted rank distributions: Macroscopic statistics, universality classes, and critical exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-01-01

    An inverted rank distribution is an infinite sequence of positive sizes ordered in a monotone increasing fashion. Interlacing together Lorenzian and oligarchic asymptotic analyses, we establish a macroscopic classification of inverted rank distributions into five “socioeconomic” universality classes: communism, socialism, criticality, feudalism, and absolute monarchy. We further establish that: (i) communism and socialism are analogous to a “disordered phase”, feudalism and absolute monarchy are analogous to an “ordered phase”, and criticality is the “phase transition” between order and disorder; (ii) the universality classes are characterized by two critical exponents, one governing the ordered phase, and the other governing the disordered phase; (iii) communism, criticality, and absolute monarchy are characterized by sharp exponent values, and are inherently deterministic; (iv) socialism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by continuous power-law statistics; (v) feudalism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by discrete exponential statistics. The results presented in this paper yield a universal macroscopic socioeconophysical perspective of inverted rank distributions.

  14. Friction in macroscopic thermodynamics: A kinetic point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizarro, João P. S.

    2015-12-01

    To provide a solid support to a macroscopic framework developed to explicitly account for friction in thermodynamics, a kinetic description of frictional dissipation is developed. Using either a dissipative Fokker-Planck equation for Brownian motion or a Boltzmann equation with a friction-force term added, it is shown that both approaches lead to the emergence of the macroscopic thermodynamic relations that state the first and second laws with friction. The analysis is directly applied to the problem of determining the minimum amount of heating generated by memory erasure, known in computer science as Landauer's bound, and leads to a better understanding of the energetics behind the latter. A generalisation of Boltzmann's H theorem to include friction explicitly is also recovered, and the thermodynamics of granular rotators acted by a frictional torque and of radio-frequency (RF) current drive of fusion plasmas, in which collisional drag is present, are addressed as well. Various physics results are revisited employing the first and second laws with friction that have been derived from the appropriate dissipative kinetic equations, lower bounds for entropy production rates being derived both for granular rotators and for RF current drive.

  15. Catalytic Growth of Macroscopic Carbon Nanofibers Bodies with Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, N.; Muhammad, I. S.; Hamid, S. B. Abd.; Rinaldi, A.; Su, D. S.; Schlogl, R.

    2009-06-01

    Carbon-carbon composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofibers have been synthesized by growing Carbon nanofiber (CNF) on Palm shell-based Activated carbon (AC) with Ni catalyst. The composites are in an agglomerated shape due to the entanglement of the defective CNF between the AC particles forming a macroscopic body. The macroscopic size will allow the composite to be used as a stabile catalyst support and liquid adsorbent. The preparation of CNT/AC nanocarbon was initiated by pre-treating the activated carbon with nitric acid, followed by impregnation of 1 wt% loading of nickel (II) nitrate solutions in acetone. The catalyst precursor was calcined and reduced at 300 deg. C for an hour in each step. The catalytic growth of nanocarbon in C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/H{sub 2} was carried out at temperature of 550 deg. C for 2 hrs with different rotating angle in the fluidization system. SEM and N{sub 2} isotherms show the level of agglomeration which is a function of growth density and fluidization of the system. The effect of fluidization by rotating the reactor during growth with different speed give a significant impact on the agglomeration of the final CNF/AC composite and thus the amount of CNFs produced. The macrostructure body produced in this work of CNF/AC composite will have advantages in the adsorbent and catalyst support application, due to the mechanical and chemical properties of the material.

  16. Duality in entanglement of macroscopic states of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Su-Yong; Lee, Chang-Woo; Kurzyński, Paweł; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Kim, Jaewan

    2016-08-01

    We investigate duality in entanglement of a bipartite multiphoton system generated from a coherent state of light. The system can exhibit polarization entanglement if the two parts are distinguished by their parity, or parity entanglement if the parts are distinguished by polarization. It was shown in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 140404 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.140404 that this phenomenon can be exploited as a method to test indistinguishability of two particles and it was conjectured that one can also test indistinguishability of macroscopic systems. We propose a setup to test this conjecture. Contrary to the previous studies using two-particle interference effect as in the Hong-Ou- Mandel setup, our setup neither assumes that the tested state is composed of single particles nor requires that the total number of particles be fixed. Consequently, the notion of entanglement duality is shown to be compatible with a broader class of physical systems. Moreover, by observing duality in entanglement in the above system one can confirm that macroscopic systems exhibit quantum behavior. As a practical side, entanglement duality is a useful concept that enables adaptive conversion of entanglement of one degree of freedom (DOF) to that of another DOF according to varying quantum protocols.

  17. Traffic dynamics: Its impact on the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoop, Victor L.; van Lint, Hans; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.

    2015-11-01

    Literature shows that-under specific conditions-the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (MFD) describes a crisp relationship between the average flow (production) and the average density in an entire network. The limiting condition is that traffic conditions must be homogeneous over the whole network. Recent works describe hysteresis effects: systematic deviations from the MFD as a result of loading and unloading. This article proposes a two dimensional generalization of the MFD, the so-called Generalized Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (GMFD), which relates the average flow to both the average density and the (spatial) inhomogeneity of density. The most important contribution is that we show this is a continuous function, of which the MFD is a projection. Using the GMFD, we can describe the mentioned hysteresis patterns in the MFD. The underlying traffic phenomenon explaining the two dimensional surface described by the GMFD is that congestion concentrates (and subsequently spreads out) around the bottlenecks that oversaturate first. We call this the nucleation effect. Due to this effect, the network flow is not constant for a fixed number of vehicles as predicted by the MFD, but decreases due to local queueing and spill back processes around the congestion "nuclei". During this build up of congestion, the production hence decreases, which gives the hysteresis effects.

  18. Macroscopic Biological Characteristics of Individualized Therapy in Chinese Mongolian Osteopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namula, Zhao; Mei, Wang; Li, Xue-en

    Objective: Chinese Mongolian osteopathy has been passed down from ancient times and includes unique practices and favorable efficacy. In this study, we investigate the macroscopic biological characteristics of individualized Chinese Mongolian osteopathy, in order to provide new principle and methods for the treatment of bone fracture. Method: With a view to provide a vital link between nature and humans, the four stages of Chinese Mongolian osteopathy focus on the unity of the mind and body, the limbs and body organs, the body and its functions, and humans and nature. Results: We discuss the merits of individualized osteopathy in terms of the underlying concepts, and evaluate the approaches and principles of traditional medicine, as well as biomechanics. Conclusions: Individualized Mongolian osteopathy targets macroscopic biological components including dynamic reduction, natural fixation, and functional healing. Chinese Mongolian osteopathy is a natural, ecological and non-invasive osteopathy that values the link between nature and humans, including the unity of mind and body. The biological components not only serve as a foundation for Chinese Mongolian osteopathy but are also important for the future development of modern osteopathy, focusing on individualization, actualization and integration.

  19. How does Planck’s constant influence the macroscopic world?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pao-Keng

    2016-09-01

    In physics, Planck’s constant is a fundamental physical constant accounting for the energy-quantization phenomenon in the microscopic world. The value of Planck’s constant also determines in which length scale the quantum phenomenon will become conspicuous. Some students think that if Planck’s constant were to have a larger value than it has now, the quantum effect would only become observable in a world with a larger size, whereas the macroscopic world might remain almost unchanged. After reasoning from some basic physical principles and theories, we found that doubling Planck’s constant might result in a radical change on the geometric sizes and apparent colors of macroscopic objects, the solar spectrum and luminosity, the climate and gravity on Earth, as well as energy conversion between light and materials such as the efficiency of solar cells and light-emitting diodes. From the discussions in this paper, students can appreciate how Planck’s constant affects various aspects of the world in which we are living now.

  20. Macroscopic Phase Separation, Modulated Phases, and Microemulsions: A Unified Picture of Rafts

    PubMed Central

    Shlomovitz, Roie; Maibaum, Lutz; Schick, M.

    2014-01-01

    We simulate a simple phenomenological model describing phase behavior in a multicomponent membrane, a model capable of producing macroscopic phase separation, modulated phases, and microemulsions, all of which have been discussed in terms of raft phenomena. We show that one effect of thermal fluctuations on the mean-field phase diagram is that it permits a direct transition between either one of the coexisting liquid phases to a microemulsion. This implies that one system exhibiting phase separation can be related to a similar system exhibiting the heterogeneities characteristic of a microemulsion. The two systems could differ in their average membrane composition or in the relative compositions of their exoplasmic and cytoplasmic leaves. The model provides a unified description of these raft-associated phenomena. PMID:24806930

  1. Macroscopic Thermal Energy Balance on Montane Valley Aquifers and Groundwater Recharge Source Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trask, J. C.; Fogg, G. E.

    2010-12-01

    Several recent publications have highlighted the need to improve definition of groundwater flow patterns in montane regions, presenting case studies with several field investigative approaches. Determination of the depth of upland bedrock groundwater circulation and identification of valley aquifer recharge sources in montane areas is needed for improved characterization of montane groundwater flow patterns and for aquifer source protection planning. In most upland bedrock regions, wells and boreholes are scarce, adding to the challenges inherent to investigating groundwater flow in fractured rock systems. Approaches using natural environmental tracers have previously been shown to be effective in quantifying subsurface recharge into valley aquifers from groundwater flow within adjoining mountain-front and mountain-block areas. Thermal tracing of montane groundwater flow is easy and inexpensive relative to other environmental tracer and geophysical techniques, and can complement other approaches (e.g. Manning and Solomon, 2005). We present a heat flow tracer approach to identification of montane valley aquifer recharge sources. A novel application of a macroscopic thermal energy balance is introduced and used in recharge source analysis for two mountain-front bounding basin-fill aquifers located in the Sierra Nevada, USA. We show that robust upper and lower bounds on total heat flow and sources of recharge into montane valley aquifers may be determined without numerical modeling by using a macroscopic thermal energy balance. Several factors tend to enhance focusing of geothermal conductive heat flow from depth toward montane valley margins. Analytic bracketing techniques, applicable to domains with irregular boundary geometry and non-uniform thermal boundary conditions, are used together with thermal data to obtain quantitative bounds on conductive heat flow across aquifer domain boundaries. Thermal data required include: (i) a rough estimate of regional geothermal

  2. Cholesterics of colloidal helices: Predicting the macroscopic pitch from the particle shape and thermodynamic state

    SciTech Connect

    Dussi, Simone Dijkstra, Marjolein; Belli, Simone; Roij, René van

    2015-02-21

    Building a general theoretical framework to describe the microscopic origin of macroscopic chirality in (colloidal) liquid crystals is a long-standing challenge. Here, we combine classical density functional theory with Monte Carlo calculations of virial-type coefficients to obtain the equilibrium cholesteric pitch as a function of thermodynamic state and microscopic details. Applying the theory to hard helices, we observe both right- and left-handed cholesteric phases that depend on a subtle combination of particle geometry and system density. In particular, we find that entropy alone can even lead to a (double) inversion in the cholesteric sense of twist upon changing the packing fraction. We show how the competition between single-particle properties (shape) and thermodynamics (local alignment) dictates the macroscopic chiral behavior. Moreover, by expanding our free-energy functional, we are able to assess, quantitatively, Straley’s theory of weak chirality, which is used in several earlier studies. Furthermore, by extending our theory to different lyotropic and thermotropic liquid-crystal models, we analyze the effect of an additional soft interaction on the chiral behavior of the helices. Finally, we provide some guidelines for the description of more complex chiral phases, like twist-bend nematics. Our results provide new insights into the role of entropy in the microscopic origin of this state of matter.

  3. Analytical methods to determine the effective mesoscopic and macroscopic elastic properties of cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Parnell, William J; Vu, M B; Grimal, Q; Naili, S

    2012-07-01

    We compare theoretical predictions of the effective elastic moduli of cortical bone at both the meso- and macroscales. We consider the efficacy of three alternative approaches: the method of asymptotic homogenization, the Mori-Tanaka scheme and the Hashin-Rosen bounds. The methods concur for specific engineering moduli such as the axial Young's modulus but can vary for others. In a past study, the effect of porosity alone on mesoscopic properties of cortical bone was considered, taking the matrix to be isotropic. Here, we consider the additional influence of the transverse isotropy of the matrix. We make the point that micromechanical approaches can be used in two alternative ways to predict either the macroscopic (size of cortical bone sample) or mesoscopic (in between micro- and macroscales) effective moduli, depending upon the choice of representative volume element size. It is widely accepted that the mesoscale behaviour is an important aspect of the mechanical behaviour of bone but models incorporating its effect have started to appear only relatively recently. Before this only macroscopic behaviour was addressed. Comparisons are drawn with experimental data and simulations from the literature for macroscale predictions with particularly good agreement in the case of dry bone. Finally, we show how predictions of the effective mesoscopic elastic moduli can be made which retain dependence on the well-known porosity gradient across the thickness of cortical bone.

  4. Cholesterics of colloidal helices: predicting the macroscopic pitch from the particle shape and thermodynamic state.

    PubMed

    Dussi, Simone; Belli, Simone; van Roij, René; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2015-02-21

    Building a general theoretical framework to describe the microscopic origin of macroscopic chirality in (colloidal) liquid crystals is a long-standing challenge. Here, we combine classical density functional theory with Monte Carlo calculations of virial-type coefficients to obtain the equilibrium cholesteric pitch as a function of thermodynamic state and microscopic details. Applying the theory to hard helices, we observe both right- and left-handed cholesteric phases that depend on a subtle combination of particle geometry and system density. In particular, we find that entropy alone can even lead to a (double) inversion in the cholesteric sense of twist upon changing the packing fraction. We show how the competition between single-particle properties (shape) and thermodynamics (local alignment) dictates the macroscopic chiral behavior. Moreover, by expanding our free-energy functional, we are able to assess, quantitatively, Straley's theory of weak chirality, which is used in several earlier studies. Furthermore, by extending our theory to different lyotropic and thermotropic liquid-crystal models, we analyze the effect of an additional soft interaction on the chiral behavior of the helices. Finally, we provide some guidelines for the description of more complex chiral phases, like twist-bend nematics. Our results provide new insights into the role of entropy in the microscopic origin of this state of matter.

  5. Analytical methods to determine the effective mesoscopic and macroscopic elastic properties of cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Parnell, William J; Vu, M B; Grimal, Q; Naili, S

    2012-07-01

    We compare theoretical predictions of the effective elastic moduli of cortical bone at both the meso- and macroscales. We consider the efficacy of three alternative approaches: the method of asymptotic homogenization, the Mori-Tanaka scheme and the Hashin-Rosen bounds. The methods concur for specific engineering moduli such as the axial Young's modulus but can vary for others. In a past study, the effect of porosity alone on mesoscopic properties of cortical bone was considered, taking the matrix to be isotropic. Here, we consider the additional influence of the transverse isotropy of the matrix. We make the point that micromechanical approaches can be used in two alternative ways to predict either the macroscopic (size of cortical bone sample) or mesoscopic (in between micro- and macroscales) effective moduli, depending upon the choice of representative volume element size. It is widely accepted that the mesoscale behaviour is an important aspect of the mechanical behaviour of bone but models incorporating its effect have started to appear only relatively recently. Before this only macroscopic behaviour was addressed. Comparisons are drawn with experimental data and simulations from the literature for macroscale predictions with particularly good agreement in the case of dry bone. Finally, we show how predictions of the effective mesoscopic elastic moduli can be made which retain dependence on the well-known porosity gradient across the thickness of cortical bone. PMID:22109098

  6. Characterization of the Branching Structure of the Lung from ''Macroscopic'' Pressure-Volume Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, A.; Alencar, A. M.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Hantos, Z.; Stanley, H. E.; Suki, B.

    2001-07-30

    We analyze the problem of fluid flow in a bifurcating structure containing random blockages that can be removed by fluid pressure. We introduce an asymmetric tree model and find that the predicted pressure-volume relation is connected to the distribution {Pi}(n) of the generation number n of the tree's terminal segments. We use this relation to explore the branching structure of the lung by analyzing experimental pressure-volume data from dog lungs. The {Pi}(n) extracted from the data using the model agrees well with experimental data on the branching structure. We can thus obtain information about the asymmetric structure of the lung from macroscopic, noninvasive pressure-volume measurements.

  7. Celestial bodies macroscopic movement is due to the radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongquan, Han

    2016-03-01

    The star is radiate, also as the planet. In fact, all the real objects are radiate, but the strength of the radiation is different. Radiation will reduce the quality of the object, but time is not long enough to reduce the mass of the subject, so it is difficult for us to observe. Due to the large object lifecycle, to study the changing rule of the object, we must consider the radiation on the quality of the celestial bodies, and the outer space radiate particles' motion, also consider objects interact with objects of radiation. The reason Celestial bodies moves is that the radiation of those Celestial bodies Interact with each other, Celestial bodies macroscopic movement is due to the radiation. The earth's rotation and revolution is a measure of the survive ability. Author: hanyongquan TEL: 15611860790

  8. Imparting large macroscopic changes with small changes in polypeptide composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, Michelle; McKinley, Gareth; Olsen, Bradley

    Block copolymers composed of polypeptides provide an excellent platform for exploring the underlying physics surrounding macroscopic associative network behavior. Previous work in our group has elucidated a difference in the mechanical properties of two nearly identical elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) endblocks. In poly(ELP)s, this substitution is known to result in tighter beta turns. These beta turns exhibit slower responses to changes in temperature within the material. Under shear, the modulus for the alanine-containing ELP triblock is almost three times higher than the glycine-containing ELP. Additionally, preliminary tensile tests show higher stress and strain at break for the alanine ELP triblock. We are able to explain the reasons for this behavior using a variety of spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Small angle neutron and x-ray scattering indicate differences in ordering between the alanine and glycine containing ELP materials both in shear and in stagnant flow.

  9. On the approach to thermal equilibrium of macroscopic quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Tumulka, Roderich

    2011-03-24

    In joint work with J. L. Lebowitz, C. Mastrodonato, and N. Zanghi[2, 3, 4], we considered an isolated, macroscopic quantum system. Let H be a micro-canonical 'energy shell', i.e., a subspace of the system's Hilbert space spanned by the (finitely) many energy eigenstates with energies between E and E+{delta}E. The thermal equilibrium macro-state at energy E corresponds to a subspace H{sub eq} of H such that dimHeq/dimH is close to 1. We say that a system with state vector {psi}{epsilon}H is in thermal equilibrium if {psi} is 'close' to H{sub eq}. We argue that for 'typical' Hamiltonians, all initial state vectors {psi}{sub 0} evolve in such a way that {psi}{sub t} is in thermal equilibrium for most times t. This is closely related to von Neumann's quantum ergodic theorem of 1929.

  10. Macroscopic and direct light propulsion of bulk graphene material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tengfei; Chang, Huicong; Wu, Yingpeng; Xiao, Peishuang; Yi, Ningbo; Lu, Yanhong; Ma, Yanfeng; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Kai; Yan, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Zhi-Bo; Tian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-07-01

    It has been a great challenge to achieve the direct light manipulation of matter on a bulk scale. In this work the direct light propulsion of matter is observed on a macroscopic scale using a bulk graphene-based material. The unique structure and properties of graphene, and the novel morphology of the bulk three-dimensional linked graphene material make it capable not only of absorbing light at various wavelengths but also of emitting energetic electrons efficiently enough to drive the bulk material, following Newtonian mechanics. Thus, the unique photonic and electronic properties of individual graphene sheets are manifested in the response of the bulk state. These results offer an exciting opportunity to bring about bulk-scale light manipulation with the potential to realize long-sought applications in areas such as the solar sail and space transportation driven directly by sunlight.

  11. Macroscopic quantum tunnelling in spin filter ferromagnetic Josephson junctions.

    PubMed

    Massarotti, D; Pal, A; Rotoli, G; Longobardi, L; Blamire, M G; Tafuri, F

    2015-01-01

    The interfacial coupling of two materials with different ordered phases, such as a superconductor (S) and a ferromagnet (F), is driving new fundamental physics and innovative applications. For example, the creation of spin-filter Josephson junctions and the demonstration of triplet supercurrents have suggested the potential of a dissipationless version of spintronics based on unconventional superconductivity. Here we demonstrate evidence for active quantum applications of S-F-S junctions, through the observation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling in Josephson junctions with GdN ferromagnetic insulator barriers. We show a clear transition from thermal to quantum regime at a crossover temperature of about 100 mK at zero magnetic field in junctions, which present clear signatures of unconventional superconductivity. Following previous demonstration of passive S-F-S phase shifters in a phase qubit, our result paves the way to the active use of spin filter Josephson systems in quantum hybrid circuits. PMID:26054495

  12. Macroscopic chirality of a liquid crystal from nonchiral molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Jakli, A.; Nair, G. G.; Lee, C. K.; Sun, R.; Chien, L. C.

    2001-06-01

    The transfer of chirality from nonchiral polymer networks to the racemic B2 phase of nonchiral banana-shaped molecules is demonstrated. This corresponds to the transfer of chirality from an achiral material to another achiral material. There are two levels of chirality transfers. (a) On a microscopic level the presence of a polymer network (chiral or nonchiral) favors a chiral state over a thermodynamically stable racemic state due to the inversion symmetry breaking at the polymer-liquid crystal interfaces. (b) A macroscopically chiral (enantimerically enriched) sample can be produced if the polymer network has a helical structure, and/or contains chemically chiral groups. The chirality transfer can be locally suppressed by exposing the liquid crystal to a strong electric field treatment.

  13. Macroscopic quantum tunnelling in spin filter ferromagnetic Josephson junctions

    PubMed Central

    Massarotti, D.; Pal, A.; Rotoli, G.; Longobardi, L.; Blamire, M. G.; Tafuri, F.

    2015-01-01

    The interfacial coupling of two materials with different ordered phases, such as a superconductor (S) and a ferromagnet (F), is driving new fundamental physics and innovative applications. For example, the creation of spin-filter Josephson junctions and the demonstration of triplet supercurrents have suggested the potential of a dissipationless version of spintronics based on unconventional superconductivity. Here we demonstrate evidence for active quantum applications of S-F-S junctions, through the observation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling in Josephson junctions with GdN ferromagnetic insulator barriers. We show a clear transition from thermal to quantum regime at a crossover temperature of about 100 mK at zero magnetic field in junctions, which present clear signatures of unconventional superconductivity. Following previous demonstration of passive S-F-S phase shifters in a phase qubit, our result paves the way to the active use of spin filter Josephson systems in quantum hybrid circuits. PMID:26054495

  14. Macroscopic quantum entanglement of a Kondo cloud at finite temperature.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-S B; Park, Jinhong; Sim, H-S

    2015-02-01

    We propose a variational approach for computing the macroscopic entanglement in a many-body mixed state, based on entanglement witness operators, and compute the entanglement of formation (EoF), a mixed-state generalization of the entanglement entropy, in single- and two-channel Kondo systems at finite temperature. The thermal suppression of the EoF obeys power-law scaling at low temperature. The scaling exponent is halved from the single- to the two-channel system, which is attributed, using a bosonization method, to the non-Fermi liquid behavior of a Majorana fermion, a "half" of a complex fermion, emerging in the two-channel system. Moreover, the EoF characterizes the size and power-law tail of the Kondo screening cloud of the single-channel system.

  15. Macroscopic self-reorientation of interacting two-dimensional crystals

    PubMed Central

    Woods, C. R.; Withers, F.; Zhu, M. J.; Cao, Y.; Yu, G.; Kozikov, A.; Ben Shalom, M.; Morozov, S. V.; van Wijk, M. M.; Fasolino, A.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Geim, A. K.; Mishchenko, A.; Novoselov, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems, which can be moved or rotated with nanometre precision, already find applications in such fields as radio-frequency electronics, micro-attenuators, sensors and many others. Especially interesting are those which allow fine control over the motion on the atomic scale because of self-alignment mechanisms and forces acting on the atomic level. Such machines can produce well-controlled movements as a reaction to small changes of the external parameters. Here we demonstrate that, for the system of graphene on hexagonal boron nitride, the interplay between the van der Waals and elastic energies results in graphene mechanically self-rotating towards the hexagonal boron nitride crystallographic directions. Such rotation is macroscopic (for graphene flakes of tens of micrometres the tangential movement can be on hundreds of nanometres) and can be used for reproducible manufacturing of aligned van der Waals heterostructures. PMID:26960435

  16. Photoacoustic brain imaging: from microscopic to macroscopic scales

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Junjie; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Human brain mapping has become one of the most exciting contemporary research areas, with major breakthroughs expected in the coming decades. Modern brain imaging techniques have allowed neuroscientists to gather a wealth of anatomic and functional information about the brain. Among these techniques, by virtue of its rich optical absorption contrast, high spatial and temporal resolutions, and deep penetration, photoacoustic tomography (PAT) has attracted more and more attention, and is playing an increasingly important role in brain studies. In particular, PAT complements other brain imaging modalities by providing high-resolution functional and metabolic imaging. More importantly, PAT’s unique scalability enables scrutinizing the brain at both microscopic and macroscopic scales, using the same imaging contrast. In this review, we present the state-of-the-art PAT techniques for brain imaging, summarize representative neuroscience applications, outline the technical challenges in translating PAT to human brain imaging, and envision potential technological deliverables. PMID:25401121

  17. Macroscopic self-reorientation of interacting two-dimensional crystals.

    PubMed

    Woods, C R; Withers, F; Zhu, M J; Cao, Y; Yu, G; Kozikov, A; Ben Shalom, M; Morozov, S V; van Wijk, M M; Fasolino, A; Katsnelson, M I; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Geim, A K; Mishchenko, A; Novoselov, K S

    2016-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems, which can be moved or rotated with nanometre precision, already find applications in such fields as radio-frequency electronics, micro-attenuators, sensors and many others. Especially interesting are those which allow fine control over the motion on the atomic scale because of self-alignment mechanisms and forces acting on the atomic level. Such machines can produce well-controlled movements as a reaction to small changes of the external parameters. Here we demonstrate that, for the system of graphene on hexagonal boron nitride, the interplay between the van der Waals and elastic energies results in graphene mechanically self-rotating towards the hexagonal boron nitride crystallographic directions. Such rotation is macroscopic (for graphene flakes of tens of micrometres the tangential movement can be on hundreds of nanometres) and can be used for reproducible manufacturing of aligned van der Waals heterostructures. PMID:26960435

  18. Macroscopic self-reorientation of interacting two-dimensional crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, C. R.; Withers, F.; Zhu, M. J.; Cao, Y.; Yu, G.; Kozikov, A.; Ben Shalom, M.; Morozov, S. V.; van Wijk, M. M.; Fasolino, A.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Geim, A. K.; Mishchenko, A.; Novoselov, K. S.

    2016-03-01

    Microelectromechanical systems, which can be moved or rotated with nanometre precision, already find applications in such fields as radio-frequency electronics, micro-attenuators, sensors and many others. Especially interesting are those which allow fine control over the motion on the atomic scale because of self-alignment mechanisms and forces acting on the atomic level. Such machines can produce well-controlled movements as a reaction to small changes of the external parameters. Here we demonstrate that, for the system of graphene on hexagonal boron nitride, the interplay between the van der Waals and elastic energies results in graphene mechanically self-rotating towards the hexagonal boron nitride crystallographic directions. Such rotation is macroscopic (for graphene flakes of tens of micrometres the tangential movement can be on hundreds of nanometres) and can be used for reproducible manufacturing of aligned van der Waals heterostructures.

  19. Toroidal dipolar excitation and macroscopic electromagnetic properties of metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savinov, V.; Fedotov, V. A.; Zheludev, N. I.

    2014-05-01

    The toroidal dipole is a peculiar electromagnetic excitation that can not be presented in terms of standard electric and magnetic multipoles. A static toroidal dipole has been shown to lead to violation of parity in atomic spectra and many other unusual electromagnetic phenomena. The existence of electromagnetic resonances of toroidal nature was experimentally demonstrated only recently, first in the microwave metamaterials, and then at optical frequencies, where they could be important in spectroscopy analysis of a wide class of media with constituents of toroidal symmetry, such as complex organic molecules, fullerenes, bacteriophages, etc. Despite the experimental progress in studying toroidal resonances, no direct link has yet been established between microscopic toroidal excitations and macroscopic scattering characteristics of the medium. To address this essential gap in the electromagnetic theory, we have developed an analytical approach for calculating the transmissivity and reflectivity of thin slabs of materials that exhibit toroidal dipolar excitations.

  20. Double-Slit Interference Pattern for a Macroscopic Quantum System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeij, Hamid Reza; Shafiee, Afshin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we solve analytically the Schrödinger equation for a macroscopic quantum oscillator as a central system coupled to two environmental micro-oscillating particles. Then, the double-slit interference patterns are investigated in two limiting cases, considering the limits of uncertainty in the position probability distribution. Moreover, we analyze the interference patterns based on a recent proposal called stochastic electrodynamics with spin. Our results show that when the quantum character of the macro-system is decreased, the diffraction pattern becomes more similar to a classical one. We also show that, depending on the size of the slits, the predictions of quantum approach could be apparently different with those of the aforementioned stochastic description.

  1. Tunable Broadband Transparency of Macroscopic Quantum Superconducting Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daimeng; Trepanier, Melissa; Mukhanov, Oleg; Anlage, Steven M.

    2015-10-01

    Narrow-band invisibility in an otherwise opaque medium has been achieved by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic systems. The quantum EIT behavior can be classically mimicked by specially engineered metamaterials via carefully controlled interference with a "dark mode." However, the narrow transparency window limits the potential applications that require a tunable wideband transparent performance. Here, we present a macroscopic quantum superconducting metamaterial with manipulative self-induced broadband transparency due to a qualitatively novel nonlinear mechanism that is different from conventional EIT or its classical analogs. A near-complete disappearance of resonant absorption under a range of applied rf flux is observed experimentally and explained theoretically. The transparency comes from the intrinsic bistability of the meta-atoms and can be tuned on and off easily by altering rf and dc magnetic fields, temperature, and history. Hysteretic in situ 100% tunability of transparency paves the way for autocloaking metamaterials, intensity-dependent filters, and fast-tunable power limiters.

  2. Macroscopic dynamics near the isotropic{endash}smectic-A phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, Helmut R.; Mukherjee, Prabir K.; Pleiner, Harald

    2001-06-01

    The hydrodynamic theory for the smectic-A phase and the isotropic phase is generalized to the macroscopic dynamics in the vicinity of the isotropic{endash}smectic-A phase transition. The macroscopic dynamic equations are presented on the isotropic side as well as on the smectic-A side of the phase transition, incorporating the effect of an external electric field. Specific experiments to test some of the effects contained in the macroscopic dynamic equations are suggested.

  3. Dietary folate protects against the development of macroscopic colonic neoplasia in a dose responsive manner in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y I; Salomon, R N; Graeme-Cook, F; Choi, S W; Smith, D E; Dallal, G E; Mason, J B

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Diminished folate status is associated with enhanced colorectal carcinogenesis. This study investigated the potential chemopreventive role of dietary folate in the dimethylhydrazine colorectal cancer model. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing either 0, 2 (daily dietary requirement), 8 or 40 mg folate/kg diet for 20 weeks. After five weeks of diet, rats were injected with dimethyl-hydrazine (44 mg/kg) weekly for 15 weeks. Fifteen weeks after the first injection of dimethylhydrazine, all rats were killed. Folate status was determined, and the entire colorectum from each rat was analysed for macroscopic and microscopic neoplasms. RESULTS: Plasma and colonic folate concentrations correlated directly with dietary folate levels (p < 0.005). The incidence of microscopic neoplasms was similar among the four groups. However, the incidence and the average number of macroscopic tumours per rat decreased progressively with increasing dietary folate levels up to 8 mg/kg diet (p < 0.05). In the strongly procarcinogenic milieu used in this study, folate supplementation at 20 times the basal requirement was associated with rates of macroscopic tumour development that were intermediate, and not statistically distinct, from rates observed at either 0 or 8 mg/kg diet. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that in this rat model, (a) increasing dietary folate up to four times the basal requirement leads to a progressive reduction in the evolution of macroscopic neoplasms from microscopic foci; and (b) folate supplementation beyond four times the requirement does not convey further benefit. PMID:9014775

  4. Sagnac interferometry as a probe to the commutation relation of a macroscopic quantum mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Ran; Gong Xuefei; Pei Shouyong; Luo Ziren; Lau, Y. K.

    2010-09-15

    Single photon Sagnac interferometry as a probe to macroscopic quantum mechanics is considered at the theoretical level. For a freely moving macroscopic quantum mirror susceptible to radiation pressure force inside a Sagnac interferometer, a careful analysis of the input-output relation reveals that the particle spectrum readout at the bright and dark ports encode information concerning the noncommutativity of position and momentum of the macroscopic mirror. A feasible experimental scheme to probe the commutation relation of a macroscopic quantum mirror is outlined to explore the possible frontier between classical and quantum regimes. In the Appendix, the case of Michelson interferometry as a feasible probe is also sketched.

  5. Macroscopic response of particle-reinforced elastomers subjected to prescribed torques or rotations on the particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siboni, Morteza H.; Ponte Castañeda, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    Particle-reinforced rubbers are composite materials consisting of randomly distributed, stiff fibers/particles in a soft elastomeric material. Since the particles are stiff compared to the embedding rubber, their deformation can be ignored for all practical purposes. However, due to the softness of the rubber, they can undergo rigid body translations and rotations. Constitutive models accounting for the effect of such particle motions on the macroscopic response under prescribed deformations on the boundary have been developed recently. But, in some applications (e.g., magneto-active elastomers), the particles may experience additional torques as a consequence of an externally applied (magnetic) field, which, in turn, can affect the overall rotation of the particles in the rubber, and therefore also the macroscopic response of the composite. This paper is concerned with the development of constitutive models for particle-reinforced elastomers, which are designed to account for externally applied torques on the internally distributed particles, in addition to the externally applied deformation on the boundary of the composite. For this purpose, we propose a new variational framework involving suitably prescribed eigenstresses on the particles. For simplicity, the framework is applied to an elastomer reinforced by aligned, rigid, cylindrical fibers of elliptical cross section, which can undergo finite rotations in the context of a finite-deformation, plane strain problem for the composite. In particular, expressions are derived for the average in-plane rotation of the fibers as a function of the torques that are applied on them, both under vanishing and prescribed strain on the boundary. The results of this work will make possible the development of improved constitutive models for magneto-active elastomers, and other types of smart composite materials that are susceptible to externally applied torques.

  6. Microscopic origin and macroscopic implications of lane formation in mixtures of oppositely driven particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klymko, Katherine; Geissler, Phillip L.; Whitelam, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Colloidal particles of two types, driven in opposite directions, can segregate into lanes [Vissers et al., Soft Matter 7, 2352 (2011), 10.1039/c0sm01343a]. This phenomenon can be reproduced by two-dimensional Brownian dynamics simulations of model particles [Dzubiella et al., Phys. Rev. E 65, 021402 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.021402]. Here we use computer simulation to assess the generality of lane formation with respect to variation of particle type and dynamical protocol. We find that laning results from rectification of diffusion on the scale of a particle diameter: oppositely driven particles must, in the time taken to encounter each other in the direction of the drive, diffuse in the perpendicular direction by about one particle diameter. This geometric constraint implies that the diffusion constant of a particle, in the presence of those of the opposite type, grows approximately linearly with the Péclet number, a prediction confirmed by our numerics over a range of model parameters. Such environment-dependent diffusion is statistically similar to an effective interparticle attraction; consistent with this observation, we find that oppositely driven nonattractive colloids display features characteristic of the simplest model system possessing both interparticle attractions and persistent motion, the driven Ising lattice gas [Katz, Leibowitz, and Spohn, J. Stat. Phys. 34, 497 (1984), 10.1007/BF01018556]. These features include long-ranged correlations in the disordered regime, a critical regime characterized by a change in slope of the particle current with the Péclet number, and fluctuations that grow with system size. By analogy, we suggest that lane formation in the driven colloid system is a phase transition in the macroscopic limit, but that macroscopic phase separation would not occur in finite time upon starting from disordered initial conditions.

  7. A Poisson Random Field Framework Bridges Micro- To Macroscopic Scales In Microbial Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeghiazarian, L.; Safwat, A.; Shuster, W.; Samorodnitsky, G.; Whiteaker, T. L.; Maidment, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding microbial fate and transport in surface water and making accurate predictions is a formidable task. Evidence from experimental and observational studies unequivocally points to temporal and spatial variability in microbial distributions with significant correlation structure; and to the critical role of processes at the microscopic level. The temporal and spatial variability in microbial distributions arises from inherently random environmental factors and processes. Many cannot be described accurately using deterministic methods, necessitating a stochastic approach to microbial modeling. At the same time, microbial tracking studies identified significant spatial and temporal correlations in microbial distributions in streams, and highlighted the necessity of including microbial interactions with sediments, settling and re-suspension in models of microbial transport. Such understanding must be gained from microscopic, particle-scale research, because microdynamic interactions ultimately give rise to phenomena on higher scales. The challenge then is to be able to describe microbial behavior in probabilistic terms to take care of random drivers, while incorporating processes on microscopic scale and bridging the gap to macroscopic entities like concentrations that are used in watershed management. We have derived a stochastic modeling paradigm that bridges microscopic processes to macroscopic manifestation of microbial behavior in time and space, where the Markov behavior of individual microbes collectively translates into a non-homogeneous Poisson random field that describes microbial population dynamics. The Poisson framework is applied to a mixed-use watershed and implemented within ArcGIS, which makes a wealth of geographic, topologic, soil and other information, as well as data from national and regional datasets, instantly available. Probabilities of exceeding microbial safety thresholds are then obtained at any point in time and space in the

  8. Microscopic origin and macroscopic implications of lane formation in mixtures of oppositely driven particles.

    PubMed

    Klymko, Katherine; Geissler, Phillip L; Whitelam, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Colloidal particles of two types, driven in opposite directions, can segregate into lanes [Vissers et al., Soft Matter 7, 2352 (2011)1744-683X10.1039/c0sm01343a]. This phenomenon can be reproduced by two-dimensional Brownian dynamics simulations of model particles [Dzubiella et al., Phys. Rev. E 65, 021402 (2002)1063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.65.021402]. Here we use computer simulation to assess the generality of lane formation with respect to variation of particle type and dynamical protocol. We find that laning results from rectification of diffusion on the scale of a particle diameter: oppositely driven particles must, in the time taken to encounter each other in the direction of the drive, diffuse in the perpendicular direction by about one particle diameter. This geometric constraint implies that the diffusion constant of a particle, in the presence of those of the opposite type, grows approximately linearly with the Péclet number, a prediction confirmed by our numerics over a range of model parameters. Such environment-dependent diffusion is statistically similar to an effective interparticle attraction; consistent with this observation, we find that oppositely driven nonattractive colloids display features characteristic of the simplest model system possessing both interparticle attractions and persistent motion, the driven Ising lattice gas [Katz, Leibowitz, and Spohn, J. Stat. Phys. 34, 497 (1984)JSTPBS0022-471510.1007/BF01018556]. These features include long-ranged correlations in the disordered regime, a critical regime characterized by a change in slope of the particle current with the Péclet number, and fluctuations that grow with system size. By analogy, we suggest that lane formation in the driven colloid system is a phase transition in the macroscopic limit, but that macroscopic phase separation would not occur in finite time upon starting from disordered initial conditions. PMID:27627361

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations of irradiation cascades in alpha-zirconium under macroscopic strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Sali; Yao, Zhongwen; Daymond, Mark R.; Gao, Fei

    2013-05-01

    Numerous computer simulation studies have been performed on the radiation damage of zirconium. In contrast to most of the work in the literature which has focused on the effects of temperature and recoil energy on defect production and defect clustering, we have developed a computational model to consider the influence of elastic strain field on the formation of defects and their clusters, as strain is commonly present in a real reactor environment. In this work, irradiation induced displacement cascades in alpha-zirconium experiencing a macroscopic strain have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using a many-body interatomic potential. The external strain mainly affects the size of defect clusters rather than the total number of defects. The sizes of interstitial and vacancy clusters respond differently to the external strain conditions.

  10. Spontaneous assembly of a self-complementary oligopeptide to form a stable macroscopic membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, S.; Holmes, T.; Lockshin, C.; Rich, A.

    1993-01-01

    A 16-residue peptide [(Ala-Glu-Ala-Glu-Ala-Lys-Ala-Lys)2] has a characteristic beta-sheet circular dichroism spectrum in water. Upon the addition of salt, the peptide spontaneously assembles to form a macroscopic membrane. The membrane does not dissolve in heat or in acidic or alkaline solutions, nor does it dissolve upon addition of guanidine hydrochloride, SDS/urea, or a variety of proteolytic enzymes. Scanning EM reveals a network of interwoven filaments approximately 10-20 nm in diameter. An important component of the stability is probably due to formation of complementary ionic bonds between glutamic and lysine side chains. This phenomenon may be a model for studying the insoluble peptides found in certain neurological disorders. It may also have implications for biomaterials and origin-of-life research.

  11. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of mass transfer in reversed phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bacskay, Ivett; Felinger, Attila

    2009-02-20

    For the correct description of a chromatographic process, the determination of mass-transfer kinetics in the column is required because the influence of the mass-transfer kinetics on the shape of chromatographic band profiles is crucial. Several sources of mass transfer in a chromatographic bed have been identified and studied: the axial dispersion in the stream of mobile phase, the external mass-transfer resistance, intraparticle diffusion, and the kinetics of adsorption-desorption In this study we compare mass-transfer coefficients obtained in a reversed phase chromatographic column using macroscopic and microscopic approaches. The general rate model, the plate height equation, moment analysis, and stochastic analysis were used to assess chromatographic process during the separation of alkylbenzenes.

  12. On the formation of a macroscopically flat phospholipid membrane on a hydrosol substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonov, A. M.; Asadchikov, V. E.; Volkov, Yu. O.

    2015-10-01

    The dependence of the structure of a phospholipid layer (DSPC and SOPC) adsorbed on a hydrosol substrate on the concentration of NaOH in a solution of 5-nm silica particles has been studied by X-ray reflectrometry with the use of synchrotron radiation. Profiles of the electron density (polarizability) have been reconstructed from the experimental data within a model-independent approach. According to these profiles, the thickness of the lipid film can vary from a monolayer (~35 Å) to several bilayers (~450 Å). At the volume concentration of NaOH of ~0.5 mol/L, the film on the hydrosol surface is a macroscopically flat phospholipid membrane (bilayer) with a thickness of ~60 Å and with areas of (45 ± 2) and (49 ± 3) Å2 per DSPC and SOPC molecule, respectively.

  13. Macroscopic anisotropy characterization of SiFe using a rotational single sheet tester

    SciTech Connect

    Nencib, N.; Spornic, S.; Kedous-Lebouc, A.; Cornut, B.

    1995-11-01

    Macroscopic magnetic anisotropy of two electrical steel samples of GO and NO SiFe materials are characterized thanks to a rotational single sheet tester. This nonstandard set up allows one to perform magnetic measurements under both a rotating excitation field and an alternating one applied along any direction of the sheet plane. The anisotropy of the magnetic losses and of the exciting field of each material quality is discussed. As expected, the GOSS texture of the GO SiFe is well pointed out with its very easy magnetization rolling direction. The hard magnetization axis at 55{degree} emerges as the induction increases and replaces the transverse direction. The NO SiFe shows closely similar magnetic characteristics but remains anisotropic. The vectorial aspect of B(H) law is also highlighted. Such characteristics will be useful in many fields e.g. material elaboration, magnetic law behavior modeling and construction of electrical machines.

  14. Theory of the stationary macroscopic quantum behavior of inductively coupled superconducting weak links

    SciTech Connect

    Brunk, G.; Luebbig, H.

    1982-04-01

    A theory of the stationary response of a flux-controlled superconducting weak link is presented in the framework of reversible thermodynamics. The superconducting loop containing the weak line (SQUID): considered as a ''black box'': can be characterized by a nonlinear inductance L/sub s/ which uniquely describes the constitutive properties of the macroscopic quantum system. The influence of the temperature-dependent (nonsinusoidal) current-phase relation (CPR) on L/sub s/ and on the stability of the SQUID when operated in th nonhysteretic mode is analyzed taking into account the full nonlinearity of the CPR. The model presented enables a rigorous circuit analysis, even in the case of a nonlinear flux transformer.

  15. pH-responsive self-assembly by molecular recognition on a macroscopic scale.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yongtai; Hashidzume, Akihito; Harada, Akira

    2013-07-12

    Macroscopic pH-responsive self-assembly is successfully constructed by polyacrylamide(pAAm)-based gels carrying dansyl (Dns) and β-cyclodextrin (βCD) residues, which are represented as Dns-gel and βCD-gel, respectively. Dns-gel and βCD-gel assemble together at pH ≥ 4.0, but disassemble at pH ≤ 3.0. The adhesion strengths for pairs of Dns-gel/βCD-gel increase with increasing pH. The fluorescence study on the model system of pAAm modified with 1 mol% Dns moieties (pAAm/Dns) reveals that Dns residues are protonated at a lower pH, which results in the reduction in binding constant (K) for Dns residues and βCD.

  16. Bose-Einstein-condensate interferometer with macroscopic arm separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Salazar, Ofir

    The basis of our study was to implement an atom interferometer using 87Rb Bose Einstein condensates which has advantages in sensitivity over current interferometers that use cold atoms and light. Interferometers are devices which can accurately measure phase differences between waves that interfere and originate from a coherent source (or sources). We developed a weakly confining waveguide having o x ≈ 3 Hz, oz ≈ 3 Hz, o y ≈ 1 Hz as characteristic oscillation frequencies. Weak confinement, specially along the "y" direction, means the condensate can displace along this axis and interaction energies of the atoms in the condensate are reduced [43]. We have been able to successfully demonstrate condensate interference in our waveguide using a Mach Zehnder configuration. Coherence times of up to 40 ms have been observed, and the maximum center to center separation of the condensates recorded was of 240 mum. At this separation length, the two clouds corresponding to each of the interferometer's arms are completely separated. To our knowledge, this is the first time a picture has been taken of two groups of atoms separated by a macroscopic distance while in a quantum superposition of being in either cloud. The coherence time and length measurements presented in our work have been among the longest ones achieved so far for interferometry using condensed atoms. Interference visibility of 60% was observed up to 40 ms. We believe technical limitations in the techniques used to manipulate the atoms are responsible for the sudden drop in visibility at 44 ms. For example, unwanted laser reflections and interference patterns in our chamber affect the techniques used to split and reflect the atoms. However, we see coherence up to 80 ms from shot to shot, suggesting we could dramatically improve coherence times. Because of the weak confinement of our trap, we expect to improve coherence times up to an order of magnitude before running into phase diffusion effects [27]. It is

  17. Graphene in macroscopic order: liquid crystals and wet-spun fibers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Gao, Chao

    2014-04-15

    In nanotechnology, the creation of new nanoparticles consistently feeds back into efforts to design and fabricate new macroscopic materials with specific properties. As a two-dimensional (2D) building block of new materials, graphene has received widespread attention due to its exceptional mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. But harnessing these attributes into new materials requires developing methods to assemble single-atom-thick carbon flakes into macroscopically ordered structures. Because the melt processing of carbon materials is impossible, fluid assembly is the only viable approach for meeting this challenge. But in the meantime, researchers need to solve two fundamental problems: creating orientational ordering in fluids and the subsequent phase-transformation from ordered fluids into ordered solid materials. To address these problems, this Account highlights our graphene chemistry methods that take advantage of liquid crystals to produce graphene fibers. We have successfully synthesized graphene oxide (GO) from graphite in a scalable manner. Using the size of graphite particles and post fractionation, we successfully tuned the lateral size of GO from submicron sizes to dozens of microns. Based on the rich chemistry of GO, we developed reliable methods for chemical or physical functionalization of graphene and produced a series of functionalized, highly soluble graphene derivatives that behave as single layers even at high concentrations. In the dispersive system of GO and functionalized graphenes, rich liquid crystals (LCs) formed spontaneously. Some of these liquid crystals had a conventional nematic phase with orientational order; others had a lamellar phase. Importantly, we observed a new chiral mesophase featuring a helical-lamellar structural model with frustrated disinclinations. The graphene-based LCs show ordered assembly behaviors in the fluid state of 2D colloids and lay a foundation for the design of ordered materials with optimal

  18. Graphene in macroscopic order: liquid crystals and wet-spun fibers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Gao, Chao

    2014-04-15

    In nanotechnology, the creation of new nanoparticles consistently feeds back into efforts to design and fabricate new macroscopic materials with specific properties. As a two-dimensional (2D) building block of new materials, graphene has received widespread attention due to its exceptional mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. But harnessing these attributes into new materials requires developing methods to assemble single-atom-thick carbon flakes into macroscopically ordered structures. Because the melt processing of carbon materials is impossible, fluid assembly is the only viable approach for meeting this challenge. But in the meantime, researchers need to solve two fundamental problems: creating orientational ordering in fluids and the subsequent phase-transformation from ordered fluids into ordered solid materials. To address these problems, this Account highlights our graphene chemistry methods that take advantage of liquid crystals to produce graphene fibers. We have successfully synthesized graphene oxide (GO) from graphite in a scalable manner. Using the size of graphite particles and post fractionation, we successfully tuned the lateral size of GO from submicron sizes to dozens of microns. Based on the rich chemistry of GO, we developed reliable methods for chemical or physical functionalization of graphene and produced a series of functionalized, highly soluble graphene derivatives that behave as single layers even at high concentrations. In the dispersive system of GO and functionalized graphenes, rich liquid crystals (LCs) formed spontaneously. Some of these liquid crystals had a conventional nematic phase with orientational order; others had a lamellar phase. Importantly, we observed a new chiral mesophase featuring a helical-lamellar structural model with frustrated disinclinations. The graphene-based LCs show ordered assembly behaviors in the fluid state of 2D colloids and lay a foundation for the design of ordered materials with optimal

  19. Macroscopic rotation of photon polarization induced by a single spin.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Christophe; Demory, Justin; Loo, Vivien; Lemaître, Aristide; Sagnes, Isabelle; Glazov, Mikhaïl; Krebs, Olivier; Voisin, Paul; Senellart, Pascale; Lanco, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    Entangling a single spin to the polarization of a single incoming photon, generated by an external source, would open new paradigms in quantum optics such as delayed-photon entanglement, deterministic logic gates or fault-tolerant quantum computing. These perspectives rely on the possibility that a single spin induces a macroscopic rotation of a photon polarization. Such polarization rotations induced by single spins were recently observed, yet limited to a few 10(-3) degrees due to poor spin-photon coupling. Here we report the enhancement by three orders of magnitude of the spin-photon interaction, using a cavity quantum electrodynamics device. A single hole spin in a semiconductor quantum dot is deterministically coupled to a micropillar cavity. The cavity-enhanced coupling between the incoming photons and the solid-state spin results in a polarization rotation by ± 6° when the spin is optically initialized in the up or down state. These results open the way towards a spin-based quantum network. PMID:25687134

  20. The assembly of C. elegans lamins into macroscopic fibers.

    PubMed

    Zingerman-Koladko, Irena; Khayat, Maayan; Harapin, Jan; Shoseyov, Oded; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Salman, Ahmad; Medalia, Ohad; Ben-Harush, Kfir

    2016-10-01

    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins are known mainly by their propensity to form viscoelastic filamentous networks within cells. In addition, IF-proteins are essential parts of various biological materials, such as horn and hagfish slime threads, which exhibit a range of mechanical properties from hard to elastic. These properties and their self-assembly nature made IF-proteins attractive building blocks for biomimetic and biological materials in diverse applications. Here we show that a type V IF-protein, the Caenorhabditis elegans nuclear lamin (Ce-lamin), is a promising building block for protein-based fibers. Electron cryo-tomography of vitrified sections enabled us to depict the higher ordered assembly of the Ce-lamin into macroscopic fibers through the creation of paracrystalline fibers, which are prominent in vitro structures of lamins. The lamin fibers respond to tensile force as other IF-protein-based fibers, i.e., hagfish slime threads, and possess unique mechanical properties that may potentially be used in certain applications. The self-assembly nature of lamin proteins into a filamentous structure, which is further assembled into a complex network, can be easily modulated. This knowledge may lead to a better understanding of the relationship in IF-proteins-based fibers and materials, between their hierarchical structures and their mechanical properties.

  1. Atomistic study of macroscopic analogs to short-chain molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Kyle J.; Kilmer, Clayton S. G.; Corwin, Eric I.

    2015-02-01

    We use a bath of chaotic surface waves in water to mechanically and macroscopically mimic the thermal behavior of a short articulated chain with only nearest-neighbor interactions. The chaotic waves provide isotropic and random agitation to which a temperature can be ascribed, allowing the chain to passively explore its degrees of freedom in analogy to thermal motion. We track the chain in real time and infer end-to-end potentials using Boltzmann statistics. We extrapolate our results, by using Monte Carlo simulations of self-avoiding polymers, to lengths not accessible in our system. In the long-chain limit we demonstrate universal scaling of the statistical parameters of all chains in agreement with well-known predictions for self-avoiding walks. However, we find that the behavior of chains below a characteristic length scale fundamentally differs. We find that short chains have much greater compressional stiffness than would be expected. However, chains rapidly soften as length increases to meet with expected scalings.

  2. Electrokinetic assembly of selenium and silver nanowires into macroscopic fibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Michael C P; Zhang, Xin; Majidi, Elham; Nedelec, Kevin; Gates, Byron D

    2010-05-25

    Solution-phase synthesized nanowires with high aspect ratios can be a challenge to assemble into desired structures. As synthesized, these nanostructures readily bend and entangle with each other to form larger aggregates. This manuscript reports a general procedure for directing the assembly of semiconducting and metallic nanowires into fibers that can easily span distances >1 cm. Dispersions of these nanostructures in a low dielectric solution are organized by electrokinetic techniques into fibers that can be isolated from solution. Theoretical studies suggest that the assembled fibers adopt an orientation along electric field lines in the solution. The number of assembled fibers is a function of the duration of the assembly process, the magnitude of the electric potential, and the initial concentration of nanowires dispersed in solution. These findings offer a general method for the assembly of nanowires into macroscopic fibers of tunable dimensions. Fibers of selenium nanowires isolated from solution can reversibly bend in response to a source of electrostatic charges positioned in close proximity to the free-standing fiber. These flexible selenium fibers also exhibit a photoconductive response when illuminated with white light.

  3. Experiments testing macroscopic quantum superpositions must be slow

    PubMed Central

    Mari, Andrea; De Palma, Giacomo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    We consider a thought experiment where the preparation of a macroscopically massive or charged particle in a quantum superposition and the associated dynamics of a distant test particle apparently allow for superluminal communication. We give a solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system. For a charged particle, we consider two examples of such experiments, and show that they are both consistent with the previous limitation. In the first, the measurement requires to accelerate the charge, that can entangle with the emitted photons. In the second, the limitation can be ascribed to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. On the other hand, when applied to massive particles our result provides an indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational vacuum fluctuations and for the possibility of entangling a particle with quantum gravitational radiation. PMID:26959656

  4. Macroscopic effects of the spectral structure in turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, T.; Chakraborty, P.; Guttenberg, N.; Prescott, A.; Kellay, H.; Goldburg, W.; Goldenfeld, N.; Gioia, G.

    2010-11-01

    There is a missing link between macroscopic properties of turbulent flows, such as the frictional drag of a wall-bounded flow, and the turbulent spectrum. To seek the missing link we carry out unprecedented experimental measurements of the frictional drag in turbulent soap-film flows over smooth walls. These flows are effectively two-dimensional, and we are able to create soap-film flows with the two types of turbulent spectrum that are theoretically possible in two dimensions: the "enstrophy cascade," for which the spectral exponent α= 3, and the "inverse energy cascade," for which the spectral exponent α= 5/3. We find that the functional relation between the frictional drag f and the Reynolds number Re depends on the spectral exponent: where α= 3, f ˜Re-1/2; where α= 5/3, f ˜Re-1/4. Each of these scalings may be predicted from the attendant value of α by using a recently proposed spectral theory of the frictional drag. In this theory the frictional drag of turbulent flows on smooth walls is predicted to be f ˜Re^(1-α)/(1+α).

  5. Macroscopic strain controlled ion current in an elastomeric microchannel

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Chin-Chang; Nguyen, Du; Buchsbaum, Steven; Innes, Laura; Dennin, Michael; Li, Yongxue; Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Valdevit, Lorenzo; Sun, Lizhi; Siwy, Zuzanna

    2015-05-07

    We report on the fabrication of an ultra-high aspect ratio ionically conductive single microchannel with tunable diameter from ≈ 20 μm to fully closed. The 4 mm-long channel is fabricated in a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold and its cross-sectional area is controlled by applying macroscopic compressive strain to the mold in a direction perpendicular to the channel length. We investigated the ionic conduction properties of the channel. For a wide range of compressive strain up to ≈ 0.27, the strain dependence of the resistance is monotonic and fully reversible. For strain > 0.27, ionic conduction suddenly shuts off and the system becomes hysteretic (whereby a finite strain reduction is required to reopen the channel). Upon unloading, the original behavior is retrieved. This reversible behavior is observed over 200 compression cycles. The cross-sectional area of the channel can be inferred from the ion current measurement, as confirmed by a Nano-Computed Tomography investigation. We show that the cross-sectional area decreases monotonically with the applied compressive strain in the reversible range, in qualitative agreement with linear elasticity theory. We find that the shut-off strain is affected by the spatial extent of the applied strain, which provides additional tunability. Our tunable channel is well-suited for multiple applications in micro/nano-fluidic devices.

  6. Macroscopic strain controlled ion current in an elastomeric microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chin-Chang; Li, Yongxue; Nguyen, Du; Buchsbaum, Steven; Innes, Laura; Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Valdevit, Lorenzo; Sun, Lizhi; Siwy, Zuzanna; Dennin, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We report on the fabrication of an ultra-high aspect ratio ionically conductive single microchannel with tunable diameter from ≈ 20 μm to fully closed. The 4 mm-long channel is fabricated in a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold and its cross-sectional area is controlled by applying macroscopic compressive strain to the mold in a direction perpendicular to the channel length. We investigated the ionic conduction properties of the channel. For a wide range of compressive strain up to ≈ 0.27, the strain dependence of the resistance is monotonic and fully reversible. For strain > 0.27, ionic conduction suddenly shuts off and the system becomes hysteretic (whereby a finite strain reduction is required to reopen the channel). Upon unloading, the original behavior is retrieved. This reversible behavior is observed over 200 compression cycles. The cross-sectional area of the channel can be inferred from the ion current measurement, as confirmed by a Nano-Computed Tomography investigation. We show that the cross-sectional area decreases monotonically with the applied compressive strain in the reversible range, in qualitative agreement with linear elasticity theory. We find that the shut-off strain is affected by the spatial extent of the applied strain, which provides additional tunability. Our tunable channel is well-suited for multiple applications in micro/nano-fluidic devices.

  7. Experiments testing macroscopic quantum superpositions must be slow.

    PubMed

    Mari, Andrea; De Palma, Giacomo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-03-09

    We consider a thought experiment where the preparation of a macroscopically massive or charged particle in a quantum superposition and the associated dynamics of a distant test particle apparently allow for superluminal communication. We give a solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system. For a charged particle, we consider two examples of such experiments, and show that they are both consistent with the previous limitation. In the first, the measurement requires to accelerate the charge, that can entangle with the emitted photons. In the second, the limitation can be ascribed to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. On the other hand, when applied to massive particles our result provides an indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational vacuum fluctuations and for the possibility of entangling a particle with quantum gravitational radiation.

  8. Subseafloor Macroscopic Biofilms Involved in Anaerobic Oxidization of Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, B. R.; Hieter, J.; Pohlman, J.; Torres, M. E.; Riedel, M.; Rose, K.; Joseph, C.; Colwell, F. S.

    2009-12-01

    The release of methane from seafloor sediments is moderated in part by the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), a process carried out by a consortium of archaea and bacteria within the sulfate methane transition zone (SMTZ). We collected macroscopic biofilms in subseafloor fractures that intersect the SMTZ and, for the first time, have conducted molecular analyses of these biofilms to describe their phylogenetic affiliations. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) profiles indicate archaea in the biofilm are similar to those present in sediment adjacent to the biofilm. However, cores lacking observable biofilms contained different archaeal taxa. By contrast, NMS also showed the bacterial taxa in the biofilm are distinct from sediment adjacent to the biofilm. Sequencing of 386 bacterial clones indicates a diverse presence of alpha, beta, delta and gammaproteobacteria related to sulfate reducers (52% of clones, 79-89% similarity) and iron reducers (20% of clones, 83-89% similarity,). In addition, 204 archaeal clones were sequenced and the major taxa found are related to ANME-1 (40% of clones, 95% similarity) and archaeoglobus (30% of clones, 93% similarity). Biofilms inhabiting fractures in very fine to fine-grained sediment may play a crucial role in the carbon cycle.

  9. Quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, Matti; Tan, Kuan Yen; Govenius, Joonas; Lake, Russell E.; Mäkelä, Miika K.; Tanttu, Tuomo; Möttönen, Mikko

    2016-05-01

    The emerging quantum technological apparatuses, such as the quantum computer, call for extreme performance in thermal engineering. Cold distant heat sinks are needed for the quantized electric degrees of freedom owing to the increasing packaging density and heat dissipation. Importantly, quantum mechanics sets a fundamental upper limit for the flow of information and heat, which is quantified by the quantum of thermal conductance. However, the short distance between the heat-exchanging bodies in the previous experiments hinders their applicability in quantum technology. Here, we present experimental observations of quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances extending to a metre. We achieved this improvement of four orders of magnitude in the distance by utilizing microwave photons travelling in superconducting transmission lines. Thus, it seems that quantum-limited heat conduction has no fundamental distance cutoff. This work establishes the integration of normal-metal components into the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics, which provides a basis for the superconducting quantum computer. Especially, our results facilitate remote cooling of nanoelectronic devices using faraway in situ-tunable heat sinks. Furthermore, quantum-limited heat conduction is important in contemporary thermodynamics. Here, the long distance may lead to ultimately efficient mesoscopic heat engines with promising practical applications.

  10. Macroscopic Neural Oscillation during Skilled Reaching Movements in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chun Kee

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanism of skilled movements, such as reaching, has been considered to differ from that of rhythmic movement such as locomotion. It is generally thought that skilled movements are consciously controlled by the brain, while rhythmic movements are usually controlled autonomously by the spinal cord and brain stem. However, several studies in recent decades have suggested that neural networks in the spinal cord may also be involved in the generation of skilled movements. Moreover, a recent study revealed that neural activities in the motor cortex exhibit rhythmic oscillations corresponding to movement frequency during reaching movements as rhythmic movements. However, whether the oscillations are generated in the spinal cord or the cortical circuit in the motor cortex causes the oscillations is unclear. If the spinal cord is involved in the skilled movements, then similar rhythmic oscillations with time delays should be found in macroscopic neural activity. We measured whole-brain MEG signals during reaching. The MEG signals were analyzed using a dynamical analysis method. We found that rhythmic oscillations with time delays occur in all subjects during reaching movements. The results suggest that the corticospinal system is involved in the generation and control of the skilled movements as rhythmic movements. PMID:27524996

  11. Single-file diffusion of macroscopic charged particles.

    PubMed

    Coste, C; Delfau, J-B; Even, C; Saint Jean, M

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we study a macroscopic system of electrically interacting metallic beads organized as a sequence along an annulus. A random mechanical shaking mimics the thermal excitation. We exhibit non-Fickian diffusion (single-file diffusion) at large time. We measure the mobility of the particles and compare it to theoretical expectations. We show that our system cannot be accurately described by theories assuming only hard-sphere interactions. Its behavior is qualitatively described by a theory extended to more realistic potentials [M. Kollmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 180602 (2003)]. A correct quantitative agreement is shown and we interpret the discrepancies by the violation of the assumption of overdamped dynamics, which is a key point in the theory. We recast previous results on colloids with known interaction potentials and compare them quantitatively to the theory. Focusing on the transition between ordinary and single-file diffusions, we exhibit a dimensionless crossover time that is of order 1 both for colloids and our system, although the time and length scales differ by several orders of magnitude.

  12. LETTERS AND COMMENTS: Adiabatic process reversibility: microscopic and macroscopic views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mário G.

    2009-05-01

    The reversibility of adiabatic processes was recently addressed by two publications. In the first (Miranda 2008 Eur. J. Phys. 29 937-43), an equation was derived relating the initial and final volumes and temperatures for adiabatic expansions of an ideal gas, using a microscopic approach. In that relation the parameter r accounts for the process reversibility, ranging between 0 and 1, which corresponds to the free and reversible expansion, respectively. In the second (Anacleto and Pereira 2009 Eur. J. Phys. 30 177-83), the authors have shown that thermodynamics can effectively and efficiently be used to obtain the general law for adiabatic processes carried out by an ideal gas, including compressions, for which r \\ge 1. The present work integrates and extends the aforementioned studies, providing thus further insights into the analysis of the adiabatic process. It is shown that Miranda's work is wholly valid for compressions. In addition, it is demonstrated that the adiabatic reversibility coefficient given in terms of the piston velocity and the root mean square velocity of the gas particles is equivalent to the macroscopic description, given just by the quotient between surroundings and system pressure values.

  13. Nanospheres, nanotubes, toroids, and gels with controlled macroscopic chirality.

    PubMed

    Arias, Sandra; Freire, Félix; Quiñoá, Emilio; Riguera, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of a highly dynamic poly(aryl acetylene) (poly-1) with Li(+), Na(+), and Ag(+) leads to macroscopically chiral supramolecular nanospheres, nanotubes, toroids, and gels. With Ag(+), nanospheres with M helicity and tunable sizes are generated, which complement those obtained from the same polymer with divalent cations. With Li(+) or Na(+), poly-1 yields chiral nanotubes, gels, or toroids with encapsulating properties and M helicity. Right-handed supramolecular structures can be obtained by using the enantiomeric polymer. The interaction of poly-1 with Na(+) produces nanostructures whose helicity is highly dependent on the solvation state of the cation. Therefore, structures with either of the two helicities can be prepared from the same polymer by manipulation of the cosolvent. Such chiral nanotubes, toroids, and gels have previously not been obtained from helical polymer-metal complexes. Chiral nanospheres made of poly(aryl acetylene) that were previously assembled with metal(II) species can now be obtained with metal(I) species. PMID:25209219

  14. Quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances

    PubMed Central

    Partanen, Matti; Tan, Kuan Yen; Govenius, Joonas; Lake, Russell E.; Mäkelä, Miika K.; Tanttu, Tuomo; Möttönen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    The emerging quantum technological apparatuses1, 2, such as the quantum computer3–6, call for extreme performance in thermal engineering7. Cold distant heat sinks are needed for the quantized electric degrees of freedom due to the increasing packaging density and heat dissipation. Importantly, quantum mechanics sets a fundamental upper limit for the flow of information and heat, which is quantified by the quantum of thermal conductance8–10. However, the short distance between the heat-exchanging bodies in the previous experiments11–14 hinders their applicability in quantum technology. Here, we present experimental observations of quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances extending to a metre. We achieved this improvement of four orders of magnitude in the distance by utilizing microwave photons travelling in superconducting transmission lines. Thus, it seems that quantum-limited heat conduction has no fundamental distance cutoff. This work establishes the integration of normal-metal components into the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics15–17 which provides a basis for the superconducting quantum computer18–21. Especially, our results facilitate remote cooling of nanoelectronic devices using far-away in-situ-tunable heat sinks22, 23. Furthermore, quantum-limited heat conduction is important in contemporary thermodynamics24, 25. Here, the long distance may lead to ultimately efficient mesoscopic heat engines with promising practical applications26. PMID:27239219

  15. Experiments testing macroscopic quantum superpositions must be slow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Andrea; de Palma, Giacomo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-03-01

    We consider a thought experiment where the preparation of a macroscopically massive or charged particle in a quantum superposition and the associated dynamics of a distant test particle apparently allow for superluminal communication. We give a solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system. For a charged particle, we consider two examples of such experiments, and show that they are both consistent with the previous limitation. In the first, the measurement requires to accelerate the charge, that can entangle with the emitted photons. In the second, the limitation can be ascribed to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. On the other hand, when applied to massive particles our result provides an indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational vacuum fluctuations and for the possibility of entangling a particle with quantum gravitational radiation.

  16. Observation of quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottonen, Mikko; Partanen, Matti; Tan, Kuan Yen; Govenius, Joonas; Lake, Russell; Makela, Miika; Tanttu, Tuomo

    The emerging quantum technological devices, such as the quantum computer, call for extreme performance in thermal engineering at the nanoscale. Importantly, quantum mechanics sets a fundamental upper limit for the flow of information and heat, which is quantified by the quantum of thermal conductance. We present experimental observations of quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances extending to a meter. We achieved this striking improvement of four orders of magnitude in the distance by utilizing microwave photons travelling in superconducting transmission lines. Thus it seems that quantum-limited heat conduction has no fundamental restriction in its distance. This work lays the foundation for the integration of normal-metal components into superconducting transmission lines, and hence provides an important tool for circuit quantum electrodynamics, the basis of the emerging superconducting quantum computer. In particular, our results may lead to remote cooling of nanoelectronic devices with the help of a far-away in-situ-tunable heat sink. European Research Council (ERC) is acknowledged for funding under the Grant No. 278117 (SINGLEOUT).

  17. The macroscopic delamination of thin films from elastic substrates

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Dominic; Bico, José; Boudaoud, Arezki; Roman, Benoit; Reis, Pedro M.

    2009-01-01

    The wrinkling and delamination of stiff thin films adhered to a polymer substrate have important applications in “flexible electronics.” The resulting periodic structures, when used for circuitry, have remarkable mechanical properties because stretching or twisting of the substrate is mostly accommodated through bending of the film, which minimizes fatigue or fracture. To date, applications in this context have used substrate patterning to create an anisotropic substrate-film adhesion energy, thereby producing a controlled array of delamination “blisters.” However, even in the absence of such patterning, blisters appear spontaneously, with a characteristic size. Here, we perform well-controlled experiments at macroscopic scales to study what sets the dimensions of these blisters in terms of the material properties and explain our results by using a combination of scaling and analytical methods. Besides pointing to a method for determining the interfacial toughness, our analysis suggests a number of design guidelines for the thin films used in flexible electronic applications. Crucially, we show that, to avoid the possibility that delamination may cause fatigue damage, the thin film thickness must be greater than a critical value, which we determine. PMID:19556551

  18. Tinnitus does not require macroscopic tonotopic map reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Langers, Dave R. M.; de Kleine, Emile; van Dijk, Pim

    2012-01-01

    The pathophysiology underlying tinnitus, a hearing disorder characterized by the chronic perception of phantom sound, has been related to aberrant plastic reorganization of the central auditory system. More specifically, tinnitus is thought to involve changes in the tonotopic representation of sound. In the present study we used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine tonotopic maps in the auditory cortex of 20 patients with tinnitus but otherwise near-normal hearing, and compared these to equivalent outcomes from 20 healthy controls with matched hearing thresholds. Using a dedicated experimental paradigm and data-driven analysis techniques, multiple tonotopic gradients could be robustly distinguished in both hemispheres, arranged in a pattern consistent with previous findings. Yet, maps were not found to significantly differ between the two groups in any way. In particular, we found no evidence for an overrepresentation of high sound frequencies, matching the tinnitus pitch. A significant difference in evoked response magnitude was found near the low-frequency tonotopic endpoint on the lateral extreme of left Heschl’s gyrus. Our results suggest that macroscopic tonotopic reorganization in the auditory cortex is not required for the emergence of tinnitus, and is not typical for tinnitus that accompanies normal hearing to mild hearing loss. PMID:22347171

  19. Properties of nuclear matter from macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Ou, Li; Zhang, Yingxun

    2015-12-01

    Based on the standard Skyrme energy density functionals together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approach, the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter represented in two macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas: Lublin-Strasbourg nuclear drop energy (LSD) formula and Weizsäcker-Skyrme (WS*) formula, are extracted through matching the energy per particle of finite nuclei. For LSD and WS*, the obtained incompressibility coefficients of symmetric nuclear matter are K∞ = 230 ± 11 MeV and 235 ± 11 MeV, respectively. The slope parameter of symmetry energy at saturation density is L = 41.6 ± 7.6 MeV for LSD and 51.5 ± 9.6 MeV for WS*, respectively, which is compatible with the liquid-drop analysis of Lattimer and Lim [4]. The density dependence of the mean-field isoscalar and isovector effective mass, and the neutron-proton effective masses splitting for neutron matter are simultaneously investigated. The results are generally consistent with those from the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations and nucleon optical potentials, and the standard deviations are large and increase rapidly with density. A better constraint for the effective mass is helpful to reduce uncertainties of the depth of the mean-field potential.

  20. The assembly of C. elegans lamins into macroscopic fibers.

    PubMed

    Zingerman-Koladko, Irena; Khayat, Maayan; Harapin, Jan; Shoseyov, Oded; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Salman, Ahmad; Medalia, Ohad; Ben-Harush, Kfir

    2016-10-01

    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins are known mainly by their propensity to form viscoelastic filamentous networks within cells. In addition, IF-proteins are essential parts of various biological materials, such as horn and hagfish slime threads, which exhibit a range of mechanical properties from hard to elastic. These properties and their self-assembly nature made IF-proteins attractive building blocks for biomimetic and biological materials in diverse applications. Here we show that a type V IF-protein, the Caenorhabditis elegans nuclear lamin (Ce-lamin), is a promising building block for protein-based fibers. Electron cryo-tomography of vitrified sections enabled us to depict the higher ordered assembly of the Ce-lamin into macroscopic fibers through the creation of paracrystalline fibers, which are prominent in vitro structures of lamins. The lamin fibers respond to tensile force as other IF-protein-based fibers, i.e., hagfish slime threads, and possess unique mechanical properties that may potentially be used in certain applications. The self-assembly nature of lamin proteins into a filamentous structure, which is further assembled into a complex network, can be easily modulated. This knowledge may lead to a better understanding of the relationship in IF-proteins-based fibers and materials, between their hierarchical structures and their mechanical properties. PMID:27341289

  1. Macroscopic Carbon Nanotube-based 3D Monoliths.

    PubMed

    Du, Ran; Zhao, Qiuchen; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Jin

    2015-07-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most promising carbon allotropes with incredible diverse physicochemical properties, thereby enjoying continuous worldwide attention since their discovery about two decades ago. From the point of view of practical applications, assembling individual CNTs into macroscopic functional and high-performance materials is of paramount importance. For example, multiscaled CNT-based assemblies including 1D fibers, 2D films, and 3D monoliths have been developed. Among all of these, monolithic 3D CNT architectures with porous structures have attracted increasing interest in the last few years. In this form, theoretically all individual CNTs are well connected and fully expose their surfaces. These 3D architectures have huge specific surface areas, hierarchical pores, and interconnected conductive networks, resulting in enhanced mass/electron transport and countless accessible active sites for diverse applications (e.g. catalysis, capacitors, and sorption). More importantly, the monolithic form of 3D CNT assemblies can impart additional application potentials to materials, such as free-standing electrodes, sensors, and recyclable sorbents. However, scaling the properties of individual CNTs to 3D assemblies, improving use of the diverse, structure-dependent properties of CNTs, and increasing the performance-to-cost ratio are great unsolved challenges for their real commercialization. This review aims to provide a comprehensive introduction of this young and energetic field, i.e., CNT-based 3D monoliths, with a focus on the preparation principles, current synthetic methods, and typical applications. Opportunities and challenges in this field are also presented.

  2. Macroscopic Evidence for the Hibernating Behavior of Materials Stock.

    PubMed

    Daigo, Ichiro; Iwata, Kohei; Ohkata, Ikumi; Goto, Yoshikazu

    2015-07-21

    Hibernating stock is defined as material stock that is no longer used, but is not yet recovered. Although hibernating stock plays a role in materials recoverability, its contribution to the overall material cycle is not clearly understood. Therefore, an analysis of the time-series potential generation of steel scrap in Japan was performed and compared against the actual recovery, proving that the steel scrap recovered each year exceeds the annual generation potential and providing the first macroscopic evidence of hibernating stock recovery. These results indicate that hibernation behavior should be considered when evaluating materials recoverability. The particular characteristics of hibernating stock were also identified. These materials tend to be located far from scrap yards and/or have low bulk density, while also minimally obstructing new activity. In fact, hibernating materials are typically only recovered when they obstruct new activity. Hence, in order to increase steel recoverability, the recovery cost must be reduced. The end-of-life recycling rates (EoL-RRs) were also evaluated, and were found to exhibit a significant change over time. Consequently, the annual EoL-RR cannot be considered as a representative value, and a value for the EoL-RR(s) of relevant year(s) that has been evaluated over the entire period should be used instead.

  3. Experiments testing macroscopic quantum superpositions must be slow.

    PubMed

    Mari, Andrea; De Palma, Giacomo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    We consider a thought experiment where the preparation of a macroscopically massive or charged particle in a quantum superposition and the associated dynamics of a distant test particle apparently allow for superluminal communication. We give a solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system. For a charged particle, we consider two examples of such experiments, and show that they are both consistent with the previous limitation. In the first, the measurement requires to accelerate the charge, that can entangle with the emitted photons. In the second, the limitation can be ascribed to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. On the other hand, when applied to massive particles our result provides an indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational vacuum fluctuations and for the possibility of entangling a particle with quantum gravitational radiation. PMID:26959656

  4. Grasping the Second Law of Thermodynamics at University: The Consistency of Macroscopic and Microscopic Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2015-01-01

    This study concentrates on evaluating the consistency of upper-division students' use of the second law of thermodynamics at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Data were collected by means of a paper and pencil test (N = 48) focusing on the macroscopic and microscopic features of the second law concerned with heat transfer processes. The data…

  5. Reduced Gyral Window and Corpus Callosum Size in Autism: Possible Macroscopic Correlates of a Minicolumnopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanova, Manuel F.; El-Baz, Ayman; Mott, Meghan; Mannheim, Glenn; Hassan, Hossam; Fahmi, Rachid; Giedd, Jay; Rumsey, Judith M.; Switala, Andrew E.; Farag, Aly

    2009-01-01

    Minicolumnar changes that generalize throughout a significant portion of the cortex have macroscopic structural correlates that may be visualized with modern structural neuroimaging techniques. In magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of fourteen autistic patients and 28 controls, the present study found macroscopic morphological correlates to recent…

  6. Quantum mechanics versus macroscopic realism: Is the flux there when nobody looks

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, A.J.; Garg, A.

    1985-03-04

    It is shown that, in the contect of an idealized ''macroscopic quantum coherence'' experiment, the prediction of quantum mechanics are incompattible with the conjunction of two general assimptions which are designated ''macroscopic realism'' and ''noninvasive measurability at the macroscopiclevel.'' The conditions under which quantum mechanics can be tested against these assumptions in a realistic experiment are discussed.

  7. Temperature-Dependent Transformation Thermotics: From Switchable Thermal Cloaks to Macroscopic Thermal Diodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Shen, Xiangying; Wu, Zuhui; Huang, Junying; Chen, Yixuan; Ni, Yushan; Huang, Jiping

    2015-11-01

    The macroscopic control of ubiquitous heat flow remains poorly explored due to the lack of a fundamental theoretical method. Here, by establishing temperature-dependent transformation thermotics for treating materials whose conductivity depends on temperature, we show analytical and simulation evidence for switchable thermal cloaking and a macroscopic thermal diode based on the cloaking. The latter allows heat flow in one direction but prohibits the flow in the opposite direction, which is also confirmed by our experiments. Our results suggest that the temperature-dependent transformation thermotics could be a fundamental theoretical method for achieving macroscopic heat rectification, and it could provide guidance both for the macroscopic control of heat flow and for the design of the counterparts of switchable thermal cloaks or macroscopic thermal diodes in other fields like seismology, acoustics, electromagnetics, and matter waves. PMID:26588397

  8. [Macroscopic findings of brains are helpful in differential diagnosis of neurological disorders].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathological diagnosis is essential in neurological disorders. Neurological signs and neuroimaging play a major role in clinical diagnosis. Although neuroimaging indicates the location and size of lesions, which is useful to longitudinal evaluation of edema or atrophy, pathological diagnosis is absolutely necessary to qualitative diagnosis. The first step of pathological diagnosis starts to observe macroscopic findings of brains, which reveal the distribution of lesions specific to individual disorders. Since the macroscopic abnormal findings are based on the microscopic degenerative findings, it may be no exaggeration to say that macroscopic findings enable to make neuropathological diagnosis. Accuracy of macroscopic finding is corrected or revised with microscopic findings and finally compared with neuroimaging and clinical diagnosis. Therefore it is very important and useful to learn macroscopic findings of neurological disorders. PMID:24291833

  9. Maxwell's macroscopic equations, the energy-momentum postulates, and the Lorentz law of force.

    PubMed

    Mansuripur, Masud; Zakharian, Armis R

    2009-02-01

    We argue that the classical theory of electromagnetism is based on Maxwell's macroscopic equations, an energy postulate, a momentum postulate, and a generalized form of the Lorentz law of force. These seven postulates constitute the foundation of a complete and consistent theory, thus eliminating the need for actual (i.e., physical) models of polarization P and magnetization M , these being the distinguishing features of Maxwell's macroscopic equations. In the proposed formulation, P(r,t) and M(r,t) are arbitrary functions of space and time, their physical properties being embedded in the seven postulates of the theory. The postulates are self-consistent, comply with the requirements of the special theory of relativity, and satisfy the laws of conservation of energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum. One advantage of the proposed formulation is that it sidesteps the long-standing Abraham-Minkowski controversy surrounding the electromagnetic momentum inside a material medium by simply "assigning" the Abraham momentum density E(r,t)xH(r,t)/c2 to the electromagnetic field. This well-defined momentum is thus taken to be universal as it does not depend on whether the field is propagating or evanescent, and whether or not the host medium is homogeneous, transparent, isotropic, dispersive, magnetic, linear, etc. In other words, the local and instantaneous momentum density is uniquely and unambiguously specified at each and every point of the material system in terms of the E and H fields residing at that point. Any variation with time of the total electromagnetic momentum of a closed system results in a force exerted on the material media within the system in accordance with the generalized Lorentz law. PMID:19391864

  10. Macroscopic electric charge separation during hypervelocity impacts: Potential implications for planetary paleomagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, D. A.; Schultz, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    The production of transient magnetic fields by hypervelocity meteoroid impact has been proposed to possibly explain the presence of paleomagnetic fields in certain lunar samples as well as across broader areas of the lunar surface. In an effort to understand the lunar magnetic record, continued experiments at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range allow characterizing magnetic fields produced by the 5 km/s impacts of 0.32-0.64 cm projectiles over a broad range of impact angles and projectile/target compositions. From such studies, another phenomenon has emerged, macroscopic electric charge separation, that may have importance for the magnetic state of solid-body surfaces. This phenomenon was observed during explosive cratering experiments, but the magnetic consequences of macroscopic electric charge separation (as opposed to plasma production) during explosion and impact cratering have not, to our knowledge, been explored before now. It is straightforward to show that magnetic field production due to this process may scale as a weakly increasing function of impactor kinetic energy, although more work is needed to precisely assess the scaling dependence. The original intent of our experiments was to assess the character of purely electrostatic signals for comparison with inferred electrostatic noise signals acquired by shielded magnetic sensors buried within particulate dolomite targets. The results demonstrated that electrostatic noise does affect the magnetic sensors but only at relatively short distances (less than 4 cm) from the impact point (our magnetic studies are generally performed at distances greater than approximately 5.5 cm). However, to assess models for magnetic field generation during impact, measurements are needed of the magnetic field as close to the impact point as possible; hence, work with an improved magnetic sensor design is in progress. In this paper, we focus on electric charge separation during hypervelocity impacts as a potential transient

  11. Maxwell's macroscopic equations, the energy-momentum postulates, and the Lorentz law of force.

    PubMed

    Mansuripur, Masud; Zakharian, Armis R

    2009-02-01

    We argue that the classical theory of electromagnetism is based on Maxwell's macroscopic equations, an energy postulate, a momentum postulate, and a generalized form of the Lorentz law of force. These seven postulates constitute the foundation of a complete and consistent theory, thus eliminating the need for actual (i.e., physical) models of polarization P and magnetization M , these being the distinguishing features of Maxwell's macroscopic equations. In the proposed formulation, P(r,t) and M(r,t) are arbitrary functions of space and time, their physical properties being embedded in the seven postulates of the theory. The postulates are self-consistent, comply with the requirements of the special theory of relativity, and satisfy the laws of conservation of energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum. One advantage of the proposed formulation is that it sidesteps the long-standing Abraham-Minkowski controversy surrounding the electromagnetic momentum inside a material medium by simply "assigning" the Abraham momentum density E(r,t)xH(r,t)/c2 to the electromagnetic field. This well-defined momentum is thus taken to be universal as it does not depend on whether the field is propagating or evanescent, and whether or not the host medium is homogeneous, transparent, isotropic, dispersive, magnetic, linear, etc. In other words, the local and instantaneous momentum density is uniquely and unambiguously specified at each and every point of the material system in terms of the E and H fields residing at that point. Any variation with time of the total electromagnetic momentum of a closed system results in a force exerted on the material media within the system in accordance with the generalized Lorentz law.

  12. Macroscopic phenomena and microscopic processes: Student understanding of transients in direct current electric circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thacker, Beth Ann; Ganiel, Uri; Boys, Donald

    1999-07-01

    Studies of student understanding of simple electric dc circuits have shown that many of them find it very difficult to apply qualitative reasoning to explain the observed phenomena. It has been suggested that these difficulties may be due to their failure to construct models of microscopic processes that lead to these phenomena. Indeed, in the traditional courses, such models have generally not been emphasized. In the present study, we compared the performance of different groups of university students in answering a questionnaire designed to probe their understanding of the relationship between macroscopic phenomena of transients in a dc circuit and the microscopic processes that can explain these phenomena. One group studied from a traditional text, the second group used a recently developed text that emphasizes models of microscopic processes. We also conducted detailed interviews with some of the students. From an analysis of the performance of these two groups, and also from a comparison with a previous study on Israeli high school students, we found that most of the students whose instructional experiences included an emphasis on the development of models of microscopic processes developed a better understanding of the transient phenomena studied. They applied qualitative considerations in their analyses and were able to develop coherent models to describe their observations. Overall, they demonstrated a superior understanding of the physical phenomena.

  13. Proton irradiation effects on beryllium - A macroscopic assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simos, Nikolaos; Elbakhshwan, Mohamed; Zhong, Zhong; Camino, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This paper focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.

  14. Innovations in macroscopic evaluation of pancreatic specimens and radiologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Triantopoulou, Charikleia; Papaparaskeva, Kleo; Agalianos, Christos; Dervenis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel dissection technique of surgical specimens in different cases of pancreatic tumors and provide a radiologic pathologic correlation. In our hospital, that is a referral center for pancreatic diseases, the macroscopic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimens is performed by the pathologists using the axial slicing technique (instead of the traditional procedure with longitudinal opening of the main pancreatic and/or common bile duct and slicing along the plane defined by both ducts). The specimen is sliced in an axial plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the descending duodenum. The procedure results in a large number of thin slices (3-4 mm). This plane is identical to that of CT or MRI and correlation between pathology and imaging is straightforward. We studied 70 cases of suspected different solid and cystic pancreatic tumors and we correlated the tumor size and location, the structure-consistency (areas of necrosis-hemorrhage-fibrosis-inflammation), the degree of vessels' infiltration, the size of pancreatic and common bile duct and the distance from resection margins. Missed findings by imaging or pitfalls were recorded and we tried to explain all discrepancies between radiology evaluation and the histopathological findings. Radiologic-pathologic correlation is extremely important, adding crucial information on imaging limitations and enabling quality assessment of surgical specimens. The deep knowledge of different pancreatic tumors' consistency and way of extension helps to improve radiologists' diagnostic accuracy and minimize the radiological-surgical mismatching, preventing patients from unnecessary surgery. PMID:27069980

  15. Detection of cancer metastasis using a novel macroscopic hyperspectral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Hamed; Halig, Luma V.; Zhang, Hongzheng; Wang, Dongsheng; Chen, Zhuo G.; Fei, Baowei

    2012-03-01

    The proposed macroscopic optical histopathology includes a broad-band light source which is selected to illuminate the tissue glass slide of suspicious pathology, and a hyperspectral camera that captures all wavelength bands from 450 to 950 nm. The system has been trained to classify each histologic slide based on predetermined pathology with light having a wavelength within a predetermined range of wavelengths. This technology is able to capture both the spatial and spectral data of tissue. Highly metastatic human head and neck cancer cells were transplanted to nude mice. After 2- 3 weeks, the mice were euthanized and the lymph nodes and lung tissues were sent to pathology. The metastatic cancer is studied in lymph nodes and lungs. The pathological slides were imaged using the hyperspectral camera. The results of the proposed method were compared to the pathologic report. Using hyperspectral images, a library of spectral signatures for different tissues was created. The high-dimensional data were classified using a support vector machine (SVM). The spectra are extracted in cancerous and non-cancerous tissues in lymph nodes and lung tissues. The spectral dimension is used as the input of SVM. Twelve glasses are employed for training and evaluation. The leave-one-out cross-validation method is used in the study. After training, the proposed SVM method can detect the metastatic cancer in lung histologic slides with the specificity of 97.7% and the sensitivity of 92.6%, and in lymph node slides with the specificity of 98.3% and the sensitivity of 96.2%. This method may be able to help pathologists to evaluate many histologic slides in a short time.

  16. Innovations in macroscopic evaluation of pancreatic specimens and radiologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Triantopoulou, Charikleia; Papaparaskeva, Kleo; Agalianos, Christos; Dervenis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel dissection technique of surgical specimens in different cases of pancreatic tumors and provide a radiologic pathologic correlation. In our hospital, that is a referral center for pancreatic diseases, the macroscopic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimens is performed by the pathologists using the axial slicing technique (instead of the traditional procedure with longitudinal opening of the main pancreatic and/or common bile duct and slicing along the plane defined by both ducts). The specimen is sliced in an axial plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the descending duodenum. The procedure results in a large number of thin slices (3–4 mm). This plane is identical to that of CT or MRI and correlation between pathology and imaging is straightforward. We studied 70 cases of suspected different solid and cystic pancreatic tumors and we correlated the tumor size and location, the structure—consistency (areas of necrosis—hemorrhage—fibrosis—inflammation), the degree of vessels’ infiltration, the size of pancreatic and common bile duct and the distance from resection margins. Missed findings by imaging or pitfalls were recorded and we tried to explain all discrepancies between radiology evaluation and the histopathological findings. Radiologic-pathologic correlation is extremely important, adding crucial information on imaging limitations and enabling quality assessment of surgical specimens. The deep knowledge of different pancreatic tumors’ consistency and way of extension helps to improve radiologists’ diagnostic accuracy and minimize the radiological-surgical mismatching, preventing patients from unnecessary surgery. PMID:27069980

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Barrall, G A

    1995-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample`s density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques.

  18. Macroscopic geometric heterogeneity effects in radiation dose distribution analysis for boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, J.M.; Nigg, D.W.; Wheeler, F.J.; Bauer, W.F. )

    1992-05-01

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This paper describes such a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for the tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for this model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous-tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10%--20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models.

  19. Macroscopic behavior of ferrocholesteric liquid crystals and ferrocholesteric gels and elastomers.

    PubMed

    Brand, Helmut R; Fink, Alexander; Pleiner, Harald

    2015-06-01

    We study the influence of macroscopic chirality on the macroscopic properties of superparamagnetic liquid crystals and gels. Specifically we derive macroscopic dynamic equations for ferrocholesteric low molecular weight (LMW) liquid crystals and for ferrocholesteric gels and elastomers in the local description using the director field as macroscopic variable. The magnetization is treated as a macroscopic dynamic degree of freedom and its coupling to all other macroscopic variables is examined in detail. We incorporate into our dynamic analysis terms that are linear in a magnetic field giving rise to a number of cross-coupling terms not possible otherwise. A number of properties that are unique to the class of systems studied arise. As an example for a static property we find a term in the generalized energy which is linear in the electric field and quadratic in the magnetic field. We find that applying a magnetic field to a ferrocholesteric can lead to reversible electric currents, heat currents and concentration currents, which change their sign with a sign change of macroscopic chirality. As an example of a rather intriguing dissipative dynamic contribution we point out that for ferrocholesterics and for ferrocholesteric gels and elastomers in a magnetic field extensional flow leads to electric and heat currents.

  20. Structured pathology reporting improves the macroscopic assessment of rectal tumour resection specimens.

    PubMed

    King, Simon; Dimech, Margaret; Johnstone, Susan

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether introduction of a structured macroscopic reporting template for rectal tumour resection specimens improved the completeness and efficiency in collecting key macroscopic data elements. Fifty free text (narrative) macroscopic reports retrieved from 2012 to 2014 were compared with 50 structured macroscopic reports from 2013 to 2015, all of which were generated at John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, NSW. The six standard macroscopic data elements examined in this study were reported in all 50 anatomical pathology reports using a structured macroscopic reporting dictation template. Free text reports demonstrated significantly impaired data collection when recording intactness of mesorectum (p<0.001), relationship to anterior peritoneal reflection (p=0.028) and distance of tumour to the non-peritonealised circumferential margin (p<0.001). The number of words used was also significantly (p<0.001) reduced using pre-formatted structured reports compared to free text reports. The introduction of a structured reporting dictation template improves data collection and may reduce the subsequent administrative burden when macroscopically evaluating rectal resections. PMID:27114373

  1. On the macroscopic response, microstructure evolution, and macroscopic stability of short-fibre-reinforced elastomers at finite strains: I - Analytical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avazmohammadi, Reza; Ponte Castañeda, Pedro

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a homogenization-based constitutive model for the mechanical behaviour of particle-reinforced elastomers with random microstructures subjected to finite deformations. The model is based on a recently improved version of the tangent second-order (TSO) method (Avazmohammadi and Ponte Castañeda, J. Elasticity 112 (2013) p.139-183) for two-phase, hyperelastic composites and is able to directly account for the shape, orientation, and concentration of the particles. After a brief summary of the TSO homogenization method, we describe its application to composites consisting of an incompressible rubber reinforced by aligned, spheroidal, rigid particles, undergoing generally non-aligned, three-dimensional loadings. While the results are valid for finite particle concentrations, in the dilute limit they can be viewed as providing a generalization of Eshelby's results in linear elasticity. In particular, we provide analytical estimates for the overall response and microstructure evolution of the particle-reinforced composites with generalized neo-Hookean matrix phases under non-aligned loadings. For the special case of aligned pure shear and axisymmetric shear loadings, we give closed-form expressions for the effective stored-energy function of the composites with neo-Hookean matrix behaviour. Moreover, we investigate the possible development of "macroscopic" (shear band-type) instabilities in the homogenized behaviour of the composite at sufficiently large deformations. These instabilities whose wavelengths are much larger than the typical size of the microstructure are detected by making use of the loss of strong ellipticity condition for the effective stored-energy function of the composites. The analytical results presented in this paper will be complemented in Part II (Avazmohammadi and Ponte Castaneda, Phil. Mag. (2014)) of this work by specific applications for several representative microstructures and loading configurations.

  2. Effect of ultraviolet light irradiation on macroscopic single-walled carbon nanotube bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Miko, Cs.; Milas, M.; Seo, J.W.; Gaal, R.; Kulik, A.; Forro, L.

    2006-04-10

    We have measured the electrical conductivity and the Young modulus of macroscopic oriented ropes containing single-walled carbon nanotubes under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. We found that UV irradiation increases both the electrical conductivity and the strength of the macroscopic bundle. These phenomena are explained by the generation of cross-links between the tubes in the macroscopic bundle due to the UV-induced interaction between the solvent dimethyl-formamide and the free radicals present on the surface of carbon nanotubes. Transmission electron microscopy investigation shows that the wall structure of nanotubes is preserved during this process, which is a valuable advantage compared to electron irradiation.

  3. Using weak nonlinearity under decoherence for macroscopic entanglement generation and quantum computation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyunseok

    2005-09-15

    Recently, there have been several suggestions that weak Kerr nonlinearity can be used for generation of macroscopic superpositions and entanglement and for linear optics quantum computation. However, it is not immediately clear that this approach can overcome decoherence effects. Our numerical study shows that nonlinearity of weak strength could be useful for macroscopic entanglement generation and quantum gate operations in the presence of decoherence. We suggest specific values for real experiments based on our analysis. Our discussion shows that the generation of macroscopic entanglement using this approach is within the reach of current technology.

  4. Macroscopic yielding in jammed solids is accompanied by a nonequilibrium first-order transition in particle trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Takeshi; Berthier, Ludovic

    2016-08-01

    We use computer simulations to analyze the yielding transition during large-amplitude oscillatory shear of a simple model for soft jammed solids. Simultaneous analysis of global mechanical response and particle-scale motion demonstrates that macroscopic yielding, revealed by a smooth crossover in mechanical properties, is accompanied by a sudden change in the particle dynamics, which evolves from nondiffusive motion to irreversible diffusion as the amplitude of the shear is increased. We provide numerical evidence that this sharp change corresponds to a nonequilibrium first-order dynamic phase transition, thus establishing the existence of a well-defined microscopic dynamic signature of the yielding transition in amorphous materials in oscillatory shear.

  5. The Epileptic Thalamocortical Network is a Macroscopic Self-Sustained Oscillator: Evidence from Frequency-Locking Experiments in Rat Brains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez, J. L. Perez; Erra, R. Guevara; Rosenblum, M.

    2015-02-01

    The rhythmic activity observed in nervous systems, in particular in epilepsies and Parkinson's disease, has often been hypothesized to originate from a macroscopic self-sustained neural oscillator. However, this assumption has not been tested experimentally. Here we support this viewpoint with in vivo experiments in a rodent model of absence seizures, by demonstrating frequency locking to external periodic stimuli and finding the characteristic Arnold tongue. This result has important consequences for developing methods for the control of brain activity, such as seizure cancellation.

  6. The epileptic thalamocortical network is a macroscopic self-sustained oscillator: evidence from frequency-locking experiments in rat brains.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, J L Perez; Erra, R Guevara; Rosenblum, M

    2015-02-12

    The rhythmic activity observed in nervous systems, in particular in epilepsies and Parkinson's disease, has often been hypothesized to originate from a macroscopic self-sustained neural oscillator. However, this assumption has not been tested experimentally. Here we support this viewpoint with in vivo experiments in a rodent model of absence seizures, by demonstrating frequency locking to external periodic stimuli and finding the characteristic Arnold tongue. This result has important consequences for developing methods for the control of brain activity, such as seizure cancellation.

  7. Macroscopic equations for bacterial chemotaxis: integration of detailed biochemistry of cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Chemotaxis of single cells has been extensively studied and a great deal on intracellular signaling and cell movement is known. However, systematic methods to embed such information into continuum PDE models for cell population dynamics are still in their infancy. In this paper, we consider chemotaxis of run-and-tumble bacteria and derive continuum models that take into account of the detailed biochemistry of intracellular signaling. We analytically show that the macroscopic bacterial density can be approximated by the Patlak-Keller-Segel equation in response to signals that change slowly in space and time. We derive, for the first time, general formulas that represent the chemotactic sensitivity in terms of detailed descriptions of single-cell signaling dynamics in arbitrary space dimensions. These general formulas are useful in explaining relations of single cell behavior and population dynamics. As an example, we apply the theory to chemotaxis of bacterium Escherichia coli and show how the structure and kinetics of the intracellular signaling network determine the sensing properties of E. coli populations. Numerical comparison of the derived PDEs and the underlying cell-based models show quantitative agreements for signals that change slowly, and qualitative agreements for signals that change extremely fast. The general theory we develop here is readily applicable to chemotaxis of other run-and-tumble bacteria, or collective behavior of other individuals that move using a similar strategy.

  8. Pre- and post- scission particle emission in 3D Langevin calculations with various macroscopic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurek, K.; Nadtochy, P. N.; Schmitt, C.; Wasiak, P.; Kmiecik, M.; Maj, A.; Bonnet, E.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J.; Gruyer, D.; Wieleczko, J.-P.

    2013-12-01

    The fission dynamics described by solving differential equations of the Langevin type in three dimensional space of the deformation parameters is very sensitive on the choice of the macroscopic components such as potential energy models. The mass or charge distribution or total kinetic energy has been already shown to be different when one uses the Finite Range Liquid Drop Model or Lublin - Strasbourg Drop model. Also the shape-dependent congruence or shape-dependent Wigner energy and A0 terms are important especially for the fission of medium mass nuclei. We would like to make step forward and answer the question about the varying of the post-scission multiplicity by including different PES. Up to now there are only few experimental data for the medium mass nuclei where the pre- and post- scission emission has been estimated and isotopic distributions have been shown. The isotopic distributions of the fission products for light compound nucleus such as 111 In with two beam energies (Ebeam = 10.6 AMeV and 5.9 AMeV) and two heavy systems: 229Np with Ebeam = 7.4 AMeV and 260 No (Ebeam = 6 AMeV and 7.5 AMeV) have been studied theoretically. The agreement with the experimental data is discussed.

  9. Liquid crystal alignment at macroscopically isotropic polymer surfaces: Effect of an isotropic-nematic phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryasova, Natalie; Reznikov, Yuri

    2016-09-01

    We study the effect of an isotropic-nematic (I -N ) phase transition on the liquid crystal alignment at untreated polymer surfaces. We demonstrate that the pattern at the untreated substrate in the planar cell where the other substrate is uniformly rubbed strongly depends on the temperature gradient across the cell during the I -N phase transition, being macroscopically isotropic if the untreated substrate is cooled faster, but becoming almost homogeneous along the rubbing direction in the opposite temperature gradient. We interpret the observed effect using complementary models of heat transfer and nematic elasticity. Based on the heat transfer model we show that the asymmetric temperature conditions in our experiments provide unidirectional propagation of the I -N interface during the phase transition and determine the initial director orientation pattern at the test's untreated surface. Using the Frank-Oseen model of nematic elasticity, we represent the three-dimensional director field in the nematic cell as a two-dimensional (2D) pattern at the untreated surface and perform 2D numeric simulations. The simulations explain the experimental results: Different initial director orientations at the untreated surface evolve into different stationary patterns.

  10. Unified Microscopic-Macroscopic Monte Carlo Simulations of Complex Organic Molecule Chemistry in Cold Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Qiang; Herbst, Eric

    2016-03-01

    The recent discovery of methyl formate and dimethyl ether in the gas phase of cold cores with temperatures as cold as 10 K challenges our previous astrochemical models concerning the formation of complex organic molecules (COMs). The strong correlation between the abundances and distributions of methyl formate and dimethyl ether further shows that current astrochemical models may be missing important chemical processes in cold astronomical sources. We investigate a scenario in which COMs and the methoxy radical can be formed on dust grains via a so-called chain reaction mechanism, in a similar manner to CO2. A unified gas-grain microscopic-macroscopic Monte Carlo approach with both normal and interstitial sites for icy grain mantles is used to perform the chemical simulations. Reactive desorption with varying degrees of efficiency is included to enhance the nonthermal desorption of species formed on cold dust grains. In addition, varying degrees of efficiency for the surface formation of methoxy are also included. The observed abundances of a variety of organic molecules in cold cores can be reproduced in our models. The strong correlation between the abundances of methyl formate and dimethyl ether in cold cores can also be explained. Nondiffusive chemical reactions on dust grain surfaces may play a key role in the formation of some COMs.

  11. Succinic acid in aqueous solution: connecting microscopic surface composition and macroscopic surface tension.

    PubMed

    Werner, Josephina; Julin, Jan; Dalirian, Maryam; Prisle, Nønne L; Öhrwall, Gunnar; Persson, Ingmar; Björneholm, Olle; Riipinen, Ilona

    2014-10-21

    The water-vapor interface of aqueous solutions of succinic acid, where pH values and bulk concentrations were varied, has been studied using surface sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. It was found that succinic acid has a considerably higher propensity to reside in the aqueous surface region than its deprotonated form, which is effectively depleted from the surface due to the two strongly hydrated carboxylate groups. From both XPS experiments and MD simulations a strongly increased concentration of the acid form in the surface region compared to the bulk concentration was found and quantified. Detailed analysis of the surface of succinic acid solutions at different bulk concentrations led to the conclusion that succinic acid saturates the aqueous surface at high bulk concentrations. With the aid of MD simulations the thickness of the surface layer could be estimated, which enabled the quantification of surface concentration of succinic acid as a multiple of the known bulk concentration. The obtained enrichment factors were successfully used to model the surface tension of these binary aqueous solutions using two different models that account for the surface enrichment. This underlines the close correlation of increased concentration at the surface relative to the bulk and reduced surface tension of aqueous solutions of succinic acid. The results of this study shed light on the microscopic origin of surface tension, a macroscopic property. Furthermore, the impact of the results from this study on atmospheric modeling is discussed.

  12. Microscopic and Macroscopic Studies on the Development of Puccinia hemerocallidis in Resistance and Susceptible Daylily Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection process of Puccinia hemerocallidis, the causal agent of daylily rust, and resistance responses in eight daylily cultivars were studied macroscopically and microscopically. After germination of urediniospores, appressoria formed at the tip of germ tubes and penetrated through stomatal openi...

  13. Generating giant and tunable nonlinearity in a macroscopic mechanical resonator from a single chemical bond.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pu; Zhou, Jingwei; Zhang, Liang; Hou, Dong; Lin, Shaochun; Deng, Wen; Meng, Chao; Duan, Changkui; Ju, Chenyong; Zheng, Xiao; Xue, Fei; Du, Jiangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinearity in macroscopic mechanical systems may lead to abundant phenomena for fundamental studies and potential applications. However, it is difficult to generate nonlinearity due to the fact that macroscopic mechanical systems follow Hooke's law and respond linearly to external force, unless strong drive is used. Here we propose and experimentally realize high cubic nonlinear response in a macroscopic mechanical system by exploring the anharmonicity in chemical bonding interactions. We demonstrate the high tunability of nonlinear response by precisely controlling the chemical bonding interaction, and realize, at the single-bond limit, a cubic elastic constant of 1 × 10(20) N m(-3). This enables us to observe the resonator's vibrational bi-states transitions driven by the weak Brownian thermal noise at 6 K. This method can be flexibly applied to a variety of mechanical systems to improve nonlinear responses, and can be used, with further improvements, to explore macroscopic quantum mechanics.

  14. Generating giant and tunable nonlinearity in a macroscopic mechanical resonator from a single chemical bond

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pu; Zhou, Jingwei; Zhang, Liang; Hou, Dong; Lin, Shaochun; Deng, Wen; Meng, Chao; Duan, Changkui; Ju, Chenyong; Zheng, Xiao; Xue, Fei; Du, Jiangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinearity in macroscopic mechanical systems may lead to abundant phenomena for fundamental studies and potential applications. However, it is difficult to generate nonlinearity due to the fact that macroscopic mechanical systems follow Hooke's law and respond linearly to external force, unless strong drive is used. Here we propose and experimentally realize high cubic nonlinear response in a macroscopic mechanical system by exploring the anharmonicity in chemical bonding interactions. We demonstrate the high tunability of nonlinear response by precisely controlling the chemical bonding interaction, and realize, at the single-bond limit, a cubic elastic constant of 1 × 1020 N m−3. This enables us to observe the resonator's vibrational bi-states transitions driven by the weak Brownian thermal noise at 6 K. This method can be flexibly applied to a variety of mechanical systems to improve nonlinear responses, and can be used, with further improvements, to explore macroscopic quantum mechanics. PMID:27225287

  15. Macroscopic lateral heterogeneity observed in a laterally mobile immiscible mixed polyelectrolyte-neutral polymer brush

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hoyoung; Tsouris, Vasilios; Lim, Yunho; Mustafa, Rafid; Choi, Je; Choi, Yun Hwa; Park, Hae-Woong; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Won, You-Yeon

    2014-07-11

    We studied mixed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes. The question we attempted to answer was: when the chain grafting points are laterally mobile, how will this lateral mobility influence the structure and phase behavior of the mixed brush? Three different model mixed PEO/PDMAEMA brush systems were prepared: (1) a laterally mobile mixed brush by spreading onto the air–water interface a mixture of poly(ethylene oxide)–poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PEO–PnBA) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)–poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PDMAEMA–PnBA) diblock copolymers (the specific diblock copolymers used will be denoted as PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA118–PnBA100, where the subscripts refer to the number-average degrees of polymerization of the individual blocks), (2) a mobility-restricted (inseparable) version of the above mixed brush prepared using a PEO–PnBA–PDMAEMA triblock copolymer (denoted as PEO113–PnBA89–PDMAEMA120) having respective brush molecular weights matched with those of the diblock copolymers, and (3) a different laterally mobile mixed PEO and PDMAEMA brush prepared from a PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA200–PnBA103 diblock copolymer combination, which represents a further more height-mismatched mixed brush situation than described in (1). These three mixed brush systems were investigated by surface pressure–area isotherm and X-ray (XR) reflectivity measurements. These experimental data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of a continuum self-consistent field (SCF) polymer brush model. The combined experimental and theoretical results suggest that the mobile mixed brush derived using the PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA118–PnBA100 combination (i.e., mixed brush System #1) undergoes a lateral macroscopic phase separation

  16. Heterogeneous Inhibition in Macroscopic Current Responses of Four Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes by Cholesterol Enrichment.

    PubMed

    Báez-Pagán, Carlos A; Del Hoyo-Rivera, Natalie; Quesada, Orestes; Otero-Cruz, José David; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2016-08-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), located in the cell membranes of neurons and muscle cells, mediates the transmission of nerve impulses across cholinergic synapses. In addition, the nAChR is also found in the electric organs of electric rays (e.g., the genus Torpedo). Cholesterol, which is a key lipid for maintaining the correct functionality of membrane proteins, has been found to alter the nAChR function. We were thus interested to probe the changes in the functionality of different nAChRs expressed in a model membrane with modified cholesterol to phospholipid ratios (C/P). In this study, we examined the effect of increasing the C/P ratio in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the neuronal α7, α4β2, muscle-type, and Torpedo californica nAChRs in their macroscopic current responses. Using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique, it was found that the neuronal α7 and Torpedo nAChRs are significantly more sensitive to small increases in C/P than the muscle-type nAChR. The peak current versus C/P profiles during enrichment display different behaviors; α7 and Torpedo nAChRs display a hyperbolic decay with two clear components, whereas muscle-type and α4β2 nAChRs display simple monophasic decays with different slopes. This study clearly illustrates that a physiologically relevant increase in membrane cholesterol concentration produces a remarkable reduction in the macroscopic current responses of the neuronal α7 and Torpedo nAChRs functionality, whereas the muscle nAChR appears to be the most resistant to cholesterol inhibition among all four nAChR subtypes. Overall, the present study demonstrates differential profiles for cholesterol inhibition among the different types of nAChR to physiological cholesterol increments in the plasmatic membrane. This is the first study to report a cross-correlation analysis of cholesterol sensitivity among different nAChR subtypes in a model membrane. PMID:27116687

  17. A Macroscopic Description of a Generalized Self-organized Criticality System: Astrophysical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.

    2014-02-01

    We suggest a generalized definition of self-organized criticality (SOC) systems: SOC is a critical state of a nonlinear energy dissipation system that is slowly and continuously driven toward a critical value of a system-wide instability threshold, producing scale-free, fractal-diffusive, and intermittent avalanches with power law-like size distributions. We develop here a macroscopic description of SOC systems that provides an equivalent description of the complex microscopic fine structure, in terms of fractal-diffusive transport (FD-SOC). Quantitative values for the size distributions of SOC parameters (length scales L, time scales T, waiting times Δt, fluxes F, and fluences or energies E) are derived from first principles, using the scale-free probability conjecture, N(L)dLvpropL -d , for Euclidean space dimension d. We apply this model to astrophysical SOC systems, such as lunar craters, the asteroid belt, Saturn ring particles, magnetospheric substorms, radiation belt electrons, solar flares, stellar flares, pulsar glitches, soft gamma-ray repeaters, black-hole objects, blazars, and cosmic rays. The FD-SOC model predicts correctly the size distributions of 8 out of these 12 astrophysical phenomena, and indicates non-standard scaling laws and measurement biases for the others.

  18. Strongly Coupled Plasmonic Modes on Macroscopic Areas via Template-Assisted Colloidal Self-Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We present ensembles of surface-ordered nanoparticle arrangements, which are formed by template-assisted self-assembly of monodisperse, protein-coated gold nanoparticles in wrinkle templates. Centimeter-squared areas of highly regular, linear assemblies with tunable line width are fabricated and their extinction cross sections can be characterized by conventional UV/vis/NIR spectroscopy. Modeling based on electrodynamic simulations shows a clear signature of strong plasmonic coupling with an interparticle spacing of 1–2 nm. We find evidence for well-defined plasmonic modes of quasi-infinite chains, such as resonance splitting and multiple radiant modes. Beyond elementary simulations on the individual chain level, we introduce an advanced model, which considers the chain length distribution as well as disorder. The step toward macroscopic sample areas not only opens perspectives for a range of applications in sensing, plasmonic light harvesting, surface enhanced spectroscopy, and information technology but also eases the investigation of hybridization and metamaterial effects fundamentally. PMID:25347293

  19. Fe(II) sorption on a synthetic montmorillonite. A combined macroscopic and spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Soltermann, Daniela; Fernandes, Maria Marques; Baeyens, Bart; Dähn, Rainer; Miehé-Brendlé, Jocelyne; Wehrli, Bernhard; Bradbury, Michael H

    2013-07-01

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and Mössbauer spectroscopy combined with macroscopic sorption experiments were employed to investigate the sorption mechanism of Fe(II) on an iron-free synthetic montmorillonite (Na-IFM). Batch sorption experiments were performed to measure the Fe(II) uptake on Na-IFM at trace concentrations as a function of pH and as a function of sorbate concentration at pH 6.2 and 6.7 under anoxic conditions (O2 < 0.1 ppm). A two-site protolysis nonelectrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange sorption model was used to quantitatively describe the uptake of Fe(II) on Na-IFM. Two types of clay surface binding sites were required to model the Fe(II) sorption, the so-called strong (≡S(S)OH) and weak (≡S(W)OH) sites. EXAFS data show spectroscopic differences between Fe sorbed at low and medium absorber concentrations that were chosen to be characteristic for sorption on strong and weak sites, respectively. Data analysis indicates that Fe is located in the continuity of the octahedral sheet at trans-symmetric sites. Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements confirmed that iron sorbed on the weak edge sites is predominantly present as Fe(II), whereas a significant part of surface-bound Fe(III) was produced on the strong sites (∼12% vs ∼37% Fe(III) species to total sorbed Fe).

  20. A macroscopic description of a generalized self-organized criticality system: Astrophysical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Aschwanden, Markus J.

    2014-02-10

    We suggest a generalized definition of self-organized criticality (SOC) systems: SOC is a critical state of a nonlinear energy dissipation system that is slowly and continuously driven toward a critical value of a system-wide instability threshold, producing scale-free, fractal-diffusive, and intermittent avalanches with power law-like size distributions. We develop here a macroscopic description of SOC systems that provides an equivalent description of the complex microscopic fine structure, in terms of fractal-diffusive transport (FD-SOC). Quantitative values for the size distributions of SOC parameters (length scales L, time scales T, waiting times Δt, fluxes F, and fluences or energies E) are derived from first principles, using the scale-free probability conjecture, N(L)dL∝L {sup –d}, for Euclidean space dimension d. We apply this model to astrophysical SOC systems, such as lunar craters, the asteroid belt, Saturn ring particles, magnetospheric substorms, radiation belt electrons, solar flares, stellar flares, pulsar glitches, soft gamma-ray repeaters, black-hole objects, blazars, and cosmic rays. The FD-SOC model predicts correctly the size distributions of 8 out of these 12 astrophysical phenomena, and indicates non-standard scaling laws and measurement biases for the others.

  1. Macroscopic Mechanical Characterization of SMAs Fiber-Reinforced Hybrid Composite Under Uniaxial Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Hongshuai; Wang, Zhenqing; Tong, Liyong; Tang, Xiaojun

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation on the macroscopic mechanical behavior of shape memory alloys (SMAs) fiber-reinforced glass/resin composite subject to uniaxial loading at ambient temperature. A series of unidirectional SMAs reinforced composite laminates is fabricated through vacuum-assisted resin injection. Scanning electron microscopy is conducted to evaluate the interfacial cohesive quality between SMAs fiber and matrix. A theoretical model is proposed based on the SMAs phase transformation model and rule of mixture. Uniaxial tensile tests are performed to study the effects of weak interface and SMAs fiber volume fraction on the effective modulus of composite. Failure morphology of composite is discussed based on the observation using digital HF microscope. Due to the effects of phase transformation and weak interface, the overall stiffness of SMAs composite at the second stage is on average 10% lower than theoretical results. The rupture elongation of experimental result is approximately 13% higher than theoretical result. The local interfacial debonding between SMAs fiber and glass/resin matrix is the main failure mode.

  2. Buckling of regular, chiral and hierarchical honeycombs under a general macroscopic stress state

    PubMed Central

    Haghpanah, Babak; Papadopoulos, Jim; Mousanezhad, Davood; Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2014-01-01

    An approach to obtain analytical closed-form expressions for the macroscopic ‘buckling strength’ of various two-dimensional cellular structures is presented. The method is based on classical beam-column end-moment behaviour expressed in a matrix form. It is applied to sample honeycombs with square, triangular and hexagonal unit cells to determine their buckling strength under a general macroscopic in-plane stress state. The results were verified using finite-element Eigenvalue analysis. PMID:25002823

  3. Uncertainty limits for the macroscopic elastic moduli of random polycrystalline aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinh, Pham Duc

    2000-08-01

    Practical polycrystalline aggregates are expected to have macroscopic properties that depend upon the properties of constituent crystals and the aggregate geometry. Since that microgeometry is usually random, there will be some uncertainty in the observed macroscopic behavior of the aggregates. The general shape-independent upper and lower estimates for those uncertainty intervals for the elastic moduli of completely random polycrystals are constructed from the minimum energy and complementary energy principles. Applications to aggregates of cubic crystals are presented.

  4. Macroscopic transport equations in many-body systems from microscopic exclusion processes in disordered media: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanti, Marta; Fanelli, Duccio; Piazza, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Describing particle transport at the macroscopic or mesoscopic level in non-ideal environments poses fundamental theoretical challenges in domains ranging from inter and intra-cellular transport in biology to diffusion in porous media. Yet, often the nature of the constraints coming from many-body interactions or reflecting a complex and confining environment are better understood and modeled at the microscopic level. In this paper we review the subtle link between microscopic exclusion processes and the mean-field equations that ensue from them in the continuum limit. We show that in an inhomogeneous medium, i.e. when jumps are controlled by site-dependent hopping rates, one can obtain three different nonlinear advection-diffusion equations in the continuum limit, suitable for describing transport in the presence of quenched disorder and external fields, depending on the particular rule embodying site inequivalence at the microscopic level. In a situation that might be termed point-like scenario, when particles are treated as point-like objects, the effect of crowding as imposed at the microscopic level manifests in the mean-field equations only if some degree of inhomogeneity is enforced into the model. Conversely, when interacting agents are assigned a finite size, under the more realistic extended crowding framework, exclusion constraints persist in the unbiased macroscopic representation.

  5. Decomposing Complex, Macroscopic Phenomena Through A Set of Local Nonlinear Rules In A Cellular Automata Environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avolio, M. V.; Crisci, G. M.; D'Ambrosio, D.; di Gregorio, S.; Iovine, G.; Rongo, R.; Spataro, W.

    Cellular Automata (CA) are able to capture the peculiar characteristics of systems, whose global evolution can be exclusively described on the basis of local interactions among their constituent parts ("a-centrism"). Such systems match the paradigm of parallelism with the a-centrism one. In modelling complex phenomena by means of classical CA, elementary automata characterised by few states and simple transition function have usually been involved. On the other hand, many complex macroscopic phenomena (even though characterised by properties of parallelism and a-centrism) can be very difficult to be modelled through classical CA, because of their hetero- geneous characteristics, which require a very large number of states. For such cases, which perfectly fit the general definition of CA, more complex transition rules (differ- ing from typical transition functions) would be, in fact, needed. Aiming at modelling these latter phenomena, an empirical method has been developed, based on the decom- position of the phenomenon into "elementary" components, whose behaviour can be described through local rules. Furthermore, criteria and conditions have been defined, in order to translate the local rules into a transition function, as needed for perform- ing cellular automata simulations. Applications of CA models to real cases of study have recently been attempted: landslides (earth flows, rock avalanches, debris flows), lava flows, soil erosion, soil contamination and bioremediation, forest fires have all been analysed through CA simulations, and encouraging results have been obtained. In the present paper, examples of application of the method for hazard evaluation are described, with particular reference to the Sarno 1998 debris flows and the Etna 2001 lava flows.

  6. Exposure-time based modeling of nonlinear reactive transport in porous media subject to physical and geochemical heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Amos, Richard T.; Finkel, Michael; Blowes, David W.; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2016-09-01

    the two types of biomass at late times. Results obtained by mapping the exposure-time based results to the two-dimensional domain are compared with simulations based on the two-dimensional, spatially explicit advection-dispersion-reaction equation. Once quasi-steady state has been reached, we find a good agreement in terms of the chemical-compound concentrations between the two approaches inside the reactive zones, whereas the exposure-time based model is not able to capture reactions occurring in the zones with zero electron-donor release. We conclude that exposure-time models provide good approximations of nonlinear bio-reactive transport when transverse mixing is not the overall controlling process and all reactions are essentially restricted to distinct reactive zones.

  7. Exposure-time based modeling of nonlinear reactive transport in porous media subject to physical and geochemical heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Amos, Richard T; Finkel, Michael; Blowes, David W; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2016-09-01

    the two types of biomass at late times. Results obtained by mapping the exposure-time based results to the two-dimensional domain are compared with simulations based on the two-dimensional, spatially explicit advection-dispersion-reaction equation. Once quasi-steady state has been reached, we find a good agreement in terms of the chemical-compound concentrations between the two approaches inside the reactive zones, whereas the exposure-time based model is not able to capture reactions occurring in the zones with zero electron-donor release. We conclude that exposure-time models provide good approximations of nonlinear bio-reactive transport when transverse mixing is not the overall controlling process and all reactions are essentially restricted to distinct reactive zones.

  8. Exposure-time based modeling of nonlinear reactive transport in porous media subject to physical and geochemical heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Amos, Richard T; Finkel, Michael; Blowes, David W; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2016-09-01

    the two types of biomass at late times. Results obtained by mapping the exposure-time based results to the two-dimensional domain are compared with simulations based on the two-dimensional, spatially explicit advection-dispersion-reaction equation. Once quasi-steady state has been reached, we find a good agreement in terms of the chemical-compound concentrations between the two approaches inside the reactive zones, whereas the exposure-time based model is not able to capture reactions occurring in the zones with zero electron-donor release. We conclude that exposure-time models provide good approximations of nonlinear bio-reactive transport when transverse mixing is not the overall controlling process and all reactions are essentially restricted to distinct reactive zones. PMID:27343827

  9. Spatial self-organization of macroscopic quantum states of exciton-polaritons in acoustic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buller, J. V. T.; Cerda-Méndez, E. A.; Balderas-Navarro, R. E.; Biermann, K.; Santos, P. V.

    2016-07-01

    Exciton-polariton systems can sustain macroscopic quantum states (MQSs) under a periodic potential modulation. In this paper, we investigate the structure of these states in acoustic square lattices by probing their wave functions in real and momentum spaces using spectral tomography. We show that the polariton MQSs, when excited by a Gaussian laser beam, self-organize in a concentric structure, consisting of a single, two-dimensional gap-soliton (GS) state surrounded by one dimensional (1D) MQSs with lower energy. The latter form at hyperbolical points of the modulated polariton dispersion. While the size of the GS tends to saturate with increasing particle density, the emission region of the surrounding 1D states increases. The existence of these MQSs in acoustic lattices is quantitatively supported by a theoretical model based on the variational solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The formation of the 1D states in a ring around the central GS is attributed to the energy gradient in this region, which reduces the overall symmetry of the lattice. The results broaden the experimental understanding of self-localized polariton states, which may prove relevant for functionalities exploiting solitonic objects.

  10. Hierarchical macroscopic fibrillar adhesives: in situ study of buckling and adhesion mechanisms on wavy substrates.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christina T; Kroner, Elmar; Fleck, Norman A; Arzt, Eduard

    2015-10-23

    Nature uses hierarchical fibrillar structures to mediate temporary adhesion to arbitrary substrates. Such structures provide high compliance such that the flat fibril tips can be better positioned with respect to asperities of a wavy rough substrate. We investigated the buckling and adhesion of hierarchically structured adhesives in contact with flat smooth, flat rough and wavy rough substrates. A macroscopic model for the structural adhesive was fabricated by molding polydimethylsiloxane into pillars of diameter in the range of 0.3-4.8 mm, with up to three different hierarchy levels. Both flat-ended and mushroom-shaped hierarchical samples buckled at preloads one quarter that of the single level structures. We explain this behavior by a change in the buckling mode; buckling leads to a loss of contact and diminishes adhesion. Our results indicate that hierarchical structures can have a strong influence on the degree of adhesion on both flat and wavy substrates. Strategies are discussed that achieve highly compliant substrates which adhere to rough substrates.

  11. The tendon network of the fingers performs anatomical computation at a macroscopic scale.

    PubMed

    Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J; Yi, Jae-Woong; Brown, Daniel; McNamara, Robert V; Paul, Chandana; Lipson, Hood

    2007-06-01

    Current thinking attributes information processing for neuromuscular control exclusively to the nervous system. Our cadaveric experiments and computer simulations show, however, that the tendon network of the fingers performs logic computation to preferentially change torque production capabilities. How this tendon network propagates tension to enable manipulation has been debated since the time of Vesalius and DaVinci and remains an unanswered question. We systematically changed the proportion of tension to the tendons of the extensor digitorum versus the two dorsal interosseous muscles of two cadaver fingers and measured the tension delivered to the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints. We find that the distribution of input tensions in the tendon network itself regulates how tensions propagate to the finger joints, acting like the switching function of a logic gate that nonlinearly enables different torque production capabilities. Computer modeling reveals that the deformable structure of the tendon networks is responsible for this phenomenon; and that this switching behavior is an effective evolutionary solution permitting a rich repertoire of finger joint actuation not possible with simpler tendon paths. We conclude that the structural complexity of this tendon network, traditionally oversimplified or ignored, may in fact be critical to understanding brain-body coevolution and neuromuscular control. Moreover, this form of information processing at the macroscopic scale is a new instance of the emerging principle of nonneural "somatic logic" found to perform logic computation such as in cellular networks. PMID:17549909

  12. Theoretical study of vapor-liquid homogeneous nucleation using stability analysis of a macroscopic phase.

    PubMed

    Carreón-Calderón, Bernardo

    2012-10-14

    Stability analysis is generally used to verify that the solution to phase equilibrium calculations corresponds to a stable state (minimum of the free energy). In this work, tangent plane distance analysis for stability of macroscopic mixtures is also used for analyzing the nucleation process, reconciling thus this analysis with classical nucleation theories. In the context of the revised nucleation theory, the driving force and the nucleation work are expressed as a function of the Lagrange multiplier corresponding to the mole fraction constraint from the minimization problem of stability analysis. Using a van der Waals fluid applied to a ternary mixture, Lagrange multiplier properties are illustrated. In particular, it is shown how the Lagrange multiplier value is equal to one on the binodal and spinodal curves at the same time as the driving force of nucleation vanishes on these curves. Finally, it is shown that, on the spinodal curve, the nucleation work from the revised and generalized nucleation theories are characterized by two different local minima from stability analysis, irrespective of any interfacial tension models. PMID:23061836

  13. Effects of iterative learning based signal control strategies on macroscopic fundamental diagrams of urban road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fei; Tian, Fuli; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-10-01

    Urban traffic flows are inherently repeated on a daily or weekly basis. This repeatability can help improve the traffic conditions if it is used properly by the control system. In this paper, we propose a novel iterative learning control (ILC) strategy for traffic signals of urban road networks using the repeatability feature of traffic flow. To improve the control robustness, the ILC strategy is further integrated with an error feedback control law in a complementary manner. Theoretical analysis indicates that the ILC-based traffic signal control methods can guarantee the asymptotic learning convergence, despite the presence of modeling uncertainties and exogenous disturbances. Finally, the impacts of the ILC-based signal control strategies on the network macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) are examined. The results show that the proposed ILC-based control strategies can homogenously distribute the network accumulation by controlling the vehicle numbers in each link to the desired levels under different traffic demands, which can result in the network with high capacity and mobility.

  14. Connecting Macroscopic Observables and Microscopic Assembly Events in Amyloid Formation Using Coarse Grained Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Bieler, Noah S.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Frenkel, Daan; Vácha, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The pre-fibrillar stages of amyloid formation have been implicated in cellular toxicity, but have proved to be challenging to study directly in experiments and simulations. Rational strategies to suppress the formation of toxic amyloid oligomers require a better understanding of the mechanisms by which they are generated. We report Dynamical Monte Carlo simulations that allow us to study the early stages of amyloid formation. We use a generic, coarse-grained model of an amyloidogenic peptide that has two internal states: the first one representing the soluble random coil structure and the second one the -sheet conformation. We find that this system exhibits a propensity towards fibrillar self-assembly following the formation of a critical nucleus. Our calculations establish connections between the early nucleation events and the kinetic information available in the later stages of the aggregation process that are commonly probed in experiments. We analyze the kinetic behaviour in our simulations within the framework of the theory of classical nucleated polymerisation, and are able to connect the structural events at the early stages in amyloid growth with the resulting macroscopic observables such as the effective nucleus size. Furthermore, the free-energy landscapes that emerge from these simulations allow us to identify pertinent properties of the monomeric state that could be targeted to suppress oligomer formation. PMID:23071427

  15. Theoretical study of vapor-liquid homogeneous nucleation using stability analysis of a macroscopic phase.

    PubMed

    Carreón-Calderón, Bernardo

    2012-10-14

    Stability analysis is generally used to verify that the solution to phase equilibrium calculations corresponds to a stable state (minimum of the free energy). In this work, tangent plane distance analysis for stability of macroscopic mixtures is also used for analyzing the nucleation process, reconciling thus this analysis with classical nucleation theories. In the context of the revised nucleation theory, the driving force and the nucleation work are expressed as a function of the Lagrange multiplier corresponding to the mole fraction constraint from the minimization problem of stability analysis. Using a van der Waals fluid applied to a ternary mixture, Lagrange multiplier properties are illustrated. In particular, it is shown how the Lagrange multiplier value is equal to one on the binodal and spinodal curves at the same time as the driving force of nucleation vanishes on these curves. Finally, it is shown that, on the spinodal curve, the nucleation work from the revised and generalized nucleation theories are characterized by two different local minima from stability analysis, irrespective of any interfacial tension models.

  16. How coupled elementary units determine the dynamics of macroscopic glass-forming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehwald, Christian; Heuer, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a binary mixture Lennard-Jones system of different system sizes with respect to the importance of the properties of the underlying potential energy landscape (PEL). We show that the dynamics of small systems can be very well described within the continuous time random walk formalism, which is determined solely by PEL parameters. Finite size analysis shows that the diffusivity of large and small systems are very similar. This suggests that the PEL parameters of the small system also determine the local dynamics in large systems. The structural relaxation time, however, displays significant finite size effects. Furthermore, using a nonequilibrium configuration of a large system, we find that causal connections exist between nearby regions of the system. These findings can be described by the coupled landscape model for which a macroscopic system is described by a superposition of elementary systems, each described by its PEL. A minimum coupling is introduced which accounts for the finite size behavior. The coupling strength, as the single adjustable parameter, becomes smaller closer to the glass transition.

  17. Construction of macroscopic cytomimetic vesicle aggregates based on click chemistry: controllable vesicle fusion and phase separation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Haibao; Huang, Wei; Zheng, Yongli; Zhou, Yongfeng; Yan, Deyue

    2012-07-01

    Vesicle-vesicle aggregation to mimic cell-cell aggregation has attracted much attention. Here, hyperbranched polymer vesicles (branched-polymersomes, BPs) with a cell-like size were selected as model membranes, and the vesicle aggregation process, triggered by click chemistry of the copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction, was systematically studied. For this purpose, azide and alkynyl groups were loaded on the membranes of BPs through the co-assembly method to obtain N(3)-BPs and Alk-BPs, respectively. Subsequently, macroscopic vesicle aggregates were obtained when these two kinds of functional BPs were mixed together with the ratio of azide to alkynyl groups of about 1:1. Both the vesicle fusion events and lateral phase separation on the vesicle membrane occurred during such a vesicle aggregation process, and the fusion rate and phase-separation degree could be controlled by adjusting the clickable group content. The vesicle aggregation process with N(3) -micelles as desmosome mimics to connect with Alk-BPs through click-chemistry reaction was also studied, and large-scale vesicle aggregates without vesicle fusion were obtained in this process. The present work has extended the controllable cytomimetic vesicle aggregation process with the use of covalent bonds, instead of noncovalent bonds, as the driving force.

  18. Temporal analysis of optical beams in biased photorefractive materials in the context of solitonic solutions: microscopic and macroscopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichtowski, Marek; Ziółkowski, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The validity of the commonly used time-dependent wave equation describing the propagation of screening one-dimensional solitons in photorefractive materials is discussed. Concentrating attention on temporal development of the space-charge field, we show that the widely used standard solution follows from a phenomenological description, which is consistent with the band transport model equations only in specific cases. The exact analytical solution for the localized optical beam is derived within the microscopic model under a low contrast approximation. The numerical modeling of photorefractive response to an arbitrary contrast is performed and compared with standard solutions. The range of applicability of the macroscopic approach for three basic classes of photorefractive crystals is discussed.

  19. Magnetic susceptibility anisotropy: cylindrical symmetry from macroscopically ordered anisotropic molecules and accuracy of MRI measurements using few orientations.

    PubMed

    Wisnieff, Cynthia; Liu, Tian; Spincemaille, Pascal; Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Yi

    2013-04-15

    White matter is an essential component of the central nervous system and is of major concern in neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent MRI studies have explored the unique anisotropic magnetic properties of white matter using susceptibility tensor imaging. However, these measurements are inhibited in practice by the large number of different head orientations needed to accurately reconstruct the susceptibility tensor. Adding reasonable constraints reduces the number of model parameters and can help condition the tensor reconstruction from a small number of orientations. The macroscopic magnetic susceptibility is decomposed as a sum of molecular magnetic polarizabilities, demonstrating that macroscopic order in molecular arrangement is essential to the existence of and symmetry in susceptibility anisotropy and cylindrical symmetry is a natural outcome of an ordered molecular arrangement. Noise propagation in the susceptibility tensor reconstruction is analyzed through its condition number, showing that the tensor reconstruction is highly susceptible to the distribution of acquired subject orientations and to the tensor symmetry properties, with a substantial over- or under-estimation of susceptibility anisotropy in fiber directions not favorably oriented with respect to the acquired orientations. It was found that a careful acquisition of three non-coplanar orientations and the use of cylindrical symmetry guided by diffusion tensor imaging allowed reasonable estimation of magnetic susceptibility anisotropy in certain major white matter tracts in the human brain. PMID:23296181

  20. Characterization and Correlation of Particle-Level Interactions to the Macroscopic Rheology of Powders, Granular Slurries, and Colloidal Suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Poloski, Adam P.; Daniel, Richard C.; Rector, David R.; Bredt, Paul R.; Buck, Edgar C.; Berg, John C.; Saez, Avelino E.

    2006-09-29

    Hanford TRU tank sludges are complex mixtures of undissolved minerals and salt solids in an aqueous phase of high ionic strength. They show complex rheological behavior resulting from interactions at the macroscopic level, such as interparticle friction between grains in the coarse fraction, as well as from interactions at the nano-scale level, such as the agglomeration of colloidal particles. An understanding of how phenomena such as interparticle friction and aggregate stability under shear will allow better control of Hanford TRU tank sludges being processed for disposal. The project described in this report had two objectives. The first was to understand the physical properties and behavior of the Hanford transuranic (TRU) tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging, and transportation for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The second objective was to develop a fundamental understanding of sludge physical properties by correlating the macroscopic behavior with interactions occurring at the particle/colloidal scale. These objectives were accomplished by: 1) developing continuum models for coarse granular slurries and 2) studying the behavior of colloidal agglomerates under shear and under irradiation.

  1. Thermal Equilibrium of a Macroscopic Quantum System in a Pure State.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Huse, David A; Lebowitz, Joel L; Tumulka, Roderich

    2015-09-01

    We consider the notion of thermal equilibrium for an individual closed macroscopic quantum system in a pure state, i.e., described by a wave function. The macroscopic properties in thermal equilibrium of such a system, determined by its wave function, must be the same as those obtained from thermodynamics, e.g., spatial uniformity of temperature and chemical potential. When this is true we say that the system is in macroscopic thermal equilibrium (MATE). Such a system may, however, not be in microscopic thermal equilibrium (MITE). The latter requires that the reduced density matrices of small subsystems be close to those obtained from the microcanonical, equivalently the canonical, ensemble for the whole system. The distinction between MITE and MATE is particularly relevant for systems with many-body localization for which the energy eigenfuctions fail to be in MITE while necessarily most of them, but not all, are in MATE. We note, however, that for generic macroscopic systems, including those with MBL, most wave functions in an energy shell are in both MATE and MITE. For a classical macroscopic system, MATE holds for most phase points on the energy surface, but MITE fails to hold for any phase point.

  2. Hydrodynamic description of elastic or viscoelastic composite materials: Relative strains as macroscopic variables.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Andreas M

    2016-08-01

    One possibility to adjust material properties to a specific need is to embed units of one substance into a matrix of another substance. Even materials that are readily tunable during operation can be generated in this way. In (visco)elastic substances, both the matrix material as well as the inclusions and/or their immediate environment can be dynamically deformed. If the typical dynamic response time of the inclusions and their surroundings approach the macroscopic response time, their deformation processes need to be included into a dynamic macroscopic characterization. Along these lines, we present a hydrodynamic description of (visco)elastic composite materials. For this purpose, additional strain variables reflect the state of the inclusions and their immediate environment. These additional strain variables in general are not set by a coarse-grained macroscopic displacement field. Apart from that, during our derivation, we also include the macroscopic variables of relative translations and relative rotations that were previously introduced in different contexts. As a central point, our approach reveals and classifies the importance of a macroscopic variable termed relative strains. We analyze two simplified minimal example geometries as an illustration. PMID:27627384

  3. Tough and Thermosensitive Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/Graphene Oxide Hydrogels with Macroscopically Oriented Liquid Crystalline Structures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhongcheng; Li, Yang; Xu, Hui; Peng, Xin; Chen, Ya-Nan; Shang, Cong; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Huiliang

    2016-06-22

    Bulk graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite materials with macroscopically oriented GO liquid crystalline (LC) structures exhibit interesting anisotropic properties, but their facile preparations remain challenging. This work reports for the first time the facile preparation of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)/GO nanocomposite hydrogels with macroscopically oriented LC structures with the assistance of a flow field induced by vacuum degassing and the in situ polymerization accelerated by GO. The hydrogel prepared with a GO concentration of 5.0 mg mL(-1) exhibits macroscopically aligned LC structures, which endow the gels with anisotropic optical, mechanical properties, and dimensional changes during the phase transition. The hydrogels show dramatically enhanced tensile mechanical properties and phase transition rates. The oriented LC structures are not damaged during the phase transition of the PNIPAM/GO hydrogels, and hence their LC behavior undergoes reversible change. Moreover, highly oriented LC structures can also be formed when the gels are elongated, even for the gels which do not have macroscopically oriented LC structures. Very impressively, the oriented LC structures in the hydrogels can be permanently maintained by drying the gel samples elongated to and then kept at a constant tensile strain. The thermosensitive nature of PNIPAM and the angle-dependent nature of the macroscopically aligned GO LC structures allow the practical applications of the PNIPAM/GO hydrogels as optical switches, soft sensors, and actuators and so on.

  4. Hydrodynamic description of elastic or viscoelastic composite materials: Relative strains as macroscopic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Andreas M.

    2016-08-01

    One possibility to adjust material properties to a specific need is to embed units of one substance into a matrix of another substance. Even materials that are readily tunable during operation can be generated in this way. In (visco)elastic substances, both the matrix material as well as the inclusions and/or their immediate environment can be dynamically deformed. If the typical dynamic response time of the inclusions and their surroundings approach the macroscopic response time, their deformation processes need to be included into a dynamic macroscopic characterization. Along these lines, we present a hydrodynamic description of (visco)elastic composite materials. For this purpose, additional strain variables reflect the state of the inclusions and their immediate environment. These additional strain variables in general are not set by a coarse-grained macroscopic displacement field. Apart from that, during our derivation, we also include the macroscopic variables of relative translations and relative rotations that were previously introduced in different contexts. As a central point, our approach reveals and classifies the importance of a macroscopic variable termed relative strains. We analyze two simplified minimal example geometries as an illustration.

  5. Thermal Equilibrium of a Macroscopic Quantum System in a Pure State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Huse, David A.; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Tumulka, Roderich

    2015-09-01

    We consider the notion of thermal equilibrium for an individual closed macroscopic quantum system in a pure state, i.e., described by a wave function. The macroscopic properties in thermal equilibrium of such a system, determined by its wave function, must be the same as those obtained from thermodynamics, e.g., spatial uniformity of temperature and chemical potential. When this is true we say that the system is in macroscopic thermal equilibrium (MATE). Such a system may, however, not be in microscopic thermal equilibrium (MITE). The latter requires that the reduced density matrices of small subsystems be close to those obtained from the microcanonical, equivalently the canonical, ensemble for the whole system. The distinction between MITE and MATE is particularly relevant for systems with many-body localization for which the energy eigenfuctions fail to be in MITE while necessarily most of them, but not all, are in MATE. We note, however, that for generic macroscopic systems, including those with MBL, most wave functions in an energy shell are in both MATE and MITE. For a classical macroscopic system, MATE holds for most phase points on the energy surface, but MITE fails to hold for any phase point.

  6. Crack Coalescence in Molded Gypsum and Carrara Marble: Part 1. Macroscopic Observations and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, L. N. Y.; Einstein, H. H.

    2009-06-01

    Cracking and coalescence behavior has been studied experimentally with prismatic laboratory-molded gypsum and Carrara marble specimens containing two parallel pre-existing open flaws. This was done at both the macroscopic and the microscopic scales, and the results are presented in two separate papers. This paper (the first of two) summarizes the macroscopic experimental results and investigates the influence of the different flaw geometries and material, on the cracking processes. In the companion paper (also in this issue), most of the macroscopic deformation and cracking processes shown in this present paper will be related to the underlying microscopic changes. In the present study, a high speed video system was used, which allowed us to precisely observe the cracking mechanisms. Nine crack coalescence categories with different crack types and trajectories were identified. The flaw inclination angle ( β), the ligament length ( L), that is, intact rock length between the flaws, and the bridging angle ( α), that is, the inclination of a line linking up the inner flaw tips, between two flaws, had different effects on the coalescence patterns. One of the pronounced differences observed between marble and gypsum during the compression loading test was the development of macroscopic white patches prior to the initiation of macroscopic cracks in marble, but not in gypsum. Comparing the cracking and coalescence behaviors in the two tested materials, tensile cracking generally occurred more often in marble than in gypsum for the same flaw pair geometries.

  7. Pore-scale dispersion: Bridging the gap between microscopic pore structure and the emerging macroscopic transport behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Daniel W.; Bijeljic, Branko

    2016-07-01

    We devise an efficient methodology to provide a universal statistical description of advection-dominated dispersion (Péclet→∞ ) in natural porous media including carbonates. First, we investigate the dispersion of tracer particles by direct numerical simulation (DNS). The transverse dispersion is found to be essentially determined by the tortuosity and it approaches a Fickian limit within a dozen characteristic scales. Longitudinal dispersion was found to be Fickian in the limit for bead packs and superdiffusive for all other natural media inspected. We demonstrate that the Lagrangian velocity correlation length is a quantity that characterizes the spatial variability for transport. Finally, a statistical transport model is presented that sheds light on the connection between pore-scale characteristics and the resulting macroscopic transport behavior. Our computationally efficient model accurately reproduces the transport behavior in longitudinal direction and approaches the Fickian limit in transverse direction.

  8. Pore-scale dispersion: Bridging the gap between microscopic pore structure and the emerging macroscopic transport behavior.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Daniel W; Bijeljic, Branko

    2016-07-01

    We devise an efficient methodology to provide a universal statistical description of advection-dominated dispersion (Péclet→∞) in natural porous media including carbonates. First, we investigate the dispersion of tracer particles by direct numerical simulation (DNS). The transverse dispersion is found to be essentially determined by the tortuosity and it approaches a Fickian limit within a dozen characteristic scales. Longitudinal dispersion was found to be Fickian in the limit for bead packs and superdiffusive for all other natural media inspected. We demonstrate that the Lagrangian velocity correlation length is a quantity that characterizes the spatial variability for transport. Finally, a statistical transport model is presented that sheds light on the connection between pore-scale characteristics and the resulting macroscopic transport behavior. Our computationally efficient model accurately reproduces the transport behavior in longitudinal direction and approaches the Fickian limit in transverse direction. PMID:27575217

  9. Active traffic management on road networks: a macroscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Kurzhanskiy, Alex A; Varaiya, Pravin

    2010-10-13

    Active traffic management (ATM) is the ability to dynamically manage recurrent and non-recurrent congestion based on prevailing traffic conditions in order to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of road networks. It is a continuous process of (i) obtaining and analysing traffic measurement data, (ii) operations planning, i.e. simulating various scenarios and control strategies, (iii) implementing the most promising control strategies in the field, and (iv) maintaining a real-time decision support system that filters current traffic measurements to predict the traffic state in the near future, and to suggest the best available control strategy for the predicted situation. ATM relies on a fast and trusted traffic simulator for the rapid quantitative assessment of a large number of control strategies for the road network under various scenarios, in a matter of minutes. The open-source macrosimulation tool Aurora ROAD NETWORK MODELER is a good candidate for this purpose. The paper describes the underlying dynamical traffic model and what it takes to prepare the model for simulation; covers the traffic performance measures and evaluation of scenarios as part of operations planning; introduces the framework within which the control strategies are modelled and evaluated; and presents the algorithm for real-time traffic state estimation and short-term prediction.

  10. Thermodynamic mixing of molecular states of the epidermal growth factor receptor modulates macroscopic ligand binding affinity.

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, M R; Slakey, L L; Gross, D J

    2000-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr), when expressed on the cell surface, has long been known to display two distinct affinities for epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding. In addition, the treatment of cells expressing the EGFr with phorbol esters has been shown to cause a loss of the high-affinity binding capacity of the receptor. In the present study, point mutations that alter acidic or phosphorylation sites have been made in an intracellular domain near Tyr-992 (residues 988-992) of the EGFr. Equilibrium (125)I-EGF binding studies demonstrate that the conversion of Tyr-992 into glutamate induces a 4-fold decrease in the EGFr apparent low-affinity dissociation constant, whereas the mutation of two acidic residues, Asp-988 and Glu-991, or the conversion of Tyr-992 into phenylalanine does not alter EGFr affinity. Phorbol ester treatment of EGFr-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells results in a loss of high-affinity binding and an increase in the apparent low-affinity dissociation constant of the receptor, similar to the effect of a truncation mutant in which the C-terminal 190 residues are deleted. These results are examined in the context of a new model for regulation of the affinity of the EGFr for EGF in which a cytosolic particle stabilizes the high-affinity conformation of the EGFr and a rapid equilibrium exists between EGFr high-affinity and low-affinity conformations. This model demonstrates that the macroscopic affinities of the EGFr can differ from the affinities of individual EGFr molecules and provides a theoretical framework whereby the measured affinities of the EGFr are modulated by intracellular interactions. PMID:11062062

  11. A macroscopic plasma Lagrangian and its application to wave interactions and resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Y. K. M.

    1974-01-01

    The derivation of a macroscopic plasma Lagrangian is considered, along with its application to the description of nonlinear three-wave interaction in a homogeneous plasma and linear resonance oscillations in a inhomogeneous plasma. One approach to obtain the Lagrangian is via the inverse problem of the calculus of variations for arbitrary first and second order quasilinear partial differential systems. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the given equations to be Euler-Lagrange equations of a Lagrangian are obtained. These conditions are then used to determine the transformations that convert some classes of non-Euler-Lagrange equations to Euler-Lagrange equation form. The Lagrangians for a linear resistive transmission line and a linear warm collisional plasma are derived as examples. Using energy considerations, the correct macroscopic plasma Lagrangian is shown to differ from the velocity-integrated low Lagrangian by a macroscopic potential energy that equals twice the particle thermal kinetic energy plus the energy lost by heat conduction.

  12. Student views of macroscopic and microscopic energy in physics and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W.; Redish, Edward F.; Watkins, Jessica

    2012-02-01

    Energy concepts are fundamental across the sciences, yet these concepts can be fragmented along disciplinary boundaries, rather than integrated into a coherent whole. To teach physics effectively to biology students, we need to understand students' disciplinary perspectives. We present interview data from an undergraduate student who displays multiple stances towards the concept of energy. At times he views energy in macroscopic contexts as a separate entity from energy in microscopic (particularly biological) contexts, while at other times he uses macroscopic physics phenomena as productive analogies for understanding energy in the microscopic biological context, and he reasons about energy transformations between the microscopic and macroscopic scales. This case study displays preliminary evidence for the context dependence of students' ability to translate energy concepts across scientific disciplines. This points to challenges that must be taken into account in developing curricula for biology students that integrate physics and biology concepts.

  13. Macroscopic photocontrol of ion-transporting pathways of a nanostructured imidazolium-based photoresponsive liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Soberats, Bartolome; Uchida, Emi; Yoshio, Masafumi; Kagimoto, Junko; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Kato, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    The photocontrol of the macroscopic alignment of nanostructured 2D ion-transporting pathways is described. The uniplanar homogeneous alignment of the thermotropic smectic (Sm) liquid-crystalline (LC) phase has been successfully achieved via photoinduced reorientation of the azobenzene groups of the imidazolium-based LC material. The ionic layers of the Sm LC phase are macroscopically oriented perpendicular to the surface of the glass substrate. The oriented films show anisotropic ion conduction in the Sm phase. This is the first example of the macroscopic photoalignment of ion-conductive LC arrays. Reversible switching of homeotropic and homogeneous alignments has also been achieved for the LC material. These materials and the alignment methodology may be useful in the development of ion-based circuits and memory devices. PMID:24958446

  14. Bouncing droplets: a classroom experiment to visualize wave-particle duality on the macroscopic level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleutel, Pascal; Dietrich, Erik; Van der Veen, Jan T.; van Joolingen, Wouter R.

    2016-09-01

    This study brings a recently discovered macroscopic phenomenon with wave-particle characteristics into the classroom. The system consists of a liquid droplet levitating over a vertically shaken liquid pool. The droplets allow visualization of a wave-particle system in a directly observable way. We show how to interpret this macroscopic phenomenon and how to set up and carry out this experiment. A class of students performed single slit diffraction experiments with droplets. By scoring individual droplet trajectories students find a diffraction pattern. This pilot application in the classroom shows that students can study and discuss the wave-particle nature of the bouncing droplet experiment. The experiment therefore provides a useful opportunity to show wave-particle behavior on the macroscopic level.

  15. Correlations between Nanoindentation Hardness and Macroscopic Mechanical Properties in DP980 Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Mark D.; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Sun, Xin; Matlock, David K.; Packard, Corrine; Xu, Le; Barlat, Frederic

    2014-03-01

    Multiphase advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are being increasingly used in the automotive industry due to their low cost, good availability and excellent combination of strength and ductility. There is a keen interest from the automotive and steel industry for more fundamental understandings on the key microstructure features influencing the macroscopic properties, i.e., tensile properties, hole-expansion ratio and localized formability of AHSS. In this study, the micro- and macro-level properties for eight commercial DP980 steels are first characterized and quantified with various experimental methods. Correlations between macroscopic-level properties and relationships between various micro- and macro- properties for these steels are then established based on the experimental measurements. It is found that, despite their differences in their chemistry, processing parameters and sheet thickness, the eight DP980 steels do have common microstructural level properties governing their specific macroscopic properties in terms of strength, elongation and hole expansion performance.

  16. The effect of interlayer adhesion on the mechanical behaviors of macroscopic graphene oxide papers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yun; Liu, Lu-Qi; Zu, Sheng-Zhen; Peng, Ke; Zhou, Ding; Han, Bao-Hang; Zhang, Zhong

    2011-03-22

    High mechanical performances of macroscopic graphene oxide (GO) papers are attracting great interest owing to their merits of lightweight and multiple functionalities. However, the loading role of individual nanosheets and its effect on the mechanical properties of the macroscopic GO papers are not yet well understood. Herein, we effectively tailored the interlayer adhesions of the GO papers by introducing small molecules, that is, glutaraldehyde (GA) and water molecules, into the gallery regions. With the help of in situ Raman spectroscopy, we compared the varied load-reinforcing roles of nanosheets, and further predicted the Young's moduli of the GO papers. Systematic mechanical tests have proven that the enhancement of the tensile modulus and strength of the GA-treated GO paper arose from the improved load-bearing capability of the nanosheets. On the basis of Raman and macroscopic mechanical tests, the influences of interlayer adhesions on the fracture mechanisms of the strained GO papers were inferred.

  17. Bouncing droplets: a classroom experiment to visualize wave-particle duality on the macroscopic level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleutel, Pascal; Dietrich, Erik; Van der Veen, Jan T.; van Joolingen, Wouter R.

    2016-09-01

    This study brings a recently discovered macroscopic phenomenon with wave-particle characteristics into the classroom. The system consists of a liquid droplet levitating over a vertically shaken liquid pool. The droplets allow visualization of a wave–particle system in a directly observable way. We show how to interpret this macroscopic phenomenon and how to set up and carry out this experiment. A class of students performed single slit diffraction experiments with droplets. By scoring individual droplet trajectories students find a diffraction pattern. This pilot application in the classroom shows that students can study and discuss the wave–particle nature of the bouncing droplet experiment. The experiment therefore provides a useful opportunity to show wave–particle behavior on the macroscopic level.

  18. Macroscopic description of a subdiffusion-controlled bimolecular reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Shkilev, V. P.

    2009-11-15

    The random trap model is used to derive equations describing reaction-subdiffusion systems with diffusion-controlled (infinitely fast) bimolecular reaction. A hierarchy of equations in terms of distribution functions is closed by using a quasi-equilibrium condition in the equation for the two-particle distribution function. The reaction terms in the resulting equations contain products between concentrations and diffusion jump rates, rather than products of concentrations as dictated by the law of mass action. The same equations are also derived in the framework of a nonlinear continuous-time random walk model. The equations are used to show that inhomogeneity of the medium may manifest itself by fractional-order reaction terms.

  19. Macroscopic Measurement of Resonant Magnetization Tunneling in High-Spin Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Jonathan R.; Sarachik, M. P.; Tejada, J.; Ziolo, R.

    1996-05-01

    We report the observation of steps at regular intervals of magnetic field in the hysteresis loop of a macroscopic sample of oriented Mn12O12(CH3COO)16(H2O)4 crystals. The magnetic relaxation rate increases substantially when the field is tuned to a step. We propose that these effects are manifestations of thermally assisted, field-tuned resonant tunneling between quantum spin states, and attribute the observation of quantum-mechanical phenomena on a macroscopic scale to tunneling in a large (Avogadro's) number of magnetically identical molecules.

  20. Concise relation of substitution energy to macroscopic deformation in a deformed system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Wei-Lu; Fang, Q. F.; Liu, C. S.; Huang, Qun-Ying; Wu, Yi-Can

    2011-12-01

    An ab initio study of the effect of macroscopic deformation on energetics of twelve alloying elements in bcc Fe has been performed under three specially designed strain modes. A concise relation of the macroscopic deformation effect on the substitution energy of alloying elements with linear dependences on defect formation volume and relative volume change was found. Based on this concise relationship, the following behaviors can be predicted by comparing defect formation volumes: the strain-induced solubility change of alloying atoms and then the degree or possibility of redistribution and segregation of alloying atoms, the stability transition between monovacancy and divacancy, and self-interstitial atom reorientation under heavy loading.

  1. Macroscopic crack formation and extension in pristine and artificially aged PBX 9501

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Cheng; Thompson, Darla G

    2010-01-01

    A technique has been developed to quantitatively describe macroscopic cracks, both their location and extent, in heterogeneous high explosive and mock materials. By combining such a technique with the deformation field measurement using digital image correlation (DIC), we conduct observation and measurement of the initiation, extension, and coalescence of internal cracks in the compression of Brazilian disk made of pristine and artificially aged PBX 9501 hjgh explosives. Our results conclude quantitatively that aged PBX 9501 is not only weaker but also much more brittle than the pristine one, thus is more susceptible to macroscopic cracking.

  2. Light tries the expert eye: the introduction of photography in nineteenth-century macroscopic neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    de Rijcke, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    It is often argued that photography's scientific inauguration meaningfully coincided with a shift towards the ideal of mechanical objectivity. Values of disinterestedness and precision were readily attributed to photography and were cherished by the emerging field of neurology as well. However, after the publication of the first neuroanatomical atlas to contain photographs, Jules Bernard Luys' Iconographie Photographique des Centres Nerveux (1873), the use of photography in macroscopic neuroanatomy remained rare. The present article sketches this largely overlooked terrain of investigation and will expand on why in macroscopical neuroanatomy photography failed to offer a satisfactory alternative to drawing or engraving.

  3. Departure of microscopic friction from macroscopic drag in molecular fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hanasaki, Itsuo; Fujiwara, Daiki; Kawano, Satoyuki

    2016-03-01

    Friction coefficient of the Langevin equation and drag of spherical macroscopic objects in steady flow at low Reynolds numbers are usually regarded as equivalent. We show that the microscopic friction can be different from the macroscopic drag when the mass is taken into account for particles with comparable scale to the surrounding fluid molecules. We illustrate it numerically by molecular dynamics simulation of chloride ion in water. Friction variation by the atomistic mass effect beyond the Langevin regime can be of use in the drag reduction technology as well as the electro or thermophoresis.

  4. Metastable states and macroscopic quantum tunneling in a cold atom josephson ring

    SciTech Connect

    Solenov, Dmitry; Mozyrsky, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    We study macroscopic properties of a system of weakly interacting neutral bosons confined in a ring-shaped potential with a Josephson junction. We derive an effective low energy action for this system and evaluate its properties. In particular we find that the system possesses a set of metastable current-carrying states and evaluate the rates of transitions between these states due to macroscopic quantum tunneling. Finally we discuss signatures of different metastable states in the time-of-flight images and argue that the effect is observable within currently available experimental technique.

  5. Addressing a single spin in diamond with a macroscopic dielectric microwave cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Le Floch, J.-M.; Tobar, M. E.; Bradac, C.; Nand, N.; Volz, T.; Castelletto, S.

    2014-09-29

    We present a technique for addressing single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center spins in diamond over macroscopic distances using a tunable dielectric microwave cavity. We demonstrate optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) for a single negatively charged NV center (NV{sup –}) in a nanodiamond (ND) located directly under the macroscopic microwave cavity. By moving the cavity relative to the ND, we record the ODMR signal as a function of position, mapping out the distribution of the cavity magnetic field along one axis. In addition, we argue that our system could be used to determine the orientation of the NV{sup –} major axis in a straightforward manner.

  6. Anomalous current-voltage characteristics due to macroscopic resonant tunneling in a small Josephson junction

    SciTech Connect

    Hatakenaka, N.; Kurihara, S. ); Takayanagi, H. )

    1990-09-01

    Current-voltage characteristics of a small Josephson junction are studied, taking into account quantized energy levels in the Josephson potential. In the energy regions where the Josephson coupling energy is greater than the charging energy at zero temperature, it is predicted that voltage spikes in a usual zero-voltage state branch will appear due to resonant phase slips by macroscopic quantum tunneling. These spikes are very different from those expected by the Bloch oscillation mechanism based on the band motion of the macroscopic variable.

  7. Networks of theta neurons with time-varying excitability: Macroscopic chaos, multistability, and final-state uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Paul; Luke, Tanushree B.; Barreto, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    Using recently developed analytical techniques, we study the macroscopic dynamics of a large heterogeneous network of theta neurons in which the neurons’ excitability parameter varies in time. We demonstrate that such periodic variation can lead to the emergence of macroscopic chaos, multistability, and final-state uncertainty in the collective behavior of the network. Finite-size network effects and rudimentary control via an accessible macroscopic network parameter is also investigated.

  8. Macroscopic diffusive transport in a microscopically integrable Hamiltonian system.

    PubMed

    Prosen, Tomaž; Zunkovič, Bojan

    2013-07-26

    We demonstrate that a completely integrable classical mechanical model, namely the lattice Landau-Lifshitz classical spin chain, supports diffusive spin transport with a finite diffusion constant in the easy-axis regime, while in the easy-plane regime, it displays ballistic transport in the absence of any known relevant local or quasilocal constant of motion in the symmetry sector of the spin current. This surprising finding should open the way towards analytical computation of diffusion constants for integrable interacting systems and hints on the existence of new quasilocal classical conservation laws beyond the standard soliton theory.

  9. Liquid mixing driven motions of floating macroscopic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming

    2007-04-01

    Dropping miscible and low-density organic solvents into water generates translational and rotational motions of floating objects including oil droplets, polymer half spheres, and model boats. The moving speed of the boat at different loads and the force produced by solvent drops are measured. In contrast to motions driven by surface tension of monolayer, the liquid mixing driven motion can be dynamically steered without restriction and continued provided the supply is maintained and the amount of water is large enough. Such motions are the result of Marangoni instability in binary liquid-liquid systems with intentionally produced concentration gradients behind the floating objects.

  10. Nonisothermal Brownian motion: Thermophoresis as the macroscopic manifestation of thermally biased molecular motion.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Howard

    2005-12-01

    A quiescent single-component gravity-free gas subject to a small steady uniform temperature gradient T, despite being at rest, is shown to experience a drift velocity UD=-D* gradient ln T, where D* is the gas's nonisothermal self-diffusion coefficient. D* is identified as being the gas's thermometric diffusivity alpha. The latter differs from the gas's isothermal isotopic self-diffusion coefficient D, albeit only slightly. Two independent derivations are given of this drift velocity formula, one kinematical and the other dynamical, both derivations being strictly macroscopic in nature. Within modest experimental and theoretical uncertainties, this virtual drift velocity UD=-alpha gradient ln T is shown to be constitutively and phenomenologically indistinguishable from the well-known experimental and theoretical formulas for the thermophoretic velocity U of a macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian) non-heat-conducting particle moving under the influence of a uniform temperature gradient through an otherwise quiescent single-component rarefied gas continuum at small Knudsen numbers. Coupled with the size independence of the particle's thermophoretic velocity, the empirically observed equality, U=UD, leads naturally to the hypothesis that these two velocities, the former real and the latter virtual, are, in fact, simply manifestations of the same underlying molecular phenomenon, namely the gas's Brownian movement, albeit biased by the temperature gradient. This purely hydrodynamic continuum-mechanical equality is confirmed by theoretical calculations effected at the kinetic-molecular level on the basis of an existing solution of the Boltzmann equation for a quasi-Lorentzian gas, modulo small uncertainties pertaining to the choice of collision model. Explicitly, this asymptotically valid molecular model allows the virtual drift velocity UD of the light gas and the thermophoretic velocity U of the massive, effectively non-Brownian, particle, now regarded as the tracer particle

  11. Isotopic fractionation by transverse dispersion: flow-through microcosms and reactive transport modeling study.

    PubMed

    Rolle, Massimo; Chiogna, Gabriele; Bauer, Robert; Griebler, Christian; Grathwohl, Peter

    2010-08-15

    Flow-through experiments were carried out to investigate the role of transverse dispersion on the isotopic behavior of an organic compound during conservative and bioreactive transport in a homogeneous porous medium. Ethylbenzene was selected as model contaminant and a mixture of labeled (perdeuterated) and light isotopologues was continuously injected in a quasi two-dimensional flow-through system. We observed a significant fractionation of ethylbenzene isotopologues during conservative transport at steady state. This effect was particularly pronounced at the plume fringe and contrasted with the common assumption that physical processes only provide a negligible contribution to isotope fractionation. Under the experimental steady state conditions, transverse hydrodynamic dispersion was the only process that could have caused the observed fractionation. Therefore, the measured isotope ratios at the outlet ports were interpreted with different parameterizations of the transverse dispersion coefficient. A nonlinear compound-specific parameterization showed the best agreement with the experimental data. Successively, bioreactive experiments were performed in two subsequent stages: a first oxic phase, involving a single strain of ethylbenzene degraders and a second phase with aerobic and anaerobic (i.e., ethylbenzene oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction) degradation. Significant fractionation through biodegradation occurred exclusively due to the metabolic activity of the anaerobic degraders. We performed analytical and numerical reactive transport simulations of the different experimental phases which confirmed that both the effects of physical processes (diffusion and dispersion) and microbially mediated reactions have to be considered to match the observed isotopic fractionation behavior.

  12. Engineering the quantum transport of atomic wavefunctions over macroscopic distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, A.; Ivanov, V. V.; Tino, G. M.; Ferrari, G.

    2009-08-01

    The manipulation of matter waves had an important role in the history of quantum mechanics. The first experimental validation of matter-wave behaviour was the observation of diffraction of matter by crystals, followed by interference experiments with electrons, neutrons, atoms and molecules using gratings and Young's double slit. More recently, matter-wave manipulation has become a building block for quantum devices such as quantum sensors and it has an essential role in a number of proposals for implementing quantum computers. Here, we demonstrate the coherent control of the spatial extent of an atomic wavefunction by reversibly stretching and shrinking the wavefunction over a distance of more than one millimetre. The quantum-coherent process is fully deterministic, reversible and in quantitative agreement with an analytical model. The simplicity of its experimental implementation could ease applications in the field of quantum transport and quantum processing.

  13. Quantum correlations of two qubits interacting with a macroscopic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Lu, Jing; Zhou, Lan

    2015-04-01

    We consider two particles of spin- interacting with a one-dimensional -spin array, which is an exactly solvable model. The dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord (QD) of the spins of the two particles is investigated by regarding the 1D -spin array as the environment. It is found that although the entanglement may suffer a sudden death and a sudden birth in the evolution, it can neither be generated nor become larger than its initial value. Different from the entanglement dynamics, QD can be amplified and even be generated by the interaction between particles and the common environment. We also observe that QD decays asymptotically to zero and later experiences a rival when the average number of excitation in the 1D -spin array becomes larger in the case of nonzero inter-distance between two particles.

  14. Memory-effect-induced macroscopic-microscopic entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Qingxia; Zhao, Xinyu; Yu, Ting

    2016-07-01

    We study optomechanical entanglement between an optical cavity field and a movable mirror coupled to a non-Markovian environment. The non-Markovian quantum-state diffusion approach and the non-Markovian master equation are shown to be useful in investigating entanglement generation between the cavity field and the movable mirror. The simple model presented in this paper demonstrates several interesting properties of optomechanical entanglement that are associated with environment memory effects. It is evident that the effective environment central frequency can be used to modulate the optomechanical entanglement. In addition, we show that the maximum entanglement may be achieved by properly choosing the effective detuning, which is significantly dependent on the strength of the memory effect of the environment.

  15. Particle velocity measurements with macroscopic fluorescence imaging in lymph tissue mimicking microfluidic phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennessy, Ricky; Koo, Chiwan; Ton, Phuc; Han, Arum; Righetti, Raffaella; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound poroelastography can quantify structural and mechanical properties of tissues such as stiffness, compressibility, and fluid flow rate. This novel ultrasound technique is being explored to detect tissue changes associated with lymphatic disease. We have constructed a macroscopic fluorescence imaging system to validate ultrasonic fluid flow measurements and to provide high resolution imaging of microfluidic phantoms. The optical imaging system is composed of a white light source, excitation and emission filters, and a camera with a zoom lens. The field of view can be adjusted from 100 mm x 75 mm to 10 mm x 7.5 mm. The microfluidic device is made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and has 9 channels, each 40 μm deep with widths ranging from 30 μm to 200 μm. A syringe pump was used to propel water containing 15 μm diameter fluorescent microspheres through the microchannels, with flow rates ranging from 0.5 μl/min to 10 μl/min. Video was captured at a rate of 25 frames/sec. The velocity of the microspheres in the microchannels was calculated using an algorithm that tracked the movement of the fluorescent microspheres. The imaging system was able to measure particle velocities ranging from 0.2 mm/sec to 10 mm/sec. The range of flow velocities of interest in lymph vessels is between 1 mm/sec to 10 mm/sec; therefore our imaging system is sufficient to measure particle velocity in phantoms modeling lymphatic flow.

  16. Empirical investigation on safety constraints of merging pedestrian crowd through macroscopic and microscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaomeng; Ye, Zhirui; Shiwakoti, Nirajan; Tang, Dounan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    A recent crowd stampede during a New Year's Eve celebration in Shanghai, China resulted in 36 fatalities and over 49 serious injuries. Many of such tragic crowd accidents around the world resulted from complex multi-direction crowd movement such as merging behavior. Although there are a few studies on merging crowd behavior, none of them have conducted a systematic analysis considering the impact of both merging angle and flow direction towards the safety of pedestrian crowd movement. In this study, a series of controlled laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the safety constraints of merging pedestrian crowd movements considering merging angle (60°, 90° and 180°) and flow direction under slow running and blocked vision condition. Then, macroscopic and microscopic properties of crowd dynamics are obtained and visualized through the analysis of pedestrian crowd trajectory data derived from video footage. It was found that merging angle had a significant influence on the fluctuations of pedestrian flows, which is important in a critical situation such as emergency evacuation. As the merging angle increased, mean velocity and mean flow at the measuring region in the exit corridors decreased, while mean density increased. A similar trend was observed for the number of weaving and overtaking conflicts, which resulted in the increase of mean headway. Further, flow direction had a significant impact on the outflow of the individuals while blocked vision had an influence on pedestrian crowd interactions and merging process. Finally, this paper discusses safety assessments on crowd merging behaviors along with some recommendations for future research. Findings from this study can assist in the development and validation of pedestrian crowd simulation models as well as organization and control of crowd events.

  17. Functional network macroscopes for probing past and present Earth system dynamics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donges, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth, as viewed from a physicist's perspective, is a dynamical system of great complexity. Functional complex networks are inferred from observational data and model runs or constructed on the basis of theoretical considerations. Representing statistical interdependencies or causal interactions between objects (e.g., Earth system subdomains, processes, or local field variables), functional complex networks are conceptually well-suited for naturally addressing some of the fundamental questions of Earth system analysis concerning, among others, major dynamical patterns, teleconnections, and feedback loops in the planetary machinery, as well as critical elements such as thresholds, bottlenecks, and switches. The first part of this talk concerns complex network theory and network-based time series analysis. Regarding complex network theory, the novel contributions include consistent frameworks for analyzing the topology of (i) general networks of interacting networks and (ii) networks with vertices of heterogeneously distributed weights, as well as (iii) an analytical theory for describing spatial networks. In the realm of time series analysis, (i) recurrence network analysis is put forward as a theoretically founded, nonlinear technique for the study of single, but possibly multivariate time series. (ii) Coupled climate networks are introduced as an exploratory tool of data analysis for quantitatively characterizing the intricate statistical interdependency structure within and between several fields of time series. The second part presents applications for detecting dynamical transitions (tipping points) in time series and studying bottlenecks in the atmosphere's general circulation structure. The analysis of paleoclimate data reveals a possible influence of large-scale shifts in Plio-Pleistocene African climate variability on events in human evolution. This presentation summarizes the contents of the dissertation titled "Functional network macroscopes for

  18. Macroscopic yielding in jammed solids is accompanied by a nonequilibrium first-order transition in particle trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Takeshi; Berthier, Ludovic

    2016-08-01

    We use computer simulations to analyze the yielding transition during large-amplitude oscillatory shear of a simple model for soft jammed solids. Simultaneous analysis of global mechanical response and particle-scale motion demonstrates that macroscopic yielding, revealed by a smooth crossover in mechanical properties, is accompanied by a sudden change in the particle dynamics, which evolves from nondiffusive motion to irreversible diffusion as the amplitude of the shear is increased. We provide numerical evidence that this sharp change corresponds to a nonequilibrium first-order dynamic phase transition, thus establishing the existence of a well-defined microscopic dynamic signature of the yielding transition in amorphous materials in oscillatory shear. PMID:27627368

  19. TOPICAL REVIEW: Exploring the potential energy landscape of glass-forming systems: from inherent structures via metabasins to macroscopic transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuer, Andreas

    2008-09-01

    In this review a systematic analysis of the potential energy landscape (PEL) of glass-forming systems is presented. Starting from the thermodynamics, the route towards the dynamics is elucidated. A key step in this endeavor is the concept of metabasins. The relevant energy scales of the PEL can be characterized. Based on the simulation results for some glass-forming systems one can formulate a relevant model system (ideal Gaussian glass-former) which can be treated analytically. The macroscopic transport can be related to the microscopic hopping processes, using either the strong relation between energy (thermodynamics) and waiting times (dynamics) or, alternatively, the concepts of the continuous-time random walk. The relation to the geometric properties of the PEL is stressed. The emergence of length scales within the PEL approach as well as the nature of finite-size effects is discussed. Furthermore, the PEL view is compared to other approaches describing the glass transition.

  20. Broadband, Polarization-Sensitive Photodetector Based on Optically-Thick Films of Macroscopically Long, Dense, and Aligned Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Nanot, Sébastien; Cummings, Aron W.; Pint, Cary L.; Ikeuchi, Akira; Akiho, Takafumi; Sueoka, Kazuhisa; Hauge, Robert H.; Léonard, François; Kono, Junichiro

    2013-01-01

    Increasing performance demands on photodetectors and solar cells require the development of entirely new materials and technological approaches. We report on the fabrication and optoelectronic characterization of a photodetector based on optically-thick films of dense, aligned, and macroscopically long single-wall carbon nanotubes. The photodetector exhibits broadband response from the visible to the mid-infrared under global illumination, with a response time less than 32 μs. Scanning photocurrent microscopy indicates that the signal originates at the contact edges, with an amplitude and width that can be tailored by choosing different contact metals. A theoretical model demonstrates the photothermoelectric origin of the photoresponse due to gradients in the nanotube Seebeck coefficient near the contacts. The experimental and theoretical results open a new path for the realization of optoelectronic devices based on three-dimensionally organized nanotubes. PMID:23443054

  1. Effect of electrode erosion on the properties of plasma in high-power rail-gun accelerators of macroscopic bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, I.V.

    1993-10-01

    Results are presented from an analytical and numerical study of the effect of electrode erosion on the properties of an arc plasma for high-power (up to 10 GW) high-current (up to 1 MA) pulsed ultra-high-pressure discharges (thousands of atmospheres) in the tube of a rail-gun accelerator of macroscopic bodies. Calculations have been performed for a closed mathematical model which adjust the time dependence of a full-scale accelerating system (current and voltage in the electrical system, velocity of the accelerated body) and the process of erosion of the tube walls to the behavior of the plasma arc [density n = (1-5){center_dot}10{sup 20} cm{sup {minus}3}, temperature T = 10-50 kK]. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Structure and macroscopic tackiness of ultrathin pressure sensitive adhesive films.

    PubMed

    Diethert, Alexander; Körstgens, Volker; Magerl, David; Ecker, Katharina; Perlich, Jan; Roth, Stephan V; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Ultrathin layers of the statistical copolymer P(nBA-stat-MA) with a majority of n-butyl acrylate (nBA) and a minority of methyl acrylate (MA) are characterized with respect to the film morphology and the mechanical response in a probe tack test. The probed copolymer can be regarded as a model system of a pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA). The films are prepared by spin-coating which enables an easy thickness control via the polymer concentration of the solution. The film thickness is determined with x-ray reflectivity (XRR) and white light interferometry (WLI). Grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) provides detailed and statistically significant information about the film morphology. Two types of lateral structures are identified and no strong correlation of these structures with the PSA film thickness is observed. In contrast, prominent parameters of the probe tack test, such as the stress maximum and the tack energy, exhibit an exponential dependence on the film thickness. PMID:22817560

  3. Structure and macroscopic tackiness of ultrathin pressure sensitive adhesive films.

    PubMed

    Diethert, Alexander; Körstgens, Volker; Magerl, David; Ecker, Katharina; Perlich, Jan; Roth, Stephan V; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Ultrathin layers of the statistical copolymer P(nBA-stat-MA) with a majority of n-butyl acrylate (nBA) and a minority of methyl acrylate (MA) are characterized with respect to the film morphology and the mechanical response in a probe tack test. The probed copolymer can be regarded as a model system of a pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA). The films are prepared by spin-coating which enables an easy thickness control via the polymer concentration of the solution. The film thickness is determined with x-ray reflectivity (XRR) and white light interferometry (WLI). Grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) provides detailed and statistically significant information about the film morphology. Two types of lateral structures are identified and no strong correlation of these structures with the PSA film thickness is observed. In contrast, prominent parameters of the probe tack test, such as the stress maximum and the tack energy, exhibit an exponential dependence on the film thickness.

  4. Morphogenesis as a macroscopic self-organizing process.

    PubMed

    Beloussov, Lev V

    2012-09-01

    We start from reviewing different epistemological constructions used for explaining morphogenesis. Among them, we explore the explanatory power of a law-centered approach which includes top-down causation and the basic concepts of a self-organization theory. Within such a framework, we discuss the morphomechanical models based upon the presumption of feedbacks between mechanical stresses imposed onto a given embryo part from outside and those generated within the latter as a kind of active response. A number of elementary morphogenetic events demonstrating that these feedbacks are directed towards hyper-restoration (restoration with an overshoot) of the initial state of mechanical stresses are described. Moreover, we show that these reactions are bound together into the larger scale feedbacks. That permits to suggest a reconstruction of morphogenetic successions in early Metazoan development concentrated around two main archetypes distinguished by the blastopores geometry. The perspectives of applying the same approach to cell differentiation are outlined. By discussing the problem of positional information we suggest that the developmental pathway of a given embryo part depends upon its preceded deformations and the corresponding mechanical stresses rather than upon its static position at any moment of development. PMID:22609495

  5. Microscopic and Macroscopic Studies of the Development of Puccinia hemerocallidis in Resistant and Susceptible Daylily Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection and colonization of eight daylily cultivars, which varied in resistance to daylily rust, by Puccinia hemerocallidis was studied macroscopically and microscopically. After germination of urediniospores, appressoria formed at the tip of germ tubes and the fungus penetrated the host through s...

  6. SORPTION OF ARSENATE AND ARSENITE ON RUO2.XH2O: A SPECTROSCOPIC AND MACROSCOPIC STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) on RuO2 xH2O was examined using macroscopic and microscopic techniques. Constant solid:solution ratio isotherms were constructed from batch sorption experiments to study the sorption of the inorganic arsenic species on RuO2...

  7. SORPTION OF ARSENITE AND ARSENATE ON A HIGH AFFINITY OXIDE: MACROSCOPIC AND MICROSCOPIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of arsenate and arsenite was examined on a Ru compound using macroscopic and microscopic techniques. Isotherms were constructed from batch studies at pH 4 through 8. Solution As was measured by ICAP. Samples of the Ru compound were equilibrated with arsenite and arsenate...

  8. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on Viewing and Interpreting Graphics with Macroscopic and Molecular Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Michelle; Wiebe, Eric N.; Carter, Glenda

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that the use of multiple representations with macroscopic and molecular features can improve conceptual understanding; however, the influence of prior knowledge of the domain cannot be overlooked. Using eye-tracking technology and sequential analysis, this study investigated how high school students (n = 54) with…

  9. X-ray-generated heralded macroscopical quantum entanglement of two nuclear ensembles.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wen-Te; Keitel, Christoph H; Pálffy, Adriana

    2016-09-19

    Heralded entanglement between macroscopical samples is an important resource for present quantum technology protocols, allowing quantum communication over large distances. In such protocols, optical photons are typically used as information and entanglement carriers between macroscopic quantum memories placed in remote locations. Here we investigate theoretically a new implementation which employs more robust x-ray quanta to generate heralded entanglement between two crystal-hosted macroscopical nuclear ensembles. Mössbauer nuclei in the two crystals interact collectively with an x-ray spontaneous parametric down conversion photon that generates heralded macroscopical entanglement with coherence times of approximately 100 ns at room temperature. The quantum phase between the entangled crystals can be conveniently manipulated by magnetic field rotations at the samples. The inherent long nuclear coherence times allow also for mechanical manipulations of the samples, for instance to check the stability of entanglement in the x-ray setup. Our results pave the way for first quantum communication protocols that use x-ray qubits.

  10. Two Simple Classroom Demonstrations for Scanning Probe Microscopy Based on a Macroscopic Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajkova, Zdenka; Fejfar, Antonin; Smejkal, Petr

    2013-01-01

    This article describes two simple classroom demonstrations that illustrate the principles of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) based on a macroscopic analogy. The analogy features the bumps in an egg carton to represent the atoms on a chemical surface and a probe that can be represented by a dwarf statue (illustrating an origin of the prefix…

  11. X-ray-generated heralded macroscopical quantum entanglement of two nuclear ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wen-Te; Keitel, Christoph H.; Pálffy, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Heralded entanglement between macroscopical samples is an important resource for present quantum technology protocols, allowing quantum communication over large distances. In such protocols, optical photons are typically used as information and entanglement carriers between macroscopic quantum memories placed in remote locations. Here we investigate theoretically a new implementation which employs more robust x-ray quanta to generate heralded entanglement between two crystal-hosted macroscopical nuclear ensembles. Mössbauer nuclei in the two crystals interact collectively with an x-ray spontaneous parametric down conversion photon that generates heralded macroscopical entanglement with coherence times of approximately 100 ns at room temperature. The quantum phase between the entangled crystals can be conveniently manipulated by magnetic field rotations at the samples. The inherent long nuclear coherence times allow also for mechanical manipulations of the samples, for instance to check the stability of entanglement in the x-ray setup. Our results pave the way for first quantum communication protocols that use x-ray qubits. PMID:27640348

  12. SORPTION OF LEAD ON A HIGH AFFINITY OXIDE: MACROSCOPIC AND MICROSCOPIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of lead (Pb) was investigated on an innovative metal oxide compound using macroscopic and microscopic techniques. The objective of this study was to elucidate the sorption mechanism of Pb on the high-affinity engineered oxide with time at pH 6 employing batch methods an...

  13. SORPTION OF LEAD ON A HIGH AFFINITY OXIDE: MACROSCOPIC AND MICROSCOPIC STUDIES (ABSTRACT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of lead (Pb) was investigated on an innovative metal oxide compound using macroscopic and microscopic techniques. The objective of this study was to elucidate the sorption mechanism of Pb on the high-affinity engineered oxide with time at pH 6 employing batch methods an...

  14. Macroscopic fluxes and local reciprocal relation in second-order stochastic processes far from equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Hao

    2015-01-01

    A stochastic process is an essential tool for the investigation of the physical and life sciences at nanoscale. In the first-order stochastic processes widely used in chemistry and biology, only the flux of mass rather than that of heat can be well defined. Here we investigate the two macroscopic fluxes in second-order stochastic processes driven by position-dependent forces and temperature gradient. We prove that the thermodynamic equilibrium defined through the vanishing of macroscopic fluxes is equivalent to that defined via time reversibility at mesoscopic scale. In the small noise limit, we find that the entropy production rate, which has previously been defined by the mesoscopic irreversible fluxes on the phase space, matches the classic macroscopic expression as the sum of the products of macroscopic fluxes and their associated thermodynamic forces. Further we show that the two pairs of forces and fluxes in such a limit follow a linear phenomenonical relation and the associated scalar coefficients always satisfy the reciprocal relation for both transient and steady states. The scalar coefficient is proportional to the square of local temperature divided by the local frictional coefficient and originated from the second moment of velocity distribution along each dimension. This result suggests the very close connection between the Soret effect (thermal diffusion) and Dufour effect at nanoscale even far from equilibrium.

  15. Experimental determination of neutron lifetimes through macroscopic neutron noise in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gonnelli, Eduardo; Diniz, Ricardo

    2013-05-06

    The neutron lifetimes of the core, reflector, and global were experimentally obtained through macroscopic neutron noise in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor for five levels of subcriticality. The theoretical Auto Power Spectral Densities were derived by point kinetic equations taking the reflector effect into account, and one of the approaches consider an additional group of delayed neutrons.

  16. X-ray-generated heralded macroscopical quantum entanglement of two nuclear ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wen-Te; Keitel, Christoph H.; Pálffy, Adriana

    2016-09-01

    Heralded entanglement between macroscopical samples is an important resource for present quantum technology protocols, allowing quantum communication over large distances. In such protocols, optical photons are typically used as information and entanglement carriers between macroscopic quantum memories placed in remote locations. Here we investigate theoretically a new implementation which employs more robust x-ray quanta to generate heralded entanglement between two crystal-hosted macroscopical nuclear ensembles. Mössbauer nuclei in the two crystals interact collectively with an x-ray spontaneous parametric down conversion photon that generates heralded macroscopical entanglement with coherence times of approximately 100 ns at room temperature. The quantum phase between the entangled crystals can be conveniently manipulated by magnetic field rotations at the samples. The inherent long nuclear coherence times allow also for mechanical manipulations of the samples, for instance to check the stability of entanglement in the x-ray setup. Our results pave the way for first quantum communication protocols that use x-ray qubits.

  17. Students' Mind Wandering in Macroscopic and Submicroscopic Textual Narrations and Its Relationship with Their Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate students' mind wandering while reading different types of textual narrations (macroscopic and submicroscopic) in chemistry. Another goal was to determine the relationship between mind wandering and students' reading comprehension. The participants were 65 female ninth grade students in Oman. Using a…

  18. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of smokeless gunpowders and macroscopic gunshot residues.

    PubMed

    López-López, María; Merk, Virginia; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Kneipp, Janina

    2016-07-01

    Gunshot residues (GSR) result from the discharge of a firearm being a potential piece of evidence in criminal investigations. The macroscopic GSR particles are basically formed by burned and non-burned gunpowder. Motivated by the demand of trace analysis of these samples, in this paper, the use of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was evaluated for the analysis of gunpowders and macroscopic GSR particles. Twenty-one different smokeless gunpowders were extracted with ethanol. SERS spectra were obtained from the diluted extracts using gold nanoaggregates and an excitation wavelength of 633 nm. They show mainly bands that could be assigned to the stabilizers diphenylamine and ethylcentralite present in the gunpowders. Then, macroscopic GSR particles obtained after firing two different ammunition cartridges on clothing were also measured using the same procedure. SERS allowed the detection of the particles collected with an aluminum stub from cloth targets without interferences from the adhesive carbon. The results demonstrate the great potential of SERS for the analysis of macroscopic GSR particles. Furthermore, they indicate that the grain-to-grain inhomogeneity of the gunpowders needs to be considered. Graphical Abstract SERS allows the detection of GSR particles collected with adhesive stubs from cloth targets using gold nanoaggregates and an excitation wavelength of 633 nm. PMID:27137517

  19. Macroscopic to Microscopic Scales of Particulate Dosimetry: From Source to Fate in the Body

    EPA Science Inventory

    Additional perspective with regards to particle dosimetry is achieved by exploring dosimetry across a range of scales from macroscopic to microscopic in scope. Typically, one thinks of dosimetry as what happens when a particle is inhaled, where it is deposited, and how it is clea...

  20. Experimental determination of neutron lifetimes through macroscopic neutron noise in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonnelli, Eduardo; Diniz, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    The neutron lifetimes of the core, reflector, and global were experimentally obtained through macroscopic neutron noise in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor for five levels of subcriticality. The theoretical Auto Power Spectral Densities were derived by point kinetic equations taking the reflector effect into account, and one of the approaches consider an additional group of delayed neutrons.